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Sample records for muheza north-eastern tanzania

  1. Vector species composition and malaria infectivity rates in Mkuzi, Muheza District, north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kweka, E J; Mahande, A M; Nkya, W M M

    2008-01-01

    Entomological surveys were conducted in Mkuzi village in Muheza District, north-east Tanzania from April to September 2003. The objectives were to determine the species composition and infectivity rates of mosquitoes in Mkuzi village. Mosquito collection was done using CDC light trap and pyrethrum...... spray catch (PSC) techniques. The light trap: spray catch ratio was 2.2:1. A total of 2157 mosquitoes were collected (light trap = 1483; PSC = 674). Anopheles gambiae s.s. accounted for 56.7% (N = 1224) of all mosquitoes collected. Other species were An. funestus complex (19.2%) and Culex...... quinquefasciatus (24.1%).The mosquito density per room was 74.15 and 33.7 for light trap and PSC techniques, respectively. A total of 1637 Anopheles mosquitoes were tested for circumsporozoite protein by Enzyme linked Immunosobent Assay (ELISA). The overall infectivity rate for circumsporozoite protein for P...

  2. Deployment and use of mobile phone technology for real-time reporting of fever cases and malaria treatment failure in areas of declining malaria transmission in Muheza district north-eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Filbert; Ishengoma, Deus S; Mmbando, Bruno P; Rutta, Acleus S M; Malecela, Mwelecele N; Mayala, Benjamin; Lemnge, Martha M; Michael, Edwin

    2017-08-01

    Early detection of febrile illnesses at community level is essential for improved malaria case management and control. Currently, mobile phone-based technology has been commonly used to collect and transfer health information and services in different settings. This study assessed the applicability of mobile phone-based technology in real-time reporting of fever cases and management of malaria by village health workers (VHWs) in north-eastern Tanzania. The community mobile phone-based disease surveillance and treatment for malaria (ComDSTM) platform, combined with mobile phones and web applications, was developed and implemented in three villages and one dispensary in Muheza district from November 2013 to October 2014. A baseline census was conducted in May 2013. The data were uploaded on a web-based database and updated during follow-up home visits by VHWs. Active and passive case detection (ACD, PCD) of febrile cases were done by VHWs and cases found positive by malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) were given the first dose of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) at the dispensary. Each patient was visited at home by VHWs daily for the first 3 days to supervise intake of anti-malarial and on day 7 to monitor the recovery process. The data were captured and transmitted to the database using mobile phones. The baseline population in the three villages was 2934 in 678 households. A total of 1907 febrile cases were recorded by VHWs and 1828 (95.9%) were captured using mobile phones. At the dispensary, 1778 (93.2%) febrile cases were registered and of these, 84.2% were captured through PCD. Positivity rates were 48.2 and 45.8% by RDT and microscopy, respectively. Nine cases had treatment failure reported on day 7 post-treatment and adherence to treatment was 98%. One patient with severe febrile illness was referred to Muheza district hospital. The study showed that mobile phone-based technology can be successfully used by VHWs in surveillance and timely reporting of fever

  3. Production and Marketing of Orange in Two Villages in Muheza District, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    MHANDO, David Gongwe; IKENO, Jun

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the current situation and challenges in orange production and marketing in Muheza District, Tanga Region, Tanzania. Tanga Region is a major orange production area in Tanzania, and it is estimated that more than 80% of all oranges in Tanga Region are produced in Muheza District. Utilizing field data collected in Mkuzi and Mindu villages in Muheza District, this paper explores the current situation of orange production and marketing. Orange production makes a substantial con...

  4. AN EXPLORATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF CITRUS INDUSTRY IN TANZANIA: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM MUHEZA DISTRICT, TANGA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Makorere

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper stresses on understanding factors affecting development of citrus industry in Tanzania particularly in Muheza District, in Tanga region. Citrus fruit is one of the most important crops in Muheza District of Tanga region in Tanzania particularly in improving rural farmers’ income. The study employed institutional framework methodology. The study disclosed that the government of Tanzania has been implementing various agricultural development programmes in improving citrus fruit production as well as to enhance farmers’ income. However, yet the results reveal that the citrus farming practices in the surveyed area are not well developed. And these are because citruses are still grown under rain fed regime without any form of irrigation, citrus seedlings are produced by individual farmers locally in their backyard nurseries. There is no professional company responsible for seedling production. Also, citrus farmers’ skills in citrus husbandry practices are limited. Lastly, all citrus varieties used contain many seeds in the citrus fruits whereas the market demands seedless citrus fruits. It is therefore, recommended that the policy maker should focus on development of citrus industry in Tanzania using proper institutional framework support, which could increase growth and development of citrus production through the provision of subsides for inputs to reduce cost of production and enlightenment campaigns to improve farmer’s knowledge and technical skills on how to reach lucrative markets.

  5. Ethnobotanical study of some of mosquito repellent plants in north-eastern Tanzania

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    Tenu Filemoni

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of plant repellents against nuisance biting insects is common and its potential for malaria vector control requires evaluation in areas with different level of malaria endemicity. The essential oils of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum were evaluated against malaria vectors in north-eastern Tanzania. Methodology An ethnobotanical study was conducted at Moshi in Kilimanjaro region north-eastern Tanzania, through interviews, to investigate the range of species of plants used as insect repellents. Also, bioassays were used to evaluate the protective potential of selected plants extracts against mosquitoes. Results The plant species mostly used as repellent at night are: fresh or smoke of the leaves of O. suave and O. kilimandscharicum (Lamiaceae, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae, Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae. The most popular repellents were O. kilimandscharicum (OK and O. suave (OS used by 67% out of 120 households interviewed. Bioassay of essential oils of the two Ocimum plants was compared with citronella and DEET to study the repellence and feeding inhibition of untreated and treated arms of volunteers. Using filter papers impregnated with Ocimum extracts, knockdown effects and mortality was investigated on malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae, including a nuisance mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. High biting protection (83% to 91% and feeding inhibition (71.2% to 92.5% was observed against three species of mosquitoes. Likewise the extracts of Ocimum plants induced KD90 of longer time in mosquitoes than citronella, a standard botanical repellent. Mortality induced by standard dosage of 30 mg/m2 on filter papers, scored after 24 hours was 47.3% for OK and 57% for OS, compared with 67.7% for citronella. Conclusion The use of whole plants and their products as insect repellents is common among village communities of north-eastern Tanzania and the results

  6. Reliability of rapid diagnostic tests in diagnosing pregnancy-associated malaria in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minja, Daniel T.; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Oesterholt, Mayke

    2012-01-01

    dehydrogenase (pLDH) based RDTs (Parascreen™) or HRP-2 only (Paracheck Pf® and ParaHIT®f), microscopy and nested Plasmodium species diagnostic PCR. Results: From a cohort of 924 pregnant women who completed the follow up, complete RDT and microscopy data was available for 5,555 blood samples and of these 442...... (RDTs) could be an ideal diagnostic complement to microscopy, due to their ease of use and adequate sensitivity in detecting even sub-microscopic infections. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is even more sensitive, but it is mainly used for research purposes. The accuracy and reliability of RDTs...... in diagnosing PAM was evaluated using microscopy and PCR. Methods: A cohort of pregnant women in north-eastern Tanzania was followed throughout pregnancy for detection of plasmodial infection using venous and placental blood samples evaluated by histidine rich protein 2 (HRP-2) and parasite lactate...

  7. High level of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in children in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, A M; Msangeni, H A; Mhina, J

    1996-01-01

    In many areas of tropical Africa affected by chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, a combination of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine (S-P) is used for alternative medication, especially in young children. In Magoda village in Muheza District, north-eastern Tanzania, 38 children 1-10 years...

  8. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among women attending antenatal clinics in Tanga, north eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiduo, M; Theilgaard, Z P; Bakari, V

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Tanga, Tanzania. Retrospective data on syphilis and HIV status during 2008-2010 were collected from antenatal clinic (ANC) records. Prospective data were...... collected from HIV-infected (n = 105) and HIV-uninfected pregnant women (n = 100) attending ANCs between April 2009 and August 2010. Syphilis prevalence showed a declining trend (3.1%, 1.4% and 1.3%), while HIV prevalence was stable (6.1%, 6.4% and 5.4%) during 2008-2010. HIV-infected women had...... significantly higher prevalence of trichomoniasis (18.8% versus 5.0%; P HIV-uninfected women. There were no statistically significant...

  9. Prevalence of dengue and chikungunya virus infections in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajeguka, Debora C; Kaaya, Robert D; Mwakalinga, Steven

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In spite of increasing reports of dengue and chikungunya activity in Tanzania, limited research has been done to document the general epidemiology of dengue and chikungunya in the country. This study aimed at determining the sero-prevalence and prevalence of acute infections of dengue......-like symptoms at health facilities at Bondo dispensary (Bondo, Tanga), Hai hospital (Hai, Kilimanjaro) and TPC hospital (Lower Moshi). Participants who were malaria negative using rapid diagnostic tests (mRDT) were screened for sero-positivity towards dengue and chikungunya Immunoglobulin G and M (IgG and Ig......M) using ELISA-based kits. Participants with specific symptoms defined as probable dengue and/or chikungunya by WHO (fever and various combinations of symptoms such as headache, rash, nausea/vomit, and joint pain) were further screened for acute dengue and chikungunya infections by PCR. RESULTS: Out...

  10. Development of a hydrogeological conceptual wetland model in the data-scarce north-eastern region of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghof, Sonja; Gabiri, Geofrey; Stumpp, Christine; Chesnaux, Romain; Reichert, Barbara

    2018-02-01

    Understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions in wetlands is crucial because wetlands provide not only a high potential for agricultural production, but also sensitive and valuable ecosystems. This is especially true for the Kilombero floodplain wetland in Tanzania, which represents a data-scarce region in terms of hydrological and hydrogeological data. A comprehensive approach combining hydrogeological with tracer-based assessments was conducted, in order to develop a conceptual hydrogeological wetland model of the area around the city of Ifakara in the north-eastern region of Kilombero catchment. Within the study site, a heterogeneous porous aquifer, with a range of hydraulic conductivities, is underlain by a fractured-rock aquifer. Groundwater chemistry is mainly influenced by silicate weathering and depends on groundwater residence times related to the hydraulic conductivities of the porous aquifer. Groundwater flows from the hillside to the river during most of the year. While floodwater close to the river is mainly derived from overbank flow of the river, floodwater at a greater distance from the river mainly originates from precipitation and groundwater discharge. Evaporation effects in floodwater increase with increasing distance from the river. In general, the contribution of flood and stream water to groundwater recharge is negligible. In terms of an intensification of agricultural activities in the wetland, several conclusions can be drawn from the conceptual model. Results of this study are valuable as a base for further research related to groundwater/surface-water interactions and the conceptual model can be used in the future to set up numerical flow and transport models.

  11. Saleability of anti-malarials in private drug shops in Muheza, Tanzania: a baseline study in an era of assumed artemisinin combination therapy (ACT

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    Ringsted Frank M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemether-lumefantrine (ALu replaced sulphadoxine-pymimethamine (SP as the official first-line anti-malarial in Tanzania in November 2006. So far, artemisinin combination therapy (ACT is contra-indicated during pregnancy by the national malaria treatment guidelines, and pregnant women depend on SP for Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTp during pregnancy. SP is still being dispensed by private drug stores, but it is unknown to which extent. If significant, it may undermine its official use for IPTp through induction of resistance. The main study objective was to perform a baseline study of the private market for anti-malarials in Muheza town, an area with widespread anti-malarial drug resistance, prior to the implementation of a provider training and accreditation programme that will allow accredited drug shops to sell subsidized ALu. Methods All drug shops selling prescription-only anti-malarials, in Muheza town, Tanga Region voluntarily participated from July to December 2009. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with owners or shopkeepers on saleability of anti-malarials, and structured questionnaires provided quantitative data on drugs sales volume. Results All surveyed drug shops illicitly sold SP and quinine (QN, and legally amodiaquine (AQ. Calculated monthly sale was 4,041 doses, in a town with a population of 15,000 people. Local brands of SP accounted for 74% of sales volume, compared to AQ (13%, QN (11% and ACT (2%. Conclusions In community practice, the saleability of ACT was negligible. SP was best-selling, and use was not reserved for IPTp, as stipulated in the national anti-malarial policy. It is a major reason for concern that such drug-pressure in the community equals de facto intermittent presumptive treatment. In an area where SP drug resistance remains high, unregulated SP dispensing to people other than pregnant women runs the risk of eventually jeopardizing the effectiveness of the IPTp

  12. Accessibility of Early Infant Diagnostic Services by Under-5 Years and HIV Exposed Children in Muheza District, North-East Tanzania

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    Veneranda M. Bwana

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early infant diagnosis (EID of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV provides an opportunity for follow up of HIV exposed children for early detection of infection and timely access to antiretroviral treatment. We assessed predictors for accessing HIV diagnostic services among under-five children exposed to HIV infection in Muheza district, Tanzania.Methods: A cross sectional facility-based study among mother/guardian-child pairs of HIV exposed children was conducted from June 2015 to June 2016. Using a structured questionnaire, we collected information on HIV status, socio-demographic characteristics and other relevant data. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate associations of potential predictors of accessing EID services.Results: A total of 576 children with their respective mothers/guardians were recruited. Of the 576 mothers/guardians, 549 (95.3% were the biological mothers with a median age of 34 years (inter-quartile range: 30–38 years. The median age of the 576 children was 15 months (inter- quartile range: 8.5–38.0 months. A total of 251 (43.6% children were born to mothers with unknown HIV status at conception. Only 329 (57.1% children accessed EID between 4 and 6 weeks of age. Children born to mothers with unknown HIV status at conception (AOR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.4–0.8 and those with ages 13–59 months (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.6 were the significant predictors of missed opportunity to access EID. Children living with the head of household with at least a high education level had higher chances of accessing EID (AOR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.3. Their chances of accessing EID services was three-fold higher among mothers/guardians with good knowledge of HIV infection prevention of mother to child transmission (AOR = 3.2, 95% CI 2.0–5.2 than those with poor knowledge. Mothers/guardians living in rural areas had poorer knowledge of HIV infection prevention of mother to child transmission (AOR = 0.6, 95% CI 0

  13. Cost implications of improving malaria diagnosis: findings from north-eastern Tanzania.

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    Jacklin F Mosha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over diagnosis of malaria contributes to improper treatment, wastage of drugs and resistance to the few available drugs. This paper attempts to estimate the rates of over diagnosis of malaria among children attending dispensaries in rural Tanzania and examines the potential cost implications of improving the quality of diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The magnitude of over diagnosis of malaria was estimated by comparing the proportion of outpatient attendees of all ages clinically diagnosed as malaria to the proportion of attendees having a positive malaria rapid diagnostic test over a two month period. Pattern of causes of illness observed in a or=5 year age group in the lower transmission site (RR 14.0 95%CI 8.2-24.2. In the low transmission site the proportion of morbidity attributable to malaria was substantially lower in <2 year old cohort compared to children seen at routine care system. (0.08% vs 28.2%; p<0.001. A higher proportion of children were diagnosed with ARI in the <2 year old cohort compared to children seen at the routine care system ( 42% vs 26%; p<0.001. Using a RDT reduced overall drug and diagnostic costs by 10% in the high transmission site and by 15% in the low transmission site compared to total diagnostic and drug costs of treatment based on clinical judgment in routine health care system. IMPLICATIONS: The introduction of RDTs is likely to lead to financial savings. However, improving diagnosis to one disease may lead to over diagnosis of another illness. Quality improvement is complex but introducing RDTs for the diagnosis of malaria is a good start.

  14. Malaria control at the district level in Africa: the case of the muheza district in northeastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alilio, Martin S; Kitua, Andrew; Njunwa, Kato

    2004-01-01

    transmission and incidence over time; use of facility-based care services for malaria; patients' access to professional advice; the trend of treatment failure over time of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and chloroquine; survival rates of severe cases at the district hospital; a district malaria control strategy......An assessment was done in Tanzania to determine the extent to which the primary health care services have contributed to reducing the burden of malaria since the system was initiated in the 1980s. Seven descriptive processes and outcome indicators of effectiveness were used: changes of malaria...

  15. experiences from Muheza district, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    planning services using community structures that includes home visiting by trained ... made to determine the number of respondents required to obtain 462 ... Better off: Own milling machine or shop or kiosk or buying and selling crops or ...

  16. Change in composition of the Anopheles gambiae complex and its possible implications for the transmission of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in north-eastern Tanzania

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    Derua Yahya A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A dramatic decline in the incidence of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum infection in coastal East Africa has recently been reported to be paralleled (or even preceded by an equally dramatic decline in malaria vector density, despite absence of organized vector control. As part of investigations into possible causes for the change in vector population density, the present study analysed the Anopheles gambiae s.l. sibling species composition in north-eastern Tanzania. Methods The study was in two parts. The first compared current species complex composition in freshly caught An. gambiae s.l. complex from three villages to the composition reported from previous studies carried out 2–4 decades ago in the same villages. The second took advantage of a sample of archived dried An. gambiae s.l. complex specimens collected regularly from a fourth study village since 2005. Both fresh and archived dried specimens were identified to sibling species of the An. gambiae s.l. complex by PCR. The same specimens were moreover examined for Plasmodium falciparum and Wuchereria bancrofti infection by PCR. Results As in earlier studies, An. gambiae s.s., Anopheles merus and Anopheles arabiensis were identified as sibling species found in the area. However, both study parts indicated a marked change in sibling species composition over time. From being by far the most abundant in the past An. gambiae s.s. was now the most rare, whereas An. arabiensis had changed from being the most rare to the most common. P. falciparum infection was rarely detected in the examined specimens (and only in An. arabiensis whereas W. bancrofti infection was prevalent and detected in all three sibling species. Conclusion The study indicates that a major shift in An. gambiae s.l. sibling species composition has taken place in the study area in recent years. Combined with the earlier reported decline in overall malaria vector density, the study suggests that this

  17. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 13, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reaching the poor through community-based distributors of contraceptives: experiences from Muheza district, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Daudi Simba, Cordula Schuemer, Forester Kate, Merriment Hiza, 1-7.

  18. Sampling gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Tanzania with traps baited with synthetic oviposition pheromone and grass infusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mboera, L.E.G.; Takken, W.; Mdira, K.Y.; Pickett, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of traps baited with (5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide (the synthetic oviposition pheromone) and grass infusions in sampling a population of gravid Culex quinquefasciatus Say was conducted in Muheza, Northeast Tanzania. A counterflow geometry (CFG) trap baited with pheromone and

  19. Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Background notes on Tanzania present a profile of nationality, population count of 26 million, growth rate of 3.5%, ethnic groups (130), religions (33% Muslim, 33% animist, 33% Christian), languages, education (86% primary), literacy (79%), health (infant mortality of 106/1000), and work force (90% agriculture). Geographic data are given for the area, cities, terrain, and climate. The Tanzanian government is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. There is 1 political party and everyone 18 years is eligible to vote. 4% of the gross domestic product (GDP) ($5.9 billion) is devoted to defense. Economic growth is 4.3%/year and person income is $240/capita. Natural resources, agriculture, industry, and trade are identified. $400 million has been received between 1970-92 in US economic aid. The 1992 official exchange rate is 300 Tanzanian shillings to the US dollar. Descriptive text is given for the population, the history of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the government, principal government officials (President, 1st Vice President [VP], 2nd VP and President of Zanzibar, Prime Minister, Foreign Affairs Minister, Ambassador to the US, Ambassador to the UN, and US embassy address and phone number), political conditions, the economy, the defense, foreign relations, and US-Tanzanian relations. Principal US officials are identified for the Ambassador, Deputy Chief of Mission, USAID Director, and Public Affairs Officer; the US embassy address is given also. The population is 80% rural with a density of 1/sq km in arid areas, 51/sq km on the mainland, and 134/sq km on Zanzibar. The new capital will be Dodoma in central Tanzania. Most residents are of Bantu stock; nomadic groups are the Masai and the Luo. 1% are non-Africans. Government has a strong central executive. The current President is Ali Hassan Mwinyi. The Revolutionary Party is in the primary policymaking body and provides all government leaders. The government seeks to foster the

  20. Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience from Borno State. ... The study evaluated Sahelian goat marketing in Northeastern Nigeria, drawing experience from Borno State. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  1. (drls) for radiography examinations in north eastern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwokem et al.

    in two university teaching hospitals in north eastern Nigeria. Seven hundred ... review of procedures and the equipment in order to determine whether the .... The information obtained for the ... products of Variant medical system manufactured in China ... which is connected to the Reader via a serial communications port. a.

  2. Economietric analysis of cowpea production in the north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economietric analysis of cowpea production in the north-eastern part of Adamawa State, Nigeria. J Stephen, SI Mshelia. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (1) 2008: pp.127-130. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  3. Home births and postnatal practices in madagali, North.Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Home births are common in resource poor countries and postnatal practices vary from one community to the other. Objective: To determine the proportion of home births, reasons for home delivery, and evaluate postnatal practices in Madagali, north.eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a ...

  4. New Geothermal Prospect in North-Eastern Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Rimi, Abdelkrim; Correia, António; Carneiro, Júlio; Verdoya, Massimo; Zarhloule, Yassine; Lucazeau, Francis; Boughriba, Mimoun; Barkaoui, Alae Eddine

    2010-01-01

    Geothermal data has been indicating promising potentialities in the north-eastern Morocco. This paperpresents new temperature data, recently recorded in water borehole located in the Berkane and Oujda areas. Generally, the observed temperature gradients are rather high. One hole near Berkane, revealed an average geothermal gradient of more than 110 ºC/km at depths greater than 300 m. This result confirms the geothermal gradient estimated in a mining borehole located about 30 km west ...

  5. Saleability of anti-malarials in private drug shops in Muheza, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Frank M; Massawe, Isolide S; Lemnge, Martha M

    2011-01-01

    women depend on SP for Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTp) during pregnancy. SP is still being dispensed by private drug stores, but it is unknown to which extent. If significant, it may undermine its official use for IPTp through induction of resistance. The main study objective was to perform...... practice, the saleability of ACT was negligible. SP was best-selling, and use was not reserved for IPTp, as stipulated in the national anti-malarial policy. It is a major reason for concern that such drug-pressure in the community equals de facto intermittent presumptive treatment. In an area where SP drug...

  6. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 9, No 1 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern and spatial distribution of plague in Lushoto, north-eastern Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M L Kamugisha, S Gesase, D Minja, S Mgema, T D Mlwilo, B K Mayala, 12-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v9i1.14286 ...

  7. A SPECIAL FOEHN CASE IN NORTH-EASTERN APUSENI MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. TUDOSE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case study for the 9-10 January 2015 period, when foehn processes were occurred on the eastern slope of the Apuseni Mountains. With a view to establishing the synoptic context in which the phenomenon was manifested, an analysis of the atmospheric fields was used, while for determining the intensity of the process several meteorological parameters (temperature, wind and relative humidity were analyzed along three west-east profiles across the Apuseni Mountains. The analysis points out the presence of foehn processes on the eastern part of the Apuseni Mountains, the highest thermal and hygric differences being recorded on the north-eastern part of the mountains. The most important effect of this synoptic situation was the reduction of the snow cover depth.

  8. Radioecological analysis of the north-eastern region of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalewski, M.; Mnich, Z.; Kapala, J.; Karpinska, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of natural radioactivity of K-40, Ra-226 and Th-232 in building material as well as radon concentrations and dose rates in houses and outdoors. The mean absorbed rate in air outdoors from natural gamma radiation was found to be 40.2 nGyh -1 . Doses inside houses made from particular materials were (nGyh -1 ): brick - 102, prefabricate - 89, wood - 88. The mean equivalent per one statistical inhabitant of ''Poland Green Lungs'' is 1.61 mSv/year. The doses absorbed by the population in the north-eastern region of Poland from natural sources of ionizing radiation are lower than the population-weighted world averages. (author)

  9. Radium 226 in the deep north-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhein, M.

    1986-01-01

    With reference to the distribution of radium-226 in the western equatorial and north-eastern deep Atlantic Ocean it was possible to establish structures in the correlations of radium-226 to its chemical homologue Ba and dissolved SiO 2 . An 11-box model of the deep Atlantic Ocean was used to obtain information on the size of the radium-226 and Ba sources. The soil source derives mainly from the dissolution of barite. For the first time, an evaluation of the radium-226 flow resulting from the dissolution of particulate matter is presented. The box model and the radium-226 concentrations measured put down the value as 23-46·10 -21 mol/m 2 s. (DG) [de

  10. Changing trends in sexually transmitted diseases in North Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective data analysis was carried out to find the trends in frequency and distribution of different STDs in North Eastern (NE India during 1995 - 1999. The commonest STD was chancroid (25.7% followed by condylomata acuminata (CA, nongonococcal urethritis (NGU, lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV, syphilis, gonorrhoea (GONO, herpes genitalis (HG, mixed infection (MI and balanoposthitis (BP. Interestingly no case of donovanosis (Dono was seen. HIV infection accounted for 9.62% of the total STD patients. A comparison of the present data with that reported a decade back (1986 - 1990 revealed a sharp decline in the incidence of syphilis, chancroid, GONO, whereas a conspicuous upward trend in CA and NGU. Factors responsible for these variations are analysed briefly.

  11. The Mental Health System in North-Eastern Nigeria: A WHO-AIMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The definition of a detailed description of the mental health system of the north-eastern region ... for regional mental health Gap action Plan (mhGAP) policy formulation and implementation.

  12. Maloprim malaria prophylaxis in children living in a holoendemic village in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemnge, M M; Msangeni, H A; Rønn, A M

    1997-01-01

    , splenomegaly, and packed cell volume (PCV) was investigated in a cohort of 249 children (126 receiving D-P and 123 receiving placebo) aged 1-9 years. The case definition of clinical malaria (malaria fever) was measured axillary temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C and/or reported fever, and P. falciparum asexual...

  13. Individual and environmental risk factors for dengue and chikungunya seropositivity in North-Eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajeguka, Debora C.; Msonga, Maulid; Schiøler, Karin L.

    2017-01-01

    was associated with G6PD status (p = 0.03) while there was no apparent association between genetic factors (G6PD, HbB or alpha-thalassemia) and chikungunya seropositivity. Conclusion: Public health education on environmental management practices is needed to eliminate the identified risks such as simple removal...

  14. Parasite threshold associated with clinical malaria in areas of different transmission intensities in north eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno P; Lusingu, John P; Vestergaard, Lasse S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Sub-Sahara Africa, malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is the main cause of ill health. Evaluation of malaria interventions, such as drugs and vaccines depends on clinical definition of the disease, which is still a challenge due to lack of distinct malaria specific clinical...... features. Parasite threshold is used in definition of clinical malaria in evaluation of interventions. This however, is likely to be influenced by other factors such as transmission intensity as well as individual level of immunity against malaria. METHODS: This paper describes step function and dose...... response model with threshold parameter as a tool for estimation of parasite threshold for onset of malaria fever in highlands (low transmission) and lowlands (high transmission intensity) strata. These models were fitted using logistic regression stratified by strata and age groups (0-1, 2-3, 4-5, 6...

  15. Eddy Mediated Nutrient Pattern in the North Eastern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thachaparambil, M.; Moolakkal Antony, R.; B R, S.; V N, S.; N, C.; M, S.

    2016-02-01

    A Cold Core Eddy (CCE) mediated nutrient pattern in the North Eastern Arabian Sea (NEAS) is explained based on in situ measurments during March 2013 onboard FORV Sagar Sampada which was not reported earlier in the area. Samples for physical, chemical and biological parameters were collected in 5 stations along the diameter of the eddy and following standard protocols. The core of the CCE is identified at 21°20.38'N; 66°30.68'E with a diameter of 120Km. Earlier studies explaining the process and the forcing mechanism of the particular eddy records that, the eddy is short term (1-3 months) and is regular during the season. Surface waters were well oxygenated (>4.8 ml L-1) in the core. Surface value of nutrients viz., Nitrate, Nitrite, Silicate and phosphate in the core regions was 0.9µM, 0.01 µM, 0.5 µM and 0.7 µM respectively indicating upwelling in the core. Spring intermonsoon (SIM) is generally termed as a transition period between the active winter and summer seasons and as per earlier studies, high biological production and the regularly occurring Noctilica bloom is supported by the nutrient loading due to convective mixing during winter as well as regenerated production. However, present observations shows that, nutrient pumping due to the upwelling associated with the CCE also contributes for sustaining high biological production and are evident in the Chl a and mesozooplankton biovolume which records values of 4.35mg/m3 and 1.09ml/m3 respectively in the core. An intense Noctiluca blooms observed in the western flank of the eddy (Chl a 13.25 mg/m3; cell density 5.8×106 cells/litre), where Nitrate concentration records 1.04µM explains the role of such mesoscale processes in the sustenance of the HAB events. While eastern flank of the CCE showed typical open ocean condition of the season showing Nitrate 0.08µM; Chl a 0.23mg/m3; and phytoplankton cell density as 421 cells/litre. Keywords: Cold core eddy, nutrients, NEAS, SIM, biological production

  16. Left Dislocation in North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic dialects | Khan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic (NENA) dialects, which are the focus of this paper, were spoken across a wide area encompassing northern Iraq, north-west Iran, south-eastern Turkey, Armenia and Georgia. In these spoken dialects a distinction should be made between two major types of Left Dislocation (LD) structures.

  17. Malignant Neoplasms Of The Ear, Nose And Throat In North Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The few cases seen in this study are the tip of the Iceberg. The apperent low figure in this region could be due to high cost of hospitalization, distant location of health facilities and absence of radiotherapy unit in our centre. Key words: ENT cancers, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, malignant midline reticulosis, and north eastern ...

  18. Surgical removal of eyes in a tertiary institution in North eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Surgical eye removal is performed for various end-stage eye diseases to provide adequate comfort, replace volume and give good functional and cosmetic appearance. The pattern of eye removal is unknown for North Eastern Nigeria. Objective To determine the indications for eye removal in the study ...

  19. Integrated Scenarios of Regional Development in Two Semi-Arid States of North-Eastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Döll, Petra; Krol, Martinus S.

    2002-01-01

    Scenario analysis of the future is an important tool for supporting sustainability-oriented regional planning. To assist regional planning in two federal states in semi-arid North-eastern Brazil, Ceará and Piauí, we developed integrated qualitative¿quantitative scenarios that show potential

  20. DNA locus HLA-DQ alpha polymorphism in human population of the north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepiński, W; Skawrońska, M; Janica, J

    1996-01-01

    Investigations on DNA polymorphism locus HLA-DQ alpha were carried out on a sample of 117 adult unrelated inhabitants from the north-eastern Poland. The polymerase chain reaction and the reverse dot-blot hybridisation were employed to detect 6 different HLA-DQ alpha alleles. Population data on 20 different genotypes served as a basis for statistic evaluation. The results of genotype analysis were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Other population data were compared.

  1. The Upper Eocene crustose coralline algal pavement in the Colli Berici, north-eastern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Bassi

    2005-01-01

    A crustose coralline algal pavement, identified in Upper Eocene (Priabonian) shallow water, middleramp carbonates in north-eastern Italy (Colli Berici, Southern Alps), represents a rare example of this facies.The crustose pavement consists of a coralline crust bindstone with a wackestone-packstone matrix, and is characterised by the dominance of crustose coralline thalli composed primarily of melobesioids (Lithothamnion and Mesophyllum) and mastophoroids (Spongites, Lithoporella, Neogoniolith...

  2. Sliding as Hillside Phenomenon in the North Eastern Part of Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    , S. Bulliqi; , F. Isufi; , F. Humolli

    2016-01-01

    In the complex of the side phenomena of the north eastern part of Kosova, sliding who appear in a quite different dimensions play an important role in the landscape modeling; in some territories are ran in into a strong collapse, especially during tectonic abruptness. Quite developed sliding show during the tectonic contacts of magma rocks with those Terrigene, thus during the destruction streak including scrapped colluviums- proluvial materials and those diluVia of the scab conveyance. The w...

  3. Towards a de-carbonized energy system in North-Eastern Morocco: Prospective Geothermal Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Rimi, Abdelkrim; Zarhloule, Yassine; Barkaoui, Alae Eddine; Correia, António; Carneiro, Júlio; Verdoya, Massimo; Lucazeau, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal data has been indicating promising potentialities in the north-eastern Morocco. This paper presents new temperature data, recently recorded in water boreholes located in the Berkane and Oujda areas. Generally, the observed temperature gradients are rather high. One hole near Berkane, revealed an average geothermal gradient of more than 110 °C/km at depths greater than 300 m. This result confirms the geothermal gradient estimated in a mining borehole located about 30 km west of the ...

  4. AHP 45: REVIEW: FOUNDING AN EMPIRE ON INDIA'S NORTH-EASTERN FRONTIERS 1790-1840

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Howes

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly researched and carefully constructed monograph focuses on what is now north-eastern India, an irregularly-shaped region joined only by a narrow neck of land to the remainder of the Indian subcontinent and jostled (or nestled, depending on one's point of view) between Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, and Tibet. Crucially, author Gunnel Cederlöf argues, this representation of northeast India on modern maps - an island in constant danger of drifting away from mainland India, h...

  5. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1 To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2 To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3 To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of 86 individuals. Tools used for data collection were survey, observation, interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that hoteliers in North-eastern Thailand developed their businesses as a reaction to the economic crisis and failing trade. To attract more tourists to the region, hotel managers integrated traditional Thai art to their businesses, especially local Isan art. This investigation of nine hotels in Isan identified nine areas in which art has been integrated into hotel businesses. These are paintings, sculptures, architecture, literature, music and dance , the four Buddhist necessities of life (food, accommodation, clothing and medicine, beliefs, customs and ceremonies. By integrating elements of each of these categories into their hotels, business owners and managers have been able to generate extra trade.

  6. AHP 45: REVIEW: FOUNDING AN EMPIRE ON INDIA'S NORTH-EASTERN FRONTIERS 1790-1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Howes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This thoroughly researched and carefully constructed monograph focuses on what is now north-eastern India, an irregularly-shaped region joined only by a narrow neck of land to the remainder of the Indian subcontinent and jostled (or nestled, depending on one's point of view between Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, and Tibet. Crucially, author Gunnel Cederlöf argues, this representation of northeast India on modern maps - an island in constant danger of drifting away from mainland India, held in place only by the "Chicken's Neck" or Siliguri Corridor - bears no relation to the way in which this region was imagined by the British East India Company (EIC in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Having obtained revenuefarming rights and judicial duties over the North-Eastern Frontier, as it was then known, through a 1765 diwani grant from the Great Mughal in Delhi, the EIC aspired first and foremost to revive the administration of revenue in the region, adding a monopoly in territory to their existing monopolies in the eastern trade. Given these primarily commercial interests, it should come as no surprise that the EIC's map-makers, their eyes fixed on the web of lucrative trade routes crisscrossing the region, homed in on the North-Eastern Frontier as the central point in "a synoptic vision that connected Bengal to China" (72. ...

  7. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1 To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2 To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3 To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of 86 individuals. Tools used for data collection were survey, observation, interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that hoteliers in North-eastern Thailand developed their businesses as a reaction to the economic crisis and failing trade. To attract more tourists to the region, hotel managers integrated traditional Thai art to their businesses, especially local Isan art. This investigation of nine hotels in Isan identified nine areas in which art has been integrated into hotel businesses. These are paintings, sculptures, architecture, literature, music and dance , the four Buddhist necessities of life (food, accommodation, clothing and medicine, beliefs, customs and ceremonies. By integrating elements of each of these categories into their hotels, business owners and managers have been able to generate extra trade

  8. A research on consumer satisfaction and shopping patterns of households in the North Eastern Savo region

    OpenAIRE

    Taavitsainen, Ossi

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis deals with shopping patterns of consumers and their satisfaction with local supply of goods in the North Eastern Savo region in Finland. The thesis was conducted as a follow-up research to the original research made by a student of the University of Eastern Finland in 2009-2010. The theoretical part of the thesis consists of two main topics: purchase behavior of consumers and development of online shopping. The empirical part is based on a survey, conducted among consum...

  9. Isotope hydrological evidence of geomorphological changes in North-Eastern Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertelendi, E.; Marton, L.; Miko, L.

    1991-01-01

    Stable isotope and radiocarbon data of groundwater stored in Quaternary aquifers in North-Eastern Hungary can not be explained by climatic changes alone. More than two hundred δD, δ 18 O and radiocarbon ages of waters from 79 wells show that the recharge are changed during the time of upper pleniglacial and late glacial. Groundwaters of the studied are can be divided into three categories, which can explain their origin. The data are consistent with geomorphological results giving isotope evidence of hydrology for a geodynamical event during the mentioned periods. (R.P.) 3 refs.; 2 figs

  10. New records of long-legged flies (Diptera, Dolichopodidae from Central and North-Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ya. Grichanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During a 2016-2017 survey conducted in Isfahan, Lorestan, Markazi, North Khorasan, Razavi Khorasan, South Khorasan and Tehran provinces located in the Central and North-Eastern Iran, about 1000 specimens of Dolichopodidae were collected and identified. Eight dolichopodid species [Dolichopus jaxarticus Stackelberg, 1927, Hydrophorus viridis (Meigen, 1824, Medetera diadema (Linnaeus, 1767, M. lamprostoma Loew, 1871, M. roghii Rampini et Canzoneri, 1979, Tachytrechus kowarzi Mik, 1864, Tachytrechus sogdianus Loew, 1871, and Thinophilus flavipalpis (Zetterstedt, 1843] are recorded for the first time in Iran. Dolichopus subimmaculatus Kazerani, Pollet, Khaghaninia, 2017, is placed in synonymy with Dolichopus perversus Loew, 1871 (syn. nov.. Lectotype is designated for D. perversus.

  11. Reproductive biology of round sardinella (Sardinella aurita in north-eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios C. Tsikliras

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of round sardinella, Sardinella aurita Valenciennes, 1847, was studied for the first time in the north-eastern Mediterranean Sea. Round sardinella has gained much attention lately because of its biomass increase, which might be the result of climatic changes occurring across the Mediterranean Sea. Monthly samples were collected on board commercial purse-seiners for two complete year cycles (September 2000 to August 2002. Round sardinella is a gonochoristic fish. The overall female to male ratio was not statistically different (P=0.34 from unity, although it varied monthly and with the length of the fish. The seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index and the macroscopic characteristics of gonads showed that round sardinella in the northern Aegean spawns between May and July. Male round sardinella reach first sexual maturity at a smaller total length than females (155.0 and 168.3 mm respectively. Mean absolute fecundity (FA increased exponentially with body length (FA=0.0949xL4.22 and weight (FA=511.19xW1.02, with an average of ~21,000 oocytes produced per spawning female. Relative fecundity (FR ranged between 242 and 681 oocytes/g of body weight (average: 445 oocytes/g. The frequency distribution of oocytes showed that round sardinella produces a single batch of oocytes. In general, the reproductive characteristics of round sardinella in the north-eastern Mediterranean Sea differed when compared to stocks from other areas of its distribution.

  12. Sewage Management Changes in the North-eastern Poland After Accession to the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarżyński, Szymon; Bartkowska, Izabela

    2018-02-01

    Poland's accession to the European Union contributed to the infrastructure development of the whole country. One of the elements of the modernized infrastructure is the sewage network and facilities on this network, as well as facilities for waste water treatment and disposal of sludge. A wide stream of funds flowing to the country, and consequently also to the north-eastern polish voivodeships (Podlaskie, Warmian-Masurian, Lublin), allowed modernization, organize, and sometimes to build a new sewage management of this part of the country. The main factors and parameters that allow us to evaluate the development of the sewage management in north-eastern Poland are included: percentage of population using sewage treatment plants, number of municipal sewage plants with the division of their type, number of industrial plants, number of septic tanks, amount of sewage purified in a year, amount of sludge produced in the year, design capacity of sewage treatment plant, size of plant in population equivalent (PE). From a number of investments in the field of wastewater management carried out in the discussed area in the period after Poland's accession to the European Union, 9 investments were considered the most important, 3 from each of the voivodeships.

  13. Thinning trials in lowland plantations in the Veneto Region (North-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pividori

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thinning trials in lowland plantations in the Veneto Region (North-eastern Italy. More than 234 hectares of new plantations of lowland mixed forest have been realized in the last 20 years in the Veneto Region (North-eastern Italy. In many of these is now needed to start thinning operations, but there is a lack of experience about this topic. Aim of this work was to undertake an experimentation on different types of thinnings. The thinning trial has been performed at Bosco San Marco forest, municipality of Cessalto (Venice, in a very dense hornbeam-oak plantation aged 16. In 2010, three different thinning types were implemented on 9 hectares according to the following layout: geometrical (34% of woody mass removed, selective (15%, mixed geometrical-selective (30%, control plot. Three years later no significant differences between thinning trials in term of diametric growth, geometrical thinning excepted, were observed. These results provide a suite of solutions to the forest manager for choosing the early thinning type in high tree density condition.

  14. Invasive Alien Species of Terrestrial Vegetation of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetational landscape of north-eastern Terai region at the foot hills of Central Himalayas is a mosaic of grassland, old-field, wasteland, and forest ecosystems. Like many other parts of the country, this region is also infested with alien intruders which not only interfere with the growth and production of food crops but also exercise adverse effects on the biodiversity of native species. The present study attempts to catalogue the invasive alien species of the terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh especially with reference to their habit, taxonomic position, and nativity. A total of 1135 plant species within 580 genera under 119 families are so far known to occur in the region. Of these, only 149 species within 100 genera under 41 families have been found to be invasive aliens as evident from their center of origin, past history, nature of aggregation, and invasion observed under field conditions. About 80% of these invaders have been introduced from neotropics. Out of 173 invasive plants across India, this region shares 149 species, out of which 66% of species have come from Tropical America, 14% from African continent, and the rest from other countries. A better planning in the form of early identification and reporting of infestation and spread of noxious weeds is needed for their control.

  15. Sewage Management Changes in the North-eastern Poland After Accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarżyński Szymon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland's accession to the European Union contributed to the infrastructure development of the whole country. One of the elements of the modernized infrastructure is the sewage network and facilities on this network, as well as facilities for waste water treatment and disposal of sludge. A wide stream of funds flowing to the country, and consequently also to the north-eastern polish voivodeships (Podlaskie, Warmian-Masurian, Lublin, allowed modernization, organize, and sometimes to build a new sewage management of this part of the country. The main factors and parameters that allow us to evaluate the development of the sewage management in north-eastern Poland are included: percentage of population using sewage treatment plants, number of municipal sewage plants with the division of their type, number of industrial plants, number of septic tanks, amount of sewage purified in a year, amount of sludge produced in the year, design capacity of sewage treatment plant, size of plant in population equivalent (PE. From a number of investments in the field of wastewater management carried out in the discussed area in the period after Poland's accession to the European Union, 9 investments were considered the most important, 3 from each of the voivodeships.

  16. Association between mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms and Wuchereria bancrofti infection in two communities in North-Eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Simonsen, Paul E; Garred, Peter

    2010-01-01

    gene and for W. bancrofti-specific circulating filarial antigen (CFA) status. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between MBL genotype and CFA status, with low-expression MBL genotype individuals being almost three times more likely to be CFA positive than high-expression MBL...

  17. Profile of C-reactive protein, white cells and neutrophil populations in febrile children from rural north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahende, Coline; Ngasala, Billy; Lusingu, John

    2017-01-01

    ) guidelines and laboratory investigations (blood and urine cultures). RESULTS: A total of 867 patients were enrolled, out of which 691 (79.7%) had complete clinical and laboratory data available for analysis. Acute upper respiratory tract infection 284 (41.1%), acute gastroenteritis 127 (18.4%) and pneumonia...... with upper respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, acute gastroenteritis and non-specific febrile illness. Only serum CRP levels were positively correlated with positive blood cultures at a calculated cut-off value of 37.3 mg/L, giving a specificity of 77.8% and sensitivity of 74.2%. CONCLUSION: CRP...

  18. Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum clones infecting children living in a holoendemic area in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magesa, S M; Mdira, K Y; Babiker, H A

    2002-01-01

    of 34 initially asymptomatic parasitaemic children aged 1-5 years were followed daily for 31 days. Clinical examinations were made each day for signs and symptoms of clinical malaria, followed by parasitological investigation. Nineteen children developed symptoms suggestive of clinical malaria during......The diversity of Plasmodium falciparum clones and their role in progression from asymptomatic to symptomatic condition in children have been investigated. Attempts to identify whether particular parasite genotypes were associated with the development of clinical symptoms have been made. A cohort...... this period. Daily blood parasite samples from 13 children who developed clinical malaria symptoms and 7 who remained asymptomatic were genotyped by PCR-amplification of the polymorphic regions of the merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 (MSP1 and MSP2) and the glutamate rich protein (GLURP) genes. Infections...

  19. Quantifying methane emissions from natural gas production in north-eastern Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Barkley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas infrastructure releases methane (CH4, a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. The estimated emission rate associated with the production and transportation of natural gas is uncertain, hindering our understanding of its greenhouse footprint. This study presents a new application of inverse methodology for estimating regional emission rates from natural gas production and gathering facilities in north-eastern Pennsylvania. An inventory of CH4 emissions was compiled for major sources in Pennsylvania. This inventory served as input emission data for the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry enabled (WRF-Chem, and atmospheric CH4 mole fraction fields were generated at 3 km resolution. Simulated atmospheric CH4 enhancements from WRF-Chem were compared to observations obtained from a 3-week flight campaign in May 2015. Modelled enhancements from sources not associated with upstream natural gas processes were assumed constant and known and therefore removed from the optimization procedure, creating a set of observed enhancements from natural gas only. Simulated emission rates from unconventional production were then adjusted to minimize the mismatch between aircraft observations and model-simulated mole fractions for 10 flights. To evaluate the method, an aircraft mass balance calculation was performed for four flights where conditions permitted its use. Using the model optimization approach, the weighted mean emission rate from unconventional natural gas production and gathering facilities in north-eastern Pennsylvania approach is found to be 0.36 % of total gas production, with a 2σ confidence interval between 0.27 and 0.45 % of production. Similarly, the mean emission estimates using the aircraft mass balance approach are calculated to be 0.40 % of regional natural gas production, with a 2σ confidence interval between 0.08 and 0.72 % of production. These emission rates as a percent of production are

  20. Additional records of vector mosquito diversity collected from Al Khor district of North-eastern Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammed Kardousha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To survey mosquito diversity in the north-eastern area, which includes the most important gas industrial city in Qatar, and to investigate the potential mosquitoes for transmitting diseases. Methods: A study was performed from September 2009 until June 2011 in Al-Khor district of North-eastern Qatar. Five localities were selected for larval collection: Al Khor City (the main city, Al Dhakira, Ras Laffan (gas industrial city, Simsimah and Al Ghuwariyah. The survey was carried out by using different sampling methods and covering all expected natural breeding sites. The larvae were collected, preserved and transferred to the laboratory for identification. Results: Our findings revealed that 10 species of mosquito larvae had been detected from the area and five of them were new records in Qatar. The species encountered were: Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas 1771, Anopheles stephensi (Liston 1901, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say 1823 (Cx. quinquefasciatus, Culex pipiens biotype molestus (Forskal 1775 (Cx. pipiens, Culex univittatus (Theobald 1901, Culex pusillus (Macquart 1850, Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles 1901 (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culex laticinctus (Edwards 1913, Culex sitiens (Weidmann 1828 and Culex perexiguus (Theobald 1901. The new recorded species were Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culex laticinctus, Culex sitiens and Culex perexiguus. The most prevalent type was Cx. pipiens molestus (31.29% and followed by Culex pusillus and Cx. quinquefasciatus which have relatively similar prevalence of 18.72% and 18.52% respectively. Anopheles stephensi was an established vector for malaria. Cx. pipiens molestus and Cx. quinquefasciatus were vectors of West Nile virus and filariasis. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was established as a vector of Rift Valley virus and Culex univittatus was the main vector of Sindbis virus. Conclusions: The north-eastern area of Qatar harbors is the most important industrial city in the country, which has

  1. Quantifying methane emissions from natural gas production in north-eastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Zachary R.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Davis, Kenneth J.; Deng, Aijun; Miles, Natasha L.; Richardson, Scott J.; Cao, Yanni; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Smith, MacKenzie; Kort, Eric A.; Schwietzke, Stefan; Murphy, Thomas; Cervone, Guido; Martins, Douglas; Maasakkers, Joannes D.

    2017-11-01

    Natural gas infrastructure releases methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. The estimated emission rate associated with the production and transportation of natural gas is uncertain, hindering our understanding of its greenhouse footprint. This study presents a new application of inverse methodology for estimating regional emission rates from natural gas production and gathering facilities in north-eastern Pennsylvania. An inventory of CH4 emissions was compiled for major sources in Pennsylvania. This inventory served as input emission data for the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry enabled (WRF-Chem), and atmospheric CH4 mole fraction fields were generated at 3 km resolution. Simulated atmospheric CH4 enhancements from WRF-Chem were compared to observations obtained from a 3-week flight campaign in May 2015. Modelled enhancements from sources not associated with upstream natural gas processes were assumed constant and known and therefore removed from the optimization procedure, creating a set of observed enhancements from natural gas only. Simulated emission rates from unconventional production were then adjusted to minimize the mismatch between aircraft observations and model-simulated mole fractions for 10 flights. To evaluate the method, an aircraft mass balance calculation was performed for four flights where conditions permitted its use. Using the model optimization approach, the weighted mean emission rate from unconventional natural gas production and gathering facilities in north-eastern Pennsylvania approach is found to be 0.36 % of total gas production, with a 2σ confidence interval between 0.27 and 0.45 % of production. Similarly, the mean emission estimates using the aircraft mass balance approach are calculated to be 0.40 % of regional natural gas production, with a 2σ confidence interval between 0.08 and 0.72 % of production. These emission rates as a percent of production are lower than rates found in any

  2. Petrographic and mineralogical features of the uraniferous pink granites in the north eastern desert of egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atawiya, M.Y.; Salman, A.B.; El-Bayyomi, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The present work is concerned with the petrological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of some uranium bearing younger granites in the north eastern desert of egypt particularly Gebel Gattar area. The area around Gebel Gattar comprises the following rock units (starting from the oldest): meta volcanic, diorite-grano-diorite complex- Dokhan volcanics- Hammamat sediments, younger granites and dykes. The most significant structural features are represented by NNE-ENE dominantly trending faults and joints. Petrographicaly, the pink granites are divided into normal and mineralized (uraniferous) granites. Normal granites are classified into three types; a) leucocratic perthitic granite, b) hornblende- biotite perthitic granite and c) two feldspars perthitic granite. Mineralized granites are sheared, deformed, pinkish brown in colour and strongly altered. A remarkable secondary uranium mineralization has been recorded along fault and fracture zones

  3. Independent mitochondrial origin and historical genetic differentiation in North Eastern Asian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannen, H; Kohno, M; Nagata, Y; Tsuji, S; Bradley, D G; Yeo, J S; Nyamsamba, D; Zagdsuren, Y; Yokohama, M; Nomura, K; Amano, T

    2004-08-01

    In order to clarify the origin and genetic diversity of cattle in North Eastern Asia, this study examined mitochondrial displacement loop sequence variation and frequencies of Bos taurus and Bos indicus Y chromosome haplotypes in Japanese, Mongolian, and Korean native cattle. In mitochondrial analyses, 20% of Mongolian cattle carried B. indicus mitochondrial haplotypes, but Japanese and Korean cattle carried only B. taurus haplotypes. In contrast, all samples revealed B. taurus Y chromosome haplotypes. This may be due to the import of zebu and other cattle during the Mongol Empire era with subsequent crossing with native taurine cattle. B. taurus mtDNA sequences fall into several geographically distributed haplogroups and one of these, termed here T4, is described in each of the test samples, but has not been observed in Near Eastern, European or African cattle. This may have been locally domesticated from an East Eurasian strain of Bos primigenius.

  4. Late Hallstatt pottery from north-eastern Serbia (6th to 4th century BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By looking at prehistoric collections and unpublished material from the museums in north-eastern Serbia, as well as by surveying and excavating, new information was gained which fulfills the image of material and spiritual culture of prehistoric communities from the end of the Early Iron Age. Usually, for a closer chronological determination, metal jewellery and weapons were considered. Pottery finds were published only occasionally, usually due to contexts which were not clear enough, or due to chronological insensitivity (unless they were grave goods, but also due to stylistic and typological differences not clearly distinguished between the 'Basarabi' culture and the culture of 'channelled pottery'. This paper aims to define features of pottery production from different sites, more precisely, those found in the territory between the Iron Gates, Ključ and the Timok valley.

  5. Ethnomedicinal plants used by Chorei tribes of Southern Assam, North Eastern India

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    Shuvasish Choudhury

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore and enumerate the medicinal plants used by the Chorei tribe residing in Sourthern Assam part of North Eastern India in the treatment of various ailments. Methods: Systematic and intensive field surveys were conducted in Chorei inhabited parts of Southern Assam part of North East India to collect information on medicinal plants used by them in treatment of various ailments. Data was collected through structured questionnaires and personal observations made during the field visit. Results: A total of 53 different medicinal plants were recorded along with their vernacular names, parts used and mode of utilization by the Chorei tribes. Each of the plants was categorized according to their use in treatment of particular disease. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the Chorei tribe is primarily dependent of medicinal plant for treatment of various ailments.

  6. Examining spatial-temporal variability and prediction of rainfall in North-eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, B. U.; Kaduk, J.; Balzter, H.

    2012-12-01

    In the last 50 years rainfall in North-eastern Nigeria under the influence of the West African Monsoon (WAM) has been characterised by large annual variations with severe droughts recorded in 1967-1973, and 1983-1987. This variability in rainfall has a large impact on the regions agricultural output, economy and security where the majority of the people depend on subsistence agriculture. In the 1990s there was a sign of recovery with higher annual rainfall totals compared to the 1961-1990 period but annual totals were slightly above the long term mean for the century. In this study we examine how significant this recovery is by analysing medium-term (1980-2006) rainfall of the region using the Climate Research Unit (CRU) and National Centre for Environment Prediction (NCEP) precipitation ½ degree, 6 hourly reanalysis data set. Percentage coefficient of variation increases northwards for annual rainfall (10%-35%) and the number of rainy days (10%-50%). The standardized precipitation index (SPI) of the area shows 7 years during the period as very wet (1996, 1999, 2003 and 2004) with SPI≥1.5 and moderately wet (1993, 1998, and 2006) with values of 1.0≥SPI≤1.49. Annual rainfall indicates a recovery from the 1990s and onwards but significant increases (in the amount of rainfall and number of days recorded with rainfall) is only during the peak of the monsoon season in the months of August and September (pARIMA) model. The model is further evaluated using 24 months rainfall data yielding r=0.79 (regression slope=0.8; pARIMA model and the rainfall data used for this study indicates that the model can be satisfactorily used in forecasting rainfall in the in the sub-humid part of North-eastern Nigeria over a 24 months period.

  7. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pietra Lemos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; da Silva, Fernando José; Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Gaudêncio, Kamila; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in South America, where the disease is rapidly spreading. Changes in ecology and distribution of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis are among the factors accounting for the increasing incidence of the disease in this region. However, information about the ecology of L. longipalpis is still incipient, which may directly impair the implementation of effective control programs. Herein, the ecology of L. longipalpis was studied in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. From August 2009 to August 2010, phlebotomine sand flies were monthly collected in four localities using CDC light traps (~37 per month) and a lantern-baited Shannon trap with mouth aspirators. A total of 24,226 phlebotomine sand flies were collected with light traps and 375 with mouth aspirators. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis, representing 97.9% of the specimens collected with light traps and 91.5% with the mouth aspirator. Other species (Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia lenti and Lutzomyia sallesi) were found in low numbers. Most phlebotomine sand flies (94.6%) were collected at chicken coops and corrals. No significant correlation was found between the monthly abundance of phlebotomine sand flies and the monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity or rainfall. However, interestingly enough, 82.4% of L. longipalpis specimens were collected in months when relative humidity surpassed 75%. This study points out that this vector is well adapted to live in different habitats and to different climate conditions. It also suggests that some north-eastern populations of L. longipalpis may be more xerotolerant than southern populations. Further studies to assess the relationship between microclimate and L. longipalpis density in different Brazilian regions are advised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fungal parasites of algae in the waters of North-Eastern Poland with reference to the enviroment

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    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In tnę present work the results of investigations of the fungal parasites of algae in various types of water bodies (slough, ponds. lakes and river in North-Eastern Poland with reference to the chemical environment are presented.

  9. Pattern and spatial distribution of plague in Lushoto, north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of plague records from 1986 to 2002 and household interviews were carried out in the plague endemic villages to establish a pattern and spatial distribution of the disease in Lushoto district, Tanzania. Spatial data of households and village centres were collected and mapped using a hand held Global Positioning ...

  10. Coastal Sea Level along the North Eastern Atlantic Shelf from Delay Doppler Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Benveniste, J.; Andersen, O. B.; Gravelle, M.; Dinardo, S.; Uebbing, B.; Scharroo, R.; Kusche, J.; Kern, M.; Buchhaupt, C.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite altimetry data of the CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 missions processed with Delay Doppler methodology (DDA) provide improved coastal sea level measurements up to 2-4 km from coast, thanks to an along-track resolution of about 300m and a higher signal to noise ratio. We investigate the 10 Kilometre stripe along the North-Eastern Atlantic shelf from Lisbon to Bergen to detect the possible impacts in sea level change studies of this enhanced dataset. We consider SAR CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 altimetry products from the ESA GPOD processor and in-house reduced SAR altimetry (RDSAR) products. Improved processing includes in RDSAR the application of enhanced retrackers for the RDSAR waveform. Improved processing in SAR includes modification both in the generation of SAR waveforms, (as Hamming weighting window on the burst data prior to the azimuth FFT, zero-padding prior to the range FFT, doubling of the extension for the radar range swath) and in the SAMOSA2 retracker. Data cover the full lifetime of CryoSat-2 (6 years) and Sentinel-3 (1 year). Conventional altimetry are from the sea level CCI database. First we analyse the impact of these SAR altimeter data on the sea level trend and on the estimation of vertical motion from the altimeter minus tide gauge differences. VLM along the North-Eastern Atlantic shelf is generally small compared to the North-Western Atlantic Coast VLM, with a smaller signal to noise ratio. Second we investigate impact on the coastal mean sea level surface and the mean dynamic topography. We evaluate a mean surface from the new altimeter data to be combined to state of the art geoid models to derive the mean dynamic topography. We compare the results to existing oceanographic and geodetic mean dynamic topography solutions, both on grid and pointwise at the tide gauge stations. This study is supported by ESA through the Sea Level CCI and the GOCE++DYCOT projects

  11. Inventory of lice of mammals and farmyard chicken in North-eastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguini, Mohamed Nadir; Righi, Souad; Zeroual, Fayçal; Saidani, Khelaf; Benakhla, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Lice are permanent ectoparasites, extremely specific to their hosts. Their great importance in veterinary medicine remain significant, they can cause their direct pathogenic actions like irritability, dermatitis, anemia, decreased weight gain, and milk production. The purpose of this work was to made the first time an inventory of mammalian lice in North-eastern Algeria. Our survey of lice infestation was conducted on several animal species from five provinces of North-eastern Algeria. A total of 57 cattle, 83 sheep, 77 goats, 111 wild boars, and 63 farmyard chickens were examined. The collection of lice was carried out much more in mammals and chickens during the winter period. Lice were collected either manually or using brushing and kept in flasks containing 70% ethanol. The identification of lice was achieved in the laboratory using a binocular loupe. Concerning cattle, 63% and 27% of those examined subjects from Souk-Ahras and Guelma study areas, respectively, were carriers of lice. Damalinia bovis was the louse most frequently found on cattle in these two regions. Three other species were identified in Souk-Ahras: Haematopinus eurysternus (25%), Linognathus vituli (10%), and Solenopotes capillatus (5%). Regarding sheep, 39% and 24% of examined animals in Souk-Ahras and Guelma, were carrying lice. Damalinia ovis was the most frequently encountered lice on sheep in both regions. Linognathus ovillus also was identified in Souk-Ahras, representing 0.3% of the collected lice. Concerning goats, 53% and 30% of examined animals in Souk-Ahras and Guelma, were parasitized of lice. Two species of lice were found: Damalinia caprae and Linognathus africanus . For farmyard chickens, 69% and 100% of the farmyard chicken in Souk-Ahras and Mila were parasitized by lice, respectively. Menopon gallinae was the most frequently encountered louse in farmyard chicken in both regions. Eight other species were identified in Mila and four other species only in Souk-Ahras. Finally, 25

  12. Radioactivity in wastes generated from shale gas exploration and production - North-Eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodłowski, Paweł; Macuda, Jan; Nowak, Jakub; Nguyen Dinh, Chau

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, the K-40, U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Ra-228 and Th-228 activity concentrations were measured in 64 samples of wastes generated from shale gas exploration in North-Eastern Poland. The measured samples consist of drill cuttings, solid phase of waste drilling muds, fracking fluids, return fracking fluids and waste proppants. The measured activity concentrations in solid samples vary in a wide range from 116 to around 1100 Bq/kg for K-40, from 14 to 393 Bq/kg for U-238, from 15 to 415 Bq/kg for Ra-226, from 12 to 391 Bq/kg for Pb-210, from a few Bq/kg to 516 Bq/kg for Ra-228 and from a few Bq/kg to 515 Bq/kg for Th-228. Excluding the waste proppants, the measured activity concentrations in solid samples oscillate around their worldwide average values in soil. In the case of the waste proppants, the activity concentrations of radionuclides from uranium and thorium decay series are significantly elevated and equal to several hundreds of Bq/kg but it is connected with the mineralogical composition of proppants. The significant enhancement of Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations after fracking process was observed in the case of return fracking fluids, but the radium isotopes content in these fluids is comparable with that in waste waters from copper and coal mines in Poland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Urban-rural difference in the acceptance of mass health examination in north-eastern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Nakatsuka, H; Watanabe, T; Hisamichi, S; Shimizu, H; Fujisaku, S; Ichinowatari, Y; Konno, J; Kuroda, S; Hirai, J

    1989-05-01

    Over 40,000 residents (less than or equal to 40 years of age) in a city (Sendai; the city group), a town (Shiroishi; the town group) and two villages (Wakuya and Tajiri; the village group) in Miyagi prefecture in north-eastern Japan responded in a questionnaire survey on their attitude towards mass health examinations (i.e., whether they underwent in the previous year and if so where) on 4 items of blood pressure measurement, chest x-ray examination and screening tests for stomach and cervical cancer. The coverage rates were about 70% on an average both for blood pressure measurement and for chest x-ray examination, whereas the rates for cancer screening were between 30-40%. As for the opportunity of the former two examinations, the workplace mass examination played a large role in the case of the city and town groups (especially among men but not women) in addition to visit to clinics, in contrast to the case of the village group in which people depended much on regional mass examination service. The trend was essentially reproducible in stomach cancer screening although the over-all coverage rate was low, whereas women in the three groups almost exclusively utilized clinics for cervical cancer screening with one exception that the mobile unit service appeared to be equally accepted in the village group.

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF SEMI-NATURAL GRASSLANDS IN NORTH-EASTERN BULGARIA

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    IVA APOSTOLOVA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the syntaxonomic diversity of the semi-natural grasslands in NorthEastern Bulgaria following the principles of the Ziirich-Montpellier School. A total number of 172 releves, collected during 2002-2004, is used. TWINSPAN clustering is applied for determination vegetation types. The diagnostic species groups for the associations and subassociations are created by Cocktail method using the phi-coefficient with values above 0.3 within the JUICE software. As a result class Fesluco-Brometea is established with the alliances Festucion valesiacae, Pimpinello-Thymion and Chrysopogoni-Danthonion. The originally described Botriochloetum ischaemi Pop 1977 association is considered as typical on the subassociation level and a part of our releves are referred to it. Following the nomenclature rules we determined the subassotiation typicum. One new subassociation named Thymefosum pannonici of more xerophytic character, as compared to typical one, and well represented by differential species is established. The geographical distribution of Agropyro-Thymetum zygoidi and Agrostideto-Chrysopogonetum grylli associations is extended to the territory of Bulgaria. Class Molinio-Arrhenalherefea is represented by Cynosurion alliance and Festuco-Agrostidetum association is established by its probably most eastern area of distribution.

  15. An examination of retention factors among registered practical nurses in north-eastern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, B; Rukholm, E; Larivière, M; Carter, L; Koren, I; Mian, O

    2015-01-01

    Literature from the past two decades has presented an insufficient amount of research conducted on the nursing practice environments of registered practical nurses (RPNs). The objective of this article was to investigate the barriers and facilitators to sustaining the nursing workforce in north-eastern Ontario (NEO), Canada. In particular, retention factors for RPNs were examined. This cross-sectional research used a self-administered questionnaire. Home addresses of RPNs working in NEO were obtained from the College of Nurses of Ontario (CNO). Following a modified Dillman approach with two mail-outs, survey packages were sent to a random sample of RPNs (N=1337) within the NEO region. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine intent to stay (ITS) in relation to the following factor categories: demographic, and job and career satisfaction. Completed questionnaires were received from 506 respondents (37.8% response rate). The likeliness of ITS in the RPNs' current position for the next 5 years among nurses aged 46-56 years were greater than RPNs in the other age groups. Furthermore, the lifestyle of NEO, internal staff development, working in nursing for 14-22.5 years, and working less than 1 hour of overtime per week were factors associated with the intention to stay. Having an understanding of the work environment may contribute to recruitment and retention strategy development. The results of this study may assist with addressing the nursing shortage in rural and northern areas through improved retention strategies of RPNs.

  16. Examining current or future trade-offs for biodiversity conservation in north-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reside, April E; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Moilanen, Atte; Graham, Erin M

    2017-01-01

    With the high rate of ecosystem change already occurring and predicted to occur in the coming decades, long-term conservation has to account not only for current biodiversity but also for the biodiversity patterns anticipated for the future. The trade-offs between prioritising future biodiversity at the expense of current priorities must be understood to guide current conservation planning, but have been largely unexplored. To fill this gap, we compared the performance of four conservation planning solutions involving 662 vertebrate species in the Wet Tropics Natural Resource Management Cluster Region in north-eastern Australia. Input species data for the four planning solutions were: 1) current distributions; 2) projected distributions for 2055; 3) projected distributions for 2085; and 4) current, 2055 and 2085 projected distributions, and the connectivity between each of the three time periods for each species. The four planning solutions were remarkably similar (up to 85% overlap), suggesting that modelling for either current or future scenarios is sufficient for conversation planning for this region, with little obvious trade-off. Our analyses also revealed that overall, species with small ranges occurring across steep elevation gradients and at higher elevations were more likely to be better represented in all solutions. Given that species with these characteristics are of high conservation significance, our results provide confidence that conservation planning focused on either current, near- or distant-future biodiversity will account for these species.

  17. GIS-based hazard and risk maps of the Douro river basin (north-eastern Portugal

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    José Gomes Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Douro river basin, in north-eastern Portugal, is a very complex region in terms of its geomorphological structure and morphodynamics. More specifically, the region – the Port Wine-growing region, a UNESCO heritage site – is a landslide-prone area resulting from several factors intrinsic to the bedrock and its detritic cover, combined with factors capable of triggering slope instability mechanisms, such as intense rainfall and human activities. Recently, due to intense rainfall and human activities, frequent rock and mud slides occurred, some of them catastrophic, killing people and damaging property. In the last decade (2000–2010, an accurate inventory of these catastrophic events was made, showing that these events occurred near local small towns, Peso da Régua (2001, Armamar (2003 and Carrazeda de Ansiães (2007. In this paper, we present a case study using field data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS tools to evaluate landslide hazard and risk assessment following multicriteria evaluation techniques.

  18. Ecological Trait Composition of Freshwater Fish Across Gradients of Environmental Variability in North-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, M. J.; Pusey, B. J.; Arthington, A. H.

    2005-05-01

    North-eastern Australia encompasses 18o of latitude, monsoonal/tropical to sub-tropical/temperate climates, geomorphologically diverse rivers, and flow regimes with markedly varied seasonality, constancy and predictability. Fish assemblages in the region vary in relation to the predictability of aquatic habitat availability and other topographic, climatic and/or biogeographic factors. This paper examines how environmental, biogeographic and phylogenetic factors may constrain ecological trait composition at local and regional scales. We derived 17 categories of ecological traits to describe the morphology, behaviour, habitat, life history and trophic characteristics of 114 fish species from 64 river basins. Trait composition varied substantially across the region. The number of riffle dwelling species, maximum size and longevity of fishes was greater in the hydrologically predictable and constant rivers of the Wet Tropics region than in more unpredictable or seasonal environments. The importance of herbivory was also greater in the tropics. Historical biogeographic and phylogenetic factors may confound our ability to understand the role of environmental factors in determining spatial variation in ecological trait composition. Understanding the functional linkages between environmental drivers of fish species distributions via their ecological characteristics should provide a foundation for predicting future impacts of environmental change in a region of Australia subject to increasing human pressures.

  19. Glacial cycles as an allopatric speciation pump in north-eastern American freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Julien; Hanner, Robert H; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Allopatric speciation may be the principal mechanism generating new species. Yet, it remains difficult to judge the generality of this process because few studies have provided evidence that geographic isolation has triggered the development of reproductive isolation over multiple species of a regional fauna. Here, we first combine results from new empirical data sets (7 taxa) and published literature (9 taxa) to show that the eastern Great Lakes drainage represents a multispecies suture zone for glacial lineages of freshwater fishes with variable levels of genetic divergence. Second, we performed amplified fragment length polymorphism analyses among four pairs of lineages. Results indicate that lineages with relatively deep levels of mtDNA 5' COI (barcode) sequence divergence (>2%) developed strong reproductive barriers, while lineages with lower levels of divergence show weaker reproductive isolation when found in sympatry. This suggests that a threshold of 2% sequence divergence at mtDNA could be used as a first step to flag cryptic species in North American freshwater fishes. By describing different levels of divergence and reproductive isolation in different co-occurring fishes, we offer strong evidence that allopatric speciation has contributed significantly to the diversification of north-eastern American freshwater fishes and confirm that Pleistocene glacial cycles can be viewed as a 'speciation pump' that played a predominant role in generating biodiversity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Spatial and temporal variation in artisanal catches of dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus off north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, M F; Kinas, P G; Lessa, R; Ferrandis, E

    2015-02-01

    The sampling of fish from the artisanal fleet operating with surface lines off north-eastern Brazil was carried out between 1998 and 2000. Generalized linear models (GLMs) were used to standardize mean abundance indices using catch and fishing effort data on dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus and to identify abundance trends in time and space, using 1215 surface line deployments. A standard relative abundance index (catch per unit effort, CPUE) was estimated for the most frequent vessels used in the sets, employing factors and coefficients generated in the GLMs. According to the models, C. hippurus catches are affected by the operating characteristics and power of different fishing vessels. These differences highlight the need for standardization of catch and effort data for artisanal fisheries. The highest mean abundance values for C. hippurus were off the state of Rio Grande do Norte, with an increasing tendency in areas with greater depths and more distant from the coast, reaching maximal values in areas whose depths range from 200 to 500 m. The highest mean abundance values occurred between April and June. The higher estimated abundance of C. hippurus in this period off the state of Rio Grande do Norte and within the 200-500 m depth range may be related to a migration pattern of food sources, as its main prey, the flying fish Hirundichthys affinis, uses floating algae as refuge and to deposit its pelagic eggs. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Enterobiasis epidemiology and molecular characterization of Enterobius vermicularis in healthy children in north-eastern Poland

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    Kubiak K.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterobiasis is a human intestinal parasitic disease caused by human pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis. Despite being the most prevalent nematode infection in Europe and North America, predominantly among in school aged children, the data concerning infection rate and knowledge of genetic variability of pinworms are incomplete. The aim of the study was the estimation of prevalence and molecular typing of Enterobius vermicularis among healthy children in north-eastern Poland. In 2013 – 2015, 296 individuals (aged 2 – 18 years from 12 kindergartens, schools and orphanages were examined by the adhesive cellophane tape method. Data on socio-demographic status were collected using a questionnaire. Molecular analysis was performed using the DNA of adult female pinworms and primers targeting the region of cytochrome oxidase I gene. The overall prevalence of enterobiasis was 10.1 %. Enterobius vermicularis infection rates were 3.9 % in children living in families and 32.8 % among the orphans (OR=0.08; 95 % CI: 0.04 – 0.19; p<0.001. There were no associations between distribution of enterobiasis and gender, pets possession and the season of examination. In 43.3 % of the infected children enterobiasis was asymptomatic. Based on a molecular marker three different haplotypes of pinworm were identified. All sequences clustered within type B, together with human E. vermicularis isolates from Denmark, Germany, Greece, and Japan. This paper provides complementary data on the occurrence and intraspecific variability of E. vermicularis in human population in Europe.

  2. Structuring and evolution of Neogene transcurrent basins in the Tellian foreland domain, north-eastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Fetheddine; Zouaghi, Taher; Harrab, Salah; Sainz, Antonio Casas; Bédir, Mourad; Zargouni, Fouad

    2011-07-01

    The Neogene sedimentary basins (Serravallian to Quaternary) of the Tellian tectonic foreland in north-eastern Tunisia formed within the overall NE-SW sinistral strike-slip tectonic framework of the Ras El Korane-Thibar and El Alia-Teboursouk fault systems. From stratigraphic logs, structural cross sections and interpretation of 2D seismic lines and boreholes, the pre-Neogene basement can be interpreted to be structured according to Eocene (NW-SE) compressional and Oligocene extensional phases. This basement comprises structural highs (anticlines and horsts) and subsiding areas (synclines, half-grabens and grabens) formed during the Neogene. The subsiding areas are delineated by faults striking N030E, N-S and N140E, defining (i) narrow, strongly subsiding synclines, (ii) lozenge-shaped basins and (iii) trapezoidal basins. The architecture of their fill results from the sedimentary balance between tectonics and eustatism. Halokinesis and clay diapirism (driven by Triassic and Neogene evaporites and clays) also played an important role in basin evolution, contributing to the formation of domes and diapirs along active faults.

  3. Some aspects of the last glaciation in the Mazury Lake District (north-eastern Poland

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    Pochocka-Szwarc Katarzyna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the Mazury Lake District (north-eastern Poland dates from 24-19 ka (main stadial of the youngest Vistulian glaciation. During this last glacial maximum (MIS 2 a belt with lacustrine basins was formed when the ice sheet retreated at the end of the Pomeranian phase. The ice-sheet retreat is morphologically also expressed by the occurrence of end moraines. The study area is situated in the Skaliska Basin, in the northern part of the Lake District (near the Polish/ Russian border, at the periphery of zone with end moraines. Originally the basin was an ice-dammed depression filled with melt water; the water flowed out into the developing Pregoła valley when the ice retreated and did no longer dam off the depression. The basin, which is surrounded by hill-shaped moraines, is filled now with Late Glacial and Holocene glaciolacustrine sediments. The organic sediments of the basin record the history of the Late Glacial and Holocene climatic changes in this region.

  4. Pattern of alcohol consumption by young people from North Eastern Portugal

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    Gonçalves Isabel Amorim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is the most used psychoactive substance among adolescents, is an important public health problem and a major risk factor for the health of this group. This study is regarding to the pattern of alcohol consumption by adolescents. Descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional study, with a sample of 378 adolescents, which are attending three high schools, in north-eastern Portugal. In the data collection we used a questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS. The prevalence of alcohol is 86.8%. The mean score of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT was 3.53±4.525 points. The vast majority of participants were located in the non-excessive alcohol consumption area (91.3%. The pattern of alcohol consumption differs significantly between gender (Wald: p ≤ 0,004 and the religious practice (Wald: p ≤ 0,027, with greater percentage of boys and students who did not practice any religion in excessive consumers. The prevalence of alcohol consumers is high. The proportion of young people with excessive consumption in our sample is lower than in other studies, but shows that there is a group of adolescents in excessive consumption. It found a relationship between consumption pattern, gender and religious practice. These results justify the development of public health interventions.

  5. Serological Evidence of Lyssavirus Infection among Bats in Nagaland, a North-Eastern State in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, R S; Dovih, D P; Ashwini, M A; Chattopadhyay, B; Harsha, P K; Garg, K M; Sudarshan, S; Puttaswamaiah, R; Ramakrishnan, U; Madhusudana, S N

    2017-06-01

    Bats are known to be reservoirs of several medically important viruses including lyssaviruses. However, no systematic surveillance for bat rabies has been carried out in India, a canine rabies endemic country with a high burden of human rabies. Surveillance for rabies virus (RABV) infection in bats was therefore carried out in Nagaland, a north-eastern state in India at sites with intense human-bat interfaces during traditional bat harvests. Brain tissues and sera from bats were tested for evidence of infection due to RABV. Brain tissues were subjected to the fluorescent antibody test for detection of viral antigen and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for presence of viral RNA. Bat sera were tested for the presence of rabies neutralizing antibodies by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. None of the bat brains tested (n = 164) were positive for viral antigen or viral RNA. However, rabies neutralizing antibodies were detected in 4/78 (5·1%) bat sera tested, suggesting prior exposure to RABV or related lyssaviruses. The serological evidence of lyssaviral infection in Indian bats may have important implications in disease transmission and rabies control measures, and warrant extensive bat surveillance to better define the prevalence of lyssaviral infection in bats.

  6. Large Human Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in North-Eastern Italy in 2012

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    Luisa Barzon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease have been reported in Italy since 2008. So far, most cases have been identified in north-eastern Italy, where, in 2012, the largest outbreak of WNV infection ever recorded in Italy occurred. Most cases of the 2012 outbreak were identified in the Veneto region, where a special surveillance plan for West Nile fever was in place. In this outbreak, 25 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and 17 cases of fever were confirmed. In addition, 14 WNV RNA-positive blood donors were identified by screening of blood and organ donations and two cases of asymptomatic infection were diagnosed by active surveillance of subjects at risk of WNV exposure. Two cases of death due to WNND were reported. Molecular testing demonstrated the presence of WNV lineage 1 in all WNV RNA-positive patients and, in 15 cases, infection by the novel Livenza strain was ascertained. Surveillance in other Italian regions notified one case of neuroinvasive disease in the south of Italy and two cases in Sardinia. Integrated surveillance for WNV infection remains a public health priority in Italy and vector control activities have been strengthened in areas of WNV circulation.

  7. MAXENT MODELLING OF THE POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM IN NORTH-EASTERN REGION OF ROMANIA

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    Ovidiu COPOȚ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most valued mushrooms in the World, because of its medicinal properties. In the context of North-Eastern Region’s development, any forest product could have a valuable contribution. Therefore, it is important to understand the mushroom’s ecology and generate a map of its optimal distribution. For this, we used one of the most performant species distribution models available – Maxent, field occurrences and climatic-topographic-biotic variables. After multi-collinearity testing and step-wise Maxent modelling, we came to an end with a 0.8 final model based on two predictors. Thus, in the region, the optimal habitat distribution is found in oak, beech, riparian or mixed forests bellow approximately 800 m altitude. The species can be found in almost all forests across lowland, colline and submontane regions according to tree host presence. The approach could be promising for other fungal species for the sustainable development of the region.

  8. A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF HUMAN THYROID GLAND IN THE POPULATION OF NORTH - EASTERN REGION OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Due to the high incidence of thyroid disorders in the North - Eastern population of India a study was undertaken in Guwahati Medical College to see the age related changes in the morphology of the gland in the ca davers of this region. AIM : The study was done to compare the dimensions of the thyroid gland in this population with different studies around the world to see if it can throw any light why thyroid disorders are more common in this population and help clin icians to deal better. MATERIALS AND METHOD : The specimens were divided into three groups according to their ages. Twenty (21 specimens (both male and female were taken from each age group. Statistical analysis was done by paired t - test and t was taken a s significant if the value of t was greater than 2.18. SUMMARY : A study of all together of 63 specimen were taken up to see if any morphological differences in dimension exists in various age groups viz. pediatrics , adults and elderly and co relate with fi ndings of previous workers and was statistically analyzed. CONCLUSION : The study showed that there was no morphological difference of this population with that of previous studies done in other parts of the world. Perhaps a histological study in molecular level will throw more light why this stratum of population is so vulnerable to thyroid disorders.

  9. Monitoring receding of glaciers and in north-eastern pakistan through geo-informatics techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamir, U.B.

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan is amongst those countries which are blessed from the wide range of natural features. Pakistan is a land of varied topography, ranging from deep sea to top mountains of the world. Northern area of Pakistan carries the most fascinating mountainous series with snow-clad peaks of varying height. Apart from North and South Pole, Northern Pakistan hosts the greatest masses of glaciated ice in the world. The glaciers are of extreme worth in providing fresh water resources; this important resource is a vital source of water but it has been diminished due to anthropogenic interventions which, as a result, have unbalanced the indigenous eco-system. Monitoring of these glaciers is important to cater the water and power need of a country like Pakistan. By using remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques, this paper is an attempt to address the receding of glaciers and snow cover in the extreme north-eastern districts of Pakistan. Monitoring of melting of glaciers due to climate change in the recent decades has been attempted in this study for Ghanche District. This study is also concerned with observing the spatial change in the snow cover and glaciers of Ghanche District. (author)

  10. Investigation of Groundwater transport using environmental isotopes along the north-eastern part of sinai peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, M.S.; Awad, M.A.; Nada, A.A.; Abd El-Samie, S.G.; Zaghloul, A.

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen groundwater samples were collected from the north-eastern part of sinai peninsula representing different eater bearing formations from younger to older: The sand and gravel interbeds (quaternary), the fissured and fracture limestone of eocene and upper cretaceous and the fractured sandstone (Lower cretaceous). The chemical and isotopic analysis reflected the changes in the meteoric origin of the groundwater in these aquifers with respect to the recharge sources and the rock types. The groundwater in the quaternary aquifer have the metric water type which are affected by evaporation and sea spray deposits. The majority of the wells tapping in the eocene aquifer have the fresh water character while the other have the marine water originated from two sources; the first is the dissolution of the host rock (mainly limestone) which increase the groundwater salinity without changes in the isotopic content. The second source is mixing with connote water seeped to the aquifer through cracks and causing isotopic enrichment in these samples. Otherwise, the depleted values of the stable isotopes in the groundwater of lower and Upper cretaceous represent mixing with palaeo water in these aquifers. High values of tritium content were detected in wells in the eastern part. Further survey is needed to follow up the tritium content

  11. Anaemia in pregnancy at booking in Gombe, North-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukar, M; Audu, B M; Yahaya, U R; Melah, G S

    2008-11-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is an important reproductive health problem associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy at booking in Gombe, North-eastern Nigeria. A cross-sectional study of 461 women attending the antenatal clinic was carried out. Anaemia in pregnancy was defined as a packed cell volume (PCV) of prevalence of anaemia at booking of 51.8%. The majority of these patients, 67.4%, were mildly anaemic, 30.5% were moderately anaemic while only 2.1% had severe anaemia. Most, 316 (68.5%) of the women booked in the second trimester while only 3.0% booked in the first trimester. There was no relationship between parity and anaemia in pregnancy in this study The majority of the women, 293 (63.5%) were in the lower social class. Because the majority of the anaemic gravidae are in the low social class, provision of haematinics at little or no cost will go a long way towards reducing the high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. In the long run, educational and economic empowerment of the women is the key to reducing the overall prevalence of anaemia to the barest minimum.

  12. Linguatula serrata (Porocephalida: Linguatulidae) Infection among Client-Owned Dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria: Prevalence and Public Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwasina, Oseni Saheed; ThankGod, Onyiche Emmanuel; Augustine, Omonuwa Omojefe; Gimba, Fufa Ido

    2014-01-01

    Pentastomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis endemic to western and central Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and public health implications of Linguatulosis in client-owned dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria. Seven hundred and seventy seven (777) dogs brought for treatment at the hospital were subjected to buccal (sublingual) examination for pentastomiasis. Parameters such as age, sex, and breeds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consider...

  13. Vessel guardians: sculpture and graphics related to the ceramics of NorthEastern European hunter-gatherers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Kashina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available North-Eastern European hunter-gatherer ceramic sculptures, relief sculptures and graphic images on vessels are discussed. Five groups of finds are distinguished according to their chronology (4000–2500 BC cal and represented subject (birds, human head, human figure, mammal head etc.. Their production believes to be a female craft, their making had ritual aims and their emerging was independent from any influences of pastoral/agricultural societies.

  14. Two new species of Dendrobrachia Brook, 1889 (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Dendrobrachiidae from the north-eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. López-González

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Examination of recent benthic material collected during several cruises in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic and the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean has allowed the taxonomic reassessment of some previously identified specimens belonging to the monogeneric gorgonian family Dendrobrachiidae Brook, 1889. Dendrobrachia fallax Brook, 1889 is the type species of the single genus in this family, and was originally described from Ascension Island (South Atlantic. Subsequently, other authors reported the presence of this species in Cape Verde Islands (north-eastern Atlantic and some Mediterranean localities (Alboran Sea and the Strait of Sicily. The study of the specimen from the Prince of Monaco collections in Cape Verde Islands, and recently collected material from the Gulf of Cadiz (north-eastern Atlantic and in the south of Malta (Mediterranean, materials previously considered as D. fallax, allow us to recognize two undescribed species in this genus. All previous records of D. fallax from the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean should be considered incorrect. Opresko and Bayer (1991 added two additional species of Dendrobrachia. Two new species are described here and compared with their congeners.

  15. Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mechanisms and population structure of Enterobacter cloacae non-susceptible to Ertapenem in North-Eastern France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eGuillard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolone (FQ agents are a potential resort to treat infection due to Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase and susceptible to FQ. In a context of increase of non-susceptibility to carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae, we characterized FQ resistance mechanisms in 75 Enterobacter cloacae isolates non-susceptible to ertapenem in North-Eastern France in 2012 and describe the population structure by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST.Among them, 14.7% (12/75 carried a carbapenemase-encoding gene. Except one isolate producing VIM-1, the carbapenemase-producing isolates carried the well-known IncL/M pOXA48a plasmid. Most of the isolates (59/75 harbored at least a FQ-R determinant. qnr genes were predominant (40%, 30/75. The MLST study revealed that E. cloacae isolates’ clonality was wide (24 different STs. The more widespread STs were ST74, ST101, ST110, ST114 and ST133. Carbapenem MICs were higher for E. cloacae ST74 than for other E. cloacae isolates. PMQR determinants were more often observed in E. cloacae ST74 isolates. These findings showed that (i pOXA-48a is spreading in North-Eastern France, (ii qnr is preponderant in E. cloacae, (iii E. cloacae comprised a large amount of lineages spreading in North-Eastern France and (iv FQ as an alternative to β-lactams to treat ertapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae are compromised.

  16. Geomorphological map of a coastal stretch of north-eastern Gozo (Maltese archipelago, Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Mauro; Micallef, Anton; Biolchi, Sara; Chelli, Alessandro; Cuoghi, Alessandro; Devoto, Stefano; Gauci, Christopher; Graff, Kevin; Lolli, Federico; Mantovani, Matteo; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Pisani, Luca; Prampolini, Mariacristina; Restall, Brian; Roulland, Thomas; Saliba, Michael; Selmi, Lidia; Vandelli, Vittoria

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphological investigations carried out along the north-eastern coast of the Island of Gozo (Malta) have led to the production of a detailed geomorphological map. Field surveys, accompanied by aerial photo-interpretation, were carried out within the framework of the EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement Project ``Developing Geomorphological mapping skills and datasets in anticipation of subsequent Susceptibility, Vulnerability, Hazard and Risk Mapping'' (Council of Europe). In particular, this geomorphological map is the main output of a `Training Course on Geomorphological Mapping in Coastal Areas' held within the Project in November 2016. The study area selected was between Ramla Bay and Dacrhlet Qorrot Bay on the Island of Gozo (67 km2), part of the Maltese archipelago in the central Mediterranean Sea. From a geological viewpoint, the stratigraphic sequence includes Late Oligocene (Chattian) to Late Miocene (Messinian) sedimentary rocks. The hard limestones of the Upper Coralline Limestone Formation, the youngest lithostratigraphic unit, dominate the study area. Underlying this formation, marls and clays belonging to the Blue Clay Formation extensively outcrop. The oldest lithostratigraphic unit observed in the study area is the Globigerina Limestone Formation, a fine-grained limestone. The lithostructural features of the outcropping units clearly condition the morphography of the landscape. The coast is characterised by the alternation of inlets and promontories. Worthy of notice is the large sandy beach of Ramla Bay partly backed by dunes. From a geomorphological perspective, the investigated coastal stretch is characterised by limestone plateaus bounded by steep structural scarps which are reshaped by gravitational and/or degradation processes, and milder slopes in Blue Clays at their foot comprising of numerous rock block deposits (rdum in Maltese) and active or abandoned terraced fields used for agricultural purposes. Landforms and processes related to

  17. Tsutsugamushi Disease (Scrub Typhus) Meningoencephalitis in North Eastern India: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S R; Masaraf, H; Lynrah, K G; Lyngdoh, M

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus is rampant in northern, eastern, and southern India. Central nervous system involvement in the form of meningitis or meningoencephalitis is common in scrub typhus. As specific laboratory methods remain inadequate or inaccessible in developing countries, prompt diagnosis is often difficult. The aim of this study was to characterize neurological complications in scrub typhus from northeastern region of India. We did a prospective study of scrub meningoencephalitis at North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Medical Sciences among patients admitted to hospital between October 2009 and November 2011. The diagnosis was made based on the clinical pictures, presence of an eschar, and a positive Weil-Felix test (WFT) with a titer of >1:160 and if required a positive scrub IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lumbar puncture was performed in patients with headache, nuchal rigidity, altered sensorium or cranial nerve deficits, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain performed if needed. Twenty-three patients of scrub typhus meningitis that were serologically confirmed were included in the study. There were 13 males and 10 females. Fever ≥1 week was the most common manifestation (39.1%). Interestingly, none had an eschar. Median cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count, lymphocyte percentage, CSF protein, CSF glucose/blood glucose, CSF ADA were 17 cells/μL, 90%, 86 mg/dL, 0.6605 and 3.6 U/mL, respectively. All patients were treated with doxycycline. There was no mortality in our study. Absence of Eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. Clinical features and CSF findings can mimic tuberculous meningitis so misdiagnosis may lead to unwarranted prolonged empirical antituberculous therapy in cases of lymphocytic meningoencephalitis. Delay in treatment can be potentially fatal. WFT still serves as a useful and affordable diagnostic tool for this disease in resource-poor countries.

  18. [Clinical research outside of teaching hospitals: Current situation in north-eastern France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, C; Dupoux, A; Déloy, L; Hertz, C; Jeanmaire, T; Parneix, N

    2015-04-01

    Most clinical research in France takes place in teaching hospitals. There are, however, many advantages to developing it in other hospitals: access to innovative treatments, improvement in healthcare quality, attractiveness of hospitals, increased trial inclusion rates and reduced selection bias. The objectives of our study were to report on the current situation of clinical research outside teaching hospitals. A three-stage survey was conducted between January 2012 and May 2013 in non-teaching hospitals of north-eastern France. First, questionnaires were sent to administrative and medical boards of all hospitals with more than 100 beds, then to head doctors of every department in hospitals with more than 300 beds and finally meetings were organized with members of 20 selected hospitals. The administrative and medical boards of 85 hospitals participated in the first stage of the survey; half of these hospitals were engaged in clinical research activities and for 10 the internal structuring was cross-disciplinary. Answers from 178 departments were obtained during the second stage; 47% reported a clinical research activity. Meetings with research teams in 20 hospitals allowed us to identify difficulties concerning research funding, transversal organization and sponsoring. Clinical research existed in more than half of the respondent non-teaching hospitals. Obstacles to its development can be grouped in three categories: 1) internal structuring of clinical research, 2) access to information and knowledge of how clinical research functions and to interlocutors outside the hospital and 3) access to skills necessary to sponsor clinical research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Landslide Risk: Economic Valuation in The North-Eastern Zone of Medellin City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Johnny Alexander; Hidalgo, César Augusto; Johana Marín, Nini

    2017-10-01

    Natural disasters of a geodynamic nature can cause enormous economic and human losses. The economic costs of a landslide disaster include relocation of communities and physical repair of urban infrastructure. However, when performing a quantitative risk analysis, generally, the indirect economic consequences of such an event are not taken into account. A probabilistic approach methodology that considers several scenarios of hazard and vulnerability to measure the magnitude of the landslide and to quantify the economic costs is proposed. With this approach, it is possible to carry out a quantitative evaluation of the risk by landslides, allowing the calculation of the economic losses before a potential disaster in an objective, standardized and reproducible way, taking into account the uncertainty of the building costs in the study zone. The possibility of comparing different scenarios facilitates the urban planning process, the optimization of interventions to reduce risk to acceptable levels and an assessment of economic losses according to the magnitude of the damage. For the development and explanation of the proposed methodology, a simple case study is presented, located in north-eastern zone of the city of Medellín. This area has particular geomorphological characteristics, and it is also characterized by the presence of several buildings in bad structural conditions. The proposed methodology permits to obtain an estimative of the probable economic losses by earthquake-induced landslides, taking into account the uncertainty of the building costs in the study zone. The obtained estimative shows that the structural intervention of the buildings produces a reduction the order of 21 % in the total landslide risk.

  20. Seroprevalence of brucellosis, tularemia, and yersiniosis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from north-eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dahouk, S; Nöckler, K; Tomaso, H; Splettstoesser, W D; Jungersen, G; Riber, U; Petry, T; Hoffmann, D; Scholz, H C; Hensel, A; Neubauer, H

    2005-12-01

    Brucellosis and tularemia are classical zoonotic diseases transmitted from an animal reservoir to humans. Both, wildlife and domestic animals, contribute to the spreading of these zoonoses. The surveillance of the animal health status is strictly regulated for domestic animals, whereas systematic disease monitoring in wildlife does not exist. The aim of the present study was to provide data on the prevalence of anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies in wild boars from North-Eastern Germany to assess public health risks. A total of 763 sera of wild boars from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania hunted in 1995/1996 were tested using a commercially available Brucella suis ELISA, an in-house lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based Francisella ELISA, and commercially available Western blot kits for the detection of anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies. The Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 LPS is able to induce serological cross-reactions indistinguishable from brucellosis due to a similar immunodominant epitope in the Brucella O-polysaccharide. The Yersinia Western blot assay was, therefore, based on five recombinant Yersinia outer proteins which have been proved to be specific for the serodiagnosis of yersiniosis. Anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies were detected in 22.0%, 3.1%, and 62.6% of the wild boars, respectively. The high seroprevalence of tularemia and brucellosis in wild boars indicates that natural foci of these zoonoses are present in wildlife in Germany. However, the impact of transmission of zoonotic pathogens from wildlife to livestock is unknown. Only careful and systematic monitoring will help to prevent the (re)emergence of these zoonotic diseases in domestic animals and consequently human infection.

  1. Spatial Profile of Poverty.Case Study:The North-Eastern Development Region in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei SCHVAB

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the authors try to em-phasize the interdependent relations that are established between space and poverty, as well as the modalities through which poverty policies can be optimized and implemented at the territo-rial systems level in accordance to the polycen-tric development model.The f rst goal of the study is to understand the way in which the complexity of the territory, in its structure and relations, inf uences in un-equal ways the territorial pattern of poverty and development. The concept of territorial poverty that we use in the present study transcends the usual connotation of poverty as a simple lack of different kind of resources towards the incapacity of the system to offer a wide range of impulses and solutions to the encountered problems and thus induce a state of underdevelopment.The second goal is to understand in which ways the polycentric development theory can play a role in reducing poverty. In this sense the authors created a poverty index, and based on this index a polycentric development model was created for the North-Eastern region. This poly-centric development model has direct implica-tions for policy makers, as it highlights the areas that require the most attention and the develop-ment pole that should inf uence its development. By taking into consideration the results of this study, the next logical step for policy makers is to implement the necessary measures by consider-ing the relations between the development pole and the underdeveloped area that is under its in-f uence area. In this respect tailor-f t policies and measures can be applied in the effort to reduce poverty levels.

  2. The Tianjin geothermal field (north-eastern China): Water chemistry and possible reservoir permeability reduction phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, Angelo; Montegrossi, Giordano; Orlando, Andrea [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Borrini, Daniele; Tassi, Franco [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Vaselli, Orlando [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Huertas, Antonio Delgado [Estacion Experimental de Zaidin (CSIC), Prof. Albareda 1, 18008 Granada (Spain); Yang, Jincheng; Cheng, Wanquing [Aode Renewable Energy Research Institute, 90 Weijin South Road, Nankai District, 300381 Tianjin (China); Tedesco, Dario [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); Institute of Environmental Geology and Geo Engineering (CNR), Piazzale A. Moro 5, Roma 00100 (Italy); Poreda, Robert [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Rochester, 227 Hutchison Hall, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Injection of spent (cooled) thermal fluids began in the Tianjin geothermal district, north-eastern China, at the end of the 1990s. Well injectivities declined after 3-4 years because of self-sealing processes that reduced reservoir permeability. The study focuses on the factors that may have caused the observed decrease in permeability, using chemical and isotopic data on fluids (water and gas) and mineral phases collected from production and injection wells. The results of data processing and interpretation indicate that (1) it is very unlikely that calcite and silica precipitation is taking place in the reservoir; (2) the Fe- and Zn-rich mineral phases (e.g. sulfides, hydroxides and silicates) show positive saturation indexes; (3) SEM and XRD analyses of filtered material reveal that the latter mineral phases are common; (4) visual observation of casings and surface installations, and of corrosion products, suggests that a poor quality steel was used in their manufacture; (5) significant quantities of solids (e.g. quartz and feldspar crystals) are carried by the geothermal fluid; (6) seasonal changes in fluid composition lead to a reduction in casing corrosion during the summer. It was concluded that the decrease in injectivity in the Tianjin wells is caused only in part by the oxidation of casings, downhole pumps, and surface installations, triggered by free oxygen in the injected fluids; the utilization of better quality steels should drastically reduce this type of corrosion. Self-sealing of pores and fractures by reservoir formation solids and by the Fe-corrosion products suspended in the injected fluids seems to be a more important phenomenon, whose effect could be greatly reduced by installing filtering devices at all sites. (author)

  3. Serological survey for Brucella antibodies in donkeys of north-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijjani, A O; Junaidu, A U; Salihu, M D; Farouq, A A; Faleke, O O; Adamu, S G; Musa, H I; Hambali, I U

    2017-08-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to determine seroprevalence and risk factors influencing the presence of Brucella antibodies in donkeys of Borno State, north-eastern Nigeria. The study aimed at providing baseline information that may be used in planning a control policy against equine brucellosis. Blood samples were collected from 601 donkeys, comprised of 374 males and 227 females from the six agricultural zones of the state between March 2013 and September 2014. The sera obtained were tested for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Of the 601 donkeys tested, 43 (7.2%) and 40 (6.7%) were seropositive by RBPT and cELISA, respectively. A seroprevalence of 8.6% was obtained in male and 3.5% in female donkeys. According to age, the highest seroprevalence of 9.6% was obtained from donkeys of age group 4-6 years. With respect to pregnancy status, a higher seroprevalence (6.8%) was obtained from pregnant donkeys compared to 3.8% obtained from the non-pregnant ones. There were statistically significant associations between the presence of antibodies and sex (p donkeys. However, no statistically significant association (p > 0.05) was observed between the pregnancy status and presence of antibodies. The study concludes that Brucella infection is present in donkeys in all the agricultural zones of the state. The relatively high seroprevalence (7.2%) obtained is of public health concern because of the close interaction between donkeys, ruminants, and humans in the study area.

  4. Shear wave velocity structure of northern and North-Eastern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebede, F.; Mammo, T.; Panza, G.F.; Vuan, A.; Costa, G.

    1995-10-01

    The non-linear inversion technique known as hedgehog is utilized to define the average crustal structure of North and North-Eastern Ethiopia. To accomplish the task a two dimensional frequency-time analysis is performed to obtain Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves. Six earthquakes recorded by the broad-band digital seismograph installed at the Geophysical Observatory of Addis Ababa University are utilized. The crustal structure between the Gulf of Tadjura (western Gulf of Aden) and Addis Ababa crossing southern Afar (path I) can be approximated by a total thickness of about 22 km with average S-wave velocity in the range 2.3 - 3.9 km/s. The crust-mantle transition is poorly developed at greater depths and the shear wave velocity ranges from 4.0 km/s to 4.3 km/s. If the effect of the plateau part is taken into account the average total crustal thickness is found to be less than 18 km and the average S-wave velocity varies in the range 2.4 - 3.9 km/s. The low shear wave velocity under the Afar crust is consistent with the result of other geophysical studies. For path II, which passes through the border of the Western Ethiopian plateau, the average crustal structure is found to be approximated by a thickness of about 40 km and average S-wave velocity between 3.0 km/s and 3.9 km/s. The crust overlies a lithospheric mantle with a shear wave velocity in the range 4.1-4.4 km/s. (author). 37 refs, 11 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Fungal community in sclerotia of Japanese Beech forest soils in north eastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathia Amasya, Anzilni; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Makiko

    2014-05-01

    Sclerotia are resting structures of ectomycorrhizal fungi and appear as a response to unfavorable environmental conditions such as desiccation. They are hard, black, comparatively smooth and mostly spherical. Sclerotia are formed in rhizosphere and the 14C ages of sclerotia from A horizons of volcanic ash soils may range from modern until ca. 100~1,200 yr B.P. Most sclerotia-forming fungal species are known to be host-specific plant pathogens and therefore their abundance may indicate the presence of their host plants. The purpose of this study was to investigate fungal communities in sclerotia with an interest in describing the existing or may have previously existed host plant community. To investigate fungal community inside of sclerotia by 16S rDNA gene clone library, several hundred of sclerotia (ca. 1g) were collected from Fagus crenata forest soil in north eastern Japan. The rDNA ITS regions were then amplified by the PCR using primer pair ITS-1F/ITS-4. Aliquots of the amplified DNA were digested with restriction endonucleases AluI, Hae III, and HhaI to obtain ITS-RFLPs. To obtain the fungal community profiles a quenching fluorescence primer was used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to monitor the PCR amplification and then used for T-RFLP. The predominant group determined by clone library analysis from the sclerotia was Ascomycota: Arthrinium arundinis, which has been reported to be one of the soil fungal species responsible for bamboo degradation and a pathogen for many species belonging to Poaceae family.

  6. Human platelet antigens in Burmese, Karen and north-eastern Thais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuangtham, R; Romphruk, A; Puapairoj, C; Leelayuwat, C; Romphruk, A V

    2017-02-01

    A comparative study of allele frequencies at HPA-1 to -6 and HPA-15 in Burmese and Karen populations as well as at HPA-15 in north-eastern Thais (NET) is presented. Human platelet antigens (HPAs) are clinically important in several immune platelet disorders, including foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT), post-transfusion purpura (PTP) and platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR). The knowledge of antigen frequencies in a population is essential for the evaluation of patients suffering from immune-mediated platelet disorders. A total of 285 unrelated, healthy Burmese, 242 Karen and 300 NET were recruited to this study. Genotype and allele frequencies of HPA-1 to -6 and HPA-15 were defined using polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) RESULTS: No individuals homozygous for HPA-1bb, -2bb, -4bb, -5bb and -6bb were detected. HPA-1a, -2a, -4a, -5a and -6a were present in all samples of Burmese and Karen origin. HPA-1b, -2b, -4b, -5b and -6b were rare in these populations. The frequencies of HPA-3a/-3b were 60·4/39·6% in Burmese and 55·8/44·2% in Karen, respectively. Frequencies of HPA-15a/-15b were 57·2/42·8% in Burmese, 52·5/47·5% in Karen and 49·8/50·2% in NET. The frequencies of HPA genotypes in our study indicates that HPA-1a, -2a, -4a, -5a and -6a are unlikely involved in FNAIT, PTP and PTR in Burmese and Karen populations. However, HPA-1b, -2b, -3a, -3b, -4b, -5b, -6b, -15a and -15b may likely stimulate alloantibodies in these populations. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  7. Wuchereria bancrofti in Tanzania: microfilarial periodicity and effect of blood sampling time on microfilarial intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Poul Erik; Niemann, L.; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    1997-01-01

    The circadian periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial (mf) intensities in peripheral blood was analysed in a group of infected individuals from an endemic community in north-eastern Tanzania. The mf density was quantified at two-hourly intervals for 24 hours. A clear nocturnal periodic...... of blood sampling before peak time is discussed, and the importance of taking sampling time into consideration when analysing data from epidemiological studies is emphasized. A simple method is devised which can be used to adjust for the influence of time on mf intensities, in studies where accurate...... information on mf intensities is necessary, and where it is impossible to obtain all samples at peak time....

  8. Reinvestigation of the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China using SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurt, Elvan; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Leng, Qin; Bouchal, Johannes Martin

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the first results of an ongoing study on the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China. Using the single grain technique, we examined individual pollen and spores using both light and scanning electron microscopy. A previous study by Grímsson et al. (2012) on Onagraceae pollen grains from this locality, using the same technique identified five different species. Such a variety of Onagraceae from a single palynoflora is unknown elsewhere. The ongoing study suggests a remarkably rich pollen and spore flora with at least 15 different types of spores, one Ginkgo and one Ephedra type pollen, 11 conifer pollen types and approximately 145 angiosperm pollen types. Spores are very rare in the samples (≤1%). Conifer pollen grains are regularly observed but are not a dominant component (ca. 16 %). The samples yield a high quantity and diversity of angiosperm pollen (ca. 80%). The conifers include representatives of Cupressaceae (2 spp.), Pinaceae (Larix, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga) and Sciadopityaceae. The angiosperm pollen cover at least 40 families. Prominent elements are pollen of the Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus), Cercidiphyllaceae (Cercidiphyllum), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Eucommiaceae (Eucommia), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus spp., Castaneoideae), Juglandaceae (Carya, Cyclocarya, Juglans, Pterocarya), Rosaceae (11 spp.), Sapindaceae (Acer, Aesculus) and Ulmaceae (Hemiptelia, Ulmus, Zelkova). The high angiosperm pollen diversity indicates a varying landscape with a relatively high variety of niches including riparian, dry and mesic forests. Most of the potential modern analogues of the fossil taxa are currently thriving under humid temperate (Cfa- and Cwa)-climates, pointing to paleoclimate conditions not unlike those found today in the lowlands and adjacent mountain regions of the (south-) eastern United States, the humid-meridional region of western Eurasia, and central and southern China, and Honshu (Japan). References

  9. Survey of poliovirus antibodies in Borno and Yobe States, North-Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofama, Mustapha Modu; Verma, Harish; Abdullahi, Hamisu; Molodecky, Natalie A; Craig, Kehinde T; Urua, Utibe-Abasi; Garba, Mohammed Ashir; Alhaji, Mohammed Arab; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Braka, Fiona; Muhammad, Ado J G; Sutter, Roland W

    2017-01-01

    Nigeria remains one of only three polio-endemic countries in the world. In 2016, after an absence of 2 years, wild poliovirus serotype 1 was again detected in North-Eastern Nigeria. To better guide programmatic action, we assessed the immunity status of infants and children in Borno and Yobe states, and evaluated the impact of recently introduced inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) on antibody seroprevalence. We conducted a facility-based study of seroprevalence to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 among health-seeking patients in two sites each of Borno and Yobe States. Enrolment was conducted amongst children 6-9 and 36-47 months of age attending the paediatrics outpatient department of the selected hospitals in the two states between 11 January and 5 February 2016. Detailed demographic and immunization history of the child was taken and an assessment of the child's health and nutritional state was conducted via physical examination. Blood was collected to test for levels of neutralizing antibody titres against the three poliovirus serotypes. The seroprevalence in the two age groups, potential determinants of seropositivity and the impact of one dose of IPV on humoral immunity were assessed. A total of 583 subjects were enrolled and provided sufficient quantities of serum for testing. Among 6-9-month-old infants, the seroprevalence was 81% (74-87%), 86% (79-91%), and 72% (65-79%) in Borno State, and 75% (67-81%), 74% (66-81%) and 69% (61-76%) in Yobe States, for serotypes-1, 2 and 3, respectively. Among children aged 36-47 months, the seroprevalence was >90% in both states for all three serotypes, with the exception of type 3 seroprevalence in Borno [87% (80-91%)]. Median reciprocal anti-polio neutralizing antibody titers were consistently >900 for serotypes 1 and 2 across age groups and states; with lower estimates for serotype 3, particularly in Borno. IPV received in routine immunization was found to be a significant determinant of seropositivity and anti

  10. Survey of poliovirus antibodies in Borno and Yobe States, North-Eastern Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Modu Gofama

    Full Text Available Nigeria remains one of only three polio-endemic countries in the world. In 2016, after an absence of 2 years, wild poliovirus serotype 1 was again detected in North-Eastern Nigeria. To better guide programmatic action, we assessed the immunity status of infants and children in Borno and Yobe states, and evaluated the impact of recently introduced inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV on antibody seroprevalence.We conducted a facility-based study of seroprevalence to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 among health-seeking patients in two sites each of Borno and Yobe States. Enrolment was conducted amongst children 6-9 and 36-47 months of age attending the paediatrics outpatient department of the selected hospitals in the two states between 11 January and 5 February 2016. Detailed demographic and immunization history of the child was taken and an assessment of the child's health and nutritional state was conducted via physical examination. Blood was collected to test for levels of neutralizing antibody titres against the three poliovirus serotypes. The seroprevalence in the two age groups, potential determinants of seropositivity and the impact of one dose of IPV on humoral immunity were assessed. A total of 583 subjects were enrolled and provided sufficient quantities of serum for testing. Among 6-9-month-old infants, the seroprevalence was 81% (74-87%, 86% (79-91%, and 72% (65-79% in Borno State, and 75% (67-81%, 74% (66-81% and 69% (61-76% in Yobe States, for serotypes-1, 2 and 3, respectively. Among children aged 36-47 months, the seroprevalence was >90% in both states for all three serotypes, with the exception of type 3 seroprevalence in Borno [87% (80-91%]. Median reciprocal anti-polio neutralizing antibody titers were consistently >900 for serotypes 1 and 2 across age groups and states; with lower estimates for serotype 3, particularly in Borno. IPV received in routine immunization was found to be a significant determinant of seropositivity and

  11. Lead and stable Pb-isotope characteristics of tropical soils in north-eastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schucknecht, Anne; Matschullat, Jörg; Reimann, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    Stable Pb-isotope ratios are widely used as tracers for Pb-sources in the environment. Recently, a few publications have challenged the predominating view of environmental applications of Pb-isotopes. Present applications of Pb-isotopic tracers in soils largely represent the northern hemisphere. This study focuses on tropical soils from Paraíba, north-eastern Brazil. Lead concentrations and Pb-isotopic signatures (both 7N HNO 3 ) were determined at 30 sites along a 327 km E–W-transect, from the Atlantic coast at João Pessoa to some kilometers west of Patos, to identify possible processes for the observed (and anticipated) distribution pattern. Thirty samples each of litter (ORG) and top mineral soil (TOP) were taken on pasture land at suitable distance from roads or other potential contamination sources. Lead-content was determined by inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and the ratios of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, 206 Pb/ 208 Pb, and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb by ICP-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Both sample materials show similarly low Pb-concentrations with a lower median in the ORG samples (ORG 3.4 mg kg −1 versus TOP 6.9 mg kg −1 ). The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios revealed a large spread along the transect with median 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios of 1.160 (ORG) and 1.175 (TOP). The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios differ noticeably between sample sites located in the Atlantic Forest biome along the coast and sample sites in the inland Caatinga biome. The “forest” sites were characterised by a significant lower median and a lower spread in the 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb ratios compared to the Caatinga sites. Results indicate a very restricted influence of anthropogenic activities (individual sites only). The main process influencing the spatial variability of Pb-isotope ratios is supposed to be precipitation-dependent bioproductivity and weathering.

  12. Home births and postnatal practices in Madagali, north-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukar, M; Jauro, Y S

    2013-01-01

    Home births are common in resource poor countries and postnatal practices vary from one community to the other. To determine the proportion of home births, reasons for home delivery, and evaluate postnatal practices in Madagali, north-eastern Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 400 women of reproductive age, who had put to birth in the past 1 year. The study was carried out over a period of 8 weeks from April to June 2010. The multistage method of sampling was used to select respondents. In the first stage, four of the five health districts were chosen randomly, namely, Gulak, Madagali, Sukur, and Duhu. The questionnaires were evenly distributed among the four health districts. In the second stage, from each district, two villages were chosen by simple random sample. In the third stage, two wards were selected in each village by simple random sampling. Of the 400 respondents interviewed, 289 (72.2%) were aged between 20 and 39 years, and most, 374 (93.5%) were married. Only 14 (3.5%) had tertiary education. Most respondents, 224 (56.0%) were farmers and grandmultiparae, 187 (46.7%). A total of 196 (49.0%) women delivered at home, whereas 204 (51.0%) delivered at the hospital. Of the 196 respondents who delivered at home, the bedroom 142 (72.4%), was the preferred place of birth. The most common reason for home birth was short duration of labor in 71 (36.3%) cases. Delivery was conducted by untrained persons in 50, (25.4%), whereas 99 (50.8%) and 31 (15.5%) deliveries were supervised by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) and Midwives/Nurses, respectively. Postpartum, the majority, 235 (58.7%) respondents used sanitary pads to stanch lochia, whereas 140 (35%) used rags. A significant number of births take place in the home and supervised by unskilled persons. Against the backdrop of poor education and low socio-economic status of respondents, perineal hygiene can be adjudged satisfactory. There is the need to increase on the number of hospital

  13. Pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in wastewater samples in north-eastern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslah, Bilel; Hapeshi, Evroula; Jrad, Amel; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Hedhili, Abderrazek

    2017-04-07

    Pharmaceutically active substances (PhACs) and drugs of abuse (DAs) are two classes of contaminants of emerging concern that have attracted great concern and interest by the scientific community during the last two decades. Numerous studies have revealed their presence in treated urban wastewaters. This is mainly due to the fact that some compounds are not efficiently removed during wastewater treatment processes, and are thus able to reach the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge and reuse practices. The application of an optimized multi-residue method for the simultaneous confirmation and quantification of licit and illicit drugs has been investigated in influent and effluent wastewater samples from seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in north-eastern Tunisia. Analysis was performed through ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Out of 12 pharmaceutical compounds analyzed, 11 of them were detected mainly in effluent wastewaters. In both matrices, antibiotics and β-blockers were the most detected groups. This suggests that these compounds show noticeable resistance against biological treatment in WWTPs. The estimated concentrations of antibiotics in effluents ranged from ca. 35 ng/L to 1.2 μg/L. However, all five studied illicit drugs were detected, mainly in influent wastewaters. Forensic investigation performed on people suspected to be drug abusers covering all Tunisian cities was conducted by monitoring an epidemiological study of human urine samples surveying rate of consumption for illicit drugs. Hence, these preliminary results confirmed the presence of illicit drugs in the influent wastewater samples. For example, quantification ranges for cocaine were found to be 25-450 ng/L in influent wastewater samples. Significant differences for cocaine consumption across the two sampling methods were observed. Consequently, we conclude that the analyses in wastewater are more reflective of the

  14. Estimation of the individual slaughterhouse surveillance sensitivity for bovine tuberculosis in Catalonia (North-Eastern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Saenz, A; Napp, S; Lopez, S; Casal, J; Allepuz, A

    2015-10-01

    The achievement of the Officially Tuberculosis Free (OTF) status in regions with low bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) herd prevalence, as is the case of North-Eastern Spain (Catalonia), might be a likely option in the medium term. In this context, risk-based approaches could be an alternative surveillance strategy to the costly current strategy. However, before any change in the system may be contemplated, a reliable estimate of the sensitivity of the different surveillance components is needed. In this study, we focused on the slaughterhouse component. The probability of detection of a bTB-infected cattle by the slaughterhouses in Catalonia was estimated as the product of three consecutive probabilities: (P1) the probability that a bTB-infected animal arrived at the slaughterhouse presenting Macroscopically Detectable Lesions (MDL); (P2) the probability that MDL were detected by the routine meat inspection process and (P3) the probability that the veterinary officer suspected bTB and sent the sample for laboratory confirmation. The first probability was obtained from data collected through the bTB eradication program carried out in Catalonia between 2005 and 2008, while the last two were obtained through the expert opinion of the veterinary officers working at the slaughterhouses who fulfilled a questionnaire administered during 2014. The bTB surveillance sensitivity of the different cattle slaughterhouses in Catalonia obtained in this study was 31.4% (CI 95%: 28.6-36.2), and there were important differences among them. The low bTB surveillance sensitivity was mainly related with the low probability that a bTB-infected animal arrived at the slaughterhouse presenting MDL (around 44.8%). The variability of the sensitivity among the different slaughterhouses could be explained by significant associations between some variables included in the survey and P2. For instance, factors like attendance to training courses, number of meat technicians and speed of the slaughter chain

  15. Peculiar Feldspar And Quartz Inclusions Within Zircons From Anorthosites, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliwa, H. A.; Dawoud, M. I.; Khalaf, I. M.; Negendank, J. F.; Itaya, T.

    2004-12-01

    Zircons from three anorthosite outcrops along Wadi Dib area, north Eastern Desert of Egypt contain abundant and conspicuous inclusions of quartz, feldspar, amphibole and apatite. These anorthosites, as (50-100m thick) layers, represent the top of mafic-ultramafic intrusions exhibiting rhythmic layering visible by reputation of melanocratic and leucocratic layers. Field and microscopic studies exhibit that these anorthosites were affected by the action of residual magmatic solutions associated with the late stage crystallization of the younger granites, which modified their mineralogical composition. They are composed totally of plagioclase with subordinate amount of clinoenstatite, augite, amphibole, biotite, K-feldspar, and quartz. Accessories are magnetite, ilmenite, apatite and zircon. The abundance and the mode of occurrence of K-feldspar, quartz, and biotite with apatite and zircon among the megacrysts suggest their formation is ascribed to the interaction with the residual solutions. The microprobe data exhibit difference between feldspar and amphiboles contained herein zircons and those as anorthosite mineral constituents. The genetic relationship between zircons and their inclusions suggests later growth of zircons than inclusions and most probably at the final stage of rock modification. Zircons are magmatic and found in the interstitial feldspar and quartz among plagioclase megacrysts in aggregates or as individual grains. The microscopic and SEM images investigation exhibit that most zircons are subhedral to euhedral equant and prismatic crystals. Most zircons have same range of crystal morphologies and internal growth structures with predominance of prism /{100/} and pyramid /{101/} and occasionally prism /{110/} and pyramid /{111/}. No evidences for poly-faceted grains, inherited cores or later overgrowths were detected. CL images distinguished zircons with visible core-rim structures and others with regular and continuous growth zones contained herein

  16. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes ricinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaj, Justyna; Zajkowska, Joanna Maria; Kondrusik, Maciej; Gern, Lise; Rais, Oliver; Moniuszko, Anna; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Świerzbińska, Renata

    2014-01-01

    RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) is a molecular biology technique that might be used for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among B. burgdorferi sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different Borrelia genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in May - June, from 6 different sites in North-Eastern Poland (Jakubin, Kolno, Grajewo, Suwałki, Siemiatycze, Białowieża) by flagging. Extracted DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the intergenic spacer 5S 23S of B. burgdorferi sl. PCR products were hybridised to 15 different oligonucleotide probes for 9 different Borrelia genospecies (B. burgdorferi sl, B. burgdorferi ss, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, B. bissettii and B. relapsing fever-like spirochetes (B. myamotoi)) by RLB. Borrelia genospecies DNA was detected in 205 Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 14 infected with Borrelia ticks, 4 were identified as B. garinii and 10 as B. afzelii. Higher numbers of infected ticks were noticed in the eastern part of the research area, where large forest complexes dominate. Nymphs appeared to be the most frequently infected tick stage, which has an epidemiological meaning in the incidence of Lyme borreliosis. The study demonstrated that RLB might be easily used in Borrelia DNA detection with genospecies-identification, and indicated the domination of B. afzelii and B. garinii in ticks from North-Eastern Poland.

  17. Decapod crustaceans on the Gökçeada (Imbros island continental shelf (north-eastern Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. ATES

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present composition of decapod crustaceans found at the sublittoral depths (5-104 m off the coast of the island of Gökçeada (north-eastern Aegean Sea is presented. A total of 28 species (11 caridean shrimps, 1 thalassinid ghost crab, 7 anomurans and 9 brachyuran crabs and 277 specimens were recorded. The caridean shrimp, Athanas nitescens had the highest abundance with a dominance value of 20.94% in samples. The dominant group is caridean, represented by a total of 11 species and an occurrence frequency of 39.29%.

  18. Stranding survey as a framework to investigate rare cetacean records of the north and north-eastern Brazilian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Fernandes Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine mammal stranding events are used as an important tool for understanding cetacean biology worldwide. Nonetheless, there are vast gaps of knowledge to be filled in for a wide range of species. Reputable information is required regarding species from large baleen whales to sperm and beaked whales, as well as pelagic dolphins. This paper describes new cetacean records from north and north-eastern Brazil, which are both the least surveyed areas regarding aquatic mammals. Regular beach surveys were conducted to recover cetacean carcasses along the coast of Pará beginning November 2005. At the coasts of the Maranhão and Piauí states, the surveys were conducted between 2003 and 2013. From 2003 to 2014, 34 strandings of cetaceans were registered. The study provides four additional species records’ in the area based on strandings (Balaenoptera borealis, Balaenoptera physalus, Peponocephala electra, and Pseudorca crassidens. A mass stranding of Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis, N = 12, the most common species for the region, was reported for the first time. The records presented herein are of special concern, since they expand the knowledge on cetaceans from the Brazilian coast. In addition, this study conducted an analysis to verify the similarity between cetacean compositions described for north and north-eastern Brazil and the southern Caribbean region. The results showed a high similarity between these regions, proving the connection with the Caribbean cetacean fauna.

  19. Physiological Response of Local and Saanen x Local Cross Goats during the Late Rainy Season in North-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degli, P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare in vivo performance and environmental adaptation of two genetic types of goats raised in north-eastern Brazil, 20 females (10 local and 10 Saanen x local were used in this experiment. During the late rainy season the goats were monitored for the following parameters: body weight, body (BT and skin temperature (ST, respiratory (RR and heart rate (HR as well as the air temperature (AT and humidity (HU in the pens in the morning (MR and afternoon (AR. From May to June the crossbred goats showed a significant gain (P< 0.05; the live weight of F1 was superior to the local goats (P< 0.05 at the end of the experiment. The physiological response during the AR was significantly superior to MR (P< 0.05 for all parameters. The local goats achieved the highest values of BT and ST during the experiment. On average, the physiological rhythms (RR and HR were higher in crossbred than local goats. In conclusion, crossbred goats showed to be less at risk to environmental stress condition in north-eastern Brazil.

  20. Freshwater fish’s spatial patterns in isolated water springs in North-eastern Mexico

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    Jorge Palacio-Núñez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Media Luna lake-spring was selected as representative of all thermal or no thermal springs in the zone of Valley of Rioverde, a semi-arid vegetation in the North-eastern of Mexico. This system is inhabited by 11 fish species, of which six are native. Four of the native species are endemic to the region and threatened due to touristic pressure and to the introduction of exotic species. The objectives were to determine the characteristics that influence the spatial distribution of the fish species, to analyze their spatial distribution patterns, and to describe the relationships between the different species. The general aim was to establish some basis for the conservation of these fish communities and their habitat. Several sessions were initiated in 1992 through direct observation. Later, between 1998 and 1999 five systematically seasonal sampling sessions were conducted (54 subaquatic transects/session. Finally, the data was updated by sampling in summer 2002 and winter 2006. Through the analysis was performed only for endemics of the region, like Ataeniobius toweri Meek, Cualac tessellatus Miller, Cichlasoma bartoni Bean and C. labridens Pellegrin, in at least one life stage, showed correlation with habitat variables or with other species. For these species, patterns of spatial aggregation and association with other species were observed. These results show a certain degree of specialization of endemic species to some microhabitat characteristics, as well as a significant interaction with other native species which they coexist. In addition, some significant relations between endemic and alien species suggest an antagonist relation. Management actions focused in the touristic use of the spring represent the main threat for these species, followed by an adequate management of exotic species. This study provides basis for future responsible management of these wetlands, where tourism and conservation can be combined. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1

  1. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, D.; Romanelli, M.; Barnaba, C.; Bragato, P. L.; Durì, G.

    2014-07-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of North-eastern Italy. The south-western edge of the OGS seismic network (Fig. 1) stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML = 5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on 20 May 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of

  2. Tanzania : Productive Jobs Wanted

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months, the World Bank has been working on a comprehensive plan to address the challenge of productive jobs in Tanzania. This study represents a step towards a better understanding of how to promote job creation in Tanzania. Indeed, the growth of productive jobs is vital for alleviating poverty and promoting shared prosperity - two important goals of Tanzania's economic st...

  3. Coţofeni-Kostolac culture on the territory of north-eastern Serbia

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    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The settlement of the territory of north-eastern Serbia by the representatives of the Coţofeni culture began during the second half of the IV millennium, probably under the pressure of invading tribes from Euroasian steppe. This territory extended over Transylvania, Banat, Oltenia and Muntenia (Map 2. On the territory of Serbia they settled from the Djrerdap gorge up to the Mlava river to the west, and through Kučajske mountains, Bor, Zaječar and further to the south, up to Niš. Aspecific symbiosis occurred on the territory of Serbia between the Coţofeni and the Kostolac cultures. According to the results of the latest project of re-identification, the number of Coţofeni-Kostolac sites and settlements increased to 76. After all the sites were re-identified and georeferenced, with consideration of the surrounding landscape, hydrography, geomorphology of the terrain and the character of the ceramic production finds, we believe that there is a need for re-analyzing specific aspects of the cultural and geographic development not only of settlements, but of the entire Coţofeni-Kostolac cultural phenomenon. In this paper we considered three archaeological sites in the Nišava valley, given that re-identification work over the past several years yielded new information (Bubanj-Staro Selo, Velika Humska čuka and Donja Vrežina. The topography of Coţofeni-Kostolac settlements on the territory of north-eastern Serbia, the Serbian part of the Danube valley and its hinterland, is characterized by diversity of position (location above sea level and landscape placement, types of houses and economic survival. In the 70’s of the last century sites were identified that are located in very inaccessible terrain, which in particular cases has an slope incline of 45°, where the number of such settlements in the meantime increased to nine. They are represented by Kulmja Škjopuluji in Klokočevac and Pjatra Kosti in Crnajka (T. I/1-2; Map 1/9, followed by

  4. Preliminary Report on the Middle Neolithic Well from Sajószentpéter (North-Eastern Hungary

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    Ágnes Király

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In November 2012, during a preventive archaeological excavation necessitated by the construction of a new highway bypassing Sajószentpéter (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, North-Eastern Hungary, a Middle Neolithic water well with astonishing wooden lining was uncovered by the archaeologists of Herman Ottó Museum, Miskolc. The 60 cm high remains of the tube-like wooden structure was made from a single oak tree with a total diameter of 90 cm. The trunk had been initially cut into four pieces (panels that were later bond together with trusses of twisted rods. The wooden structure had amazing tool-marks on the entire surface that could be related to at least 3 different chisels/axes and bear fundamental information regarding the chaine opératoire.

  5. The Amino Acid Composition of Blue Swimming Crab (Portunus Segnis, Forskal, 1775 from The North Eastern Mediterranean Sea of Turkey

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    Engin Artar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to detect the content of amino acid in female and male specimens of blue swimming crab (Portunus segnis obtained from (including 12 male crab and also 12 female crab North Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Turkey. The protein was identified as 17.63% and 18.13% for female and male crab respevtively. Totally 9 essential amino acids were recorded in the present study. Lysine and leucine constituted the highest essential amino acid (EAA concentrations in P. segnis. This species was found to be in good score in terms of the level of EAA and the EAA/Non-EAA ratios when compared with other economical crab species.

  6. MICROCREDIT, MICROENTERPRISES AND SOCIAL WELFARE OF THE RURAL POOR IN NORTH-EASTERN TRINIDAD: AN EVALUATION OF

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    Talia Esnard-Flavius

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relationship between microcredit, microenterprises, and the social welfare of the rural poor in north-eastern Trinidad. Guided by the main propositions of social capital theory, the researchers held 45 semi-structured interviews with active participants/clients within a case study research design. The data showed that access to microcredit through Helping Others Prosper Economically (HOPE positively affected their microenterprises and social welfare, though marginally. Findings also revealed that fragmented social relations within the network, conflict, distrust, and the loose structure of the program limited the impact of their access to microcredit on social welfare as well as the financial potential of the lending organisation, that is, HOPE. It is the contention of this paper, therefore, that such questionable social relations dynamics 'hijack' the promise of collective social networks as exercised through goodwill and resource building. Implications of this study and directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Obsidian from volcanic sequences and rent alluvial deposits, Erzurum district, north-eastern Anatolia: Chemical characterisation and archaeological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, P.; Sagona, T.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Recent geoarchaeological research in the Erzurum district, north-eastern Anatolia, has revealed an abundance of obsidian at numerous neolithic and Bronze Age sites. Geochemical characterisation using neutron activation analysis indicates that the obsidian was obtained from several sources that are chemically distinct from the major sources already known from Central Anatolia an the Lake Van area. Multiple sources are represented in the samples collected from at least two of the sites, namely the sites of Sos and Pulur. The primary source of some of the obsidian utilised at the site of Sos has been located in the volcanic sequence outcropping tot he north-west of Pasinler. Field survey however has shown that the alluvial deposits along the main rivers and some of their tributaries were the main sources of the obsidian utilised at the sites near Erzurum. Trade or exchange of obsidian with sites outside the Erzurum area seems to have been limited

  8. Distance Education Examination Management in a Lowly Resourced North-Eastern Region of Zambia: A Phenomenological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Simui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the management of distance education examination in a lowly resourced North-Eastern region of Zambia. The study applies Hermeneutic Phenomenology approach to generate and make sense of the data. It is the lived experiences of 2 invigilators and 66 students purposively selected that the study draws its insights from. Meaning within the generated data is elicited using the Chaos theory. Emerging from this study is a multiplicity of ingredients needed to effectively manage distance education examinations in a chaotic environment. The need for visionary leadership with a shared understanding of institutional purpose, the need for motivated staff with creativity and innovation and the need for effective communication are all vital ingredients needed to manage examinations. In conclusion, we now know that amidst chaos lay opportunities for innovation and creativity in terms of new strategies for managing distance education. To this extent, chaos should be treasured and not censured.

  9. Uranium in minerals of gold-bearing formations of the North-Eastern part of the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagruzina, I.A.; Pinsky, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    Uranium concentration in 2190 mineral grains from 23 gold-bearing veins of different age deposits in the North-Eastern part of the USSR have been determined using f-radiography. The deposits studied are referred to two formation types: gold-silver epithermal and gold-quartz mesothermal. Differences in physico-chemical conditions of deposite formation of the above formation types are emphasized by the differences in uranium concentration in the vein minerals: 1.0-1.4 g/tU in the first type and 0.4 g/tU in the second one. Uranium content in minerals of gold-bearing veins as compared to minerals of other deposits is characterized by the lowest concentrations. In all gold-bearing veins hydrooxides of iron and hydromica are the main concentrators of uranium. Hypergene stage plays dominating role in uranium accumulation

  10. Wastewater treatments and the impact on environment and agriculture: A case city of Annaba (north eastern of Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abour, Fella; Hannouche, Mani; Belksier, Mohamed Salah

    2018-05-01

    The present study deals with wastewater treatment which represents a real challenge in the world especially for developing countries. Our investigation takes place in the Annaba (North Eastern of Algeria) which represents one of big cities in the country. The wastewater is treated collectively in the Allalik station which provides a global wastewater treatment to guarantee the sustainability of the ecosystem. The obtained results on treated wastewater show a contamination with Selenium (IS index for Selenium = 5.9). Whereas the other analysed parameters highlight values without exceeding standards excepting the nitrites. The microbiological analyses and Bourgeois index indicate the human origin for pollution (IB >1). In spite of the actual treatment, the pollution selenium and nitrites suggest the improvement of the process of wastewater treatment.

  11. Factors associated with carriage of carbapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceaein North-Eastern France and outcomes of infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggeo, Anaëlle; Guillard, Thomas; Barbe, Coralie; Thierry, Aurore; Bajolet, Odile; Vernet-Garnier, Véronique; Limelette, Anne; Brasme, Lucien; De Champs, Christophe

    2017-05-01

    Carbapenems are frequently used as a last resort to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms, thus carbapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CNSE) is an emerging health threat. To assess risk factors and outcomes of CNSE carriage. We conducted a matched case-control study in six hospitals in North-Eastern France. The controls were patients harbouring carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae. Fifty-five cases and 110 controls were included. Most of the CNSE isolates were Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae . Carbapenemase production was observed in 40% of isolates and they produced OXA-48 only. CNSE carriage was significantly associated with recent antibiotic use ( P =  0.014), particularly carbapenems ( P =  0.03) and fluoroquinolones ( P =  0.016). A multivariate analysis using conditional logistic regression showed that the presence of concomitant infection(s) (OR: 9.83; 95% CI 3.04-21.39, P =  0.0031), nosocomial infections (OR: 7.84; 95% CI 2.00-12.54, P  =   0.0063) and a high age (OR: 1.07; 95% CI 1.01-1.06, P =  0.038) were independently associated with CNSE carriage. Moreover, patients infected with CNSE had worse outcomes: fewer resolved infections at 1 month ( P =  0.02), and they had a higher mortality rate ( P =  0.0004) and longer hospital stays ( P =  0.02). We identified three independent risk factors for CNSE carriage as well as worse outcomes in infected patients in North-Eastern France. This highlights the importance of early detection of CNSE and the need for antimicrobial therapy re-evaluation after bacteriological analysis has been performed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Is precipitation a trigger for the onset of xylogenesis in Juniperus przewalskii on the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ping; Rossi, Sergio; Gricar, Jozica; Liang, Eryuan; Cufar, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims A series of studies have shown that temperature triggers the onset of xylogenesis of trees after winter dormancy. However, little is known about whether and how moisture availability influences xylogenesis in spring in drought-prone areas. Methods Xylogenesis was monitored in five mature Qilian junipers (Juniperus przewalskii) by microcore sampling from 2009 to 2011 in a semi-arid area of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. A simple physical model of xylem cell production was developed and its sensitivity was analysed. The relationship between climate and growth was then evaluated, using weekly wood production data and climatic data from the study site. Key Results Delayed onset of xylogenesis in 2010 corresponded to a negative standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) value and a continuous period without rainfall in early May. The main period of wood formation was in June and July, and drier conditions from May to July led to a smaller number of xylem cells. Dry conditions in July could cause early cessation of xylem differentiation. The final number of xylem cells was mainly determined by the average production rate rather than the duration of new cell production. Xylem growth showed a positive and significant response to precipitation, but not to temperature. Conclusions Precipitation in late spring and summer can play a critical role in the onset of xylogenesis and xylem cell production. The delay in the initiation of xylogenesis under extremely dry conditions seems to be a stress-avoidance strategy against hydraulic failure. These findings could thus demonstrate an evolutionary adaptation of Qilian juniper to the extremely dry conditions of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25725006

  13. Small river plumes near the north-eastern coast of the Black Sea under climatic mean and flooding discharge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchiev, Alexander; Korshenko, Evgeniya

    2017-04-01

    The study is focused on the impact of discharge from small rivers on propagation and final location of fluvial waters and suspended matter at the north-eastern part of the Black Sea under different local precipitation conditions. Several dozens of mountainous rivers inflow into the sea at the studied region and most of them, except the several largest of them, have small annual runoff and limitedly affect adjacent coastal waters under climatic mean conditions. However, discharges of these small rivers are characterized by quick response to precipitation events and can dramatically increase during and shortly after heavy rains, which are frequent in the area under consideration. Propagation and final location of fluvial waters and terrigenous sediments at the studied region under climatic mean and rain-induced flooding conditions were explored and compared using in situ data, satellite imagery and numerical modelling. It was shown that the point-source spread of continental discharge dominated by several large rivers during climatic mean conditions can change to the line-source discharge from numerous small rivers situated along the coast in response to heavy rains. Intense line-source runoff of water and suspended sediments form a geostrophic alongshore current of turbid and freshened water, which induces intense transport of suspended and dissolved constituents discharged with river waters in a north-western direction. This process significantly influences water quality and causes active sediment load at large segments of narrow shelf at the north-eastern part of the Black Sea as compared to climatic mean discharge conditions.

  14. Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Signorini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, it is crucial to take into account the ecoclimatic and environ- mental characteristics that influence the distribution patterns of the vector sand fly species. It is also important to consider the possible impact of on-going climate changes on the emergence of this disease. In order to map the potential distribu- tion of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector species of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy, geographical information systems tools, ecological niche models (ENM and remotely sensed environmental data were applied for a retrospective analysis of an entomological survey conducted in north-eastern Italy over 12 years. Sand fly trapping was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in 175 sites in the provinces of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige. We developed a predictive model of potential distribution of P. perniciosus using the maximum entropy algorithm software, based on seasonal normalized difference vegetation index, day and night land surface temperature, the Corine land cover 2006, a digital elevation model (GTOPO30 and climate layers obtained from the WorldClim database. The MaxEnt pre- diction found the more suitable habitat for P. perniciosus to be hilly areas (100-300 m above the mean sea level charac- terised by temperate climate during the winter and summer seasons, high winter vegetation cover and moderate rainfall during the activity season of vector sand fly. ENM provided a greater understanding of the geographical distribution and ecological requirements of P. perniciosus in the study area, which can be applied for the development of future surveil- lance strategies.

  15. There is no evidence for a temporal link between pathogen arrival and frog extinctions in north-eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben L Phillips

    Full Text Available Pathogen spread can cause population declines and even species extinctions. Nonetheless, in the absence of tailored monitoring schemes, documenting pathogen spread can be difficult. In the case of worldwide amphibian declines the best present understanding is that the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd has recently spread, causing amphibian declines and extinction in the process. However, good evidence demonstrating pathogen arrival followed by amphibian decline is rare, and analysis of putative evidence is often inadequate. Here we attempt to examine the relationship between Bd arrival and amphibian decline across north-eastern Australia, using sites where a wave-like pattern of amphibian decline was first noticed and at which intensive research has since been conducted. We develop an analytical framework that allows rigorous estimation of pathogen arrival date, which can then be used to test for a correlation between the time of pathogen arrival and amphibian decline across sites. Our results show that, with the current dataset, the earliest possible arrival date of Bd in north-eastern Australia is completely unresolved; Bd could have arrived immediately before sampling commenced or may have arrived thousands of years earlier, the present data simply cannot say. The currently available data are thus insufficient to assess the link between timing of pathogen arrival and population decline in this part of the world. This data insufficiency is surprising given that there have been decades of research on chytridiomycosis in Australia and that there is a general belief that the link between Bd arrival and population decline is well resolved in this region. The lack of data on Bd arrival currently acts as a major impediment to determining the role of environmental factors in driving the global amphibian declines, and should be a major focus of future research.

  16. Relationships between otolith and fish size from Mediterranean and north-eastern Atlantic species to be used in predator-prey studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, J; Manjabacas, A; Tuset, V M; Lombarte, A

    2016-10-01

    Regressions between fish length and otolith size are provided for 40 species from the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and 142 species from the Mediterranean Sea. Regressions were also estimated at genus level. Most of the regressions (c. 84%) explained a high percentage of the deviance (>75%). © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Autologous cord blood harvesting in North Eastern Italy: ethical questions and emerging hopes for curing diabetes and celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parco S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sergio Parco, Fulvia VascottoInstitute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, ItalyBackground: The Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG, a region of North Eastern Italy, has passed legislation (Decree No 2324/2010 to regulate the banking of umbilical cord blood samples for personal, autologous, or family-directed use, and to implement the Agreement of the State-Regions Permanent Conference (Decree No 62/CSR/2010. This paper aims to identify the formalities and the reasons why families collect and bank their cord blood in foreign banks for both personal and private use.Methods: To this end, at the Institute for Maternal and Child Health of Trieste (the regional capital city of the FVG, Italy, which assists about 1800 pregnant women a year, 129 questionnaires, drafted from January 2010 to December 2011 and concerning the granting of authorization to export samples, were examined.Results: The collected data showed that 75% of involved families had resorted to anonymous public collection, which is available to anyone with therapeutic needs, and provided compatibility and hematologic protocols recognized by the scientific and international community (main indications: leukemia, hemoglobinopaties, and inherited hematologic and immunologic disorders. Conversely, 25.0% requested private storage at a foreign bank for personal or family-dedicated use. The principal motivation by disease was for treatment for diabetes (22.4% and celiac disease (19.7% (a multiorgan disease for which the FVG region has provided safeguards by approving a specific law granting support to families; Decree No 561/2007. For these two types of disease we found that information was received from the internet and not from general medical physicians, with a significant difference found using the χ2 test (P < 0.01.Conclusion: The indication of treating these diseases with cord blood stem cell transplantation appears to be well grounded and encouraging, and has recently

  18. Reconstruction of the coastal morphodynamics of the Fulong-beach dune field in north-eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörschner, Nina; Böse, Margot; Frechen, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    The Fulong-beach dune field is located at the north-eastern coast of Taiwan. Built up of medium and fine grained quartz rich sand, it represents a unique feature of only few kilometres along the east coast of Taiwan. This unique sedimentological regime makes the area most perfectly suitable for age estimations by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The dune field is crossed by the Shuangsi-river, which flows into the Pacific Ocean. The coastal area is subjected to very dynamic conditions in the transition zone between land and sea. Due to the constant force of marine and aeolian processes from tides, weather and sediment accumulation by rivers, it is a continuously changing area. Taiwan is located in a very active tectonic zone with high elevation rates, which reach from 4 mm per year at the east coast up to 7 mm per year in the southern parts of the island. Furthermore Taiwan is affected by medial 3.8 typhoons per year and minor earthquakes nearly occur every day (LIN ET AL. 2006). The consequences are high rates of erosion and sediment transport during very short time periods. The Fulong-beach coastal area is densely populated and proud for being a tourism destination. At the northern end of the dune field the Lungmen nuclear power plant is currently under construction. Four separate dune ridges could be identified from a digital elevation model and from field mapping. During the field campaign in October and November 2009 17 samples were taken for OSL-dating (MURRAY ET AL. 1995) out of the four dune ridges as well as out of a more than 30 m high elevated outcrop cut by the Shuangsi-river. The measurement and the evaluation of the OSL-samples will provide us an insight into the duration and intensity of the processes affecting the coastal area of Taiwan during the Holocene. We will give an outline during the poster presentation of the methodical approach and the morphodynamical processes affecting the Fulong-beach dune field in north-eastern Taiwan

  19. Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene Chaka basin and its implications for mountain building processes in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.-P.; Craddock, W.H.; Lease, R.O.; Wang, W.-T.; Yuan, D.-Y.; Zhang, P.-Z.; Molnar, P.; Zheng, D.-W.; Zheng, W.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetostratigraphy of sedimentary rock deposited in the Chaka basin (north-eastern Tibetan Plateau) indicates a late Miocene onset of basin formation and subsequent development of the adjacent Qinghai Nan Shan. Sedimentation in the basin initiated at ~11Ma. In the lower part of the basin fill, a coarsening-upward sequence starting at ~9Ma, as well as rapid sedimentation rates, and northward paleocurrents, are consistent with continued growth of the Ela Shan to the south. In the upper section, several lines of evidence suggest that thrust faulting and topographic development of the Qinghai Nan Shan began at ~6.1Ma. Paleocurrent indicators, preserved in the basin in the proximal footwall of the Qinghai Nan Shan, show a change from northward to southward flow between 6.5 and 3.8Ma. At the same location, sediment derived from the Qinghai Nan Shan appears at 6.1Ma. Finally, the initiation of progressively shallowing dips observed in deformed basin strata and a change to pebbly, fluvial deposits at 6.1Ma provide a minimum age for the onset of slip on the thrust fault that dips north-east beneath the Qinghai Nan Shan. We interpret a decrease in sediment accumulation rates since ~6Ma to indicate a reduction in Chaka basin accommodation space due to active faulting and folding along the Qinghai Nan Shan and incorporation of the basin into the wedge-top depozone. Declination anomalies indicate the beginning of counter-clockwise rotation since 6.1Ma, which we associate with local deformation, not regional block rotation. The emergence of the Qinghai Nan Shan near the end of the Miocene Epoch partitioned the once contiguous Chaka-Gonghe and Qinghai basin complex. In a regional framework, our study adds to a growing body of evidence that points to widespread initiation and/or reactivation of fault networks during the late Miocene across the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. ?? 2011 The Authors. Basin Research ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, European Association of Geoscientists

  20. Malaria morbidity and immunity among residents of villages with different Plasmodium falciparum transmission intensity in North-Eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusingu, John P A; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Mmbando, Bruno P

    2004-01-01

    and was highest in the village with high transmission intensity. Although a considerable percentage of individuals in all villages carried intestinal worms, logistic regression models indicated that Plasmodium falciparum was the only significant parasitic determinant of anaemia. Interestingly, children who...... carried low-density parasitaemia at the start of the study had a lower risk of contracting a febrile malaria episode but a higher risk of anaemia during the study period, than children who were slide negative at this point in time. CONCLUSION: Young children living in the high transmission village carried...

  1. Association between mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms and Wuchereria bancrofti infection in two communities in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Simonsen, Paul E; Garred, Peter

    2010-01-01

    gene and for W. bancrofti-specific circulating filarial antigen (CFA) status. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between MBL genotype and CFA status, with low-expression MBL genotype individuals being almost three times more likely to be CFA positive than high-expression MBL...

  2. Change in composition of the Anopheles gambiae complex and its possible implications for the transmission of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derua, Yahya A; Alifrangis, Michael; Hosea, Kenneth M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A dramatic decline in the incidence of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum infection in coastal East Africa has recently been reported to be paralleled (or even preceded) by an equally dramatic decline in malaria vector density, despite absence of organized vector control. ...... to differences in biology and vectorial capacity of the An. gambiae s.l. complex the change in sibling species composition will have important implications for the epidemiology and control of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in the study area.......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A dramatic decline in the incidence of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum infection in coastal East Africa has recently been reported to be paralleled (or even preceded) by an equally dramatic decline in malaria vector density, despite absence of organized vector control...

  3. Water supply management using an extended group fuzzy decision-making method: a case study in north-eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatour, Yasser; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zarghami, Mahdi; Bakhshi, Maryam Ali

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a group fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making method to be applied in rating problems associated with water resources management. Thus, here Chen's group fuzzy TOPSIS method extended by a difference technique to handle uncertainties of applying a group decision making. Then, the extended group fuzzy TOPSIS method combined with a consistency check. In the presented method, initially linguistic judgments are being surveyed via a consistency checking process, and afterward these judgments are being used in the extended Chen's fuzzy TOPSIS method. Here, each expert's opinion is turned to accurate mathematical numbers and, then, to apply uncertainties, the opinions of group are turned to fuzzy numbers using three mathematical operators. The proposed method is applied to select the optimal strategy for the rural water supply of Nohoor village in north-eastern Iran, as a case study and illustrated example. Sensitivity analyses test over results and comparing results with project reality showed that proposed method offered good results for water resources projects.

  4. The influence of habitat structure on genetic differentiation in red fox populations in north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Jacinta; McDevitt, Allan D; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Ruczyńska, Iwona; Górny, Marcin; Wójcik, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    The red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) has the widest global distribution among terrestrial carnivore species, occupying most of the Northern Hemisphere in its native range. Because it carries diseases that can be transmitted to humans and domestic animals, it is important to gather information about their movements and dispersal in their natural habitat but it is difficult to do so at a broad scale with trapping and telemetry. In this study, we have described the genetic diversity and structure of red fox populations in six areas of north-eastern Poland, based on samples collected from 2002-2003. We tested 22 microsatellite loci isolated from the dog and the red fox genome to select a panel of nine polymorphic loci suitable for this study. Genetic differentiation between the six studied populations was low to moderate and analysis in Structure revealed a panmictic population in the region. Spatial autocorrelation among all individuals showed a pattern of decreasing relatedness with increasing distance and this was not significantly negative until 93 km, indicating a pattern of isolation-by-distance over a large area. However, there was no correlation between genetic distance and either Euclidean distance or least-cost path distance at the population level. There was a significant relationship between genetic distance and the proportion of large forests and water along the Euclidean distances. These types of habitats may influence dispersal paths taken by red foxes, which is useful information in terms of wildlife disease management.

  5. Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis infection in a leopard (Panthera pardus pardus housed in a zoological park in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frangipane di Regalbono Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine heartworm (cHW disease is now recognised as potential cause of serious disease in cats and other felids, especially in endemic areas. In March 2009, a 23-years-old male African leopard (Panthera pardus pardus housed in a zoological park located in the Province of Padova (Veneto Region, a cHW endemic area of the north-eastern Italy, died and was immediately necropsied. A cloth completely occluding the pyloric lumen was considered the presumptive cause of death. During necropsy, six nematodes (4 males and 2 females were found within the right ventricle of the heart and the pulmonary artery. Diagnosis of HW (Dirofilaria immitis infection was carried out by morphological features of adult worms and microfilariae, and then confirmed by detection of circulating HW antigens using a commercial SNAP kit (IDEXX Laboratories inc., USA. D. immitis infection was also confirmed by PCR amplification of the 5S ribosomal spacer region, performed on worm fragments and microfilaraemic blood samples obtained from the right ventricle of the heart. A glomerulonephritis of immuno-mediated origin and most likely associated with the HW infection is also reported. HW chemoprophylaxis and annual serological testing on wild felids housed outdoors in endemic cHW disease areas are recommended. This is the first diagnosis of D. immitis infection in an exotic felid in Italy.

  6. Plutonium and other alpha-emitters in bones of wild, herbivorous animals from north-eastern Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, J.W. E-mail: mietelsk@alf.ifj.edu.pl; Gaca, P.; Jasinska, M

    2000-07-15

    The results of the investigation of {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am and thorium isotope activity concentrations in bones of wild herbivorous animals (deer, roe-deer, boars, elks) from north-eastern Poland are presented. The area on which the animals were living had relatively high Chernobyl plutonium fallout. Possible traces of plutonium were seen only in four samples, but only for one it was it 3{sigma} above background, at 6.2 {+-} 2.4 mBq/kg (ash). The {sup 241}Am activity concentration was below the detection limits in all samples. The maximum {sup 228}Th concentration in the samples was 7.81 {+-} 0.44 Bq/kg (ash), calculated under the assumption of 100% thorium recovery. This isotope seems to originate in bones not from direct incorporation but from the decay of {sup 228}Ra. Large variations in activity concentration was observed, as well as some differences between boars and the chewing animals.

  7. A sero-epidemiological survey of blood parasites in cattle in the north-eastern Free State, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mtshali

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey to determine the incidence of parasites in cattle (n = 386 was conducted in the north eastern Free State between August 1999 and July 2000. Giemsa-stained blood smears were negative for blood parasites. A total of 94 % of the cattle were sero-positive for Babesia bigemina by indirect fluorescent antibody test while 87 % were sero-positive for Anaplasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The observation of negative blood smears but high incidence of positive serological results for Anaplasma and Babesia for the same group of cattle indicates that this area is endemic for these diseases but with a stable disease situation. All the animals were sero-negative for B. bovis and this is probably because the tick vector (Boophilus microplus which transmits the disease is not present in the Free State Province. Two tick species belonging to the family Ixodidae were found on cattle, namely Boophilus decoloratus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. In the present study significant differences in seasonal burdens of B. decoloratus occurred, with the highest infestations recorded from February to June. The presence of R. evertsi evertsi throughout the year without any or with small fluctuations in winter months was observed, with a peak from February to May

  8. Urban Heat Island and Park Cool Island Intensities in the Coastal City of Aracaju, North-Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Anjos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an evaluation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI and Park Cool Island (PCI intensities in Aracaju, North-Eastern Brazil, was performed. The basis of our evaluation is a 2-year dataset from the urban climatological network installed with the principles and concepts defined for urban areas related to climatic scales, sitting and exposure, urban morphology, and metadata. The current findings update UHI intensities in Aracaju refuting the trend registered in previous studies. On average, the UHI was more intense in the cool season (1.3 °C than in hot season (0.5 °C, which was caused by wind speed decrease. In relation to the PCI, mitigation of high air temperatures of 1.5–2 °C on average was registered in the city. However, the urban park is not always cooler than the surrounding built environment. Consistent long-term monitoring in the cities is very important to provide more accurate climatic information about the UHI and PCI to be applied in urban planning properly, e.g., to provide pleasant thermal comfort in urban spaces.

  9. Genetic (RAPD) diversity between Oleria onega agarista and Oleria onega ssp. (Ithomiinae, Nymphalidae, Lepidoptera) in north-eastern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallusser, S; Guadagnuolo, R; Rahier, M

    2004-05-01

    Oleria onega agarista Felder and Felder and Oleria onega ssp. nov. are two Ithomiinae subspecies from north-eastern Peru, that differ for some morphological and behavioural traits. Two contact zones are known near the town of Tarapoto: Ahuashiyacu, where both subspecies cohabit but do not seem to hybridise, and Estero (near the village of Shapaja), where they apparently hybridise. Genetic differences between the two subspecies and between populations were investigated with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Both Cluster and Principal Coordinates Analyses (CCoA and PCoA) performed using these data, provided a clear but weak discrimination between the two subspecies. Genetic diversity is much higher within the populations than between them. Moreover, the geographically more distant populations are grouped together by the genetic data. Morphological traits on the wing patterns of the hybrids are intermediary between the two butterflies subspecies, while RAPDs data place them closer to O. onega agarista than to O. onega ssp. The individuals of the Ahuashiyacu population are clearly separated into two groups, those of O. onega ssp. and O. onega agarista, by both morphology and RAPDs data. Moreover, none of those individuals show RAPD similarity with the hybrids, suggesting that hybridisation has not occurred in this population.

  10. Molecular characterization by MLVA of Coxiella burnetii strains infecting dairy cows and goats of north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglie, Letizia; Guerrini, Eulalia; Rampazzo, Erika; Barberio, Antonio; Tilburg, Jeroen J H C; Hagen, Ferry; Lucchese, Laura; Zuliani, Federica; Marangon, Stefano; Natale, Alda

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii), an obligate intracellular bacterium. In ruminants, shedding into the environment mainly occurs during parturition or abortion, but the bacterium is shed also in milk, vaginal mucus, stools and urine. In Italy few surveys have been conducted and reported seroprevalence values ranged between 10% and 60%, even if few human cases have been described. Genotyping of bacteria is crucial for enhancing diagnostic methods and for epidemiological surveillance. The objective of this study was to investigate genotypic differences of C. burnetii genotypes directly in 34 samples, collected during a 3-years survey among 11 dairy cattle and 11 goat farms in the north-eastern part of Italy using a 6-locus multiple loci variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) method. The samples analysed included 13 bulk tank milk (BTM), 6 individual milk, 11 vaginal swabs and 4 foetal spleens. MLVA-type 2 was determined as the most prevalent in cattle in this study. C. burnetii strains circulating in the studied cattle population are very similar to genotypes previously described, while genotypes from goats showed an important variability. Further investigation are needed to understand the reason of this pattern. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of dairy farms in the North-Eastern part of Italy: rations, milk yield and nutrients excretion

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    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey was aimed to evaluate the characteristics of dairy farms in the North- Eastern part of Po valley in terms of ration composition, milk yield and N and P excretions. Eightynine farms, with Italian Holstein Friesian cows, were selected in order to cover different situations in term of farm size and milk yield (MY. MY and quality were obtained from the national database of functional controls. Each farm was visited in order to collect information about ingredients and chemical composition of rations used. Farms were classified in four groups differing for dietary crude protein density (LCP15.3% DM and for MY (LMY30 kg/d. N and P excretions were quantified by following a mass balance approach. Dietary crude protein content (CP was not correlated to milk yield (MY and quality. The estimated amounts of N excreted, discounted for 28% of N losses in atmosphere, were 78.5, 78.2, 87.2 and 89.1 kg/cow/year, and P excreted were 20.2, 18.6, 18.7 and 19.8 kg/cow/year for the LCPLMY, LCPHMY, HCPLMY, HCPHMY groups, respectively. On corn silage and cereals based rations, a dietary CP of 14.3% DM can support 31 kg MY/cow/day.

  12. Dynamic simulation for wastewater treatment plants management: Case of Souk-Ahras region, north-eastern Algeria

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    Sabri Dairi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatment performances of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, located in North-Eastern Algeria (Souk-Ahras and Sedrata were tested using ASM1 model. The model, to be considered as a decision tool for the appropriate management of activated sludge systems, served for the prediction of both WWTP behaviours under different operating conditions. In Sedrata WWTP the first management scenarios is based on an increase of inflow rate, taking into account a new transfer volume from a nearby zone. In a second scenerio, the ultimate flow of 40 000 m3·d-1 is estimated. Regarding Souk-Ahras WWTP, three scenarios were tested. The first tested the impact of an increase of the extraction flow rate and yielded a reduction by 37% of sludge production. The second dealt with the management of the mass budget of substrata and biomass. Finally, the third application was devoted to the estimation of the plant ultimate capacity, estimated to be 60 000 m3·d-1.

  13. Linguatula serrata (Porocephalida: Linguatulidae Infection among Client-Owned Dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria: Prevalence and Public Health Implications

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    Oseni Saheed Oluwasina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis endemic to western and central Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and public health implications of Linguatulosis in client-owned dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria. Seven hundred and seventy seven (777 dogs brought for treatment at the hospital were subjected to buccal (sublingual examination for pentastomiasis. Parameters such as age, sex, and breeds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consideration. An overall prevalence of 37.45% was recorded. Of the 477 dogs examined in 2010, 184 were positive representing prevalence of 38.57% and in 2011 107 were positive representing prevalence of 35.67%. The infection was higher in the male than in the female which does not differ significantly (P>0.05. There was no significant difference between sexes (P>0.05. However, significant difference (P<0.05 was observed between breeds and age of dogs examined. Season did not have much influence on the prevalence of Linguatulosis. The high prevalence of Linguatulosis in dogs and other animals found in this study highlights the need of improving preventative measures to reduce the rate of infection, which may pose a hazard to human health.

  14. The origin of volcanic rock fragments in Upper Pliocene Grad Member of the Mura Formation, North-Eastern Slovenia

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    Polona Kralj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Fresh-water, coarse-grained and detritus-dominated Mura Formation in North Eastern Slovenia includes pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits originating from Upper Pliocene volcanic activity of basaltic geochemical character. Although localized in occurrence at the hamlet Grad, these pyroclastic and volcaniclastic sediments forma distinctive depositional unit, for which the term “Grad Member” is proposed and introduced in this paper.In the Grad area no lavas or cinder cones are preserved, and the origin of volcaniclastic fragments still uncertain. For this reason, chemical composition of basaltic rock fragments from the Grad Member volcaniclastics has been studied and compared with basaltic rocks from the neighboring locations at Klöch, Kindsberg, Dölling and Neuhaus. The Grad Member pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits seem to be fed from the same source which is different from the occurrences in Austria. That supports the idea about the existence of a local volcanic centre in the present Grad area. The old volcanic edificeswerepossiblydestroyed by the late-stage hydrovolcanic eruptions, and pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits subjected to constant reworking by fluvial currents in a dynamic sedimentary environment of alluvial fan and braided river systems.

  15. The importance of biomass net uptake for a trace metal budget in a forest stand in north-eastern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandois, L.; Nicolas, M.; VanderHeijden, G.; Probst, A.

    2010-01-01

    The trace metal (TM: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) budget (stocks and annual fluxes) was evaluated in a forest stand (silver fir, Abies alba Miller) in north-eastern France. Trace metal concentrations were measured in different tree compartments in order to assess TM partitioning and dynamics in the trees. Inputs included bulk deposition, estimated dry deposition and weathering. Outputs were leaching and biomass exportation. Atmospheric deposition was the main input flux. The estimated dry deposition accounted for about 40% of the total trace metal deposition. The relative importance of leaching (estimated by a lumped parameter water balance model, BILJOU) and net biomass uptake (harvesting) for ecosystem exportation depended on the element. Trace metal distribution between tree compartments (stem wood and bark, branches and needles) indicated that Pb was mainly stored in the stem, whereas Zn and Ni, and to a lesser extent Cd and Cu, were translocated to aerial parts of the trees and cycled in the ecosystem. For Zn and Ni, leaching was the main output flux (> 95% of the total output) and the plot budget (input-output) was negative, whereas for Pb the biomass net exportation represented 60% of the outputs and the budget was balanced. Cadmium and Cu had intermediate behaviours, with 18% and 30% of the total output relative to biomass exportation, respectively, and the budgets were negative. The net uptake by biomass was particularly important for Pb budgets, less so for Cd and Cu and not very important for Zn and Ni in such forest stands.

  16. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S.; Allen, Lee R.; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K.-P.

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts.

  17. Trends in viral meningitis hospitalisations and notifications in the North Eastern Health Board (1997 - 2001): a cause for concern?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brabazon, E D

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to compare trends in both hospital admissions and notifications of viral meningitis in the North Eastern Health Board (NEHB). Hospital admissions from 1997 to 2001, involving NEHB residents with an infectious disease diagnosis, were examined and viral meningitis cases were analyzed. During this period 265 NEHB residents were admitted to hospital with viral meningitis--an increase of 429% between 1997 and 2001 with the bulk of this increase during 2000 and 2001. A total of 1,234 bed days were taken up by this cohort and the mean length of stay was 4.5 days (95% CI 4.2 - 4.9). The number of viral meningitis notifications in the NEHB was 38 (ranging from 4 in 1997 to 11 in 2001). This number is much lower than expected given the corresponding number of hospital admissions for the same period. Thus, most cases were not notified which means that current surveillance systems under-estimate the disease burden of viral meningitis. Such under-reporting has implications for infectious disease policy in Ireland.

  18. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection and colonization in a tertiary hospital and elderly community of North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainul, N H; Ma, Z F; Besari, A; Siti Asma, H; Rahman, R A; Collins, D A; Hamid, N; Riley, T V; Lee, Y Y

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Asia. The aims of our study were to explore (i) the prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology of CDI and colonization in a tertiary academic hospital in North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia; (ii) the rate of carriage of C. difficile among the elderly in the region; (iii) the awareness level of this infection among the hospital staffs and students. For stool samples collected from hospital inpatients with diarrhea (n = 76) and healthy community members (n = 138), C. difficile antigen and toxins were tested by enzyme immunoassay. Stool samples were subsequently analyzed by culture and molecular detection of toxin genes, and PCR ribotyping of isolates. To examine awareness among hospital staff and students, participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. For the hospital and community studies, the prevalence of non-toxigenic C. difficile colonization was 16% and 2%, respectively. The prevalence of CDI among hospital inpatients with diarrhea was 13%. Out of 22 C. difficile strains from hospital inpatients, the toxigenic ribotypes 043 and 017 were most common (both 14%). In univariate analysis, C. difficile colonization in hospital inpatients was significantly associated with greater duration of hospitalization and use of penicillin (both P difficile colonization is prevalent in a Malaysian hospital setting but not in the elderly community with little or no contact with hospitals. Awareness of CDI is alarmingly poor.

  19. Georesistivity structure in the central part of North-Eastern Japan Arc; Tohoku chiho chubu chiiki no denki dendodo kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinawa, Y. [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan); Kawakami, N. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueshima, M. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute; Honkura, Y. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-13

    MT measurement of transects was made in the central part of North-Eastern Japan Arc to clarify tectonics of subduction zones. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D resistivity structures are observed in surface layers, and zones shallower and deeper than a Conrad surface, respectively. A main structure direction is S-N or NNE-SSW. Ishinomaki-Chokai tectonic line and low- resistivity zones due to Quaternary volcanos (Naruko, Onikobe) exist in a backbone range region. Resistivity is 100{Omega}{center_dot}m or less by Bostick Inversion except Mesozoic and Palaeozoic layers in the southern Kitakami mountainous region, resulting in a good agreement with previous results in a north transect. Resistivity is several {Omega}{center_dot}m and depth is several km around Shinjo basin and in surface layers of Kitakami River region. The backbone range region shows complex resistivity structures because of volcanic activity and wide-area hot water activity. High-resistivity layers correspond to stable Mesozoic and Palaeozoic land layers. Seismic velocity increases in the low-resistivity zone. Earthquake generally occurs at the boundary between resistivity structures. 68 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Effects of habitat and substrate complexity on shallow sublittoral fish assemblages in the Cyclades Archipelago, North-eastern Mediterranean Sea

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    S. GIAKOUMI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to explore fish community structure and its relations to habitat and topographic complexity in the shallow coastal waters of the Cyclades Archipelago, North-eastern Mediterranean Sea. In situ visual surveys were carried out at 233 sampling sites in 26 islands of the Cyclades Archipelago. Fish community parameters and biomass were estimated across seven substrate types: sand, seagrass, vertical walls, boulders, horizontal/subhorizontal continuous rock, rocky substrate with patches of sand, and rocky substrate with patches of sand and Posidonia oceanica. Topographic complexity and percentage of algal cover were estimated on hard substrate. Substrate type was found to be a determining factor affecting the structure and composition of fish assemblages. Species number, abundance and biomass were significantly lower in sandy areas and always higher on hard substrates, with seagrass habitats presenting intermediate values. Topographic complexity in rocky bottoms did not seem to affect species richness, density or biomass. This study provides a baseline for future evaluation of changes produced by potential management actions such as the creation of marine protected areas in the study region.

  1. Identification of the sources of metal (lead) contamination in drinking waters in north-eastern Tasmania using lead isotopic compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P J; Handley, H K; Taylor, M P

    2015-08-01

    This study utilises a range of scientific approaches, including lead isotopic compositions, to differentiate unknown sources of ongoing lead contamination of a drinking water supply in north-eastern Tasmania, Australia. Drinking water lead concentrations are elevated above the Australian Drinking Water Guideline (10 μg/L), reaching 540 μg/L in the supply network. Water lead isotopic compositions from the town of Pioneer ((208)Pb/(207)Pb 2.406, (206)Pb/(207)Pb 1.144 to (208)Pb/(207)Pb 2.360, (206)Pb/(207)Pb 1.094) and Ringarooma ((208)Pb/(207)Pb 2.398, (206)Pb/(207)Pb 1.117) are markedly different from the local bedrock ((208)Pb/(207)Pb 2.496, (206)Pb/(207)Pb 1.237). The data show that the lead in the local waters is sourced from a combination of dilapidated drinking water infrastructure, including lead jointed pipelines, end-of-life polyvinyl chloride pipes and household plumbing. Drinking water is being inadvertently contaminated by aging infrastructure, and it is an issue that warrants investigation to limit the burden of disease from lead exposure.

  2. Will mass drug administration eliminate lymphatic filariasis? Evidence from northern coastal Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Melissa; Allen, Tim

    2013-07-01

    This article documents understandings and responses to mass drug administration (MDA) for the treatment and prevention of lymphatic filariasis among adults and children in northern coastal Tanzania from 2004 to 2011. Assessment of village-level distribution registers, combined with self-reported drug uptake surveys of adults, participant observation and interviews, revealed that at study sites in Pangani and Muheza districts the uptake of drugs was persistently low. The majority of people living at these highly endemic locations either did not receive or actively rejected free treatment. A combination of social, economic and political reasons explain the low uptake of drugs. These include a fear of treatment (attributable, in part, to a lack of trust in international aid and a questioning of the motives behind the distribution); divergence between biomedical and local understandings of lymphatic filariasis; and limited and ineffective communication about the rationale for mass treatment. Other contributory factors are the reliance upon volunteers for distribution within villages and, in some locations, strained relationships between different groups of people within villages as well as between local leaders and government officials. The article also highlights a disjuncture between self-reported uptake of drugs by adults at a village level and the higher uptake of drugs recorded in official reports. The latter informs claims that elimination will be a possibility by 2020. This gives voice to a broader problem: there is considerable pressure for those implementing MDA to report positive results. The very real challenges of making MDA work are pushed to one side - adding to a rhetoric of success at the expense of engaging with local realities. It is vital to address the kind of issues raised in this article if current attempts to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in mainland coastal Tanzania are to achieve their goal.

  3. Large bio-geographical shifts in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean: From the subpolar gyre, via plankton, to blue whiting and pilot whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hátún, H.; Payne, M. R.; Beaugrand, G.; Reid, P. C.; Sandø, A. B.; Drange, H.; Hansen, B.; Jacobsen, J. A.; Bloch, D.

    2009-03-01

    Pronounced changes in fauna, extending from the English Channel in the south to the Barents Sea in the north-east and off Greenland in the north-west, have occurred in the late 1920s, the late 1960s and again in the late 1990s. We attribute these events to exchanges of subarctic and subtropical water masses in the north-eastern North Atlantic Ocean, associated with changes in the strength and extent of the subpolar gyre. These exchanges lead to variations in the influence exerted by the subarctic or Lusitanian biomes on the intermediate faunistic zone in the north-eastern Atlantic. This strong and persistent bottom-up bio-physical link is demonstrated using a numerical ocean general circulation model and data on four trophically connected levels in the food chain - phytoplankton, zooplankton, blue whiting, and pilot whales. The plankton data give a unique basin-scale depiction of these changes, and a long pilot whale record from the Faroe Islands offers an exceptional temporal perspective over three centuries. Recent advances in simulating the dynamics of the subpolar gyre suggests a potential for predicting the distribution of the main faunistic zones in the north-eastern Atlantic a few years into the future, which might facilitate a more rational management of the commercially important fisheries in this region.

  4. [Jörg Hackmann (Hrsg.). Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context] / Rüdi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ritter, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context. Wien: Böhlau Verlag 2012

  5. Habitat evaluation of wild Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and conservation priority setting in north-eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaofeng, Luan; Yi, Qu; Diqiang, Li; Shirong, Liu; Xiulei, Wang; Bo, Wu; Chunquan, Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The Amur Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is one of the world's most endangered species. Recently, habitat fragmentation, food scarcity and human hunting have drastically reduced the population size and distribution areas of Amur tigers in the wild, leaving them on the verge of extinction. Presently, they are only found in the north-eastern part of China. In this study, we developed a reference framework using methods and technologies of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS), GAP analysis and Natural Break (Jenks) classification to evaluate the habitat and to set the conservation priorities for Amur tigers in eastern areas of Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces of northeast China. We proposed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) incorporating 7 factors covering natural conditions and human disturbance. Based on the HSI values, the suitability was classified into five levels from the most to not suitable. Finally, according to results of GAP analysis, we identified six conservation priorities and designed a conservation landscape incorporating four new nature reserves, enlarging two existing ones, and creating four linkages for Amur tigers in northeast China. The case study showed that the core habitats (the most suitable and highly suitable habitats) identified for Amur tigers covered 35,547 km(2), accounting for approximately 26.71% of the total study area (1,33,093 km(2)). However, existing nature reserves protected only (7124 km(2) or) 20.04% of the identified core habitats. Thus, enlargement of current reserves is necessary and urgent for the tiger's conservation and restoration. Moreover, the establishment of wildlife corridors linking core habitats will provide an efficient reserve network for tiger conservation to maintain the evolutionary potential of Amur tigers facing environmental changes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of the Vajont landslide (North-Eastern Italy) by means of reflection and surface wave seismics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Lorenzo; Boaga, Jacopo; Cassiani, Giorgio

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms of the disastrous Vajont rockslide (North-Eastern Italy, October 9, 1963) have been studied in great detail over the past five decades. Nevertheless, the reconstruction of the rockslide dynamics still presents several uncertainties, including those related to the accurate estimation of the actual landslide mass. This work presents the results of a geophysical characterization of the Vajont landslide body in terms of material properties and buried geometry. Both aspects add new information to the existing dataset and will help a better understanding of the rockslide failure mechanisms and dynamics. In addition, some general considerations concerning the intricacies of landslide characterization can be drawn, with due attention to potential pitfalls. The employed techniques are: (i) high resolution P-wave reflection, (ii) high resolution SH-wave reflection, (iii) controlled source surface wave analysis. We adopted as a seismic source a vibrator both for P waves and SH waves, using vertical and horizontal geophones respectively. For the surface wave seismic survey we used a heavy drop-weight source and low frequency receivers. Despite the high noise level caused by the fractured conditions of the large rock body, a common situation in landslide studies, we managed to achieve a satisfying imaging quality of the landslide structure thanks to the large number of active channels, the short receiver interval and the test of appropriate seismic sources. The joint use of different seismic techniques help focus the investigation on the rock mass mechanical properties. Results are in good agreement with the available borehole data, the geological sections and the mechanical properties of the rockmass estimated by other studies. In general the proposed approach is likely to be applicable successfully to similar situations where scattering and other noise sources are a typical bottleneck to geophysical data acquisition on landslide bodies.

  7. Scale-up of a comprehensive harm reduction programme for people injecting opioids: lessons from north-eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalmuanpuii, Melody; Biangtung, Langkham; Mishra, Ritu Kumar; Reeve, Matthew J; Tzudier, Sentimoa; Singh, Angom L; Sinate, Rebecca; Sgaier, Sema K

    2013-04-01

    Harm reduction packages for people who inject illicit drugs, including those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are cost-effective but have not been scaled up globally. In the north-eastern Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland, the epidemic of HIV infection is driven by the injection of illicit drugs, especially opioids. These states needed to scale up harm reduction programmes but faced difficulty doing so. In 2004, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded Project ORCHID to scale up a harm reduction programme in Manipur and Nagaland. In 2003, an estimated 10 000 and 16 000 people were injecting drugs in Manipur and Nagaland, respectively. The prevalence of HIV infection among people injecting drugs was 24.5% in Manipur and 8.4% in Nagaland. By 2012, the harm reduction programme had been scaled up to an average of 9011 monthly contacts outside clinics (80% of target); an average of 1709 monthly clinic visits (15% of target, well above the 5% monthly goal) and an average monthly distribution of needles and syringes of 16 each per programme participant. Opioid agonist maintenance treatment coverage was 13.7% and retention 6 months after enrolment was 63%. Antiretroviral treatment coverage for HIV-positive participants was 81%. A harm reduction model consisting of community-owned, locally relevant innovations and business approaches can result in good harm reduction programme scale-up and influence harm reduction policy. Project ORCHID has influenced national harm reduction policy in India and contributed to the development of harm reduction guidelines.

  8. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Aromatic and Quality Rice (Oryza sativa L. Landraces from North-Eastern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Roy

    Full Text Available The North-eastern (NE India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, possess diverse array of locally adapted non-Basmati aromatic germplasm. The germplasm collections from this region could serve as valuable resources in breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, grain yield and cooking/eating quality. To utilize such collections, however, breeders need information about the extent and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. In this study, we report the result of population genetic analysis of 107 aromatic and quality rice accessions collected from different parts of NE India, as well as classified these accessions in the context of a set of structured global rice cultivars. A total of 322 alleles were amplified by 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers with an average of 8.03 alleles per locus. Average gene diversity was 0.67. Population structure analysis revealed that NE Indian aromatic rice can be subdivided into three genetically distinct population clusters: P1, joha rice accessions from Assam, tai rices from Mizoram and those from Sikkim; P2, aromatic rice accessions from Nagaland; and P3, chakhao rice germplasm from Manipur [corrected]. Pair-wise FST between three groups varied from 0.223 (P1 vs P2 to 0.453 (P2 vs P3. With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, two major groups (Indica and Japonica were identified in NE Indian germplasm. The aromatic accessions from Assam, Manipur and Sikkim were assigned to the Indica group, while the accessions from Nagaland exhibited close association with Japonica. The tai accessions of Mizoram along with few chakhao accessions collected from the hill districts of Manipur were identified as admixed. The results highlight the importance of regional genetic studies for understanding diversification of aromatic rice in India. The data also suggest that there is scope for exploiting the genetic diversity of

  9. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Aromatic and Quality Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Landraces from North-Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somnath; Banerjee, Amrita; Mawkhlieng, Bandapkuper; Misra, A K; Pattanayak, A; Harish, G D; Singh, S K; Ngachan, S V; Bansal, K C

    2015-01-01

    The North-eastern (NE) India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, possess diverse array of locally adapted non-Basmati aromatic germplasm. The germplasm collections from this region could serve as valuable resources in breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, grain yield and cooking/eating quality. To utilize such collections, however, breeders need information about the extent and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. In this study, we report the result of population genetic analysis of 107 aromatic and quality rice accessions collected from different parts of NE India, as well as classified these accessions in the context of a set of structured global rice cultivars. A total of 322 alleles were amplified by 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with an average of 8.03 alleles per locus. Average gene diversity was 0.67. Population structure analysis revealed that NE Indian aromatic rice can be subdivided into three genetically distinct population clusters: P1, joha rice accessions from Assam, tai rices from Mizoram and those from Sikkim; P2, aromatic rice accessions from Nagaland; and P3, chakhao rice germplasm from Manipur [corrected]. Pair-wise FST between three groups varied from 0.223 (P1 vs P2) to 0.453 (P2 vs P3). With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, two major groups (Indica and Japonica) were identified in NE Indian germplasm. The aromatic accessions from Assam, Manipur and Sikkim were assigned to the Indica group, while the accessions from Nagaland exhibited close association with Japonica. The tai accessions of Mizoram along with few chakhao accessions collected from the hill districts of Manipur were identified as admixed. The results highlight the importance of regional genetic studies for understanding diversification of aromatic rice in India. The data also suggest that there is scope for exploiting the genetic diversity of aromatic and

  10. Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopade Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. Methods A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. Results According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Conclusions Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area.

  11. THE MOLLUSCAN FAUNA FROM THE UPPER PLEISTOCENE VERTEBRATE-BEARING DEPOSITS OF S. TEODORO CAVE (NORTH-EASTERN SICILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA ESU

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with terrestrial, freshwater and marine molluscs collected in the upper Pleistocene deposits of clay, sands and gravels of S. Teodoro Cave (North-eastern Sicily. Beginning from 1998 two trenches have been excavated (1998 and 2002-2004. A highly diversified assemblage of endemic and not endemic vertebrates (elephant, horse, wild ox, deer, wild boar, hyaena, fox, mouse, ground vole, shrew, hedgehog, bats, birds, reptiles, invertebrates (molluscs and vegetal remains have been collected from the two trenches. The molluscan fauna is represented by poor to rich-species assemblages of land and freshwater gastropods and bivalves with Mediterranean-European character. Some species have been found for the first time as fossils in Sicily. The land snails prevail in the 1998 trench showing a persistent arid environment during the time of the sediment deposition. The freshwater species, characteristic of slow-running water, point to the presence of a small water body (stream or spring inside the cave, probably more consistent in the 2002-2004 trench where this fauna prevails. The dispersal of the molluscan fauna of S. Teodoro Cave from the mainland during the low stand sea-level phases of the upper Pleistocene probably belongs to the same dispersal events following the Oxygen Isotope Stage 5e which introduced into the island not endemic faunal elements which are associated with endemic faunal elements in S. Teodoro Cave. Littoral marine reworked molluscs found in the cave deposits probably come from the sedimentary cover of a middle Pleistocene terrace which overlies the roof of the cave. SHORT NOTE

  12. Western blot banding pattern in early Lyme borreliosis among patients from an endemic region of north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisiak, R; Wierzbicka, I; Prokopowicz, D

    1998-01-01

    Aim of this study was evaluation of Western blot banding patterns in different clinical forms of early Lyme borreliosis diagnosed in patients from north-eastern Poland, recognized as endemic for tick-borne diseases. Study was performed on serum samples of 48 patients with Lyme borreliosis and 26 healthy volunteers, as controls. Samples tested routinely for total antibody with enzyme immunoassay were subsequently analysed for specific antibodies with Western blot based on antigen extract of European strain of Borrelia burgdorferi. In patients, IgM antibodies were the most frequently directed against 41 kDa and 58 kDa antigens, whereas in control group only antibodies against 45 kDa and 58 kDa were present. Similar response was observed in respect to IgG antibodies. Evaluation of banding pattern in respect to clinical form of the disease revealed the highest prevalence of IgM and IgG anti-41 kDa antibodies in patients with erythema migrans and Lyme arthritis, and anti-58 kDa in neuroborreliosis patients, who had no anti-21 kDa antibodies. Relatively high frequency of IgG antibodies against 21, 30 and 93 kDa antigens was typical for neuroborreliosis. Bands count was significantly higher in different clinical forms of the disease than in controls, and it was the highest in neuroborreliosis. Combined analysis of Western blot results (IgM/IgG) enabled to achieve higher sensitivity (84%) and specificity (100%) than available with the most recommended EIA kits.

  13. Scale-up of a comprehensive harm reduction programme for people injecting opioids: lessons from north-eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalmuanpuii, Melody; Biangtung, Langkham; Mishra, Ritu Kumar; Reeve, Matthew J; Tzudier, Sentimoa; Singh, Angom L; Sinate, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Problem Harm reduction packages for people who inject illicit drugs, including those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are cost-effective but have not been scaled up globally. In the north-eastern Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland, the epidemic of HIV infection is driven by the injection of illicit drugs, especially opioids. These states needed to scale up harm reduction programmes but faced difficulty doing so. Approach In 2004, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded Project ORCHID to scale up a harm reduction programme in Manipur and Nagaland. Local setting In 2003, an estimated 10 000 and 16 000 people were injecting drugs in Manipur and Nagaland, respectively. The prevalence of HIV infection among people injecting drugs was 24.5% in Manipur and 8.4% in Nagaland. Relevant changes By 2012, the harm reduction programme had been scaled up to an average of 9011 monthly contacts outside clinics (80% of target); an average of 1709 monthly clinic visits (15% of target, well above the 5% monthly goal) and an average monthly distribution of needles and syringes of 16 each per programme participant. Opioid agonist maintenance treatment coverage was 13.7% and retention 6 months after enrolment was 63%. Antiretroviral treatment coverage for HIV-positive participants was 81%. Lessons learnt A harm reduction model consisting of community-owned, locally relevant innovations and business approaches can result in good harm reduction programme scale-up and influence harm reduction policy. Project ORCHID has influenced national harm reduction policy in India and contributed to the development of harm reduction guidelines. PMID:23599555

  14. Arthropods in trophic-cenosis structure of collared flycatcher consortium in conditions of forest ecosystems of North-Eastern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Chaplygina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on taxonomic and quantitative analysis of feed ration of nestlings and structure of nidikolas of collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis (Temminck, 1815. Ecological features and consortium relations of flycatchers and their specific feeding behavior were analyzed. Materials were collected in May – July 2009–2014 on the transformed territories of North-Eastern Ukraine. Functioning of trophic structure of biogeocenosis with the participation of flycatcher as a heterotrophic core of big autotrophic group was studied. Spatial and trophic relations of flycatcher with the woody vegetation and insect-phytophages (leaf beetles, leafhoppers, and barbels have been described. In the feed ration of flycatcher nestlings the prevalence is given to representatives of Hexapoda (83%, including Lepidoptera (16 families, 24%, Hymenoptera (12 families, 23% and Coleoptera (40 families, 15%. We characterize trophic groups of arthropods in the consortium of flycatchers: phytophages (33%, zoophages (45%, parasites, bloodsuckers, saprophages (16%, necrophages (4%, coprophages, keratophages. Fauna of arthropods of collared flycatcher nests was analyzed. Nests of birds as a heterotrophic consortium is the habitat of invertebrates with 293 taxons belonging to the Hexapoda, Arachnida, Malacostraca and Myriaroda, sometimes Mollusca. In the trophic structure of the population of flycatcher the representatives of Hexapoda dominate (278 species, where the first place is given to zoophages (127 species, 45%, including parasites (Culicidae, Tabanidae, Mallophaga, Hippoboscidae, Aphaniptera. The second are phytophages (78 species, 28%, the third – decomposers (75 species, 27%, and the last presenting detritivores (48 species, 18% and necrophages (27 species, 10%. Constant ectoparasitic species of flycatchers are Ricinus sp. (Mallophaga, Ornithomyia avicularia L. (Diptera, Protocalliphora azurea chrysorrhea Mg. (Diptera, Ceratophyllus sp. (Aphaniptera

  15. Geology, Petrography, Geochemistry and Radioactivity Studies on The Dyke Swarms of Gabal Al Aglab area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldabe, M.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Gabal Al Aglab area is located in the North Eastern Desert of Egypt bounded by lat. 27° 14'-27° 19' N and long. 33° 00'-33° 05' E. It is covered by pan African basement rocks. The present study concern with the geology, petrography, geochemistry and radioactivity of various types of the dyke swarms in Gabal Al Aglab area. The field studies revealed that the area comprises the following litho-tectonic units ; Dokhan volcanic (oldest) and Hamammat sedimentary rocks and younger granites are represented by both Gabal Um Twier and Gabal Al Aglab syenogranites (youngest). Many dykes of acidic, intermediate and basic composition have a large extension and dissect all the mentioned rock units. The dyke swarms intruding Gabal Al Aglab area include the acidic (felsite and granite porphyry) dykes, while the intermediate comprise andesite and andesite porphyry and the basic dykes show basalt and dolerites. The chronologic relations of these dykes indicate the following sequence of emplacement beginning with the oldest acidic, followed by intermediate and then basic ones. The geochemical studies indicate that the acidic dykes were derived from a highly differentiated calc- alkaline magma, while the basic and intermediate dykes were developed from magma of subalkaline nature. The dykes were derived from separate magmas and not by magmatic differentiation of single mother magma. The radioactivity of the studied dyke rocks revealed that the high levels of radioactivity mainly linked to the acidity, differentiation and alkalinity characters. Radioactive granitic spot was observed along the contact with some basic dykes due to their thermal effect during its emplacement on the granite, at the northern part of the studied area. This radioactive spot display anomalies with higher values in U and Th contents, than the normal background value of the younger granite.

  16. Global change and viticulture in the Mediterranean region: a case of study in north-eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Albert Lopez-Bustins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture in the Mediterranean region has been improved by agronomic methods based on ecophysiological and genetic knowledge of the species and varieties cultivated. Plant growth, yield and quality are highly dependent on climate. Grape sugar content and wine alcohol content are considered as important quality parameters. The objective of our study is to analyse the effects of the current global change on the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV in red wines from vineyards located in the Montsant Designation of Origin (DO (Priorat County, north-eastern Spain. We present an annual series of percentage of ABV in red wines over the 1984-2008 period (25 years, which is one of the longest series of this viticultural variable in Spain. We do not detect any significant trend of alcohol levels in red wines from the Montsant DO along the 1984-2004 subperiod, but a sharp increase about 1% (by volume is observed after 2004; we statistically checked that the last four years constitute an outlier period in the series. We consider climate evolution over the 1984-2004 period in the study area in order to find some relation with alcohol levels in red wines. Agronomic practices and land cover changes are also taken into account. Results show that the interannual variability of the alcohol levels in red wines are partially explained by temperature and precipitation conditions few days before the vintage. The high percentages of ABV since 2005 may be associated with new trends in viticulture techniques rather than with climate change.

  17. Modeling of extreme freshwater outflow from the north-eastern Japanese river basins to western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troselj, Josko; Sayama, Takahiro; Varlamov, Sergey M.; Sasaki, Toshiharu; Racault, Marie-Fanny; Takara, Kaoru; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Kuroki, Ryusuke; Yamagata, Toshio; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2017-12-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of accurate extreme discharge input in hydrological and oceanographic combined modeling by introducing two extreme typhoon events. We investigated the effects of extreme freshwater outflow events from river mouths on sea surface salinity distribution (SSS) in the coastal zone of the north-eastern Japan. Previous studies have used observed discharge at the river mouth, as well as seasonally averaged inter-annual, annual, monthly or daily simulated data. Here, we reproduced the hourly peak discharge during two typhoon events for a targeted set of nine rivers and compared their impact on SSS in the coastal zone based on observed, climatological and simulated freshwater outflows in conjunction with verification of the results using satellite remote-sensing data. We created a set of hourly simulated freshwater outflow data from nine first-class Japanese river basins flowing to the western Pacific Ocean for the two targeted typhoon events (Chataan and Roke) and used it with the integrated hydrological (CDRMV3.1.1) and oceanographic (JCOPE-T) model, to compare the case using climatological mean monthly discharges as freshwater input from rivers with the case using our hydrological model simulated discharges. By using the CDRMV model optimized with the SCE-UA method, we successfully reproduced hindcasts for peak discharges of extreme typhoon events at the river mouths and could consider multiple river basin locations. Modeled SSS results were verified by comparison with Chlorophyll-a distribution, observed by satellite remote sensing. The projection of SSS in the coastal zone became more realistic than without including extreme freshwater outflow. These results suggest that our hydrological models with optimized model parameters calibrated to the Typhoon Roke and Chataan cases can be successfully used to predict runoff values from other extreme precipitation events with similar physical characteristics. Proper simulation of extreme

  18. The importance of biomass net uptake for a trace metal budget in a forest stand in north-eastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandois, L; Nicolas, M; VanderHeijden, G; Probst, A

    2010-11-01

    The trace metal (TM: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) budget (stocks and annual fluxes) was evaluated in a forest stand (silver fir, Abies alba Miller) in north-eastern France. Trace metal concentrations were measured in different tree compartments in order to assess TM partitioning and dynamics in the trees. Inputs included bulk deposition, estimated dry deposition and weathering. Outputs were leaching and biomass exportation. Atmospheric deposition was the main input flux. The estimated dry deposition accounted for about 40% of the total trace metal deposition. The relative importance of leaching (estimated by a lumped parameter water balance model, BILJOU) and net biomass uptake (harvesting) for ecosystem exportation depended on the element. Trace metal distribution between tree compartments (stem wood and bark, branches and needles) indicated that Pb was mainly stored in the stem, whereas Zn and Ni, and to a lesser extent Cd and Cu, were translocated to aerial parts of the trees and cycled in the ecosystem. For Zn and Ni, leaching was the main output flux (>95% of the total output) and the plot budget (input-output) was negative, whereas for Pb the biomass net exportation represented 60% of the outputs and the budget was balanced. Cadmium and Cu had intermediate behaviours, with 18% and 30% of the total output relative to biomass exportation, respectively, and the budgets were negative. The net uptake by biomass was particularly important for Pb budgets, less so for Cd and Cu and not very important for Zn and Ni in such forest stands. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic characterization of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz.] landraces of North Eastern Hills of India and conservation measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Veerendra Kumar; Pandey, Avinash; Jha, Anjani Kumar; Ngachan, S V

    2017-10-01

    Chayote or chow-chow is an underutilized cucurbit vegetable crop, widely cultivated by farmers in the backyards and Jhum lands for its tender leaves, fruits and tuberous root. In order to initiate crop improvement program in this crop, the present study was undertaken to assess the genetic variations in the 74 chow-chow landraces collected from the North Eastern Hill region of India. Wide variations for fruit colors, fruit length (6.5-21.5 cm), fruit width (4.2-10.7 cm), fruit weight (60-560 g), vitamin-C (2.6-13.8 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (0.18-2.77%), total sugar (1.09-2.94%) and phenol content (0.17-3.85 mg/100 g FW) were recorded among the landraces. All the landraces were also characterized using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. In RAPD analyses, out of 28 primers a total of 198 reproducible amplicons were formed at an average of 7.01 per primer and an overall polymorphism of 88.38%. Eight fragments were specific to landraces with light green fruits. Four fragments were observed to be specific to RCSC-22 (dark green fruits) and another four specific to a RCSC-30 (pale yellow fruits). Out of 30 ISSR, only 5 primers generated a total of 32 reproducible amplicons with an average of 6.4 per primer and overall polymorphism of 62.5%. The pair wise similarity coefficient values ranged from 0.55 to 0.96. The grouping of landraces in cluster analysis was found to be independent of their respective geographic locations. The cuttings of suckers and shoot top (2 months old) treated with indole-3-butyric acid (200 mg l -1 ) provide an alternative for the conservation of the diverse genetic materials to the researchers.

  20. Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewayrga, Hailemichael; Sopade, Peter A

    2011-06-28

    Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area.

  1. Investigation of Radon in drinking water from wells of the North-Eastern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, Feriz; Dedic, Amela

    2008-01-01

    Some areas of the Tuzla region (B and H) suffer heavily from the shortage of quality drinking water. The only real long-term water resource in this region is the Lake Modrac, the largest accumulation lake in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Due to the fact that radon is soluble in water it can be transported by water to long distances. In cases of intake of waters rich in radon the most affected are sensitive cells within the abdomen and other internal organs. In order to satisfy the needs for drinking water, people are forced to excavate and drill wells. In the area of Tuzla region and the entire B and H excavated wells are very frequent, and so are drilled wells lately, due to more developed and cheaper technology for soil drilling. Such activities in this area, and the whole of B and H, are carried out in an unorderly manner and without previously completed chemical and radiological analyses of soil and water samples. The University of Tuzla formed the Laboratory for detection of radon in all environments, and the survey displayed in this paper have been the first investigation of that kind in B and H. Here we presented the results of radon survey of drinking waters from excavated and drilled wells in the area of Tuzla region (North-Eastern region of B and H). The measurements were conducted over the period of one year (2006), so as to make possible monitoring of variations of radon concentrations in dependence of meteorological changes. These investigation works showed that radon concentration at most locations was significantly higher in drilled wells than in excavated wells. Mean values of radon concentration in the tested water samples ranged within the interval of 101-4200 Bq/m 3 . Radon activity concentration was measured with the Alpha GAURD radon system (Genitron instruments-Frankfurt). (author)

  2. Global change and viticulture in the Mediterranean region: a case of study in north-eastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Bustins, J. A.; Pla, E.; Nadal, M.; Herralde, F. de; Save, R.

    2014-06-01

    Viticulture in the Mediterranean region has been improved by agronomic methods based on eco physiological and genetic knowledge of the species and varieties cultivated. Plant growth, yield and quality are highly dependent on climate. Grape sugar content and wine alcohol content are considered as important quality parameters. The objective of our study is to analyse the effects of the current global change on the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV) in red wines from vineyards located in the Montsant Designation of Origin (DO) (Priorat County, north-eastern Spain). We present an annual series of percentage of ABV in red wines over the 1984-2008 period (25 years), which is one of the longest series of this viticultural variable in Spain. We do not detect any significant trend of alcohol levels in red wines from the Montsant DO along the 1984-2004 subperiod, but a sharp increase about 1% (by volume) is observed after 2004; we statistically checked that the last four years constitute an outlier period in the series. We consider climate evolution over the 1984-2004 period in the study area in order to find some relation with alcohol levels in red wines. Agronomic practices and land cover changes are also taken into account. Results show that the interannual variability of the alcohol levels in red wines are partially explained by temperature and precipitation conditions few days before the vintage. The high percentages of ABV since 2005 may be associated with new trends in viticulture techniques rather than with climate change. (Author)

  3. Malaria in the United Republic of Tanzania: cultural considerations and health-seeking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberländer, L.; Elverdan, B.

    2000-01-01

    Malaria is one of the biggest health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. Large amounts of resources have been invested to control and treat it. Few studies have recognized that local explanations for the symptoms of malaria may lead to the attribution of different causes for the disease and thus to the seeking of different treatments. This article illustrates the local nosology of Bondei society in the north-eastern part of the United Republic of Tanzania and shows how sociocultural context affects health-seeking behaviour. It shows how in this context therapy is best viewed as a process in which beliefs and actions are continuously debated and evaluated throughout the course of treatment. PMID:11143196

  4. Tanzania - Water Supply & Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Social Impact (SI) has been contracted by MCC to carry out an impact evaluation (IE) of the Tanzania Water Sector Project. This IE examines the effect of the WSP...

  5. Tanzania Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes any contribution that advances medical science or ... these core objectives the journal publishes papers on original scientific research, short ... The Tanzania Medical Journal is an international Journal - ISSN: 0856-0719 ...

  6. Discriminations of Younger Granitic Masses at Gabal Qattar Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasfi, S.A.; Lliase, E.L.; Mousa, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Gabal Qattar area is located in the north Eastern Desert of Egypt between Latitudes 26 degree 52 and 27 degree 08 N, and Longitudes 33 degree 13 and 33 degree 25 E. The exposed rock units, there, from the oldest to the youngest, are meta volcanics; granodiorites- diorite complex; Hammamat sediments and younger granites. Most of the area is densely traversed by felsic and mafic dykes. The Qattarian younger granites are divided into seven granitic areas according to their spectral characters to facilitate the studying and delineating physical characteristic differences between these areas as well as to throw a light about the best conditions of exploration for radioactive mineralizations. This study is based on brightness Digital Number values (DNs) of the granitic areas, predominant trends and densities of the structural lineaments, shape and type of weathering products. Three areas of these seven younger granite areas form Gabal (G.) Qattar, and designated Gr 1, Gr 3 and Gr 4, where the other granite areas which form the G. Urn Dissi (Gr 2), G. Thelma (Gr 5), G. Abu Samyuk (Gr 6) and G. Ayn AI Ruwayshed (Gr 7). Photo geologically, these seven granite areas show some differences in shape, texture, predominant trends and densities of structural lineaments and ability of weathering. This study shows that the seven granite areas could be gathered into three main groups according to their DNs values of Landsat ETM+ spectral bands especially of band 5, where these three main groups representing different, and mainly coincide with the three granite phases previously delineated according to chronological field relation, petrographic and geochemical studies. The Gr 1 area contains all uranium occurrences from locations I to V. This area is characterized by semi circular shape of NW trend, massive appearance with high relief peaks, and high fracture density, where the N 55 degree E, N 5 degree E, N 45 degree E and N 45 degree W are the predominant trends. Some of the N 55

  7. The ecological significance of juvenile Diplodus sargus as ectoparasite fish cleaners in the north-eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Neto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning behaviour was recently described for the omnivorous species Diplodus sargus. Although previous studies have reported the existence of ectoparasites in the stomach contents of some individuals this commercially important fish was never considered a cleaner species. Here we make the first characterization of this behaviour based on field observations. This behaviour was exclusively performed by juvenile D. sargus and, until now, was only observed in confined or semi-confined areas such as coastal lagoons or harbours. Unexpectedly, cleaning rates and the number of individuals performing this behaviour largely exceeds the ones described for a sympatric cleaner fish (13.98 cleaning events/individual/hour compared to 5.08 in Centrolabrus exoletus. Clients belong to several fish families (e.g. Mugilidae, Sparidae and Labridae that include some of the most common species in coastal habitats. Frequently, clients request cleaning by tilting their body or remaining motionless near the surface while being cleaned (40% however, in most cases, the interaction ends because clients flee (46%. This could mean that D. sargus is also feeding on mucus and/or living tissue. These shifts between exploitation and cooperation have been frequently described for tropical reef species. Our results support cooperative behaviour, with a clear correlation between the number of nips per cleaning event or the number of nips to which the client reacted positively and cleaning event duration (n=552; Spearman correlation r=0.79, p<0.001; r=0.76, p<0.001, respectively. Furthermore, no correlation was detected between the number of jolts by the client fish and the cleaning event duration (n=552; Spearman correlation r=0.07, p=0.105 meaning that jolting does not increase with increased interaction time. In the future, the evaluation of the ecological importance of D. sargus as a cleaner species in the North-Eastern Atlantic, should proceed with field observations in

  8. Pattern recognition techniques and neo-deterministic seismic hazard: Time dependent scenarios for North-Eastern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peresan, A.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.; Zuccolo, E.; Gorshkov, A.

    2009-05-01

    for seismic hazard assessment in the North-Eastern part of the Italian territory, is also discussed. Examples of neo-deterministic scenarios are provided, at regional and local scale and for the cities of Trieste and Nimis (Friuli Venezia Giulia region), where the knowledge of the local geological conditions permitted a detailed evaluation of the expected ground motion. (author)

  9. A model for promoting democracy by using the corporate culture of secondary school student councils in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongkran Anukul

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the history of secondary school student councils in North-eastern Thailand (Isan, to study the present conditions and problems of secondary school student councils in Isan and to study a model for promoting democracy by using the corporate culture of secondary school student councils in Isan. The study area encompassed Kalasin Province, including Somdetpittayakom School in Somdet District and Yangtaladwittayakarn School in Yangtalat District, Mahasarakham Province, including Sarakhampittayakhom School in Muang District and Kantarawichai School in Kantarawichai District, and Khon Kaen Province, including Kallayanawat School in Muang District and Nampong Suksa School in Nampong District. This research employed interview, observation and focus groups as data collection tools with a purposive sample of student councils in secondary schools in Isan. Data was verified and validated using a triangulation method and analyzed by descriptive analysis. Research results show that the student councils in the secondary schools of Isan were established to promote democracy among youth. Students gained knowledge, understanding of the democratic system, experience in student administration and governance by students for students. It was also found that student council activities in secondary schools give students opportunities to know about their roles, acceptance, respect rights and duties, use intellect to solve problems, have faith in the democratic system, develop morality and ethics and preserve and disseminate traditions and culture according to the principles of Dharma. Current problems with student councils include no student interest in duties and no relationship between the elected leaders and their constituency. Selfishness, dishonesty and ignorance are the causes of non-transparent school councils with no responsibility, no response to student needs, lack of rights, justice and effectiveness, lacking of creative

  10. Seismic reflection and structuring characterization of deep aquifer system in the Dakhla syncline (Cap Bon, North-Eastern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellali, Abir; Jarraya Horriche, Faten; Gabtni, Hakim; Bédir, Mourad

    2018-04-01

    The Dakhla syncline is located in the North-Eastern Tunisia. It is bounded by Abd El Rahmene anticline to the North-West, El Haouaria Graben to the North-East, Grombalia Graben to the South-West and the Mediterranean Sea to the East. The main aquifer reservoirs of Dakhla syncline are constituted by stacks of fluvial to deltaic Neogene sequences and carbonates. The interpretation of eight seismic reflection profiles, calibrated by wire line logging data of three oil wells, hydraulic wells and geologic field sections highlighted the impact of tectonics on the structuring geometry of aquifers and their distribution in elevated structures and subsurface depressions. Lithostratigraphic correlations and seismic profiles analysis through the syncline show that the principal aquifers are thickest within the central and northern part of the study area and thinnest to the southern part of the syncline. Seismic sections shows that the fracture/fault pattern in this syncline is mainly concentrated along corridors with a major direction of NW-SE and secondary directions of N-S, E-W and NE-SW with different release. This is proved by the complexity structure of Eastern Tunisia, resulted from the interaction between the African and Eurasiatic plates. Isochron maps of aquifers systems exhibited the structuring of this syncline in sub-surface characterized by important lateral and vertical geometric and thickness variations. Seismic sections L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 and petroleum wells showed an heterogeneous multilayer aquifers of Miocene formed by the arrangement of ten sandstone bodies, separated by impermeable clay packages. Oligo-Miocene deposits correspond to the most great potential aquifers, with respectively an average transmissivity estimated: Somaa aquifer 6.5 10-4 m2/s, Sandstone level aquifer 2.6 10-3 m2/s, Beglia aquifer 1.1 10-3 m2/s, Ain Ghrab aquifer 1.3 10-4 m2/s and Oligocene aquifer 2 10-3 m2/s. The interpretation of spatial variations of seismic units and the

  11. Epidemiological patterns of cervical human papillomavirus infection among women presenting for cervical cancer screening in North-Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Mohammed Mohammed; Fowotade, Adeola; Abdullahi, Yusuf Mohammed; El-Nafaty, Aliyu Usman; Adamu, Danladi Bojude; Pindiga, Hamidu Umar; Bakare, Rasheed Ajani; Osoba, Abimbola Olu

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Saharan countries including Nigeria have the highest burden of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the world. Most studies on HPV surveillance in Nigeria were done in the southern part of the country. Geographical and socio-cultural diversity of Nigeria makes these data unlikely to be universally representative for the entire country. Northern Nigeria especially the North-East carries a higher prevalence of cervical cancer and many of its risk factors. The region may be harbouring a higher prevalence of HPV infection with a possibility of different genotypic distribution. This study was carried out to determine the burden and confirm the predominant HPV genotypes among women presenting for cervical cancer screening at the Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe (FTHG), North-eastern, Nigeria. The study was an observational hospital based cross sectional study among women who presented for cervical cancer screening in FTHG. A total of 209 consenting women were tested for cervical HPV infection using PCR. DNA sequencing was carried out on positive samples to determine the prevalent HPV genotypes. The prevalence of cervical HPV infection among the participants with mean age of 39.6 ± 10.4 years was 48.1 %. The five most predominant genotypes were 18, 16, 33, 31 and 35, with prevalence of 44.7 %, 13.2 %, 7.9 %, 5.3 % and 5.3 % respectively. Other genotypes observed were 38, 45, 56, 58, 82 and KC5. Multiple HPV infections were detected among 7.9 % of participants. Risk factors such as level of education (X (2) = 15.897; p = 0.007), age at sexual debut (X (2) = 6.916; p = 0.009), parity (X (2) = 23.767; p = 0.000), number of life time sexual partners (X (2) = 7.805; p = 0.005), age at first pregnancy (X (2) = 10.554; p = 0.005) and history of other malignancies (X (2) = 7.325; p = 0.007) were found to have a statistically significant association with HPV infection. This study identified a high burden of HPV

  12. Vertical nutrient fluxes, turbulence and the distribution of chlorophyll a in the north-eastern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendtsen, Jørgen; Richardson, Katherine

    2017-04-01

    During summer the northern North Sea is characterized by nutrient rich bottom water masses and nutrient poor surface layers. This explains the distribution of chlorophyll a in the water column where a subsurface maximum, referred to as the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM), often is present during the growth season. Vertical transport of nutrients between bottom water masses and the well lit surface layer stimulates phytoplankton growth and this generally explains the location of the DCM. However, a more specific understanding of the interplay between vertical transports, nutrient fluxes and phytoplankton abundance is required for identifying the nature of the vertical transport processes, e.g the role of advection versus vertical turbulent diffusion or the role of localized mixing associated with mesoscale eddies. We present results from the VERMIX study in the north-eastern North Sea where nutrients, chlorophyll a and turbulence profiles were measured along five north-south directed transects in July 2016. A high-resolution sampling program, with horizontal distances of 1-10 km between CTD-stations, resolved the horizontal gradients of chlorophyll a across the steep bottom slope from the relatively shallow central North Sea ( 50-80 m) towards the deep Norwegian Trench (>700 m). Low oxygen concentrations in the bottom water masses above the slope indicated enhanced biological production where vertical mixing would stimulate phytoplankton growth around the DCM. Measurements of variable fluorescence (Fv/Fm) showed elevated values in the DCM which demonstrates a higher potential for electron transport in the Photosystem II in the phytoplankton cells, i.e. an indication of nutrient-rich conditions favorable for phytoplankton production. Profiles of the vertical shear and microstructure of temperature and salinity were measured by a VMP-250 turbulence profiler and the vertical diffusion of nutrients was calculated from the estimated vertical turbulent diffusivity and the

  13. Landforms along transverse faults parallel to axial zone of folded mountain front, north-eastern Kumaun Sub-Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luirei, Khayingshing; Bhakuni, S. S.; Negi, Sanjay S.

    2017-02-01

    The shape of the frontal part of the Himalaya around the north-eastern corner of the Kumaun Sub-Himalaya, along the Kali River valley, is defined by folded hanging wall rocks of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). Two parallel faults (Kalaunia and Tanakpur faults) trace along the axial zone of the folded HFT. Between these faults, the hinge zone of this transverse fold is relatively straight and along these faults, the beds abruptly change their attitudes and their widths are tectonically attenuated across two hinge lines of fold. The area is constituted of various surfaces of coalescing fans and terraces. Fans comprise predominantly of sandstone clasts laid down by the steep-gradient streams originating from the Siwalik range. The alluvial fans are characterised by compound and superimposed fans with high relief, which are generated by the tectonic activities associated with the thrusting along the HFT. The truncated fan along the HFT has formed a 100 m high-escarpment running E-W for ˜5 km. Quaternary terrace deposits suggest two phases of tectonic uplift in the basal part of the hanging wall block of the HFT dipping towards the north. The first phase is represented by tilting of the terrace sediments by ˜30 ∘ towards the NW; while the second phase is evident from deformed structures in the terrace deposit comprising mainly of reverse faults, fault propagation folds, convolute laminations, flower structures and back thrust faults. The second phase produced ˜1.0 m offset of stratification of the terrace along a thrust fault. Tectonic escarpments are recognised across the splay thrust near south of the HFT trace. The south facing hill slopes exhibit numerous landslides along active channels incising the hanging wall rocks of the HFT. The study area shows weak seismicity. The major Moradabad Fault crosses near the study area. This transverse fault may have suppressed the seismicity in the Tanakpur area, and the movement along the Moradabad and Kasganj

  14. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes cinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Dunaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization is a molecular biology technique that might be used for [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (sl DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among[i] B. burgdorferi[/i] sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different [i]Borrelia[/i] genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. materials and method. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in May – June, from 6 different sites in North-Eastern Poland (Jakubin, Kolno, Grajewo, Suwałki, Siemiatycze, Białowieża by flagging. Extracted DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting the intergenic spacer 5S 23S of [i]B. burgdorferi sl.[/i] PCR products were hybridised to 15 different oligonucleotide probes for 9 different [i]Borrelia [/i]genospecies ([i]B. burgdorferi sl, B. burgdorferi ss, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, B. bissettii and B. relapsing[/i] fever-like spirochetes (B. myamotoi by RLB. results. [i]Borrelia [/i]genospecies DNA was detected in 205 Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 14 infected with [i]Borrelia[/i] ticks, 4 were identified as B. garinii and 10 as B. afzelii. Higher numbers of infected ticks were noticed in the eastern part of the research area, where large forest complexes dominate. Nymphs appeared to be the most frequently infected tick stage, which has an epidemiological meaning in the incidence of Lyme borreliosis. conclusions. The study demonstrated that RLB might be easily used in [i]Borrelia[/i] DNA detection with genospecies-identification, and indicated the domination of [i]B. afzelii and B. garinii [/i]in ticks from North-Eastern Poland.

  15. Thermal conditions of the grape growing season within the North-Eastern steppe land of Ukraine (on the example of Kharkiv region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Борис Шуліка

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the results of the thermal conditions observations within the North-Eastern steppe land of Ukraine as one of the most important factors for successful cultivation of grapes, thus providing crop productivity. Considering the effect of thermal factors, it can be noted that the intensity and speed of life processes of plants are well- defined under temperature conditions only in the circumstances where other environmental factors are not limited. The thermal regime was initially taken into account in practice in XVII century. In XIX century the agro-climatic areas to grow grapes were determined in North-Eastern steppe land of Ukraine. Detailed studies of agro-climatic conditions of specific areas can more thoroughly to make conclusions and recommendations for the cultivation of grapes as a whole in the territory, and specifically in those areas were given. In studying the thermal balance of the territory the average and extreme temperature should be paid attention to. Characteristic features of the thermal regime are given in this paper based on the study of atmospheric phenomena, geomorphology and territories with radiation influence and water flow regime. Thermal treatment is subjected to anthropogenic influence, and in cultivating tenants can use appropriate agricultural practices (conceal bushes, warm soil and air, and even crops in protective ground, in greenhouses. Characteristically, technology of greenhouses growers is even used in Kherson region. These data can be used in neighborhood and the adjacent areas, especially they are useful for the practice of growing grapes. The possibility of successful cultivation of dozens of grape varieties in the North-Eastern steppe land of Ukraine has been well-grounded.

  16. Genetic differentiation and phylogeography of Mediterranean-North Eastern Atlantic blue shark (Prionace glauca, L. 1758 using mitochondrial DNA: panmixia or complex stock structure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Leone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The blue shark (Prionace glauca, Linnaeus 1758 is one of the most abundant epipelagic shark inhabiting all the oceans except the poles, including the Mediterranean Sea, but its genetic structure has not been confirmed at basin and interoceanic distances. Past tagging programs in the Atlantic Ocean failed to find evidence of migration of blue sharks between the Mediterranean and the adjacent Atlantic, despite the extreme vagility of the species. Although the high rate of by-catch in the Mediterranean basin, to date no genetic study on Mediterranean blue shark was carried out, which constitutes a significant knowledge gap, considering that this population is classified as “Critically Endangered”, unlike its open-ocean counterpart. Methods Blue shark phylogeography and demography in the Mediterranean Sea and North-Eastern Atlantic Ocean were inferred using two mitochondrial genes (Cytb and control region amplified from 207 and 170 individuals respectively, collected from six localities across the Mediterranean and two from the North-Eastern Atlantic. Results Although no obvious pattern of geographical differentiation was apparent from the haplotype network, Φst analyses indicated significant genetic structure among four geographical groups. Demographic analyses suggest that these populations have experienced a constant population expansion in the last 0.4–0.1 million of years. Discussion The weak, but significant, differences in Mediterranean and adjacent North-eastern Atlantic blue sharks revealed a complex phylogeographic structure, which appears to reject the assumption of panmixia across the study area, but also supports a certain degree of population connectivity across the Strait of Gibraltar, despite the lack of evidence of migratory movements observed by tagging data. Analyses of spatial genetic structure in relation to sex-ratio and size could indicate some level of sex/stage biased migratory behaviour.

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes cinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Dunaj; Joanna Maria Zajkowska; Maciej Kondrusik; Lise Gern; Oliver Rais; Anna Moniuszko; Sławomir Pancewicz; Renata Świerzbińska

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) is a molecular biology technique that might be used for [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (sl) DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among[i] B. burgdorferi[/i] sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different [i]Borrelia[/i] genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. ...

  18. Seasonal forecasts of the SINTEX-F coupled model applied to maize yield and streamflow estimates over north-eastern South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malherbe, J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available -1 Meteorological Applications Vol. 21(3) Seasonal forecasts of the SINTEX-F coupled model applied to maize yield and streamflow estimates over north-eastern South Africa J. Malherbe,a* W. A. Landman,b,c C. Olivier,d H. Sakumae and J- J. Luof a Institute... for Soil, Climate and Water, Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa b Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Natural Resources and the Environment, Pretoria, South Africa c Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology...

  19. Noise-induced hearing loss among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of malaysia: a study on knowledge, attitude and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmad Filza; Daud, Aziah; Ismail, Zaliha; Abdullah, Baharudin

    2013-09-01

    Noise is known to be one of the environmental and occupational hazards listed in the Factory and Machinery Act 1967. Quarries with loud deafening sounds from trucks and machineries pose the risk of noise-induced hearing loss to workers. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards noise-induced hearing loss and to determine the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss and its associated factors among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted at six quarries in a north-eastern state of Malaysia, with 97 consented respondents who answered a validated version of a questionnaire and underwent pure tone audiogram. The respondents were male, aged between 18 to 50 years, working in the quarry area for at least 6-months duration with no family history of ear diseases. The mean percentage scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were 44 (11), 70 (10) and 28 (16) percent, respectively. The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was found to be 57 (95% CI: 47, 67) with 46 (84%) having mild and moderate noise-induced hearing loss, and 34 (62%) involved both ears. Multiple logistic regressions showed that age and practice score were the associated factors with odd ratios of 1.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.2; phearing loss was contributed by factors such as poor practice and old age.

  20. Spatial Analysis of Urban Master Plans of Towns in North-Eastern Poland in the Context of Urban Revalorisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagroba, Marek; Klopotowski, Maciej

    2017-12-01

    The research subject raised in this study is the urban structure of small towns in Warmia, a region rich in history, situated in the north-eastern Poland. This area, together with the neighbouring region of Mazury, is referred to as the Land of a Thousand Lakes. The historical events, such as the conquest of this territory by the Teutonic Order in 13th century, gave rise to the foundation of twelve towns in Warmia, which have survived until our time. Of these settlements, only one, which is Olsztyn, grew to a larger size over the centuries and eventually became the capital of Warmia. The others are still small towns, with a population from a few to less than twenty thousand inhabitants. The policy and economic goals of the Teutonic Order underlay the spread of a uniform type of urban master plan in the entire region. The establishment of urban centres was dictated by military considerations - all towns had fortified castles and were 15-30 km distant from one another, which stemmed from the organisation of the Teutonic State. The location of new towns in Warmia coincided in time with the general urban planning principles governing urban development in the Middle Ages. The medieval towns, which grew on the foundations of ancient cultures, were developed on a regular grid of streets, delineating land lots for compact town houses and a central square serving as a market place. Within this structure, the town’s most significant spatial dominants, such as a town hall, a church and a fortified castle, were situated. The castle often stood on the outskirts of a town, as it had to be connected to the town’s fortifications. The location of medieval towns in Warmia proceeded according to a similar concept. All these towns are distinguished by characteristically medieval, regular urban layouts, which - while being similar - have certain intrinsic features. Differences can be seen in the design of main streets, the size and proportions of market squares, the ways in which

  1. Climate Change: Precipitation and Plant Nutrition Interactions on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in North-Eastern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    It is widely well known that annual temperatures over Europe warm at a rate of between 0.1 0C decade-1 and 0.4 0C decade-1. And most of Europe gets wetter in the winter season between +1% and +4% decade-1. In summer there is a strong gradient of change between northern Europe (wetting of up to +2% decade-1) and southern Europe (drying of up to 5% decade-1). The droughts and the floods were experienced at Hungary in the early eighties as well as today. So among the natural catastrophes, drought and flooding caused by over-abundant rainfall cause the greatest problems in field potato production. The crop is demanding indicator plant of climate factors (temperature, rainfall) and soil nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium status. This publication gives the results achieved in the period from 1962 to 2001 of a long term small- plot fertilization experiment set up on acidic sandy brown forest soil at Nyírlugos in the Nyírség region in North-Eastern Hungary. Characteristics of the experiment soil were a pH (KCl) 4.5, humus 0.5%, CEC 5-10 mgeq 100g-1 in the ploughed layer. The topsoil was poor in all four macronutrient N, P, K and Mg. The mineral fertilization experiment involved 2 (genotypes: Gülbaba and Aranyalma) x 2 (ploughed depths: 20 and 40 cm) x 16 (fertilizations: N, P, K, Mg) = 64 treatments in 8 replications, giving a total of 512 plots. The gross and net plot sizes were 10x5=50 m2 and 35.5 m2. The experimental designe was split-split-plot. The N levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 kg ha-1 year-1 and the P, K, Mg levels were 48, 150, 30 kg ha-1 year-1 P2O5, K2O, MgO in the form of 25% calcium ammonium nitrate, 18% superphosphate, 40% potassium chloride, and powdered technological magnesium sulphate. The forecrop every second year was rye. The groundwater level was at a depth of 2-3 m. From the 64 treatments, eight replications, altogether 512- experimental plots with 7 treatments and their 16 combinations are summarised of experiment period from 1962 to

  2. Tanzania Dental Association

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Committee of Tanzania Dental. Association would like to Thank. [fUfNJfNJU[[j)~ for its magnanimity towards meeting the cost of this Journal ... ceps is token out of the dental kit and the tooth is removed out of its socket. The tooth is dropped into the waste bucket. The fareceps is placed in the water basin. The socket site is ...

  3. YOUTH EMPLOYMENTin Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Some 17.5 millionTanzanians are between 15 and 34 years of age. This number is expected to almost double by 2035. For more information, please refer to Haji, Mahjabeen (2015) Tanzania: Skills and youth employment, a scoping paper commissioned by IDRC and the MasterCard Foundation. Young self-employed.

  4. IDRC in Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    worth CA$60 million since 1973. By identifying the major causes of death and disease, IDRC-supported research has helped to significantly reduced child and adult mortality rates in ... mental conditions in communities in. Tanzania and Malawi. Researchers and com- munity members will use the survey results to design ...

  5. Tanzania Journal of Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Journal of Science (Tanz. J. Sci.) was established in 1975 as a forum for communication and co-ordination between and among scientists and allied professionals. It is also intended as a medium for dissemination of scientific knowledge among scientists and the public at large to promote the advancement of ...

  6. Tanzania Medical Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Medical Journal is a multi – disciplinary journal published two times a year in March - June and September – December. ... To achieve its objectives the journal invites papers on original scientific research, short communications, case reports and letters to the editor, in any branch of medical science. Original ...

  7. Emergence of canine distemper virus strains with two amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin protein, detected from vaccinated carnivores in North-Eastern China in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Zhang, Hailing; Bai, Xue; Martella, Vito; Hu, Bo; Sun, Yangang; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Hao; Xu, Shujuan; Shao, Xiqun; Wu, Wei; Yan, Xijun

    2014-04-01

    A total of 16 strains of canine distemper virus (CDV) were detected from vaccinated minks, foxes, and raccoon dogs in four provinces in North-Eastern China between the end of 2011 and 2013. Upon sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin gene and comparison with wild-type CDV from different species in the same geographical areas, two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in 10 CDV strains, which led to amino acid changes at positions 542 (isoleucine to asparagine) and 549 (tyrosine to histidine) of the haemagglutinin protein coding sequence. The change at residue 542 generated a potentially novel N-glycosylation site. Masking of antigenic epitopes by sugar moieties might represent a mechanism for evasion of virus neutralising antibodies and reduced protection by vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A laboratory and field study of 210Po depuration by edible winkles (Littorina littorea L.) from the Cumbrian coast (north-eastern Irish Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.J.; Smith, D.L.; Allington, D.J.; Winpenny, K.

    1995-01-01

    Edible winkles from Saltom Bay, Cumbria (north-eastern Irish Sea) had flesh 210 Po concentrations in excess of 200 Bq kg -1 (wet). This came from liquid waste discharged under authorisation from a chemical plant producing phosphoric acid. This labelling of the winkles under natural conditions was exploited to determine the 210 Po depuration rate and biological half-time. Winkles transferred to Lowestoft and depurated in flowing seawater had biological half-times ranging from 82 to 119 days depending on temperature. After the chemical plant was shut, changes in Saltom Bay winkle flesh contents of 210 Po, 210 Pb and cadmium were followed by monthly samples. The biological half-time in the environment for the decrease in 210 Po after the plant closed was estimated at about 92 days. (author)

  9. Hydrology in a mediterranean mountain environment. The Vallcebre research catchment (north eastern Spain) I. 20 years of investigations of hydrological dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latron, J.; Llorens, P.; Solar, M.; Poyatos, R.; Rubio, C.; Muzylo, A.; Martinez-Carreras, N.; Delgado, J.; Regues, D.; Catari, G.; Nord, G.; Gallart, F.

    2009-01-01

    Investigations started 20 years ago in the Vallcebre research basins with the objectives of better understanding the hydrological functioning of Mediterranean mountains basins. The Vallcebre basins (0.15-4.17 km 2 ) are located in a Mediterranean mountain area of the Pyrenean ranges (1300 m.a.s.l., North Eastern Spain) Average annual precipitations 862± 260 mm and potential evapotranspiration is 823±26mm. Climate is highly seasonal leading to periods with water deficit in summer, and eventually in winter. Hydrological investigations to periods with water deficit in summer, and eventually in winter. Hydrological investigations in the basins are related to rainfall interception, evapotranspiration, soil moisture spatio-temporal dynamics, runoff response and runoff processes, suspended sediment dynamics and model application both at the plot and basin scales. (Author) 15 refs.

  10. Challenges of conservation agriculture practices on silty soils. Effects on soil pore and gas transport characteristics in North-eastern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccoli, Ilaria; Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    highlighted low transmission properties of the silty soils independently from agronomic management. Both air permeability and relative gas diffusivity showed poor aerated conditions being generallytreatments affected the transmission properties only in the coarsest soil...... of this study was to evaluate the effect of CA practices on gas transport characteristics in the silty soils of the Veneto Region (North-Eastern Italy). In 2010, a field experiment comparing CA practices (no-tillage, cover crop and residues retention) to conventional intensive tillage (IT) system...... was established in four farms located in the Veneto low plain. In fall 2015, 144 undisturbed 100 cm3 soil cores where collected at two different layers (3–6.5 cm and 20–23.5 cm) and analysed for air-filled porosity, air permeability, gas diffusivity and soil structure indices derived. Gas transport measurements...

  11. Analysing workplace violence towards health care staff in public hospitals using alternative ordered response models: the case of north-eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ali Kemal; Oktay, Erkan; Çebi, Kübranur

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this article is to determine key factors that may have a significant effect on the verbal abuse, emotional abuse and physical assault of health care workers in north-eastern Turkey. A self-administered survey was completed by 450 health care workers in three well-established hospitals in Erzurum, Turkey. Because of the discrete and ordered nature of the dependent variable of the survey, the data were analysed using four distinctive ordered response models. Results revealed that several key variables were found to be a significant determinant of workplace violence, such as the type of health institution, occupational position, weekly working hours, weekly shift hours, number of daily patient contacts, age group of the respondents, experience in the health sector, training against workplace violence and current policies of the hospitals and the Turkish Ministry of Health.

  12. Comparison of visual observation and excavation to quantify density of the endangered bivalve Unio crassus in rivers of north-eastern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamand F.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of a rapid decline in several protected unionid species, government agencies urgently require a reliable method to estimate population size for the most endangered species. We used a dataset collected from 16 river stations in north-eastern France to compare the efficiency of visual estimation (bathyscope and a manual excavation to estimate numbers of the endangered bivalve Unio crassus. Our investigations indicated that, whereas a visual approach was sufficient to detect unionid presence, only 10% of all individuals were registered compared with manual excavation at the same site. In order to obtain an accurate density estimate (especially as regards the juvenile population, sediment excavation is necessary, despite it being time consuming and damaging to the mussel’s habitat.

  13. Traditional Practicing with Arsenic Rich Water in Fish Industries Leads to Health Hazards in West Bengal and North-Eastern States of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is main necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population throughout the globe. This study comes to know the severity of As in the west Bengal and north-eastern states of the India. Over the 75% large population of India lives in villages and associated with farming and its related work. West Bengal is the densest populated area of India, fish and rice is the staple food as well as in north-eastern states. For the fulfil demand of fish large population the area are used fisheries as the business. Arsenic contamination in ground water is major growing threat to worldwide drinking water resources. High As contamination in water have been reported in many parts of the world Chandrasekharam et al., 2001; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002; Farooq et al., 2010). In context to West Bengal and north-east states of India arsenic is main problem in the food chain. These areas are very rich in arsenic many fold higher concentrations of Arsenic than their respective WHO permissible limits have been reported in the water. Over the 36 million people in Bengal delta are at risk due to drinking of As contaminated water (Nordstrom, 2002). The highest concentration of arsenic (535 μg/L Chandrashekhar et al. 2012) was registered from Ngangkha Lawai Mamang Leikai area of Bishnupur district which is fifty fold of the WHO limit for arsenic and tenfold of Indian permissible limit. With the continuous traditional practicing (As rich water pond) and untreated arsenic rich water in fish industries leads to health hazards. A sustainable development in aquaculture should comprise of various fields including environmental, social, cultural and economic aspects. A scientific study has to be needed for the overcome on this problem and rain harvested water may be used for reduce the arsenic problems in fisheries.

  14. Predominance of genotype 1.1 and emergence of genotype 2.2 classical swine fever viruses in north-eastern region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, P; Sarma, D K; Rajkhowa, S; Munir, M; Kuchipudi, S V

    2014-08-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and the most important disease of pigs worldwide.CSF is enzootic in pig herds in India and continues to cause huge economic losses to pig farmers. Nearly 40% of the total pig population of India is present in the north-eastern (NE) states where pig husbandry plays an important role in the socio-economic development. Pigs reared in the backyards are the only source of livelihood for a majority of poor tribal population in the region. Hardly any CSF vaccination is currently being undertaken in the unorganized pig farming in the NE region due to economic reasons and vaccine unavailability. A thorough understanding of the current epidemiological status of CSF is essential for the effective control of the disease in the NE region. Hence, we carried out molecular characterization of CSFV isolates from field outbreaks during 2011-2012 in the entire north-eastern region of India to establish the genetic groups of prevalent CSF viruses in the region. A total of 17 CSFV isolates obtained from different parts of the NE region were characterized by comparing the sequences of three partial genomic regions of the virus, that is 150 nt of 5' UTR, 190 nt of E2 and 409 nt of NS5B. Of the 17 CSFV isolates, 15 isolates belonged to 1.1 (88.2%) and two isolates (11.8%) belonged to 2.2 subgenogroup. The genogroup 2.2 CSFV were associated with outbreaks in Arunachal Pradesh that shares international borders with Bhutan, Myanmar and China. Genogroup 2.2 CSFV isolated in the present study shared high level of sequence similarity with 2.2 viruses form China, raising the possibility of virus incursion from this region. In summary, we found a continued predominance of 1.1 subgroup and an emergence of 2.2 subgroup CSFV in NE region of India. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H E [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  16. Tanzania country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, H.E.

    1998-01-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  17. Corporal Punishment in Tanzania's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Mwahombela, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to acquire descriptive information regarding corporal punishment in Tanzania's O-level secondary schools. 448 individuals participated in the study: 254 teachers and 194 students, all from government or private secondary schools in the Iringa Region of Tanzania. In addition, 14 students and 14 teachers were…

  18. Verbal Autopsies in Rural Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal mortality rates in rural Tanzania are high. In preparation for the introduction of an intervention to reduce maternal deaths by distribution of misoprostol and erythromycin to women living in rural Rorya District, Mara Region, Tanzania, we conducted a limited verbal autopsy by surveying family members of women ...

  19. Buried paleo-sedimentary basins in the north-eastern Black Sea-Azov Sea area and tectonic implications (DOBRE-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostenko, Vitaly; Stephenson, Randell; Janik, Tomasz; Tolkunov, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    A number of independent but inter-related projects carried out under the auspices of various national and international programmes in Ukraine including DARIUS were aimed at imaging the upper lithosphere, crustal and sedimentary basin architecture in the north-eastern Black Sea, southern Crimea and Kerch peninsulas and the Azov Sea. This region marks the transition from relatively undisturbed Precambrian European cratonic crust and lithosphere north of the Azov Sea to areas of significant Phanerozoic tectonics and basin development, in both extensional as well as compressional environments, to the south, including the eastern Black Sea rift, which is the main sedimentary basin of the study area. The wide-angle reflection and refraction (WARR) profile DOBRE-2, a Ukrainian national project with international participation (see below), overlapping some 115 km of the southern end of the DOBREfraction'99 profile (that crosses the intracratonic Donbas Foldbelt) in the north and running to the eastern Black Sea basin in the south, utilised on- and offshore recording and energy sources. It maps crustal velocity structure across the craton margin and documents, among other things, that the Moho deepens from 40 km to ~47 km to the southwest below the Azov Sea and Crimean-Caucasus deformed zone. A regional CDP seismic profile coincident with DOBRE-2, crossing the Azov Sea, Kerch Peninsula and the north-eastern Black Sea southwest to the Ukraine-Turkey border, acquired by Ukrgeofisika (the Ukrainian national geophysical company) reveals in its inferred structural relationships the ages of Cretaceous and younger extensional and subsequent basin inversion tectonic events as well as the 2D geometry of basement displacement associated with post mid-Eocene inversion. A direct comparison of the results of the WARR velocity model and the near-vertical reflection structural image has been made by converting the former into the time domain. The results dramatically demonstrate that

  20. Distribution and habitat characterization of the recently introduced invasive mosquito Aedes koreicus [Hulecoeteomyia koreica], a new potential vector and pest in north-eastern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The container breeding species belonging to the genus Aedes (Meigen) are frequently recorded out of their place of origin. Invasive Aedes species are proven or potential vectors of important Arboviruses and their establishment in new areas pose a threat for human and animal health. A new species of exotic mosquito was recorded in 2011 in north-eastern Italy: Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus [Hulecoeteomyia koreica]. The aim of this study was to characterize the biology, the environment and the current distribution of this mosquito in north-eastern Italy. Morphological details useful to discriminate this species from other invasive Aedes mosquitoes are also given (see Additional files). Methods All possible breeding sites for larval development were monitored. In addition, ovitraps and traps for adults were used to collect eggs and adults. The mosquitoes (larvae and adults) were identified morphologically and molecularly. Environmental data and climatic variables during the period of mosquito activity (from April to October) were considered. Results Aedes koreicus was found in 37 municipalities (39.4%) and was detected in 40.2% of places and in 37.3% of larval habitats monitored, in a range of altitude from 173 to 1250 m.a.s.l.. Garden centres were the most common locations (66.7%), followed by streets/squares (57.1%), private gardens (46.4%) and cemeteries (21.1%) (p Aedes albopictus [Stegomyia albopicta], ovitraps were attractive for adult females resulting in the higher rate of positivity (15/21; 71.4%) among breeding sites. The period of Ae. koreicus activity ranged from March 29 to October 29. Conclusion The species is clearly established in the area and is now overlapping with other vectors such as Ae. albopictus and colonizing areas over 800 m.a.s.l, not yet or sporadically reached by the tiger mosquito. The data collected are essential to assess the risk of colonization of other parts of Italy and Europe, as well as the risk of spreading of pathogens

  1. DICKINSARTELLA FAUNA FROM THE SAIWAN FORMATION (OMAN: A BIVALVE FAUNA TESTIFYING TO THE LATE SAKMARIAN (EARLY PERMIAN CLIMATIC AMELIORATION ALONG THE NORTH-EASTERN GONDWANAN FRINGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The transitional faunas of the Permian Huqf succession of Oman make it one of the key-sections for the intercalibration of Early to Middle Permian biostratigraphical scales. The abundance of fossils improved the knowledge of some marine faunas which populated the North-Eastern Gondwanan fringe during times of climatic changes in the Permian. A Sterlitamakian (upper Sakmarian, Lower Permian bivalve fauna from the Saiwan Formation in the Huqf area, informally named "Dickinsartella Fauna", is described in the present paper. The specimens examined were collected from the "Pachycyrtella Bed" (Auctorum, the basal bed of the Formation in its type locality. The Dickinsartella Fauna can be identified for the presence of the new genus Dickinsartella, which dominates the bivalve thanatocoenosis with D. pistacina sp. n. (type species. The bivalve fauna from the Pachycyrtella Bed includes the new species Stutchburia sangallii and Promytilus  mazzolenii, and also Astartella obliqua Dickins, 1963, Nuculopsis cf. bangarraensis Dickins, 1963, ?Oriocrassatella sp., and indeterminable aviculopectinids. This fauna shows a low taxonomic diversity. Nevertheless, some species are represented by a high number of generally well-preserved specimens, i.e. some specimens of S. sangallii sp. n. and A. obliqua show part of the ligament.  The good preservation of the shells permitted the microstructural analysis of D. pistacina sp. n. and S. sangallii sp. n. The microstructure of S. sangallii sp. n. supports the close phylogenetical link between modiomorphids and crassatelloids recognized by some previous authors.The new genus Dickinsartella includes the more recent species belonging to the important Paleozoic Order Cyrtodontida Scarlato & Starobogatov, 1971. The discovery of Dickinsartella gen. n. and other taxa of the Pachycyrtella Bed, present also in the Sakmarian levels of the Carnarvon and Perth Basins in Western Australia,  indicates a wider distribution of the

  2. OPERATIONAL REMOTE SENSING SERVICES IN NORTH EASTERN REGION OF INDIA FOR NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, EARLY WARNING FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION AND SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. Raju

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available North Eastern Region (NER of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the

  3. Operational Remote Sensing Services in North Eastern Region of India for Natural Resources Management, Early Warning for Disaster Risk Reduction and Dissemination of Information and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Sarma, K. K.; Barman, D.; Handique, B. K.; Chutia, D.; Kundu, S. S.; Das, R. Kr.; Chakraborty, K.; Das, R.; Goswami, J.; Das, P.; Devi, H. S.; Nongkynrih, J. M.; Bhusan, K.; Singh, M. S.; Singh, P. S.; Saikhom, V.; Goswami, C.; Pebam, R.; Borgohain, A.; Gogoi, R. B.; Singh, N. R.; Bharali, A.; Sarma, D.; Lyngdoh, R. B.; Mandal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.

    2016-06-01

    North Eastern Region (NER) of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC) in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS) using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS) based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the administrators and

  4. Mapping Decadal Land Cover Changes in the Woodlands of North Eastern Namibia from 1975 to 2014 Using the Landsat Satellite Archived Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir R. Wingate

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Woodlands and savannahs provide essential ecosystem functions and services to communities. On the African continent, they are widely utilized and converted to subsistence and intensive agriculture or urbanized. This study investigates changes in land cover over four administrative regions of North Eastern Namibia within the Kalahari woodland savannah biome, covering a total of 107,994 km2. Land cover is mapped using multi-sensor Landsat imagery at decadal intervals from 1975 to 2014, with a post-classification change detection method. The dominant change observed was a reduction in the area of woodland savannah due to the expansion of agriculture, primarily in the form of small-scale cereal and pastoral production. More specifically, woodland savannah area decreased from 90% of the study area in 1975 to 83% in 2004, and then increased to 86% in 2014, while agricultural land increased from 6% to 12% between 1975 and 2014. We assess land cover changes in relation to towns, villages, rivers and roads and find most changes occurred in proximity to these. In addition, we find that most land cover changes occur within land designated as communally held, followed by state protected land. With widespread changes occurring across the African continent, this study provides important data for understanding drivers of change in the region and their impacts on the distribution of woodland savannahs.

  5. Quantification of the early small-scale fishery in the north-eastern Baltic Sea in the late 17th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verliin, Aare; Ojaveer, Henn; Kaju, Katre; Tammiksaar, Erki

    2013-01-01

    Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden) being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses.

  6. Quantification of the early small-scale fishery in the north-eastern Baltic Sea in the late 17th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aare Verliin

    Full Text Available Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses.

  7. Hydrology in a mediterranean mountain environment. The Vallcebre research catchment (north eastern Spain) II. Rainfall-runoff relationships and runoff processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latron, J.; Solar, M.; Nord, G.; Llorens, P.; Gallart, F.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrological response and runoff processes have been studied in the Vallcebre research basins (North Eastern Spain) for almost 20 years. Results obtained allowed to build a more complete perceptual model of the hydrological functioning of Mediterranean mountains basins. On a seasonal and monthly scale, there was no simple relationship between rainfall and runoff depths. Monthly rainfall and runoff values revealed the existence of a threshold in the relationship between rainfall and runoff depths. At the event scale, the storm-flow coefficient had a clear seasonal pattern. The effect of the water table position on how rainfall and runoff volumes relate was observed. Examination of soil water potential and water table dynamics during representative floods helped to identify 3 types of characteristic hydrological behaviour during the year. Under dry conditions, runoff was generated essentially as infiltration excess runoff in low permeable areas, whereas saturation excess runoff dominated during wetting-up and wet conditions. During wetting-up transition, saturated areas resulted from the development of scattered perched water tables, whereas in wet conditions they were linked to the rise of the shallow water table. (Author) 8 refs.

  8. THE SOURCES OF NUTRIENTS IN WATERS OF RIVERS IN THE WETLAND AREAS OF NAREW NATIONAL PARK IN NORTH-EASTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Skorbiłowicz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at the attempt to identify and to evaluate the interaction intensity, and to classify the sources of river waters nutrients in the catchment of upper river Narew within Narew National Park (north-eastern Poland. The studies were carried out on Narew river within borders of Narew National Park, where 5 measurement-control points were localized as well as one near estuaries of its 5 tributaries (Awissa, Czaplinianka, Horodnianka, Turośnianka and Supraśl. Factor analysis (FA from multi-dimensional group was applied for statistical processing of study results, because it is commonly used to describe and explore a large number of data. concentrations of analyzed chemicals depended on a water sampling point that was under anthropopression and geogenic conditions. Studies and results from analyses (FA and CA allowed for identifying the main sources of river Narew nutrients within Narew National Park. These are: tributaries of river Narew, point and distributed runoffs, as well as shallow ground waters that transport components having anthropogenic and partially geogenic-lithologic origin. River Turośnianka supplies the largest loads of studied parameters to river Narew within Narew National Park boundaries. River Supraśl is the most contaminated tributary of river Narew.

  9. Quantification of human polyomavirus JC virus load in urine and blood samples of healthy tribal populations of North-Eastern part of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaraj, S; Bera, N K; Dutta, C; Bhattacharjee, S

    2015-01-01

    Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) is a widespread human virus with profound pathogenic potential. A study was undertaken to quantify JCV load in urine and peripheral blood samples of immunocompetent, apparently healthy tribal individuals of North-Eastern part of West Bengal, India for the first time. One hundred and thirteen samples of urine or blood were collected from different tribal groups of this region. For the quantitative estimation of the viral load in each sample, real-time polymerase chain reaction method using the SYBR Green dye was employed. The viral load estimated was found in the range between 3.5 × 102 and 2.12 × 106 copies/ml of samples having a mean and median viral copy numbers of 8.67 × 105 and 9.19 × 105 copies/ml of sample respectively. The mean viral DNA load in urine samples of the studied immunocompetent population was found to be higher than that found in a study conducted in the USA, but lower than similar groups of Italy and healthy adult women in the USA. However when compared with median values of viral DNA loads in urine samples of immunocompetent human subjects of Kuwait, Portugal, and Switzerland the observed viral DNA load was found to be substantially higher.

  10. Use of a time-domain electromagnetic method with geochemical tracers to explore the salinity anomalies in a small coastal aquifer in north-eastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekirbane, Anis; Tsujimura, Maki; Kawachi, Atsushi; Lachaal, Fethi; Isoda, Hiroko; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2014-12-01

    The study area is a small coastal plain in north-eastern Tunisia. It is drained by an ephemeral stream network and is subject to several pollutant discharges such as oilfield brine coming from a neighboring oil company and wastewater from Somâa city, located in the upstream of the plain. Furthermore, a hydraulic head near the coastal part of the aquifer is below sea level, suggesting that seawater intrusion may occur. A time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) survey, based on 28 soundings, was conducted in Wadi Al Ayn and Daroufa plains to delineate the saline groundwater. Based on longitudinal and transversal resistivity two-dimensional pseudosections calibrated with boring data, the extent of saline water was identified. Geochemical tracers were combined with the resistivity dataset to differentiate the origin of groundwater salinization. In the upstream part of the plain, the infiltration of oilfield brine through the sandy bed of Wadi Al Ayn seems to have a considerable effect on groundwater salinization. However, in the coastal part of the aquifer, groundwater salinization is due to seawater intrusion and the saltwater is reaching an inland extent around 1.3 km from the shoreline. The contribution ratios of saline water bodies derived from the inverted chloride data vary for the oilfield brine from 1 to 13 % and for the seawater from 2 to 21 %.

  11. Spatial genetic analyses reveal cryptic population structure and migration patterns in a continuously harvested grey wolf (Canis lupus population in north-eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Hindrikson

    Full Text Available Spatial genetics is a relatively new field in wildlife and conservation biology that is becoming an essential tool for unravelling the complexities of animal population processes, and for designing effective strategies for conservation and management. Conceptual and methodological developments in this field are therefore critical. Here we present two novel methodological approaches that further the analytical possibilities of STRUCTURE and DResD. Using these approaches we analyse structure and migrations in a grey wolf (Canislupus population in north-eastern Europe. We genotyped 16 microsatellite loci in 166 individuals sampled from the wolf population in Estonia and Latvia that has been under strong and continuous hunting pressure for decades. Our analysis demonstrated that this relatively small wolf population is represented by four genetic groups. We also used a novel methodological approach that uses linear interpolation to statistically test the spatial separation of genetic groups. The new method, which is capable of using program STRUCTURE output, can be applied widely in population genetics to reveal both core areas and areas of low significance for genetic groups. We also used a recently developed spatially explicit individual-based method DResD, and applied it for the first time to microsatellite data, revealing a migration corridor and barriers, and several contact zones.

  12. Geochemistry of U-Th- REE bearing minerals, in radioactive pegmatite in Um Swassi-Dara area, north eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, B. H.

    2007-01-01

    Some of the pegmatites in the north Eastern Desert of Egypt have high radioactive values, between them the studied radioactive pegmatites which are clustered just in the western margin of Um Swassi-Dara hosted monzogranites. In zoned pegmatite the alteration zones locate between quartz core and intermediate zone are characterizing with the abundance of rare-earth minerals, anderbergite, cenosite, Y-allanite and uranium, thorium minerals such as euxenite, ferro-columbite and complex titanium-yetrum oxides (Kobbite). This zone is a result of many alteration processes developed from volatile-rich magmatic fluids and/or hydrothermal solution which evolved from late differentiated magmatic fluid and lead to increase of U, Th, Zr, Nb, Ti and REE bearing minerals. Such a distinctive alkaline mineralization suite, possibly related to an alkali fluid phase, is superimposed on a more normal, less alkaline group of minerals such as cassiterite, chalcopyrite, and galena. Nb-Ta-Ti minerals bearing U and Th, define a sequence of oxide, cyclosilicate and silicate minerals, showing the effect of hydrothermal overprinting with extreme REE enrichment of the fluids. It can be concluded that the studied mineralization took place in three overlapping stages

  13. Simulation of the hydrogeologic effects of oil-shale mining on the neighbouring wetland water balance: case study in north-eastern Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, Andres; Karro, Enn; Polikarpus, Maile; Jõeleht, Argo; Kohv, Marko; Hang, Tiit; Hiiemaa, Helen

    2013-11-01

    The water balance of wetlands plays an integral role in their function. Developments adjacent to wetlands can affect their water balance through impacts on groundwater flow and increased discharge in the area, and they can cause lowering of the wetland water table. A 430 km2 area was selected for groundwater modelling to asses the effect of underground mining on the water balance of wetlands in north-eastern Estonia. A nature conservation area (encompassing Selisoo bog) is within 3 km of an underground oil-shale mine. Two future mining scenarios with different areal extents of mining were modeled and compared to the present situation. Results show that the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the subsurface is of critical importance to potential wetland dewatering as a result of mining. Significant impact on the Selisoo bog water balance will be caused by the approaching mine but there will be only minor additional impacts from mining directly below the bog. The major impact will arise before that stage, when the underground mine extension reaches the border of the nature conservation area; since the restriction of activities in this area relates to the ground surface, the conservation area’s border is not sufficiently protective in relation to underground development.

  14. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS Contribution to the Inventory of Infrastructure Susceptible to Earthquake and Flooding Hazards in North-Eastern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Papadopoulou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For civil protection reasons there is a strong need to improve the inventory of areas that are more vulnerable to earthquake ground motions or to earthquake-related secondary effects, such as landslides, liquefaction or soil amplifications. The use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS methods along with the related geo-databases can assist local and national authorities to be better prepared and organized. Remote sensing and GIS techniques are investigated in north-eastern Greece in order to contribute to the systematic, standardized inventory of those areas that are more susceptible to earthquake ground motions, to earthquake-related secondary effects and to tsunami-waves. Knowing areas with aggregated occurrence of causal (“negative” factors influencing earthquake shock and, thus, the damage intensity, this knowledge can be integrated into disaster preparedness and mitigation measurements. The evaluation of satellite imageries, digital topographic data and open source geodata contributes to the acquisition of the specific tectonic, geologic and geomorphologic settings influencing local site conditions in an area and, thus, estimate possible damage to be suffered.

  15. Active detection of tuberculosis and paragonimiasis in the remote areas in North-Eastern India using cough as a simple indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekha Devi, Kangjam; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Deori, Rumi; Lego, Kabang; Goswami, Dibyajyoti; Kumar Rajguru, Sanjib; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2013-04-01

    One of the essential steps in targeting tuberculosis (TB) intervention is early diagnosis and treatment of patients by reducing the reservoir of infection in the community. In the North-Eastern (NE) region of India pulmonary TB and paragonimiasis are overlapping public health issues. We performed a cross-sectional study in 63 remote villages from the two states Arunachal Pradesh (AP) and Assam to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed TB and paragonimiasis cases using cough as a simple indicator. In AP, 2961 individuals aged five years and above were examined and 1108 (37·4%) were found to have cough for one week or more. Of the 417 individuals who provided sputum, 11 (2·64%) were smear positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). All these cases were yet undiagnosed, thus the prevalence of new smear positive TB in AP was 0·37%. In Assam on the other hand 331 (23·5%) subjects out of 1410 individuals who were examined had a cough for one week or more and of the 112 individuals who provided sputum, 13 (11·6%) were smear positive for AFB. The prevalence of new smear positive TB cases was 0·78% in Assam. Sero-positivity of paragonimiasis in coughers of AP was 7·6% (n = 1091), which was significantly higher (p NE region of India especially in the remote places and there is need to strengthen early case detection of TB.

  16. Surveillance of the North-Eastern Atlantic dumpsite for low-level radioactive waste. The Swiss oceanographic research program 'PROSPER'. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyffeler, F.; Ruch, P.; Hanselmann, K.

    1984-08-01

    This report describes the results of the research undertaken within the CRESP program by the Swiss group PROSPER, for the surveillance of the current dumpsite for low-level radioactive waste in the North-Eastern Atlantic. About 100 nephelometric profiles obtained during three cruises in the vicinity of the site provide a sound basis for the description of the benthic nepheloid layer structure. Statistical analyses show that the last 1000 m of water above the bottom are influenced by resuspension processes or by lateral advection of particles detached from the surrounding relief. A mapping performed over a large area (200 x 200 km) confirms the accumulation of particles in topographic lows. Geochemical analysis of suspended matter and surficial sediment has been carried out in order to compare their elemental composition, and to determine the classes of particles which are more likely to be resuspended. The discrepancy between BNL and local sediment composition suggests that advective transport or resuspension of older bottom sediment, exposed following slumping from the hill slopes, could act in addition to the local resuspension of recent sediment. (author)

  17. Country Presentation Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIFANGA, L.D.; GYIMBI, H.; MLOWOLA, V.; KASONGWA, M.

    2010-01-01

    Discusses overview of incidents and developments involving illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials in Tanzania.13 cases have been recorded between 1996 and 2008. All cases occurred in Dar Es Salam. Police, customs and security staff intercepted the sources and culprits arrested. The latest incident occurred in May 2008 and involved illegal possession of a capsule labelled nuclear material (U-238). A total of 14 sources were seized . Types of sources seized were u-238, Caesium-137, Strontium-90 and Radium-226.

  18. Sleeping sickness situation in Tanzania | Kibona | Tanzania Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Water pollution abatement programme. The Czech Republic. Project 4.2. Assessing critical loads of acidity to surface waters in the Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity to surface waters, north-eastern Bohemia and northern Moravia, The Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lien, L.; Raclavsky, K.; Raclavska, H.; Matysek, D.; Hovind, H.

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses estimates of critical loads of acidity to surface waters and their exceedances, for north-eastern Bohemia and Moravia in The Czech Republic. The survey covers 13 400 km{sup 2}, or 17% of the area of the country. Varying critical loads were observed within the examined region. 19% of the examined area showed exceedance of critical load and another 11% was close to exceedance. The survey should continue in Bohemia. 24 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. [Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context. Hrsg. von Jörg Hackmann] / Sir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamul, Sirje, 1951-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context (Quellen und Studien zur baltischen Geschichte, 20; Veröffentlichungen der Aue-Stiftung, 26). Hrsg. von Jörg Hackmann. Böhlau Verlag. Köln u.a. 2012

  1. Tanzania Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research (TJHR) aims to facilitate the advance of health sciences by publishing high quality research and review articles that communicate new ideas and developments in biomedical and health research. TJHR is ...

  2. Tanzania's healthcare breakthrough | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-18

    Nov 18, 2010 ... A model for success. The effects have ... health systems. Globally, there is a growing acceptance of the TEHIP lessons. ... has ended." — Hassan Mshinda, Director General, Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology ...

  3. Free-ranging European bisons accumulate more cadmium in the liver and kidneys than domestic cattle in north-eastern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlostowski, Tadeusz; Bonda, Elzbieta; Krasowska, Alicja

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that free-ranging big game animals accumulate several-fold more cadmium (Cd) in the liver and kidneys than domestic animals. To examine possible reasons for this difference, in the present work we determined the concentrations of Cd in the liver and kidney cortex of European bisons (n = 23) from Bialowieza Forest (north-eastern Poland) and domestic cattle (n = 15) from the same region; in addition, analyses of Cd in the grasses and soil as well as of soil pH were carried out. The accumulation of Cd in liver and kidney cortex of the female bisons correlated significantly with the age up to 7 years, but stabilized thereafter. The 7-12-year-old bisons had 2.14- and 2.25-fold higher concentrations of Cd in the liver and kidney cortex, respectively, than the age-matched domestic cattle. Notably, the Cd levels in the liver and kidneys of the 8-12-year-old cattle were comparable to those found in the 2-year-old and 4-6-year-old bisons, respectively. The content of Cd in the grasses from Bialowieza Forest appeared to be 2.1-fold higher than that in the plants from the pastures. Similarly, the concentration of water-extractable Cd in the soil was 2.7-fold greater in Bialowieza Forest than in the pastures, despite the fact that nitric acid-extractable Cd (total Cd) was similar in the soils from the two sites. The concentration of water-extractable Cd in the soil as well as the content of Cd in the grasses inversely correlated with soil pH, which appeared to be significantly lower in Bialowieza Forest. These data indicate that soil pH is probably responsible for the higher concentrations of Cd in the feed and tissues of bisons as compared with those of domestic cattle

  4. Exploiting Maximum Entropy method and ASTER data for assessing debris flow and debris slide susceptibility for the Giampilieri catchment (north-eastern Sicily, Italy).

    KAUST Repository

    Lombardo, Luigi; Bachofer, F.; Cama, M.; Mä rker, M.; Rotigliano, E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the performance of the Maximum Entropy method in assessing landslide susceptibility, exploiting topographic and multispectral remote sensing predictors. We selected the catchment of the Giampilieri stream, which is located in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), as test site. On 1/10/2009, a storm rainfall triggered in this area hundreds of debris flow/avalanche phenomena causing extensive economical damage and loss of life. Within this area a presence-only-based statistical method was applied to obtain susceptibility models capable of distinguish future activation sites of debris flow and debris slide, which where the main source failure mechanisms for flow or avalanche type propagation. The set of predictors used in this experiment comprised primary and secondary topographic attributes, derived by processing a high resolution digital elevation model, CORINE land cover data and a set of vegetation and mineral indices obtained by processing multispectral ASTER images. All the selected data sources are dated before the disaster. A spatially random partition technique was adopted for validation, generating fifty replicates for each of the two considered movement typologies in order to assess accuracy, precision and reliability of the models. The debris slide and debris flow susceptibility models produced high performances with the first type being the best fitted. The evaluation of the probability estimates around the mean value for each mapped pixel shows an inverted relation, with the most robust models corresponding to the debris flows. With respect to the role of each predictor within the modelling phase, debris flows appeared to be primarily controlled by topographic attributes whilst the debris slides were better explained by remotely sensed derived indices, particularly by the occurrence of previous wildfires across the slope. The overall excellent performances of the two models suggest promising perspectives for

  5. Tectono-sedimentary events and geodynamic evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of the Alpine Margin, Gulf of Tunis, north-eastern Tunisia offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Fetheddine; Zouaghi, Taher; Chelbi, Mohamed Ben; Bédir, Mourad; Zargouni, Fouad

    2010-09-01

    The structural pattern, tectono-sedimentary framework and geodynamic evolution for Mesozoic and Cenozoic deep structures of the Gulf of Tunis (north-eastern Tunisia) are proposed using petroleum well data and a 2-D seismic interpretation. The structural system of the study area is marked by two sets of faults that control the Mesozoic subsidence and inversions during the Paleogene and Neogene times: (i) a NE-SW striking set associated with folds and faults, which have a reverse component; and (ii) a NW-SE striking set active during the Tertiary extension episodes and delineating grabens and subsiding synclines. In order to better characterize the tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Gulf of Tunis structures, seismic data interpretations are compared to stratigraphic and structural data from wells and neighbouring outcrops. The Atlas and external Tell belonged to the southernmost Tethyan margin record a geodynamic evolution including: (i) rifting periods of subsidence and Tethyan oceanic accretions from Triassic until Early Cretaceous: we recognized high subsiding zones (Raja and Carthage domains), less subsiding zones (Gamart domain) and a completely emerged area (Raouad domain); (ii) compressive events during the Cenozoic with relaxation periods of the Oligocene-Aquitanian and Messinian-Early Pliocene. The NW-SE Late Eocene and Tortonian compressive events caused local inversions with sealed and eroded folded structures. During Middle to Late Miocene and Early Pliocene, we have identified depocentre structures corresponding to half-grabens and synclines in the Carthage and Karkouane domains. The north-south contractional events at the end of Early Pliocene and Late Pliocene periods are associated with significant inversion of subsidence and synsedimentary folded structures. Structuring and major tectonic events, recognized in the Gulf of Tunis, are linked to the common geodynamic evolution of the north African and western Mediterranean basins.

  6. Assessment of Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Self-Care Practice Among Adolescents - A State Wide Cross- Sectional Study in Manipur, North Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahengbam, Pragya Pandey; Kshetrimayum, Nandita; Wahengbam, Brucelee Singh; Nandkeoliar, Tanya; Lyngdoh, Daiasharailang

    2016-06-01

    The World Health Organization global strategy of promoting oral health have shown vast improvements in developed countries but the scenario is glum among underprivileged communities due to lacunae in implementation of these promotional programs. Manipur, a North Eastern state in India, is one such marginalized area. The study aimed to evaluate Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) towards oral health in 15-18 year adolescents residing in Manipur together with the association of these variables to sociodemographic factors. This cross-sectional study included 810 healthy adolescents drawn from various primary health care centers spanning in all the nine districts of Manipur. A closed ended questionnaire for the purpose of collecting data was used in the survey. Of the total participants 90.9% had high knowledge, 79.8% had favorable attitude and 70.4% had adequate practice towards oral health. Education of the parents and respondents was the only factor significantly associated with all three variables, knowledge, attitude and practice. Significant and positive linear correlation between knowledge-attitude (r=0.369, pknowledge-practice (r=0.405, pknowledge, favorable attitude and sound practice with respect to oral health. A positive linear correlation exists between the knowledge, attitude and practice. Evidence based reinforcement programs should be introduced to further reduce the gap between knowledge, attitude and practice. The study will also serve as a reference value for use in future evaluation to help measure the effectiveness of the planned activities. Future research needs to focus on establishing the dental caries prevalence and oral hygiene status of Manipuri youth.

  7. Analysis of Epstein Barr Virus Encoded RNA Expression in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in North-Eastern India: A Chromogenic in Situ Hybridization Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Saikia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a common cancer in the North-East region of India. Though the role of environmental contributors of NPC in the North-Eastern part of India is firmly established, EBV as an etiological agent in the region remains unexplored. Material and Methods: Fifty-one patients, who presented at the department of ENT, NEIGRIHMS and were confirmed as NPC upon histopathological examination, were included in the study. Chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH was used for the evaluation of EBER (Epstein Barr Virus Encoded RNA. Presence of nuclear signals was taken as positive for EBER expression. EBER status was correlated with various clinicopathological parameters like age, sex, dietary habits, histological types of NPC, and ethnicity of the patients. Results: The age range of the study group was 25 to 70 years with a mean age of 44.64 years and a male:female ratio of 3:2. Non-keratinizing undifferentiated type of NPC was the most common histological type. EBV was positive in 59% (30/51 of our cases. It showed a statistically significant correlation with the Naga community (P=0.01, with consumption of smoked food (P=0.02, and cigarette smoking (P=0.02. There was no correlation of EBV with age, sex, lymph node metastasis, stage, and histology. Conclusion: Our result indicates that EBV may be an additional risk factor in the pathogenesis of NPC in this region of India. So apart from lifestyle modification, a future study for a screening test for EBV viral load even in asymptomatic patients may be considered, for determination of disease susceptibility, early diagnosis, and proper management.

  8. Risk factors associated with slide positivity among febrile patients in a conflict zone of north-eastern Myanmar along the China-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nana; Parker, Daniel M; Yang, Zhaoqing; Fan, Qi; Zhou, Guofa; Ai, Guoping; Duan, Jianhua; Lee, Ming-chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Matthews, Stephen A; Cui, Liwang; Wang, Ying

    2013-10-10

    Malaria within the Greater Mekong sub-region is extremely heterogeneous. While China and Thailand have been relatively successful in controlling malaria, Myanmar continues to see high prevalence. Coupled with the recent emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria along the Thai-Myanmar border, this makes Myanmar an important focus of malaria within the overall region. However, accurate epidemiological data from Myanmar have been lacking, in part because of ongoing and emerging conflicts between the government and various ethnic groups. Here the results are reported from a risk analysis of malaria slide positivity in a conflict zone along the China-Myanmar border. Surveys were conducted in 13 clinics and hospitals around Laiza City, Myanmar between April 2011 and October 2012. Demographic, occupational and educational information, as well as malaria infection history, were collected. Logistic models were used to assess risk factors for slide positivity. Age patterns in Plasmodium vivax infections were younger than those with Plasmodium falciparum. Furthermore, males were more likely than females to have falciparum infections. Patients who reported having been infected with malaria during the previous year were much more likely to have a current vivax infection. During the second year of the study, falciparum infections among soldiers increased signficiantly. These results fill some knowledge gaps with regard to risk factors associated with malaria slide positivity in this conflict region of north-eastern Myanmar. Since epidemiological studies in this region have been rare or non-existent, studies such as the current are crucial for understanding the dynamic nature of malaria in this extremely heterogeneous epidemiological landscape.

  9. Potential role of beavers (Castor fiber in contamination of water in the Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland with protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Jacek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible influence of beavers on the contamination of lake water with zoonotic parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., with respect to the risk to human health. A total of 79 water samples were taken around the habitats of beavers from 14 localities situated in the recreational Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland. Water was sampled in the spring and autumn seasons, at different distances from beavers’ lodges (0-2, 10, 30, and 50 m. The samples were examined for the presence of (oocysts of zoonotic protozoa Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. by direct fluorescence assay (DFA and by nested and real time PCR. By DFA, the presence of Giardia cysts was found in 36 samples (45.6% and the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 26 samples (32.9%. Numbers of Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and summarised (oocysts of both parasites showed a significant variation depending on locality. The numbers of Giardia cysts significantly decreased with the distance from beavers’ lodges while the numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts did not show such dependence. The amount of Giardia cysts in samples collected in spring was approximately 3 times higher than in autumn. Conversely, a larger number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in samples collected in autumn than in spring. By PCR, Giardia DNA was found in 38 samples (48.1% whereas DNA of Cryptosporidium was found in only 7 samples (8.9%. Eleven Giardia isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR or sequencing which evidenced their belonging to zoonotic assemblages: A (3 isolates and B (8 isolates. In conclusion, water in the vicinity of beavers’ lodges in the tested region was markedly contaminated with (oocysts of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., which confirms the potential role of beavers as a reservoir of these parasites and indicates a need for

  10. [INCIDENCE, PREDISPOSING RISK FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND SPREADING OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS IN THE NORTH-EASTERN REGION OF UKRAINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysh, N G; Chemych, N D; Zaritsky, A M

    2016-01-01

    Using data of the branch statistical reporting of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service in Sumy region and Sumy Regional State Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine, the incidence rate, modern risk factors for the development and spreading of acute infectious diarrheas were determined in the North-Eastern region of Ukraine. Under the current conditions incidence rate indices of acute intestinal infections and food toxicoinfections are within the range of 159.8-193.6 per 100 thousands. pop. Seasonal and epidemical rises are associated with a species of the agent. In the etiological structure of acute diarrheal infections there are dominated viruses, of food toxicoinfections--Klebsiellae pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae (p < 0.05). Predictors of the complication of epidemiological situation of Shigella infections are the gain in the detection of bacterially contaminated samples of milk and dairy products (r = 0.75), for food toxicoinfections caused by Klebsiellae pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae--pastry with cream and cooking meat products (r = 0.64; r = 0.75). Epizootic situation in the region affects on the salmonellosis incidence rate of the population (r = 0.89). There were revealed correlations between the selection of E. coli bacteria from swabs taken from the enterprises of catering, in child care centers and the levels of incidence rates of salmonellosis, acute intestinal infections of unknown etiology (r = 0.59; r = 0.60). Timely detection and sanitation of Shigella carriers are a powerful instrument to reduce the incidence rate of shigellosis (r = 0.83).

  11. Environment characterization as an aid to wheat improvement: interpreting genotype-environment interactions by modelling water-deficit patterns in North-Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, K; Cooper, M; Hammer, G L; Mathews, K L; Dreccer, M F; Chapman, S C

    2011-03-01

    Genotype-environment interactions (GEI) limit genetic gain for complex traits such as tolerance to drought. Characterization of the crop environment is an important step in understanding GEI. A modelling approach is proposed here to characterize broadly (large geographic area, long-term period) and locally (field experiment) drought-related environmental stresses, which enables breeders to analyse their experimental trials with regard to the broad population of environments that they target. Water-deficit patterns experienced by wheat crops were determined for drought-prone north-eastern Australia, using the APSIM crop model to account for the interactions of crops with their environment (e.g. feedback of plant growth on water depletion). Simulations based on more than 100 years of historical climate data were conducted for representative locations, soils, and management systems, for a check cultivar, Hartog. The three main environment types identified differed in their patterns of simulated water stress around flowering and during grain-filling. Over the entire region, the terminal drought-stress pattern was most common (50% of production environments) followed by a flowering stress (24%), although the frequencies of occurrence of the three types varied greatly across regions, years, and management. This environment classification was applied to 16 trials relevant to late stages testing of a breeding programme. The incorporation of the independently-determined environment types in a statistical analysis assisted interpretation of the GEI for yield among the 18 representative genotypes by reducing the relative effect of GEI compared with genotypic variance, and helped to identify opportunities to improve breeding and germplasm-testing strategies for this region.

  12. Exploiting Maximum Entropy method and ASTER data for assessing debris flow and debris slide susceptibility for the Giampilieri catchment (north-eastern Sicily, Italy).

    KAUST Repository

    Lombardo, Luigi

    2016-07-18

    This study aims at evaluating the performance of the Maximum Entropy method in assessing landslide susceptibility, exploiting topographic and multispectral remote sensing predictors. We selected the catchment of the Giampilieri stream, which is located in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), as test site. On 1/10/2009, a storm rainfall triggered in this area hundreds of debris flow/avalanche phenomena causing extensive economical damage and loss of life. Within this area a presence-only-based statistical method was applied to obtain susceptibility models capable of distinguish future activation sites of debris flow and debris slide, which where the main source failure mechanisms for flow or avalanche type propagation. The set of predictors used in this experiment comprised primary and secondary topographic attributes, derived by processing a high resolution digital elevation model, CORINE land cover data and a set of vegetation and mineral indices obtained by processing multispectral ASTER images. All the selected data sources are dated before the disaster. A spatially random partition technique was adopted for validation, generating fifty replicates for each of the two considered movement typologies in order to assess accuracy, precision and reliability of the models. The debris slide and debris flow susceptibility models produced high performances with the first type being the best fitted. The evaluation of the probability estimates around the mean value for each mapped pixel shows an inverted relation, with the most robust models corresponding to the debris flows. With respect to the role of each predictor within the modelling phase, debris flows appeared to be primarily controlled by topographic attributes whilst the debris slides were better explained by remotely sensed derived indices, particularly by the occurrence of previous wildfires across the slope. The overall excellent performances of the two models suggest promising perspectives for

  13. A pilot study of a family focused, psychosocial intervention with war-exposed youth at risk of attack and abduction in north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Branham, Lindsay; Shannon, Ciarán; Betancourt, Theresa S; Dempster, Martin; McMullen, John

    2014-07-01

    Rural communities in the Haut-Uele Province of northern Democratic Republic of Congo live in constant danger of attack and/or abduction by units of the Lord's Resistance Army operating in the region. This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate a community-participative psychosocial intervention involving life skills and relaxation training and Mobile Cinema screenings with this war-affected population living under current threat. 159 war-affected children and young people (aged 7-18) from the villages of Kiliwa and Li-May in north-eastern DR Congo took part in this study. In total, 22% of participants had been abduction previously while 73% had a family member abducted. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, internalising problems, conduct problems and pro-social behaviour were assessed by blinded interviewers at pre- and post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Participants were randomised (with an accompanying caregiver) to 8 sessions of a group-based, community-participative, psychosocial intervention (n=79) carried out by supervised local, lay facilitators or a wait-list control group (n=80). Average seminar attendance rates were high: 88% for participants and 84% for caregivers. Drop-out was low: 97% of participants were assessed at post-intervention and 88% at 3 month follow-up. At post-test, participants reported significantly fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions compared to controls (Cohen's d=0.40). At 3 month follow up, large improvements in internalising symptoms and moderate improvements in pro-social scores were reported, with caregivers noting a moderate to large decline in conduct problems among the young people. Trial Registration clinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01542398. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An update of the tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae distribution and African animal trypanosomosis prevalence in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel J. de Beer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An unpredicted outbreak of African animal trypanosomosis or nagana in 1990 in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal necessitated an emergency control programme, utilising the extensive cattledipping system in the area, as well as a reassessment of the tsetse and trypanosomosis problem in the province. Since 1990, sporadic blood sampling of cattle at the dip tanks in the naganainfested areas were undertaken to identify trypanosome species involved and to determine the infection prevalence in cattle. The distribution and species composition of the tsetse populations in the area were also investigated. From November 2005 to November 2007 selected dip tanks were surveyed for trypanosome infection prevalence. During April 2005 to August 2009 the distribution and abundance of tsetse populations were assessed with odour-baited H traps. The tsetse and trypanosome distribution maps were updated and potential correlations between tsetse apparent densities (ADs and the prevalence of trypanosomosis were assessed. Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead were recorded in locations where they have not previously been collected. No significant correlation between tsetse relative abundance and nagana prevalence was found, which indicated complex interactions between tsetse fly presence and disease prevalence. This was epitomised by data that indicated that despite large differences in the ADs of G. austeni and G. brevipalpis, trypanosome infection prevalence was similar in all three districts in the area. This study clearly indicated that both tsetse species play significant roles in trypanosome transmission and that it will be essential that any control strategy, which aims at sustainable management of the disease, should target both species. Keywords: Tsetse distribution; Glossina brevipalpis; Glossina austeni; trypanosome infection prevalence

  15. Increasing efficiency in ethanol production: Water footprint and economic productivity of sugarcane ethanol under nine different water regimes in north-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chico

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production in Brazil has grown by 219% between 2001 and 2012, increasing the use of land and water resources. In the semi-arid north-eastern Brazil, irrigation is the main way for improving sugarcane production. This study aimed at quantifying water consumed in ethanol production from sugarcane in this region using the water footprint (WF indicator and complementing it with an evaluation of the water apparent productivity (WAP. This way we were able to provide a measure of the crop´s physical and economic water productivity using, respectively, the WF and WAP concepts. We studied sugarcane cultivation under nine different water regimes, including rainfed and full irrigation. Data from a mill of the state of Alagoas for three production seasons were used. Irrigation influenced sugarcane yield increasing total profit per hectare and economic water productivity. Full irrigation showed the lowest WF, 1229 litres of water per litre of ethanol (L/L, whereas rainfed production showed the highest WF, 1646 L/L. However, the lower WF in full irrigation as compared to the rest of the water regimes implied the use of higher volumes of blue water per cultivated hectare. Lower water regimes yielded the lowest economic productivity, 0.72 US$/m3 for rainfed production as compared to 1.11 US$/m3 for full irrigation. Since economic revenues are increased with higher water regimes, there are incentives for the development of these higher water regimes. This will lead to higher general crop water and economic productivity at field level, as green water is replaced by blue water consumption.

  16. Increasing efficiency in ethanol production: Water footprint and economic productivity of sugarcane ethanol under nine different water regimes in north-eastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chico, D.; Santiago, A. D.; Garrido, A.

    2015-07-01

    Ethanol production in Brazil has grown by 219% between 2001 and 2012, increasing the use of land and water resources. In the semi-arid north-eastern Brazil, irrigation is the main way for improving sugarcane production. This study aimed at quantifying water consumed in ethanol production from sugarcane in this region using the water footprint (WF) indicator and complementing it with an evaluation of the water apparent productivity (WAP). This way we were able to provide a measure of the crop´s physical and economic water productivity using, respectively, the WF and WAP concepts. We studied sugarcane cultivation under nine different water regimes, including rainfed and full irrigation. Data from a mill of the state of Alagoas for three production seasons were used. Irrigation influenced sugarcane yield increasing total profit per hectare and economic water productivity. Full irrigation showed the lowest WF, 1229 litres of water per litre of ethanol (L/L), whereas rainfed production showed the highest WF, 1646 L/L. However, the lower WF in full irrigation as compared to the rest of the water regimes implied the use of higher volumes of blue water per cultivated hectare. Lower water regimes yielded the lowest economic productivity, 0.72 US$/m3 for rainfed production as compared to 1.11 US$/m3 for full irrigation. Since economic revenues are increased with higher water regimes, there are incentives for the development of these higher water regimes. This will lead to higher general crop water and economic productivity at field level, as green water is replaced by blue water consumption. (Author)

  17. Urban agriculture in Tanzania : issues of sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.

    2004-01-01

    This book, the result of a collaborative study carried out by researchers from Tanzania, Israel and the Netherlands, assesses the sustainability of urban agriculture in two medium-sized towns in Tanzania: Morogoro and Mbeya. It first gives an overview of urban agriculture in Tanzania and a

  18. Institutional Support : African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania (ATPS-Tanzania) was registered as a national nongovernmental organization in 2001. ... While resource flows to ATPS-Tanzania from ATPS headquarters in Nairobi were reliable, the organization produced a larger volume of research outputs than most other ATPS national ...

  19. Comparative performance of three experimental hut designs for measuring malaria vector responses to insecticides in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massue, Dennis J; Kisinza, William N; Malongo, Bernard B; Mgaya, Charles S; Bradley, John; Moore, Jason D; Tenu, Filemoni F; Moore, Sarah J

    2016-03-15

    Experimental huts are simplified, standardized representations of human habitations that provide model systems to evaluate insecticides used in indoor residual spray (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to kill disease vectors. Hut volume, construction materials and size of entry points impact mosquito entry and exposure to insecticides. The performance of three standard experimental hut designs was compared to evaluate insecticide used in LLINs. Field studies were conducted at the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) testing site in Muheza, Tanzania. Three East African huts, three West African huts, and three Ifakara huts were compared using Olyset(®) and Permanet 2.0(®) versus untreated nets as a control. Outcomes measured were mortality, induced exophily (exit rate), blood feeding inhibition and deterrence (entry rate). Data were analysed using linear mixed effect regression and Bland-Altman comparison of paired differences. A total of 613 mosquitoes were collected in 36 nights, of which 13.5% were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, 21% Anopheles funestus sensu stricto, 38% Mansonia species and 28% Culex species. Ifakara huts caught three times more mosquitoes than the East African and West African huts, while the West African huts caught significantly fewer mosquitoes than the other hut types. Mosquito densities were low, very little mosquito exit was measured in any of the huts with no measurable exophily caused by the use of either Olyset or Permanet. When the huts were directly compared, the West African huts measured greater exophily than other huts. As unholed nets were used in the experiments and few mosquitoes were captured, it was not possible to measure difference in feeding success either between treatments or hut types. In each of the hut types there was increased mortality when Permanet or Olyset were present inside the huts compared to the control, however this did not vary between the hut types. Both East African

  20. west gombe, north - eastern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    According to reports by the Nigerian Geological Survey. Agency (NGSA) .... bedrocks. Alluvium is generally poorly developed ove the arenaceous member of the Cretaceous Formation ... where it unconformably lies on shale and limestone o.

  1. Co-occurrence and distribution of East (L1014S) and West (L1014F) African knock-down resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato population of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabula, Bilali; Kisinza, William; Tungu, Patrick; Ndege, Chacha; Batengana, Benard; Kollo, Douglas; Malima, Robert; Kafuko, Jessica; Mohamed, Mahdi; Magesa, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Insecticide resistance molecular markers can provide sensitive indicators of resistance development in Anopheles vector populations. Assaying these makers is of paramount importance in the resistance monitoring programme. We investigated the presence and distribution of knock-down resistance (kdr) mutations in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Tanzania. Methods Indoor-resting Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from 10 sites and tested for insecticide resistance using the standard WHO protocol. Polymerase chain reaction-based molecular diagnostics were used to genotype mosquitoes and detect kdr mutations. Results The An. gambiae tested were resistance to lambdacyhalothrin in Muheza, Arumeru and Muleba. Out of 350 An. gambiae s.l. genotyped, 35% were An. gambiae s.s. and 65% An. arabiensis. L1014S and L1014F mutations were detected in both An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis. L1014S point mutation was found at the allelic frequency of 4–33%, while L1014F was at the allelic frequency 6–41%. The L1014S mutation was much associated with An. gambiae s.s. (χ2 = 23.41; P protocolo estándar de la OMS. Mediante un diagnóstico molecular basado en la PCR se genotiparon los mosquitos y se detectaron los genotipos kdr. Resultados Los An. gambiae evaluados eran resistentes a lambdacialotrina en Muheza, Arumeru y Muleba. De 350 An. gambiae s.l. genotipados, 35% eran An. gambiae s.s. y 65% eran An. arabiensis. Se detectaron mutaciones L1014S y L1014F tanto en An. gambiae s.s. como en An. arabiensis. La mutación puntual L1014S se encontró con una frecuencia alélica de 4-33%, mientras que L1014F tenía una frecuencia alélica de 6-14%. La mutación L1014S estaba ampliamente asociada a An. gambiae s.s. (Chi-Cuadrado = 23.41; P < 0.0001) y la L1014F estaba asociada con An. arabiensis (Chi-Square = 11.21; P = 0.0008). El alelo L1014S estaba significativamente asociado con mosquitos resistentes a la lambdacialotrina (P < 0.001). Conclusión La

  2. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Rice Germplasm from North-Eastern Region of India and Development of a Core Germplasm Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R. K.; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N. K.; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a

  3. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of rice germplasm from north-eastern region of India and development of a core germplasm set.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Roy Choudhury

    Full Text Available The North-Eastern region (NER of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura. Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed

  4. The contribute of DInSAR techniques to landslide hazard evaluation in mountain and hilly regions: a case study from Agno Valley (North-Eastern Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Agostini, A.; Floris, M.; Pasquali, P.; Barbieri, M.; Cantone, A.; Riccardi, P.; Stevan, G.; Genevois, R.

    2012-04-01

    In the last twenty years, Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques have been widely used to investigate geological processes, such as subsidence, earthquakes and landslides, through the evaluation of earth surface displacements caused by these processes. In the study of mass movements, contribution of interferometry can be limited due to the acquisition geometry of RADAR images and the rough morphology of mountain and hilly regions which represent typical landslide-prone areas. In this study, the advanced DInSAR techniques (i.e. Small Baseline Subset and Persistent Scatterers techniques), available in SARscape software, are used. These methods involve the use of multiple acquisitions stacks (large SAR temporal series) allowing improvements and refinements in landslide identification, characterization and hazard evaluation at the basin scale. Potential and limits of above mentioned techniques are outlined and discussed. The study area is the Agno Valley, located in the North-Eastern sector of Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto Region, Italy). This area and the entire Vicenza Province were hit by an exceptional rainfall event on November 2010 that triggered more than 500 slope instabilities. The main aim of the work is to verify if spatial information available before the rainfall event, including ERS and ENVISAT RADAR data from 1992 to 2010, were able to predict the landslides occurred in the study area, in order to implement an effectiveness forecasting model. In the first step of the work a susceptibility analysis is carried out using landslide dataset from the IFFI project (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia, Landslide Italian Inventory) and related predisposing factors, which consist of morphometric (elevation, slope, aspect and curvature) and non-morphometric (land use, distance of roads and distance of river) factors available from the Veneto Region spatial database. Then, to test the prediction, the

  5. A retrospective, case-control study on traditional environmental risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease in Vukovar-Srijem County, north-eastern Croatia, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vcev, Aleksandar; Pezerovic, Davorin; Jovanovic, Zeljko; Nakic, Darko; Vcev, Ivan; Majnarić, Ljiljana

    2015-05-01

    Traditional environmental risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), were examined as part of the retrospective epidemiologic study conducted in Vukovar-Srijem County, north-eastern Croatia in 2010. The geographical variations in the frequency of IBD in Croatia have been observed, which is also the trend in the Central Eastern European region and Europe as a whole, indicating the influence of environmental and lifestyle factors. However, the data on the spread of environmental IBD risk factors are still limited. The purpose of this study was to analyse the traditional environmental risk factors in IBD on our cohort sample, including measles virus infection and vaccination (MMR vaccine-Mumps, Measles, Rubella), tonsillectomy, appendectomy, current and former cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives in women. This retrospective, case-control study was performed as a part of a wider epidemiologic study aimed at assessing the incidence, prevalence and clinical expression of IBD, in Vukovar-Srijem County (population: 204,768; 2001), which is a lesser developed part of the continental Croatia that experienced deep demographic changes in the recent past. IBD patients were identified according to the hospital's patient records. There were 119 UC patients and 31 CD patients of a total of 150 patients in the cohort. A total of 150 individuals, volunteers, not having a diagnosis of IBD, age- and sex-matched, were used as the control group. Information on examined risk factors were obtained from all subjects in a previously conducted interview. Patients were contacted personally or by phone and interviewed by a gastroenterologist. There were no differences in the number of smokers, former smokers and non-smokers, between UC and CD patients and the controls, nor in the duration of smoking (years), in current smokers and ex-smokers. Only marginally significant longer time of non-smoking, in ex-smokers was found in

  6. Ethnoveterinary herbal remedies used by farmers in four north-eastern Swiss cantons (St. Gallen, Thurgau, Appenzell Innerrhoden and Appenzell Ausserrhoden).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disler, Monika; Ivemeyer, Silvia; Hamburger, Matthias; Vogl, Christian R; Tesic, Anja; Klarer, Franziska; Meier, Beat; Walkenhorst, Michael

    2014-03-31

    to treat livestock exists in north-eastern Switzerland. Homemade herbal remedies based on this knowledge are being used. The interviewed farmers were satisfied with the outcome of the applications.

  7. Perceptions of malaria and acceptance of rapid diagnostic tests and related treatment practises among community members and health care providers in Greater Garissa, North Eastern Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, Emma; Asgary, Ramin; Gore-Langton, Georgia; Nahashon, Erupe; Mungai, James; Harrison, Rebecca; Abagira, Abdullahi; Eves, Katie; Grigoryan, Zoya; Soti, David; Juma, Elizabeth; Allan, Richard

    2014-12-17

    Conventional diagnosis of malaria has relied upon either clinical diagnosis or microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears. These methods, if not carried out exactly, easily result in the over- or under-diagnosis of malaria. The reliability and accuracy of malaria RDTs, even in extremely challenging health care settings, have made them a staple in malaria control programmes. Using the setting of a pilot introduction of malaria RDTs in Greater Garissa, North Eastern Province, Kenya, this study aims to identify and understand perceptions regarding malaria diagnosis, with a particular focus on RDTs, and treatment among community members and health care workers (HCWs). The study was conducted in five districts of Garissa County. Focus group discussions (FGD) were performed with community members that were recruited from health facilities (HFs) supported by the MENTOR Initiative. In-depth interviews (IDIs) and FGDs with HCWs were also carried out. Interview transcripts were then coded and analysed for major themes. Two researchers reviewed all codes, first separately and then together, discussed the specific categories, and finally characterized, described, and agreed upon major important themes. Thirty-four FGDs were carried out with a range of two to eight participants (median of four). Of 157 community members, 103 (65.6%) were women. The majority of participants were illiterate and the highest level of education was secondary school. Some 76% of participants were of Somali ethnicity. Whilst community members and HCWs demonstrated knowledge of aspects of malaria transmission, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, gaps and misconceptions were identified. Poor adherence to negative RDT results, unfamiliarity and distrust of RDTs, and an inconsistent RDT supply were the main challenges to become apparent in FGDs and IDIs. Gaps in knowledge or incorrect beliefs exist in Greater Garissa and have the potential to act as barriers to complete and correct malaria case

  8. A model study of the seasonality of sea surface temperature and circulation in the Atlantic North-Eastern Tropical Upwelling System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliou eFaye

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The climatological seasonal cycle of the sea surface temperature (SST in the north-eastern tropical Atlantic (7-25°N, 26-12°W is studied using a mixed layer heat budget in a regional ocean general circulation model. The region, which experiences one of the larger SST cycle in the tropics, forms the main part of the Guinea Gyre. It is characterized by a seasonally varying open ocean and coastal upwelling system, driven by the movements of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ. The model annual mean heat budget has two regimes schematically. South of roughly 12°N, advection of equatorial waters, mostly warm, and warming by vertical mixing, is balanced by net air-sea flux. In the rest of the domain, a cooling by vertical mixing, reinforced by advection at the coast, is balanced by the air-sea fluxes. Regarding the seasonal cycle, within a narrow continental band, in zonal mean, the SST early decrease (from September, depending on latitude, until December is driven by upwelling dynamics off Senegal and Mauritania (15°-20°N, and instead by air-sea fluxes north and south of these latitudes. Paradoxically, the later peaks of upwelling intensity (from March to July, with increasing latitude essentially damp the warming phase, driven by air-sea fluxes. The open ocean cycle to the west, is entirely driven by the seasonal net air-sea fluxes. The oceanic processes significantly oppose it, but for winter north of ~18°N. Vertical mixing in summer-autumn tends to cool (warm the surface north (south of the ITCZ, and advective cooling or warming by the geostrophic Guinea Gyre currents and the Ekman drift. This analysis supports previous findings on the importance of air-sea fluxes offshore. It mainly offers quantitative elements on the modulation of the SST seasonal cycle by the ocean circulation, and particularly by the upwelling dynamics.Keywords: SST, upwelling, circulation, heat budget, observations, modeling

  9. Snow water equivalent monitoring retrieved by assimilating passive microwave observations in a coupled snowpack evolution and microwave emission models over North-Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, A.; Larue, F.; De Sève, D.; Roy, A.; Vionnet, V.; Picard, G.; Cosme, E.

    2017-12-01

    Over northern snow-dominated basins, the snow water equivalent (SWE) is of primary interest for spring streamflow forecasting. SWE retrievals from satellite data are still not well resolved, in particular from microwave (MW) measurements, the only type of data sensible to snow mass. Also, the use of snowpack models is challenging due to the large uncertainties in meteorological input forcings. This project aims to improve SWE prediction by assimilation of satellite brightness temperature (TB), without any ground-based observations. The proposed approach is the coupling of a detailed multilayer snowpack model (Crocus) with a MW snow emission model (DMRT-ML). The assimilation scheme is a Sequential Importance Resampling Particle filter, through ensembles of perturbed meteorological forcings according to their respective uncertainties. Crocus simulations driven by operational meteorological forecasts from the Canadian Global Environmental Multiscale model at 10 km spatial resolution were compared to continuous daily SWE measurements over Québec, North-Eastern Canada (56° - 45°N). The results show a mean bias of the maximum SWE overestimated by 16% with variations up to +32%. This observed large variability could lead to dramatic consequences on spring flood forecasts. Results of Crocus-DMRT-ML coupling compared to surface-based TB measurements (at 11, 19 and 37 GHz) show that the Crocus snowpack microstructure described by sticky hard spheres within DMRT has to be scaled by a snow stickiness of 0.18, significantly reducing the overall RMSE of simulated TBs. The ability of assimilation of daily TBs to correct the simulated SWE is first presented through twin experiments with synthetic data, and then with AMSR-2 satellite time series of TBs along the winter taking into account atmospheric and forest canopy interferences (absorption and emission). The differences between TBs at 19-37 GHz and at 11-19 GHz, in vertical polarization, were assimilated. This assimilation

  10. Humans reclaimed lands in NorthEastern Italy and artificial drainage networks: effects of 30 years of Agricultural Surface Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, Giulia; Pizzulli, Federica; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture and land-use management has changed drastically in Italy since the end of the Second World War, driven by local but also European agricultural policies. As a result of these changes in farming practices and land use, many drainage networks have changed producing a greater exposure to flooding with a broad range of impacts on society, also because of climate inputs coupling with the human drivers. This study focuses on two main points: which kind of land use and farming changes have been observed in the most recent years ( 30 years)? How do these changes interact with climate and soil conditions? An open challenge to understand how these changes influence the watershed response, is, in fact, to understand if rainfall characteristics and climate have a synergistic effect, if their interaction matters, or to understand what element has the greatest influence on the watershed response connected to agricultural changes. The work is based on a simple model of water infiltration due to soil properties, and a connected evaluation of the distributed surface water storage offered by artificial drainage networks in a study area in Veneto (north-eastern Italy). The analysis shows that economic changes control the development of agro-industrial landscapes, with effects on the hydrological response. However, these changes deeply interact with antecedent soil conditions and climate characteristics. Intense and irregular rainfall events and events with a high recurrence should be expected to be the most critical. The presented outcomes highlight the importance of understanding how agricultural practices can be the driver of or can be used to avoid, or at least mitigate, flooding. The proposed methods can be valuable tools in evaluating the costs and benefits of the management of water in agriculture to inform better policy decision-making. References Sofia G, Tarolli P. 2017. Hydrological Response to 30 years of Agricultural Surface Water Management. Land 6 (1): 3 DOI

  11. Presence-only approach to assess landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility. A test for the Mili catchment (North-Eastern Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Luigi; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Amato, Gabriele; Bonasera, Mauro; Hochschild, Volker; Rotigliano, Edoardo

    2015-04-01

    This study aims at comparing the performances of a presence only approach, namely Maximum Entropy, in assessing landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility within the Mili catchment, located in the north-eastern Sicily, Italy. This catchment has been recently exposed to three main meteorological extreme events, resulting in the activation of multiple fast landslides, which occurred on the 1st October 2009, 10th March 2010 and 1st March 2011. Differently from the 2009 event, which only marginally hit the catchment, the 2010 and 2011 storms fully involved the area of the Mili catchment. Detailed field data was collected to associate the thickness of mobilised materials at the triggering zone to each mass movement within the catchment. This information has been used to model the landslide susceptibility for two classes of processes clustered into shallow failures for maximum depths of 0.5m and deep ones in case of values equal or greater than 0.5m. As the authors believed that the peculiar geomorphometry of this narrow and steep catchment played a fundamental role in generating two distinct patterns of landslide thicknesses during the initiation phase, a HRDEM was used to extract topographic attributes to express near-triggering geomorphological conditions. On the other hand, medium resolution vegetation indexes derived from ASTER scenes were used as explanatory variables pertaining to a wider spatial neighbourhood, whilst a revised geological map, the land use from CORINE and a tectonic map were used to convey an even wider area connected to the slope instability. The choice of a presence-only approach allowed to effectively discriminate between the two types of landslide thicknesses at the triggering zone, producing outstanding prediction skills associated with relatively low variances across a set of 20 randomly generated replicates. The validation phase produced indeed average AUC values of 0.91 with a standard deviation of 0.03 for both the modelled landslide

  12. Chemical characteristics of size-resolved atmospheric aerosols in Iasi, north-eastern Romania: nitrogen-containing inorganic compounds control aerosol chemistry in the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgiana Galon-Negru, Alina; Iulian Olariu, Romeo; Arsene, Cecilia

    2018-04-01

    This study assesses the effects of particle size and season on the content of the major inorganic and organic aerosol ionic components in the Iasi urban area, north-eastern Romania. Continuous measurements were carried out over 2016 using a cascade Dekati low-pressure impactor (DLPI) performing aerosol size classification in 13 specific fractions over the 0.0276-9.94 µm size range. Fine-particulate Cl-, NO3-, NH4+, and K+ exhibited clear minima during the warm season and clear maxima over the cold season, mainly due to trends in emission sources, changes in the mixing layer depth and specific meteorological conditions. Fine-particulate SO42- did not show much variation with respect to seasons. Particulate NH4+ and NO3- ions were identified as critical parameters controlling aerosol chemistry in the area, and their measured concentrations in fine-mode (PM2.5) aerosols were found to be in reasonable good agreement with modelled values for winter but not for summer. The likely reason is that NH4NO3 aerosols are lost due to volatility over the warm season. We found that NH4+ in PM2.5 is primarily associated with SO42- and NO3- but not with Cl-. Actually, indirect ISORROPIA-II estimations showed that the atmosphere in the Iasi area might be ammonia rich during both the cold and warm seasons, enabling enough NH3 to be present to neutralize H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl acidic components and to generate fine-particulate ammonium salts, in the form of (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, and NH4Cl. ISORROPIA-II runs allowed us to estimate that over the warm season ˜ 35 % of the total analysed samples had very strongly acidic pH (0-3), a fraction that rose to ˜ 43 % over the cold season. Moreover, while in the cold season the acidity is mainly accounted for by inorganic acids, in the warm ones there is an important contribution by other compounds, possibly organic. Indeed, changes in aerosol acidity would most likely impact the gas-particle partitioning of semi-volatile organic acids. Overall, we

  13. Estimate of the size and demographic structure of the owned dog and cat population living in Veneto region (north-eastern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Katia; Bortolotti, Laura; Lanari, Manuela; Baioni, Elisa; Mutinelli, Franco; Vascellari, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the size and demographic structure of animal populations is a necessary prerequisite for any population-based epidemiological study, especially to ascertain and interpret prevalence data, to implement surveillance plans in controlling zoonotic diseases and, moreover, to provide accurate estimates of tumours incidence data obtained by population-based registries. The main purpose of this study was to provide an accurate estimate of the size and structure of the canine population in Veneto region (north-eastern Italy), using the Lincoln-Petersen version of the capture-recapture methodology. The Regional Canine Demographic Registry (BAC) and a sample survey of households of Veneto Region were the capture and recapture sources, respectively. The secondary purpose was to estimate the size and structure of the feline population in the same region, using the same survey applied for dog population. A sample of 2465 randomly selected households was drawn and submitted to a questionnaire using the CATI technique, in order to obtain information about the ownership of dogs and cats. If the dog was declared to be identified, owner's information was used to recapture the dog in the BAC. The study was conducted in Veneto Region during 2011, when the dog population recorded in the BAC was 605,537. Overall, 616 households declared to possess at least one dog (25%), with a total of 805 dogs and an average per household of 1.3. The capture-recapture analysis showed that 574 dogs (71.3%, 95% CI: 68.04-74.40%) had been recaptured in both sources, providing a dog population estimate of 849,229 (95% CI: 814,747-889,394), 40% higher than that registered in the BAC. Concerning cats, 455 of 2465 (18%, 95% CI: 17-20%) households declared to possess at least one cat at the time of the telephone interview, with a total of 816 cats. The mean number of cats per household was equal to 1.8, providing an estimate of the cat population in Veneto region equal to 663,433 (95% CI: 626

  14. Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial susceptibility in Escherichia coli on small- and medium-scale pig farms in north-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ström

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intensification of livestock production seen in many low- and middle-income countries is often believed to be associated with increased use of antimicrobials, and may hence contribute to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to map antimicrobial use on small- (n = 25 and medium-scale (n = 27 pig farms in north-eastern Thailand, and to compare antimicrobial susceptibility of commensal Escherichia coli isolated from sows on these farms. Methods Information regarding pig husbandry and antimicrobial treatment regimens was obtained by the use of semi-structured questionnaires. Faecal samples were collected from three healthy sows at each farm, and Escherichia coli was cultured and analysed for antimicrobial susceptibility using the broth microdilution method. Multilevel regression models were used to compare antimicrobial susceptibility between isolates from small- and medium-scale farms. Results All farms included in the study administered antimicrobials to their sows. Small-scale farmers most commonly (64% decided themselves when to give antimicrobials and the majority (60% bought the medicines at the local store or pharmacy, whereas farmers on medium-scale farms always discussed antimicrobial treatment with a veterinarian. Medium-scale farms used a greater diversity of antimicrobials than small-scale farms and did also administer antimicrobials in feed to a higher extent. High levels of antimicrobial resistance to several critically important antimicrobials for human medicine (including ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and ampicillin were found in isolates from both small- and medium-scale farms. Resistance levels were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in isolates from medium-scale farms for several of the antimicrobials tested, as well as the level of multidrug-resistance (P = 0.026. Conclusion The routines regarding access and administration of antimicrobials differed between the small- and

  15. Pollen stratigraphy, vegetation and climate history of the last 215 ka in the Azzano Decimo core (plain of Friuli, north-eastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, R.; Ravazzi, C.; Donegana, M.

    2009-06-01

    The pollen record of the long succession of marine and continental deposits filling the subsident north-Adriatic foredeep basin (NE Italy) documents the history of vegetation, the landscape evolution and the climate forcing during the last 215 ka at the south-eastern Alpine foreland. The chronology relies on several 14C determinations as well as on estimated ages of pollen-stratigraphical and sea-level event tie-points derived from comparison with high-resolution marine records, speleothemes and ice cores. Mixed temperate rainforests persisted throughout MIS 7a-7c, being replaced by conifer forests after the local glacioeustatic regression during early MIS 6. The Alpine piedmont facing the Adriatic foredeeep was glaciated at the culmination of the penultimate glaciation, as directly testified by in situ fluvioglacial aggradation related to the building of a large morainic amphitheatre. The pollen record allows correlation with other European records and with the IRD from N-Atlantic and off Iberia, thus the duration of the penultimate glacial culmination at the southalpine fringe is estimated less than 13 ka between 148 ± 1 and >135 ka. The site was not reached by the Last Interglacial maximum sea transgression and enregistered a typical, though incomplete, Eemian forest record, lacking Mediterranean evergreen trees. A complex sequence of stadial-interstadial episodes is reconstructed during the Early and Middle Würm: major xerophyte peaks match IRD maxima occurred during Heinrich events in deep-sea cores offshore Iberia and in the N-Atlantic and allows to frame lumps of interstadial phases, marked by Picea peaks, each one including several DO warm events. Broad-leaved thermophilous forests disappeared from the north-eastern plain of Italy at the end of the Early Würm, whereas reduced populations of Abies and Fagus probably sheltered even during the Last Glacial Maximum. A renewed fluvioglacial in situ deposition between 30.4 ± 0.4 and 21.6 ± 0.5 ka cal BP sets

  16. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of rice germplasm from north-eastern region of India and development of a core germplasm set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Debjani; Singh, Nivedita; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R K; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N K; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a

  17. Wadi Ladid Al-JI,Dan Alkali Feldspar Granites and Associated Pegmatites, North Eastern Eser, Egypt:Geology,Mineralogy and Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Steet, A.A.; Ayoub, R.R.; Bakhit, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the geology, structure, mineralogy and radioactivity of the alkali feldspar granites at wadi Ladid al-Ji,dan, north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Geologically, the area consists mainly of alkali feldspar granites. These granites are medium to coarse grained, pink to red in colour and form numbers of moderate to relatively high elevated outcrops. These rocks are altered in some parts due to secondary processes especially along the fault zones and contacts. The area displays primary and secondary structures. Primary structures comprise layering, volcanic flows, vesicular tops of lavas and volcanic bombs. The secondary structures are represented by exfoliation, joints and faults. The granites are dissected by several sets of joints predominating in the N-S direction, dipping 84°-88° mainly to west; E-W direction, dipping 70°-75° mainly to south and NW-SE direction, dipping 80°-82° to SW direction. The majority of joints are tension ones. These tension joints are commonly filled with quartz, feldspars, epidote, iron oxides, manganese oxides and aplite. The studied area is dissected by major regional faults. Along the fault zones; the granites are marked by fault breccia and alteration features, especially silicification, hematitization, kaolinitization and chloritization. The area is cutting by faults trending mainly in N-S, NE-SW and NNW-SSE directions. The average uranium and thorium contents of the alkali feldspar granites are 12 and 23 ppm and reaches up to 36 and 37 ppm in the normal pegmatites. In the anomalous pegmatites the maximum values recorded are 91 and 72 ppm. Generally, the averages of uranium and thorium contents in the studied pegmatites are higher than that of the world and Egyptian uraniferous pegmatites. The high uranium content in alkali feldspar granites is related to the presence of some accessory minerals such as zircon, fluorite and apatite but the high uranium content in the pegmatites is related to the presence of

  18. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.

  19. Crater Highlands, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000, acquired elevation measurements for nearly all of Earth's landmass between 60oN and 56oS latitudes. For many areas of the world SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional observation of landforms at regional scales. SRTM data were used to generate this view of the Crater Highlands along the East African Rift in Tanzania. Landforms are depicted with colored height and shaded relief, using a vertical exaggeration of 2X and a southwestwardly look direction. Lake Eyasi is depicted in blue at the top of the image, and a smaller lake occurs in Ngorongoro Crater. Near the image center, elevations peak at 3648 meters (11,968 feet) at Mount Loolmalasin, which is south of Ela Naibori Crater. Kitumbeine (left) and Gelai (right) are the two broad mountains rising from the rift lowlands. Mount Longido is seen in the lower left, and the Meto Hills are in the right foreground. Tectonics, volcanism, landslides, erosion and deposition -- and their interactions -- are all very evident in this view. The East African Rift is a zone of spreading between the African (on the west) and Somali (on the east) crustal plates. Two branches of the rift intersect here in Tanzania, resulting in distinctive and prominent landforms. One branch trends nearly parallel the view and includes Lake Eyasi and the very wide Ngorongoro Crater. The other branch is well defined by the lowlands that trend left-right across the image (below center, in green). Volcanoes are often associated with spreading zones where magma, rising to fill the gaps, reaches the surface and builds cones. Craters form if a volcano explodes or collapses. Later spreading can fracture the volcanoes, which is especially evident on Kitumbeine and Gelai Mountains (left and right, respectively, lower center). The Crater Highlands rise far above the adjacent savannas, capture moisture from passing air masses, and host rain

  20. Marine fisheries in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiddawi, Narriman S; Ohman, Marcus C

    2002-12-01

    Fishery resources are a vital source of food and make valuable economic contributions to the local communities involved in fishery activities along the 850 km stretch of the Tanzania coastline and numerous islands. Small-scale artisanal fishery accounts for the majority of fish catch produced by more than 43 000 fishermen in the country, mainly operating in shallow waters within the continental shelf, using traditional fishing vessels including small boats, dhows, canoes, outrigger canoes and dinghys. Various fishing techniques are applied using uncomplicated passive fishing gears such as basket traps, fence traps, nets as well as different hook and line techniques. Species composition and size of the fish varies with gear type and location. More than 500 species of fish are utilized for food with reef fishes being the most important category including emperors, snappers, sweetlips, parrotfish, surgeonfish, rabbitfish, groupers and goatfish. Most of the fish products are used for subsistence purposes. However, some are exported. Destructive fishing methods such as drag nets and dynamite fishing pose a serious problem as they destroy important habitats for fish and other organisms, and there is a long-term trend of overharvested fishery resources. However, fishing pressure varies within the country as fishery resources are utilized in a sustainable manner in some areas. For this report more than 340 references about Tanzanian fishery and fish ecology were covered. There are many gaps in terms of information needed for successful fishery management regarding both basic and applied research. Most research results have been presented as grey literature (57%) with limited distribution; only one-fifth were scientific publications in international journals.

  1. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Policy Analysis Studies in Tanzania: A Historical and Thematic Perspective with Implications on Future Policy Research for Crop Production and Marketing · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A.C. Isinika, G.M. Mibavu, J.J. VanSickle ...

  2. Tanzania : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR)intends to determine the compatibility of national procurement law, and practices, with the principles of economy, and with international procurement practices. This CPAR, the second of its kind in Tanzania, looks at the legislative framework, the performance of regulatory functions, the enforcement regime, and the capacity of public sector ...

  3. Tanzania Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the ...

  4. Reconstruction of the Late Holocene river channel shifts in the North-Eastern part of the Lower Danube Plain based on historical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț-Alexandru CRISTEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several periods of increased fluvial activity and accelerated runoff / deposition have been identified during the Holocene in different regions of Europe (Macklin et al, 2006. According to Starkel (2002 the older phases were characterized by an incision of deeper and wider tracks and, since Roman period, especially during the past millennium, tendency had changed to aggradation, braiding and river avulsions. The turn to a more stable fluvial regime caused further incisions and the development of narrow and smaller meanders. All these fluvial responses can be mainly correlated with the climatic fluctuations (cooler and wetter phases alternating with drier and warmer ones, socio-economic changes (increased anthropic pressure or both. The last major period of concentration of extreme meteorological and hydrological events is the Little Ice Age (LIA, which conventionally took place between the 16th and mid 19th century (Lamb, 1984. However in Romania the study of LIA and the associate fluvial effects is rather poor. The data regarding hydro-climatological events (weather conditions, floods in the medieval period (mostly collected by Topor, 1960 is scarce and based on the few local chronicles and diaries of the foreign travelers. However these confirm the increased frequency and magnitude of the rainfalls in the summer (with several important peaks in the 1590 – 1690 interval as well as the hard winters well documented for the rest of the continent. Changes in the configuration of the stream network, due to avulsions, can be evaluated based on historical maps only with the first half of the 17th century and the dating of the fluvial records is still missing.The North-Eastern part of the Lower Danube Plain (Fig. 1 is a large alluvial floodplain where Siret River collects several major tributary streams draining SE Carpathians (Putna, Râmnicu Sărat, Buzău or the Moldavian Tableland (Bârlad, before joining Danube, near Galaţi. Surprisingly Siret

  5. Affordable house designs to improve health in rural Africa: a field study from northeastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Ikonomidis, Konstantin; Mshamu, Salum; Nkya, Theresia E; Mukaka, Mavuto; Pell, Christopher; Lindsay, Steven W; Deen, Jacqueline L; Kisinza, William N; Knudsen, Jakob B

    2017-08-01

    The population of sub-Saharan Africa is currently estimated to be 1245 million and is expected to quadruple by the end of the century, necessitating the building of millions of homes. Malaria remains a substantial problem in this region and efforts to minimise transmission should be considered in future house planning. We studied how building elements, which have been successfully employed in southeast Asia to prevent mosquitos from entering and cooling the house, could be integrated in a more sustainable house design in rural northeastern Tanzania, Africa, to decrease mosquito density and regulate indoor climate. In this field study, six prototype houses of southeast Asian design were built in in the village of Magoda in Muheza District, Tanga Region, Tanzania, and compared with modified and unmodified, traditional, sub-Saharan African houses. Prototype houses were built with walls made of lightweight permeable materials (bamboo, shade net, or timber) with bedrooms elevated from the ground and with screened windows. Modified and unmodified traditional African houses, wattle-daub or mud-block constructions, built on the ground with poor ventilation served as controls. In the modified houses, major structural problems such as leaking roofs were repaired, windows screened, open eaves blocked with bricks and mortar, cement floors repaired or constructed, and rain gutters and a tank for water storage added. Prototype houses were randomly allocated to village households through a free, fair, and transparent lottery. The lottery tickets were deposited in a bucket made of transparent plastic. Each participant could draw one ticket. Hourly measurements of indoor temperature and humidity were recorded in all study houses with data loggers and mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors using Furvela tent traps and were identified with standard taxonomic keys. Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex were identified to species using PCR. Attitudes towards the new house

  6. Radioactive waste management in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzi, F.P.; Bundala, F.M.; Nyanda, A.M.; Msaki, P.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive waste, like many other hazardous wastes, is of great concern in Tanzania because of its undesirable health effects. The stochastic effects due to prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation produce cancer and hereditary effects. The deterministic effects due to higher doses cause vomiting, skin reddening, leukemia, and death to exposed victims. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the status of radioactive wastes in Tanzania, how they are generated and managed to protect humans and the environment. As Tanzania develops, it is bound to increase the use of ionizing radiation in research and teaching, industry, health and agriculture. Already there are more than 42 Centers which use one form of radioisotopes or another for these purposes: Teletherapy (Co-60), Brach-therapy (Cs-137, Sr-89), Nuclear Medicine (P-32, Tc-99m, 1-131, 1-125, Ga-67, In-111, Tl-206), Nuclear gauge (Am-241, Cs- 137, Sr-90, Kr-85), Industrial radiography (Am-241, C-137, Co-60, lr-92), Research and Teaching (1-125, Am241/Be, Co-60, Cs-137, H-3 etc). According to IAEA definition, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste if they meet the following criteria: if they have outlived their usefulness, if they have been abandoned, if they have been displaced without authorization, and if they contaminate other substances. Besides the origin of radioactive wastes, special emphasis will also be placed on the existing radiation regulations that guide disposal of radioactive waste, and the radioactive infrastructure Tanzania needs for ultimate radioactive waste management. Specific examples of incidences (theft, loss, abandonment and illegal possession) of radioactive waste that could have led to serious deterministic radiation effects to humans will also be presented. (author)

  7. A retrospective assessment of the effectiveness of radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroid patients from 1997 to 2003 in the north-eastern region of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budlewski, T.; Rogowski, F.; Szumowski, P.; Parfienczyk, A.; Sopotyk, A.; Kociura-Sawicka, A.; Abdelrazek, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The first clinical studies concerning treatment of hyperthyroid patients with 131-I date back as far as 1941. However, it was the following years that brought a wide application of these methods. In Podlasie region (north-eastern Poland) radioiodine treatment was first introduced in 1997. Hyperthyroidism in this region affects about 1.5% of population. The number of new patients is about 3,500 per year. Because iodine deficiency is high in this region, toxic nodular goitre rather than Graves' disease tends to be the main cause of hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was a retrospective analysis of the results of radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroid patients from 1997 to 2003. From 1997 to 2003, 4913 hyperthyroid patients underwent treatment with 131-I (131-I Polatom, Swierk) in the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Medical University of Bialystok. The tested group included: 2106 patients with single solitary nodule, 1968 with multinodular goitre and 839 with Graves' disease. The diagnosis was made on the basis of physical examination and biochemical test results including TSH, fT4 and fT3. All patients had scintigraphic studies with 24 and 48 h uptake of 131-I. They also underwent ultrasound scans to enable assessment of the goitre size and to discover the nodules. All patients with nodules revealed by physical examination and ultrasound scans had biopsy performed under ultrasonographic control. The therapeutic doses of 131-I were calculated on the basis of iodine uptake, goitre size and an assumed absorbed dose. Marinnneli's formula was applied. The assumed absorbed doses were diversified according to the cause of hyperthyroidism and the size of goitre, and ranged from 80 to 350 Gy. In case of small goitres the absorbed doses varied from 80 to 100 Gy. In case of Graves' disease - from 80 to 150 Gy, in solitary nodules from 200 to 350 Gy. 131-I was given to patients orally in capsules. The administered therapeutic doses ranged from 200 mCi to 800 m

  8. Tanzania | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    We have a rich history of supporting research in Tanzania, a politically stable democracy. ... importance of improving health and agriculture in order to reduce poverty. ... For more than a decade, we have provided grants that foster the capacity to ... fellowships and foster links between researchers and institutions in Tanzania ...

  9. Micro Level Perspectives on Growth (Tanzania) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Poverty reduction through growth is the idea behind the market-oriented reforms that Tanzania has undertaken since the mid-1980s. However, poverty is still ... Outputs. Papers. Private sector development in Tanzania : opportunities, challenges and strategic interventions to enhance competitiveness; final report. 42201.

  10. Tanzania | Page 41 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alexander Soucy is correct to identify insecticide-treated bednets and inexpensive anti-malarial drugs as crucial to the global fight against malaria ('An easy way to save three million lives,' April 26). Read more about Tanzania ... Legislation on competition brings productivity and business investment to Tanzania. Increasing ...

  11. Water resources management in Tanzania: identifying research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at identifying research gaps and needs and recommendations for a research agenda on water resources management in Tanzania. We reviewed published literature on water resources management in Tanzania in order to highlight what is currently known, and to identify knowledge gaps, and suggest ...

  12. Tanzania | Page 22 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about Quality Improvement for Maternal and Newborn Health in Mtwara Region, Tanzania (IMCHA). Language English. Read more about Building an Enhanced Cadre of Community Health Workers to Improve Maternal and Newborn Health in Rural Tanzania (IMCHA). Language English.

  13. WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA: EXPERIENCES FROM. NORTHERN ... affecting domestic tourism was carried out in northern Tanzania tourist circuit. .... Serengeti Plains are shared by NCA and the SNP. Normally, in .... communication network) and social services .... motivation to conserve nature.

  14. Industrializing Secondary Schools in Tanzania through Scientific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrializing Secondary Schools in Tanzania through Scientific Innovations. ... Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania ... Through review of various innovations developed by universities including SUA, it was established that there are several innovations in different fields especially in crop cultivation, animal ...

  15. Hydrology in a mediterranean mountain environment. The Vallcebre research catchment (north eastern Spain) I. 20 years of investigations of hydrological dynamics; Hidrologia de un ambiente Mediterraneo de montana. Las cuencas de Vallcebre (Pirineo Oriental) I. 20 anos de investigaciones hidrologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latron, J.; Llorens, P.; Solar, M.; Poyatos, R.; Rubio, C.; Muzylo, A.; Martinez-Carreras, N.; Delgado, J.; Regues, D.; Catari, G.; Nord, G.; Gallart, F.

    2009-07-01

    Investigations started 20 years ago in the Vallcebre research basins with the objectives of better understanding the hydrological functioning of Mediterranean mountains basins. The Vallcebre basins (0.15-4.17 km{sup 2}) are located in a Mediterranean mountain area of the Pyrenean ranges (1300 m.a.s.l., North Eastern Spain) Average annual precipitations 862{+-} 260 mm and potential evapotranspiration is 823{+-}26mm. Climate is highly seasonal leading to periods with water deficit in summer, and eventually in winter. Hydrological investigations to periods with water deficit in summer, and eventually in winter. Hydrological investigations in the basins are related to rainfall interception, evapotranspiration, soil moisture spatio-temporal dynamics, runoff response and runoff processes, suspended sediment dynamics and model application both at the plot and basin scales. (Author) 15 refs.

  16. Fatal canine distemper infection in a pack of African wild dogs in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Katja V; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Nikolin, Veljko; East, Marion L; Kilewo, Morris; Speck, Stephanie; Müller, Thomas; Matzke, Martina; Wibbelt, Gudrun

    2010-12-15

    In 2007, disease related mortality occurred in one African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) pack close to the north-eastern boundary of the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Histopathological examination of tissues from six animals revealed that the main pathologic changes comprised interstitial pneumonia and suppurative to necrotizing bronchopneumonia. Respiratory epithelial cells contained numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and multiple syncytial cells were found throughout the parenchymal tissue, both reacting clearly positive with antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) antigen. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 388 nucleotide (nt) fragment of the CDV phosphoprotein (P) gene revealed that the pack was infected with a CDV variant most closely related to Tanzanian variants, including those obtained in 1994 during a CDV epidemic in the Serengeti National Park and from captive African wild dogs in the Mkomazi Game Reserve in 2000. Phylogenetic analysis of a 335-nt fragment of the fusion (F) gene confirmed that the pack in 2007 was infected with a variant most closely related to one variant from 1994 during the epidemic in the Serengeti National Park from which a comparable fragment is available. Screening of tissue samples for concurrent infections revealed evidence of canine parvovirus, Streptococcus equi subsp. ruminatorum and Hepatozoon sp. No evidence of infection with Babesia sp. or rabies virus was found. Possible implications of concurrent infections are discussed. This is the first molecular characterisation of CDV in free-ranging African wild dogs and only the third confirmed case of fatal CDV infection in a free-ranging pack. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Væksten i Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Haagen Larsen, Pernille; Schack Wiedenbeien, Emma; Nørreager Christensen, Martin; Høj Brunn, Christoffer; Ferklov, Vladik

    2014-01-01

    In our group, it has been decided to write about the growth in Africa. We believe a conflict can be seen between the year of focus to effort an improvement in Africa’s growth and the lack of change. However it is to be seen that there is a noticeable change compared to the time minimal effort spent. As case we have chosen to look at the conditions of establishing further expanding, development and growth of one of the poorest countries in the world, Tanzania. We have chosen to look into the e...

  18. Managing nuclear information in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawe, S.F.; Sungita, Y.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear information management and the applications of nuclear technology in Tanzania are limited to medical, agriculture, research and some industrial applications. It is demanding that the National database for nuclear information be established to keep the track of the information on radiation facilities, manpower development, radiation sources and radioactive waste management. In this paper the current status of nuclear information management in Tanzania is presented. The development, setbacks and future plans for establishment of national database with consequent improvement of nuclear information management are discussed. The National Radiation Commission (NRC) which is an official government body responsible for atomic energy matters in collaboration with other institutions applying nuclear technology keeps the records and inventory of facilities, manpower development and projects related to the nuclear field. The available information about nuclear application activities has been obtained through possessors' declaration, monitoring at entry/exit points, periodic reports from the licensees, radiation safety inspections, and the available link with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In order to facilitate the dissemination of information, five ICT centres to serve in the fields of research, nuclear instrumentation, human health and agriculture have been established. The inventory of radiation facilities/materials and human resource is being build up as an initial input to the National database. Establishment of INIS centre is expected to improve the nuclear information management system in the country. The government and the IAEA are encouraged to support nuclear information management especially by strengthening ICT centres and facilitating the establishment of INIS National centre. (author)

  19. Managing nuclear information in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawe, S.F.; Sungita, Y.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear information management and the applications of nuclear technology in Tanzania are limited to medical, agriculture, research and some industrial applications. It is demanding that the National database for nuclear information be established to keep the track of the information on radiation facilities, manpower development, radiation sources and radioactive waste management. In this paper the current status of nuclear information management in Tanzania is presented. The development, setbacks and future plans for establishment of national database with consequent improvement of nuclear information management are discussed. The National Radiation Commission (NRC) which is an official government body responsible for atomic energy matters in collaboration with other institutions applying nuclear technology, keeps the records and inventory of facilities, manpower development and projects related to the nuclear field. The available information about nuclear application activities has been obtained through possessors' declaration, monitoring at entry/exit points, periodic reports from the licensees, radiation safety inspections, and the available link with the International Atomic Agency (IAEA). In order to facilitate the dissemination of information, five ICT centers to serve in the fields of research, nuclear instrumentation, human health and agriculture have been established. The inventory of radiation facilities/materials and human resource is being build up as an initial input to the National database. Establishment of INIS center is expected to improve the nuclear information management system in the country. The government and the IAEA are encouraged to support nuclear information management especially by strengthening ICT centers and facilitating the establishment of INIS National center. (author)

  20. Regional Dermatology Training Centre in Moshi, Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    because, in many parts of the world, there ... Annual prizes are awarded for the student achieving the highest mark in the overall assessment ... 31 No. 7. Dermatology in Tanzania prize). A second training programme (MMed) provides 4-year.

  1. Abyssinian Scimitarbill Rhinopomastus minor cabanisi in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... in Tanzania: a breeding record in a traditional beehive ... Scimitarbills Rhinopomastus minor entering a hole on the bottom of one of the bee- ... resident of open bushed and wooded habitats in lower rainfall areas east of Lake.

  2. Read full report, Youth employment in Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But the quality of formal education in Tanzania is poor. Less than 12 percent ... NGOs offer a broad range of services and training for youth, including fostering ..... Service workers. 20.6 ..... customer/market validation training provided by profes-.

  3. Financial Institutions And Poverty Alleviation In Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Financial institutions in Tanzania have operated under a competitive financial system ... to move away from the tenets of a centrally planned economy towards free-market orientation. ... They have also favored traders rather than producers.

  4. WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    industry in Tanzania economy, it has been shown repeatedly ... What factors restrain faster growth of domestic .... needs (i.e. food, clothing and shelter) is no longer ... communication network) and social services ..... Advertising, Promotion and.

  5. Tanzania Journal of Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Science (TJS), is professional, peer reviewed journal, published in ... Optics, Thin films, Zoography, Military sciences, Biological sciences, Biodiversity, ... animal and veterinary sciences, Geology, Agricultural Sciences, Cytology, ... available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

  6. Water Resources Management in Tanzania: Identifying Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by human-induced activities. Over the past ... Review of water resources management in Tanzania; Global literature review on water resources ..... requirements for biodiversity and human health. .... Global warming is altering regional climates.

  7. Tanzania's Revealed Comparative Advantage and Structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    example, the contribution from vegetable products fell by 7%, and that from textiles .... 43 -‐ Furskins and artificial fur, manufactures thereof ... example, while Tanzania has comparative advantage in raw hides and skins (see Figure 6), it.

  8. african indigenous and traditional vegetables in tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in four regions of Tanzania with a total of 160 sellers ... washing; and (iii) marketing: retail markup, price variation by season, year and region, ..... and endosulfan and metalaxyl/mencozeb mix as.

  9. Tanzania Monitoring and Evaluation Management Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — MEMS II is a two-year project to enable USAID/Tanzania and a number of its partners to meet their multifold performance reporting responsibilities; upgrade,...

  10. Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, Allison M.; Leip, Adrian; Galloway, James N.; Bekunda, Mateete; Sullivan, Clare; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2017-03-01

    We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there is not enough soil nitrogen to produce adequate food, excess nitrogen that escapes into the environment causes a cascade of ecological and human health problems. To identify, quantify, and contribute to solving these problems, this paper presents a nitrogen footprint tool for Tanzania. This nitrogen footprint tool is a concept originally designed for the United States of America (USA) and other developed countries. It uses personal resource consumption data to calculate a per-capita nitrogen footprint. The Tanzania N footprint tool is a version adapted to reflect the low-input, integrated agricultural system of Tanzania. This is reflected by calculating two sets of virtual N factors to describe N losses during food production: one for fertilized farms and one for unfertilized farms. Soil mining factors are also calculated for the first time to address the amount of N removed from the soil to produce food. The average per-capita nitrogen footprint of Tanzania is 10 kg N yr-1. 88% of this footprint is due to food consumption and production, while only 12% of the footprint is due to energy use. Although 91% of farms in Tanzania are unfertilized, the large contribution of fertilized farms to N losses causes unfertilized farms to make up just 83% of the food production N footprint. In a developing country like Tanzania, the main audiences for the N footprint tool are community leaders, planners, and developers who can impact decision-making and use the calculator to plan positive changes for nitrogen sustainability in the developing world.

  11. Sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kazaura, Method R; Masatu, Melkiory C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A question...

  12. All projects related to Tanzania | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Across Africa, postharvest losses along the food chain from farm to fork jeopardize the food ... Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania ... Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania.

  13. Archives: Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 18 of 18 ... Archives: Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation. Journal Home > Archives: Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 1 (2017) ... factors for porcine cysticercosis transmission and animal welfare in selected villages in Nyasa, Tanzania ... Thoracic radiographic anatomy in sheep · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  16. Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania: A Case of Onion ... Tanzania Journal of Development Studies ... Therefore the government, nongovernmental organisations and development programmes espousing to ...

  17. Back to Office Report. Mission no.1 to Tanzania as counterpart institution to Cleaner Production Centre of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania......A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania...

  18. Residence in Proximity of a Coal-Oil-Fired Thermal Power Plant and Risk of Lung and Bladder Cancer in North-Eastern Italy. A Population-Based Study: 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collarile, Paolo; Bidoli, Ettore; Barbone, Fabio; Zanier, Loris; Del Zotto, Stefania; Fuser, Simonetta; Stel, Fulvio; Panato, Chiara; Gallai, Irene; Serraino, Diego

    2017-07-31

    This study investigated the risk of lung and bladder cancers in people residing in proximity of a coal-oil-fired thermal power plant in an area of north-eastern Italy, covered by a population-based cancer registry. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) by sex, age, and histology were computed according to tertiles of residential exposure to benzene, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particular matter, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) among 1076 incident cases of lung and 650 cases of bladder cancers. In men of all ages and in women under 75 years of age, no significant associations were observed. Conversely, in women aged ≥75 years significantly increased risks of lung and bladder cancers were related to high exposure to benzene (IRR for highest vs. lowest tertile: 2.00 for lung cancer and 1.94 for bladder cancer) and NO2 (IRR: 1.72 for lung cancer; and 1.94 for bladder cancer). In these women, a 1.71-fold higher risk of lung cancer was also related to a high exposure to SO2. Acknowledging the limitations of our study, in particular that we did not have information regarding cigarette smoking habits, the findings of this study indicate that air pollution exposure may have had a role with regard to the risk of lung and bladder cancers limited to women aged ≥75 years. Such increased risk warrants further analytical investigations.

  19. Hepatozoon langii n. sp. and Hepatozoon vacuolatus n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Adele-orina: Hepatozoidae) from the crag lizard (Sauria: Cordylidae) Pseudocordylus langi from the North Eastern Drakensberg escarpment, Eastern Free State, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van As, Johann; Davies, Angela J; Smit, Nico J

    2013-01-22

    Two new haemogregarine species, Hepatozoon langii n. sp. and Hepatozoon vacuolatus n. sp., are described from the pe-ripheral blood of the high altitude crag lizard, Pseudocordylus langi, collected between October 2006 and April 2009 from the North Eastern Drakensberg, Eastern Free State. Hepatozoon langii n. sp. has maturing and mature gamonts that appear encapsulated and have narrow, curved tails. Their cytoplasm stains pinkish-purple with Giemsa, while their nuclei are pur-ple stained with stranded chromatin. Mature gamonts measure 19.1 ± 1.0 (15.4-28.1) μm long by 6.2 ± 1.1 (3.5-7.9) μm wide. Hepatozoon vacuolatus n. sp. gamonts are mostly broader at one pole than the other, have bluish-pink cytoplasm characterised by distinctive rounded and oval vacuoles, and demonstrate pink granules with Giemsa staining. Nuclei stain purple and are mainly coarsely granular. Mature gamonts measure 16.5 ± 1.0 (14.7 - 17.6) μm long by 5.9 ± 1.2 (4.0 - 7.7) μm wide. Both species parasitize erythroblasts, as well as erythrocytes and can dehaemoglobinize the cytoplasm of their host cells. Hepatozoon langii n. sp occurred in the absence of H. vacuolatus n. sp., but the latter haemogregarine always formed mixed infections with the former; no stages intermediate between the two haemogregarine types were observed.

  20. The prevalence of the HPV 16 genome, integrated viral status and p53 genotype in cervical cancer population of north-eastern Hungary, the correlation with the established markers of tumour progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernádi, Zoltán; Sápy, Tamás; Krasznai, Zoárd T

    2004-03-15

    To evaluate the prevalence of the HPV 16 integrated status and the p53 genotype in cervical cancer in north-eastern Hungary and their correlation with the established prognostic factors. Parallel with the routine histological examination, Southern blot hybridisation and multiplex PCRs were used to detect type/physical state of HPV DNA in primary tumours and in regional lymph nodes combined with p53 genotyping of 83 patients. 46.9% (39/83) prevalence rate of HPV 16 genome was found. The frequency of viral integration (76.9% in primary tumours and 95.2% in regional lymph nodes) and that of the p53Arg homozygous genotype (64.1%) proved to be higher than reported from other parts of the world. The HPV 16 integration and the p53 genotype, failed to correlate with the FIGO stage and lymphatic spread. The prevalence of the integrated status of the HPV 16 genome combined with homozygous p53Arg genotype is relatively high in Hungary. These factors however failed to show a strong correlation with the established markers of tumour progression.

  1. Report for fiscal 1982 on comprehensive survey for nationwide geothermal resources. Preparation of lineament density maps - radar image analyses - in north-eastern area; 1982 nendo zenkoku chinetsu shigen sogo chosa hokokusho. Lineament mitsudozu sakusei (radar gazo kaiseki (Tohoku chiiki))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    Geological structure analysis maps and lineament maps were prepared on the north-eastern area and parts of the ancillary areas thereof by analyzing radar images of a 1 to 200,000 scale. With regard to the geological structures, analyses were performed by using as the original data the north look radar images for the three special geothermal areas to have prepared the geological structure analysis maps. The analysis of the radar images identified ground bed boundary lines in more detail than in the existing geological maps, and new discoveries were made available on faults. The lineament maps were compiled by implanting into respectively corresponding topographic maps the 24 N-S lineament maps made by the west look radar images for the whole surveyed areas, and the 16 E-W lineament maps made by the north look radar images for the special geothermal areas. Based on the clarity and characteristics deciphered on the images, the lineaments were classified into the major, minor, and subtle lineaments, which were indicated on the lineament maps. The lineaments were digitized by positions of the edge points, and the histograms and statistical tables were prepared by computer processing. (NEDO)

  2. Tanzania.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    variation (Seebeck, 1973: Mackinnon-e't ar: 1990): Majority of paststlidies"on' reproductive performance from' tropicar-are'as have been' largely limited to'the assessment of effects of>. ·no'n.,genetk factors and breed difference's : '(Galiila. and Arthur, 1989), Genetic parameter es-, timates and infonnation. on the'extent of ...

  3. Contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution in the plague endemic area of Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronimo, Proches; Kihupi, Nganga I; Kimaro, Didas N; Gulinck, Hubert; Mulungu, Loth S; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Fleas associated with different rodent species are considered as the major vectors of bubonic plague, which is still rampant in different parts of the world. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution at fine scale in the plague endemic area of north-eastern Tanzania. Data was collected in three case areas namely, Shume, Lukozi and Mwangoi, differing in plague incidence levels. Data collection was carried out during both wet and dry seasons of 2012. Analysis of Variance and Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) statistical methods were used to clarify the relationships between fleas and specific land use characteristics. There was a significant variation (P ≤ 0.05) of flea indices in different land use types. Fallow and natural forest had higher flea indices whereas plantation forest mono-crop and mixed annual crops had the lowest flea indices among the aggregated land use types. The influence of individual land use types on flea indices was variable with fallow having a positive effect and land tillage showing a negative effect. The results also demonstrated a seasonal effect, part of which can be attributed to different land use practices such as application of pesticides, or the presence of grass strips around fields. These findings suggest that land use factors have a major influence on rodent flea abundance which can be taken as a proxy for plague infection risk. The results further point to the need for a comprehensive package that includes land tillage and crop type considerations on one hand and the associated human activities on the other, in planning and implementation of plague control interventions.

  4. Exploring Foreign Tourists’ Image of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandonde, Felix Adamu

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the economy of African continent and Tanzania in particular has witnessed a business boom of the tourism sector. While the sector has continued to grow and become a dependable source of direct and indirect employment to youths in urban and rural areas, the sector has been awash...... with challenges. These challenges include terrorism attacks, energy crises and poor infrastructure. However, the impact of these challenges on the image of Tanzania as a tourist destination has not received the deserved attention. This study explores the perception of visitors towards Tanzania as a tourist....... Front line employees, various tourist sites and access to services emerged to be strong tourist destination image factors. This implies that the efforts of marketing tourism destination should focus on promoting all the sites the country has....

  5. Type 1 diabetes care updates: Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandi Catherine Muze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania is located in east Africa with a population of 45 million. The country′s population is growing at 2.5% annually. The International Diabetes Federation Child Sponsorship Program was launched in Tanzania in 2005. The number of type 1 diabetes mellitus children enrolled in the changing diabetes in children program in Tanzania has augmented from almost below 50 in 2005 to over 1200 in 2014. The country had an overall trend of HbA1c value of 14% in 2005 while the same has reduced over the years to 10% in 2012-13. The program has been able to reduce the proportion of patients with HbA1c values of 11-14%; from 71.9% in 2008 to 49.8% in 2012-13. The challenges, which CDiC faces are misdiagnosis, low public awareness, and stigma especially in the reproductive age/adolescent groups.

  6. Occupational dose trends in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhogora, W.E.; Nyanda, A.M.; Ngaile, J.E.; Lema, U.S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the present status of occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers in Tanzania from 1986 to 1997. The analysis of dose records observes over this period, a fluctuating trend both in the individual and collective doses. The trend is more related to the fluctuations of the number of radiation workers than to the possible radiation safety changes of the working conditions. It has been found that, the maximum annual dose for the worker in all work categories was about 18 mSv y -1 . This suggests that the occupational radiation exposure in all practices satisfies the current dose limitation system. The national exposure summary shows that, the highest collective dose of 12.8 man-Sv which is 90% of the total collective dose, was due to medical applications. The applications in industry and research had a contribution of nearly 0.8 and 0.7 man-Sv respectively. From the professional point of view, the medical diagnostic radiographers received the highest collective dose of 11.2 man-Sv. Although the medical physicists recorded the minimum collective dose of nearly 0.07 man-Sv, the data shows that this profession received the highest mean dose of about 33 mSv in 12 years. Some achievements of the personnel monitoring services and suggestions for future improvement are pointed out. (author)

  7. Transcultural nursing course in Tanzania, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Rhoda

    2012-06-01

    A transcultural nursing course in Tanzania was offered in fall 2010 at Williston State College, located in North Dakota. Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care: Diversity and Universality Theory (Principles of Developing Cultural Competence) was the framework used for the experience. The course provided nursing students the opportunity to learn about the culture, health, and illness beliefs of Tanzanians; their values and practices; the prevalence of HIV/AIDS; and the differences and similarities between the healthcare systems, hospice/palliative care, and home visits in Tanzania as compared to the United States.

  8. Seismological and structural constraints on the 2011-2013, Mmax 4.6 seismic sequence at the south-eastern edge of the Calabrian arc (North-eastern Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarata, Laura; Catalano, Stefano; Gambino, Salvatore; Palano, Mimmo; Pavano, Francesco; Romagnoli, Gino; Scaltrito, Antonio; Tortorici, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Between June 2011 and September 2013, the Nebrodi Mountains region was affected by a seismic swarm consisting of > 2700 events with local magnitude 1.3 ≤ ML ≤ 4.6 and located in the 5-9 km depth interval. The seismic swarm defines a seismogenetic volume elongated along the E-W direction and encompasses the NW-SE-oriented tectonic boundary between the Calabrian arc (north-eastward) and the Sicilide units (south-westward). By exploring the recent tectonic deformation and the seismic behavior of the region, this study aims at providing additional constraints on the seismogenetic faults at the southern termination of the Calabrian arc. Waveform similarities analysis allowed observing that 45% of the whole dataset can be grouped into six different families of seismic events. Earthquake multiplet families are mainly located in the eastern part of the seismogenetic volume. We suggest that such a feature is responsive to the lateral lithological variations as highlighted by geology (at the surface) and P-wave seismic tomography (at depth of 10 km). Stress tensor inversions performed on FPSs indicate that the investigated region is currently subject to a nearly biaxial stress state in an extensional regime, such that crustal stretching occurs along both NW-SE and NE-SW directions. Accordingly, mesoscale fault geometries and kinematics analyses evidence that a younger normal faulting stress regime led to a tectonic negative inversion by replacing the pre-existing strike-slip one. Based on our results and findings reported in recent literature, we refer such a crustal stretching to mantle upwelling process (as evidenced by diffuse mantle-derived gas emissions) coupled with a tectonic uplift involving north-eastern Sicily since Middle Pleistocene. Moreover, seismic swarms striking the region would be related to the migration of mantle and sub-crustal fluids toward the surface along the complex network of tectonic structures cutting the crust and acting as pathways.

  9. Analysis of Human Papilloma Virus 16/18 DNA and its Correlation with p16 Expression in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma in North-Eastern India: A Chromogenic in-situ Hybridization Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitani, Ankit Kumar; Mishra, Jaya; Shunyu, N. Brian; Khonglah, Yookarin; Medhi, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is quite high in North Eastern India. Apart from the traditional risk factors like tobacco and alcohol consumption, human papilloma virus (HPV) is now considered an established causative agent. These HPV related tumour have a clinico-pathological profile that is quite divergent from conventional non-HPV related tumours. Association of HPV in oral cancers has not been explored in north-east India. Materials and Methods Thirty-one patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) on treatment from October 2010 to January 2013 were included in the study. Patients who received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. HPV 16/18 DNA was evaluated using Chromogenic in-situ Hybridization (CISH). Presence of nuclear signals was taken as positive HPV expression. p16 was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and was considered positive if ≥ 80% of the tumour cells showed strong and diffuse nuclear/cytoplasmic immunostaining. The results were analysed using Fisher exact test and confidence interval was calculated where required. Results The study group age ranged from 30 to 80 years (median age- 54.2 years). The most common site was gum, with well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma being the most common histology. HPV 16/18 DNA was positive in 29% (95% CI: 13.03% - 44.97%) cases and had a clear tendency towards statistical significance with non-smoker cases (p=0.05), lymph node metastasis (p=0.05) and a significant correlation with p16 overexpression (p=0.04). There was no significant correlation with other clinico-pathological parameters. Conclusion HPV 16/18 is associated with OSCC, commonly seen among non-smokers and may be related to nodal metastasis. So, HPV may be used as a prognostic factor in OSCC and p16 may be considered as a surrogate marker for HPV. PMID:26435951

  10. Towards understanding the low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Malays: genetic variants among Helicobacter pylori-negative ethnic Malays in the north-eastern region of Peninsular Malaysia and Han Chinese and South Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, Sathiya; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Xu, Shu Hua; Raj, Mahendra Sundramoorthy; Abdul Majid, Noorizan; Choo, Keng Ee; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Graham, David Y

    2013-04-01

    To identify gene polymorphisms that differ between Malays, Han Chinese and South Indians, and to identify candidate genes for the investigation of their role in protecting Malays from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Malay participants born and residing in Kelantan with a documented absence of H. pylori infection were studied. Venous blood was used for genotyping using the Affymetrix 50K Xba I kit. CEL files from 141 Han Chinese and 76 South Indians were analyzed to compare their allele frequency with that of the Malays using fixation index (FST ) calculation. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the highest allele frequency (outliers) were then examined for their functional characteristics using F-SNP software and the Entrez Gene database. In all, 37 Malays were enrolled in the study; of whom 7 were excluded for low genotyping call rates. The average FST estimated from the genome-wide data were 0.038 (Malays in Kelantan vs the South Indians), 0.015 (Malays in Kelantan vs Han Chinese) and 0.066 (Han Chinese vs South Indians), respectively. The outlier gene variants present in Malays with functional characteristics were C7orf10 (FST  0.29988), TSTD2 (FST  0.43278), SMG7 (FST  0.29877) and XPA (FST  0.43393 and 0.43644). Genetic variants possibly related to protection against H. pylori infection in ethnic Malays from the north-eastern region of Peninsular Malaysia were identified for testing in subsequent trials among infected and uninfected Malays. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2012 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Construction and Demolition Waste Characteristics in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The construction industry generates a lot of construction and demolition (C&D) waste which puts some challenges to its management. For example, currently, in many towns in Tanzania, there are no landfill sites for solid waste disposal; and as a consequence open air dumping sites are used. Dumping C&D waste puts ...

  12. Marketing Dental Services | Tuominen | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Marketing Dental Services. R Tuominen. Abstract. No Abstract.

  13. Boosting youth employment prospects in Tanzania | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-12-16

    Dec 16, 2015 ... Return to main page, Addressing the youth employment challenge in Africa. Related links: Youth Employment Promotion a Priority Agenda for Tanzania, The Guardian; Report: National Stakeholders Consultative Workshop on Youth Employment (PDF, 1.74 MB); Watch the workshop video on YouTube ...

  14. Country programme review. United Republic of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuaron, A.; Hance, R.; Yurtsever, Y.; Maudarbocus, V.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a review of past and present IAEA Technical Co-operation Activities in Tanzania and gives descriptions of the current status of nuclear applications in food and agriculture, human health, water resources and industrial applications/nuclear instrumentation

  15. Tanzania | Page 26 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · South of Sahara. Tanzania. Tanzanie. Read more about Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa. Language English. Read more about Free and Open Source Management Information Systems and Microfinance - Phase II. Language English. Read more about La microfinance et les TIC : systèmes ...

  16. Teaching 'natural product chemistry' in Tanzania | Buchanan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural products 'historically' and 'today' have vast importance. This article describes the course 'Natural Product Chemistry', a new course in the 2011/2012 academic year in the Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences at St. John's University of Tanzania. It reveals how the course has been applied to the African and ...

  17. Tanzania | Page 29 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corn, cassava and pulses are the main food sources in rural Tanzania. Meat is scarce for rural populations, and don't expect to find carrots, kale or squash at the local market! Animal products – particularly offal –, green vegetables and orange fruits and vegetables are the best sources of vitamin A. As a result, Tanzanians ...

  18. Tanzania | Page 35 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers working in Tanzania's Morogoro and Dodoma districts have made an important discovery. By fortifying hay with cassava tops and sweet potato vines, they provided dairy goats with a cheap, protein-rich feed that enabled them to produce more milk. Read more about Better feed for animals means better food for ...

  19. Tanzania | Page 30 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Introducing dairy goats in semi-arid regions of Tanzania has led to farmers earning US$160 from milk sales during the first lactation, as well as an increase in household milk consumption. In these trials led by Canadian and Tanzanian researchers, cassava and sweet potato leaves are a significant feed supplement.

  20. AIDS in dentistry | Muya | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. AIDS in dentistry. RJ Muya. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  1. AIDS in dentistry | Muya | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  2. Tanzania | Page 2 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about ​Promoting locally fortified sunflower oil using e-vouchers. Language English. Read more about ​Affordable natural product reduces fruit losses, increases incomes. Language English. Read more about Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania. Language English. Read more about Élevage de la ...

  3. Newspaper coverage of agricultural information in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.S.Sife

    Introduction. Agriculture is a key sector of economy in Tanzania. ... media to reach a wide audience, newspapers have additional advantages of being in permanent form ... advertisements, politics, entertainment, and crime events while ignoring developmental topics such as ..... Social Sciences, 3(8): 578–582. Kayode, J.

  4. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation accommodates the current diverse and multidisciplinary approaches towards ecosystem conservation at national and global levels. The journal is published biannually and accepts research and review papers covering technological, physical, biological, social and ...

  5. Tanzania : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR)intends to determine the compatibility of national procurement law, and practices, with the principles of economy, and with international procurement practices. This CPAR, the second of its kind in Tanzania, looks at the legislative framework, the performance of regulatory functions, the enforcement regime, and the capacity of public sector ...

  6. Biofuel investment in Tanzania: Omissions in implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib-Mintz, Nazia

    2010-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuels as a component of climate change mitigation, energy security, and a fossil fuel alternative attracts investors to developing countries like Tanzania. Ample unused land is critical for first generation biofuels production and an important feature to attract foreign direct investments that can contribute towards agricultural modernization and poverty reduction initiatives. Despite the economic justifications, the existing institutional and infrastructural capacities dictate the impacts of biofuels market penetrations. Furthermore, exogenous factors like global recessionary pressure depressed oil prices below the level at which biofuel production were profitable in 2007, making Tanzania's competitiveness and potential benefits questionable. This paper investigates the extent that first generation, jatropha-based biofuels industry development in Tanzania observed during fieldwork in Kisarawe and Bahi may fulfill policy objectives. This paper argues that without strong regulatory frameworks for land, investment management, and rural development, biofuel industrialization could further exacerbate poverty and food insecurity in Tanzania. The paper concludes with policy recommendations for first generation biofuel development while keeping in mind implications of second generation production. Since the topic is broad and multifaceted, a multidisciplinary approach is used that includes political, institutional, and agricultural economics to analyze and conceptualize biofuel industry development and food security.

  7. Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco consumption in Tanzania rose by 20% between 2002 and 2007, and is predicted to increase by a further 46% by 2016. The impact of this increase in consumption on public health and economic development is likely to be serious. Experience elsewhere has shown that the single most effective way to reverse this ...

  8. Tanzania | Page 28 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Read more about Taxes sur les cigarettes en Tanzanie. Language French. Read more about Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania. Language English. Read more about Réseau des développeurs - logiciels d'exploitation libre pour assistants numériques personnels utilisés dans la collecte de données sur la ...

  9. Tanzania | Page 19 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Read more about Bourses de recherche pour la lutte antitabac en Afrique. Language French. Read more about Tobacco Control Research Scholarships in Africa. Language English. Read more about Leveraging Indigenous Knowledge to Create Jobs for Women in Rural Areas of Tanzania and Rwanda.

  10. Opalescence: Tooth Whitening Systems | Fischer | Tanzania Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  11. Tanzania | Page 36 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Kenyan sociologist and gender specialist at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) has heard the stories first-hand from her work in hundreds of communities throughout Kenya, Tanzania, and southern Africa. Read more about Empowering African women and communities through agriculture. Language ...

  12. Deficiency within pavement Maintenance Organization in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the rules and regulations of the public administrative system do not allow for an effective and efficient management of road maintenance. Lack of equipment and adequate qualified personnel in the field of road maintenance is too an added deficiency. As a consequence, Tanzania has started to put road ...

  13. CHECKLIST OF THE MILLIPEDES (DIPLOPODA) OF TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, these many-legged animals are not insects (which have three .... Simon Stuart, who was carrying out studies on birds, contributed many specimens ... Diversity Project of November 1994 provided a series of millipede specimens. ... Tanzania records: Morogoro Region, Morogoro Rural Distr., Uluguru Mts, Lupanga.

  14. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanga Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Derua, Yahya A.; Magesa, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundLymphatic filariasis (LF) control started in Tanga Region of Tanzania in 2004, with annual ivermectin/albendazole mass drug administration (MDA). Since then, the current project has monitored the effect in communities and schools in rural areas of Tanga District. In 2013, after 8 rounds...

  15. North-eastern Ethiopia: Society in famine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A Special Report on the two Ethiopian drought-famine crises is reviewed. The Wollo drought occurred at the same time as the West African. Although drought also hit Sudan, and thus spread from the Atlantic to the Red Sea, Ethiopia's drought seems to have been unique, for its normal rainfall pattern is different from that of the Sahel; there are two rainy seasons, linked to a wind system more complex than that in West Africa. The limited data on this is summarized in S. Bethke's chapter of Rehab. This is an important study which helps impact an understanding of the revolution provoked by the Imperial regime's handling of the northern famine, and also allows useful comparisons of the Ethiopian and West African drought crisis.

  16. Spring temperature variability and eutrophication history inferred from sedimentary pigments in the varved sediments of Lake Żabińskie, north-eastern Poland, AD 1907-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Benjamin; Lobsiger, Simon; Fischer, Daniela; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja; Filipiak, Janusz; Grosjean, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Varved lake sediments are excellent natural archives providing quantitative insights into climatic and environmental changes at very high resolution and chronological accuracy. However, due to the multitude of responses within lake ecosystems it is often difficult to understand how climate variability interacts with other environmental pressures such as eutrophication, and to attribute observed changes to specific causes. This is particularly challenging during the past 100 years when multiple strong trends are superposed. Here we present a high-resolution multi-proxy record of sedimentary pigments and other biogeochemical data from the varved sediments of Lake Żabińskie (Masurian Lake District, north-eastern Poland, 54°N-22°E, 120 m a.s.l.) spanning AD 1907 to 2008. Lake Żabińskie exhibits biogeochemical varves with highly organic late summer and winter layers separated by white layers of endogenous calcite precipitated in early summer. The aim of our study is to investigate whether climate-driven changes and anthropogenic changes can be separated in a multi-proxy sediment data set, and to explore which sediment proxies are potentially suitable for long quantitative climate reconstructions. We also test if convoluted analytical techniques (e.g. HPLC) can be substituted by rapid scanning techniques (visible reflectance spectroscopy VIS-RS; 380-730 nm). We used principal component analysis and cluster analysis to show that the recent eutrophication of Lake Żabińskie can be discriminated from climate-driven changes for the period AD 1907-2008. The eutrophication signal (PC1 = 46.4%; TOC, TN, TS, Phe-b, high TC/CD ratios total carotenoids/chlorophyll-a derivatives) is mainly expressed as increasing aquatic primary production, increasing hypolimnetic anoxia and a change in the algal community from green algae to blue-green algae. The proxies diagnostic for eutrophication show a smooth positive trend between 1907 and ca 1980 followed by a very rapid increase

  17. Tanzania | Page 12 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is 2002. Parents and babies wait patiently to see the community health worker in Mvomero, Tanzania. “People have faith in the services. They are treated well and diagnosed properly,” says Samuel Hassain, here with his sick grandson. Health worker Y.E. Kapito marvels that “it has been six to eight months since I heard of ...

  18. Coral Reefs and Their Management in Tanzania | Wagner | Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management approaches and strategies implemented by various ICM programs, conservation areas and marine parks in Tanzania. It also provides recommendations for further research and coral reef management strategies. Keywords: coral reefs, threats, management, recent initiatives, Tanzania West Indian Ocean ...

  19. 24 STATUS OF LIBRARY AUTOMATION IN TANZANIA'S PUBLIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.S. Samzugi

    universities. Kasulwa's (2008) report has mentioned the automation efforts in Tanzania, ... System (EMIS) and E-Library system for All Higher Education and Research Institutions in. Tanzania. ... Both telephone and face-to-face methods were used. ... Qualitative data collected from interviews with directors of libraries, on the.

  20. Creating Fiscal Space for Social Sectors Development in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses fiscal space creation and use in the context of development of social sectors in Tanzania. The paper observes that Tanzania is making good progress in creating and using her fiscal space. The priority being accorded to social sectors, especially in education and health is in the right direction. However ...

  1. All projects related to tanzania | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Tanzania, the maternal mortality rate of 454 deaths per 100,000 live births means that ... and employment options in poor rural communities in Rwanda and Tanzania. ... of fruit results in post-harvest losses of nearly 40% in tropical countries.

  2. Sixty Years of Special Needs Education in Tanzania: Celebrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study traces the development of special needs education in Tanzania from 1950, and discusses the achievements and the persistent challenges that Tanzania is facing as we celebrate 60 years since the first special education school was started. Both documentation and interview methods were used to collect ...

  3. All projects related to tanzania | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, HEALTH EXPENDITURE, HEALTH FINANCING. Region: South of Sahara, Ghana, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, South Africa. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 366,015.00. Food Security, Adequate Care and Environment (Tanzania and Malawi). Project.

  4. Social security systems in Tanzania: Phase I Overview of social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper starts by examining the concept of social security in Tanzania, showing that there are three key issues in social security which have not been adequately addressed by existing social security schemes and need immediate attention. The paper then examines the nature and forms of social security in Tanzania in a ...

  5. Planning a Family: Priorities and Concerns in Rural Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planning a Family: Priorities and Concerns in Rural Tanzania. T Marchant, AK Mushi, R Nathan, O Mukasa, S Abdulla, C Lengeler, JRM Armstrong Schellenberg. Abstract. A fertility survey using qualitative and quantitative techniques described a high fertility setting (TFR 5.8) in southern Tanzania where family planning use ...

  6. tanzania : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: HIV, MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH, PREGNANCY, VIRUSES, TANZANIA, ZAMBIA, BOTSWANA, DISEASE TRANSMISSION, Gender. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Botswana, Tanzania, Zambia. Programme: Santé des mères et des enfants. Financement total : CA$ 55,000.00. Les pertes après ...

  7. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 14, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical manifestations and outcomes of severe malaria among children admitted to Rungwe and Kyela district hospitals in south-western Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL ... Dermatological malignancies at a University teaching Hospital in Northwestern Tanzania: A retrospective review of 154 cases · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ...

  8. IAEA responds to cancer crisis in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: On the occasion of World Cancer Day (4 February), the IAEA announced that its Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) will establish its first Centre of Excellence in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. This low-income East African country has one of the continent's highest cancer rates and only one cancer treatment centre. 'Cancer is a growing crisis all across the developing world,' explains IAEA Director General and Nobel Laureate Mohammed ElBaradei. 'We can save thousands of lives if we put together the tools, the knowledge and the political will to fight cancer effectively,' he said. Cancer is the second most common cause of death worldwide after cardiovascular disease. Over 7 million people died of cancer in 2005, and close to 11 million new cancer cases were diagnosed, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). More than 70 percent of cancer deaths now occur in low and middle income countries - the very countries least able to address this growing burden. Cancer-related deaths are projected to increase to more than 9 million people annually by 2015. Already cancer claims twice the number of lives worldwide as AIDS. Low income nations now face a dual burden of communicable and chronic diseases such as cancer. The IAEA spends about 12 million dollars each year for improving cancer treatment in the developing world. Last year, it established the Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT), to build partnerships with the WHO and other organizations dedicated to controlling cancer. Much of the IAEA's share of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize Award has been dedicated to helping the developing world deal with the dramatic rise in cancer that is overwhelming limited health resources and equipment. The harsh reality of developing nations is one of overburdened health systems with little cancer screening and unnecessarily late cancer diagnosis and non-curative treatment. The IAEA estimates that approximately 5,000 cancer care centres and systems - plus the

  9. Improving smallholder livelihoods: Dairy production in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ulicky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania is primarily an agro-based economy, characterized by subsistence agricultural production that employs more than 80% of the population and contributes up to 45% of the GDP (2005. This country is endowed with a cattle population of 21.3 M, composed mainly of indigenous Zebu breeds and about 680 000 improved dairy animals. About 70% of the milk produced comes from the traditional sector (indigenous cattle kept in rural areas, while the remaining 30% comes from improved cattle, mainly kept by smallholder producers. In Northern Tanzania and particularly in Hai district of Kilimanjaro Region, some dairy farmers organize themselves into small producer groups for the purpose of milk collecting, marketing and general promotion of the dairy sector in their community. Nronga Women Dairy Cooperative Society (NWDCS Limited is one of such organizations dedicated to improve the well-being of the Nronga village community through promoting small-scale dairy farming and its flow-on benefits. Milk flows out of the village, and services for investment and dairy production flow into the village, ensuring a sustainable financial circulation necessary for poverty reduction, rural development and better life for the rural community. In 2001 NWDCS introduced a school milk feeding program that has attracted Australian donors since 2005. Guided by Global Development Group, a multi-faceted project, integrating micro-enterprises, business, education and child health/nutrition, was proposed and initiated by building a dairy plant in Hai District headquarters, the Boma plant. In March 2013, the Australian High Commission to East Africa approved Direct Aid Program funding of AUD 30 000 towards the NWDCS - Biogas Pilot Project in Tanzania, which included the renovation of zero-grazing cow shade units, the construction of 6-m3 biodigester plants on each farm, and encouragement of the use of bioslurry for pasture production and home gardens.

  10. Pig Production in Tanzania: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania's 1.58 million pigs represent 3.7 per cent of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Some 99.5 per cent of pigs are kept by small producers in units averaging 3.04 animals (range 2-48. About 18 per cent of households with livestock own pigs, 93.7 per cent of these having a herd of less than 19 and 69.2 per cent own 9 or fewer head. Scavenging is the main feed source. Maize bran is the principle supplement but some owners provide oilseed cakes and minerals. Domestic pigs are not indigenous to Tanzania and derive mainly from late 19th/early 20th century introductions. There have been few imports of breeding stock since 1961. Poor management, in-breeding, inadequate nutrition and rudimentary veterinary attention lead to low output from late ages at first farrowing, long inter-birth intervals, small litters, slow growth and high mortality. Government policy is not applied in practice. Animals are slaughtered in primitive private facilities or household compounds with little concern for welfare or hygiene, often with no official inspection. Pigs can make a greater contribution to society but public and private sectors must provide additional support with particular attention to management, nutrition, health, welfare and food safety to achieve this.

  11. Sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaura, Method R; Masatu, Melkiory C

    2009-10-06

    Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A questionnaire was used to collect information and to characterize sexual practices among these adolescents. About 32% of adolescents reported being sexually active; a higher proportion being males than females. The only inquired and reported sexual practices include vaginal sex, masturbation, oral and anal sex. About 15% of sexually active adolescents reported having multiple sexual partners. Significantly more males reported having multiple partners than females. Nearly 42% of sexually active adolescents reported having used a condom during most recent sexual act. Females reported older partners at first sexual act. Adolescents experience several sexual practices that include penetrative and non-penetrative. More males reported being sexually active than females. Despite adolescents reporting having multiple sexual partners, reported condom use during the most recent sexual act was low. We advocate for a more enhanced approach of reproductive health education that includes safer sex to adolescents without forgetting those in-schools.

  12. Sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatu Melkiory C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A questionnaire was used to collect information and to characterize sexual practices among these adolescents. Results About 32% of adolescents reported being sexually active; a higher proportion being males than females. The only inquired and reported sexual practices include vaginal sex, masturbation, oral and anal sex. About 15% of sexually active adolescents reported having multiple sexual partners. Significantly more males reported having multiple partners than females. Nearly 42% of sexually active adolescents reported having used a condom during most recent sexual act. Females reported older partners at first sexual act. Conclusion Adolescents experience several sexual practices that include penetrative and non-penetrative. More males reported being sexually active than females. Despite adolescents reporting having multiple sexual partners, reported condom use during the most recent sexual act was low. We advocate for a more enhanced approach of reproductive health education that includes safer sex to adolescents without forgetting those in-schools.

  13. Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... Researchers will test improved cassava and sweet potato varieties to ... Integrating improved goat breeds with new varieties of sweetpotatoes and cassava in the agro-pastoral systems of Tanzania : a gendered analysis.

  14. Stigma and discrimination on HIV/AIDS in Tanzania | Kisinza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stigma and discrimination on HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. W Kisinza, E MakundI, A Mwisongo, G Mubyazi, SM Magesa, H Malebo, J Mcharo, K Senkoro, P Hiza, K Pallangyo, Y Ipuge, AY Kitua, M Malecela-Lazaro ...

  15. The forgotten 'coastal forests' of Mtwara, Tanzania: a biologically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Mtwara, Tanzania: a biologically impoverished and yet important ecosystem. ... and endemism values in these forests, and high levels of forest disturbance. ... of modest biological importance within the context of the Eastern Arc Mountains ...

  16. Civic Participation in the Democratisation Process in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , village and chiefdom levels were prevalent throughout Tanzania even before the advent of colonialism. The scope, size and focus of civic societies have increased and changed over time from being primary agents for social service delivery ...

  17. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 9, No 3 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -school adolescents in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Siziya, P R Ntata, E Rudatsikira, C M Makupe, E Umar, A S Muula, 190-195.

  18. Growth aspirations of women entrepreneurs in tourism in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugalla, Irene Mkini

    2018-01-01

    Dit proefschrift presenteert empirische resultaten op basis van een kwalitatieve en kwantitatieve studie van vrouwelijke ondernemers in de toerismesector in Tanzania. Door Bourdieu's praktijktheorie en de institutionele theorie van Scott toe te passen, analyseren we de relatie tussen de

  19. Climate Change and Food Security in Tanzania: Analysis of Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food systems in Tanzania are highly vulnerable to climate change and variability due to poor adaptive capacity of ... available GCMs and downscaling techniques ... water for hydroelectric power generation ... for farm-level decision making.

  20. Extension Systems in Tanzania: Identifying Gaps in Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Tanzania on agricultural extension systems; review research globally on agricultural ... cal techniques, unique results and major recommendations. .... participation in decision-making, natural .... soil and water management technologies in.

  1. Preliminary observations of birds of Songo Songo Island, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and methods ... The island rises some 10 m above sea level and is c. ... PM a. Greater Sandplover Charadrius leschenaultii. Obs. Littoral. PM a .... terrestrial birds on Pemba Island (Tanzania), with particular reference to six endemic ...

  2. Agrochemicals use in horticulture industry in Tanzania and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... It is apparent that most of the horticultural farms in Northern Tanzania are located on gently ... Thus discharges of wastewaters from horticulture farms may affect the quality of water ...

  3. Agrochemicals use in horticulture industry in Tanzania and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    (Fertilizers and Pesticides) in the Tanzanian horticulture industry especially the Northern regions ... It is apparent that most of the horticultural farms in Northern Tanzania are located on gently .... evaluate any potential for polluting such water.

  4. Tanzania Journal of Science - Vol 38, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human-wildlife interaction in Serengeti and Ngorongoro districts of Tanzania: A case study on small mammals · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. FJ Magige, 95-103 ...

  5. Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative study. Mangi J. Ezekiel, Felix Kisanga, Idda H. Mosha, Amani Anaeli, Switbert R. Kamazima, Rose Mpembeni, Eustace P. Muhondwa ...

  6. A new genus and species of Ceratocanthidae from Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) from the Usambara Mountains (Tanzania), is described. The morphology of the clypeus and mesoepisternum is discussed, also with reference to other Ceratocanthidae. The affinities of the genus are discussed, and ...

  7. Training Teachers in Special Needs Education in Tanzania: A Long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the training of special education teachers in Tanzania. ... learning materials, few trained teachers, teacher attrition, negative attitudes, barrier to ... Keywords: Special needs education, disability, inclusive education, teacher ...

  8. Attitudes of Community to Urban Traffic Noise in Morogoro, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attitudes of Community to Urban Traffic Noise in Morogoro, Tanzania. ... which is the daytime governmentally prescribed noise limit for residential-commercial areas. ... The main impacts of exposure to noise were reported to be headache, ...

  9. Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... Methods: Key informant interviews were conducted among adults including parents of the ... factors for child sexual abuse, the type of perpetrators and the context into which these abuses take place.

  10. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 8, No 3 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urine carcinoembryonic antigen determination in urinary bladder bilharziasis predicts carcinoma in patients with premalignant lesions: Observation of 43 cases ... Participatory involvement of farming communities and public sectors in determining malaria control strategies in Mvomero District, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  11. All projects related to tanzania | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Leveraging Indigenous Knowledge to Create Jobs for Women in Rural Areas ... Region: India, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies, Canada ... growth rates in East Africa, the effects of growth on poverty reduction and ...

  12. Sustainability Partnerships for the Governance of Coastal Resources in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katikiro, Robert; Kweka, Opportuna; Namkesa, Faraja

    The paper examines the experience of sustainability partnerships for the management of coastal resources in Tanzania. It identifies key actors and governance dynamics, with focus on decentralization processes, legitimacy-building and participation of local communities. The paper first provides a ...... of ongoing research under the New Partnerships for Sustainability project (NEPSUS), it provides guidance on research gaps in specific relation to the Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park (MBREMP) and selected BMUs in Mtwara region, Southern Tanzania....

  13. Petroleum fund in Tanzania? Other alternatives may be better

    OpenAIRE

    Torvik, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    The Government of Tanzania is looking for the best policies and institutional designs to turn future petroleum revenues into welfare, development and jobs. This Brief argues that the Tanzanian society will benefit more by investing in infrastructure, health and education, rather than establishing a petroleum sovereign wealth fund and investing in foreign assets. Exploration for oil and gas in Tanzania started in the 1950s. The first discoveries were made in the 1970s, and commercial prod...

  14. The incidence of local government allocations in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Jameson Boex

    2003-01-01

    Since 1999, Tanzania has been actively pursuing reforms of the way in which the central government finances local government activities. This paper looks at the current incidence of central government allocations to local authorities in Tanzania through: 1) examining of potential problems with the current financing method, 2) showing large variations between local government allocations, and 3) finding that surprisingly what drives t his distribution of resources maybe substantial pro-wealthy...

  15. Plague and the Human Flea, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes H

    2007-01-01

    Domestic fleas were collected in 12 villages in the western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Of these, 7 are considered villages with high plague frequency, where human plague was recorded during at least 6 of the 17 plague seasons between 1986 and 2004. In the remaining 5 villages with low plague...... frequency, plague was either rare or unrecorded. Pulex irritans, known as the human flea, was the predominant flea species (72.4%) in houses. The density of P. irritans, but not of other domestic fleas, was significantly higher in villages with a higher plague frequency or incidence. Moreover, the P....... irritans index was strongly positively correlated with plague frequency and with the logarithmically transformed plague incidence. These observations suggest that in Lushoto District human fleas may play a role in plague epidemiology. These findings are of immediate public health relevance because...

  16. Coping with Rainfall Variability in Northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...... of household reported harvest shocks differs significantly between districts and correspond to the observed variability in local climate patterns. Coping strategies are focused on spreading risks and include reduced consumption, casual employment, new crops, external support and the selling of assets....... There are no large differences in applied coping strategies across the region, but district-level data demonstrate how local strategies differ between localities within the districts. The results emphasize that in order to target rural policies and make them efficient, it is important to take into account the local...

  17. Struggles over patriarchal structural adjustment in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbilinyi, M

    1993-10-01

    Within the space of 7 years (1986-93), structural adjustment policies have contributed to a reversal of the gains in economic development achieved in Tanzania in the 1960s and 1970s. Structural adjustment policies have helped large-scale producers and ordinary citizens but have led to a decline in social services which is reflected in drops in primary school enrollment and increases in medical costs. Government revenues are absorbed by foreign debt servicing. The reduction of support for social services has increased women's work; bolstered gender division of labor; and reduced women's access to education, formal employment, and health services. On the other hand, increased participation in market-oriented activities has increased women's mobility and exposure to modern ideas. This has led to changing gender relations which on the positive side can lead to shared decision-making but on the negative side may cause men to abdicate their familial responsibilities. Women suffer, however, from a lack of investment in ways to lighten their household responsibilities and have lost their ability to control food production because of the shift to cash crop production for export. The combination of hard work, low income, and stress has taken a toll on women's health, and both the maternal mortality rate and incidence of HIV infections among teenage girls has increased. In response to this situation, Tanzanian women have formed the Tanzania Gender Networking Programme (TGNP) which seeks to empower women and transform society through such activities as education and training, research, and lobbying and networking. Workshops sponsored by the TGNP have resulted in recommendations for adoption of a people-centered development strategy.

  18. Malaria specific mortality in lowlands and highlands of Muheza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from the date of census. Trained research assistants administered VA questionnaires to parents/close relatives. Two physicians reviewed each report independently and a third opinion was sought where there was discordant report between the two. A total of 9,872 households were surveyed and 134 deaths were recorded.

  19. The current status of radiological protection infraestructures in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngalie, J.E.; Mompome, W.K.; Meza, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Without adequate and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure, the benefits associated with safe use of nuclear technology and atomic energy might be jeopardized. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the Atomic Energy Act No. 7 of 2003 established the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission as sole regulatory body responsible for regulating and controlling the safe and peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the country. The Atomic Energy (Protection from ionizing radiation) Regulations, 2004 further specifies practices designed to ensure that unnecessary exposure of persons to ionizing radiation is avoided, that all exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable and that all the dose limits specified in the radiation protection standards are not exceeded. This is achieved through the systems of notification, authorizations through registration and licensing, safety and security of radiation sources as well as regulatory inspections and enforcements. These activities are performed by the Commission with operational funds allocated by the Government of Tanzania. The Commission further provides other services namely individual monitoring; calibration services; education and training to radiation workers, public as well as law enforcers; and safe management of radioactive waste. Despite such achievement, still there are a lot to be done in order to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Tanzania. These include issues such as gaps in our legislations, regulations and guidance, security of sources, enforcement of laws, etc. This paper describes and discusses the current status of the regulatory control activities and radiation protection services provided by the Commission and suggestions for further improvement of radiological protection infrastructure in Tanzania. (author)

  20. Cost of microbial larviciding for malaria control in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rifat; Lesser, Adriane; Mboera, Leonard; Kramer, Randall

    2016-11-01

    Microbial larviciding may be a potential supplement to conventional malaria vector control measures, but scant information on its relative implementation costs and effectiveness, especially in rural areas, is an impediment to expanding its uptake. We perform a costing analysis of a seasonal microbial larviciding programme in rural Tanzania. We evaluated the financial and economic costs from the perspective of the public provider of a 3-month, community-based larviciding intervention implemented in twelve villages in the Mvomero District of Tanzania in 2012-2013. Cost data were collected from financial reports and invoices and through discussion with programme administrators. Sensitivity analysis explored the robustness of our results to varying key parameters. Over the 2-year study period, approximately 6873 breeding sites were treated with larvicide. The average annual economic costs of the larviciding intervention in rural Tanzania are estimated at 2014 US$ 1.44 per person protected per year (pppy), US$ 6.18 per household and US$ 4481.88 per village, with the larvicide and staffing accounting for 14% and 58% of total costs, respectively. We found the costs pppy of implementing a seasonal larviciding programme in rural Tanzania to be comparable to the costs of other larviciding programmes in urban Tanzania and rural Kenya. Further research should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of larviciding relative to, and in combination with, other vector control strategies in rural settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Scaling up postabortion contraceptive service--results from a study conducted among women having unwanted pregnancies in urban and rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Kipingili, Rose

    2005-01-01

    Tanzania and 42% in rural Tanzania stated that their pregnancy was unwanted. Contraceptive acceptance among women with unwanted pregnancies was high; 93% in urban Tanzania and 71% in rural Tanzania left with a contraceptive method. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of women with unwanted pregnancies in urban...... and rural Tanzania underlines the need of scaling up postabortion contraceptive service....

  2. The societal cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    was to estimate the societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis in Tanzania, by assessing both the health and economic burden. The societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis was assessed in humans and pigs based on data obtained by a systematic review. Experts' opinion was sought in cases where data were...... losses due to porcine cysticercosis. Based on data retrieved from the systematic review and burden assessments, T. solium cysticercosis contributed to a significant societal cost for the population. The annual number of NCC-associated epilepsy incident cases and deaths were 17,853 (95% Uncertainty......Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study...

  3. Winners and losers of IWRM in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara van Koppen,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the application of the concept of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM in Tanzania. It asks: how did IWRM affect the rural and fast-growing majority of smallholder farmersʼ access to water which contributes directly to poverty alleviation and employment creation in a country where poverty and joblessness are high? Around 1990, there were both a strong government-led infrastructure development agenda and IWRM ingredients in place, including cost-recovery of state services aligning with the Structural Adjustment Programmes, water management according to basin boundaries and the dormant colonial water rights (permits system. After the 1990s, the World Bank and other donors promoted IWRM with a strong focus on hydroelectric power development, River Basin Water Boards, transformation of the water right system into a taxation tool, and assessment of environmental flows. These practices became formalised in the National Water Policy (2002 and in the Water Resources Management Act (2009. Activities in the name of IWRM came to be closely associated with the post-2008 surge in large-scale land and water deals. Analysing 25 years of IWRM, the paper identifies the processes and identities of the losers (smallholders and – at least partially – the government and the winners (large-scale water users, including recent investors. We conclude that, overall, IWRM harmed smallholdersʼ access to water and rendered them more vulnerable to poverty and unemployment.

  4. Sustaining Ecotourism in Tanzania through Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Pasape

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the contribution of community empowerment to the sustainability of ecotourism in Tanzania using education programmes, access to information and language. Through the survey approach data was collected from Tanzania’s ecotourism stakeholders (N=250 in the eight selected regions of Dar es Salaam, Pwani, Morogoro, Tanga and Zanzibar (for the eastern tourism circuit and Arusha, Kilimanjaro and Manyara (for the northern circuit and thereafter a qualitative analysis was employed complemented by estimation of the multinomial logistic regression model. The findings show that tourism stakeholders lack sufficient knowledge on ecotourism conservation and preservation. Likewise community members have poor access to information due to insufficient ecotourism publications, tourist information centres, a reliable mechanism for communicating with stakeholders and the use of foreign languages in most of the publications. It is therefore the study’s recommendation that community members be empowered through being provided with adequate education programmes and access to relevant information and the use of a language that is understood by them in order to broaden their level of understanding, enhance their management skills and contribute significantly to ecotourism-related activities.

  5. Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Farmer, William; Strzepek, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Due to their reliance on rain-fed agriculture, both as a source of income and consumption, many low-income countries are considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change. Here, we estimate the impact of climate change on food security in Tanzania. Representative climate projections are used...... as the channel of impact, food security in Tanzania appears likely to deteriorate as a consequence of climate change. The analysis points to a high degree of diversity of outcomes (including some favorable outcomes) across climate scenarios, sectors, and regions. Noteworthy differences in impacts across...

  6. Implementing farm-to-fork traceability in Tanzania

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Dyk, FE

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Van Dyk2_2005.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 10949 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Van Dyk2_2005.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Copyright @ CSIR 2005 www....csir.co.za Implementing farm-to-fork traceability in Tanzania Esbeth van Dyk CSIR Centre for Logistics ORSSA/SAIIE August 2005 Copyright @ CSIR 2005 www.csir.co.za Structure • Why traceability? • Legislation • Tanzania project • Recordkeeping in coffee...

  7. Dragonflies (odonata) of Rufiji district, Tanzania with new records for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The habitat specialists found in Ngumburuni forest and in the forests of the Kichi and Kiwengoma Hills are globally endangered species and require special attention with regard to conservation. Keywords: dragonflies; coastal forest; Tanzania; conservationJournal of East African Natural History Vol. 95 (2) 2006: pp. 139-162 ...

  8. Tanzania Journal of Science - Vol 42, No 1 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of concentrations of trace and toxic heavy metals in soil and vegetables grown in the vicinity of Manyoni uranium deposit in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. FA Kapile, IN Makundi, 94-108 ...

  9. Are sustainable tourism policies and strategies working in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article briefly explores the development of tourism in Tanzania and then focuses primarily on relevant tourism policies adopted by the Tanzanian Government in order to grow the industry in a sustainable manner. Although these policies have been effective for a decade since their introduction, indications are that they ...

  10. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 10, No 3 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of oral amodiaquine and chloroquine in healthy volunteers with or without Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeast Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JJ Massaga, JP Lusingu, R Makunde, HM Malebo, MM Chile, JA Akida, MM Lemnge, ...

  11. Climate change and food security in Tanzania: analysis of current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of literature was conducted in order to identify knowledge gaps in climate change and food security research in Tanzania. The review focused on published literature covering the past 20 years addressing climate change effects on various components of the food security. The review of literature reveals, among ...

  12. Genetic structure among the local chicken ecotypes of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the genetic structure of local chicken ecotypes of Tanzania using 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers. A standard PCR was followed by manual genotyping (6% native polyacrylamide gel visualized by silver staining). Phylogenetic analysis of 13 individuals from each of the nine ...

  13. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 12, No 4 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motorcycle injuries as an emerging public health problem in Mwanza city, Tanzania: A call for urgent intervention · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Phillipo L. Chalya, Joseph B. Mabula, Isidor H. Ngayomela, Emmanuel S. Kanumba, Alphonce B.

  14. Determinants of public health expenditure growth in Tanzania: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper identifies some major drivers of per capita public health expenditure growth in Tanzania using nationally representative annual data between 1995 and 2014. It used Bayesian model based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. The empirical result shows that both the real GDP per capita and ...

  15. Leptospira infections in freshwater fish in Morogoro Tanzania: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine presence of Leptospira in fish; the prevalent Leptospira serovars and whether are related to serovars reported in animals; and to ascertain potential public health risk. Live tilapia, catfish and eel fish (n=48) were caught in Mindu Dam in Morogoro Municipality in eastern Tanzania ...

  16. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 20, No 2 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic determinants of dengue infection during an outbreak in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Neema Camara, Billy Ngasala, Germana Leyna, Ahmed Abade, Susan F. Rumisha, Ndekya M. Oriyo, Leonard ...

  17. Status, Impact and Management of Invasive Alien Species in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study used three methodological approaches including documentary search, interviews with relevant stakeholders and limited field visits. Findings from the study have indicated that the awareness, trends, distribution and impacts of the invasive alien species in Tanzania are variable, and similarly are the management ...

  18. All projects related to Tanzania | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-07-02

    Project. The Economic and Social Research Foundation (ESRF) is an independent research organization that was registered in Tanzania in October 1992. Start Date: July 2, 2009 ... Five-City Network to Pioneer Climate Change Adaptation in sub-Saharan Africa. Project ... Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: ...

  19. The Rock Pratincole Glareola nuchalis in Tanzania: the first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    population (Delany et al. 2009). Britton (1980) mentions only Siguri Falls in the. Selous Game Reserve for Tanzania and while suggesting that it breeds there, no breeding records were admitted in Brown & Britton (1980). Over the last three decades, a number of new observations―including the first breeding record―of this ...

  20. GROWTH-RATES OF SHRUBS ON DIFFERENT SOILS IN TANZANIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRINS, HHT; VANDERJEUGD, HP

    1992-01-01

    Because little is known of growth rates of shrubs in East Africa, the growth rates of Acalypha fructicosa, Gardenia jovis-tonantis, Justicia cordata, Maerua triphylla, and Ocimum suave were measured in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. Branch diameter increments and branch length

  1. Growth rates of shrubs on different soils in Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, H.H.T.; Jeugd, van der H.P.

    1992-01-01

    Because little is known of growth rates of shrubs in East Africa, the growth rates of Acalypha fructicosa, Gardenia jovis-tonantis, Justicia cordata, Maerua triphylla, and Ocimum suave were measured in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. Branch diameter increments and branch length

  2. Modes of delivery assistance in Bangladesh | Rahman | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 4 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  3. Modes of delivery assistance in Bangladesh | Rahman | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 4 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Modes of delivery assistance in Bangladesh.

  4. Engaged Learning and Peace Corps Service in Tanzania: An Autoethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Brianna; Thorp, Laurie; Chung, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    The Peace Corps Masters International program offers students the opportunity to combine their Peace Corps service with their master's education. This article demonstrates how classroom learning strengthened the author's Peace Corps service in Tanzania, which in turn strengthened her master's thesis. Peace Corps supports an approach to community…

  5. Protected area gap analysis of important bird areas in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sritharan, Shakthi; Burgess, Neil David

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of gaps in protected area (PA) coverage of species distributions have been carried out extensively for the past two decades, aiming to better locate new PAs and conserve species. In this study, progress to close gaps in the protection of the Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of Tanzania...

  6. Corruption, Politics and Societal values in Tanzania: An evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption, Politics and Societal values in Tanzania: An evaluation of the Mkapa administration's anti corruption efforts. Bruce Heilman, Lawrean Ndumbaro. Abstract. (Af. J. Political Science: 2001 7(1): 1-20). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  7. The Role of Pharmacist in Dental Care Services | Kalala | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  8. Consequences of Female Migration for Families in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with economic and political change in Africa, Asia and Latin America .... notes that in developing countries, internal and international migration is a result of ... 'hut tax' in Tanzania was one of the important factors behind sex differentials in migration. ... The country is located in East Africa, covering 940,000 km2.

  9. Antiproliferation effects of selected Tanzania plants | Choi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plants still remain a prime source of drugs for the treatment of cancer and can provide leads for the development of novel anticancer agents. Our screening of indigenous medicinal plants from Tanzania has led to the identification of the number of anticancer activity. Material and methods: The current study ...

  10. Two 'extinct' trees rediscovered near Kilwa, Tanzania | Clarke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary botanical explorations in the little-known Namatimbili–Ngarama forest block located some 35 km inland of Kilwa in south-east Tanzania have rediscovered and further confirmed the presence of two tree species, Erythrina schliebenii Harms and Karomia gigas (Faden) Verdc., that were previously thought to have ...

  11. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 16, No 3 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human activity spaces and plague risks in three contrasting landscapes in Lushoto District, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Proches Hieronimo, Hubert Gulinck, Didas N. Kimaro, Loth S. Mulungu, Nganga I. Kihupi, Balthazar M. Msanya, ...

  12. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania : public health perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwanri, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania – public health perspectives

    Abstract

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycaemia of variable severity with onset or

  13. Field vegetable production in the Lake Zone of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Putter, de H.; Maerere, A.P.; Amon, W.

    2014-01-01

    In November 2012 and in August 2014 surveys were carried out in field vegetable producing areas in the Lake Zone of Tanzania. The aim of the surveys was to learn the conditions for field vegetable production and marketing in these areas. Recommendations for the development of vegetable production

  14. Tanzania Dental Journal - Vol 17, No 2 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patient satisfaction with dental services rendered at School of Dentistry, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. B Mwela, EN Kikwilu, 38-44 ...

  15. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 16, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection in bats roosting in human settlements in Morogoro municipality in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Georgies F. Mgode, Huruma A. Mbugi, Ginethon G. Mhamphi, Dickson Ndanga, Evance L. Nkwama.

  16. Paleoseismic Investigations along the Bubu Fault, Dodoma-Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-11-04

    The central part of Tanzania, Dodoma, was hit by an Mw= 5.5 earthquake in November 4, 2002. It was part of a swarm of moderate earthquakes that affected the area. This paper, reports the first attempt to investigate significant past earthquakes along one of the known seismically active rift faults (Bubu fault, Gonga ...

  17. The Southern Black Tit Melaniparus niger in Tanzania with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by Friedrich Fülleborn at Undis south of Tunduru near the Tanzania – Mozambique border (11°17'S ... and was not included in any reference books or field guides. None of these ... was clearly a dark-eyed leucomelas rather than a pale-eyed.

  18. Growth and Structure of Tanzania's Industrial Sector Investment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... agro-based industrial activities. Tanzania being basically an agricultural country such investment will have a multiplier effect in terms of employment generation partly due to the linkages effects which such industries might have to the rest of the economy. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol.8(2) 2000: 46-54 ...

  19. Liberalisation of the Banking Industry in Tanzania: Issues and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Tanzania, as in many other developing countries, banks play a predominant role in the financial sector of the country as far as mobilisation and allocation of financial resources is concerned. The question that deserves attention however, is whether and to what extent foreign banks have been playing a positive role in the ...

  20. Community-Based Wildlife Management In Tanzania: The Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-based wildlife management (CWM) approach – known to others as community-based conservation – was first introduced in Tanzania in 1987/88. The approach intends to reconcile wildlife conservation and rural economic development. In the 1990s Tanzanians witnessed a rush by government Ministries and ...

  1. Concrete block production from construction and demolition waste in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabai, M.M.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Mato, R.R.A.M.; Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Lichtenberg, J.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    In Tanzania, construction and demolition (C&D) waste is not recycled and knowledge on how it can be recycled especially into valuable products like building materials are still limited. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of recycling the C&D waste (mainly cementitious rubble) into

  2. Disclosure of HIV Status in Rural Tanzania: Practices, Facilitators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Tanzania, HIV counselling and testing practices are now widely accepted as the cornerstone of HIV prevention programmes. Within HIV testing and counselling, emphasis is placed on the importance of individuals to disclose their HIV status. Despite increasing focus on disclosure of HIV status, relatively little is known ...

  3. Integrating reproductive and child health and HIV services in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrating reproductive and child health and HIV services in Tanzania: Implication to policy, systems and services. ... Experts around the world recognize the central role of Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services in preventing HIV infection. Evidence suggests that improving access to contraception for women to ...

  4. Schooling, Child Labor, and the Returns to Healthcare in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Nyshadham, Anant

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of accessing better healthcare on the schooling and labor supply decisions of sick children in Tanzania. Using variation in the cost of formal-sector healthcare to predict treatment choice, we show that accessing better healthcare decreases length of illness and changes children's allocation of time to school and work.…

  5. School Proximity and Child Labor: Evidence from Rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondylis, Florence; Manacorda, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Is improved school accessibility an effective policy tool for reducing child labor in developing countries? We address this question using microdata from rural Tanzania and a regression strategy that attempts to control for nonrandom location of households around schools as well as classical and nonclassical measurement error in self-reported…

  6. Maternal health in fifty years of Tanzania independence: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High rate of maternal death is one of the major public health concerns in Tanzania. ... had been on a downward trend from 453 to 200 per 100,000 live births. ... Current statistics indicate that maternal mortality ratio has dropped slightly in 2010 ...

  7. Bureaucratic Blockages : Water, Civil Servants, and Community in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Juli

    2017-01-01

    How do civil servants in district water and sanitation departments address problems of water access in rural communities in Tanzania? What are the bureaucratic procedures they follow? How do the bureaucratic procedures around formulating budgets, managing money, and interacting with communities impede or enhance their ability to manage water projects? This report addresses these and related ...

  8. Cancer Training for Frontline Healthcare Providers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Tara J; Deming, Cassondra M; Helland, Janey R; Hartwig, Kari A

    2017-08-16

    Cervical and breast cancer are responsible for the highest cancer-related mortality in Tanzania, although both are preventable or curable if diagnosed at an early stage. Limited knowledge of cervical cancer by clinic and dispensary level healthcare providers in Tanzania is a barrier for prevention and control strategies. The purpose of the study was to provide basic oncology training to frontline healthcare workers with a focus on cervical and breast cancer in order to increase knowledge. A 1-day cancer training symposium was conducted in Arusha, Tanzania, with 43 clinicians. Pre- and post-intervention surveys assessed cancer knowledge and confidence of clinicians in risk assessment. Sixty-nine percent of the participants reported never receiving any cervical cancer training in the past. A significant difference was found between the pre- and post-test in a majority of knowledge questions and in reported confidence recognizing signs and symptoms of breast and cervical cancer (p < 0.05). The 1-day community oncology training symposium was effective in delivering and increasing basic knowledge about cervical and breast cancers to these healthcare providers. The low level of baseline cancer knowledge among frontline medical providers in Tanzania illustrates the need for increased training around the country.

  9. Tanzania Journal of Science - Vol 41, No 1 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of heavy metal concentration in water around the proposed Mkuju River Uranium Project in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Firmi P. Banzi, Peter K. Msaki, Najat K. Mohammed, 8-18 ...

  10. Country's image as judged by international indices: Case of Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presented various international indices and how Tanzania is judged by them. The purpose was to reveal to different stakeholders and policy makers how this country is perceived by outsiders such as foreign donor countries, investors, tourist or international bodies. The methodology involved empirical review of ...

  11. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  12. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 15, No 3 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of sampling techniques for Rift Valley Fever virus potential vectors, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex, in Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Clement N. Mweya, Sharadhuli I. Kimera, Esron D.

  13. tanzania danida dental health programme progress in prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gramme have been reactivated. Three of these projects deal with prevention only and more specifically with dental health education of the population. These projects are the. Tanzania School Health Programme, our work. 8 with the MCH system and, the continuing educa- tion of dental personnel to reorient them towards.

  14. Insecticide resistance testing in malaria vectors in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mosquito survived much better and the scientists had a total of 467 mosquitoes to run the insecticide susceptibility tests. Innovative ways are necessary under field conditions for mosquito breeding in susceptibility studies. Key words: Malaria, Anopheles gambiae complex, larvae, fabric, resistance, susceptibility, Tanzania.

  15. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 15, No 1 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Policy Analysis Studies in Tanzania: A Historical and Thematic Perspective with Implications on Future Policy Research for Crop Production and Marketing · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A.C. Isinika, G.M. Mibavu, J.J. VanSickle ...

  16. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 19, No 2 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased memory phenotypes of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in children with sickle cell anaemia in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Emmanuel Balandya, Teri Reynolds, Said Aboud, Stephen Obaro, Julie Makani ...

  17. Slaughterhouse survey of Trichinella infections in pigs of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A slaughterhouse survey was conducted in five regions of Tanzania to determine the prevalence of the nematode in domestic pigs slaughtered for human consumption in the framework of an OIE Twinning project. At least five grams of diaphragm muscle was taken from each sampled carcass. A total of 1,078 adult pigs were ...

  18. Fasihi ya Kiswahili na rushwa Tanzania: Thomas A. R. Kamugisha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makala hii inajaribu kuelezea mchango wa fasihi ya Kiswahili katika kuijadili rushwa. Kwa kurejea kwenye Riwaya ya Thomas A.R. Kamugisha Kitu Kidogo tu! makala hii inasawilisha miongo takribani mitatu ya dhana ya “kitu kidogo” na athari zake kwa jamii ya Tanzania. Kwa kuijadili riwaya ya Kitu Kidogo tu! makala hii ...

  19. Editoria: EBOLA: Fear of the unknown | Comoro | Tanzania Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editoria: EBOLA: Fear of the unknown. C. Comoro, J.

  20. Editoria: EBOLA: Fear of the unknown | Comoro | Tanzania Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  1. Hunting and trading bushmeat in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    premiums are paid for particular species this needs to be considered. This paper investigates these issues in the Kilombero Valley of Tanzania, based on one year of market data and interviews with 80 hunters, 169 traders and 67 retailers. Motivations were overwhelmingly commercial and the bushmeat trade...

  2. Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project, supported by IDRC and GAC through the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), will improve food security and nutrition in Tanzania through an integrated breeding and management program that will increase goat milk and meat production. Researchers will test improved cassava and ...

  3. A new genus of Odontopygid Millipeds from Tanzania (Diplopoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new generic taxon Calyptomastix is proposed to accommodate the type species Odontopyge kakandae Kraus, 1958, and, tentatively, Odontopyge dorsalis Carl, 1909, Haplothysanus leviceps Attems, 1909, and Spirostreptus pardalis Gerstäcker, 1873, all from Tanzania. This genus is defined by the broad basal ...

  4. Tanzania Dental Journal - Vol 15, No 1 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The practice of uvulectomy and related complications among children aged below 6 years in Ilemela district, Mwanza, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. F Taylor. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tdj.v15i1.48377 ...

  5. Provision of Family Planning Services in Tanzania: A Comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adherence to the policy guidelines and standards is necessary for family planning services. We compared public and private facilities in terms of provision of family planning services. We analyzed data from health facility questionnaire of the 2006 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey, based on 529 health ...

  6. Library and information provision for distance learners in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses some of the library and information provision research and evaluation aspects in the distance education context in Tanzania. It explores some current and potential areas that can be considered for research and evaluation by library and information personnel, scholars and researchers. It does so by ...

  7. The Implementation of Curricular Reform: Tanzania and Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Murray; Vulliamy, Graham

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the origins and policy characteristics of the Education for Self Reliance project in Tanzania and the Secondary Schools Community Extension Project in Papua New Guinea. Compares the sociopolitical climate, the policy characteristics, the role of academic assessment, policy change, and examples of the existing policy in the two countries.…

  8. The Irrelevance of Financial Statements from Parastatals in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to establish whether financial statements from Tanzania parastatals were availed on time, and if not, whether the delay was significant. Using the Normal Approximation Rule to test for significance in mean time difference, it was found that parastatals delayed in releasing financial statements. The difference ...

  9. Dentistry for the underprivileged | Mosha | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  10. Editorial Fluorides in dentistry | Masalu | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  11. Consent for care in dentistry | Rugarabamu | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  12. Stagnating maternal mortality in Tanzania: what went wrong and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rumishael Shoo

    In particular routine facility data collected as part of the Health Management .... There is established evidence that introduction of even small amounts of user ... A major factor affecting coverage remains the perceived low quality ... Tanzania today faces a challenge of both population outstripping social services such as.

  13. Investigating Motivations for Women's Skin Bleaching in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kelly M.; Robkin, Navit; Gaska, Karie; Njoki, Lillian Carol

    2011-01-01

    Why do many African women continue to use damaging skin-bleaching cosmetics that contain dangerous chemicals (e.g., mercury) that may increase their rates of infertility, skin cancer, and serious skin/brain/kidney disease? To address this question, our study investigated motivations driving the preservation of skin-bleaching practices in Tanzania.…

  14. Forest Reform in Tanzania: A Review of Policy and Legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community participation in forest management has existed in the United Republic of Tanzania for a long time, but on a small scale. It is common to find trees of certain species are being protected and managed for traditional reasons. It has been observed that forests and woodlands that are managed using traditional ...

  15. The dependent character of development planning in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This shift, which had more to do with the surge of neoliberalism than domestic conditions, resulted in a simplified and more interactive planning, and lesser dependency on foreign experts than before. While Tanzania experienced rapid economic growth under the new planning regime, this was not without serious trade-offs, ...

  16. Rice value chain analysis in Tanzania: identification of constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a food and cash crop in Eastern Africa, is increasing, but its value chain is becoming complex. In 2012/13, rice value chain analysis was conducted in rice farming systems of Lake, Eastern and Southern-Highlands zones of Tanzania. A sample of 240 producers, 60 traders and 30 ...

  17. Functioning of the Governance Structure in the Tanzania Tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the functioning of tobacco value-chain in Urambo district in Tanzania, focusing mainly on the critical analysis of the value-chain agents and their functions, chain governance and the institutional environment in which the chain operates. It starts by mapping up the chain to have a pictorial representation ...

  18. Tanzania Medical Journal - Vol 26, No 2 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identifying Gaps in Knowledge, Prevalence and Care of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Tanzania – a Qualitative Review article · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. KP Manji, MN Hogan, 7-17 ...

  19. Wildlife Management Areas in Tanzania: A Study of Opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2003 Tanzania established 16 pilot Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs), with the aim of enhancing conservation and poverty alleviation through sustainable utilization of natural resources. This study examines the opportunities and challenges of this policy initiative with reference to the proposed WMAs. Data were ...

  20. Vocational Education and Skills Training in Mainland Tanzania for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of any country Tanzania included depends on availability and effective utilization of human resources, which in turn are predicated on the level, quantity and quality of education, especially vocational and technical education and skills attained through formal and informal education, living and working ...

  1. All projects related to tanzania | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Poverty reduction through growth is the idea behind the market-oriented reforms that Tanzania ... GROWTH, ECONOMIC BEHAVIOUR, MICROECONOMICS, Poverty alleviation ... Donor organizations increasingly support the idea that civil society ... the growth of private health care as a key element of health sector reform.

  2. National anti-tuberculosis drug resistance study in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chonde, T. M.; Basra, D.; Mfinanga, S. G. M.; Range, N.; Lwilla, F.; Shirima, R. P.; van Deun, A.; Zignol, M.; Cobelens, F. G.; Egwaga, S. M.; van Leth, F.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in a national representative sample of tuberculosis (TB) patients in Tanzania according to recommended methodology. DESIGN: Cluster survey, with 40 clusters sampled proportional to size, of notified TB patients from all

  3. Users' perspectives on decentralized rural water services in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanyiwa, Z.S.; Niehof, A.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the impact of decentralization reforms on improving access to domestic water supply in the rural districts of Kondoa and Kongwa, Tanzania, using a users' and a gender perspective. The article addresses the question whether and to what extent the delivery of gender-sensitive

  4. Women's Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…

  5. Enhancing mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and skills in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitta, S.

    2004-01-01

    The study has revealed that the use of a comprehensive, school-based programme, emphasising peer collaboration, can be a promising scenario for professional development of mathematics teachers in Tanzania. Such a comprehensive approach has the potential of supporting teachers with diverse levels of

  6. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 2, No 1 (1999)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on genotype-environment interaction (GxE) in half-sib progenies of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. PAL Masawe, EP Cundall, PDS Caligari ...

  7. Effect of Knowledge Sources on Firm Level Innovation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osoro, Otieno; Kahyarara, Godius; Knoben, Joris; Vermeulen, P.A.M.

    In this paper we analyse the impact of different sources of knowledge on product innovation in Tanzania using firm level data from 543 firms. Specifically, we assess the separate impacts of internal knowledge and external knowledge and the combined impact of both on a firm’s likelihood of

  8. Effect of Knowledge Sources on Firm Level Innovation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osoro, O.; Vermeulen, P.A.M.; Knoben, J.; Kahyarara, G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of different sources of knowledge on product and process innovation in Tanzania using firm-level data. We specifically analyse the separate impacts of internal knowledge, external knowledge and the combined impact of both types of knowledge on firms’ product and

  9. Pwani Yetu: Issue 4. April 1999.Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership

    1999-01-01

    The Newsletter of the Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership - Pwani Yetu - 'our coast', is produced every other month in both Kiswahili and English and circulated to all coastal management partners from national level, coastal communities and the private sector. Pwani Yetu reports on coastal and marine activities, including issues on conservation, environment, and social economic development. 'Research Group' TCMP.

  10. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 5, No 1 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping of cholera risks using Geographical Information System in Ilala District, Tanzania, EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. BK Mayala, LEG Mboera, F Gwacha, 8-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v5i1.14197 ...

  11. Changamoto Za Mawasiliano Kwa Viziwi Katika Tanzania | Muzale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo (1); Tunisia (2); Uganda (12); Zambia (2) ...

  12. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 11, No 1 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV patients presenting common adverse drug events caused by highly active antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. OMS Minzi, H Irunde, C Moshiro. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v11i1.43243 ...

  13. Quality of HIV laboratory testing in Tanzania: a situation analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    December 2004 to February 2005 in 12 laboratories which were conveniently selected to represent all the zones of Tanzania. The questionnaires comprised of questions on laboratory particulars, internal and external quality control for HIV testing and quality control of reagents. Source and level of customer satisfaction of ...

  14. Challenges in the Management of Road Safety in Tanzania: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania is hardest hit by daily accident deaths and casualties on the roads. Although various measures have been taken by the government, enforcement agencies and NGOs, accidents and fatalities keep growing at a rate above that of killer diseases like malaria, tuberculosis and HIV. The main causes observed were ...

  15. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 12, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children aged 6-12 years in Dodoma and Kinondoni Municipalities, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL ... Thyroid hormones profile in students of Makerere College of Health Sciences in Kampala Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  16. Community violence in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A mixed methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most homicide deaths in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (DSM) are a result of violence arising from within the community. This type of violence is commonly called, by perpetrators and victims, “mob justice”. Unilateral non-state collective violence can take four forms: lynching, vigilantism, rioting, and terrorism. The purpose of this ...

  17. Taking oral health in Tanzania a step forward | Rugarabamu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taking oral health in Tanzania a step forward. Paschalis Ntome Rugarabamu. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  18. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 3, No 2 (2001)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation of health management information system in disease surveillance in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. L.E.G. Mboera, S.F. Rumisha, S.M. Magesa, A.Y. Kitua, 15-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v3i2.14213 ...

  19. Impact of Export Instability on Economic Growth in Tanzania | Kweka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the consequence of export earnings instability on growth in Tanzania. Applying time-series econometric technique on annual data for the period 1968-2008, a long-run relationship between export instability and growth is confirmed to be negative for aggregate exports. However, the relationship is ...

  20. Knowledge and perception on tuberculosis transmission in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important public health problems in ... knowledge and perception on the transmission of TB in Tanzania. ... Although all age groups are at risk, the disease mostly affects young ... used to assess the distributional characteristics of the data and as the prerequisite information.