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Sample records for muf

  1. MUF architecture /art London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen Kajita, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Om MUF architecture samt interview med Liza Fior og Katherine Clarke, partnere i muf architecture/art......Om MUF architecture samt interview med Liza Fior og Katherine Clarke, partnere i muf architecture/art...

  2. 'Material unaccounted for' (MUF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    MUF is an item of importance in materials accounting measures now embodied in international safeguard arrangements, and in recent public debates requests have been made that the figures for MUF appearing in the Atomic Energy Authority and British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. records should be published. Joint statements issued by the UKAEA and BNFL in July 1977 are here published. These statements describe the procedures for nuclear materials accounting at AEA and BNFL sites and the nature of the inventory differences (MUF) that arise in all nuclear materials accounting operations. Figures for highly enriched U and Pu are included. (U.K.)

  3. Development of Evaluation Code for MUF Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Byung Hee; Han, Bo Young; Shin, Hee Sung; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Park, Geun-Il; Park, Se Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Material Unaccounted For (MUF) is the material balance evaluated by measured nuclear material in a Material Balance Area (MBA). Assuming perfect measurements and no diversion from a facility, one can expect a zero MUF. However, non-zero MUF is always occurred because of measurement uncertainty even though the facility is under normal operation condition. Furthermore, there are many measurements using different equipment at various Key Measurement Points (KMPs), and the MUF uncertainty is affected by errors of those measurements. Evaluating MUF uncertainty is essentially required to develop safeguards system including nuclear measurement system in pyroprocessing, which is being developed for reducing radioactive waste from spent fuel in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The evaluation code for analyzing MUF uncertainty has been developed and it was verified using sample problem from the IAEA reference. MUF uncertainty can be simply and quickly calculated by using this evaluation code which is made based on graphical user interface for user friendly. It is also expected that the code will make the sensitivity analysis on the MUF uncertainty for the various safeguards systems easy and more systematic. It is suitable for users who want to evaluate the conventional safeguards system as well as to develop a new system for developing facilities

  4. Development of Evaluation Code for MUF Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Byung Hee; Han, Bo Young; Shin, Hee Sung; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Park, Geun-Il; Park, Se Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Material Unaccounted For (MUF) is the material balance evaluated by measured nuclear material in a Material Balance Area (MBA). Assuming perfect measurements and no diversion from a facility, one can expect a zero MUF. However, non-zero MUF is always occurred because of measurement uncertainty even though the facility is under normal operation condition. Furthermore, there are many measurements using different equipment at various Key Measurement Points (KMPs), and the MUF uncertainty is affected by errors of those measurements. Evaluating MUF uncertainty is essentially required to develop safeguards system including nuclear measurement system in pyroprocessing, which is being developed for reducing radioactive waste from spent fuel in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The evaluation code for analyzing MUF uncertainty has been developed and it was verified using sample problem from the IAEA reference. MUF uncertainty can be simply and quickly calculated by using this evaluation code which is made based on graphical user interface for user friendly. It is also expected that the code will make the sensitivity analysis on the MUF uncertainty for the various safeguards systems easy and more systematic. It is suitable for users who want to evaluate the conventional safeguards system as well as to develop a new system for developing facilities.

  5. Notes on the MUF-D statistic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Many aspects of the MUF-D statistic, used for verification of accountability data, have been examined in the safeguards literature. In this paper, basic MUF-D results are extended to more general environments than are usually considered. These environments include arbitrary measurement error structures, various sampling regimes that could be imposed by the inspectorate, and the attributes/variables framework

  6. Analysis of MUF data using arima models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, D.J.; Pike, D.H.; Morrison, G.W.

    1978-01-01

    An introduction to Box-Jenkins time series analysis is presented. It is shown how the models presented by Box-Jenkins can be applied to material unaccounted for (MUF) data to detect losses. For the constant loss case an optimal estimate of the loss is found and its probability of detection found

  7. Notes on the MUF-D statistic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Verification of an inventory or of a reported material unaccounted for (MUF) calls for the remeasurement of a sample of items by an inspector followed by comparison of the inspector's data to the facility's reported values. Such comparison is intended to protect against falsification of accounting data that could conceal material loss. In the international arena, the observed discrepancies between the inspector's data and the reported data are quantified using the D statistic. If data have been falsified by the facility, the standard deviations of the D and MUF-D statistics are inflated owing to the sampling distribution. Moreover, under certain conditions the distributions of those statistics can depart markedly from normality, complicating evaluation of an inspection plan's performance. Detection probabilities estimated using standard deviations appropriate for the no-falsification case in conjunction with assumed normality can be far too optimistic. Under very general conditions regarding the facility's and/or the inspector's measurement error procedures and the inspector's sampling regime, the variance of the MUF-D statistic can be broken into three components. The inspection's sensitivity against various falsification scenarios can be traced to one or more of these components. Obvious implications exist for the planning of effective inspections, particularly in the area of resource optimization

  8. Perspectives for MUF at LEU fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tadatsugu

    2007-01-01

    At a facility handling nuclear material it is obliged to close the Material Balance Period (MBP) and establish the physical inventory in the facility once a year. The difference between the physical inventory and the theoretical inventory that is the figure on the book at the time of taking physical inventory is reported as the Inventory Difference or Material Unaccounted For (MUF). While this MUF is considered as an important indicator for judging the non-diversion and adequacy of the accounting system, it is controlled not to exceed the significant quantity. However since a diversion scenario exists related to the accumulated MUF arisen from the systematic bias that may be contained in the MUF, even if no diversion has been concluded for a single year MBP, it has been pointed out by IAEA to improve this point. In this report we sort out the parameters that may influence the MUF evaluation, then survey the points for improvements for reduction of MUF. Specifically the actions done at GNF-J for MUF reduction are presented and the problems to be solved in the future are also discussed. (author)

  9. Changes of the calculation equation for σMUF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hideki; Niiyama, Toshitaka; Sonobe, Kentaro

    2002-01-01

    The error variance (σ MUF 2 ) of the material accountancy for the material balance is used for evaluating the MUF of the conventional material accountancy and the near real time material accountancy (NRTA). The σ MUF 2 calculated by the error propagation using the material accounting data and the measurement error. The error propagation equation of σ MUF 2 written on the text of 'The statistical concepts and technique for IAEA safeguards (IAEA/SG/SCT5)'. There are some assumptions in order to simplify the equation. These assumptions are available in the assessment of the facility design. However when the σ MUF 2 of the actual MUF is calculated, it is necessary to drop some assumptions and modify the adapted equation. Furthermore, because the material balance is more frequently taken for NRTA, the inventory of all times cannot be always re-measured at each time. To be solved the matter, the error propagation equation has to be modified. For a reprocessing plant which has material in solution, the equation has been improved to obtain more exact equation. In this paper we present the changes of the error propagation for σ MUF 2 and explain the features. (author)

  10. Calculation of MUF for the Pyro-processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yon Hong; Kim, Woo Jin; Han, Jae Jun; Chang, Sun Young; Hwang, Yong Soo

    2016-05-15

    The IAEA safeguards system is divided into DIQ (Design Information Questionnaire), nuclear material accountancy, and additional measure such as C/S (Containment and Surveillance). As the detailed requirements for judging the diversion of nuclear materials, the IAEA suggests SQ (Significant Quantity) about SNM (Special Nuclear Materials), such as U and Pu, and the timeliness goal of detection about the diversion of nuclear materials. To operate facilities, it is required to accomplish these goals. In particular, in the case of the treatment facilities of spent nuclear fuel that has a high Pu content, it is very important to meet the requirements to judge the diversion of nuclear materials. However, given that item counting is impossible in bulk facilities, MUF (Material Unaccounted For) occurs inevitably in the process of nuclear material accountancy. Therefore, to meet the requirements, it is necessary to make evaluation in advance. To reduce such a MUF, the effects on a total MUF were analyzed. As a result, the error arising in a particular process such as U/TRU ingot and Porous Pellets was significant. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce measurement error in the process. MUF is one of requirements to judge the diversion of nuclear materials, and the requirement should be met. Nevertheless, it is required to come up with additional measures to prevent the exclusive use and reduce MUF, such as containment, surveillance, or multi-channel based processing design.

  11. Comparison of several Kalman filter models for establishing MUF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, D.H.; Morrison, G.W.; Holland, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    Detection of MUF in a material balance area is a problem in nuclear material control. It has been shown that the Kalman filter can detect a MUF in situations which could not be detected by the traditional control chart approach using LEMUF. The Kalman filter is extended in this paper to cover two additional scenarios: (1) the case where a random quantity with a mean of M(t) is removed per period, and (2) the case where MUF is a fraction of the on-hand inventory each period. The Kalman filter is robust, sensitive, produces estimates of the error covariance matrix, and is an iterative technique which is suited for on-line-direct-input information systems

  12. Software for MUF evaluating in item nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dong; Zhang Quanhu; He Bin; Wang Hua; Yang Daojun

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear material accounting is a key measure for nuclear safeguard. Software for MUF evaluation in item nuclear material accounting was worked out in this paper. It is composed of several models, including input model, data processing model, data inquiring model, data print model, system setting model etc. It could be used to check the variance of the measurement and estimate the confidence interval according to the MUF value. To insure security of the data multi-user management function was applied in the software. (authors)

  13. MUF residuals tested by a sequential test with power one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellinschegg, D.; Bicking, U.

    1983-01-01

    Near-real-time material accountancy is an ongoing safeguards development to extend the current capability of IAEA safeguards. The evaluation of the observed ''Material Unaccounted For'' (MUF) time series is an important part in a near-real-time material accountancy regime. The maximum capability of a sequential data evaluation procedure is demonstrated by applying this procedure to the material balance area of the chemical separation process of a reference reprocessing facility with a throughput of 1000 tonnes heavy metal per year, as an example. It is shown that, compared to a conventional material accountancy approach, the detection time as well as the detection probability is significantly improved. (author)

  14. Study of relationship between MUF correlation and detection sensitivity of statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Toshiaki; Ihara, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Ikawa, Koji

    1989-11-01

    Various kinds of statistical analysis are proposed to NRTA (Near Real Time Materials Accountancy) which was devised to satisfy the timeliness goal of one of the detection goals of IAEA. It will be presumed that different statistical analysis results will occur between the case of considered rigorous error propagation (with MUF correlation) and the case of simplified error propagation (without MUF correlation). Therefore, measurement simulation and decision analysis were done using flow simulation of 800 MTHM/Y model reprocessing plant, and relationship between MUF correlation and detection sensitivity and false alarm of statistical analysis was studied. Specific character of material accountancy for 800 MTHM/Y model reprocessing plant was grasped by this simulation. It also became clear that MUF correlation decreases not only false alarm but also detection probability for protracted loss in case of CUMUF test and Page's test applied to NRTA. (author)

  15. Evaluation of uncertainties in MUF for a LWR fuel fabrication plant. Pt.2 - Pt.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennerdahl, D.

    1984-09-01

    MUF (Material Unaccounted For) is a parameter defined as the estimated loss of materials during a certain period of time. A suitable method for uncertainty and bias estimations has been developed. The method was specifically adjusted for a facility like the ASEA-ATOM fuel fabrication plant. Operations that are expected to contribute to the uncertainties have been compiled. Information that is required for the application of the developed method is described. Proposals for simplification of the required information without losing the accuracy are suggested. ASEA-ATOM had earlier determined uncertainty data for the scales that are used for nuclear materials. The statistical uncertainties included random errors, short-term and long-term systematic errors. Information for the determination of biases was also determined (constants and formulas). The method proposed by ASEA-ATOM for the determination of uncertainties due to the scales is compatible with the method proposed in this report. For other operations than weighing, the information from ASEA-ATOM is limited. Such operations are completely dominating the total uncertainty in MUF. Examples of calculations of uncertainties and bias are given for uranium oxide powders in large containers. Examples emphasize the differences between various statistical errors (random and systematic errors) and biases (known errors). The importance of correlations between different items in the inventories is explained. A specific correlation of great importance is the use of nominal factors (uranium concentration). A portable personal computer can be used to determine uncertainties in MUF. (author)

  16. A Study on Data Base for the Pyroprocessing Material Flow and MUF Uncertainty Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitompul, Yos Panagaman; Shin, Heesung; Han, Boyoung; Kim, Hodong

    2011-01-01

    The data base for the pyroprocessing material flow and MUF uncertainty simulation has been implemented well. There is no error in the data base processing and it is relatively fast by using OLEDB and MySQL. The important issue is the data base size. In OLEDB the data base size is limited to 2 Gb. To reduce the data base size, we give an option for users to filter the input nuclides based on their masses and activities. A simulation program called PYMUS has been developed to study the pyroprocessing material flow and MUF. In the program, there is a data base system that controls the data processing in the simulation. The data base system consists of input data base, data processing, and output data base. The data base system has been designed in such a way to be efficient. One example is using the OLEDB and MySQL. The data base system is explained in detail in this paper. The result shows that the data base system works well in the simulation

  17. Use of (D, MUF) and maximum-likelihood methods for detecting falsification and diversion in data-verification problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.S.; Beedgen, R.

    1982-01-01

    The investigation of data falsification and/or diversion is of major concern in nuclear materials accounting procedures used in international safeguards. In this paper, two procedures, denoted by (D,MUF) and LR (Likelihood Ratio), are discussed and compared when testing the hypothesis that neither diversion nor falsification has taken place versus the one-sided alternative that at least one of these parameters is positive. Critical regions and detection probabilities are given for both tests. It is shown that the LR method outperforms (D,MUF) when diversion and falsification take place

  18. Nuclear material accountancy and data verification (the muf-d-problem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, R.

    1981-01-01

    According to general agreement international nuclear material safeguards are organized in such a way that the plant operators generate all data necessary for the establishment of a material balance, that the inspectors verify the operator's data with the help of independent measurements and that - if there are no significant differences between the operator's data and the inspector's findings - the material balance is established with the help of the operator's data. This procedure implies two tests of significance: one difference test (D-test) for the comparison of the operator's and the inspector's data and one for the material balance establishment (MUF-test). In this paper these two test procedures as well as their combination, under the boundary condition of a given overall false alarm probability, are analyzed. The results are illustrated with the help of a concrete example. 15 refs

  19. Material unaccounted for at the Southwest Experimental Fast Oxide Reactor: The SEFOR MUF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission contracted with the General Electric Company to design, construct, and operate the Southwest Experimental Fast Oxide Reactor (SEFOR) to measure the Doppler effect for fast neutron breeder reactors. It contracted with Nuclear Fuel Services to fabricate the fuel rods for the reactor. When the reactor went critical in May, 1969, it appeared that some of the mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel rods did not contain the specified quantity of plutonium. The SEFOR operators soon found several fuel rods which appeared to be low in plutonium. The safeguards group at Brookhaven was asked to look into the problem and, if possible, determine how much plutonium was missing from the unirradiated rods and from the larger number which had been slightly irradiated in the reactor. It was decided that the plutonium content of the unirradiated and irradiated rods could be measured relative to a reference rod using a high resolution gamma-ray detector and also by neutron measurements using an auto-correlation circuit recently developed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). During the next two years, Brookhaven personnel and C.V. Strain of NRL made several trips to the SEFOR reactor. About 250 of the 775 rods were measured by two or more methods, using a sodium-iodide detector, a high-resolution germanium detector, a neutron detector, or the reactor (to measure reactivity). The research team concluded that 4.6 ± 0.46 kg of plutonium was missing out of the 433 kg that the rods should have contained. This report describes the SEFOR experiment and the procedures used to determine the material unaccounted for, or MUF

  20. Muonium chemistry: kinetics of the gas phase reaction Mu + F/sub 2/. -->. MuF + F from 300 to 400 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, D M; Fleming, D G; Brewer, J H [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). Faculty of Medicine

    1978-04-01

    The MSR (muonium spin rotation) technique was used to measure the chemical reaction rate for ..mu.. + F/sub 2/ ..-->.. ..mu..F + F in N/sub 2/ moderator at approximately 1 atm from 295 to 383 K giving the Arrhenius expression: log/sub 10/k (l/mole s) = (10.83+-0.20) - (200+-50)/T, with k = (1.46+-0.11) X 10/sup 10/ l/mole s at 300 K. This is a least 6.8 times the room temperature rate constant for the analogous H atom reaction. The measured activation energy and enhancement over the H reaction rate are indicative of significant tunnelling in the Mu reaction, in agreement with the recent collinear quantum mechanical calculations of Connor et al.

  1. EFFECT OF WOOD SPECIES USED FOR CORE LAYER ON SOME PROPERTIES OF OKUME PLYWOOD PANELS BONDED WITH MELAMINE-UREA FORMALDEHYDE (MUF ADHESIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Demirkır

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study; changes in some properties of the okume plywood panels when used alder and beech veneers in their core layers were investigated. Two types of melamine-urea formaldehyde (MUF resins having different free formaldehyde contents were used for bonding plywood panels manufactured from 2 mm thick veneers at industrial conditions. The formaldehyde emission values of plywood panels bonded with MÜF having higher free formaldehyde content were found to be higher than those of the panels bonded with other resin type. The highest formaldehyde emission value was found for the panels manufactured from okume veneers in all layers while the lowest value was determined from the panels include beech veneers in the core layer. The shear and bending strength values of the panels consisted of beech veneers in the core layer were found to be higher than those of the panels consisted of okume and alder veneers in the core layers.

  2. Molded underfill (MUF) encapsulation for flip-chip package: A numerical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, M. A.; Abdullah, M. K.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Ariff, Z. M.; Saad, Abdullah Aziz; Hamid, M. F.; Ismail, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the numerical simulation of epoxy molding compound (EMC) filling in multi flip-chip packages during encapsulation process. The empty and a group flip chip packages were considered in the mold cavity in order to study the flow profile of the EMC. SOLIDWORKS software was used for three-dimensional modeling and it was incorporated into fluid analysis software namely as ANSYS FLUENT. The volume of fluid (VOF) technique was used for capturing the flow front profiles and Power Law model was applied for its rheology model. The numerical result are compared and discussed with previous experimental and it was shown a good conformity for model validation. The prediction of flow front was observed and analyzed at different filling time. The possibility and visual of void formation in the package is captured and the number of flip-chip is one factor that contributed to the void formation.

  3. Automatic Scaling of Digisonde Ionograms Test and Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Labrador 30 21 IManual MUF - Auto MUFj/Manual MUF April 1980 Goose Bay, Labrador 31 22 IManual MUF - Auto MUFI /Manual MUF July 1980 Goose Bay...Labrador 32 23 IManual MUF - Auto MUFI /Manual MUF September 1980 Goose Bay, Labrador 33 24 !Manual M(3000) - Auto M(3000)1 January 1980 Goose Bay, Labrador

  4. Activity of glycosidases from freshwater heterotrophic microorganisms on the degradation of extracellular polysaccharide produced by Anabaena spiroides (Cyanobacteria Atividade de glicosidases liberadas por microorganismos heterotróficos de água doce na degradação do polissacarídeo extracelular produzido por Anabaena spiroides (Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Colombo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The activity of specific glycosidases during the degradation of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS produced by Anabaena spiroides was determined using MUF-substrates (MUF-monosaccharides. Polysaccharide degradation was found to occur in a two-phase process. The first consisted of high enzymatic activity that consumed 41% of the EPS at a relatively high rate, while the second consumed the remaining polysaccharide (59% at a slower rate. A transition phase from the higher to the slower degradation rates was marked by a replacement of bacterial populations from coccoid to bacillus cells. During the degradation process, the bacterial biomass increased with the decrease of EPS, as revealed by bacterial cell counts. The enzymatic activity detected through the substrates MUF-alpha-D- and MUF-beta-D-glucoside was higher than that detected by other substrates tested. The remaining glycosides were MUF-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, MUF-beta-D-galactoside, MUF-alpha-D-mannopyranoside, MUF-beta-D-fucoside, MUF-beta-D-mannopyranoside, MUF-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, and MUF-beta-L-fucoside. The fluorescence emitted by each MUF-substrate was proportional to the concentration of the corresponding monosaccharide in A. spiroides EPS. This demonstrates the susceptibility of EPS produced by A. spiroides to enzymatic attack by bacterial populations.A atividade de glicosidases durante a degradação do polissacarídeo extracelular (EPS produzido por Anabaena spiroides foi detectada e quantificada utilizando-se MUF-substratos (MUF-monossacarídeos. O consumo total do polissacarídeo efetuou-se em duas fases, uma primeira de alta atividade enzimática que rapidamente consumiu 41% do polissacarídeo e uma segunda, mais lenta, que consumiu o polissacarídeo restante (59%. A mudança de fase coincidiu com a sucessão de uma população de bactérias cocóides por outra de bacilos. A biomassa bacteriana, quantificada por contagens de células, aumentou com a degradação do

  5. Development of melamine modified urea formaldehyde resins based o nstrong acidic pH catalyzed urea formaldehyde polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    To upgrade the performance of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin bonded particleboards, melamine modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins based on strong acidic pH catalyzed UF polymers were investigated. The study was conducted in a series of two experiments: 1) formulation of MUF resins based on a UF polymer catalyzed with strong acidic pH and 2) determination of the...

  6. Effect of resin variables on the creep behavior of high density hardwood composite panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Tang; Jianhua Pu; C.Y Hse

    1993-01-01

    The flexural creep behavior of oriented strandboards (OSB) fabricated with mixed high, density hardwood flakes was investigated. Three types of adhesives, liquid phenolic-formaldehyde (LPF), melamine modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF), and LPF (face)/MUF (core) were chosen in this investigation. The resin contents (RC) used were 3.5 percent and 5.0 percent. The flakes...

  7. Some things we should have known about calculating LEMUF: but didn't

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, Y.M.; Geoffrey, J.R.; Suda, S.C.

    1975-01-01

    After introduction of the concept of limit of error for the MUF (LEMUF), the definition of the quantity, MUF, becomes crucial to the computational method of arriving at its limit of error. In order to demonstrate the MUF-LEMUF conflict a simulation, using a hypothetical manufacturing plant, was designed for the purpose of examining the underlying issues associated with MUF. This simulation takes in the full range of plant activity from receipt of raw materials to shipment of final product. To provide insight into the creating of MUF in real-life situations, the measurements performed at each stage of the manufacturing process are simulated with provisions for taking into account normal measurement variation and abnormal errors or human mistakes in transcription. Also taken into account are materials dispersed in the manufacturing process. At the conclusion of a production period, an accounting process takes place to determine book and physical differences, providing a simulation of MUF. Several suggestions are offered to resolve the current MUF-LEMUF dilemma. It is believed LEMUF can be a viable nuclear materials control technique only if the current dilemma is resolved

  8. Effects of cryogenic temperature on the mechanical and failure characteristics of melamine-urea-formaldehyde adhesive plywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Choi, Sung-Woong; Park, Doo-Hwan; Park, Seong-Bo; Kim, Seul-Kee; Park, Kwang-Jun; Lee, Jae-Myung

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigates the applicability of melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resin plywood in cryogenic applications, including liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier insulation systems. Phenolic-formaldehyde (PF) resin plywood has been extensively used as a structural material in industrial applications. However, many shortcomings of PF resin plywood have been reported, and replacement of PF resin plywood with a new material is necessary to resolve these problems. MUF resin plywood has the advantages of short fabrication time, low veneer cost, and economic feasibility compared to PF resin plywood. However, the mechanical and failure characteristics of MUF resin plywood have not yet been investigated at low temperature ranges. For this reason, adapting MUF resin plywood for cryogenic applications has been difficult, despite the many strong points of the material in engineering aspects. In this study, the effects of cryogenic temperature and thermal treatment on the mechanical characteristics of MUF resin plywood are investigated. The performance of MUF resin plywood is compared with that of PF resin plywood to verify the applicability of the material for use as a structural material in LNG insulation systems. The results demonstrate that MUF resin plywood has mechanical properties comparable with those of PF resin plywood, even at cryogenic conditions.

  9. Role of modified ultrfiltration in adult cardic surgery: a prospective randomized control trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveed, D.; Khan, R.A.; Malik, A.; Shah, S.Z.A.; Ullah, I.; Hussain, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with morbidity and mortality. To reduce its adverse effect modified ultrafiltration is being increasingly employed. This study is planned to evaluate the benefits of modified ultrafiltration (MUF) in adult cardiac surgery. Methods: Eighty consecutive patients presenting to adult cardiac surgery as elective case were enrolled. These patients were randomly divided in to two groups. MUF group which received modified ultrafiltration after separation from CPB and control group which did not receive modified ultrafiltration. Postoperative mediastinal and chest drainage in 24 hrs, blood products requirement, reopening, ICU stay, and mortality in 30 days were recorded. These variables were compared between MUF group and control group. Results: Forty patients were randomized to control group and 40 in MUF group. Mean age was 51.15±8.90 in control group as compared to 46.95±13.24 MUF group (p=0.1). Out of 40 patients in control group 7 (17.5 percentage) were female while 11 (27.5 percentage) out of total 40 were female in MUF group. (p=.284). Mean CBP time was 120.62±20.97 in control group versus 117.37±38.78 in MUF group (p=0.64). Post-operative drain output ranged from 330 ml to 1300 ml in control group and 300 ml to 780 ml in MUF group. Mean postoperative drain output 554.25±192.57 in control group versus 439.22±89.59 in MUF group (p=.001). Three (7.5 percentage) out of 40 patients required re-exploration in control group versus 1 (2.5 percentage) in MUF group. (p=.305). Mean ICU stay was 52.80±22.37 hours in control group versus 45.30±21.82 hours in MUF group (p=0.133). Three (7.5 percentage) out of 40 patients died in control group versus 1 (2.5 percentage) in MUF group. (p=0.305). Conclusion: Use of modified ultrafiltration is associated with low postoperative bleeding less requirements of blood and blood products. (author)

  10. The physical demands of Super League rugby: Experiences of a newly promoted franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S D; Brewer, C; Haigh, J D; Lake, M; Morton, J P; Close, G L

    2015-01-01

    The physical match demands for a newly promoted European Super League (ESL) squad were analysed over a full season using global positioning systems. Players were classified into four positional groups: outside backs (OB), pivots (PIV), middle unit forwards (MUF) and wide running forwards (WRF). MUF covered less total distance (4318 ± 570 m) than WRF (6408 ± 629 m), PIV (6549 ± 853) and OB (7246 ± 333 m) (P 0.05). WRF (36 ± 5) and MUF (35 ± 6) were involved in more collisions than OB (20 ± 3) and PIV (23 ± 3; P franchises.

  11. Automating large-scale LEMUF calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    To better understand material unaccounted for (MUFs) and, in some cases, to comply with formal regulatory requirements, many facilities are paying increasing attention to software for MUF evaluation. Activities related to improving understanding of MUFs are generic (including the identification, by name, of individual measured values and individual special nuclear material (SNM) items in a data base, and the handling of a wide variety of accounting problems) as well as facility-specific (including interfacing a facility's data base to a computational engine and subsequent uses of that engine). Los Alamos efforts to develop a practical engine are reviewed and some of the lessons learned during that development are described in this paper

  12. A study of the material accountancy procedure at the uranium enrichment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahashi, J.; Akiba, M.; Omae, M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of material accountancy based on total uranium (U element MUF) to detect diversions of significant quantity in the uranium enrichment facility operating at a stated maximum enrichment level of 5%. Verification that material production is within the declared enrichment can be achieved by the inspection activities associated with limited - frequency unannounced access (LFUA) to cascade areas as treated extensively in HSP. According to the experience of the material accountancy at our facility, the reduction of the material accountancy capability by changing from U-235 isotope MUF to U element MUF is only about half. However, still the U element MUF approach can meet the current IAEA detection goals for the up to about 1000 tswu/a plant

  13. A statistic sensitive to deviations from the zero-loss condition in a sequence of material balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellinschegg, D.

    1982-01-01

    The CUMUFR (cumulative sum of standardized MUFresiduals) statistic is proposed to examine materials balance data for deviations from the zero-loss condition. The time series of MUF-residuals is shown to be a linear transformation of the MUF-time series. The MUF-residuals can directly be obtained by applying the transformation or they can be obtained, approximately, by the application of a Kalman filter to estimate the true state of MUF. A modified sequential test with power one is formulated for testing the CUMUFR statistic. The detection capability of the proposed examination procedure is demonstrated by an example, based on Monte Carlo simulations, where the materials balance of the chemical separation process in a reference reprocessing facility is considered. It is shown that abrupt as well as protracted loss patterns are detected with rather high probability when they occur after a zeroloss period

  14. The IAEA concept of detection of diversion through nuclear material accountancy (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Mitsunori

    2005-01-01

    Diversion into D (falsification of accounting report) and diversion into MUF could be detected by the Inspectorate through nuclear material accountancy. The Inspectorate designs inspection activities to detect diversion into D in cost effective ways. As a result, detection of diversion into D is divided into two statistics, one is item difference statistics which could detect major defects and the other is material balance statistics which could detect remaining small defects. MUF statistics could detect Diversion into MUF. Item statistics has many useful characteristics from safeguards view points, so it is examined in details. Material balance statistics and MUF statistics stem from measurement error associated with equipment inevitably. The above-mentioned concept is called 'IAEA decision structure'. Hereafter, designing safeguards (inspection activities) approach will be based on the IAEA decision structure. (author)

  15. Keskendudes protsessile = Focus on Process

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    1996. a. arhitektide Juliet Bidgoodi ja Liza Fiori ning kunstnik Katherine Clarke'i loodud Inglise arhitektuuribüroo muf tutvustus ja intervjuu Liza Fioriga. Naistest koosnev büroo tegeleb avaliku sfääriga. muf-i töödest tutvustatakse muuseumipaviljoni St Albansis, 1997. a. alguse saanud Londoni Southwarki tänava ümberkujundamise projekti, ruumiinstallatsiooni "Purity and Tolerance", 2003. a. alustatud Londoni Tilbury linnaosa pargi projekti. 4 ill

  16. Material control and accounting at Exxon Nuclear, II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In this session the measurements and the associated measurement control program used at the Model Plant are described. The procedures for evaluating MUF and sigma MUF are also discussed. The use of material composition codes and their role in IAEA safeguards under the US/IAEA Safeguards Agreement are described. In addition, the various accounting forms used at the plant are described and the use of tamper-indicating seals is discussed

  17. Study of nuclear material accounting. Final report, July 1, 1976--April 1, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siri, W.E.; Ruderman, H.; Winsen, J.; Dresher, M.

    1977-04-01

    The basic result of this study was to affirm the utility of material accounting as a tool for safeguards purposes. Periodic inventories and proper interpretation of material unaccounted for (MUF) can be an effective procedure for estimating diversion and taking necessary follow-on action. We have developed a new approach in this study based upon the theory of games that eliminates many of the deficiencies of the classical statistical hypothesis testing approach. This new approach explicitly considers a malevolent Diverter as a basic ingredient of the analysis. This permits a different and more effective interpretation of MUF for safeguards purposes. At the present time MUF interpretation for major nuclear facilities cannot adequately support statements about diversion. Consequently NRC does not rely solely on MUF analysis for such statements. Diversion statements now are primarily based upon other safeguards systems and information. However, the game theoretic approach can make the periodic inventory-MUF concept work better for safeguards. With its use, MUF data by itself can be useful in directly interpreting possible unauthorized diversion of special nuclear material

  18. Consequences of discrepancies on verified material balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.; Hough, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    There exists a gap between the way item discrepancies that are found in an IAEA inspection are treated in practice and how they are treated in the IAEA Safeguards Technical Manual, Part F, Statistics. In the latter case, the existence of even a single item discrepancy is cause for rejection of the facility data. Probabilities of detection for given inspection plans are calculated based on this premise. In fact, although the existence of discrepancies may be so noted in inspection reports, they in no sense of the word lead to rejection of the facility data, i.e., to ''detection''. Clearly, however, discrepancies have an effect on the integrity of the material balance, and in fact, this effect may well be of dominant importance when compared to that of small measurement biases. This paper provides a quantitative evaluation of the effect of item discrepancies on the facility MUF. The G-circumflex statistic is introduced. It is analogous to the familiar D-circumflex statistic used to quantify the effects of small biases. Thus, just as (MUF-D-circumflex) is the facility MUF adjusted for the inspector's variables measurements, so is (MUF-D-circumflex-G-circumflex) the MUF adjusted for both the variables and attributes measurements, where it is the attributes inspection that detects item discrepancies. The distribution of (MUF-D-circumflex-G-circumflex) is approximated by a Pearson's distribution after finding the first four moments. Both the number of discrepancies and their size and sign distribution are treated as random variables. Assuming, then, that ''detection'' occurs when (MUF-D-circumflex-G-circumflex) differs significantly from zero, procedures for calculating effectiveness are derived. Some generic results on effectiveness are included. These results apply either to the case where (MUF-D-circumflex-G-circumflex) is treated as the single statistic, or to the two-step procedure in which the facility's data are first examined using (D-circumflex+G-circumflex) as

  19. A study of statistical tests for near-real-time materials accountancy using field test data of Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Hideo; Ikawa, Koji; Miura, Nobuyuki; Iwanaga, Masayuki; Kusano, Toshitsugu.

    1988-03-01

    An Near-Real-Time Materials Accountancy(NRTA) system had been developed as an advanced safeguards measure for PNC Tokai Reprocessing Plant; a minicomputer system for NRTA data processing was designed and constructed. A full scale field test was carried out as a JASPAS(Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards) project with the Agency's participation and the NRTA data processing system was used. Using this field test data, investigation of the detection power of a statistical test under real circumstances was carried out for five statistical tests, i.e., a significance test of MUF, CUMUF test, average loss test, MUF residual test and Page's test on MUF residuals. The result shows that the CUMUF test, average loss test, MUF residual test and the Page's test on MUF residual test are useful to detect a significant loss or diversion. An unmeasured inventory estimation model for the PNC reprocessing plant was developed in this study. Using this model, the field test data from the C-1 to 85 - 2 campaigns were re-analyzed. (author)

  20. Verification of nuclear material balances: General theory and application to a highly enriched uranium fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, R.; Beedgen, R.; Neu, H.

    1980-08-01

    In the theoretical part it is shown that under the assumption, that in case of diversion the operator falsifies all data by a class specific amount, it is optimal in the sense of the probability of detection to use the difference MUF-D as the test statistics. However, as there are arguments for keeping the two tests separately, and furthermore, as it is not clear that the combined test statistics is optimal for any diversion strategy, the overall guaranteed probability of detection for the bivariate test is determined. A numerical example is given applying the theoretical part. Using the material balance data of a Highly Enriched Uranium fabrication plant the variances of MUF, D (no diversion) and MUF-D are calculated with the help of the standard deviations of operator and inspector measurements. The two inventories of the material balance are stratified. The samples sizes of the strata and the total inspection effort for data verification are determined by game theoretical methods (attribute sampling). On the basis of these results the overall detection probability of the combined system (data verification and material accountancy) is determined both for the MUF-D test and the bivariate (D,MUF) test as a function of the goal quantity. The results of both tests are evaluated for different diversion strategies. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Physics-magnetics trade studies for tandem mirror reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.B.; Perkins, L.J.; Blackfield, D.T.

    1985-01-01

    We describe and present results obtained from the optimization package of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. We have found it to be very useful in searching through multidimensional parameter space, and have applied it here to study the effect of choke coil field strength and net electric power on cost of electricity (COE) and mass utilization factor (MUF) for MINIMARS type reactors. We have found that a broad optimum occurs at B/sub choke/ = 26 T for both COE and MUF. The COE economy of scale approaches saturation at quite low powers, around 600 MW(e). The saturation is mainly due to longer construction times for large plants, and the associated time related costs. The MUF economy of scale does not saturate, at least for powers up to 2400 MW(e)

  2. Development of material balance evaluation technique(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Doo

    2000-06-01

    IAEA considers that the evaluation on material balance is one of the important activities for detecting the diversion of nuclear materials as well as measurement uncertainties and measurement bias. Nuclear material accounting reports, the results of DA and NDA, the summarized lists of material stratified by inspector are necessary for the material balance evaluation. In this report, the concepts and evaluation methods of material balance evaluation such as the estimation techniques of random and systematic errors, MUF, D and MUF-D are described. As a conclusion, it is possible for national inspection to evaluate the material balance by applying the evaluation methods of the IAEA such as error estimation using operator-inspector paired data, inspector MUF(IMUF) evaluation

  3. Sporadic E S Layers at High Latitudes During a Magnetic Storm of March 17, 2015 According to the Vertical and Oblique Ionospheric Sounding Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoveshchensky, D. V.; Maltseva, O. A.; Anishin, M. M.; Rogov, D. D.

    2017-11-01

    We consider the behavior of the parameters of the ionospheric E s layers according to the vertical sounding at the Sodankylä observatory and oblique sounding at the Lovozero (Murmansk region)—Gor'kovskaya station (Leningrad region) path during a superstorm of March 17, 2015. Temporal and spatial behavior of these parameters is compared. It was found that the storm significantly distorted the normal course of variations of the sporadic E s layer characteristics. Specific behavior of the layers during a storm at points separated by about 300 km was detected. With the help of ray tracing calculations using the IRI model, oblique sounding ionograms were constructed for the radio path analyzed. Primary attention is given to the maximum usable frequency of the F 2 layer—MUF- F 2. Additionally, for the disturbed conditions where there is only a high-power E s layer on the experimental ionograms, the values of MUF- E s and the ratio K =MUF- E s/ f o E s for various cutoff frequencies f o E s of the E s layer and its altitudes {h}_{E_s} are calculated within the framework of the well-known approximations. Calculations for the case of weak disturbance and semitransparent E s layers are carried out with the IRI model adapted to the current diagnostics parameters. It was found that the calculated and experimental values of MUF- F 2 are close to each other or coincide, while this cannot be said about MUF- E s. The calculated and experimental values of MUF- E s can be matched in the model of mirror reflection from a flat layer for intense layers and the model of the E layer for thick E s layers of low intensity.

  4. Structural and electronic properties of lithium intercalated graphite LiC6

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kganyago, KR

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Thomas-Fermi plus gradient approximation,44 the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker45,46 ~KKR! method,47 the FLAPW method,26,37,48 full potential linear muf?n-tin-orbital~FLMTO! method,49?51 the ab initio pseudopotential ~PP! method,52?57 linear muf... excess near a. This delocalization of the electrons in the interplanar region was reported by Charlier et al.90 and is used in our study to evaluate the corrections to the exchange- correlation term of the Kohn-Sham equations and under- standing...

  5. International safeguards data management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentesi, F.; Costantini, L.; Franklin, M.; Dondi, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    The data base management system ''ISADAM'' (i.e. International Safeguards Data Management System) described in this report is intended to facilitate the safeguards authority in making efficient and effective use of accounting reports. ISADAM has been developed using the ADABAS data base management system and is implemented on the JRC-Ispra computer. The evaluation of safeguards declarations focuses on three main objectives: - the requirement of syntactical consistency with the legal conventions of data recording for safeguards accountancy; - the requirement of accounting evidence that there is no material unaccounted for (MUF); - the requirement of semantic consistency with the technological characteristics of the plant and the processing plans of the operator. Section 2 describes in more detail the facilities which ISADAM makes available to a safeguards inspector. Section 3 describes how the MUF variance computation is derived from models of measurement error propagation. Many features of the ISADAM system are automatically provided by ADABAS. The exceptions to this are the utility software designed to: - screen plant declarations before loading into the data base, - prepare variance summary files designed to support real-time computation of MUF and variance of MUF, - provide analyses in response to user requests in interactive or batch mode. Section 4 describes the structure and functions of this software which have been developed by JRC-Ispra

  6. Self-affine roughness influence on the friction coefficient for rubbers onto solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of self-affine roughness on the friction coefficient mu(f) of a rubber body under incomplete contact onto a solid surface. The roughness is characterized by the rms amplitude w, the correlation length xi, and the roughness exponent H. It is shown that with

  7. Microchip electrospray: improvements in spray and signal stability during gradient elution by an inverted postcolumn makeup flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Stephanie; Effelsberg, Uwe; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic changes in mobile phase composition during high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) gradient elution coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) sensitively affect electrospray modes. We investigate the impact of the eluent composition on spray stability and MS response by infusion and injection experiments with a small tetrapeptide in water-acetonitrile mixtures. The employed HPLC/electrospray (ESI)-MS configuration uses a microchip equipped with an enrichment column, a separation column, and a makeup flow (MUF) channel. One nano pump is connected to the separation column, while a second one delivers solvent of exactly inverted composition to the MUF channel. Both solvent streams are united behind the separation column, before the ESI tip, such that the resulting electrosprayed solution always has identical composition during a gradient elution. Analyte peak parameters without and with MUF compensation are determined and discussed with respect to the electrospray mode and eluent composition. The postcolumn MUF significantly improves spray and signal stability over the entire solvent gradient, without compromising the performance of the HPLC separation column. It can also be conveniently implemented on microchip platforms.

  8. Dual protection of wood surface treated with melamine-modified urea-formaldehyde resin mixed with ammonium polyphosphate against both fire and decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing-xia Ma; Grant T. Kirker; Ming-liang Jiang; Yu-zhang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Surface coatings of melamine-modified urea-formaldehyde resins (MUFs) containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP) have been shown to significantly improve the fire retardancy of wood by prolonging the ignition time and reducing the heat release rate, total heat released, and mass loss rate. Dual protection of wood against both decay and fire has been proposed for remedial...

  9. Experimental behaviour of a argon plasma, which is passed by a high current intensity, with different magnetic field configurations; Comportamiento experimental de un plasma de argon en diferentes configuraciones de campo magnetico y a elevadas corrientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, J

    1964-07-01

    In a lineal discharge, the longitudinal and azimuthal magnetic fields produced by the current through the tube and the returning conductors, which have 4 different forms, are determined with a magnetic probe, which has a radial and longitudinal displacement. The plasma is produced discharging a 135{mu}F and 9 KV capacitor bank through Argon at 10{sup -}1 Torr. (Author) 5 refs.

  10. Information Center Help Desk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    based expert systems, AIM is the evaluated product that provides the most automation in creating an expert system. AIM constructs a mathematical model...Iow AU INU S/9 Isip line flp anDuk, lot Lime--l i U" aato dd"hamj bmltor aom to Dom loaddat& ato ma~uatIon an lien --- seek anlfysis/ mufI reaii

  11. Study of nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderman, H.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of deliberate diversion of nuclear materials on materials accounting, the validity of the MUF concept to establish assurance concerning the possible diversion of special nuclear materials, and an economic analysis to permit cost comparison of varying the inventory frequency are being studied. An inventory cost model, the statistical hypothesis testing approach, the game theoretic approach, and analysis of generic plants are considered

  12. Reconstruction of an account's past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterman, M.S.; Lowe, V.W.

    1977-01-01

    Historical records and data frequently have been reduced by combination of accounts. The problem addressed is that of finding all ways a given set of accounts could have been combined to give some given set of reduced accounts. An algorithm has been developed to accomplish this task and a computer code in FORTRAN is given. An example with some MUF data is also presented

  13. Magnetic response of soils and vegetation to heavy metal pollution - a case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jordanova, N. V.; Jordanova, D. V.; Veneva, L.; Yorova, K.; Petrovský, Eduard

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 19 (2003), s. 4417-4424 ISSN 0013-936X Grant - others:BMSE(BG) MU-F-1201/02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : environmental pollution * magnetometric method * heavy metals Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 3.592, year: 2003

  14. The effect of combined conventional and modified ultrafiltration on mechanical ventilation and hemodynamic changes in congenital heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ziyaeifard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with increased fluid accumulation around the heart which influences pulmonary and cardiac diastolic function. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of modified ultrafiltration (MUF versus conventional ultrafiltration (CUF on duration of mechanical ventilation and hemodynamic status in children undergoing congenital heart surgery. Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 46 pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass throughout their congenital heart surgery. Arteriovenous MUF plus CUF was performed in 23 patients (intervention group and sole CUF was performed for other 23 patients (control group. In MUF group, arterial cannula was linked to the filter inlet through the arterial line, and for 10 min, 10 ml/kg/min of blood was filtered and returned via cardioplegia line to the right atrium. Different parameters including hemodynamic variables, length of mechanical ventilation, Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay, and inotrope requirement were compared between the two groups. Results: At immediate post-MUF phase, there was a statistically significant increase in the mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.05 only in the study group. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in time of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.004 and ICU stay (P = 0.007 between the two groups. Inotropes including milrinone (P = 0.04, epinephrine (P = 0.001, and dobutamine (P = 0.002 were used significantly less frequently for patients in the intervention than the control group. Conclusion: Administration of MUF following surgery improves hemodynamic status of patients and also significantly decreases the duration of mechanical ventilation and inotrope requirement within 48 h after surgery.

  15. Uranium accountability for ATR fuel fabrication: Part II. A computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, C.A.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Vegors, S.H. Jr.; Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    A stochastic computer model has been designed to simulate the material control system used during the production of fuel plates for the Advanced Test Reactor. Great care has been taken to see that this model follows the manufacturing and measuring processes used. The model is designed so that manufacturing process and measurement parameters are fed in as input; hence, changes in the manufacturing process and measurement procedures are easily simulated. Individual operations in the plant are described by program subroutines. By varying the calling sequence of these subroutines, variations in the manufacturing process may be simulated. By using this model values for MUF and LEMUF may be calculated for predetermined plant operating conditions. Furthermore the effect on MUF and LEMUF produced by changing plant operating procedures and measurement techniques may also be examined. A sample calculation simulating one inventory period of the plant's operation is included

  16. Numerical consideration for multiscale statistical process control method applied to nuclear material accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Hori, Masato; Asou, Ryoji; Usuda, Shigekazu

    2006-01-01

    The multiscale statistical process control (MSSPC) method is applied to clarify the elements of material unaccounted for (MUF) in large scale reprocessing plants using numerical calculations. Continuous wavelet functions are used to decompose the process data, which simulate batch operation superimposed by various types of disturbance, and the disturbance components included in the data are divided into time and frequency spaces. The diagnosis of MSSPC is applied to distinguish abnormal events from the process data and shows how to detect abrupt and protracted diversions using principle component analysis. Quantitative performance of MSSPC for the time series data is shown with average run lengths given by Monte-Carlo simulation to compare to the non-detection probability β. Recent discussion about bias corrections in material balances is introduced and another approach is presented to evaluate MUF without assuming the measurement error model. (author)

  17. Mechanism of Void Prediction in Flip Chip Packages with Molded Underfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuo-Tsai; Hwang, Sheng-Jye; Lee, Huei-Huang

    2017-08-01

    Voids have always been present using the molded underfill (MUF) package process, which is a problem that needs further investigation. In this study, the process was studied using the Moldex3D numerical analysis software. The effects of gas (air vent effect) on the overall melt front were also considered. In this isothermal process containing two fluids, the gas and melt colloid interact in the mold cavity. Simulation enabled an appropriate understanding of the actual situation to be gained, and, through analysis, the void region and exact location of voids were predicted. First, the global flow end area was observed to predict the void movement trend, and then the local flow ends were observed to predict the location and size of voids. In the MUF 518 case study, simulations predicted the void region as well as the location and size of the voids. The void phenomenon in a flip chip ball grid array underfill is discussed as part of the study.

  18. NRTA simulation by modeling PFPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Takashi; Fujiwara, Shigeo; Takahashi, Saburo; Shibata, Junichi; Totsu, Noriko

    2003-01-01

    In PFPF, NRTA system has been applied since 1991. It has been confirmed by evaluating facility material accountancy data provided from operator in each IIV that a significant MUF was not generated. In case of throughput of PFPF scale, MUF can be evaluated with a sufficient detection probability by the present NRTA evaluation manner. However, by increasing of throughput, the uncertainty of material accountancy will increase, and the detection probability will decline. The relationship between increasing of throughput and declining of detection probability and the maximum throughput upon application of following measures with a sufficient detection probability were evaluated by simulation of NRTA system. This simulation was performed by modeling of PFPF. Measures for increasing detection probability are shown as follows. Shortening of the evaluation interval. Segmentation of evaluation area. This report shows the results of these simulations. (author)

  19. Application of near real time accountancy to nuclear material balance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, R.

    1990-02-01

    The application of near real time accountancy to nuclear material balance data can be performed effectively only with the help of computerised nuclear material accounting and information systems. Two computer programmes are introduced: DIDI, a programme for computing the MUF series and the measurement model of a reprocessing plant which is assumed to be a one-block model from data resulting from the routine operation of the facility, and PROSA, a programme for statistical analysis of NRTA data, which evaluates the MUF series on the basis of the measurement model. After the presentation of the two computer programmes two examples with realistic balance data will demonstrate the application of NRTA measures. Furthermore, some new remarks on the precision of Monte-Carlo simulations are mentioned which provide a substantial better estimation. (orig.) [de

  20. Typical IAEA inspection procedures for model plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, W.

    1984-01-01

    This session briefly refers to the legal basis for IAEA inspections and to their objectives. It describes in detail the planning and performance of IAEA inspections, including the examination of records, the comparison of facility records with State reports, flow and inventory verifications, the design of statistical sampling plans, and Agency's independent verification measurements. In addition, the session addresses the principles of Material Balance and MUF evaluation, as well as the content and format of summary statements and related problems

  1. Degradation capability of the coastal environment adjacent to the Itata River in central Chile (36.5° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ampuero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The response of the coastal ocean influenced by both river discharges and inputs of photosynthetically derived organic carbon product of upwelling, was evaluated by estimating rates of microbial hydrolysis of macromolecules with the goal of estimating the potential degradation capability of the coastal ecosystem off central Chile. Extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA in seawater was dominated by aminopeptidase activity on substrate L-leucine-4-methyl-7-coumarinylamide (MCA-leu (1.2 to 182 nmol l−1 h−1 followed by 4-methylumbelliferyl-ß-D-glucoside (MUF-glu (0.08–61 nmol l−1 h−1 and 4-methylumbelliferyl-ß-D-cellobiose (MUF-cel (0.15–7 nmol l−1 h−1, with the highest rates measured during spring-summer. In riverine waters, extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis remained within the range of 45 to 131 nmol l−1 h−1 for MCA-leu and ca. 20 nmol l−1 h−1 for glucosidic substrates, year-round. Contrary to the EEA observed for the marine water column, surface sediment extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of MCA-leu (0.04 to 6.13 nmol g−1 dw h−1 was in the same order of magnitude as the rates observed for MUF-cel (0.004 to 5.1 nmol g−1 dw h−1 and MUF-glu (0.007 to 10.5 nmol g−1 dw h−1. Moreover, hydrolysis in sediments was characterized by higher rates during winter compared with spring-summer in the coastal and estuarine zone. The five years of data allowed us to evaluate the potential capability of microbial processing of organic carbon in the coastal area adjacent to the Itata river discharge where the increase in primary production in the productive seasons is accompanied by the increase in hydrolysis of macromolecules.

  2. Description of reference (model) plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For the workshop on Safeguards System design for a fuel fabrication plant, a generic example of a LEU bulk-handling facility that is based on the Exxon LWR fuel fabrication plants is used. The model plant information is given in the following separate sections: (1) process assumptions; (2) six-month material balance model; (3) measurements; (4) error parameters, measurements, and sigma MUF calculations; (5) material control areas; (6) accounting, records, and reports; (7) tamper-safing; and (8) measurement control program

  3. Characterization and Fate of Gun and Rocket Propellant Residues on Testing and Training Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    the firing points ranged from 33 to 60 cm, with depths exceeding 120 cm downrange at Range 6.5. No precipitation accumulated during testing, al- though...collected on the floor of the muf- fler. Results obtained with classical gravimetry were compared with those obtained with differential thermal analysis...nitrate ester functions. It is insoluble in aqueous solution and thus will not dissolve in precipitation . However, the added constituents such as NG

  4. Accountability control system in plutonium fuel facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruki, Kaoru; Aoki, Minoru; Mizuno, Ohichi; Mishima, Tsuyoshi

    1979-01-01

    More than 30 tons of plutonium-uranium mixed-oxide fuel have been manufactured at the Plutonium Facility in PNC for JOYO, FUGEN and DCA (Deuterium Critical Assembly) and for the purpose of irradiation tests. This report reviews the nuclear material accountability control system adopted in the Plutonium Facility. Initially, the main objective of the system was the criticality control of fissible materials at various stages of fuel manufacturing. The first part of this report describes the functions and the structure of the control system. A flow chart is provided to show the various stages of material flow and their associated computer files. The system is composed of the following three sub-systems: procedures of nuclear material transfer; PIT (Physical Inventory Taking); data retrieval, report preparation and file maintenance. OMR (Optical Mark Reader) sheets are used to record the nuclear material transfer. The MUF (Materials Unaccounted For) are evaluated by PIT every three months through computer processing based on the OMR sheets. The MUF ratio of Pu handled in the facility every year from 1966 to 1977 are presented by a curve, indicating that the MUF ratio was kept well under 0.5% for every project (JOYO, FUGEN, and DCA). As for the Pu safeguards, the MBA (Material Balance Area) and the KMP (Key Measurement Point) in the facility of PNC are illustrated. The general idea of the projected PINC (Plutonium Inventory Control) system in PNC is also shortly explained. (Aoki, K.)

  5. Preparation of molecularly imprinted adsorptive resin for trapping of ligustrazine from the traditional Chinese herb Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhifeng; Guo Tingting; Guo Mufan

    2008-01-01

    A highly selective molecularly imprinted adsorptive resin for ligustrazine was prepared by melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) gel. In the experiments, two pieces of MUF gel were synthesized firstly; one was added ligustrazine hydrochloride as the template molecule in it to prepare the imprinted adsorptive resin, and the other was not. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that both resins were the porous with a network structure whether or not it was added template molecule. The imprinted adsorptive resin had an absorbability of 85.22% measured by a 200 mg L -1 solution of ligustrazine hydrochloride at room temperature. The resin of MUF without template, on the other hand, displayed an adsorption capacity of almost zero. It illuminated the imprinted adsorptive resin formed ligustrazine recognition sites when the template molecule had been eluted. In the present paper, ligustrazine was effectively separated and enriched from herbs by using a solid-phase adsorptive column filled with the imprinted adsorptive resin. Its eluate, obtained from three kinds of solvents, was analyzed by GC-MS, and the results indicated that the imprinted adsorptive resin showed a high selectivity for ligustrazine. This is believed to be beneficial for extracting natural and highly purified ligustrazine

  6. Pharmacokinetic analysis of flomoxef in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and modified ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Zenichi; Kurosaki, Yuji; Ishino, Kozo; Yamauchi, Keita; Sano, Shunji

    2008-04-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces changes in the pharmacokinetics of drugs. The purpose of this study was to model the pharmacokinetics of flomoxef, a cephalosporin antibiotic, in pediatric cardiac surgery. Each patient received a flomoxef dose of 30 mg/kg as a bolus after the induction of anesthesia and an additional dose (1 g for a child weighing or = 10 kg) was injected into the CPB prime. Modified ultrafiltration (MUF) was routinely performed. Blood samples, urine, and ultrafiltrate were collected. In seven patients (group I), serum flomoxef concentration-time courses were analyzed by a modified two-compartment model. Utilizing the estimated parameters, serum concentrations were simulated in another eight patients (group II). The initiation of CPB resulted in an abrupt increase in serum flomoxef concentrations in group I; however, concentrations declined biexponentially. The amount of excreted flomoxef in the urine and by MUF was 47% +/- 8% of the total administered dose. In group II, an excellent fit was found between the values calculated by the program and the observed serum concentrations expressed; most of the performance errors were flomoxef in children undergoing CPB and MUF were well fitted to a modified two-compartment model. Using the kinetic data from this study, the individualization of dosage regimens for prophylactic use of flomoxef might be possible.

  7. Effect of waste rubber powder as filler for plywood application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Huei Ruey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the suitability of waste rubber powder (WRP use as filler in adhesive formulation for plywood application. Melamine Urea Formaldehyde (MUF was employed as resin for formulating the wood adhesive. To improve chemical properties and bonding quality of adhesive, WRP was treated by different chemicals like 20% nitric acid, 30% hydrogen peroxide and acetone solution. The treated WRP were analysed by XRD and it showed that inorganic compounds were removed and carbon was remained as major component under the treatment of 20% HNO3. The treatment improved the mechanical properties like shear strength and formaldehyde emission of plywood (high shear strength and low formaldehyde emission. The physico-chemical interaction between the wood, resin and filler was investigated using fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR technique and the interactions among N-H of MUF and C=O of wood and WRP were identified. The morphology of wood-adhesive interface was studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM and light microscope (LM. It showed that the penetration of adhesives and fillers through the wood pores was responsible for mechanical interlocking. Therefore, chemically treated WRP proved its potential use as filler in MUF based adhesive for making plywood.

  8. International safeguards data management system. System description: Version 1.1.; Release PLI 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentesi, T.; Casilli, T.; Costantini, L.; Dondi, M.G.; Franklin, M.

    1982-01-01

    This document describes a nuclear material accountancy system which has been developed using the ADABAS data base management system and is implemented on the JRC-Ispra computer. Throughout the report, the data base system is referred to as ''ISADAM'', i.e. International Safeguards Data Management System. The system provides tools for a safeguards authority to decide whether an operators MUF (Material Unaccounted For) can be accounted for as an accumulation of operator measurement errors. The principle objective of the applications programs described here is to provide a variance analysis of MUF in which the variance of MUF is computed as a function of the accounting declarations and the error characteristics of the operator measurement system. A overview of ISADAM is presented; then, a detailed description of the processing applied by the system is given. A description of the parameter information required by the four autonomous programs ISADAM is presented. In developing ISADAM, one of the prime factors taken into consideration was the ease with which it could be used

  9. A two-dimensional simulation model for the molded underfill process in flip chip packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xue Ru; Young, Wen Bin [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2015-07-15

    The flip chip process involves the deposition of solder bumps on the chip surface and their subsequent direct attachment and connection to a substrate. Underfilling traditional flip chip packaging is typically performed following a two-step approach. The first step uses capillary force to fill the gap between the chip and the substrate, and the second step uses epoxy molding compound (EMC) to overmold the package. Unlike traditional flip chip packaging, the molded underfill (MUF) concept uses a single-step approach to simultaneously achieve both underfill and overmold. MUF is a simpler and faster process. In this study, a 2D numerical model is developed to simulate the front movement of EMC flow and the void formation for different geometric parameters. The 2D model simplifies the procedures of geometric modeling and reduces the modeling time for the MUF simulation. Experiments are conducted to verify the prediction results of the model. The effect on void formation for different geometric parameters is investigated using a 2D model.

  10. Equilibrium moisture content of OSB panels produced with veneer inclusion and different types of adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different statistical models to estimate the equilibrium moisture content of OSB panels exposed to different conditions of air temperature and relative humidity, And also to evaluate the influence of the adhesive and veneer inclusion in the equilibrium moisture content. The panels were produced with three different adhesive types (phenol-formaldehyde - FF, melamine-urea-formaldehyde - MUF, and phenol-melamine-urea-formaldehyde - PMUF and with and without veneer inclusion. The evaluation of the equilibrium moisture content of the panels was carried out at temperatures of 30, 40 and 50°C and relative humidity of 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90%. The modeling of equilibrium moisture content was performed using the statistical non-linear and polynomial models. In general, the polynomial models are most indicated for determining the equilibrium moisture content of OSB. The models adjusted only with air relative humidity presented the best precision measurements. The type of adhesive affected the equilibrium moisture content of the panels, being observed for adhesives PMUF and FF the same trend of variation, and the highest values obtained for the panels produced with adhesive MUF. The veneer inclusion decreased the equilibrium moisture content only in the panels with MUF adhesive.

  11. Novel Applications of Modified Ultrafiltration and Autologous Priming Techniques to Reduce Blood Product Exposure on ECMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, James R; Blau, Caitlin L; Cornelius, Amanda M; Pike, Roxann B; Dearani, Joseph A; Mora, Bassem N

    2016-03-01

    Patients needing the assistance of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are at risk of hemodilution and, in some instances, may require exposure to large amounts of allogeneic blood products. Patient outcomes can be improved by taking steps to reduce transfusions and hemodilution. Currently, modified ultrafiltration (MUF) is used across the world to reduce hemodilution after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Another common technique during bypass initiation is autologous priming. By applying modified versions of these techniques, ECMO patients may potentially benefit. Usually, patients requiring immediate transition from CPB to ECMO are not stable enough to tolerate MUF. Through alterations of the CPB and ECMO circuit tubing, MUF can be performed once on ECMO. Another technique to potentially lower the transfusion requirements for ECMO patients is a complete circuit blood transfer during an ECMO circuit exchange. While selective component changes are preferred if possible, occasionally a complete circuit change must be done. To minimize hemodilution or prevent priming with blood products, the original ECMO circuit's blood can be transferred to the new ECMO circuit before connecting to the patient. Both of these techniques, in our opinion, helped to reduce the number of transfusions that our ECMO patients have seen during these critical time periods.

  12. The effect of pulse voltage and capacitance on biosorption of uranium by biomass derived from whiskey distillery spent wash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustard, M.; Rollan, A.; McHale, A.P. [Biotechnology Research Group, School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Ulster (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    Biosorption of uranium by residual biomass from The Old Bushmill`s Distillery Co. Ltd., Bushmills, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, following exposure to short and intense electric pulses has been examined. The biomass was prepared from the distillery spent wash and consisted of non-viable yeast and bacterial cells. As shown previously, untreated biomass had a maximum biosorption capacity of 170 mg uranium/g dry weight biomass. When biosorption reactions were placed between two electrodes and exposed to electric pulses with field strengths ranging from 1.25-3.25 kV/cm at a capacitance of 25 {mu}F, biosorption increased from 170 mg of uranium to 275 mg uranium/g dry weight biomass. The data were obtained from biosorption isotherm analyses and taken as the degree of biosorption at residual uranium concentrations of 3 mM. In addition, when the capacitance of the electric pulses increased from 0.25 {mu}F to 25 {mu}F at a fixed pulse field strength the degree of biosorption increased from 210 mg uranium to 240 mg uranium/g dry weight biomass. The results suggest that application of short and intense electric pulses to biosorption reactions may play an important role in enhancing microbial biosorption of toxic metals/radionuclides from waste water streams. (orig.) With 2 tabs., 10 refs.

  13. Evaluation of coagulation factors and platelet function from an off-line modified ultrafiltration technique for post-cardiopulmonary bypass circuit blood recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, S; Lynn, P; Miller, S; Harris, R; DiMarco, R F; Ross, J E

    2013-05-01

    Modified ultrafiltration (MUF) is a technique that hemoconcentrates residual CPB circuit blood and the patient at the same time. Hemoconcentration and MUF are Class 1-A recommendations in the anesthesia and surgical blood conservation guidelines. This study evaluated the off-line MUF process of the Hemobag (HB, Global Blood Resources, Somers, CT, USA) to quantitate coagulation factor levels, platelet (PLT) count and function in one facility and cellular growth factor concentrations of the final product that were transfused to the patient in another facility In two cardiac surgery facilities, after decannulation, the extracorporeal circuit (ECC) blood from 22 patients undergoing cardiac surgery was processed with the HB device. In eleven patients from the first facility by the study design, blood samples for coagulation factor levels and PLT aggregation were drawn from the reservoir of the MUF device pre- and post-processing. The samples (n = 11) were sent to a reference laboratory where testing for prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), reptilase time, fibrinogen, clotting factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, ADAMTS-13, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), and platelet (PLT) aggregation were performed. A portion of the final concentrated HB blood samples (n = 5-10) from the second facility by design were evaluated for transforming and platelet-derived cellular growth factor concentrations. On average, approximately 800 - 2000 mls of whole blood were removed from the ECC post-CPB for processing in the HB device. After processing, there was, on the average, approximately 300 - 950 mls of concentrated whole blood salvaged for reinfusion. The PT and INR were significantly lower in the post-processing product compared to the pre-processing samples while the aPTT times were not significantly different. All coagulation factors and natural anti-coagulants were significantly

  14. Optimal state estimation theory applied to safeguards accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, D.H.; Morrison, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a unified theory for the application of modern state estimation techniques to nuclear material accountability. First a summary of the current MUF/LEMUF approach is detailed. It is shown that when inventory measurement error is large in comparison to transfer measurement error, improved estimates of the losses can be achieved using the cumulative summation technique. However, the optimal estimator is shown to be the Kalman filter. An enhancement of the retrospective estimation of losses can be achieved using linear smoothing. State space models are developed for a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility and examples are presented

  15. Measurement of the time dependent neutron energy spectrum in the 'DENA' plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdollahzadeh, M [Department of Physics, Imam Husein University, PO Box 16575-347, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadat kiai, S M [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Nuclear Science Research School, A.E.O.I., PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babazadeh, A R [Physics Department, Qom University, PO Box 37165, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    An extended time of flight method is used to determine the time dependent neutron energy spectrum in the Filippove type 'Dena' plasma focus (90 kJ, 25 kV, 288 {mu}F), filled with deuterium gas. An array of 5 detectors containing NE-102 plastic scintillators+photomultipliers is used. The number and position of the detectors are determined by a Monte Carlo program and the MCNP code. This paper briefly describes the simulation method and presents the experimental measurements and their results. The mechanisms of neutron production (thermonuclear and non-thermonuclear) and their time variations are discussed.

  16. PRODUCTION OF HIGH DENSITY PARTICLEBOARD USING MELAMINE-UREA-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed aiming to evaluate the effects of board density and melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin onthe properties of particleboard for semi-structural applications. The boards were manufactured with nominal density of 0.65 g/cm³and 0.90 g/cm³ using urea-formaldehyde resin as control and melamine-urea-formaldehyde. The results showed a better dimensionallystability and mechanical properties of the boards manufactured with higher density and MUF resin content. The fine furnish usedfor external layer of particleboard in the industrial process, could be used for high density homogeneous board to semi-strucuturaluses, such as flooring applications.

  17. Improved Maneuver Criteria Evaluation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    If the rotor rpm breakpoint (OMGBL2) is le :-s than the mininum rotor rpm (OMEGMN), then the rpm bleed :ate (OMGBDI) will be the only bleed rate used...VCP =60 PSU 1 EEF = 1 OMGBD1=2 OMGBD3=0 OMGRC2=0 VERR = 2 MPRINT= 1 OMEGMN=300 OMGBL.2=4 OMGBL4=0 OMGRD2=0 MUF = 1 BINERT:2860 TRPMMN= 0 OMGBD2=0 OMGBD4...height is within 2 feet of the measured height. These comparisons show that the MCEP maneuvers are accurate for simulating these types of maneuvers

  18. INSPECT: a package of computer programs for planning and evaluating safeguards inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, M.F.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards, PNL has developed a package of computer programs, called INSPECT, that can be used in planning and evaluating safeguards inspections of various types of nuclear facilities. The programs are based on the statistical methods described in Part F of the IAEA Safeguards Technical Manual and can be used to calculate the variance components of the MUF (Material Unaccounted For) statistic, the variance components of the D (difference) statistic, attribute and variables sampling plans, and a measure of the effectiveness of the inspection plan. The paper describes the programs, reviews a number of applications, and indicates areas for future work

  19. The International Symposium on Microwave Signatures and Remote Sensing Held in Gothenburg (Sweden) on 19-22 January 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-28

    7 A-A1 I 334 NT NAI A SNI JN O ICR MUfI CM NTU AN III UNCLASSIF ED Rkl~ lWLA 2MY90 LAF/C 17/9 ML u-iD i1.0 V , .2 2 il4 016 - 9 I or 9P: FILE OM...returned radar signal to sea various mathematical models. The group state it has been found that the scatter- studied these spikes in an attempt to...Sobieski (Univer- object. A mathematical model relating sity of Louvain, Belgium) attempted to these parameters was developed but no develop an

  20. Development of Physical Techniques for the Non-Destructive Evaluation of Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    extracted. However, this demands careful interpretation since the plane of polarisation is altered upon reflection at non -normal angles of incidence, due...an .. ’ -j M1 beam splitter collimating 0 12 4 F- M mirror transmitter specimen receiver 4 imaging mirror A Figure 20 Twyman-Green interferometer...00 fEVPli) PmEN;’i OF PHIYS ICAL n.CIIN I (JES FOR THlE NON - 1W STRI(MUf LE VALIJA’r ION OF P~OLYMER(S Final Report K 11 G Ashhcc, P A Gass, .J 1

  1. Race to the finish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, D.

    1981-01-01

    An organised study of the nuclear power controversy is presented. Chapter headings are: in the beginning was the bomb (development of nuclear controversy); Murphy's Law at Three Mile Island (detailed account of accident to Three Mile Island-2 reactor); econuts and loose screws (organization of anti-nuclear demonstrations); further aspects of human frailty (nuclear incidents and possible hazards in USA, UK and France; government policies, nuclear controversy and sociology); how irradiated can you get (radiation hazards); what is MUF and where is it (proliferation); MAD (mutual assured destruction; nuclear arms and war); yesterday's men. (U.K.)

  2. INSPECT: a package of computer programs for planning safeguards inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wincek, M.A.; Mullen, M.F.

    1979-04-01

    As part of the U.S. program to provide technical assistance to the International Atomic Energy Agency, a package of computer programs was developed for use in planning safeguards inspections of various types of nuclear facilities. The INSPECT software package is a set of five interactive FORTRAN programs which can be used to calculate the variance components of the MUF (Material Unaccounted For) statistic, the variance components of the D (difference) statistic, attribute and variables sampling plans, a measure of the effectiveness of the inspection, and a measurement of the cost of implementing the inspection plan. This report describes the programs and explains how to use them

  3. Improved liquid chromatography-MS/MS of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides via chip-based pulsed makeup flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Shi, Xiaofeng; Yu, Xiang; Leymarie, Nancy; Staples, Gregory O; Yin, Hongfeng; Killeen, Kevin; Zaia, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Microfluidic chip-based hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) is a useful separation system for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in compositional profiling of heparan sulfate (HS) oligosaccharides; however, ions observed using HILIC LC-MS are low in charge. Tandem MS of HS oligosaccharide ions with low charge results in undesirable losses of SO(3) from precursor ions during collision induced dissociation. One solution is to add metal cations to stabilize sulfate groups. Another is to add a nonvolatile, polar compound such as sulfolane, a molecule known to supercharge proteins, to produce a similar effect for oligosaccharides. We demonstrate use of a novel pulsed makeup flow (MUF) HPLC-chip. The chip enables controlled application of additives during specified chromatographic time windows and thus minimizes the extent to which nonvolatile additives build up in the ion source. The pulsed MUF system was applied to LC-MS/MS of HS oligosaccharides. Metal cations and sulfolane were tested as additives. The most promising results were obtained for sulfolane, for which supercharging of the oligosaccharide ions increased their signal strengths relative to controls. Tandem MS of these supercharged precursor ions showed decreased abundances of product ions from sulfate losses yet more abundant product ions from backbone cleavages.

  4. An Approach to Safeguards by Design (SBD) for Fuel Cycle Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran Nair, P.; Gangotra, S.; Karanam, R.

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of safeguards in bulk handling facilities such as fuel fabrication facilities and reprocessing facilities are a challenging task. This is attributed to the nuclear material present in the facility in the form of powder, pellet, green pellet, solution and gaseous. Additionally material hold up, material unaccounted for (MUF) and the operations carried out round the clock add to the difficulties in implementing safeguards. In facilities already designed or commissioned or operational, implementation of safeguards measures are relatively difficult. The authors have studied a number of measures which can be adopted at the design stage itself. Safeguard By Design (SBD) measures can help in more effective implementation of safeguards, reduction of cost and reduction in radiological dose to the installation personnel. The SBD measures in the power reactors are comparatively easier to implement than in the fuel fabrication plants, since reactors are item counting facilities while the fuel fabrication plants are bulk handling type of facilities and involves much rigorous nuclear material accounting methodology. The safeguards measures include technical measures like dynamic nuclear material accounting, near real time monitoring, remote monitoring, use of automation, facility imagery, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tagging, reduction of MUF in bulk handling facilities etc. These measures have been studied in the context of bulk handling facilities and presented in this paper. Incorporation of these measures at the design stage (SBD) is expected to improve the efficiency of safeguardability in such bulk handling and item counting facilities and proliferation resistance of nuclear material handled in such facilities. (author)

  5. The role of certified reference materials in material control and accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turel, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    One way of providing an adequate material control and accounting system for the nuclear fuel cycle is to calculate material unaccounted for (MUF) after a physical inventory and to compare the limit of error of the MUF value (LEMUF) against prescribed criteria. To achieve a meaningful LEMUF, a programme for the continuing determination of systematic and random errors is necessary. Within this programme it is necessary to achieve traceability of all Special Nuclear Material (SNM) control and accounting measurements to an International/National Measurement System by means of Certified Reference Materials. SNM measurements for control and accounting are made internationally on a great variety of materials using many diverse measurement procedures by a large number of facilities. To achieve valid overall accountability over this great variety of measurements there must be some means of relating all these measurements and their uncertainties to each other. This is best achieved by an International/National Measurement System (IMS/NMS). To this end, all individual measurement systems must be compatible to the IMS/NMS and all measurement results must be traceable to appropriate international/national Primary Certified Reference Materials. To obtain this necessary compatibility for any given SNM measurement system, secondary certified reference materials or working reference materials are needed for every class of SNM and each type of measurement system. Ways to achieve ''traceability'' and the various types of certified reference material are defined and discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Particle Board and Oriented Strand Board Prepared with Nanocellulose-Reinforced Adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Veigel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhesives on the basis of urea-formaldehyde (UF and melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF are extensively used in the production of wood-based panels. In the present study, the attempt was made to improve the mechanical board properties by reinforcing these adhesives with cellulose nanofibers (CNFs. The latter were produced from dissolving grade beech pulp by a mechanical homogenization process. Adhesive mixtures with a CNF content of 0, 1, and 3 wt% based on solid resin were prepared by mixing an aqueous CNF suspension with UF and MUF adhesives. Laboratory-scale particle boards and oriented strand boards (OSBs were produced, and the mechanical and fracture mechanical properties were investigated. Particle boards prepared with UF containing 1 wt% CNF showed a reduced thickness swelling and better internal bond and bending strength than boards produced with pure UF. The reinforcing effect of CNF was even more obvious for OSB where a significant improvement of strength properties of 16% was found. For both, particle board and OSB, mode I fracture energy and fracture toughness were the parameters with the greatest improvement indicating that the adhesive bonds were markedly toughened by the CNF addition.

  7. Procedure for taking physical inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This session is intended to apprise one of the various aspects of procedures and routines that Exxon Nuclear uses with respect to its nuclear materials physical inventory program. The presentation describes how plant physical inventories are planned and taken. The description includes the planning and preparation for taking the inventory, the clean-out procedures for converting in-process material to measurable items, the administrative procedures for establishing independent inventory teams and for inventorying each inventory area, the verification procedures used to include previously measured tamper-safed items in the inventory, and lastly, procedures used to reconcile the inventory and calculate MUF (materials unaccounted for). The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the planning and pre-inventorty procedures and their importance; (2) understand the need for and the required intensity of clean-out procedures; (3) understand how inventory teams are formed, and how the inventory is conducted; (4) understand the distinction between inventory previously measured tamper-safed items and other materials not so characterized; (5) understand the reconciliation procedures; and (6) calculate a MUF given the book and inventory results

  8. Safeguards systems parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, R.; Heil, J.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper analyses are made of the values of those parameters that characterize the present safeguards system that is applied to a national fuel cycle; those values have to be fixed quantitatively so that all actions of the safeguards authority are specified precisely. The analysis starts by introducing three categories of quantities: The design parameters (number of MBAs, inventory frequency, variance of MUF, verification effort and false-alarm probability) describe those quantities whose values have to be specified before the safeguards system can be implemented. The performance criteria (probability of detection, expected detection time, goal quantity) measure the effectiveness of a safeguards system; and the standards (threshold amount and critical time) characterize the magnitude of the proliferation problem. The means by which the values of the individual design parameters can be determined with the help of the performance criteria; which qualitative arguments can narrow down the arbitrariness of the choice of values of the remaining parameters; and which parameter values have to be fixed more or less arbitrarily, are investigated. As a result of these considerations, which include the optimal allocation of a given inspection effort, the problem of analysing the structure of the safeguards system is reduced to an evaluation of the interplay of only a few parameters, essentially the quality of the measurement system (variance of MUF), verification effort, false-alarm probability, goal quantity and probability of detection

  9. A near-real-time material accountancy model and its preliminary demonstration in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikawa, K.; Ihara, H.; Nishimura, H.; Tsutsumi, M.; Sawahata, T.

    1983-01-01

    The study of a near-real-time (n.r.t.) material accountancy system as applied to small or medium-sized spent fuel reprocessing facilities has been carried out since 1978 under the TASTEX programme. In this study, a model of the n.r.t. accountancy system, called the ten-day-detection-time model, was developed and demonstrated in the actual operating plant. The programme was closed on May 1981, but the study has been extended. The effectiveness of the proposed n.r.t. accountancy model was evaluated by means of simulation techniques. The results showed that weekly material balances covering the entire process MBA could provide sufficient information to satisfy the IAEA guidelines for small or medium-sized facilities. The applicability of the model to the actual plant has been evaluated by a series of field tests which covered four campaigns. In addition to the material accountancy data, many valuable operational data with regard to additional locations for an in-process inventory, the time needed for an in-process inventory, etc., have been obtained. A CUMUF (cumulative MUF) chart of the resulting MUF data in the C-1 and C-2 campaigns clearly showed that there had been a measurement bias across the process MBA. This chart gave a dramatic picture of the power of the n.r.t. accountancy concept by showing the nature of this bias, which was not clearly shown in the conventional material accountancy data. (author)

  10. Determinación de la actividad celulolítica del suelo proveniente de cultivos de Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez R Viviana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En el presente estudio se determinó la actividad celulolítica en suelo mediante el uso de una técnica fluorogénica que utiliza 4-metilumbeliferil B-glucosa (MUF como sustrato, y se comparó con la técnica de Somogyi Nelson (SN. Se manejó sedimento como control positivo del método MUF, ya que esta técnica se estandarizó previamente en esta matriz, y suelo como matriz a evaluar. El muestreo de suelo se realizó en Puerto López, Meta, en cultivos de Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple. El sedimento se recolectó en el humedal La Conejera, localidad de Suba, Bogotá. Se realizaron tres tratamientos para ambas matrices: T1: matriz (control; T2: matriz+extracto crudo enzimático (2,34 UC; T3: matriz+Streptomyces sp. (59x103 conidios/mL. Para la obtención del extracto crudo enzimático utilizado en el T2 se realizó el aislamiento del microorganismo celulolítico con mayor actividad en agar CMC 1% m/v a partir de muestras de suelo, para su posterior fermentación y obtención de extracto enzimático. La incubación de las matrices en los tres tratamientos se realizó a temperatura ambiente, humedad mantenida a 4,6% durante 60 días, con muestreos periódicos cada 15 días para determinar actividad enzimática por métodos planteados (MUF y SN. No se evidenciaron efectos diferenciales en la actividad enzimática con ninguno de los tratamientos planteados, como tampoco se obtuvo correlación estadística entre los métodos (<16%. Es así que se propone la técnica fluorogénica como una metodología viable y fiable de la actividad celulolítica, en virtud de su alta especificidad, mayor rapidez en el montaje, así como por su facilidad de ejecución y apreciable precisión en términos de repetibilidad; sin embargo la técnica de SN no se descarta para futuros estudios.

  11. Safeguardability of a commercial-scaled ACP facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, H. D.; Ha, J. H.; Song, D. Y.; Lee, T. H

    2004-07-01

    The Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) is an electro-metallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent nuclear fuel into a metallic form. This report documents a preliminary study on the safeguardability of ACP. The sub-processes and material flow of the pilot scale ACP facility were designed for this study. Then, their Material Balance Areas (MBA) and Key Measurement Point (KMP) were defined based on diversion scenario analysis. Finally, the limit of error in the MUF value was estimated using international target values for the uncertainty of measurement methods. Based on the results of preliminary study, we concluded that the safeguards goals of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) could be met if the assumptions regarding measurement instruments can be achieved in a safeguards system for the ACP facility.

  12. Approach to IAEA material-balance verification at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, D.M.; Sanborn, J.B.; Younkin, J.M.; DeVito, V.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a potential approach by which the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) might verify the nuclear-material balance at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP). The strategy makes use of the attributes and variables measurement verification approach, whereby the IAEA would perform independent measurements on a randomly selected subset of the items comprising the U-235 flows and inventories at the plant. In addition, the MUF-D statistic is used as the test statistic for the detection of diversion. The paper includes descriptions of the potential verification activities, as well as calculations of: (1) attributes and variables sample sizes for the various strata, (2) standard deviations of the relevant test statistics, and (3) the detection sensitivity which the IAEA might achieve by this verification strategy at GCEP

  13. High energy ions and energetic plasma irradiation effects on aluminum in a Filippov-type plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshan, M.V. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)], E-mail: mroshan20@yahoo.com; Rawat, R.S. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Babazadeh, A.R.; Emami, M.; Sadat Kiai, S.M. [Plasma Physics Research Center, AEOI, 14155-1339 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Verma, R.; Lin, J.J.; Talebitaher, A.R.; Lee, P.; Springham, S.V. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)

    2008-12-30

    High energy ions and energetic plasma irradiation of aluminum cathode inserts have been accomplished in nitrogen and argon filled plasma focus device. The Filippov-type plasma focus facility, Dena, with 288 {mu}F capacitor bank and charging voltage of 25 kV (90 kJ maximum storage energy) was first optimized for strong ion beam generation for nitrogen and argon gases by maximizing hard X-ray emission efficiency. X-ray diffraction analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy carried out to study the structural, morphological and compositional profile of the treated samples. Change in preferred orientation, emergence of meta-stable phases, generation of copper micro-droplets, and production of cracks across the sample are demonstrated and discussed. The micro-hardness measurements in Vickers scale reveal that after ion irradiation, the surface hardness of samples is reduced.

  14. Material control and accounting at Exxon Nuclear, I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear material control and accounting system at Exxon Nuclear will be described in detail. Subjects discussed will include: the basis of the MC and A system, the nuclear materials accounting systems (NMRS and NICS), physical inventory taking, IAEA inspection experience, safeguards organization, measurements and measurement control, MUF evaluation, accounting forms and reports and use of tamper-indicating seals. The general requirements for material accounting and control in this type of a bulk-handling facility are described. The way those requirements are met for the subject areas shown above is illustrated using a reference (Model Plant) version of the Exxon Nuclear plant The difference between the item-accounting procedures used at reactor facilities and the bulk-accounting procedures used at fuel fabrication facilities is discussed in detail

  15. Determining characteristics of HF communications links using SuperDARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hughes

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Space weather effects can strongly influence high-frequency (HF communications by changing the ionospheric environment through which the radio waves propagate. Since many systems utilize HF communications, the ability to make real-time assessments of propagation conditions is an important part of space weather monitoring systems. In this paper, we present new techniques for measuring high-latitude HF communications link parameters using data from SuperDARN radars. These techniques use ground-scatter returns to define the variation in skip distance with frequency. From these data, the maximum usable frequency (MUF as a function of range is determined and ionospheric critical frequencies are estimated. These calculations are made in near-real-time and the results are made available on the World Wide Web. F-region critical frequencies calculated using this method show good agreement with ionosonde data.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; instruments and techniques – Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  16. Determining characteristics of HF communications links using SuperDARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hughes

    Full Text Available Space weather effects can strongly influence high-frequency (HF communications by changing the ionospheric environment through which the radio waves propagate. Since many systems utilize HF communications, the ability to make real-time assessments of propagation conditions is an important part of space weather monitoring systems. In this paper, we present new techniques for measuring high-latitude HF communications link parameters using data from SuperDARN radars. These techniques use ground-scatter returns to define the variation in skip distance with frequency. From these data, the maximum usable frequency (MUF as a function of range is determined and ionospheric critical frequencies are estimated. These calculations are made in near-real-time and the results are made available on the World Wide Web. F-region critical frequencies calculated using this method show good agreement with ionosonde data.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; instruments and techniques – Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  17. Nonlinear forecasts of ƒoF2: variation of model predictive accuracy over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Cannon

    Full Text Available Space weather effects can strongly influence high-frequency (HF communications by changing the ionospheric environment through which the radio waves propagate. Since many systems utilize HF communications, the ability to make real-time assessments of propagation conditions is an important part of space weather monitoring systems. In this paper, we present new techniques for measuring high-latitude HF communications link parameters using data from SuperDARN radars. These techniques use ground-scatter returns to define the variation in skip distance with frequency. From these data, the maximum usable frequency (MUF as a function of range is determined and ionospheric critical frequencies are estimated. These calculations are made in near-real-time and the results are made available on the World Wide Web. F-region critical frequencies calculated using this method show good agreement with ionosonde data.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; instruments and techniques – Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  18. Nonlinear forecasts of ƒoF2: variation of model predictive accuracy over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Y. Chan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Space weather effects can strongly influence high-frequency (HF communications by changing the ionospheric environment through which the radio waves propagate. Since many systems utilize HF communications, the ability to make real-time assessments of propagation conditions is an important part of space weather monitoring systems. In this paper, we present new techniques for measuring high-latitude HF communications link parameters using data from SuperDARN radars. These techniques use ground-scatter returns to define the variation in skip distance with frequency. From these data, the maximum usable frequency (MUF as a function of range is determined and ionospheric critical frequencies are estimated. These calculations are made in near-real-time and the results are made available on the World Wide Web. F-region critical frequencies calculated using this method show good agreement with ionosonde data.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; instruments and techniques – Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  19. Assessment of soil microbial diversity with functional multi-endpoint methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Creamer, R. E.; Rutgers, M.

    on CO2 development by the microbes such as substrate induced respiration (SIR) on specific substrates have lead to the development of MicroResp™ and Community Level Physiological Profile (CLPP) with Biolog™ plates, and soil enzymatic activity assayed by Extracellular Enzyme Activity (EEA) based on MUF......Soil microbial diversity provides the cornerstone for support of soil ecosystem services by key roles in soil organic matter turnover, carbon sequestration and water infiltration. However, standardized methods to quantify the multitude of microbial functions in soils are lacking. Methods based...... to the lack of principle methods, the data obtained from these substitute methods are currently not used in classification and assessment schemes, making quantification of natural capital and ecosystems services of the soil a difficult venture. In this contribution, we compare and contrast the three...

  20. The GEMUF test and issues to the near-real-time-accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, R.

    1987-11-01

    This paper presents a new sequential test procedure, called GEMUF test, to detect a loss of material in a sequence of accounting periods. The GEMUF test is based on the theoretically best possible, but in practice inapplicable, Neyman-Pearson tests. The idea of the GEMUF test is to estimate the unknown loss pattern by a weighted sum of MUF values. The numerical results are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations for a reference reprocessing facility with a throughput of 1000 t of heavy metal per year. They demonstrate in comparison with other sequential test procedures that this new test gives results for all considered loss patterns that are very close to the best possible results of the Neyman-Pearson tests, i.e. the GEMUF test is 'robust' to various loss patterns. The investigations show also that the GEMUF test is very 'sensitive' by virtue of its short detection time. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Nuclear material control and accounting system evaluation in uranium conversion operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Jose Pontes

    1994-01-01

    The Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems in uranium conversion operations are described. The conversion plant, uses ammonium diuranate (ADU), as starting material for the production of uranium hexafluoride. A combination of accountability and verification measurement is used to verify physical inventory quantities. Two types of inspection are used to minimize the measurements uncertainty of the Material Unaccounted For (MUF) : Attribute inspection and Variation inspection. The mass balance equation is the base of an evaluation of a Material Balance Area (MBA). Statistical inference is employed to facilitate rapid inventory taking and enhance material control of Safeguards. The calculation of one sampling plan for a MBA and the methodology of inspection evaluation are also described. We have two kinds of errors : no detection and false delation. (author)

  2. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents containing a fluorescent dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different self-healing agent candidates, endo-dicyclopentadiene (endo-DCPD and 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB, containing a fluorescent dye surrounded by a melamine–urea–formaldehyde (MUF shell were microencapsulated by in-situ polymerization and the resulting microcapsules were characterized in this work. The microcapsules showed a narrow size distribution with a spherical shape and rough outer and smooth inner surfaces for both healing agent systems. Shell thicknesses of the microcapsules were ~880±80 nm for endo-DCPD and ~620±60 nm for ENB. The incorporation of a fluorescent dye as tracer into self-healing agents did not disturb the formation of microcapsules. The release of self-healing liquid into the induced crack from ruptured microcapsules in an epoxy coating layer was observed using a fluorescence microscopy. The use of a fluorescent dye is very effective in the observation of a damage site.

  3. Safeguards and cost effective alternate to biannual uranium physical inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, C.M.; Walker, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    Today's programs for safeguarding special nuclear material have grown from classical accounting techniques. Measurements and measurement control have been emphasized, and periodic systems tests utilizing MUF and LEMUF parameters have been used to evaluate material control performance. General Electric, at its Wilmington BWR fuel fabrication plant, has taken a new approach to material control. The basic building block has been the current information system, and a combination of on-line and batch mode computer support, which has been integrated into the fuel manaufacturing operation. Not only does this system provide current knowledge of item identity, quantity and location, it also maintains current process work station balances and continuously checks these balances against expected limits. This paper describes the structure of the information system, the manner in which it was integrated into routine operations and the station balance concept

  4. Research of propagation the high frequency signals during total solar eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabova, Mariya; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Dmitrii; Riabova, Natalia; Elsukov, Aleksei

    Vertical-oblique sounding methods are special importance for the study; they provide data on the electron concentration. In panoramic sounders, the mean frequencies of sounding signals vary consequently in the range of apriori uncertainty of the conditions of their reflection from the ionosphere. The aim of this work is the experimental study of the variations in the MUFs along one-hop HF lines during the total solar eclipses, and their application for the estimation of the effective recombination coefficient. To solve the above problem, experiments were carried out with the use of a chirp sounder manufactured at the Volga State University of Technology. The main advantages of chirp sounder are connected with the use of continuous chirps, which allow for the use of methods of optimal reception when deciphering in a frequency region, which provides for a signal-to-noise ratio acceptable for obtaining reliable results. We carried out experiments on oblique chirp sounding of the ionosphere during the total solar eclipse of March 29, 2006, and on the reference days of March 28 and 30, 2006, as well as during the total solar eclipse of August 1, 2008, and the reference days of July 31 and August 2, 2008. The ionosonde transmitters were located in Great Britain (the town of Inskip), Cyprus, and Irkutsk, and the receiver was located in Yoshkar-Ola. The maximal phases of the eclipse of March 29 at the target sounding point (TSP) were 0.89 for Cyprus-Yoshkar-Ola (observed at 11:15 UT) and 0.49 for Inskip-Yoshkar-Ola (observed at 11:03 UT); for the eclipse of August 1, 1 for Irkutsk-Yoshkar-Ola (observed at 11:36 UT). Based on the primary data (ionograms), the secondary data were determined in automatic mode. In particular, diurnal variations in the MUF of the 1F2 and 2F2 modes were calculated for the eclipse periods and the reference days along different radio paths. Variation in the MUF on the reference days required the use of a smoothing procedure, which was carried out

  5. Heat Resistance of Glued Finger Joints in Spruce Wood Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sviták

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The heat resistance of glued spruce wood was evaluated for different joint types and adhesives. Bending strength, modulus of elasticity, and also fracture evaluation were investigated on glued spruce samples made by the finger-jointed principle. Finger-jointed samples were glued with polyurethane (PUR and melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF adhesives. Heat loading was realized at temperatures 60, 80, and 110 °C and compared with wood with 20 °C. A static bending test with four-point flexural test was used. Elevated temperature and adhesive type had an important influence on the bending strength. On the other hand, adhesive type had a significant influence on the modulus of elasticity, but elevated temperature had no substantial influence.

  6. Impact of cold temperatures on the shear strength of Norway spruce joints glued with different adhesives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2015-01-01

    As wood construction increasingly uses engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives used. Bondline strength is a crucial issue for engineered wood applications, especially in cold climates. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies) joints (150 mm...... adhesive was tested at six temperatures: 20, −20, −30, −40, −50 and −60 °C. Generally, within the temperature test range, temperature changes significantly affected the shear strength of solid wood and wood joints. As the temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR adhesive in most cases...... resulted in the strongest shear strength and MUF adhesive resulted in the weakest. MF and PRF adhesives responded to temperature changes in a similar manner to that of the PUR adhesive. The shear strengths of wood joints with PVAc and EPI adhesives were more sensitive to temperature change. At low...

  7. Rotorcraft Flight Simulation Computer Program C81 with Datamap Interface, Volume 2. Programmer’s Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    overview of the computer program capabilities and the principal mathematical models incorporated in the program are given in Volume I of the documentation...blank card must still be placed in the appropriate place in the Model Data Set. For example, the mathematical model of a UH-lH would not need a wing...SIN %4114 LV OADs CC £6 $ 2. 27 4L 4+ 4 l’l <m L & % CC O 04i18K5 twsSTVEL 13L4.S2 ASK 2? b 41.815 . 8 ’ILbLS a CL 7 8 £0 1 £0 £0 12 £6 1 M90 A/ MUfI H

  8. Systems work for Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) near-real-time accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, R.R.; Hafer, J.F.; Pillay, K.K.S.; Takahashi, S.; Ohtani, T.; Eguchi, K.; Seya, M.

    1990-01-01

    A joint effort by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan examines materials accounting for the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility. A unique feature of the systems work is a sophisticated data generator. This software follows individual items throughout the process, creating detailed data files for variance propagation. The data generator deals with user-specified process operations and handles related accounting problems, such as the tracking of individual measurements through numerous blending and splitting procedure, frequent decay correction (important for large inventories), scrap recovery, and automated determination of static inventory. There is no need to rely on simplified assumptions regarding process operation and material measurement. Also, the joint study applies recent theoretical work on stratified inspection of nonhomogeneous inventories and sequential analysis of MUF -- D. 4 refs

  9. Safeguardability of a commercial-scaled ACP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, H. D.; Ha, J. H.; Song, D. Y.; Lee, T. H.

    2004-07-01

    The Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) is an electro-metallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent nuclear fuel into a metallic form. This report documents a preliminary study on the safeguardability of ACP. The sub-processes and material flow of the pilot scale ACP facility were designed for this study. Then, their Material Balance Areas (MBA) and Key Measurement Point (KMP) were defined based on diversion scenario analysis. Finally, the limit of error in the MUF value was estimated using international target values for the uncertainty of measurement methods. Based on the results of preliminary study, we concluded that the safeguards goals of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) could be met if the assumptions regarding measurement instruments can be achieved in a safeguards system for the ACP facility

  10. Auditing nuclear materials statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1973-01-01

    A standard that may be used as a guide for persons making independent examinations of nuclear materials statements or reports regarding inventory quantities on hand, receipts, production, shipment, losses, etc. is presented. The objective of the examination of nuclear materials statements by the independent auditor is the expression of an opinion on the fairness with which the statements present the nuclear materials position of a nuclear materials facility and the movement of such inventory materials for the period under review. The opinion is based upon an examination made in accordance with auditing criteria, including an evaluation of internal control, a test of recorded transactions, and a review of measured discards and materials unaccounted for (MUF). The standard draws heavily upon financial auditing standards and procedures published by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

  11. Superconductive silicon nanowires using gallium beam lithography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Michael David; Jarecki, Robert Leo,

    2014-01-01

    This work was an early career LDRD investigating the idea of using a focused ion beam (FIB) to implant Ga into silicon to create embedded nanowires and/or fully suspended nanowires. The embedded Ga nanowires demonstrated electrical resistivity of 5 m057>-cm, conductivity down to 4 K, and acts as an Ohmic silicon contact. The suspended nanowires achieved dimensions down to 20 nm x 30 nm x 10 m with large sensitivity to pressure. These structures then performed well as Pirani gauges. Sputtered niobium was also developed in this research for use as a superconductive coating on the nanowire. Oxidation characteristics of Nb were detailed and a technique to place the Nb under tensile stress resulted in the Nb resisting bulk atmospheric oxidation for up to years.

  12. Extracellular enzyme activity assay as indicator of soil microbial functional diversity and activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Winding, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular enzyme activity assay as indicator of soil microbial functional diversity and activity Niels Bohse Hendriksen, Anne Winding. Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark Soils provide numerous essential ecosystem services such as carbon cycling...... of soil microbial functions is still needed. In soil, enzymes originate from a variety of organisms, notably fungi and bacteria and especially hydrolytic extracellular enzymes are of pivotal importance for decomposition of organic substrates and biogeochemical cycling. Their activity will reflect...... the functional diversity and activity of the microorganisms involved in decomposition processes. Their activity has been measured by the use of fluorogenic model substrates e.g. methylumbelliferyl (MUF) substrates for a number of enzymes involved in the degradation of polysacharides as cellulose, hemicellulose...

  13. Real sequential evaluation of materials balance data with the computer program PROSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicking, U.; Golly, W.; Seifert, R.

    1991-01-01

    Material accountancy is an important tool for international nuclear safeguards. The aim is to detect a possible loss of material timely and with high probability. In this context, a computer program called PROSA (Program for Sequential Analysis of NRTA data) was developed at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. PROSA is a statistical tool to decide on the basis of statistical considerations whether or not in a given sequence of material balances a loss of material might have occurred. The evaluation of the material balance data (MUF values) is carried out with statistical test procedures. In the present PROSA version 4.0 three tests, Page's test, CUMUF test and GEMUF test are applied at a time. These three test procedures are the result of several years of research and are supposed to be the most promising ones with respect to the detection probability of possible losses of material as well as to the timeliness of such a detection. PROSA version 4.0 is a user-friendly, menudriven computer program which is suitable for routine field application. Data input - that means MUF values and measurement model - can be performed either by diskette or by key-enter. The output consists of an information whether or not an alarm is indicated. This information can be displayed either numerically or graphically. Therefore, a comfortable graphical output utility is attached to PROSA version 4.0. In this presentation the theoretical concepts implemented in PROSA will be explained. Furthermore, the functioning of the program will be presented and the performance of PROSA will be demonstrated using balance data of a real reprocessing campaign. (J.P.N.)

  14. Ramp discharge in Z-pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaber, W.H.; Beshara, A.B.; El-Bialy, A.B.; Masoud, M.M. [Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Dept., N.R.C., Atomic Energy Authority, Enshass (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    A ramp Z-pinch discharge is designed and built in order to increase the pinch ratio and obtain a maximum contraction, and to increase the temperature. The discharge chamber is a cylindrical Pyrex tube of 25 cm long, 18.5 cm, 20 cm inner and outer diameter and two circular Aluminum plates of radius 15 cm separated by 21 cm are inserted into the tube. The tube is filled with He gas at 0.1 mbar. Two capacitor banks are used, the first bank 30 {mu}F and the second fast bank 1.3 {mu}F. The charging voltage was 8 kV for both banks. The discharge current and voltage of each bank are measured by potential divider and Rogowski coil respectively. Also the plasma inductance and resistance are obtained for each case. The plasma inductance has its peak value 300 nH at 4 {mu}s, while the plasma resistance has it minimum 8 m{omega} at the same time in the case of conventional discharge (single bank). In the case of ramp discharge, the inductance has two peaks 440 nH, 380 nH at 4 {mu}s, 9.5 {mu}s respectively, while the resistance has two minimum 4 m{omega}, 20 m{omega} at at 4 {mu}s, 9.5 {mu}s respectively. The temperature has been measure spectroscopically by using relative continuum intensity ratio method. The temperature has its peak value 38 eV at 4 {mu}s for single bank case, while it larger peak value 55 eV for ramp case. (orig.)

  15. Nuclear material inventory estimation in solvent extraction contractors II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyerlein, A.

    1987-11-01

    The effectiveness of near-real-time nuclear materials accounting in reprocessing facilities can be limited by inventory variations in the separations contactors. Investigations are described in three areas: (i) Improvements in the model that the authors have described previously for the steady state inventory estimation in mixer-settler contactors, (ii) extension for the model for steady state inventory estimation to transient inventory estimation for non-steady state conditions, and (iii) the development of a computer model CUSEP (Clemson University Solvent Extraction Program) for simulating the concentration profiles and nuclear material inventories in pulsed column contactors. Improvements in the steady state model that are described in this report are the simplification of the methods for evaluating model parameters and development of methods for reducing the equation which estimates the total inventory of the set of contactors directly. The pulsed column computer model CUSEP (Clemson University Solvent Extraction Program) was developed. Concentration profiles and inventories calculated from CUSEP are compared with measured data from pilot scale contactors containing uranium. Excellent agreement between measured and simulated data for both the concentration profile and inventories is obtained, demonstrating that the program correctly predicts the concentration dispersion caused by pulsing and the dispersed phase holdup within the contactor. Further research to investigate (i) correction of the MUF (Material Unaccounted For) and CUMUF (Cumulative Material Unaccounted For) tests for mixer-settler contactor inventory using the simplified model developed in this work, (ii) development of a simple inventory estimation model for pulsed column contactors similar to that developed for mixer-settler contactors using CUSEP to provide necessary database, and (iii) sources of bias appearing in the MUF and CUMUF tests using computer simulation techniques are planned. Refs

  16. Estudo comparativo da ultrafiltração convencional e associação de ultrafiltração convencional e modificada na correção de cardiopatias congênitas com alto risco cirúrgico Comparative study of standard ultrafiltration and its association with modification for the correction of high surgical risk congenital heart diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel MALUF

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de correção cirúrgica de má-formações cardíacas complexas, que requerem tempos prolongados de circulação extracorpórea (CEC aumentou a morbimortalidade devido a retenção hídrica e reação inflamatória sistêmica. O objetivo deste estudo é comparar a evolução pós-operatória imediata de pacientes submetidos a ultrafiltração convencional (UFC durante a CEC e ultrafiltração modificada (UFM após CEC. Quarenta e um pacientes submetidos a correção cirúrgica de cardiopatias congênitas foram divididos em 2 grupos: G1: 21 pacientes com idade de 15 dias a 36 meses (mediana: 11 meses e peso de 3,6 a 13,5 kg (M: 7,27 ± 3,07, operados entre 1996 e 1997, foram submetidos a UFC. G2: 20 pacientes com idade de 9 dias a 36 meses (mediana: 5,5 meses e peso entre 2,2 e 12 kg (M: 5,7 ± 2,5, operados entre 1997 e 1998, foram submetidos a UFC+UFM. Dentre as operações mais freqüentes temos: ventriculosseptoplastia, 15 (36,5% casos; operação de Jatene, 10 (24,3% casos; correção de defeito septal A-V total, 7 (17,0% casos etc. A análise estatística de idade, peso e complexidade cirúrgica mostrou semelhança entre os grupos. Houve 6 (28,5% óbitos no G1 e 4 (20% no G2, (p=0,71. O volume médio ultrafiltrado no G1 (UFC foi 143,3 ml e no G2 (UFC+UFM foi 227,0 ml, (pSurgical correction of complex cardiac malformations that require extended extracorporeal circulation (ECC increase morbidity/mortality due to water retention and systemic inflammatory reaction. The purpose of this study is to compare the immediate postoperative evolution of patients submitted to conventional ultrafiltration (CUF during ECC and modified ultrafiltration (MUF after ECC. Forty-one patients submitted to surgical correction of congenital cardiac disease were divided into 2 groups: G1 - 21 patients with ages from 15 days to 36 months (median 11 months and weighing from 3.6 kg (M: 7.27 ± 3.07, operated on between 1996 and 1997 were submitted to CUF

  17. International safeguards for a modern MOX [mixed-oxide] fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Stirpe, D.; Picard, R.R.

    1987-03-01

    Bulk-handling facilities that process plutonium for commercial fuel cycles offer considerable challenges to nuclear materials safeguards. Modern fuel fabrication facilities that handle mixed oxides of plutonium and uranium (MOX) often have large inventories of special nuclear materials in their process lines and in storage areas for feed and product materials. In addition, the remote automated processing prevalent at new MOX facilities, which is necessary to minimize radiation exposures to personnel, tends to limit access for measurements and inspections. The facility design considered in this study incorporates all these features as well as state-of-the-art measurement technologies for materials accounting. Key elements of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards for such a fuel-cycle facility have been identified in this report, and several issues of primary importance to materials accountancy and IAEA verifications have been examined. We have calculated detection sensitivities for abrupt and protracted diversions of plutonium assuming a single materials balance area for all processing areas. To help achieve optimal use of limited IAEA inspection resources, we have calculated sampling plans for attributes/variables verification. In addition, we have demonstrated the usefulness of calculating σ/sub (MUF-D)/ and detection probabilities corresponding to specified material-loss scenarios and resource allocations. The data developed and the analyses performed during this study can assist both the facility operator and the IAEA in formulating necessary safeguards approaches and verification procedures to implement international safeguards for special nuclear materials

  18. An NRTA data processing system: PROMAC-J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikawa, Koji; Ihara, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Hideo

    1993-09-01

    Study of the application of Near-Real-Time Materials Accountancy has been done as an advanced safeguards measure for a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Also, from the viewpoint of practical application of NRTA concept to a real plant, a data processing system for the NRTA has been developed in consideration of effectiveness and promptness of data processing of NRTA data obtained in the field, so that a user can easily handle the analysis of time sequential MUF data based on the decision analyses in the field. The NRTA data processing system was used for processes and analyses of the NRTA data obtained during the period from September to December, 1985, a full scale field test of the proposed NRTA model for the PNC Tokai reprocessing plant. The result of this field test showed that the NRTA data processing system would be useful to provide sufficient information under the real plant circumstance. The data processing system was improved reflecting the experiences obtained in the field test. This report describes hardwares and softwares of the JAERI NRTA data processing system that was developed as an improvement of the previous system that had been developed and transferred to the PNC Tokai reprocessing plant. Improvements were made on both hardware components and softwares. (author)

  19. PROSA version 4.0 manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicking, U.; Golly, W.; Peter, N.; Seifert, R.

    1991-05-01

    This report includes a comprehensive manual of the computer program PROSA which illustrate the handling and functioning of PROSA. The manual PROSA 4.0 (FORTRAN 77) describes the PC Version of PROSA including its program moduls. The PROSA program package is a statistical tool to decide on the basis of statistical assumptions whether in a given sequence of material balance periods a loss of material might have occurred. The evaluation of the material balance data is based on statistical test procedures. In the present PROSA Version 4.0 the three tests CUMUF test, PAGE's test and GEMUF test are applied to a sequence of material balances. PROSA Version 4.0 supports a real sequential evaluation. That means, PROSA is not only able to evaluate a series of MUF values sequentially after the campaign has finished, but also real sequentially during the campaign. PROSA Version 4.0 is a menu-guided computer program. Data input can be performed either by diskette or by key-enter. Result output is primarily an information whether or not an alarm is indicated. This information can be displayed either numerically or graphically. Therefore, a comfortable graphical output utility is attached to PROSA 4.0. The program moduls are compiled and linked with the Ryan Mc-Farland Compiler. The PROSA graphical utility uses the PLOT88 Library of Plotworks, Inc. (orig./HP) [de

  20. The role of van der Waals interactions in chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, Toshiyuki

    1998-01-01

    We are studying the role of van der Waals interactions in the chemical reactions from the theoretical view point, especially, a case related to the tunnel effect. The fist case that the cumulative reaction probability depends on the tunnel effect was increased by the van der waals force. This case was proved by theoretical calculation of the reaction rate constant of the reaction: Mu + F2 → MuF + F. The second case was that a van der Waals well was so deep that pseudo bound state was observed in the reaction: F + H 2 → HF + H. A van der Waals complex such as AB(v=j=0)...C was excited to the resonance state of AB(vij)...C and A...BC(v,j) by laser, than the resonance state proceeded to AB + C (predissociation) or A + BC(pre-reaction). We succeeded for the first time to calculate theoretically the pre-reaction by the real three dimentional potential curve. The pre-reaction can be observed only the case that the tunnel probability is larger than the non-adiabatic transition probability. The chemical reactions in solid were explained, too. (S.Y.)

  1. On the effect of systematic errors in near real time accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, R.

    1987-01-01

    Systematic measurement errors have a decisive impact on nuclear materials accountancy. This has been demonstrated at various occasions for a fixed number of inventory periods, i.e. for situations where the overall probability of detection is taken as the measure of effectiveness. In the framework of Near Real Time Accountancy (NRTA), however, such analyses have not yet been performed. In this paper sequential test procedures are considered which are based on the so-called MUF-Residuals. It is shown that, if the decision maker does not know the systematic error variance, the average run lengths tend towards infinity if this variance is equal or longer than that of the random error. Furthermore, if the decision maker knows this invariance, the average run length for constant loss or diversion is not shorter than that without loss or diversion. These results cast some doubt on the present practice of data evaluation where systematic errors are tacitly assumed to persist for an infinite time. In fact, information about the time dependence of the variances of these errors has to be gathered in order that the efficiency of NRTA evaluation methods can be estimated realistically

  2. Analysis of UREX+1a and Pyroprocessing Technologies from Safeguards Aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musembi, Mutava Victor [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung Young [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Eun Ha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Various advanced and more easily safeguard-able reprocessing technologies have been proposed and are currently at different stages of development. This paper briefly analyses two proposed next generation reprocessing technologies, i. e. UREX+1a and pyroprocessing. It goes on to suggest various measures that can be taken to safeguard these technologies against nuclear proliferation. Due to the significant proliferation risks associated with PUREX, more proliferation resistant technologies are required in spent fuel reprocessing. UREX+1a and pyroprocessing can be suitable replacements since Pu is not separated from other TRUs after reprocessing. Implementations of technology specific safeguard measures can help enhance the proliferation resistance of these technologies. Since there is no technology which is foolproof, a MUF uncertainty estimation/quantification technology needs to be developed. These uncertainty estimates can then be used in a safeguards probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) system to quantify the risks associated with a particular reprocessing technology. To further safeguard these technologies, additional safeguard measures are needed for defense in depth. This may include implementation of multiple, independent, and redundant layers of defense such that no single layer, no matter how robust, is solely relied upon. Quantification of safeguard uncertainties related to UREX+1a and pyroprocessing can be used to benchmark these technologies against PUREX and between themselves for policy making.

  3. Spatial distribution of enzyme driven reactions at micro-scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeler, Ellen; Boeddinghaus, Runa; Nassal, Dinah; Preusser, Sebastian; Marhan, Sven; Poll, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Studies of microbial biogeography can often provide key insights into the physiologies, environmental tolerances, and ecological strategies of soil microorganisms that dominate in natural environments. In comparison with aquatic systems, soils are particularly heterogeneous. Soil heterogeneity results from the interaction of a hierarchical series of interrelated variables that fluctuate at many different spatial and temporal scales. Whereas spatial dependence of chemical and physical soil properties is well known at scales ranging from decimetres to several hundred metres, the spatial structure of soil enzymes is less clear. Previous work has primarily focused on spatial heterogeneity at a single analytical scale using the distribution of individual cells, specific types of organisms or collective parameters such as bacterial abundance or total microbial biomass. There are fewer studies that have considered variations in community function and soil enzyme activities. This presentation will give an overview about recent studies focusing on spatial pattern of different soil enzymes in the terrestrial environment. Whereas zymography allows the visualization of enzyme pattern in the close vicinity of roots, micro-sampling strategies followed by MUF analyses clarify micro-scale pattern of enzymes associated to specific microhabitats (micro-aggregates, organo-mineral complexes, subsoil compartments).

  4. Nuclear fuel control in fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yoshitatsu

    1976-01-01

    The basic control problems of measuring uranium and of the environment inside and outside nuclear fuel fabrication plants are reviewed, excluding criticality prevention in case of submergence. The occurrence of loss scraps in fabrication and scrap-recycling, the measuring error, the uranium going cut of the system, the confirmation of the presence of lost uranium and the requirement of the measurement control for safeguard make the measurement control very complicated. The establishment of MBA (material balance area) and ICA (item control area) can make clearer the control of inventories, the control of loss scraps and the control of measuring points. Besides the above basic points, the following points are to be taken into account: 1) the method of confirmation of inventories, 2) the introduction of reliable NDT instruments for the rapid check system for enrichment and amount of uranium, 3) the introduction of real time system, and 4) the clarification of MUF analysis and its application to the reliability check of measurement control system. The environment control includes the controls of the uranium concentration in factory atmosphere, the surface contamination, the space dose rate, the uranium concentration in air and water discharged from factories, and the uranium in liquid wastes. The future problems are the practical restudy of measurement control under NPT, the definite plan of burglary protection and the realization of the disposal of solid wastes. (Iwakiri, K.)

  5. The reprocessing of irradiated MTR fuel and the nuclear material accountancy - Dounreay, UKAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, T.R.; Harrison, R. [UKAEA, Nuclear Materials Control Dep., Dounreay (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated HEU MTR fuel is a sensible part of a safeguards regime. It brings together fuel otherwise scattered around the world into a concerted accountancy and protection arrangement. From a nuclear material accountants view the overall accountancy performance has been excellent. While investigations have been required for a few individual MUFs or trends, very little effort has required to be expended by the Nuclear Materials Control Department. That is a definition of a 'good plant'; it operates, measures and records input and output streams, and then the accountancy falls into place. As identified in this paper, the accountancy of the nuclear material processed in the plant is well founded and sound. The accountancy results over several decades confirm the adequacy of the safeguards arrangements at Dounreay. The processing makes good commercial sense and meets the current philosophy of recycling valuable resource materials. The risk of operating the full fuel cycle are less than those of extended storage of irradiated fuel at disparate diverse locations. The reprocessing at Dounreay accords with all of these philosophies. The assessed risk is at a very low level, well within published UK HSE 'tolerability of risk' regulatory guidelines. The impact of the operations are similarly low within the guidelines, for the operators and for the general public. (author)

  6. Potentiality of an accounting system for nuclear materials in the PNC plutonium fuel facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, T.; Aoki, M.; Tsutsumi, M.; Akutsu, H.

    1976-01-01

    The accounting system based on data filing and inquiry processing by the use of an optical mark reader (OMR) has been developed and operated satisfactorily for criticality control and accountancy of nuclear materials in the plutonium facilities of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). The OMR system has merits, especially compared with an old chit and punch-card system, such as low cost, abundance of the data included on a single sheet, universality of use for all kinds of material transfers, ease of data correction, and a large capacity. The OMR system is applied to the material transfer and also for physical inventory taking. This system, together with the use of an accurate automatic balance equipped at each glove box, which is generally designated as an accounting unit for the criticality control, generated a MUF of 0.43% for a fuel fabrication campaign of 119 assemblies for a fast reactor, which can be decreased further. In relation to the recent safeguarding situation and also to fitting in with an automatic fuel fabrication process, however, a further development of the present system will be necessary in the near future. This future system is discussed with reference to criticism of the current accountancy system by Rosenbaum and others, and its possible framework with the emphasis on the weighing and reading of numbered items is suggested. (author)

  7. Analysis of UREX+1a and Pyroprocessing Technologies from Safeguards Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musembi, Mutava Victor; Jeong, Seung Young; Kwon, Eun Ha

    2013-01-01

    Various advanced and more easily safeguard-able reprocessing technologies have been proposed and are currently at different stages of development. This paper briefly analyses two proposed next generation reprocessing technologies, i. e. UREX+1a and pyroprocessing. It goes on to suggest various measures that can be taken to safeguard these technologies against nuclear proliferation. Due to the significant proliferation risks associated with PUREX, more proliferation resistant technologies are required in spent fuel reprocessing. UREX+1a and pyroprocessing can be suitable replacements since Pu is not separated from other TRUs after reprocessing. Implementations of technology specific safeguard measures can help enhance the proliferation resistance of these technologies. Since there is no technology which is foolproof, a MUF uncertainty estimation/quantification technology needs to be developed. These uncertainty estimates can then be used in a safeguards probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) system to quantify the risks associated with a particular reprocessing technology. To further safeguard these technologies, additional safeguard measures are needed for defense in depth. This may include implementation of multiple, independent, and redundant layers of defense such that no single layer, no matter how robust, is solely relied upon. Quantification of safeguard uncertainties related to UREX+1a and pyroprocessing can be used to benchmark these technologies against PUREX and between themselves for policy making

  8. On performance experience and measurements with Ningyo Waste Assay System (NWAS). 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaima, Naoki; Nakashima, Shin'ichi; Nakatsuka, Yoshiaki; Kado, Kazumi; Fujiki, Naoki

    2014-03-01

    A uranium mass assay system, NWAS (Ningyo Waste Assay System), for 200-litter wastes drums applied by NDA method was developed and accumulated the data of the actual uranium bearing wastes drums. The system consists of the 16 pieces of Helium-3 proportional counters for neutron detection generated from U-234(α,n) reaction or U-238 spontaneous fissions with polyethylene moderation and a Germanium solid state detector (Ge-SSD) for gamma ray detection as to determine uranium enrichment. In previous report, some measurement experiences had been introduced briefly. After that the measurements campaigns against the actual wastes drums stored in URCP had been carried out successfully, the uranium determination data of 850 drums had been accumulated approximately. Those characteristics were rich in variety including various kinds of matrices, uranium chemical compositions and range of uranium mass and so on. These works have contributed the decrease of the MUF in URCP, for which was the first purpose of introduction of NWAS. On the other hand several considerable problems on the system or methodology had been revealed technically or analytically through the measurements experiences. Such experiences are to be described precisely, in addition newly gained knowledge will be marshaled. Furthermore as the next improvement plans, the active neutrons assay for uranium bearing wastes drums are now progressing. The results of complications will lead us to the progressive next steps. (author)

  9. Independent verification of a material balance at a LEU fuel fabrication plant. Program for technical assistance to IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, R.J.; McSweeney, T.I.; Hartman, M.G.; Brouns, R.J.; Stewart, K.B.; Granquist, D.P.

    1977-11-01

    This report describes the application of methodology for planning an inspection according to the procedures of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and an example evaluation of data representative of low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication facilities. Included are the inspection plan test criteria, the inspection sampling plans, the sample data collected during the inspection, acceptance testing of physical inventories with test equipment, material unaccounted for (MUF) evaluation, and quantitative statements of the results and conclusions that could be derived from the inspection. The analysis in this report demonstrates the application of inspection strategies which produce quantitative results. A facility model was used that is representative of large low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication plants with material flows, inventory sizes, and compositions of material representative of operating commercial facilities. The principal objective was to determine and illustrate the degree of assurance against a diversion of special nuclear materials (SNM) that can be achieved by an inspection and the verification of material flows and inventories. This work was performed as part of the USA program for technical assistance to the IAEA. 10 figs, 14 tables

  10. International safeguards for a modern MOX (mixed-oxide) fuel fabrication facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Stirpe, D.; Picard, R.R.

    1987-03-01

    Bulk-handling facilities that process plutonium for commercial fuel cycles offer considerable challenges to nuclear materials safeguards. Modern fuel fabrication facilities that handle mixed oxides of plutonium and uranium (MOX) often have large inventories of special nuclear materials in their process lines and in storage areas for feed and product materials. In addition, the remote automated processing prevalent at new MOX facilities, which is necessary to minimize radiation exposures to personnel, tends to limit access for measurements and inspections. The facility design considered in this study incorporates all these features as well as state-of-the-art measurement technologies for materials accounting. Key elements of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards for such a fuel-cycle facility have been identified in this report, and several issues of primary importance to materials accountancy and IAEA verifications have been examined. We have calculated detection sensitivities for abrupt and protracted diversions of plutonium assuming a single materials balance area for all processing areas. To help achieve optimal use of limited IAEA inspection resources, we have calculated sampling plans for attributes/variables verification. In addition, we have demonstrated the usefulness of calculating sigma/sub (MUF-D)/ and detection probabilities corresponding to specified material-loss scenarios and resource allocations. The data developed and the analyses performed during this study can assist both the facility operator and the IAEA in formulating necessary safeguards approaches and verification procedures to implement international safeguards for special nuclear materials.

  11. Application of small-size antennas for estimation of angles of arrival of HF signals scattered by ionospheric irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Galushko, Volodymyr G.; Zalizovski, Andriy V.; Kashcheyev, Sergiy B.; Zheng, Yu

    2018-05-01

    A modification of the Doppler Interferometry Technique is suggested to enable estimating angles of arrival of comparatively broadband HF signals scattered by random irregularities of the ionospheric plasma with the use of small-size weakly directional antennas. The technique is based on the measurements of cross-spectra phases of the probe radiation recorded at least in three spatially separated points. The developed algorithm has been used to investigate the angular and frequency-time characteristics of HF signals propagating at frequencies above the maximum usable one (MUF) for the direct radio path Moscow-Kharkiv. The received signal spectra show presence of three families of spatial components attributed, respectively, to scattering by plasma irregularities near the middle point of the radio path, ground backscatter signals and scattering of the sounding signals by the intense plasma turbulence associated with auroral activations. It has been shown that the regions responsible for the formation of the third family components are located well inside the auroral oval. The drift velocity and direction of the auroral ionosphere plasma have been determined. The obtained estimates are consistent with the classical conception of the ionospheric plasma convection at high latitudes and do not contradict the results of investigations of the auroral ionosphere dynamics using the SuperDARN network.

  12. Evaluation on carbon nanocapsules for supercapacitors using a titanium cavity electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng-Yeou; Wu, Pu-Wei; Lin, Pang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University Hsin-Chu 300 (China)

    2010-08-01

    We synthesize carbon nanocapsules (CNCs) by a flame combustion method and evaluate their potential as the electrode material for electrochemical double layer capacitor using a titanium cavity electrode (TCE). Identical process is conducted on commercially available carbonaceous materials such as Vulcan XC72R, Black Pearl 2000 (BP2000), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and active carbon (AC1100) for comparison purposes. Images from Scanning electron microscope and Transmission electron microscope on the CNCs demonstrate irregular-shaped particles in average size of 10-20 nm with graphene layers on perimeter compassing a hollow core. Electrochemical characterizations including cyclic voltammetry (CV), current reversal chronopotentiometry (CRC), and impedance spectroscopy are carried out in 1N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to determine the specific capacitance and cycle life time. Among these samples, the BP2000 still delivers the highest specific capacitance in F g{sup -1} but the CNCs demonstrate the largest value in {mu}F cm{sup 2}. In addition, the CNCs exhibit impressive life time for 5000 cycles without notable degradation. Consistent results are obtained by CV, CRC, and impedance measurements, validating the TCE as a facile tool to perform reliable electrochemical evaluations. (author)

  13. Technology development for nuclear material accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jong Sook; Lee, Byung Doo; Cha, Hong Ryul; Choi, Hyoung Nae; Park, Ho Jun.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron yields from 19 F(α,n) 22 Na reaction of uranium neutron interaction with uranium-bass materials, and the characteristics of shielded neutron assay probe have been studied. On the basis of the above examination, U-235 enrichment in UF 6 cylinders like model 30B and model 48Y was measured by the reaction and U-235 contents in the containers by non-destructive total passive neutron assay method. Total measurement efficiency as a result was found to be 6.44 x 10 -4 and 1.25 x 10 -4 for model 30B and model 40Y UF 6 cylinder, respectively. The uncertainty of measured enrichment as compared to Tag value obtained from chemical analysis approached about 5 % of relative error at 95 % confidence interval. In the follow-up action for the previously developed (1988) computer system of nuclear material accounting the error searching and treatment routine in accordance with code 10, of IAEA and respective facility attachment has been added to easing the burden of manual error correction by operator. In addition, the procedure for LEMUF calculation has been prepared to help bulk facility operators evaluating MUF in the period of material balance. (author)

  14. Preliminary studies on a plasma focus opening switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C S; Moo, S P; Singh, J P [Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Physics Dept., Plasma Research Laboratory; Choi, P [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1997-12-31

    The small plasma focus device UNU/ICTP PFF has been modified to assess the operation of a plasma focus based long conduction (> 2 {mu}s) opening switch, with a plasma filled diode as the load. The UNU/ICTP PFF is a Mather type plasma focus device powered by a single 15 kV, 30 {mu}F capacitor delivering a peak current of 150 kA when discharged at 15 kV. The device has been optimized for reproducible focusing in various gases including deuterium, argon, carbon dioxide, helium as well as in air. In particular, the optimum operating pressure for air is between 0.5 to 1.1 mbar, whereas for argon it is between 0.3 to 3 mbar. For the operation of the UNU/ICTP PFF as an opening switch, the electrode geometry is modified to redirect the plasma motion at the end of the axial rundown phase to avoid the normal plasma focus action, and the operating regime is shifted to low pressure to favour plasma opening switch action. With air as the working gas, pressure as low as 10{sup -3} mbar was tested. At such a low pressure, a set of 12 plasma injection cable guns is used to initiate breakdown of the discharge. The design and operating principle is presented and some preliminary results obtained on the operational characteristics of this device are discussed. (author). 5 figs., 4 refs.

  15. Research on pinches driven by Speed-2 generator: Hard X-ray and neutron emission in plasma focus configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, L.; Moreno, J.; Silva, P.; Sylvester, G.; Zambra, M.; Pavez, C. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Pavez, C. [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Raspa, V. [Buenos Aires Univ., PLADEMA, CONICET and INFIP (Argentina); Castillo, F. [Insitituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM (Mexico); Kies, W. [Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Speed-2 is a generator based on Marx technology and was designed in the University of Dusseldorf. Speed-2 consists on 40 +/- Marx modules connected in parallel (4.1 {mu}F equivalent Marx generator capacity, 300 kV, 4 MA in short circuit, 187 kJ, 400 ns rise time, dI/dt {approx} 10{sup 13} A/s). Currently Speed-2 is operating at CCHEN (Chilean nuclear energy commission), being the most powerful and energetic device for dense transient plasma in the Southern Hemisphere. Most of the previous works developed in Speed-2 at Dusseldorf were done in a plasma focus configuration for soft X-ray emission and the neutron emission from Speed-2 was not completely studied. The research program at CCHEN considers experiments in different pinch configurations (plasma focus, gas puffed plasma focus, gas embedded Z-pinch, wire arrays) at current of hundred of kilo- to mega-amperes, using the Speed-2 generator. The Chilean operation has begun implementing and developing diagnostics in a conventional plasma focus configuration operating in deuterium in order to characterize the neutron emission and the hard X-ray production. Silver activation counters, plastics CR39 and scintillator-photomultiplier detectors are used to characterize the neutron emission. Images of metallic plates with different thickness are obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize an effective energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge. (authors)

  16. Synthesis and Performances of Phase Change Microcapsules with a Polymer/Diatomite Hybrid Shell for Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Sun

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behavior of phase-change microcapsules (microPCMs is of vital significance for practical applications in thermal energy storage. Hence, a new type of microPCMs based on an n-octadecane (C18 core and a melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF/diatomite hybrid shell was developed through in situ polymerization. Based on SEM micrographs, most microPCMs exhibited a nearly spherical and smooth microstructure, with broadened particle size distributions. It was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR that successful polymerization of diatomite into the microPCMs occurred, and that additional diatomite had no effect on the core coated by the shell. In addition, the results of the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the microPCMs were remarkably improved by the addition of a moderate amount of diatomite, but that the heat enthalpy and encapsulated efficiency (η decreased slightly. The incorporation of 2 wt % diatomite resulted in the average Young’s modulus of microPCMs, which was 1.64 times greater than those of microPCMs without diatomite. Furthermore, the melting and crystallization enthalpies and the encapsulated efficiency of the microPCMs were as high as 237.6 J/g, 234.4 J/g and 77.90%, respectively. The microPCMs with a polymer/diatomite hybrid shell may become the potential materials in the application of thermal energy storage.

  17. An NRTA data processing system: PROMAC-J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Hideo; Ikawa, Koji

    1991-03-01

    Study of the application of Near-Real-Time Materials accountancy has been done as an advanced safeguards measure for a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Also, from the viewpoint of practical application of NRTA concept to a real plant, a data processing system for the NRTA has been developed in consideration of effectiveness and promptness of data processing of NRTA data obtained in the field, so that a user can easily handle the analysis of time sequential MUF data based on the decision analyses in the field. The NRTA data processing system was used for process and analyses of the NRTA data obtained during the period from September to December, 1985, a full scale field test of the proposed NRTA model for the PNC Tokai reprocessing plant. The result of this field test showed that the NRTA data processing system would be useful to provide sufficient information under the real plant circumstance. The data processing system was improved reflecting the experiences obtained in the field test. This report describes hardwares and softwares of the JAERI NRTA data processing system that was developed as an improvement of the previous system that had been developed and transferred to the PNC Tokai reprocessing plant. Improvements were made on both hardware components and softwares. (author)

  18. Modeling and Simulation for Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this talk is to give an overview of the role of modeling and simulation in Safeguards R and D and introduce you to (some of) the tools used. Some definitions are: (1) Modeling - the representation, often mathematical, of a process, concept, or operation of a system, often implemented by a computer program; (2) Simulation - the representation of the behavior or characteristics of one system through the use of another system, especially a computer program designed for the purpose; and (3) Safeguards - the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material. The role of modeling and simulation are: (1) Calculate amounts of material (plant modeling); (2) Calculate signatures of nuclear material etc. (source terms); and (3) Detector performance (radiation transport and detection). Plant modeling software (e.g. FACSIM) gives the flows and amount of material stored at all parts of the process. In safeguards this allow us to calculate the expected uncertainty of the mass and evaluate the expected MUF. We can determine the measurement accuracy required to achieve a certain performance.

  19. A fast transient response low dropout regulator with current control methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Zhuo; Guo Yang; Duan Zhikui; Xie Lunguo; Chen Jihua; Yu Jinshan, E-mail: guoyang@nudt.edu.cn [School of Computer, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2011-08-15

    A transient performance optimized CCL-LDO regulator is proposed. In the CCL-LDO, the control method of the charge pump phase-locked loop is adopted. A current control loop has the feedback signal and reference current to be compared, and then a loop filter generates the gate voltage of the power MOSFET by integrating the error current. The CCL-LDO has the optimized damping coefficient and natural resonant frequency, while its output voltage can be sub-1-V and is not restricted by the reference voltage. With a 1 {mu}F decoupling capacitor, the experimental results based on a 0.13 {mu}m CMOS process show that the output voltage is 1.0 V; when the workload changes from 100 {mu}A to 100 mA transiently, the stable dropout is 4.25 mV, the settling time is 8.2 {mu}s and the undershoot is 5.11 mV; when the workload changes from 100 mA to 100 {mu}A transiently, the stable dropout is 4.25 mV, the settling time is 23.3 {mu}s and the overshoot is 6.21 mV. The PSRR value is more than -95 dB. Most of the attributes of the CCL-LDO are improved rapidly with a FOM value of 0.0097.

  20. A 3 A sink/source current fast transient response low-dropout G{sub m} driven linear regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu Xiuqin; Li Qingwei; Lai Xinquan; Yuan Bing [Institute of Electronic CAD, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Li Yanming [School of Electronic and Control Engineering, Chang' an University, Xi' an 710064 (China); Zhao Yongrui, E-mail: liqw309@163.com, E-mail: xqchu@mail.xidian.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of High-Speed Circuit Design and EMC, Ministry of Education, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2011-06-15

    A 3 A sink/source G{sub m}-driven CMOS low-dropout regulator (LDO), specially designed for low input voltage and low cost, is presented by utilizing the structure of a current mirror G{sub m} (transconductance) driving technique, which provides high stability as well as a fast load transient response. The proposed LDO was fabricated by a 0.5 {mu}m standard CMOS process, and the die size is as small as 1.0 mm{sup 2}. The proposed LDO dissipates 220 {mu}A of quiescent current in no-load conditions and is able to deliver up to 3 A of load current. The measured results show that the output voltage can be resumed within 2 {mu}s with a less than 1 mV overshoot and undershoot in the output current step from -1.8 to 1.8 A with a 0.1 {mu}s rising and falling time at three 10 {mu}F ceramic capacitors. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. IAEA safeguards technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Part F of the Safeguards Technical Manual is being issued in three volumes. Volume 1 was published in 1977 and revised slightly in 1979. Volume 1 discusses basic probability concepts, statistical inference, models and measurement errors, estimation of measurement variances, and calibration. These topics of general interest in a number of application areas, are presented with examples drawn from nuclear materials safeguards. The final two chapters in Volume 1 deal with problem areas unique to safeguards: calculating the variance of MUF and of D respectively. Volume 2 continues where Volume 1 left off with a presentation of topics of specific interest to Agency safeguards. These topics include inspection planning from a design and effectiveness evaluation viewpoint, on-facility site inspection activities, variables data analysis as applied to inspection data, preparation of inspection reports with respect to statistical aspects of the inspection, and the distribution of inspection samples to more than one analytical laboratory. Volume 3 covers generally the same material as Volumes 1 and 2 but with much greater unity and cohesiveness. Further, the cook-book style of the previous two volumes has been replaced by one that makes use of equations and formulas as opposed to computational steps, and that also provides the bases for the statistical procedures discussed. Hopefully, this will help minimize the frequency of misapplications of the techniques

  2. EFFECTS OF PRESS PRESSURE ON GLUE LINE THICKNESS AND PROPERTIES OF LAMINATED VENEER LUMBER GLUED WITH MELAMINE UREA FORMALDEHYDE ADHESIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Kurt,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Laminated veneer lumbers (LVLs were manufactured from half-round sliced I-214 hybrid poplar clone veneers with MUF adhesives using press pressures ranging from 2.5 to 15 kg cm-2. The results showed that the press pressures affected the glue line thickness (GLT and the physical and mechanical properties of the LVLs. Higher specific gravity (SG and mechanical properties, but lower GLT were developed as a result of using higher press pressures. The optimum press pressure was found to be 10 kg cm-2 in relation to GLT, SG, and mechanical properties. Significant linear correlations were found between GLT and mechanical properties. GLT can be used to determine the quality of wood bonding and may become a valuable tool for this purpose. Reliable data on the optimum GLT and press pressures can be used to design safe wood bonding applications in all aspects of wood based composites, as well as wood constructions when appropriate techniques are adopted to measure the GLT.

  3. Study of the micturitional urinary fluxometry through the radioactive scanners in patients with obstructive pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, G.; Marioni Filho, H.; Martins, L.R.F.; Forjaz Junior, N.G.M.; Barbella Junior, R.

    1985-01-01

    Ten normal male subjects were studied in group I; group IIA comprised 10 patients being 8 males with stenosis of the urethra and group IIB was represented by 20 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate. As expected, both the patients with stenosis of the uretha and the prostatic patients presented residual urinary volume (RUV) and time of micturition (TM) much above the values found in normal subjects, whereas the maximal urinary flow (MUF) was significantly decreased. On the other hand, cinematographic studies evidenced the presence of vesico-ureteral reflux in two patients. The restudy of the vesical dynamics performed in 11 patients selected at random (6 of group IIA and 5 of IIB) after having been treated, can elucidate quantitatively and qualitatively the degree of success of this management. The authors conclude that the methodology used, due to its simplicity, sensitivity and harmlessness, is valid as a screening method, early diagnosis and evaluation of the treatment of patients with alterations of the vesical dynamics as a consequence of obstructive disease of the lower urinary tract. (author) [pt

  4. GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping models applied to natural and urban planning in Trikala, Central Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathrellos, G. D.; Kalivas, D. P.; Skilodimou, H. D.

    2009-07-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping is a practical tool in natural and urban planning; it can be applied for determining land use zones, in construction design and planning of a variety of projects. In this study, two different GIS based landslide susceptibility maps were generated in the mountainous part of the Trikala Prefecture in Thessaly, Central Greece. This was accomplished by using different methods for correlating factors, which have an effect on landslide occurrences. The instability factors taken into account were: lithology, tectonic features, slope gradients, road network, drainage network, land use and rainfall. A frequency distribution of the half number of the landslide events of the study area in each class of the instability factors was performed in order to rate the classes. Two models have been used to combine the instability factors and assess the overall landslide susceptibility, namely: the Weight Factor Model (WeF), which is a statistical method, and the Multiple Factor Model (MuF) that is a logical method. The produced maps were classified into four zones: Low, Moderate, High and Very High susceptible zones and validated using the other half number of the landslide events of the area. Evaluation of the results is optimized through a Landslide Models Indicator (La.M.I.). (Author) 36 refs.

  5. Neutron and X-ray emission studies in a low energy plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaullah, M. [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics; Murtaza, G. [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics; Qamar, S. [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics; Ahmad, I. [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics; Beg, M.M. [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics

    1996-03-01

    In a low energy Mather-type plasma focus energized by a single 32 {mu}F capacitor, the X-ray and neutron emission is investigated using time-integrated and time-resolved detectors. The X-ray emission profile has a width (FWHM) of 40-50 ns. The neutron emission profile is broader compared to the X-ray emission profile and also delayed by 30-40 ns. To identify different regimes of X-ray emission, an X-ray pin-hole camera along with different absorption filters is employed. While the X-ray emission is high within a narrow pressure range of 2.0-2.5 mbar, the neutron emission is intense for a wider range of 1.0-4.5 mbar. The intense X-ray emission seems to originate from the axially moving shock wave. These results also indicate rather different production mechanisms for X-ray and neutron emission. Also on comparing the X-ray images with Al(2 {mu}m), Al(5 {mu}m), Al(9 {mu}m) filters, we find that the bulk of X-rays from the focus filament have energies less than 2 keV. (orig.).

  6. Development of safeguards information treatment system at facility level in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, D.S.; Lee, B.D.; Song, D.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Safeguards Information Treatment System (SITS) at Facility level was developed to implement efficiently the obligations under IAEA comprehensive Safeguards Agreement, bilateral nuclear cooperation Agreements with other countries and domestic law, and to manage efficiently the information related to safeguards implementation at facility level in Korea. Nuclear facilities in Korea are categorized into 8 types based on its accounting characteristics as follows: (1) Item counting facility or bulk handling facility; (2) Batch follow-up facility or not; (3) MUF (Material Unaccounted For) occurrence or not; (4) Nuclear production facility or not; (5) Operation status of facility; (6) Information management of nuclear material transfer status between KMPs or not; (7) Indication of inventory KMP on the inventory change of nuclear material is required or not. Hardware and Software for SITS can be loaded on a personal computer under operation system of Window 2000 or Window NT. MS SQL server 7 and MS Internet Information Server were adopted for database management system and Web server, respectively. Network environment of SITS was designed to include nuclear research institute, nuclear power plants of PWR and CANDU, nuclear fuel fabrication facilities and other facilities. SITS can be operated standalone or under the client-server system if intranet exists. More detailed contents of SITS are described elsewhere. Each module of SITS will be tested during incorporation of existing data into SITS and SITS will be distributed to nuclear facilities in Korea

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation of uranium compound adsorption on solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Yuki; Takizawa, Yuji; Okamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Particles mixed in the UF6 gas have the property of accumulating on the inside of piping or units. This type of accumulation will cause material unaccounted for (MUF) in the UF6 gas processing facilities. Development of a calculation model for estimating the accumulation rate of uranium compounds has been expected. And predicting possible part of the units where uranium compounds adsorb will contribute to design an effective detection system. The purpose of this study is to take the basic knowledge of the particle's adsorption mechanism from the microscopic point of view. In simulation analysis, UF5 model particle is produced, then two types of solid surfaces are prepared; one is a solid surface at rest and the other is a moving solid surface. The result obtained by the code 'PABS' showed that when the solid surface moves at a lower velocity, the particle's adsorption process dominates over the particle's breakup one. Besides the velocity of the solid surface, other principal factors affecting an adsorption ratio were also discussed. (author)

  8. Development of inspection data collection and evaluation system for large scale MOX fuel fabrication plant safeguards (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Shinichi; Masuda, Shoichiro; Iso, Shoko; Hisamatsu, Yoshinori; Kurobe, Hiroko; Nakajima, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Inspection Data Collection and Evaluation System is the system to store inspection data and operator declaration data collected from various measurement equipment, which is installed in fuel fabrication processes of the large-scale MOX fuel fabrication plant, and to make safeguards evaluation based on Near Real Time Accountancy (NRTA) using these data. Nuclear Material Control Center developed the simulator to simulate fuel fabrication process, in-process material inventory/flow data and the measurement data and the adequacy/impact to the uncertainty of the material balance using the simulation results, such as the facility operation and the operational status, has been reviewed. Following the 34th INMM Japan chapter presentation, the model similar to the real nuclear material accountancy during the fuel fabrication process was simulated and the nuclear material accountancy and its uncertainty (Sigma MUF) have been reviewed. Some findings have been obtained, such as regarding evaluation related indicators for verification under a more realistic accountancy which could be applied by operator. (author)

  9. The reprocessing of irradiated MTR fuel and the nuclear material accountancy - Dounreay, UKAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, T.R.; Harrison, R.

    1997-01-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated HEU MTR fuel is a sensible part of a safeguards regime. It brings together fuel otherwise scattered around the world into a concerted accountancy and protection arrangement. From a nuclear material accountants view the overall accountancy performance has been excellent. While investigations have been required for a few individual MUFs or trends, very little effort has required to be expended by the Nuclear Materials Control Department. That is a definition of a 'good plant'; it operates, measures and records input and output streams, and then the accountancy falls into place. As identified in this paper, the accountancy of the nuclear material processed in the plant is well founded and sound. The accountancy results over several decades confirm the adequacy of the safeguards arrangements at Dounreay. The processing makes good commercial sense and meets the current philosophy of recycling valuable resource materials. The risk of operating the full fuel cycle are less than those of extended storage of irradiated fuel at disparate diverse locations. The reprocessing at Dounreay accords with all of these philosophies. The assessed risk is at a very low level, well within published UK HSE 'tolerability of risk' regulatory guidelines. The impact of the operations are similarly low within the guidelines, for the operators and for the general public. (author)

  10. High energy discharge through deuterium in a metal-lined torus; Decharges a forte intensite dans le deuterium dans un tore a parois metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreoletti, J; Breton, C; Charon, J; Hubert, P; Jourdan, P; Vendryes, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The discharge chamber is an aluminium torus, measuring 80 cm (about 2'8'') large medium diameter and 8 cm (about 3'5'') small diameter. The torus contains a double disruption, formed by two isolating mantles, to prevent short-circuiting of the discharge by the metallic partitions. Openings have been provided for the purpose of studying the characteristics of the discharge by means of electro or magnetic sounding apparatus (double sounding type). A constant longitudinal field (maximum value of the order of 5000 gauss) can be established. One can also realize pre-ionization from the chamber gas by means of an H.F. generator (27 MHz). The energy for the generating of the discharge is drawn from a 31 condenser battery, forming a total of 62 {mu}F, 50 kV. The studies already accomplished, and those we anticipate chiefly bear upon the following points: 1) the starting off and intensity of current in the discharge as regards the following parameters: a) intensity and electric field, b) initial pressure of filling, c) intensity of the longitudinal magnetic field, d) pre-ionization, e) length of the isolating disruptions; 2) cinematographic study of the section of discharge in the course of time; 3) spectrographic study of the discharge; 4) research of electrons accelerated during the discharge; 5) research of electronic density, electronic temperature, and of longitudinal and azimuthal magnetic fields in the discharge as regards distance, at the center of column of the discharge and as regards time; 6) the use of micro-waves for the study of the characteristics of the discharge. (author)Fren. [French] La chambre a decharge est un tore en aluminium de 80 cm de grand diametre moyen et de 8 cm de petit diametre. Le tore comporte deux coupures formees par deux manchons isolants afin d'eviter un court-circuit de la decharge par les parois metalliques. Des orifices sont prevus pour etudier les caracteristiques de la decharge au moyen de sondes electriques (type double

  11. GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping models applied to natural and urban planning in Trikala, Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skilodimou, H. D.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Landslide susceptibility mapping is a practical tool in natural and urban planning; it can be applied for determining land use zones, in construction design and planning of a variety of projects. In this study, two different GIS based landslide susceptibility maps were generated in the mountainous part of the Trikala Prefecture in Thessaly, Central Greece. This was accomplished by using different methods for correlating factors, which have an effect on landslide occurrences. The instability factors taken into account were: lithology, tectonic features, slope gradients, road network, drainage network, land use and rainfall. A frequency distribution of the half number of the landslide events of the study area in each class of the instability factors was performed in order to rate the classes. Two models have been used to combine the instability factors and assess the overall landslide susceptibility, namely: the Weight Factor Model (WeF, which is a statistical method, and the Multiple Factor Model (MuF that is a logical method. The produced maps were classified into four zones: Low, Moderate, High and Very High susceptible zones and validated using the other half number of the landslide events of the area. Evaluation of the results is optimized through a Landslide Models Indicator (La.M.I..Los mapas de susceptibilidad de deslizamientos representan una práctica herramienta en la planificación urbana y de espacios naturales. Así, puede aplicarse a la determinación de los usos de terrenos, en el diseño de construcción civil y para la planificación de gran variedad de actividades. En este estudio se generaron dos tipos diferentes de mapas de susceptibilidad basados en GIS para la parte montañosa de la prefectura de Trikala en Tesalia (Grecia Central. Estos se llevaron a cabo usando dos métodos de correlación de los factores que pueden tener un efecto en la generación de deslizamientos. Los factores de desestabilización tenidos en cuenta

  12. A New Flexible Soy-Based Adhesive Enhanced with Neopentyl Glycol Diglycidyl Ether: Properties and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soy-based adhesives inherently possess low water resistance and brittleness, which limit their application on plywood fabrication. This investigation involves using a long chain cross-linker, neopentyl glycol diglycidyl ether (NGDE, to produce an intrinsic toughening effect to reduce the brittleness and improve the water resistance of a soybean meal–based adhesive. The solids content, viscosity, functional groups, fracture surface micrographs, and thermal stability of the adhesives were measured. Three-layer plywood was fabricated using the resultant adhesive, and the tensile shear strength of the plywood was measured. All adhesive properties were compared with a soybean meal/polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE adhesive and commercial melamine urea formaldehyde resin. The results showed that adding 6 g NGDE improved the water resistance of the soybean meal-based adhesive by 12.5%. This improvement is attributed to the following reasons: (1 a dense cross-linked network is formed by the chemical reaction between NGDE and protein molecules; (2 the toughness of the adhesive increases and a smooth and homogeneous fracture surface is created, which effectively prevents moisture intrusion; (3 the addition of NGDE increases the thermostability of the cured adhesive. The tensile shear strength of the plywood bonded with the soybean meal-based adhesive with 6 g NGDE was 286.2% higher than that without NGDE and attained 1.12 MPa, which was attributed to the reduction in the adhesive’s viscosity, and the improvement in the water resistance and toughness of the adhesive. The tensile shear strength of the plywood bonded with 6 g NGDE was 19.1% higher than that with 6 g PAE and was similar to the MUF resin, which validated the novel adhesive being suitable for use as an industrial plywood adhesive.

  13. Biological Resistance and Application Properties of Particleboards Containing Nano-Zinc Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Reinprecht

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Special particleboards (PBs proposed for kitchens, bathrooms, hospitals, and some other specific products for interiors should have a sufficient resistance against bacteria, molds, and decaying fungi. This work deals about effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnO added into melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF glue in the amounts of 0, 2, 6, 12, or 24% wt. on selected biological, moisture, and strength properties of laboratory-produced one-layer PBs. The nano-ZnO-treated PBs had a higher biological resistance: (1 against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus by up to ca. 70% and the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli by up to 50%, since their bacterial activities at using 1.0 McFarland bacterial inoculum decreased from 0.38–0.40 by up to 0.12–0.19  ×  108 CFU/ml; (2 against the molds Penicillium brevicompactum and Aspergillus niger by up to ca. 50–63%, since their growth intensities (0–4 on the top surfaces of treated PBs decreased according to a modified EN 15457 from 2.33–2.67 by up to 1.17–1.0; (3 against the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana by up to 85.7%, since their weight losses reduced according to a modified ENV 12038 from 17.4% by up to 2.5%. The presence of nano-ZnO in PBs uninfluenced their swelling, water absorption, and bending strength; however, it decreased their internal bond strength by up to 38.8%.

  14. The effects of tetracaine on charge movement in fast twitch rat skeletal muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, S; Marshall, M W; Robson, E

    1990-02-01

    1. The effects of tetracaine, a local anaesthetic that inhibits muscle contraction, on membrane potential and intramembrane charge movements were investigated in fast twitch rat muscle fibres (extensor digitorum longus). 2. The resting membrane potentials of surface fibres from muscles bathed in isotonic Ringer solution containing 2 mM-tetracaine were well maintained, but higher concentrations of tetracaine caused a time-dependent fall of potential. Muscle fibres bathed in hypertonic solutions containing 2 mM-tetracaine were rapidly depolarized. In both isotonic and hypertonic solutions, the depolarizing effect of tetracaine could not be reversed. 3. Charge movement measurements were made using the middle-of-the-fibre voltage clamp technique. The voltage dependence of charge movements measured in cold isotonic solutions was well fitted by a Boltzmann distribution (Q(V) = Qmax/(1 + exp(-(V-V)/k] where Qmax = 37.3 +/- 2.8 nC muF-1, V = -17.9 +/- 1.2 mV and k = 12.6 +/- 0.8 mV (n = 6, 2 degrees C; means +/- S.E. of means). Similar values were obtained when 2 mM-tetracaine was added to the isotonic bathing fluid (Qmax = 40.6 +/- 2.3 nC microF-1, V = -14.1 +/- 1.3 mV, k = 15.3 +/- 0.8 mV; n = 8, 2 degrees C). 4. Charge movements measured around mechanical threshold in muscle fibres bathed in hypertonic solutions were reduced when 2 mM-tetracaine was added to the bathing fluid. The tetracaine-sensitive component of charge was well fitted with an unconstrained Boltzmann distribution which gave: Qmax = 7.5 nC microF-1, V = -46.5 mV, k = 5.5 mV. The e-fold rise of the foot of the curve was 9.3 mV.

  15. Determining rejection regions and power that optimize the inspector's chances of detecting diversion and/or falsification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.S.; Whitty, W.J.; Hafer, J.F.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Three specific models are investigated: (1) diversion and k distinct falsifications (k + 1 degrees of freedom); (2) diversion and the accumulation of all the falsifications (2 degrees of freedom); (3) diversion only (1 degree of freedom). A test statistic has been derived for models (1) and (2) by the likelihood ratio procedure under the hypothesis of zero falsification and zero diversion versus a one-sided alternative of positive diversion, positive falsification, or both. An analogous test has been developed for model (3) for diversion only. A detailed discussion of this development is given by Shipley. J.P. Shipley, Notes for the Seminar on Data Generation and Evaluation for Safeguards, Los Alamos National Laboratory Seminar, Los Alamos, New Mexico, July 7-9, 1980 (to be published). Utilizing his notation, the test variables called Inspector's Sufficient Statistics - ISS 0 , ISS 1 , and ISS 2 - are used for testing the above three models (1), (2), and (3) respectively. Note that ISS 2 corresponds to the well-known MUF-D statistic, which is currently in vogue. These two tests, for purposes of this discussion, are equivalent. The objectives of this paper are to review the ISS procedures, develop optimal critical regions for ISS tests, and compare detection probability (power) curves for models (1), (2), and (3). Optimal critical regions depend upon values obtained from one-sided chi-squared tests with more than one degree of freedom. Details of such a procedure are not to be found in the literature, and this strange neglect was one of the motivating factors in this study

  16. Interaction of plasma with magnetic fields in coaxial discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M. (National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that, in normal mode of focus operation (67 KJ-20 KV) i.e. without external magnetic fields, the focus exhibits instability growths as revealed by the time integrated X-ray pinhole photographs. A magnetic field which is trapped ahead of the current sheath will reduce the high ejection rate of plasma which occurs during the (r,z) collapse stage. This reduction should lead to a more uniform plasma of larger dimension. If an externally excited axial magnetic field of (10[sup 2]-10[sup 3] G) is introduced at the end of the central electrode of coaxial discharge with 45 [mu]f capacitor bank, U[sub ch]=13-17 KV, peak current [approx]0.5 MA, the decay rate of the current sheath is slowed down and the minimum radius of the column remains large enough. Experiment investigation of the X-ray emission in axial direction from a (12 KJ/20 KV, 480 KA), Mather type focus, showed that the X-ray intensity changes drastically, by superimposing an axial magnetic field of 55 G on the focus. By introducing an external axial magnetic field of intensity 2.4 KG along the coaxial electrodes, this magnetic field has a radial component at distances approach to muzzle of coaxial discharge with charging voltage 10 KV and peak discharge current 100 KA. Presence of these magnetic fields, will cause an increase in intensity of soft X-ray emission. The main purpose of this work is to study the interactions of axial and transverse magnetic fields with plasma sheath during the axial interelectrode propagation, and its effects on the X-ray emission from plasma focus. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Analysis of difficulties accounting and evaluating nuclear material of PWR fuel plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Min; Jue Ji; Liu Tianshu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nuclear materials accountancy must be developed for nuclear facilities, which is required by regulatory in China. Currently, there are some unresolved problems for nuclear materials accountancy of bulk nuclear facilities. Purpose: The retention values and measurement errors are analyzed in nuclear materials accountancy of Power Water Reactor (PWR) fuel plant to meet the regulatory requirements. Methods: On the basis of nuclear material accounting and evaluation data of PWR fuel plant, a deep analysis research including ratio among random error variance, long-term systematic error variance, short-term systematic error variance and total error involving Material Unaccounted For (MUF) evaluation is developed by the retention value measure in equipment and pipeline. Results: In the equipment pipeline, the holdup estimation error and its total proportion are not more than 5% and 1.5%, respectively. And the holdup estimation can be regraded as a constant in the PWR nuclear material accountancy. Random error variance, long-term systematic error variance, short-term systematic error variance of overall measurement, and analytical and sampling methods are also obtained. A valuable reference is provided for nuclear material accountancy. Conclusion: In nuclear material accountancy, the retention value can be considered as a constant. The long-term systematic error is a main factor in all errors, especially in overall measurement error and sampling error: The long-term systematic errors of overall measurement and sampling are considered important in the PWR nuclear material accountancy. The proposals and measures are applied to the nuclear materials accountancy of PWR fuel plant, and the capacity of nuclear materials accountancy is improved. (authors)

  18. New insight on the formation of whey protein microbeads by a microfluidic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoyo, Robi; Guyomarc'h, Fanny; Tabuteau, Hervé; Famelart, Marie-Hélène

    2018-02-01

    The current paper describes the formation of whey protein microbeads (WPM) having a spherical shape and a monodispersed size distribution. A microfluidic flow-focusing geometry was used to control the production of whey protein microdroplets in a hydrophobic phase. The microfluidic system consists of two inlet channels where the WPI solution and the lipophilic phase were separately injected towards the flow-focusing (FF) junction where they eventually meet, then co-flow. A whey protein isolate (WPI) solution of 150 g/kg protein and two types of hydrophobic phases, i.e. sunflower oil and n-dodecane, were tested as the continuous phase. The formation of WPM was observed microscopically. The aim of the present study was to describe the production of stable monodisperse WPM in suspension in milk ultrafiltrate using a microfluidic system. Hints to perform the control of the running parameters, i.e. choice of the hydrophobic phase or fluids flowrates, are provided. The results showed that in the sunflower oil, microdroplets had a large polydisperse size distribution, while in n-dodecane, microdroplets with narrow size distribution were obtained. Stabilization of the whey protein microdroplets through heat-gelation at 75 °C for 20 min in n-dodecane produced WPM and no change in shape nor size is observed. Meanwhile replacing the n-dodecane by MUF using centrifugation and washing caused the swelling of the WPM, but dispersity remained low. From this study, microfluidic system seemed to be a suitable method to be used for producing small quantities of monodisperse WPM.

  19. The present status and development of the state's system of safeguards in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, H.; Haginoya, T.; Natsume, H.; Hirata, M.

    1977-01-01

    This paper summarizes developmental activities aiming at improving, the status of the Japan's System of safeguards. The integral tests are described which are now being implemented by the Japanese Government to check the effectiveness of the State's System, which must be maintained by the Government under the Safeguards Agreement between Japan and the IAEA under the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, ratified by Japan in June 1976. A joint experiment has been now implemented by the Nuclear Safety Bureau and the NMCC for knowing and improving the precision and accuracy of analytical measurements used at the bulk-facilities. JAERI, is conducting various R and D work on its own, and through cooperation with NMCC, NSB etc. The authors describe the results of non-destructive γ-spectrometry for the development of isotopic correlation techniques, as well as for the identification, and also refer briefly to measurement methods using the Fast Critical Assembly in JAERI. Measurement methods used in the Pu-fabrication facility of the PNC, and the problem of spent fuels application of safeguards for the reprocessing plant are discussed. The accounting reports coming from Japanese facilities are processed by the computer at the NMCC, and converted into (a) the State's material balance, and (b) the formats to be sent to IAEA. The authors discuss the experience of such data-processing as well as the developmental works for analysing MUF. As a part of the integral test, the experiences concerning planning and performance of inspection are discussed. The present status and future plans of the system of national analytical laboratories are described

  20. RIGIDEZ E RESISTÊNCIA DE VIGAS ESTRUTURAIS DE MADEIRA LAMINADA COLADA E COM PERFIL I COMPOSTAS POR DIFERENTES ADESIVOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Bayestorff da Cunha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood has always been structurally used in solid form in civil construction, with a low degree of processing and technological innovation, and many times in other constituents such as floors, walls and roofs. However, changes in the adopted standards involve the refinement of technology, as well as, changes of the esthetic and functional concepts required in constructions. Thus, structural wood beams, such as glulam and I - joist, have emerged, presenting a series of advantages such as high resistance in relation to weight. The general objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the type of adhesive on the strength and stiffness of beams of Glulam and I-joist of Pinus taeda. The adhesives used in the experiment were resorcinol-phenolformaldehyde (RFF, melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF and polyurethane (PUR. The process of manufacturing the beams involved the classification of the parts, manufacturing of the finger joint, junction, assembly and pressing. The assays involved the assessment of structural properties of bending such as the Elasticity Model and Rupture. In the analysis of the average values for the variables, no significant differences were found for the glulam, however, for the I - joist, the superiority of the PUR adhesive was verified, based on the average value of the rupture model. In relation to the types and weights of the adhesives used, it was observed that the RFF adhesive needed a greater amount of the product to provide the mechanism of adherence, 500 g/m2. Two parameters made the PUR adhesive different in relation to the others: a 24 times faster healing time, making it more advantageous from the point of view of volume of production; and the shorter open time, which requires special procedures. The glulam beams showed higher mean values, but the choice of the beam model must be analyzed carefully, always taking into consideration the required resistance and the cost of the material to be used in the confection.

  1. Microencapsulation of a fatty acid with Poly(melamine–urea–formaldehyde)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konuklu, Yeliz; Paksoy, Halime O.; Unal, Murat; Konuklu, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Decanoic(capric) acid microcapsules were prepared with different capsule wall materials. • The one-step in situ polymerization technique was used. • Leakage-free, thermally stable microPCMs was prepared with Poly(MUF). • Influence of different surfactants on encapsulation and thermal properties reported. - Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to obtain leakage-free, thermally stable decanoic acid microcapsules (microPCMs) for thermal energy storage applications. Decanoic acid (capric acid) is an environmentally friendly fatty acid since it is obtained from vegetable and animal oils. MicroPCMs were prepared with different capsule wall materials via a one-step in situ polymerization technique. The properties of microencapsulated PCMs have been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra analysis and particle size analyzer. The microPCMs prepared using Poly(urea–formaldehyde) (PUF) exhibit higher heat capacities and the microPCMs prepared using Poly(melamine–formaldehyde) (PMF) exhibit higher thermal stabilities. In order to obtain microPCMs with better properties such as suitable latent heat and better heat resistance at high temperatures, we microencapsulated decanoic acid with Poly (melamine–urea–formaldehyde) (PMUF). Furthermore, the effects of surfactants on microPCMs with PMUF were investigated by SEM, a particle size analyzer, DSC, and TGA. The results show that the binary surfactant system was a suitable emulsifier for this process. We determined that the melting temperature was close to 33 °C, the latent heat storage capacity was about 88 J/g, and the mean particle diameter was 0.28 μm for microPCMs with PMUF. We recommend decanoic acid microencapsulated with PMUF for thermally stable and leakage-free applications above 95 °C

  2. Waste management and proliferation: an assessment of technologies and policies relevant to nuclear power. Final report, June 1975--March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.K.; Anderson, R.N.; Selvaduray, G.; Gangwer, T.; Braun, C.; Goellner, D.; Malone, R.; Sevian, W.A.; Lester, R.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the long-term hazards from radioactive waste management and the problems in safeguarding plutonium in a world moving toward a plutonium economy are presented. To ameliorate these problems, several alternative fuel cycle options are presented: homogeneous reactor, denatured thorium, open, tandem, accelerator-regenerative, co-processing, plutonium, spiking, and partitioning. An assessment is made of a variety of separation technologies applied to these options, including a review of 32 different reprocessing methods. The effects of these options on both U.S. and transnational policies regarding waste management and proliferation are examined. This study addresses the transnational environmental policy issues created by a worldwide nuclear industry and suggests the need for two international organizations: one to manage spent fuel and the breeder fuel cycle; the second to protect the global environment. Two photochemical schemes for improving existing reprocessing technology by reducing wastes and materials unaccounted for (MUF) are presented. The applicability of this technology, along with column chromatography, Talspeak, and other separation methods, is examined relative to various waste management alternatives including the partitioning and transmutation option. A computer model to determine the effectiveness of transmutation as a function of separation efficiency has been developed and employed. To estimate health impacts from various fuel cycle options, the Brookhaven energy system network simulator has been integrated with an atmospheric dispersion and pathway analysis model. Using revised 222 Rn emission data, it is estimated from the linear hypothesis that the number of excess cancers is slightly less for the open than for the closed cycle. More importantly, the number of excess cancers induced by mill and mine tailings is from one to two times that caused by the rest of the entire fuel cycle

  3. X-ray and neutron emission studies in a new Filippov type plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babazadeh, A.R.; Banoushi, A. [Technical University of Amirkabir, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Roshan, M.V.; Habibi, H.; Nasiry, A.; Memarzadeh, M.; Lamehi, M.; Kiai, S.M. Sadat [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Fusion Research Center

    2002-03-01

    We have performed experimental comparative studies of the X-ray and neutron emission generated by the new Filippov-type plasma focus 'Dena', (90 kJ, 25 kV, 288{mu}F) in the pressure range of 0.6-1 torr. Time-integrated and time-resolved detectors, together with an X-ray pin-hole camera, along with a Be filter of 10{mu}m thickness have been used. For a working gas of neon and a at insert anode, the maximum soft and hard X-rays (SXR-HXR) yield obtained was 16 V and 1.5 V/shot over a 4{pi} solid angle, respectively, for a charging voltage range of 16-20 kV. As for the argon gas, the similar results such as 3.5 and 2 V/shot have been found, leading to a total conversion efficiency of X-ray emission of 0.09 % (for neon) and 0.03 % (for argon) of the stored energy. These efficiencies have been improved by the employment of a conic insert anode up to 0.4% and 0.1%. With deuterium puffing gas and a at insert anode, the maximum emission yield has been found to be 2.5 V for SXR and 1 V for HXR/shot which produce an ultimate emission profile width (FWHM) of 70-90 ns for X-rays and neutrons, giving rise to a maximum neutron yield of 1.2 x 10{sup 9}. Nevertheless, the maximum yield has been increased up to 5.5 times with the conic insert anode. In order to increase the neutron yield, we have introduced a krypton admixture to the deuterium filling gas and found that, for a krypton pressure of about 0.1 torr, the neutron yield increases by a factor of 3.5 for the flat insert and 1.5 for the conic insert anodes. (author)

  4. Input related microbial carbon dynamic of soil organic matter in particle size fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, A.; Kandeler, E.; Gleixner, G.

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigated the flow of carbon into different groups of soil microorganisms isolated from different particle size fractions. Two agricultural sites of contrasting organic matter input were compared. Both soils had been submitted to vegetation change from C3 (Rye/Wheat) to C4 (Maize) plants, 25 and 45 years ago. Soil carbon was separated into one fast-degrading particulate organic matter fraction (POM) and one slow-degrading organo-mineral fraction (OMF). The structure of the soil microbial community were investigated using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), and turnover of single PLFAs was calculated from the changes in their 13C content. Soil enzyme activities involved in the degradation of carbohydrates was determined using fluorogenic MUF (methyl-umbelliferryl phosphate) substrates. We found that fresh organic matter input drives soil organic matter dynamic. Higher annual input of fresh organic matter resulted in a higher amount of fungal biomass in the POM-fraction and shorter mean residence times. Fungal activity therefore seems essential for the decomposition and incorporation of organic matter input into the soil. As a consequence, limited litter input changed especially the fungal community favouring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Altogether, supply and availability of fresh plant carbon changed the distribution of microbial biomass, the microbial community structure and enzyme activities and resulted in different priming of soil organic matter. Most interestingly we found that only at low input the OMF fraction had significantly higher calculated MRT for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria suggesting high recycling of soil carbon or the use of other carbon sources. But on average all microbial groups had nearly similar carbon uptake rates in all fractions and both soils, which contrasted the turnover times of bulk carbon. Hereby the microbial carbon turnover was always faster than the soil organic carbon turnover and higher carbon input

  5. Colonization of overlaying water by bacteria from dry river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazi, Stefano; Amalfitano, Stefano; Piccini, Claudia; Zoppini, Annamaria; Puddu, Alberto; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2008-10-01

    We studied the diversity, community composition and activity of the primary microbial colonizers of the water above freshly re-wetted sediments from a temporary river. Dried sediments, collected from Mulargia River (Sardinia, Italy), were covered with sterile freshwater in triplicate microcosms, and changes of the planktonic microbial assemblage were monitored over a 48 h period. During the first 9 h bacterial abundance was low (1.5 x 10(4) cells ml(-1)); it increased to 3.4 x 10(6) cells ml(-1) after 28 h and did not change thereafter. Approximately 20% of bacteria exhibited DNA de novo synthesis already after 9 h of incubation. Changes of the ratios of (3)H-leucine to (3)H-thymidine incorporation rates indicated a shift of growth patterns during the experiment. Extracellular enzyme activity showed a maximum at 48 h with aminopeptidase activity (430.8 +/- 22.6 nmol MCA l(-1) h(-1)) significantly higher than alkaline phosphatase (98.6 +/- 4.3 nmol MUF l(-1) h(-1)). The primary microbial colonizers of the overlaying water - as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis - were related to at least six different phylogenetic lineages of Bacilli and to Alphaproteobacteria (Brevundimonas spp. and Caulobacter spp.). Large bacterial cells affiliated to one clade of Bacillus sp. were rare in the dried sediments, but constituted the majority of the planktonic microbial assemblage and of cells with detectable DNA-synthesis until 28 h after re-wetting. Their community contribution decreased in parallel with a rise of flagellated and ciliated protists. Estimates based on cell production rates suggested that the rapidly enriched Bacillus sp. suffered disproportionally high loss rates from selective predation, thus favouring the establishment of a more heterogenic assemblage of microbes (consisting of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacteria). Our results suggest that the primary microbial colonizers of the water above dried sediments are passively released

  6. Solid-state densification of spun-cast self-assembled monolayers for use in ultra-thin hybrid dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchins, Daniel O.; Acton, Orb [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Weidner, Tobias [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cernetic, Nathan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Baio, Joe E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Castner, David G. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Ma, Hong, E-mail: hma@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Jen, Alex K.-Y., E-mail: ajen@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid processing of SAM in ambient conditions is achieved by spin coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal annealing of a bulk spun-cast molecular film is explored as a mechanism for SAM densification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-performance SAM-oxide hybrid dielectric is obtained utilizing a single wet processing step. - Abstract: Ultra-thin self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-oxide hybrid dielectrics have gained significant interest for their application in low-voltage organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). A [8-(11-phenoxy-undecyloxy)-octyl]phosphonic acid (PhO-19-PA) SAM on ultrathin AlO{sub x} (2.5 nm) has been developed to significantly enhance the dielectric performance of inorganic oxides through reduction of leakage current while maintaining similar capacitance to the underlying oxide structure. Rapid processing of this SAM in ambient conditions is achieved by spin coating, however, as-cast monolayer density is not sufficient for dielectric applications. Thermal annealing of a bulk spun-cast PhO-19-PA molecular film is explored as a mechanism for SAM densification. SAM density, or surface coverage, and order are examined as a function of annealing temperature. These SAM characteristics are probed through atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). It is found that at temperatures sufficient to melt the as-cast bulk molecular film, SAM densification is achieved; leading to a rapid processing technique for high performance SAM-oxide hybrid dielectric systems utilizing a single wet processing step. To demonstrate low-voltage devices based on this hybrid dielectric (with leakage current density of 7.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} A cm{sup -2} and capacitance density of 0.62 {mu}F cm{sup -2} at 3 V), pentacene thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are fabricated and yield sub 2 V operation and charge carrier mobilites of up to

  7. Polymorphic toxin systems: Comprehensive characterization of trafficking modes, processing, mechanisms of action, immunity and ecology using comparative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dapeng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteinaceous toxins are observed across all levels of inter-organismal and intra-genomic conflicts. These include recently discovered prokaryotic polymorphic toxin systems implicated in intra-specific conflicts. They are characterized by a remarkable diversity of C-terminal toxin domains generated by recombination with standalone toxin-coding cassettes. Prior analysis revealed a striking diversity of nuclease and deaminase domains among the toxin modules. We systematically investigated polymorphic toxin systems using comparative genomics, sequence and structure analysis. Results Polymorphic toxin systems are distributed across all major bacterial lineages and are delivered by at least eight distinct secretory systems. In addition to type-II, these include type-V, VI, VII (ESX, and the poorly characterized “Photorhabdus virulence cassettes (PVC”, PrsW-dependent and MuF phage-capsid-like systems. We present evidence that trafficking of these toxins is often accompanied by autoproteolytic processing catalyzed by HINT, ZU5, PrsW, caspase-like, papain-like, and a novel metallopeptidase associated with the PVC system. We identified over 150 distinct toxin domains in these systems. These span an extraordinary catalytic spectrum to include 23 distinct clades of peptidases, numerous previously unrecognized versions of nucleases and deaminases, ADP-ribosyltransferases, ADP ribosyl cyclases, RelA/SpoT-like nucleotidyltransferases, glycosyltranferases and other enzymes predicted to modify lipids and carbohydrates, and a pore-forming toxin domain. Several of these toxin domains are shared with host-directed effectors of pathogenic bacteria. Over 90 families of immunity proteins might neutralize anywhere between a single to at least 27 distinct types of toxin domains. In some organisms multiple tandem immunity genes or immunity protein domains are organized into polyimmunity loci or polyimmunity proteins. Gene-neighborhood-analysis of

  8. Viewpoints on impacts of climate change on soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilly, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen; Nannipieri, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    soil quality in ecosystems based on modern respiratory approaches. In: Cenci R., Sena F. (eds.) Biodiversity-bioindication to evaluate soil health. European Commission EUR 22245EN, p. 59-64 Dilly O., Blume H.-P., Munch J.C., 2003. Soil microbial activities in Luvisols and Anthrosols during 9 years of region-typical tillage and fertilisation practices in northern Germany. Biogeochemistry 65, 319-339 IPPC 2007. The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds Solomon, S. et al.) (Cambridge University Press, 2007). Kirschbaum, M.U.F., 1995. The temperature dependence of soil organic matter decomposition, and the effect of global warming on soil organic C storage. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 27, 753-760 Knorr W., Prentice I.C., House J.I., Holland E.A. 2005. Long-term sensitivity of soil carbon to warming. Nature 433, 298-301 Mamilov, A. Sh., Dilly, O., 2002. Soil microbial eco-physiology as affected by short-term variations in environmental conditions. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34, 1283-1290

  9. Development of a Safeguards Approach for a Pyroprocessing Plant by IAEA Member State Support Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, H. S.; Kim, H. D.; Song, D. Y.; Eom, S. H.; Lee, T. H.; Ahn, S. K.; Park, S. H.; Han, B. Y.; Choi, Y.

    2012-01-01

    . However, in this report the Reference Pyroprocessing Facility (REPF) is proposed to develop a safeguards approach for the integrated pyroprocessing facility. The REPF has identical processes with ESPF model but has been primarily designed for the purpose of safeguards approach development. The main subject in this report is to develop a nuclear material accounting system that includes an analysis of possible Material Balance Areas (MBA) and Key Measurement Points (KMP), the identification of possible operator measurement systems at KMP, and a simulation of processing operation. Based on those information, Material Unaccounted For (MUF) for the REPF were estimated. Most of contents in this report has been discussed and revised by IAEA and KAERI in the MSSP working group meeting. The assessment of the safeguard ability of the reference pyroprocessing facility concept was studied preliminarily. Pyroprocess technology is focused on securing the sustain ability of nuclear energy by improving proliferation resistance, economic efficiency, environmental friendliness, and resource utilization of back end nuclear fuel cycle. The international community's confidence should be secured for the realization of pyroprocess technology. Also, a study to demonstrate the safeguard ability for pyroprocess facility is needed through analyzing and evaluating nuclear material flow, accountancy of pyroprocess, and the measurement uncertainties of accounting equipment

  10. Rigidez e resistência de vigas estruturais de madeira laminada colada e com perfil I compostas por diferentes adesivos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Bayestorff da Cunha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A madeira sempre foi utilizada estruturalmente na construção civil na forma sólida, com baixo grau de processamento e inovação tecnológica e, muitas vezes, em outros componentes como em pisos, paredes e telhados. Entretanto, a mudança nos padrões adotados envolveu o aperfeiçoamento da tecnologia, bem como a mudança do conceito estético e funcional requerido nas construções. Dessa forma, surgiram as vigas estruturais em madeira como a Madeira Laminada Colada (MLC e com Perfil em I que apresentam uma série de vantagens como à alta resistência em relação ao seu peso. O objetivo geral do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito do tipo de adesivo sobre a resistência e rigidez de vigas estruturais de Madeira Laminada Colada (MLC e com perfil em I de Pinus taeda. Os adesivos utilizados no experimento foram a Resorcina Fenol Formaldeído (RFF, a Melamina Uréia Formaldeído (MUF e o Poliuretano (PUR. O processo de fabricação das vigas envolveu a classificação das peças, fabricação de emendas, junção, montagem e prensagem. Os ensaios envolveram a avaliação das propriedades estruturais sob flexão como Módulo de Elasticidade (MOE e Ruptura (MOR. Na análise dos valores médios obtidos para as variáveis não foram encontradas diferenças significativas para as vigas de MLC, entretanto, nas vigas com perfil em I, verificouse a superioridade do adesivo PUR no valor médio do MOR. Em relação aos tipos e gramaturas de adesivos utilizados, observou-se que o adesivo RFF necessita de maior quantidade do produto para atender ao mecanismo da adesão, 500 g/m2. Dois parâmetros tornaram o adesivo PUR diferenciado em relação aos demais; o tempo de cura 24 vezes mais rápido, tornando-o mais vantajoso sob o ponto de vista de volume de produção e o tempo em aberto mais curto que requer procedimentos especiais. As vigas de MLC apresentaram valores médio superiores, mas a escolha do modelo de viga deve ser analisada cuidadosamente

  11. Development of high energy pulsed plasma simulator for plasma-lithium trench experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soonwook

    / optics shows that the plasma energies are in agreement with each other. The effect of theta pinch on preionized plasma has been investigated when operated in conjunction with the coaxial plasma gun. The previous theta coil (1 turn, 40 nH) is connected with 72 muF capacitor bank to handle more energy. The theta coil is reconfigured as a two - turn coil (160 nH) to facilitate the operation of a crowbar. The two-turn coil achieves a maximum current of 300 kA (= 1.2 T) at 20 kV of the main capacitor bank voltage and the operation of the crowbar allows for a monotonically decreasing current. With the 2-turn theta coil, a maximum plasma energy of ~ 0.08 MJ/m2 is achieved with 6 kV at the plasma gun and 20 kV at the theta pinch. Plasma velocities of 34 - 74 km/s are observed at the first few peaks of theta pinch current. A problem of plasma transport with short delay times is observed. Finally, the dissertation concludes with a few ways to further improve the device and increase the plasma heat flux. A change in the system design as well as a compact toroid generation are proposed and preliminary results are presented. The dissertation also suggests hardware upgrades which include an increase in the energy at the plasma gun / the theta pinch capacitor banks. At the same time, additional diagnostics will allow to further investigate the effect of pinching on the plasma from the plasma gun as well as determine the overall effect of the guiding magnetic field. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  12. Development of a methodology to evaluate material accountability in pyroprocess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seungmin

    sampling calculated by the central limit theorem and the Geary-Hinkley transformation. Then, the uncertainty propagation through the key-pyroprocess is conducted to analyze the Material Unaccounted For (MUF), which is a random variable defined as a receipt minus a shipment of a process, in the system. The random variable, LOPu, is defined for evaluating the non-detection probability at each Key Measurement Point (KMP) as the original Pu mass minus the Pu mass after a missing scenario. A number of assemblies for the LOPu to be 8 kg is considered in this calculation. The probability of detection for the 8 kg LOPu is evaluated with respect the size of granule and powder using the event tree analysis and the hypothesis testing method. We can observe there are possible cases showing the probability of detection for the 8 kg LOPu less than 95%. In order to enhance the detection rate, a new Material Balance Area (MBA) model is defined for the key-pyroprocess. The probabilities of detection for all spent fuel types based on the new MBA model are greater than 99%. Furthermore, it is observed that the probability of detection significantly increases by increasing granule sample sizes to evaluate the Pu-to-244Cm-ratio before the key-pyroprocess. Based on these observations, even though the Pu material accountability in pyroprocess is affected by the non-uniformity of nuclide composition when the Pu-to-244Cm-ratio method is being applied, that is surmounted by decreasing the uncertainty of measured ratio by increasing sample sizes and modifying the MBAs and KMPs. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  13. Motion of Plasmoid in a Curvilinear Magnetic Field; Mouvement d'un Plasmoide dans un Champ Magnetique Curviligne; Dvizhenie plazmennogo sgustka v krivolinejnom magnitnom pole; Movimiento de un Plasmoide en un Campo Magnetico Curvilineo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojcenja, V. S.; Gorbanjuk, A. G.; Onishhenko, I. N.; Safronov, B. G.; Hizhnjak, N. A.; Shkoda, V. V. [Fiziko-Tehnicheskij Institut, AN USSR, Khar' kov, USSR (Ukraine)

    1966-04-15

    The passage of. a plasmoid through the magnetic field of a toroidal solenoid and its decontamination from heavy ion impurities have been studied theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical analysis has been carried out within the framework of a drift approximation. The passage of the plasma is achieved through the closing currents which SinelnikoV assumed to exist. The circuit-closing currents substantially reduce the polarization fields but, as calculations show, do not prevent me drift ofheavy ions to the chamber walls. Even in dense plasma, in which 4{pi}n{sub 0}Mc{sup 2}/H{sup 2}{sub 0} >> 1, the heavy-ion drift is governed by the same laws as in the single-particle approximation. More precise analysis of the field structure shows that, in addition to the polarization field perpendicular to the torus plane, there is a radial electric field directed towards the inner wall of the toroidal chamber. The magnitude of the polarization field is determined essentially by the shorting currents and measurement of the polarization fields therefore confirms indirectly the assumed existence of these currents. Earlier experiments showed that the measured polarization fields agree in order of magnitude with the theoretical predictions. We study the results of the experimental investigation of the passage and decontamination of fast plasmoids of high density (n{sub 0} > 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}, 4{pi}n{sub 0}Mc{sup 2}/H{sup 2}{sub 0} Asymptotically-Equal-To 5 x 10{sup 3} >> 1). A coaxial source with a pulsed gas inlet was used to obtain the plasmoids (1 cm{sup 3} of hydrogen at atmospheric pressure). The 17-{mu}F source bank was charged to 18 kV. After passing through the rectilinear section of the magnetic field (L = 150 cm) the plasma entered the toroidal magnetic field (radius of curvature, 75 cm; angle of deflection, approximately 90 Degree-Sign ). The magnitude of the pulsed magnetic field reached 10 kOe and remained virtually unchanged during the passage of the plasma

  14. Low power interface IC's for electrostatic energy harvesting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempitiya, Asantha

    interest where the storage capacitor can be optimized to produce almost 70% of the ideal power taken as the power harvested with synchronous converters when neglecting the power consumption associated with synchronizing control circuitry. Theoretical predictions are confirmed by measurements on an asynchronous EHC implemented with a macro-scale electrostatic converter prototype. Based on the preceding analysis, the design of a novel ultra low power electrostatic integrated energy harvesting circuit is proposed for efficient harvesting of mechanical energy. The fundamental challenges of designing reliable low power sensing circuits for charge constrained electrostatic energy harvesters with capacity to self power its controller and driver stages are addressed. Experimental results are presented for a controller design implemented in AMI 0.7muM high voltage CMOS process using a macro-scale electrostatic converter prototype. The EHC produces 1.126muW for a power investment of 417nW with combined conduction and controller losses of 450nW which is a 20-30% improvement compared to prior art on electrostatic EHCs operating under charge constrain. Inherently dual plate variable capacitors harvest energy only during half of the mechanical cycle with the other half unutilized for energy conversion. To harvest mechanical energy over the complete mechanical vibration cycle, a low power energy harvesting circuit (EHC) that performs charge constrained synchronous energy conversion on a tri-plate variable capacitor for maximizing energy conversion is proposed. The tri-plate macro electrostatic generator with capacitor variation of 405pF to 1.15nF and 405pF to 1.07nF on two complementary adjacent capacitors is fabricated and used in the characterization of the designed EHC. The integrated circuit fabricated in AMI 0.7muM high voltage CMOS process, produces a total output power of 497nW to a 10muF reservoir capacitor from a 98Hz vibration signal. In summary, the thesis lays out the

  15. Turbulent Heating of Plasma by a Direct-Current Discharge; Chauffage Turbulent du Plasma par le Courant d'une Decharge Directe; ТУРБУЛЕНТНЫЙ НАГРЕВ ПЛАЗМЫ ТОКОМ ПРЯМОГО РАЗРЯДА; Calentamiento Turbulento del Plasma por una Corriente de Descarga Directa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babykin, M. V.; Gavrin, P. P.; Zavojskij, E. K.; Rudakov, L. I.; Skorjupin, V. A. [Institut Atomnoj Ehnergii Im. I.V. Kurchatova, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-04-15

    Results are reported of experiments on the turbulent heating of plasma by a current from a direct discharge in a magnetic mirror trap. The adiabatic compression of the heated plasma was investigated as well as various other characteristics of the turbulent plasma. The magnetic field increased to 9 kOe in 1.75 msec. At fields of 0.5 to 9 kOe, the trap was filled with a deuterium plasma of density 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} from titanium guns; simultaneously the end electrodes were connected to the capacitors for the direct discharge that were variously 0.2, 0.8 and 2.65 {mu}F and at potentials of 10 to 30 kV. The onset of the discharge was timed to coincide with the collision of the plasma jets. The discharge was aperiodic to start with, had a slow current increase, and the oscillograms showed oscillations consistent with instability of the current. The resistance of the plasma determined from the plasma current and potential considerably exceeded the value calculated from the Coulomb collision time. It was 50 to 60 {Omega} at the outset, and dropped to a few tenths of an ohm as the trap became increasingly filled and the plasma temperature increased. The noise on the current oscillograms vanished, and the discharge became oscillatory. The duration of the aperiodic regime is determined by the time necessary for filling the trap. It follows from measurements of the potential distribution that up to the transition to the oscillatory regime the main potential drop occurs at the centre of the trap, in the region of reduced density. In this region the current velocities|are maximum and intense turbulence must develop. As a result the plasma develops an anomalous resistance and an appreciable part of the energy stored in the capacitor is absorbed. Intense noise radiation was observed in the range from 106 to 4 x 10{sup 10} c/s; the noise at very high frequencies persists for longer periods than the low-frequency noise on the current oscillograms. The instability