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Sample records for muertos patagonia occidental

  1. Evapofacies del Salar Hombre Muerto, Puna argentina: distribucion y genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vinante

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se identifican, describen y se muestra la distribución areal de las facies y evapofacies asociadas al ambiente evaporítico del Salar Hombre Muerto, ubicado en el borde oriental de la Puna Austral, en una zona con una amplia difusión de yacimientos de boratos. El salar puede ser dividido en dos subcuencas, la occidental y la oriental, ambas separadas por el islote central de Farallón Catal. La subcuenca oriental es boratífera, con bajo contenido en cloruros, mientras que la subcuenca occidental presenta tanto en superficie como en profundidad potentes acumulaciones de halita (hasta 900 m y es prácticamente estéril en boratos. Se plantean varias hipótesis sobre la génesis de la evapofacies boratífera, representada mineralógicamente por el borato ulexita. Esta es la evapofacies de interés económico y que se explota en el salar, donde además se extraen salmueras de litio.

  2. Evapofacies del Salar Hombre Muerto, Puna argentina: distribucion y genesis Evapofacies associated with the Salar Hombre Muerto, Puna: Distribution and genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vinante

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se identifican, describen y se muestra la distribución areal de las facies y evapofacies asociadas al ambiente evaporítico del Salar Hombre Muerto, ubicado en el borde oriental de la Puna Austral, en una zona con una amplia difusión de yacimientos de boratos. El salar puede ser dividido en dos subcuencas, la occidental y la oriental, ambas separadas por el islote central de Farallón Catal. La subcuenca oriental es boratífera, con bajo contenido en cloruros, mientras que la subcuenca occidental presenta tanto en superficie como en profundidad potentes acumulaciones de halita (hasta 900 m y es prácticamente estéril en boratos. Se plantean varias hipótesis sobre la génesis de la evapofacies boratífera, representada mineralógicamente por el borato ulexita. Esta es la evapofacies de interés económico y que se explota en el salar, donde además se extraen salmueras de litio.This paper identifies, describes and shows the areal distribution of facies and evapofacies associated with Salar Hombre Muerto, located in the eastern border of the Southern Puna, in an area with a wide diffusion of borates. The salar can be divided in two sub-basins, the western and the eastern, both separate for the central island of Farallón Catal. The eastern sub-basin is boratiferous, with low chlorides contained, while the western one shows a thick halite accumulation (up to 900 m in surface and in depth and it is practically sterile in borates. Several hypothesis on the genesis of the boratiferous evapofacies, minerallogically represented by the borate ulexite, are proposed. This evapofacies is the economic interest mined area, where lithium brines are also extracted.

  3. Patagonia Argentina

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    A.J. Acuña

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La zona central de la Patagonia, Argentina, se encuentra sometida a explotación petrolera y sus suelos se caracterizan por ser deficientes en nitrógeno. Esto causaría un efecto negativo en los procesos de atenuación natural que se desarrollan en los suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos. El objeto de este estudio fue determinar cual es el efecto de la deficiencia de nitrógeno sobre la biodegradación de los hidrocarburos en un suelo de la Patagonia, Argentina. Se trabajó con tres microcosmos a los que se les realizó tratamientos diferentes. En uno se monitoreo la atenuación natural del sistema, en otro la fertilización con nitrógeno (N, fósforo (P y potasio (K, y en el último la fertilización con P y K. Durante el seguimiento se determinaron mineralización y medición de hidrocarburos, y se realizaron recuentos bacterianos y determinación de nitrato, nitrito y amonio. Los resultados indican que es posible la biodegradación de hidrocarburos en el suelo deficiente de nitrógeno de la Patagonia estudiado en tiempos mas prolongados que en aquellos que se realiza una fertilización con nitrógeno. El nitrógeno necesario para el proceso sería obtenido por los microorganismos del suelo por fijación biológica.

  4. Orientalism/Occidentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.; Ong, C.E.

    2017-01-01

    Orientalism and Occidentalism are interrelated concepts. Orientalism is defined in three keys ways: (i) as a study of “the Orient”; (ii) as a cultural and aesthetic concern with “the Orient”; and (iii) as a critical approach to understanding the construction of “the Orient” by European and American

  5. más tiempo muerto

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    Alfredo Andrés Gutiérrez Vivius

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La estrategia de control difuso (FLC ha demostrado ser eficaz al manipular procesos que exhiben fuertes no linealidades, o cuyo modelo matemático es difícil de obtener. Sin embargo, el rendimiento y estabilidad de los FLC dependen de la adecuada sintonización de sus parámetros de escalamiento, procedimiento que hasta ahora ha recurrido al ensayo y error. Este artículo presenta unas ecuaciones de sintonización para los parámetros de escalamiento de un FLC basadas en la identificación de la respuesta dinámica del proceso como un modelo de primer orden más tiempo muerto (FOPDT. Con estas ecuaciones se disminuye el tiempo necesario para el diseño del FLC.

  6. Dia de los Muertos: A Joyful Mexican Celebration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markello, Carrie; Bean, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes the history, traditions, and food of the Mexican holiday known as Dia de los Muertos, or the Day of the Day, and explores classroom and studio activities that teachers can do with their students. Teachers are urged to encourage students to explore the topic of the Day of the Dead, comparing it to other traditions and…

  7. Dia de los Muertos: An Illustrated Essay and Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Santa Barbara. University Library.

    Among Mexico's most original traditions is the holiday dedicated to honoring the dead, Dia de los Muertos, November 2. This tradition combines aspects that define the national spirit. At the same time that it is a solemn festivity to remember the dead, it becomes a fiesta in its own right. Death, more than a thing to be feared, becomes the motif…

  8. Dia de los Muertos: An Illustrated Essay and Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Santa Barbara. University Library.

    Among Mexico's most original traditions is the holiday dedicated to honoring the dead, Dia de los Muertos, November 2. This tradition combines aspects that define the national spirit. At the same time that it is a solemn festivity to remember the dead, it becomes a fiesta in its own right. Death, more than a thing to be feared, becomes the motif…

  9. Dia de los Muertos: A Joyful Mexican Celebration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markello, Carrie; Bean, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes the history, traditions, and food of the Mexican holiday known as Dia de los Muertos, or the Day of the Day, and explores classroom and studio activities that teachers can do with their students. Teachers are urged to encourage students to explore the topic of the Day of the Dead, comparing it to other traditions and…

  10. Patagonia: nature and territories

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    Alejandro Fabián Schweitzer

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyzes the place occupied by Patagonia in today’s fin de siècle scenario of commodities, hegemony crisis and multi-polar world emergence concurring with the convergence of consumerist guidelines, all of which would apparently lead to an in-depth socio-ecological crisis as well as to an accelerated dispute over nature and territory sense.

  11. Islam y Occidente: Vecinos distantes

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    Zidane Zeraoui

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo “Islam y Occidente: vecinos distantes” busca analizar la incomprensión mutua existente entre dos civilizaciones cercanas geográfica e históricamente hablando, pero al mismo tiempo alejadas en su relación actual. Los conflictos que han opuesto el mundo islámico al mundo occidental en los tiempos recientes ha creado un rechazo mutuo en muchos sectores tanto de la sociedad cristiana como de la musulmana.

  12. A Post-Occidental Globe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Huseyin; Sanchez, Alejandra; Araya, Daniel; Gallaga, Drea; Kanogoiw, Fungai; Geary, James; Choe, Keecheng; Ullah, Khan Grogan; Carbajo, Lisa; Fitzpatrick, Margaret; Pour-Previti, Mercedes; Peters, Michael A.; Mukherjee, Mousumi; Britez, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    This is an experiment in conversation on the topic of "a post-occidental globe". It emerges from a moderated discussion group where members of a class--master's and PhD students--reflected upon a set of resources provided as part of a course in Global Studies in Education at the University of Illinois. The conversation threads were moderated and…

  13. In Search of the Ideal Reader for Nonfiction Children's Books about el Dia de Los Muertos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Denise

    2012-01-01

    In mainstream American culture, death is not usually talked about openly. It is discussed privately among adults because death is often regarded as a final ending. Nevertheless, many elementary school teachers discuss el Dia de los Muertos with their students. The celebration of el Dia de los Muertos, in contrast to dominant ideology, commemorates…

  14. In Search of the Ideal Reader for Nonfiction Children's Books about el Dia de Los Muertos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Denise

    2012-01-01

    In mainstream American culture, death is not usually talked about openly. It is discussed privately among adults because death is often regarded as a final ending. Nevertheless, many elementary school teachers discuss el Dia de los Muertos with their students. The celebration of el Dia de los Muertos, in contrast to dominant ideology, commemorates…

  15. Arte egipcio y arquitectura occidental

    OpenAIRE

    Vela Cossio, Fernando

    1997-01-01

    La revitalización de modelos procedentes del arte egipcio antiguo ha llenado buena parte de la actividad artística en Occidente durante los últimos trescientos años. Desde el diseño de un simple ex-libris hasta las más complejas creaciones de arquitectos, decoradores o escenógrafos, las referencias más o menos sutiles a las manifestaciones originales del arte del Antiguo Egipto se han venido produciendo como resultado de una actitud impulsada tanto por la curiosidad artística como por la búsq...

  16. El Estado laico y Occidente

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    Roberto Blancarte Pimentel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿A qué se refieren por Occidente sus detractores? ¿Cómo lo concebimos nosotros mismos? ¿Cuáles son sus valores e instituciones centrales? ¿Cómo entendemos la expansión de esos valores e instituciones y su relación con otras culturas? ¿Son la secularización y la laicidad de las instituciones políticas un elemento central y específico de nuestra cultura? ¿Son parte integrante de lo que algunos grupos consideran la agresión de Occidente hacia sus sociedades? ¿Es compatible la secularización de la sociedad y la laicización de las instituciones políticas, del Estado o de la esfera pública, con otras culturas? Más allá de las implicaciones en materia de violencia o, eventualmente, de estrategia militar, es evidente que las respuestas que se den a estos interrogantes tienen múltiples consecuencias sobre la estabilidad social, la seguridad, las migraciones, las libertades, las concepciones de vida y sobre todo, sobre las formas de convivencia social. Entonces tenemos que detenernos para saber quiénes somos ante nosotros mismos y los demás. En este artículo se presenta una posible respuesta a estos interrogantes.

  17. Arte egipcio y arquitectura occidental

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    Fernando Vela Cossío

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available La revitalización de modelos procedentes del arte egipcio antiguo ha llenado buena parte de la actividad artística en Occidente durante los últimos trescientos años. Desde el diseño de un simple ex-libris hasta las más complejas creaciones de arquitectos, decoradores o escenógrafos, las referencias más o menos sutiles a las manifestaciones originales del arte del Antiguo Egipto se han venido produciendo como resultado de una actitud impulsada tanto por la curiosidad artística como por la búsqueda de lo exótico desde las primeras décadas del Setecientos. La historia del resurgimiento del arte Egipcio, como la del Griego, el Romano o el Gótico, forma parte de la historia del arte de la Edad Contemporánea. Las líneas siguientes sólo aspiran a mostrar ciertos aspectos de esta historia, la de la imagen egipcia del arte occidental La Prehistoria del Neoegipcio se remontaría hasta

  18. La proyección colonial de Chile a la Patagonia Insular en el siglo XVIII

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    Urbina Carrasco, María Ximena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the geopolitical consequences of the shipwreck of the English frigate Wager and the landfall of the ship Anna into the coasts of the Western Insular Patagonia in 1741 are presented, which were part of the fleet of George Anson. The news reporting the English presence in the deserted and unknown insular and coastal territory southernmost Chiloé, and which had disseminated towards the end of the continent, promoted the deployment of different actions tending to make presence noted, such as military and missionary expeditions, fort establishment and area patrols. None of the latter implied a permanent settlement or effective incorporation of such border, although they indeed involved the creation of a «mobile frontier» for Chiloé and the development of a Western Patagonia image.

    Este artículo presenta las consecuencias geopolíticas del naufragio de la fragata inglesa Wager y la recalada de otro barco, el Anna, que formaban parte de la flota de George Anson, en las costas de la Patagonia Occidental Insular en 1741. La noticia de la presencia inglesa en el despoblado y desconocido territorio insular y bordemarino al sur de Chiloé, y que se proyectaba al fin del continente, generó el despliegue de acciones tendentes a marcar presencia, como expediciones militares y misionales, la fundación de un fuerte y el patrullaje por la zona. Nada de esto se tradujo en un asentamiento permanente o incorporación efectiva de dicha frontera, pero si en la conformación de una «frontera móvil» de Chiloé, y la construcción de una imagen de la Patagonia Occidental.

  19. Dia de los Muertos: Images, Art, and Altar on display at Squires Student Center

    OpenAIRE

    Broughton, Sandra S.

    2008-01-01

    Dia de los Muertos: Images, Art, and Altar, an exhibition featuring photographs from Mexico, artifacts from the festival, and both traditional and contemporary altars, will be on display at the Perspective Gallery in Squires Student Center through Saturday, Nov. 8.

  20. Entre las devociones populares y el culto a los muertos en el paisaje ritual

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    María Azucena Colatarci

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene por objetivo reflexionar sobre las vinculaciones y desvinculaciones entre las devociones populares y el culto a los muertos en contextos sociales de tradición católica ya que entendemos que dichas devociones tienen su origen en el culto a los muertos del cual se escinden para erigirse en devociones con dinámica propia. Asimismo se plantea que en el denominado paisaje ritual se plasman los signos de la religiosidad popular.

  1. Sebo bueno, indio muerto: la estructura de una creencia andina

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    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available 'SEBO BUENO, INDIO MUERTO' : LA STRUCTURE D'UNE CROYANCE ANDINE. L’auteur analyse le sens de la croyance du pishtaco à travers sa place structurelle dans la culture andine et son histoire. Par ses caractéristiques la figure mythique du preneur de graisse andin ne peut correspondre à une divinité. La fonction symbolique de la graisse dans les cultures andines préhispanique et actuelle lui donne un premier sens indigène. Les vertus pratiques de la graisse humaine dans la médecine européenne du XVIIè siècle, ainsi que les données d’ethnographie espagnole, lui donnent sa signification dans l’histoire coloniale. Enfin sa dimension sacrificielle éclaire l’articulation de ces deux sens en montrant la structure de la croyance. La autora analiza el sentido de la creencia en el pishtaco a través de su posición estructural en la cultura andina y su historia. Por sus características la figura mítica del degollador andino no puede corresponder a una divinidad. La función simbólica de la grasa en las culturas prehispánica y actual le da un primer sentido indígena. Las propiedades prácticas de la grasa humana en la medicina europea del siglo XVII, así como los datos de etnografía española, le dan su significado en la historia colonial. Finalmente su dimensión de sacrificio revela la articulación de estos dos sentidos, mostrando a la vez la estructura de la creencia. 'SEBO BUENO, INDIO MUERTO': THE STRUCTURE OF AN ANDEAN BELIEF. The author analyzes the pishtaco belief by way of his structural position in the Andean culture and its history. The characteristics of the mythical figure of the Andean fat collector are such that it cannot be considered as a deity. His indigenous meaning derives, first and foremost, from the symbolic function of fat in prehispanic and contemporary Andean cultures while his significance in colonial history is tied both to the practical properties of human fat in seventeenth-century European medicine, and

  2. Iconografías emergentes y muertes patrimonializadas en América Latina: Santa Muerte, muertos milagrosos y muertos adoptados

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    Juan Antonio Flores Martos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Exploro etnográficamente unos imaginarios en sociedades latinoamericanas donde la muerte tiene un protagonismo y agencia relevante y su conexión con unas figuras y cultos emergentes que pretenden encarnarla como un bien y patrimonio propio. A partir de la Santa Muerte en México, se establece un contraste comparativo con los procesos de patrimonialización cultural de la muerte en otras sociedades americanas: manufactura de muertos milagrosos –santos populares– en cementerios, y procesos de elección y de «adopción» de muertos anónimos víctimas de la violencia en Colombia –los llamados muertos NN–. Estos cultos emergentes se conectan con la experiencia de sus practicantes de tomar el control de sus vidas en un precario estado de vulnerabilidad social, desamparados de instituciones estatales y estructuras oficiales. Unos «muertos vivientes» que disfrutan de buena salud.

  3. José Luis Hidalgo, poeta de los muertos

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    Román GARCÍA-CAMINO MATEOS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La figura de José Luis Hidalgo (Torres, 1919-Madrid, 1947, poeta y pintor, ha de tomar un nuevo relieve como representante de una generación de autores montañeses que surgió en torno a los años cuarenta. Destaca en su breve obra, al igual que su corta pero intensa vida, la extrema sensibilidad de su poesía en el uso de imágenes, metáforas que acercan sus versos hacia el terreno de lo plástico y sensorial. Las preocupaciones son de profunda raigambre existencialista, al ser nuestro poeta un joven lector de pensadores como Nietzsche, Schopenhauer o Unamuno; es con este último con el que guarda una ineludible afinidad de ideas. La búsqueda que emprende José Luis Hidalgo hacia la verdad se sitúa dentro de una metafísica trascendente y una vertiente religiosa muy significativa, en un diálogo sincero y directo con Dios. Contrasta la sencillez formal de su poesía con el complejo sistema simbólico de elementos naturales, espacios... en los que se mueve dentro del marco fluctuante entre la tradición y la vanguardia; encontramos resonancias que nos llevan desde el romanticismo becqueriano, pasando por el simbolismo, hasta los movimientos vanguardistas —sobre todo el surrealismo— y el grupo poético del 27. La obra de Los muertos supone un momento culmen del dilatado periodo de posguerra.ABSTRACT: The literary figure of José Luis Hidalgo (Torres, 1919-Madrid, 1947, both a poet and a painter, achieves renown once more as a representative of a generation of writers from Cantabria (in the north of Spain which came to light around the 1940's. His work, as brief as his short but intense life, is remarkable for the great feeling of his poetry in the use of imagery and metaphors, which draw his verse near the domain of the vivid and sensorial. His concerns have deep existentialist roots; as a young man the poet was a devoted reader of great thinkers such as Nietzsche, Schopenhauer or Unamuno; it is the latter with whom he has an

  4. Dejar de contar los muertos y contar la realidad

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    Ana María López Rojas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Colombia, un país que enfrenta una crisis económica, política y social, necesita de una sociedad consciente, que no tire la tarea de hacer país a unos cuantos, los que quieran gobernar y tomar parte de lo que es nuestro y ya estamos olvidando, necesita de periodistas jueces de las verdades y no de paparazzis siempre preparados para entrar a hacer noticias con cámaras de televisión y grabadoras portátiles; profesionales de la información, y esto, en todo el sentido de la palabra, porque "Ias malas noticias no son las buenas", porque los medios de comunicación tienen ya que dejar de contar los muertos para comenzar a contar la realidad.La guerra no está representada en guerrilleros ni paramilítares, el problema está entre nosotros, robots con caras felices incapaces de cuestionarnos acerca de la sociedad que queremos, una población escéptica que espera que los cambios sean logrados por todos sin pensar que entre esos todos estamos incluidos; corno res-pon-sa-bles de la información tenemos que interpretarla, olvidarnos por un momento de la sintonía y el raiting, lo que el país necesita no es una masa escuchando respuestas tontas, tenemos que exigir realidades, noticias bien abordadas y periodistas conscientes de su responsabilidad social, medios que cuenten realidades, que no malentiendan la competencia, que midan el peligro de las palabras y que no ofrezcan miradas sesgadas del presente colombiano.

  5. Anaglyph: Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (bright patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (dark lakes with bright shores). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to

  6. Stereo Pair: Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (green patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (blue). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7 satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7

  7. Los Dias de Los Muertos. The Days of the Dead. 1991 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sarah; Turkovich, Marilyn

    The Dias de los Muertos is a celebration of Mexico that is a recognition of mortality, transience, and death, and a celebration of life, hope, and resurrection. This curriculum activity book begins with a general introduction to the festival followed by sections of explanations and activities intended to engage the learner in various aspects of…

  8. El Dia de los Muertos -- Libreto. (The Day of the Dead -- Notebook.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Delia; Lopez, Santiago, III

    On November 2, all Mexican Americans remember their dead as Mexico does on that same day. Called "El Dia de los Muertos" (Day of the Dead), the dead are remembered posthumously with flowers, candles, music, prayers, chants, and wreaths. The people go to cemeteries to clean tombs, lay fresh or artificial flowers on them, and pray for…

  9. Balkan variations of Orientalism and Occidentalism

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    Nikolay Aretov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Summarizing, the aim of this paper was to provoke scrutinizing in a Balkan context the notions of Orientalism and Occidentalism – two forms of demonizing the Other, coined in the age of Enlightenment, two phenomena that are ambivalent and imported from other cultures. They interact in a curious manner and took critical place in the mythologues of all the nations in the region although in different ways.

  10. Gravity modeling of the Muertos Trough and tectonic implications (north-eastern Caribbean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Bruna J. L.; Munoz-Martin, A.; ten Brink, U.S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Llanes, Estrada P.; Martin-Davila, J.; Cordoba-Barba, D.; Catalan, Morollon M.

    2010-01-01

    The Muertos Trough in the northeast Caribbean has been interpreted as a subduction zone from seismicity, leading to infer a possible reversal subduction polarity. However, the distribution of the seismicity is very diffuse and makes definition of the plate geometry difficult. In addition, the compressive deformational features observed in the upper crust and sandbox kinematic modeling do not necessarily suggest a subduction process. We tested the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc using gravity modeling. Gravity models simulating a subduction process yield a regional mass deficit beneath the island arc independently of the geometry and depth of the subducted slab used in the models. This mass deficit results from sinking of the less dense Caribbean slab beneath the lithospheric mantle replacing denser mantle materials and suggests that there is not a subducted Caribbean plateau beneath the island arc. The geologically more realistic gravity model which would explain the N-S shortening observed in the upper crust requires an overthrusted Caribbean slab extending at least 60 km northward from the deformation front, a progressive increase in the thrusting angle from 8?? to 30?? reaching a maximum depth of 22 km beneath the insular slope. This new tectonic model for the Muertos Margin, defined as a retroarc thrusting, will help to assess the seismic and tsunami hazard in the region. The use of gravity modeling has provided targets for future wide-angle seismic surveys in the Muertos Margin. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Día de los Muertos: Learning About Death Through Observing and Pitching In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Isabel T; Rosengren, Karl S; Miller, Peggy J

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores how young children in the state of Puebla, Mexico are socialized with respect to death by observing and pitching in during the annual celebration for día de los muertos. This chapter focuses on observations made of children's participation in practices related to día de los muertos and their experiences with death as explored through ethnographic interviews of preschool children and adults from the cities of Cholula and Puebla. We found that children were included in all aspects of día de los muertos and participated by hanging out, observing, pitching in, and listening. Parents (and grandparents) viewed this active participation as crucial for children to acquire the skills and traditions necessary to be responsible adults in their culture. The current research provides new perspectives regarding the study of children and death within the field of developmental psychology by focusing on how multiple modes of participation are an integral part of young children's socialization with death.

  12. Heat flow and thermal processes in the Jornada delMuerto, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.

    1985-01-01

    Most heat flow data in rifts are uncertain largely because of hydrologic disturbances in regions of extensive fracturing. Estimates of heat flow in deep petroleum tests within a large basin of the Rio Grande rift, which has suffered little syn-rift fracturing, may begin to provide clearer insight into the relationships between high heat flow and crustal thinning processes. The Jornada del Muerto is a large basin located in the Rio Grande rift of south central New Mexico. The region of interest within the Jornada del Muerto is centered about 30 km east of the town of Truth or Consequences, and is approximately 60 km north-south by 30 km east-west. High heat flows are estimated for the region. Values increase from about 90 mWm(-2) in the northern part of the study area to about 125 mWm(-2) in the southern part. These high heat flows are rather enigmatic because in the immediate vicinities of the sites there is little evidence of Cenozoic volcanism or syn-rift extensional tectonics. It is suggested that the geothermal anomaly in the southern Jornada del Muerto (approx. 125 to approx. 95 mWm(-2) results from some type of mass movement-heat transfer mechanism operating in the crust just below the elastic layer. This conclusion is consistent with the geologic and geophysical data which describe a thin crust, apparently devoid of features indicative of extensional-tectonics in the upper part of the lastic crust.

  13. Paleomobility in the Tiwanaku diaspora: biogeochemical analyses at Rio Muerto, Moquegua, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Kelly J; Goldstein, Paul S; Dahlstedt, Allisen; Somerville, Andrew; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2014-11-01

    Paleomobility has been a key element in the study of the expansion of ancient states and empires, including the Tiwanaku polity of the South Central Andes (AD 500-1000). We present radiogenic strontium and oxygen isotope data from human burials from three cemeteries in the Tiwanaku-affiliated Middle Horizon archaeological site complex of Rio Muerto in the Moquegua Valley of southern Peru. At Rio Muerto, archaeological human enamel and bone values range from (87) Sr/(86) Sr = 0.70657-0.72018, with a mean of (87) Sr/(86) Sr = 0.70804 ± 0.00207 (1σ, n = 55). For the subset of samples analyzed for oxygen isotope values (n = 48), the data ranges from δ(18) Ocarbonate(VSMOW)  = +18.1 to +27.0‰. When contextualized with other lines of archaeological evidence, we interpret these data as evidence for an archaeological population in which the majority of individuals had "local" origins, and were likely second-generation, or more, immigrants from the Tiwanaku heartland in the altiplano. Based on detailed life history data, we argue a smaller number of individuals came at different ages from various regions within the Tiwanaku polity. We consider whether these individuals with isotopic values consistent with "nonlocal" geographic origins could represent first-generation migrants, marriage exchange partners, or occupationally mobile herders, traders or other travelers. By combining isotopic life history studies with mortuary treatment data, we use a person-centered migration history approach to state integration and expansion. Isotopic analyses of paleomobility at the Rio Muerto site complex contribute to the role of diversity in ancient states by demonstrating the range of geographic origins rather than simply colonists from the Lake Titicaca Basin.

  14. Éric Courthès, Memorias de un muerto, el viaje sin retorno de Amado Bonpland

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Bordenave

    2011-01-01

    En su primera novela, Éric Courthès nos da a escuchar la voz de un muerto famoso, Amado Bonpland, nacido en La Rochela en 1773 y muerto en Corrientes en 1858, al cabo de más de cuarenta años de viajes, exploraciones, amores, amistades e implicaciones en la Guerra Grande entre Rosas y Corrientes y otros conflictos regionales.Amado Bonpland se dio a conocer en 1804, al volver de la famosa expedición del Orinoco al Amazonas con Alejandro de Humboldt. Después su buena estrella lo llevó hasta el r...

  15. Marine reptiles from the Late Cretaceous of northern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Z.; Casadio, S.; Fernández, M.; Salgado, L.

    2001-04-01

    During the Campanian-Maastrichtian, Patagonia was flooded by the Atlantic and reduced to an archipelago. Several localities of northern Patagonia have yielded marine reptiles. Analysis of several assemblages suggests that the diversity and abundance of pelagic marine reptiles in northern Patagonia was higher by the end of the Cretaceous than previously thought. Several plesiosaurids, including Aristonectes parvidens and the polycotylid Sulcusuchus, and the first remains of mosasaurinae have been found. The Cretaceous marine reptile record from South America is scanty. Nevertheless, materials described here suggest that Tethyan and Weddelian forms converged in northern Patagonia, as seen with invertebrates.

  16. Los Muertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Jeanne

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Un homme sort de prison et monte dans une barque pour s’enfoncer dans la jungle, et se réapproprier cet espace dont on comprend peu à peu qu’il est originaire. La caméra aime faire durer les plans pour fixer un cadre puis s’en détacher doucement, élargir le champ pour mieux capter cet environnement entre forêt et rivière, et resserrer vers cet homme pas bavard dont on peine à cerner le but. La photographie soyeuse s’adapte à l’humidité et à la chaleur ambiante, et la musique évoque un voyage...

  17. El origen de la Secta del Mar Muerto a la luz de 4QMMT

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    César Vidal Manzanares

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Los datos conocidos hasta la fecha ligados a los que aporta la publicación del documento denominado 4QMMT contribuyen a esclarecer alguno de los aspectos más oscuros de la historia de los sectarios del mar Muerto. En primer lugar, creemos que deberían descartarse de manera definitiva las identificaciones de la secta con fariseos, zelotes y judeo- cristianos. El origen de la secta fue saduceo, aunque el paso del tiempo la fuera radicalizando progresivamente hasta el punto de convertirla en un ente que ya poco contacto tenía con aquellos, salvo en aspectos formales. En segundo lugar, también parece que se puede fijar, al menos aproximadamente, la fecha de surgimiento de la secta. De no ser ésta la señalada en este artículo, sólo pudo variar en un margen realmente estrecho de años si deseamos que encaje con los datos paleográficos, arqueológicos e históricos de que disponemos. Pero, en estos momentos, no creemos que se pueda pensar en una alternativa igual de convincente a la que proponemos. En tercer lugar, nos parece que sigue sin demostrarse de manera tajante (aunque no puede negarse la posibilidad y, hoy por hoy, sea la más verosímil que la secta del mar Muerto fueran los esenios. Ciertamente pudo ser así, pero también cabe la posibilidad de que éstos fueran anteriores a la secta del Mar Muerto y que, posteriormente, se fusionaran con ésta o la influyeran de manera definitiva. El documento 4QMMT parece, pues, desde nuestro punto de vista, concluir de manera definitiva la discusión en torno a los orígenes de la secta de Qumran. Su identificación final, tras las fases iniciales de su historia, sigue siendo, a nuestro juicio, aún materia abierta a la controversia.

  18. Two Views of Liberty, Occidental and Oriental(?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leoni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, by the late Bruno Leoni, was originally presented at a special meeting of the Mont Pèlerin Society (Tokyo, Sept. 5–10, 1966, and was originally published in the Italian journal Il Politico in 1966. The paper displays Leoni’s fondness for Chinese culture, and is essentially a defense of the unity of mankind. Westerners are often of the belief that the Occidental, or Western, individual freedom-based view of liberty is distinct from the Oriental (Eastern view of liberty. Leoni challenges this perspective. Mill believed that disregard for custom was what made the West both free and different from the rest of the world, while the Oriental approach is more backward and based on blind respect for customs. However, custom has often been invoked both in the East and in the West to oppose and limit the power of tyrants, and to defend or to secure civil or political liberty. Mill argued that disregard of custom accounts for novelty, novelty for diversity of character and culture, and the latter for freedom and progress, but there was an unsurpassed diversity of character and culture when Oriental and Occidental people were put together under the rule of the Roman emperors. Furthermore, the “Orient” was not monotonous, dull, and homogeneous, as Mill presumed; to the contrary, Europe cannot show in any period of its history a variety of races, languages, cultures, philosophies and religions even slightly comparable to those of India or China. In fact, Buddha and Confucius were both concerned mainly with individual freedom. Confucius’s theory of society, in particular, was very individualistic; he clearly formulated for the first time in recorded history that principle of “reciprocity,” the “golden rule” for any liberal society. He maintained that the very fundamental principle for a happy society is “Not doing to others what one does not wish them do to one’s self.” Confucius shared, along with the greatest masters of

  19. Silêncios, os Sons dos Rios, os Sons das Cidades: Los Muertos e Liverpool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSTA, Fernando Morais da

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This arcticle aims to analyze the relation between sounds and images in Lisandro Alonso’s Los Muertos and Liverpool. It is of our interest to think about the narrative roles given to sound effects and ambient sounds, to speak of the importance given to such sound elements, opposite to the minor role played by music and dialogue, all that working within the cinematic regime of the sequence shot. Therefore, this work tries, most of all, to investigate how ambient sounds and diegetic noises contribute for such a particular temporal construction. It is also a secundary goal to establish some relationship between those films and other examples of a cinema that has declined the usual dialogue’s central narrative part, as well as to recall the ideia and definition of a cinema of poetry.

  20. Sweet cherry production in South Patagonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.; Sanz, C.E.; Pugh, A.B.; Peri, P.L.; Szlápelis, E.; Cárcamo, M.A.; Kikuchi, N.; Manavella, F.A.; San Martino, L.; Ñancucheo, J.A.; Muñoz, M.; Ridder, de N.; Keulen, van H.; Mundet, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In South Patagonia, the total sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) area has increased from 176 ha in 1997 to 507 ha in 2004, of which 232 ha are located in Los Antiguos (46°19¿ SL; 220 m elevation), 158 ha in the Lower Valley of Chubut River (LVCHR) (43°16¿ SL; 30 m elevation), 52 ha in Sarmiento (45°35¿

  1. Flourishing of Occidentalism in Iran After Cultural Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalaleh ZABARDAST

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modernity changed the community interests; it idealized individuality and liberal democracy, and based its main aim on pushing religion to the outskirts of human life. Western Christianity adjusted to modernity to justify the developments while Islam accepted it only to the extent of its capacity to authenticate the realities stated by the Qur’an. Orientalism, Occidentalism, and Islamism play impressive role in a variety of contexts today. Occidentalism in its popular variety helps to reinforce the identities. This study considers the power relationship between people and cultures. The roles and the identities are changing throughout history. Nowadays Islamic culture is one of popular subjects to study on. So, the Muslim world and revival of Islamic culture are the beginning of Occidentalism. Occidentalism is developed in the Orient in order to study the West from a non-Western World point of view. It can be referred as revival of identity (for isteghrab in Arab world by Hasan Hanafi or Talibanian or ISIS Occidentalists movements which stand for empowering Arab culture, Wahhabism or Salafism. All are revivalist movements to rapture Islamism as an ideology. This article tries to focus on the concept of Occidentalism in Iran after Iran Cultural Revolution.

  2. Hydrographic data from the GEF Patagonia cruises

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    M. Charo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrographic data reported here were collected within the framework of the Coastal Contamination, Prevention and Marine Management project (GEF Patagonia, which was part of the scientific agenda of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP. The project goal was to strengthen efforts to improve sustainable management of marine biodiversity and reduce pollution of the Patagonia marine environment. The observational component of the project included three multi-disciplinary oceanographic cruises designed to improve the knowledge base of the marine environment and to determine the seasonal variability of physical, biological and chemical properties of highly productive regions in the southwest South Atlantic continental shelf. The cruises were carried out on board R/V Ara Puerto Deseado, in October 2005 and March and September 2006. In each cruise, hydrographic stations were occupied along cross-shelf sections spanning the shelf from near-shore to the western boundary currents between 38° and 55° S. This paper reports the quasi-continuous vertical profiles (CTD and underway surface temperature and salinity data collected during the GEF Patagonia cruises. These data sets are available at the National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA. US, doi:10.7289/V5RN35S0.

  3. La crisis europea en Revista de Occidente (1923-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Camazón Linacero

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, el autor analiza la crisis europea y la depresión económica en el periodo de entreguerras, prestando atención principalmente a las repercusiones de estos hechos en la obra de José Ortega y Gasset y en Revista de Occidente. La crisis de conciencia y la idea de Europa, el papel de las élites y el acceso de las masas al poder social son las cuestiones fundamentales tratadas por los escritores de Revista de Occidente. También explica las soluciones económicas que propuso la revista.In this article, the author analyses the European crisis and the economic Depression in the inter-war period, paying attention principalty to the repercussions of these events in the work of José Ortega y Gasset and in Revista de Occidente. The chsisconsciounsness and the idea of Europa, the role of the élites and the accession of the masses to the social power are the fundamental questions treated by the whters of Revista de Occidente. Also, he explains the economic solutlons that the review proposes.

  4. AIRSAR studies of woody shrub density in semiarid rangeland: Jornada del Muerto, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, H.B.; Schaber, G.S.; Breed, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of polarimetric Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data to assess woody shrub density in a semiarid site where the vegetation consists primarily of varied mixtures of herbaceous vegetation and shrubs. AIRSAR data and field observations of vegetation cover and growth form-composition were obtained for 59 sites in the Jornada del Muerto plain in southern New Mexico. Radar signature measures examined were C-, L- and P-band backscattering coefficients (??0) for HH, HV and W polarizations, ratios of ??0HH and ??0HV to ??0VV, and the HH-VV polarization phase difference and correlation coefficient. The most effective measure for estimation of shrub density was L-band ??0HV, which distinguished among shrub density classes with no misclassification. Sensitivity of this measure to small amounts of shrub cover was indicated by successful separation of sites with Jornada del Muerto plain in southern New Mexico. Radar signature measures examined were C-, L- and P-band backscattering coefficients (??0) for HH, HV and VV polarizations, ratios of ??0HH and ??0HV to ??0VV, and the HH-VV polarization phase difference and correlation coefficient. The most effective measure for estimation of shrub density was L-band ??0HV, which distinguished among shrub density classes with no misclassification. Sensitivity of this measure to small amounts of shrub cover was indicated by successful separation of sites with <1% shrub cover from sites with 1-5% cover. Separability of shrub density classes was generally least for C-band signature measures. A distinctive radar signature was exhibited by dense stands of Yucca elata, a semitreelike plant with uniformly thick (???10 cm diameter) fibrous stems. Yucca sites were distinguished from others by their high P-band ??0HV relative to L-band ??0HV. The results are largely explained by the greater sensitivity of longer wavelengths to larger canopy structural elements. L-band ??0HV and other measures responsive to

  5. The Pali Aike Windstreak Field, Southern Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Kargel, J. S.; Tanaka, K. L.; Yamamoto, A.; Sasaki, S.

    2008-03-01

    Windstreaks are amongst the most common aeolian landforms on Mars, yet they are extremely rare on Earth. We have identified and carried out field based observations of an outstanding zone of windstreaks in southern Patagonia Argentina.

  6. Migrazioni a Nord. Visioni d’Occidente nella letteratura araba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Salvioli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparando alcuni testi della letteratura odeporica araba, lo studio intende rovesciare la direzione dello sguardo Ovest/Est. Il viaggio appare un tema ricorrente nella tradizione araba: il viaggio ‘sacro’, il pellegrinaggio alla Mecca, che dà occasione ai geografi medievali di descrivere le terre e i climi che attraversano, è sostituito tra l’Ottocento e gli inizi del Novecento dalla missione di studio o viaggio ‘profano’ in Occidente. Le prime opere di rilievo della letteratura araba moderna sono costituite proprio dai resoconti di viaggio, in particolare in Europa. Tra questi, celebri i racconti di al-Tahtawi e al-Shidyaq, seguiti da opere come La stagione della migrazione a Nord di Tayeb Salih, sino ad arrivare alla letteratura contemporanea della migrazione scritta anche in lingue diverse dall’arabo. Il percorso proposto è segnato da una significativa evoluzione della scrittura e dei generi, dalla ripresa della maqama e della rihla nei primi autori, all’adozione della forma romanzo o della cronaca nei più tardi. In conclusione si noterà che, come l’Occidente crea il proprio Oriente, l’Oriente costruisce il proprio Occidente, e dunque l’analisi dell’imagerie che l’altro elabora su di noi è necessaria quanto la demistificazione della nostra rappresentazione dell’altro.

  7. Thermal structure of proglacial lakes in Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shin; Minowa, Masahiro; Sakakibara, Daiki; Skvarca, Pedro; Sawagaki, Takanobu; Ohashi, Yoshihiko; Naito, Nozomu; Chikita, Kazuhisa

    2016-12-01

    Calving glaciers are rapidly retreating in many regions under the influence of ice-water interactions at the glacier front. In contrast to the numerous researches conducted on fjords in front of tidewater glaciers, very few studies have been reported on lakes in which freshwater calving glaciers terminate. To better understand ice-water interactions at the front of freshwater calving glaciers, we measured lakewater temperature, turbidity, and bathymetry near Glaciar Perito Moreno, Upsala, and Viedma, large calving glaciers of the Southern Patagonia Icefield. The thermal structures of these lakes were significantly different from those reported in glacial fjords. There was no indication of upwelling subglacial meltwater; instead, turbid and cold glacial water discharge filled the region near the lake bottom. This was because water density was controlled by suspended sediment concentrations rather than by water temperature. Near-surface wind-driven circulation reaches a depth of 180 m, forming a relatively warm isothermal layer (mean temperature of 5-6°C at Perito Moreno, 3-4°C at Upsala, and 6-7°C at Viedma), which should convey heat energy to the ice-water interface. However, the deeper part of the glacier front is in contact with stratified cold water, implying a limited amount of melting there. In the lake in front of Glaciar Viedma, the region deeper than 120 m was filled entirely with turbid and very cold water at pressure melting temperature. Our results revealed a previously unexplored thermal structure of proglacial lakes in Patagonia, suggesting its importance in the subaqueous melting of freshwater calving glaciers.

  8. La palabra de los muertos. Conferencias sobre criminología cautelar, de Raúl Eugenio Zaffaroni

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Bernal

    2012-01-01

    Luego de 23 años desde la primera edición de su Criminología aproximaciones desde un margen (1988), Raúl Eugenio Zaffaroni ofrece una nueva propuesta para la academia iberoamericana: la criminología cautelar. En la palabra de los muertos, conferencias de criminología cautelar (2011), uno de sus trabajos más recientes, el profesor argentino sintetiza buena parte de su producción intelectual acerca de la cuestión criminal y el pens...

  9. Buscar a los muertos entre los vivos: dar cuerpo a los desaparecidos de la dictadura argentina por el Derecho

    OpenAIRE

    Garibian, Sévane

    2013-01-01

    La política estatal de desapariciones forzadas en Argentina (política planificada y ejecutada durante la dictadura militar de 1976 a 1983) posee todavía, hoy día, un efecto impactante: en ausencia de los cuerpos de los desaparecidos, las familias buscan a los muertos entre los vivos. Para ellas se trata de dar cuerpo, por el Derecho, a las víctimas desaparecidas y situadas por ese acto fuera de la ley. Si “el colmo de la desaparición es su propia desaparición” (Jean-Louis Déotte), entonces re...

  10. Approaches at the study of passion in Jorge Luis Borges’ work. Doubt and hopelessness in El Muerto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alejandro Nitrihual Valdebenito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo investiga dos pasiones –duda y desesperanza– en el cuento El Muerto, perteneciente al libro El Aleph, de Jorge Luis Borges. Partiendo de las propuestas de Paolo Fabbri y Aljirdes Greimas, queremos mostrar cómo las pasiones se encuentran patentes en esta obra borgeana particular. Para ello, nos hemos servido de la metodología de Greimas sobre estructuras actanciales y modales, que son un elemento primordial para determinar cómo se manifiesta una pasión en el plano textual.

  11. Proterozoic SCLM domains beneath Southern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundl, Andrea; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Ackerman, Lukas; Bizimis, Michael; Bjerg, Ernesto

    2014-05-01

    Alkali basalt hosted mantle xenoliths from 3 different areas in South Patagonia were studied with regard to their petrography and chemical, as well as their Re-Os and Lu-Hf isotopic compositions. The Pali Aike Volcanic Field (PAVF) located in the very south of Patagonia comprises sample localities Salsa, El Ruido and Potrok Aike. About 300 km north, in the western part of Patagonia, samples were collected at Tres Lagos and further north-east, within and at the edge of the Deseado massif, are sample localities Gobernador Gregores and Don Camilo, respectively. The collected sample suite comprises sp-lherzolites, sp-harzburgites, one sp-dunite and exclusively within PAVF also sp-gt-lherzolites and sp-gt-harzburgites. Textures are mostly protogranular with very few samples showing weak foliation. Whole rock Al2O3 and CaO contents range from 0.63 to 3.54 wt.% and 0.24 to 3.44 wt.%, respectively and exhibit a linear correlation with MgO ranging from 39.2 to 49 wt.%. The more refractory peridotites are represented by samples from the PAVF while samples from the Deseado massif are generally more fertile. Indications for the formation age of SCLM domains can be provided using the Re-Os isotopic system. A suite of 24 modally unmetasomatised sp-lherzolites and sp-harzburgites analyzed for Re-Os isotopic composition reveals Neo- to Paleoproterozoic rhenium depletion ages. Don Camilo and Gobernador Gregores lherzolites indicate a SCLM formation in Mesoproterozoic times (0.9 to 1.3 Ga). Tres Lagos harzburgites reveal slightly older formation ages with a max. TRD of 1.7 Ga. Samples from within the PAVF vary more strongly in 187Os/188Os ratios with Neo- to late Paleoproterozoic TRDs. 3 refractory samples indicate an at least 2.4 Ga old formation age of the SCLM domain underneath PAVF. Hf isotopic data combined with the information obtained from Os isotopic analyses provide new information on potential metasomatic overprints and their probable timing. Negative to low positive

  12. Excavación del monolito de Supitaitz (Aralar Occidental.

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    Xabier Peñalver

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Se da cuenta, tras unas referencias en torno a la historia, situación y contexto del monolito de Supitaitz (Aralar Occidental, de los trabajos realizados durante la excavación de este monumento, así como de las estructuras y áreas próximas, detallándose la metodología seguida a lo largo de los mismos. Finalmente se da una interpretación basada en los datos obtenidos, desglosada en varios puntos.

  13. Occidentalism at War: Al-Qaida’s Resistance Rhetoric

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    Christopher Sims

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of resistance groups active in the War on Terror provides case-studies for an examination of Occidentalism. Al-Qaida constructs a West both homogeneously and pejoratively in order to represent the self as a single Islamic nation under attack from a barbarian other. Concerned with propagating their narrative, al-Qaida considers the media battle to be at the forefront of their efforts. Yet global dissemination of their message is double-edged: positively, it can inspire disparate would-be jihadists; negatively, it opens up the discourse to examination in West. The discourse is studied, dissected and ultimately incorporated into the Western knowledge structure.

  14. El problema del sujeto en la posmodernidad occidental

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    Mario Magallón Anaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El art culo cuestiona la tesis hist rica de la construcci n de sujeto moderno en Am rica Latina en los marcos de la democracia liberal, dado que los procesos de incorporaci n del hombre americano al mundo occidental se han presentado de forma contradictoria y ambigua en medio de los debates sobre la formaci n de las categor as de ciudadan a , de democracia y de sociedad civil , lo que lleva a pensar en la naturaleza de los movimientos y representaciones sociales actuales en Am rica Latina, pero tambi n en las pr cticas sociales cotidianas que incluyen lo ideol gico y lo pol tico institucional.

  15. La descolonización del Sáhara Occidental

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Millán, José María

    1991-01-01

    En febrero de 1976, España evacuaba el Sahara Occidental, después de noventa y un años de permanencia, dejando tras de si un territorio ocupado militarmente por Marruecos y Mauritania y un proceso de descolonización inconcluso, en virtud de los acuerdos tripartitos de Madrid, firmados en noviembre de 1975, por los cuales al régimen franquista se desentendía de las obligaciones que tenía como potencia administradora, según el artículo 73 de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas, ce...

  16. Wind regime and wind power in North Patagonia, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palese, C.; Laessig, J.L.; Cogliati, M.G.; Bastanski, M.A. [Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

    2000-07-01

    The present paper discusses wind and wind power characteristics in a region north of 40{sup o}S (North Patagonia, Argentina) as well as wind power projects sustainability. Extreme wind episodes influence most economic and social regional activities. Mean flow pattern was studied in three North Patagonia sites: Neuquen, Mari Menuco and Cutral-Co, by sampling analysis of wind direction and intensity during a year. Gusts were quantified and strong winds were studied. Available meteorological power was also estimated. It was observed that North Patagonia is a place of great wind power potential. However, the energy available, which is related to prevailing strong winds, is also associated to high gust occurrence which certainly restricts exploitation. (Author)

  17. El Dia de los Muertos: A Reference Module for Elementary and Middle School Students. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchick, Gloria Becker

    The story of the conquest of Mexico, Mezo-America, and South America is widely known, and most of the known traditions are referred to as historical events and in the past tense. "El Dia de los Muertos," however, is a perfect example of the blending of two cultures or transculturation. To ignore what California's large Hispanic…

  18. Preliminary study of the uranium favorability of the Jornada Del Muerto Basin and adjacent areas, South Central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templain, C.J.; Dotterrer, F.E.

    1978-06-01

    Data indicate that possible uranium host rocks include the Precambrian rocks, the Ordovician Bat Cave Formation and Cable Canyon Sandstone, the Permian Abo Formation, Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, and the Upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary McRae Formation. The Cenozoic sequence contains possible host beds; little is known, however, about its stratigraphy. Secondary uranium mineralization is found associated with faults in the Jornada area. All fault zones there are possible sites for uranium deposition. Possible sources for uranium in the Jornada del Muerto area include uraniferous Precambrian rocks, tuffaceous beds in the McRae Formation, and the Tertiary Datil and Thurman Formations. Hydrothermal solutions may have deposited the veinlike fluorite deposits, of which the purple varieties were found to be radioactive during this study.

  19. Planning for connections in the long-term in Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy T. Austin

    2009-01-01

    Establishing a long-term ecological research program and research collaborations in northwestern Patagonia. A workshop in San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, January 2009. The relict flora of Gondwanda, the mystic nature of the windswept Patagonian steppe, the Andes mountains and the southern beech forests, all combined, made San Carlos de Bariloche the perfect setting...

  20. Airborne laser altimetry survey of Glaciar Tyndall, Patagonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, K.; Casassa, G.; Rivera, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first airborne laser altimetry measurements of a glacier in South America are presented. Data were collected in November of 2001 over Glaciar Tyndall, Torres del Paine National Park, Chilean Patagonia, onboard a Twin Otter airplane of the Chilean Air Force. A laser scanner with a rotating pol...

  1. La descolonización del Sáhara Occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Martínez Millán

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available En febrero de 1976, España evacuaba el Sahara Occidental, después de noventa y un años de permanencia, dejando tras de si un territorio ocupado militarmente por Marruecos y Mauritania y un proceso de descolonización inconcluso, en virtud de los acuerdos tripartitos de Madrid, firmados en noviembre de 1975, por los cuales al régimen franquista se desentendía de las obligaciones que tenía como potencia administradora, según el artículo 73 de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas, cediendo la administración del territorio a Rabat y Nouakchott.

  2. Cultura y salud: medicina tradicional y medicina occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Eddowes Villarán

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo constituye una reflexión acerca de la relación entre cultura y salud y la medida en que la primera determina la concepción y la práctica en el campo de la segunda. Se establece una comparación entre medicina tradicional y medicina occidental y la práctica de sus representantes: el curandero y el médico respectivamente. Se discute la posibilidad de rescatar un saber ancestral que es una fuente potencial para la investigación psicológica. Se concluye afirmando que los sistemas médicos son estructuras pluralistas en donde la medicina moderna es sólo un componente en relación de complementaridad y competencia respecto a otras alternativas terapéuticas.

  3. Canadian Occidental joins Hunt as Yemen oil producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, J.

    1994-02-01

    On 23 September 1993, the Canadian Occidental Petroleum Company initiated the export of 120,000 b/d (barrels a day) of low sulphur, medium gravity crude oil from its Masila Block concession in Yemen. The oil is transported from Masila via a pipeline built by CanOxy and its partners to a new terminal at Ash Shihr, near Mukalla, in the Gulf of Aden. CanOxy is the third operator oil company to produce oil commercially in Yemen. The first, the Hunt Oil Company, began production in December 1987 and its output now totals about 187,000 b/d. The second, Nimir Petroleum, a Saudi venture which took over the facilities developed in the 1980s by two Soviet companies, is currently producing about 10,000 b/d and expects to increase its output to 25,000 b/d during this year. (Author)

  4. Analysis of obsidian sources in the southern Sierra Madre occidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, J.A.; Hayashida, F.M.

    1994-12-31

    From 1991 to 1993, field surveys and geologic sampling were conducted in the region of the southern Sierra Madre Occidental in the states of Durango, Zacatecas, and Jalisco, Mexico, to investigate three previously unreported sources of obsidian or volcanic glass. The source areas are Huitzila-La Lobera, Llano Grande, and Nochistlan. Obsidian`s importance as a raw material in premodern societies for the production of tools and articles of adornment is well documented, particularly for Mesoamerica. Investigation of northern mesoamerican obsidian offers new data on these little known sources located to the north of the more thoroughly studied sources of the Mexican Neovolcanic chain. Neutron activation analysis was used to characterize the materials.

  5. Encuentros entre la India y Occidente en el mundo antiguo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Román López

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Hay diversos testimonios sobre relaciones comerciales y culturales que, mucho antes de la caída de Babilonia y hasta el siglo vi de nuestra Era, tenían lugar entre el Próximo Oriente y Occidente, por un lado, y la India por otro. La expedición de Alejandro Magno en la India dio lugar no sólo a contactos militares, sino a debates filosófico-religiosos. Se halla una descripción casi completa de la flora en los autores griegos, y no es posible ignorar el arte grecobúdico que floreció después de la muerte de Alejandro en los reinos helénicos de la frontera. Está demostrado que misioneros budistas fueron enviados por el emperador Ashoka a Siria, Egipto, IVIacedonia, etc. En la época del Imperio romano las relaciones entre la India y el mundo occidental fueron muy frecuentes.There are several testimonies about comercial and cultural relationships that, after the falling of Babilonia and unta the VI century of our edge, were made between next Orient and Occident in one side, and India on the other side. The expedition of Alexander the Great to India made, note only military relations but philosophie and religious debates. It has been found a mostly complete description of the Flora on the greek authors, and it's not posible to ignore the grecobudie art that bloomed after Alexander death at the Helenio Kingdoms on the border. It's preved that budist missioners were send by the Ashoka emperor to Siria, Egipt, Macedonie, etc. On the Román Empire edge the relationships between India and the Occident worid were so frecuent.

  6. Diversity, distribution and floral specificity of tangle-veined flies (Diptera: Nemestrinidae in north west Patagonia, Argentina Diversidad, distribución y especificidad floral de nemestrínidos (Diptera en el noroeste de la Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANO DEVOTO

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Tangle-veined flies (Nemestrinidae constitute a primitive and rather widespread family among Diptera. The genus Trichophthalma occurs in Australia and South America and is the only one in the family with a typically Gondwanian, disjoint distribution. The ecology and distribution of most southern South American species of this genus remains virtually unknown. We studied the diversity, distribution and flower specificity of flower-visiting species of the genus Trichophthalma in the temperate forests of southern South America in ten sites along an east-west rainfall gradient (37-40°S on the eastern slope of the Andes. We recorded nine species of Trichophthalma, which showed an overlapped distribution along the gradient and different degrees of floral specificity. Three species are reported for Argentina for the first time and three are first recorded as flower visitors to the local flora. Our results show that while in southern Africa tangle-veined flies are engaged in highly specialized pollination interactions with long-tubed species, the Trichophthalma spp. of Patagonia share their flowers with a diverse and rather unspecialized visitor fauna among which several species of flies, bees and birds are presentLos nemestrínidos constituyen una familia de Dípteros primitiva y de amplia distribución. El género Trichophthalma se encuentra en Australia y Sudamérica y es el único en la familia con una distribución disjunta típicamente gondwánica. La ecología y distribución de la mayoría de las especies sudamericanas permanecen virtualmente desconocidas. Estudiamos la diversidad, distribución y especificidad floral de las especies del género Trichophthalma de los bosques templados del sur de Sudamérica en diez sitios ubicados a lo largo de un gradiente de precipitación este-oeste (37-40°S sobre la vertiente occidental de los Andes. Registramos nueve especies de Trichophthalma, las cuales mostraron una distribución superpuesta a lo largo

  7. Morphologic characterization of Peromyscus schmidlyi (Rodentia: Cricetidae), an endemic of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Celia López-González; Diego F. García-Mendoza; Miguel M. Correa-Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    .... We compared and contrasted P. schmidlyi with P. boylii rowleyi and P. spicilegus, morphologically similar and partially sympatric species, and reevaluated the distribution of the 3 species in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) of Mexico. P...

  8. Woven Connections: Group Identity, Style, and the Textiles of the "A" and "B" Cemeteries at the Site of Río Muerto (M43), Moquegua Valley, Southern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Plunger, Elizabeth Marie

    2009-01-01

    Textiles serve as an important medium for the communicating socio-cultural information in societies throughout the world, including those of Andean South America. Archaeological studies of pre-contact textiles from the Andean region usually involve pieces from museum or private collections, which are often looted and rarely have associated provenience data. This study, on burial textiles from two cemeteries at the site of Río Muerto (M43) in the Moquegua Valley of southern Peru, is among only...

  9. Allanite from the El Muerto Pegmatite, Oaxaca, Mexico: A Potential New Standard for 232Th-208Pb Dating by LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.; Crowley, J. L.; Solari, L.; Prol-Ledesma, R.

    2012-12-01

    Allanite dating may be important to studies addressing tectonomagmatic evolution, provenance of monocyclic sediment, and mineral weathering. Obtaining accurate allanite ages by SIMS has been challenging and time-consuming due to the mineral's extreme chemical variability which often prevents finding adequately matrix-matched standards. Isotopic measurements by LA-ICP-MS minimize the need for standards of nearly identical composition to the unknown allanite being analyzed, and it is done relatively rapidly. Dating by LA-ICP-MS requires high quality standards for isotopic fractionation corrections. However, readily accessible and well characterized allanite standards are scarce. We investigated gemstone allanite from the El Muerto pegmatite, Oaxaca, Mexico, as a potential new geochronology standard for 232Th-208Pb allanite dating by LA-ICP-MS. Compositional homogeneity was thoroughly investigated by scanning and backscatter electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, quantitative and qualitative energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, electron microprobe, and LA-ICP-MS. The possibility of metamictization was investigated by extensive X-ray diffraction analyses. The El Muerto allanite was U-Pb dated by ID-TIMS, with common Pb ratios determined from cogenetic K-feldspar by ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS. Future work includes Th-Pb dating by ID-TIMS. The samples investigated are homogeneous with respect to major and trace elements. Major element compositional results are generally in agreement with published values, and no metamictization was identified despite the allanite being nearly 1 Ga. The only limitation of the El Muerto allanite is that it contains small, generally <100 μm, scarce inclusions of quartz, calciothorite, albite, calcite, and biotite. However, these grains are easily recognized and avoided during LA-ICP-MS analyses. Based on these results, the El Muerto allanite has the potential to serve as a standard for LA-ICP-MS dating.

  10. A new pentatomoid bug from the Ypresian of Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián F. Petrulevičius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new pentatomoid heteropteran, Chinchekoala qunita gen. et sp. nov. is described from the lower Eocene of Laguna del Hunco, Patagonia, Argentina. The new genus is mainly characterised by cephalic characters such as the mandibular plates surpassing the clypeus and touching each other in dorsal view; head wider than long; and remarkable characters related to the eyes, which are surrounded antero-laterally and posteriorly by the anteocular processes and the pronotum, as well as they extend medially more than usual in the Pentatomoidea. This is the first pentatomoid from the Ypresian of Patagonia and the second from the Eocene in the region, being the unique two fossil pentatomoids in Argentina.

  11. Estado actual del conocimiento del orden Odonata en la Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier MUZÓN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El orden Odonata se encuentra representado en la Patagonia por 36 especies, reunidas en nueve familias y 18 géneros. El nivel de endemismo de esta taxocoenosis es alto, aproximadamente el 60% de las especies y casi el 40% de los géneros endémicos. La riqueza específica en la Patagonia decrece de Oeste a Este y de Norte a Sur, las áreas de mayor riqueza resultan ser las cordilleras de Nahuel Buta (Chile y de los Andes entre 38° y 41° S, y la meseta de Somuncurá (Argentina en la estepa. Se brinda una actualización del estado de conocimiento y un análisis de los principalespatrones de distribución.

  12. The impact of Chilean migration on employment in Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariola Sanz, L

    1989-06-01

    This paper discusses the employment situation of Chilean migrant workers, their impact on labor markets in Patagonia, Argentina, and the government's past and projected responses to this phenomenon. In 1980, Chilean inhabitants of patagonia comprised 11% of the area's population. Chilean migration to patagonia was closely linked to economic activities that began to flourish in the 20th century, such as livestock raising, fruit and vegetable cultivation, and mining for coal and petroleum. No Chilean migrants work in a wide range of sectors. In Patagonia's southern provinces availability and ability to withstand rigorous climate conditions are the main factors which account for the prevalence of Chilean manpower. Chilean migrants do not in general displace local manpower. Legislation and the permeability of the border ensure that most workers enter the country as tourists. Clandestine migration is not an issue. Illegal migrants have provoked negative reactions for several reasons: 1) they comprise a marginal population without formal citizenship; 2) being employed as clandestine workers, they pay no social security, nor do their employers; 3) being illegal, they are obliged to accept lower wages and inferior working conditions which creates unfair competition within labor markets; and 4) as a result of these conditions, xenophobic and endophobic attitudes in relations with Argentine nationalists are reinforced. The government has attempted to solve these problems through various measures. Beginning in 1934, most foreigners entered Argentina with a tourist visa, becoming illegal when they stayed beyond authorized limits. Several measures over the years provided amnesty to illegal migrants. Currently, the law promotes immigration, monitors the admission of foreigners to the country and stipulates their rights and obligations. The law lists 115 articles on immigration promotion and on regulation of the movements of foreigners. Because of the present economic crisis in

  13. A Study on Maize Farmers in Occidental Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruerd Ruben

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El crédito ha sido considerado comúnmente como una estrategia importante para influir en el manejo de recursos y las estrategias de sobrevivencia campesina. Los productores con mejor acceso a recursos financieros tienen más opciones para incrementar el retorno marginal de factores variables de producción, tales como trabajo y fertilizantes. Es probable que la sustitución de factores se lleva a cabo hacia sistemas de producción más intensivos que puedan garantizar mejor la seguridad alimentaría y favorecer el uso sostenible de los suelos. Hemos realizado un estudio entre productores de maíz ubicados en el departamento occidental de Lempira en Honduras para analizar el impacto del uso de crédito sobre el retorno marginal de tierra, trabajo y fertilizantes. Encontramos que las proporciones atribuidas a trabajo y fertilizantes aumentaron considerablemente para campesinos que utilizan crédito, mientras que la proporción del factor tierra se redujo fuertemente. La posición relativa de terratenientes tiende a deteriorarse, pero la influencia de suministradores de insumos puede incrementar. Dadas las complementaridades entre fertilizantes y trabajo, el crédito puede ser un importante instrumento para cambiar las relaciones de clase en el campo.

  14. Estado de conocimiento del orden Ephemeroptera en la Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo PESSACQ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento actual del orden Ephemeroptera en la Patagonia se debe en gran parte a la labor original y compilatoria de M.L. Pescador, W.L. Peters y E. Domínguez, llevada a cabo en la década del 80 del siglo pasado. Se suman a ésta, importantes contribuciones que han conducido a un adecuado conocimiento del grupo en la cordillera norte y centro de la Patagonia, aunque menor en la zona austral de esta región (Santa Cruz y Tierra del Fuego y las áreas de estepa. Merced al trabajo de campo realizado en 80 sitios de muestreo relevados en el marco del “Darwin Initiative Project” en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, se incluyen aquí nuevos registros para la Argentina (Hapsiphlebia anastomosis Demoulin, la región Andina (Apobaetis Day y la provincia de Río Negro (Chaquihua bullocki (Navás, Andesiops ardua (Lugo-Ortíz & McCafferty, Murphyella needhami Lestage y Dactylophlebia carnulenta Pescador & Peters. Con estos registros, la riqueza de Ephemeroptera de la Patagonia alcanza 43 especies y 24 géneros, de las cuales 33 (en 20 géneros se conocen para la Argentina.

  15. Estado de conocimiento del orden Plecoptera en la Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PESSACQ Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento actual del orden Ephemeroptera en la Patagonia se debe en gran parte a la labor original y compilatoria de M.L. Pescador, W.L. Peters y E. Domínguez, llevada a cabo en la década del 80 del siglo pasado. Se suman a ésta, importantes contribuciones que han conducido a un adecuado conocimiento del grupo en la cordillera norte y centro de la Patagonia, aunque menor en la zona austral de esta región (Santa Cruz y Tierra del Fuego y las áreas de estepa. Merced al trabajo de campo realizado en 80 sitios de muestreo relevados en el marco del “Darwin Initiative Project” en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, se incluyen aquí nuevos registros para la Argentina (Hapsiphlebia anastomosis Demoulin, la región Andina (Apobaetis Day y la provincia de Río Negro (Chaquihua bullocki (Navás, Andesiops ardua (Lugo-Ortíz & McCafferty, Murphyella needhami Lestage y Dactylophlebia carnulenta Pescador & Peters. Con estos registros, la riqueza de Ephemeroptera de la Patagonia alcanza 43 especies y 24 géneros, de las cuales 33 (en 20 géneros se conocen para la Argentina.

  16. Utilizing Gravity Methods for Regional Studies in Basin Delineation: Case Study at Jornada del Muerto basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, J. I.

    2005-12-01

    The modeling of basin structures is an important step in the development of plans and policies for ground water management. To facilitate in the analysis of large scale regional structures, gravity data is implemented to examine the overall structural trend of the region. The gravitational attraction of structures in the upper mantle and crust provide vital information about the possible structure and composition of a region. Improved availability of gravity data via internet has promoted extensive construction and interpretation of gravity maps in the analysis of sub-surface structural anomalies. The utilization of gravity data appears to be particularly worthwhile because it is a non-invasive and inexpensive means of addressing the subsurface tectonic framework of large scale regions. In this paper, the author intends to illustrate 1) acquisition of gravity data and its processing; 2) interpretation of gravity data; and 3) sources of uncertainty and errors by using a case study of the Jornada del Muerto basin in South-Central New Mexico where integrated gravity data inferred several faults, sub-basins and thickness variations within the basins structure. The author also explores the integration of gravity method with other geophysical methods to further refine the delineation of basins.

  17. La palabra de los muertos. Conferencias sobre criminología cautelar, de Raúl Eugenio Zaffaroni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Bernal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Luego de 23 años desde la primera edición de su Criminología aproximaciones desde un margen (1988, Raúl Eugenio Zaffaroni ofrece una nueva propuesta para la academia iberoamericana: la criminología cautelar. En la palabra de los muertos, conferencias de criminología cautelar (2011, uno de sus trabajos más recientes, el profesor argentino sintetiza buena parte de su producción intelectual acerca de la cuestión criminal y el pensamiento criminológico y desarrolla a profundidad sus nuevas líneas de investigación sobre el impacto de los medios masivos de comunicación en las políticas del control del crimen, los crímenes de Estado y la prevención de las masacres como posibles objetos de investigación de la criminología (Zaffaroni, 1988; 2005;2007a; 2007b (2010.

  18. Gondwanide continental collision and the origin of Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, R. J.; Rapela, C. W.; Fanning, C. M.; Má; rquez, M.

    2006-06-01

    A review of the post-Cambrian igneous, structural and metamorphic history of Patagonia, largely revealed by a five-year programme of U-Pb zircon dating (32 samples), geochemical and isotope analysis, results in a new Late Palaeozoic collision model as the probable cause of the Gondwanide fold belts of South America and South Africa. In the northeastern part of the North Patagonian Massif, Cambro-Ordovician metasediments with a Gondwana provenance are intruded by Mid Ordovician granites analogous to those of the Famatinian arc of NW Argentina; this area is interpreted as Gondwana continental crust at least from Devonian times, probably underlain by Neoproterozoic crystalline basement affected by both Pampean and Famatinian events, with a Cambrian rifting episode previously identified in the basement of the Sierra de la Ventana. In the Devonian (following collision of the Argentine Precordillera terrane to the north), the site of magmatism jumped to the western and southwestern margins of the North Patagonian Massif, although as yet the tectonics of this magmatic event are poorly constrained. This was followed by Early Carboniferous I-type granites representing a subduction-related magmatic are and Mid Carboniferous S-type granites representing crustal anatexis. The disposition of these rocks implies that the North Patagonian Massif was in the upper plate, with northeasterly subduction beneath Gondwana prior to the collision of a southern landmass represented by the Deseado Massif and its probable extension in southeastern Patagonia. This 'Deseado terrane' may have originally rifted off from a similar position during the Cambrian episode. Intense metamorphism and granite emplacement in the upper plate continued into the Early Permian. Known aspects of Late Palaeozoic sedimentation, metamorphism, and deformation in the Sierra de la Ventana and adjacent Cape Fold Belt of South Africa are encompassed within this model. It is also compatible with modern geophysical and

  19. El dolor por un muerto – vivo. Una lectura freudiana del duelo en los casos de desaparición forzada

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Zorio

    2011-01-01

    antes y un después en quienes viven esta tragedia; las víctimas la señalan como una huella imborrable que solo la muerte del doliente borrará. La justicia ineficiente y las intenciones detrás de la desaparición tienen efectos nodales en los procesos de duelo. El trabajo pregunta a la teoría freudiana por los elementos de este proceso que lo diferencian de otros duelos, de otras pérdidas. El duelo, el tabú a los muertos, el dolor y la angustia, entre otros c...

  20. Los notarios del olvido: Memoria y silencio. La antropofagia discursiva de Mazurca para dos muertos de Camilo José Cela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Sánchez

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts an analysis of the configuration of memory in Camilo José Cela's Mazurca para dos muertos, based on the outburst of voices that can be traced throughout the text. The complex use of polyphony in this novel admits a reading focused on the way that the presence and absence of communication become central axes in the orchestration of a particular history of the Civil War. This history emerges from the fragmentation caused by the selective character of memories.

  1. Seismic investigation of the buried horst between the Jornada del Muerto and Mesilla ground-water basins near Las Cruces, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, D.G.; Myers, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Six seismic reflection profiles were collected in the vicinity of the Jornada Horst between Goat Mountain and Tortugas Mountain (northeast and east of Las Cruces, New Mexico) to delineate more precisely the geometry of the horst and to determine whether large, buried channels have been incised into the top of the horst. The Jornada fault zone separates the southern Jornada del Muerto ground-water basin from the Mesilla ground-water basin in the Mesilla drainage basin. The upper part of the Jornada Horst is composed of Tertiary volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks; these rocks overlie Permian sedimentary rocks. The horst, in turn, is overlain by unconsolidated sediments of the upper Santa Fe Group. Some test holes indicate that little or no ground water flows from the Jornada del Muerto ground-water basin to the Mesilla ground-water basin over some portions of the horst. However, some ground water flows through the upper Santa Fe Group deposits above some portions of the horst. Ground-water flow immediately east of the horst near U.S. Highway 70 is deflected northward in the southern Jornada del Muerto ground-water basin presumably because of the change from higher hydraulic-conductivity values of aquifer materials in the southern basin to lower hydraulic-conductivity values of materials in the horst. Incised, buried channels, if present on the horst, could be filled with alluvial material with higher hydraulic- conductivity values than those of the material in the horst. Incised, buried channels would allow ground water to readily move from the Jornada del Muerto ground-water basin to the Mesilla ground-water basin. The gross geometry of the horst--eastern extent, constraints on the western extent, and general altitude of the top--was discerned by interpretations of the seismic profiles. The presence or absence of large channels incised into the top of the horst could not be confirmed by these interpretations. However, the seismic interpretations suggest that the

  2. ¿El Día de Muertos como ?terapia psíquica?? La Fiesta de la Muerte en la literatura alemana moderna

    OpenAIRE

    Gräfe, Florian

    2013-01-01

    A partir de tres textos literarios alemanes relacionados con la muerte, se analiza el Día de Muertos de los mexicanos desde la visión europea que manifiestan los personajes de las obras y considerando aspectos como los estereotipos, la visión del otro, el sincretismo cultural, la auto-terapia psíquica y el choque cultural. El análisis concluye que la interpretación de esta celebración mexicana depende de las condiciones sociales, psíquicas y de carácter, así como de la percepción cognitiva de...

  3. Esclavitud y comercio esclavista en el África Occidental: investigaciones en curso

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Quiero iniciar este ensayo con una pregunta central: ¿cómo ha sido percibida la esclavitud en la historiografía actual de África Occidental? Según Ibrahima Thioub, una generación anterior de especialistas sobre África, cuyo más notable exponente es Boubacar Barry, ha descrito la repercusión de la esclavitud transatlántica en la historia política, social y económica de África Occidental como algo devastador. Barry, así como otros especialistas, ha seguido el ejemplo de Walter Rodney y otros au...

  4. Gestión oriental y occidental: un acercamiento a los grandes gurues e ideas empresariales

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez López, Gerladyne; Amín Perafan, Julio Cesar; Barriga Gómez, Mateo

    2013-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se describen los aportes más destacados de algunos de los gurúes representativos del ámbito administrativo Oriental y Occidental. En Occidental se cuenta con el legado de Henry Ford, Philip Kotler, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Henry Fayol, Michael Porter, Peter Drucker y Steve Jobs. En Oriente, los gurúes son Akio Morita, Edwards Deming, Kaoru Ishikawa, Familia Toyoda, Masaaki Imai y Taiichi Ohno. A partir de ello, se hacen comparaciones entre las tendencias de administ...

  5. Chilenia y Patagonia: ¿un mismo continente a la deriva? Chilenia and Patagonia, the same continent adrift?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nela Tomezzoli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La zona de estudio está ubicada a lo largo del margen sudoccidental del Gondwana y abarca desde las Sierras Australes hasta el Bloque de San Rafael y el Macizo Nordpatagónico. A partir de la integración de los datos obtenidos en trabajos de campo, estudios paleomagnéticos, de anisotropía de susceptibilidad magnética, e información obtenida por otros autores, se concluye en este trabajo que la deformación en esta región del Gondwana podría haber comenzado durante el Devónico Medio y se relacionaría con la colisión de Patagonia desde el sur y de Chilenia desde el oeste. Siendo que Chilenia y Patagonia habrían comenzado a colisionar con Gondwana al mismo tiempo, se plantea la posibilidad de que hayan sido parte de un mismo terreno alóctono a la deriva. Posteriormente, en el Carbonífero, colisionó desde el sur el Macizo del Deseado. La deformación post-colisional asociada a estos procesos habría continuado hasta el Pérmico, produciendo movimientos latitudinales, como parte del ajuste y acople final de los bloques continentales que configuraron la Pangea Triásica en conjunto con el núcleo cratónico principal del Gondwana.The study area is located along the southwestern margin of Gondwana, ranging from Sierra de la Ventana (Sierras Australes to the San Rafael Block and the North Patagonian Massif. From the integration of data from feld work, paleomagnetic studies, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, and information obtained by other authors in this paper is concluded that the deformation in this part of Gondwana may have begun during the Middle Devonian and would relate to the collision of Patagonia from the south and Chilenia from the west. Since Chilenia and Patagonia have begun to collide with Gondwana at the same time raises the possibility that they were part of the same allochthonous drif terrain. Later in the Carboniferous, from the south collided the Deseado Massif. The post-collisional deformation associated with

  6. Late cretaceous aquatic plant world in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rubén Cúneo

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla and a monocot (Araceae. Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae. Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae, ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America.

  7. Quantifying mass balance processes on the Southern Patagonia Icefield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schaefer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present surface mass balance simulations of the Southern Patagonia Icefield driven by downscaled reanalysis data. The simulations were validated and interpreted using geodetic mass balances, measured point balances and a complete velocity field of the Icefield from spring 2004. The high measured accumulation of snow as well as the high measured ablation is reproduced by the model. The overall modeled surface mass balance was positive and increasing during 1975–2011. Subtracting the surface mass balance from geodetic balances, calving fluxes were inferred. Mass losses of the SPI due to calving were strongly increasing from 1975–2000 to 2000–2011 and higher than losses due to surface melt. Calving fluxes were inferred for the individual glacier catchments and compared to fluxes estimated from velocity data. Measurements of ice thickness and flow velocities at the glaciers' front and spatially distributed accumulation measurements can help to reduce the uncertainties of the different terms in the mass balance of the Southern Patagonia Icefield.

  8. Late Cretaceous Aquatic Plant World in Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cúneo, N. Rubén; Gandolfo, María A.; Zamaloa, María C.; Hermsen, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla) and a monocot (Araceae). Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae). Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form) and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae) are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae), ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America. PMID:25148081

  9. Late cretaceous aquatic plant world in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cúneo, N Rubén; Gandolfo, María A; Zamaloa, María C; Hermsen, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla) and a monocot (Araceae). Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae). Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form) and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae) are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae), ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America.

  10. Niche Segregation between Wild and Domestic Herbivores in Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Esperanza C.; Traba, Juan; Acebes, Pablo; González, Benito A.; Mata, Cristina; Estades, Cristián F.; Malo, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    Competition arises when two co-occuring species share a limiting resource. Potential for competition is higher when species have coexisted for a short time, as it is the case for herbivores and livestock introduced in natural systems. Sheep, introduced in the late 19th century in Patagonia, bear a great resemblance in size and diet to the guanaco, the main native herbivore in Patagonia. In such circumstances, it could be expected that the two species compete and one of them could be displaced. We investigated spatial overlap and habitat selection by coexisting sheep and guanaco in winter and in summer. Additionally, we studied habitat selection of the guanaco in a control situation free from sheep, both in summer and winter. We also determined overlap between species in areas with different intensity of use (named preferred and marginal areas) in order to further detect the potential level of competition in the case of overlapping. Guanaco and sheep showed significantly different habitat preferences through all seasons, in spite of their spatial overlap at landscape scale. Additionally, the habitat used by guanaco was similar regardless of the presence or absence of livestock, which further indicates that sheep is not displacing guanaco where they coexist. These results suggest that habitat segregation between guanaco and sheep is due to a differential habitat selection and not to a competitive displacement process. Therefore, the potential for competition is considered low, contrary to what has been previously observed, although this could be a density-dependent result. PMID:23555656

  11. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Chile)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pešić, V.; Smit, H.; Datry, T.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mite species (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Southern Chile) are reported. Four species, Anisitsiellides australis Smit, 2002, Peregrinacarus falklandensis Bartsch, 2001, Lobohalacarus weberi (Romijn & Viets, 1924) and Soldanellonyx monardi Walter, 1919 are

  12. Fe-Ni Micrometorites from Upper Jurassic Cañadon Asfalto Fm., Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteini, M.; Hauser, N.; Cabaleri, N.; Silva Nieto, D.; Cuadros, F. A.; Reyes, S.

    2014-09-01

    Microspherules from an upper Jurassic sediments from Patagonia, show mineralogical, geochemical and textural features very similar to those reported for I-type micrometeorites whereas some spherules are interpreted as typical G-type micrometeorites.

  13. Oriental Nose Occidentalization and Perinasal Shaping by Augmentation of the Underdeveloped Anterior Nasal Spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Tanaka, MD, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: Objective assessments showed significant effects of this treatment, with good patient satisfaction and minimal levels of discomfort and side effects. Together these results demonstrate that this treatment is safe and effective for Oriental nose occidentalization and perinasal shaping and is also useful for predicting rhinoplasty results.

  14. Eriocóccidos (Hemiptera: Coccoidea encontrados en la Patagonia Argentina Eriococcidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea found in Patagonia Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia González

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se listan cuatro géneros y nueve especies de eriocóccidos presentes en la Patagonia argentina, sobre distintos huéspedes. Chilecoccus browni Miller & González, Chilecoccus spinossus Miller & González, Eriococcus novarinoensis Hoy, Eriococcus rhadinothrix Miller & González, Icelococcus nothofagi Miller & González, sobre Nothofagus dombeyi (Fagaceae. Eriococcus chilensis Miller & González, Eriococcus eurythrix Miller & González, Icelococcus charlini Miller & González, sobre Nothofagus antarctica. Eriococcus eurythrix Miller & González sobre Nothofagus alpina. Icelococcus charlini Miller & González sobre Nothofagus obliqua. Stibococcus cerinus Miller & González sobre Myrceugenia exsucca (Myrtaceae.We list four genera and nine species of eriococcid present in the Patagonia Argentina, on different hosts. Chilecoccus browni Miller & González, Chilecoccus spinossus Miller & González, Eriococcus novarinoensis Hoy, Eriococcus rhadinothrix Miller & González, Icelococcus nothofagi Miller & González, on Nothofagus dombeyi (Fagaceae. Eriococcus chilensis Miller & González, Eriococcus eurythrix Miller & González, Icelococcus charlini Miller & González, on Nothofagus antarctica. Eriococcus eurythrix Miller & González on Nothofagus alpina. Icelococcus charlini Miller & González on Nothofagus obliqua. Stibococcus cerinus Miller & González on Myrceugenia exsucca (Myrtaceae.

  15. PATAGONIA: DEL PRESENTE ETNOGRÁFICO AL PASADO ARQUEOLÓGICO (Patagonia: from the ethnographic present to the archaeological past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Sáez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan los principales argumentos utilizados desde diferentes perspectivas paleo-biológicas, paleo-lingüísticas, arqueológicas y antropológicas para explicar la diversidad y la conformación étnica de las poblaciones indígenas en Patagonia, tanto en el presente como en el pasado. Entendemos que una revisión conjunta y crítica de los supuestos disciplinares, sobre los cuales se continúa trabajando, permitirá observar e identificar los patrones que emergen del registro histórico, concernientes a la expresión de la variabilidad social patagónica. De igual modo, se propone una reflexión sobre las posibles proyecciones que plantea esta crítica hacia la exploración y la formulación de nuevas preguntas sobre el registro arqueológico. ENGLISH: This paper analyzes some of the main arguments from paleobiology, paleolinguistics, archaeology and anthropology to explain diversity and ethnic organization in the indigenous communities of Patagonia, both in the present and past. We believe that a critical review of the main assumptions from all these disciplines will allow us to observe and identify patterns emerging from the historical record of the expression of Patagonian social variability. Likewise, we suggest a new way of exploring the archaeological record rooted in critical theory.

  16. Ploidy levels and reproductive behaviour in invasive Hieracium pilosella in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Krahulec

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Within a population of invasive Hieracium pilosella in Chilean Patagonia we found two ploidy levels, pentaploid and hexaploid. Each ploidy level was represented by one clone. Their reproductive system was apomictic (and thus replicating the maternal genome, with a low degree of residual sexuality. It is necessary to prevent the evolution of new biotypes via hybridisation with different clones of H. pilosella or other Hieracium species introduced into Patagonia.

  17. Study of UV cloud modification factors in Southern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Elian A.; Orte, Facundo; Salvador, Jacobo; Quiroga, Jonathan; D'Elia, Raúl; Antón, Manuel; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Quel, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    Anthropogenic perturbation of the ozone layer has induced change in the amount of UV radiation that reaches the Earth's surface, mainly through the Antarctic ozone hole, making the ozone and ultraviolet (UV) radiation two important issues in the study of Earth atmosphere in the scientific community. Also the clouds have been identified as the main modulator of UV amount in short time scales and produce the main source of uncertainty in the projection of surface UV level as consequence of projected ozone recovery. While clouds can decrease direct radiation, they can produce an increase in the diffuse component, and as consequence the surface UV radiation may be higher than an equivalent clear sky scenario for several minutes. In particular this situation can be important when low ozone column and partially cloud cover skies happen simultaneously. These situations happen frequently in southern Patagonia, where the CEILAP Lidar Division has established the Atmospheric Observatory of Southern Patagonia, an atmospheric remote sensing site near the city of Río Gallegos (51°55'S, 69°14'W). In this paper, the impact of clouds over the UV radiation is investigated by the use of ground based measurements from the passive remote sensing instruments operating at this site, mainly of broad and moderate narrow band filter radiometers. We analyzed the UV Index obtained from a multiband filter radiometer GUV-541 (UVI) [Biospherical Inc.] installed in the Observatorio Atmosférico de la Patagonia Austral, Río Gallegos, since 2005. Cloud modification factors (CMF, ratio between the measured UV radiation in a cloudy sky and the simulated radiation under cloud-free conditions) are evaluated for the study site. The database used in this work covers the period 2005-2012 for spring and summer seasons, when the ozone hole can affect these subpolar regions. CMF higher than 1 are found during spring and summer time, when lower total ozone columns, higher solar elevations and high cloud

  18. Airborne laser altimetry survey of Glaciar Tyndall, Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kristian; Casassa, Gino; Rivera, Andrés; Forsberg, Rene; Gundestrup, Niels

    2007-10-01

    The first airborne laser altimetry measurements of a glacier in South America are presented. Data were collected in November of 2001 over Glaciar Tyndall, Torres del Paine National Park, Chilean Patagonia, onboard a Twin Otter airplane of the Chilean Air Force. A laser scanner with a rotating polygon-mirror system together with an Inertial Navigation System (INS) were fixed to the floor of the aircraft, and used in combination with two dual-frequency GPS receivers. Together, the laser-INS-GPS system had a nominal accuracy of 30 cm after data processing. On November 23rd, a total of 235 km were flown over the ablation area of Glaciar Tyndall, with 5 longitudinal tracks with a mean swath width of 300 m, which results in a point spacing of approximately 2 m both along and across track. A digital elevation model (DEM) generated using the laser altimetry data was compared with a DEM produced from a 1975 map (1:50,000 scale — Instituto Geográfico Militar (IGM), Chile). A mean thinning of - 3.1 ± 1.0 m a - 1 was calculated for the ablation area of Glaciar Tyndall, with a maximum value of - 7.7 ± 1.0 m a - 1 at the calving front at 50 m a.s.l. and minimum values of between - 1.0 and - 2.0 ± 1.0 m a - 1 at altitudes close to the equilibrium line altitude (900 m a.s.l.). The thinning rates derived from the airborne survey were similar to the results obtained by means of ground survey carried out at ˜ 600 m of altitude on Glaciar Tyndall between 1975 and 2002, yielding a mean thinning of - 3.2 m a - 1 [Raymond, C., Neumann, T.A., Rignot, E., Echelmeyer, K.A., Rivera, A., Casassa, G., 2005. Retreat of Tyndall Glacier, Patagonia, over the last half century. Journal of Glaciology 173 (51), 239-247.]. A good agreement was also found between ice elevation changes measured with laser data and previous results obtained with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data. We conclude that airborne laser altimetry is an effective means for accurately detecting glacier elevation

  19. Fundamentos filosóficos del pensamiento administrativo en occidente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Humberto García Vargas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el transcurrir del tiempo se ha dejado entrever la posibilidad que el pensamiento administrativo se ha alimentado sólo de la práctica del ejercicio de administrar las organizaciones, cuya base se fundamenta en el hecho de una visión objetiva de la realidad, que procura dar cuenta, del comportamiento de los diferentes colaboradores en las mismas.Pensar que el comportamiento de los colaboradores en una organización depende solamente de la mirada que se haga sobre sus prácticas y ejecuciones al interior de las organizaciones, sin recurrir a otros campos muchos amplios que nos pueden ayudar a comprender dichos comportamientos, sería conformarse con solo una parte de la respuesta a la pregunta ¿Porqué de ciertos comportamientos de las personas en las empresas?Este artículo pretende ofrecer al lector una mirada que va más allá de la mera observación de una realidad organizacional desde el punto de vista de las prácticas e invita a involucrarse en el campo de la filosofía, brindando así, un complemento ideal que puede ayudar ha encontrar la respuesta completa a la pregunta ya planteada. En este sentido se abordan conceptos centrales como el de cultura, construcción de conocimiento e identidad del ser, como elementos importantes en la búsqueda de los fundamentos filosóficos del pensamiento administrativo en occidente.Palabras Clave: Cultura; educación; identidad; mito; lógica; razón; orden; conocimiento; humanismo; modos de ser; ontología; epistemología; axiología; praxeología; trilogía administrativa. Fondements philosophiques de la pensée administrative en occidentAbstractAvec passer du temps il a été laissé entrevoir la possibilité que la pensée administrative a été seulement nourrie de la pratique de l’exercice d’administrer dans les organisations, dont la base se fonde le fait d’une vision objective de la réalité, qui essaye de rendre compte, du comportement des différents collaborateurs dans ces

  20. Los muertos del Floreanismo

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    Enrique Ayala Mora

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el crimen político durante las primeras décadas de vida de la República del Ecuador. Específicamente centra su estudio en el período dominado por la figura de Juan José Flores, primer presidente del Ecuador. La inestabilidad política, la precariedad de las alianzas entre las élites regionales, la crisis económica generada por las guerras de Independencia, las conspiraciones y la violencia que caracterizaron al período de surgimiento de las repúblicas andinas hicieron del crimen político un “vicio de nacimiento”. El asesinato del general Antonio José de Sucre, la muerte de los miembros de la sociedad El Quiteño Libre, el homicidio de Juan Otamendi, entre otros, hicieron patente esta característica.

  1. Quantifying mass balance processes on the Southern Patagonia Icefield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefer, M.; Machguth, Horst; Falvey, M.;

    2015-01-01

    measured accumulation of snow of up to 15.4m w.e. yr(-1) (meters water equivalent per year) as well as the high measured ablation of up to 11m w.e. yr(-1) is reproduced by the model. The overall modeled surface mass balance was positive and increasing during 1975-2011. Subtracting the surface mass balance......We present surface mass balance simulations of the Southern Patagonia Icefield (SPI) driven by downscaled reanalysis data. The simulations were evaluated and interpreted using geodetic mass balances, measured point balances and a complete velocity field of the icefield for spring 2004. The high...... from geodetic balances, calving fluxes were inferred. Mass losses of the SPI due to calving were strongly increasing from 1975-2000 to 2000-2011 and higher than losses due to surface melt. Calving fluxes were inferred for the individual glacier catchments and compared to fluxes estimated from velocity...

  2. Vajilla para la gastronomía de la Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rodandelli, Julieta

    2012-01-01

    La Patagonia es una de las reglones más ricas del país, con atractivos turísticos que la hacen reconocida lnternacionalmente. La comida forma parte de su cultura, refleja su identidad. Hoy en día, la gastronomía expandió su mercado y se especializa en comidas típicas de diferentes etnias y regiones. Por esta razón, al proponer como proyecto el desarrollo de una linea de vajilla, la primera pregunta que surgió fue: ¿existe una asociación entre la comida típica de la región y los utensilios en ...

  3. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-07-28

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.

  4. Splendid and Seldom Isolated: The Paleobiogeography of Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Peter; Cúneo, N. Rubén; Escapa, Ignacio H.; Pol, Diego; Woodburne, Michael O.

    2013-05-01

    The idea that South America was an island continent over most of the Cenozoic, during which its unusual mammalian faunas evolved in isolation, is outstandingly influential in biogeography. Although large numbers of recent fossil discoveries and related advances require that the original isolation concept be significantly modified, it is still repeated in much current literature. The persistence of the idea inspired us to present here an integrated paleobiogeographic account of mammals, reptiles, and plants from the Jurassic to the Paleogene of Patagonia, which has by far the richest fossil record on the continent. All three groups show distribution patterns that are broadly consistent with South America's long separation history, first from Laurasia by the Late Jurassic, then from Africa and India-Madagascar during the late Early Cretaceous, and finally from Antarctica and Australia during the early-middle Eocene, after which “isolation” finally commenced. We highlight areas of promising future research and provide an updated view of South American isolation.

  5. ¿Qué Dios ha muerto? Nietzsche, el nihilista antinihilista What God has Died? Nietzsche, the Antinihilist Nihilist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Frey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En el pensamiento europeo, el concepto del nihilismo se equiparó con la destrucción de los valores tradicionales. Aunque el nihilismo nietzscheano parece apuntar hacia la interpretación tradicional, Nietzsche ve en el nihilismo una consecuencia de la propia tradición occidental: el cristianismo consumó la separación entre Dios y el mundo, devaluó las pulsiones naturales del hombre y puso al más acá en manos de la nada. La destrucción nietzscheana de los valores cristianos es, además, la destrucción de una religión que había aniquilado los valores de la Antigüedad. Nietzsche propugna un retorno a la Antigüedad grecorromana, que había colocado la autodeterminación en el centro de su filosofía y reconocido la tragicidad de la existencia humana.In European thinking, the concept of nihilism was regarded as equivalent to the destruction of traditional values. Although Nietzschean Nihilism appears to point towards the traditional interpretation, Nietzsche regarded nihilism as a consequence of the Western tradition: Christianity completed the separation between God and the world, devalued man's natural drives and placed the here and now in the hands of nothing. The Nietzschean destruction of Christian values is also the destruction of a religion that had destroyed the values of Antiquity. Nietzsche proposed a return to Greco-Roman Antiquity which had placed self-determination at the center of his philosophy and acknowledged the tragic nature of human existence.

  6. Hantavirus reservoir Oligoryzomys longicaudatus spatial distribution sensitivity to climate change scenarios in Argentine Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Paula LM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (colilargo is the rodent responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in Argentine Patagonia. In past decades (1967–1998, trends of precipitation reduction and surface air temperature increase have been observed in western Patagonia. We explore how the potential distribution of the hantavirus reservoir would change under different climate change scenarios based on the observed trends. Methods Four scenarios of potential climate change were constructed using temperature and precipitation changes observed in Argentine Patagonia between 1967 and 1998: Scenario 1 assumed no change in precipitation but a temperature trend as observed; scenario 2 assumed no changes in temperature but a precipitation trend as observed; Scenario 3 included changes in both temperature and precipitation trends as observed; Scenario 4 assumed changes in both temperature and precipitation trends as observed but doubled. We used a validated spatial distribution model of O. longicaudatus as a function of temperature and precipitation. From the model probability of the rodent presence was calculated for each scenario. Results If changes in precipitation follow previous trends, the probability of the colilargo presence would fall in the HPS transmission zone of northern Patagonia. If temperature and precipitation trends remain at current levels for 60 years or double in the future 30 years, the probability of the rodent presence and the associated total area of potential distribution would diminish throughout Patagonia; the areas of potential distribution for colilargos would shift eastwards. These results suggest that future changes in Patagonia climate may lower transmission risk through a reduction in the potential distribution of the rodent reservoir. Conclusion According to our model the rates of temperature and precipitation changes observed between 1967 and 1998 may produce significant changes in the rodent

  7. País de gordos/país de muertos: Obesity, death and nation in biomedical and forensic genetics in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Deister, Vivette; López-Beltrán, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    This article provides a comparison between genomic medicine and forensic genetics in Mexico, in light of recent depictions of the nation as a 'país de gordos' (country of the fat) and a 'país de muertos' (country of the dead). We examine the continuities and ruptures in the public image of genetics in these two areas of attention, health and security, focusing especially on how the relevant publics of genetic science are assembled in each case. Publics of biomedical and forensic genetics are assembled through processes of recruitment and interpellation, in ways that modulate current theorizations of co-production. The comparison also provides a vista onto discussions regarding the involvement of genetics in regimes of governance and citizenship and about the relationship between the state and biopower in a context of perceived health crisis and war-like violence.

  8. DECONSTRUCCIÓN DE LA ERÓTICA DE LA VEJEZ EN OCCIDENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Iacub

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo deconstruye la erótica contemporánea en el envejecimiento focalizando en las diversas modalidades en que esta temática fue narrada en ciertos pueblos, momentos históricos y religiones de Occidente. Se desarrollan las narrativas producidas en el pueblo judío, la antigüedad griega y romana, los padres de la Iglesia, la modernidad y la posmodernidad. La investigación se inscribe dentro de los estudios culturales y contiene búsquedas históricas acerca de los significados atribuidos a esta temática utilizando fuentes directas e indirectas. Los resultados presentan la erótica en la vejez con significados diversos y dinámicos en la historia, hallando continuidades y discontinuidades narrativas. Palabras claves: Erótica, Vejez, Narrativas, Deconstrucción, Cultura Occidental.

  9. Arqueología y yacimientos minerales en el occidente de los Montes de Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio URBINA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el presente trabajo se realiza una recopilación de los indicios de minería y metalurgia antiguas en el sector Occidental de los Montes de Toledo, y se relacionan con los yacimientos arqueológicos más próximos, con especial énfasis en los restos romanos de las explotaciones auríferas de la Nava de Ricomalillo, Toledo.ABSTRACT: A compilation on ancient mines and metallurgy in the Occidental sector of Montes de Toledo is made, and the relations with the nearest archaeological sites are examinated. Especial emphasis is placed on the romans gold works at the Nava de Ricomalillo mine (Toledo.

  10. Nueva especie de rana (Atelopus de Los Farallones de Cali, Cordillera Occidental de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattan Gustavo

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante la realización de colecciones herpetológicas en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca, fue encontrada una especie no descrita de Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae en los farallones de Cali, a 2600 m de altura. Esta es la primera especie en este género que se encuentra a elevaciones superiores a 2000 m en la Cordillera Occidental. Se conocen varias especies de Atelopus en las Cordilleras Central y Oriental de Colombia y en los Andes ecuatorianos (COCHRAN y GOIN 1970; PETERS 1973; RIVERO 1963 y probablemente futuras colecciones herpetológicas continuaran revelando nuevas especies en las partes altas de la Cordillera Occidental.

  11. Species diversity of adult Odonata in selected areas from Misamis Occidental Province, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmarie F. Mapi-ot

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Odonata is considered an environmental indicator group of freshwater habitats. Thus there is aneed to have a good baseline data to use it for monitoring fluvial habitats. However, species composition ofOdonata in Misamis Occidental is poorly known. This study was conducted to determine the species diversityof Odonata in the municipality of Sinacaban and in the cities of Oroquieta and Ozamiz, Misamis Occidental,Philippines. Opportunistic sampling method using sweep nets was employed. There were 266 Odonataindividuals collected comprising 22 species. Seven species (31.82% are Philippine endemic. Low speciesdiversity was recorded in all the sampling sites with more or less even distribution of species. Resultsindicate that the sampled areas are already disturbed.

  12. Compromiso ontológico de la música occidental

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    Myriam Arroyave Montoya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La música occidental ha mantenido una relación cruzada y necesaria, más o menos comprometida, con la aritmética, la geometría y la física. En este artículo se hace un seguimiento histórico de este vínculo, intentando poner en evidencia algunas de las problemáticas filosóficas y epistemológicas compartidas por aquellas disciplinas. El camino seguido empieza en los griegos y termina en la Alta Edad Media, época en la que se establecen los principios de la notación diastemática, que constituye el fundamento de la escritura sobre pentagrama, es decir, el sistema simbólico característico de la tradición occidental hasta el siglo XX.

  13. La cultura greca nell’Occidente europeo tra Umanesimo e Rinascimento

    OpenAIRE

    De Nichilo, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    È un fatto incontestabile che durante tutto il Medioevo, nonostante la quasi totale ignoranza della lingua greca antica in Occidente, la memoria di quel mondo lontano nel tempo e nello spazio non scomparve del tutto. Basti pensare a quanto deve la letteratura teologica scolastica – pur con gli inevitabili mutamenti e le talvolta inimmaginabili metamorfosi – alla permanenza del ricordo delle grandi scuole filosofiche greche (platonismo ed aristotelismo), basti pensare alla grandi storie o avve...

  14. Sistemas electorales y apoyo electoral de los partidos regionalistas en Europa Occidental

    OpenAIRE

    Montabes Pereira, Juan; Ortega Villodres, Carmen; P??rez Nieto, Enrique G.

    2006-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este art??culo consiste en analizar los efectos de los sistemas electorales sobreel apoyo electoral de los partidos regionalistas en Europa Occidental, durante el periodo 1980-2004.Con esta finalidad, hemos estudiado la fuerza electoral de 30 partidos regionalistas en eleccioneslegislativas. Solamente aquellos partidos que ???en t??rminos medios??? consiguen m??s del 1% delvoto regional en el periodo estudiado son incluidos en el an??lisis. Los sistemas electorales ha...

  15. Abstenerse del terror: la paradoja de la no violencia en el Sáhara Occidental

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    Matthew Porges

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available En el Sáhara Occidental, antigua colonia española ocupada por Marruecos desde 1975, no ha habido prácticamente ninguna resistencia violenta por parte del pueblo indígena saharaui desde el final de la guerra de 1975-1991 entre Marruecos y el Frente Polisario. La ausencia de violencia sorprende por varios factores: amplio apoyo de la población a la independencia, disparidades sociales y económicas entre marroquíes y saharauis, así como una brutal represión de Marruecos de la cultura, la resistencia y las manifestaciones del sentimiento independentista saharaui. Este artículo analiza la lógica de la violencia –y de su ausencia–, así como la resistencia, y extrae lecciones del Sáhara Occidental. Además de avanzar en el desarrollo teórico, se realiza un aporte metodológico al estudio de la resistencia y una mejor comprensión del conflicto del Sáhara Occidental mediante un trabajo de campo que incluyó unas 60 entrevistas con activistas saharauis realizadas durante el verano de 2014.

  16. Cuando los dioses son tiempo. Breve crítica a la temporalidad occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icnitl Ytzamat-ul Contreras García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tiene por objetivo establecer un contraste entre la concepción temporal de la cultura maya-mexica y la concepción temporal cotidiana que tenemos en tanto cultura occidental. El contraste se establecerá en primer lugar a partir de una breve exposición de los calendarios mayas y mexicas, es decir, de la comprensión de los calendarios es que se puede crear un horizonte en el que lo religioso permea toda actividad en ambas culturas. En segundo término exponemos en breves líneas la concepción cotidiana del tiempo, ayudándonos de un filósofo vertebral en el pensamiento moderno occidental: Kant. Al enunciar ambas posiciones buscaremos construir un puente en el que criticaremos la concepción temporal cotidiana de Occidente, ya que ésta tiene sus fundamentos en la ideología que cobró fuerza a partir de la modernidad: el capitalismo y el liberalismo. Para construir dicho puente, nos ayudaremos de un filósofo crítico de la modernidad: Walter Benjamin.

  17. Las discrepancias oficiales: la independencia de Kosovo y la retórica en Europa Occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Radeljić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina los enfoques y las discrepancias oficiales que caracterizan la retórica de Europa occidental con respecto a la cuestión del estatuto de Kosovo. Desde los principios de la década de 1980, Kosovo ha sido cada vez más presente en los debates europeos, la tendencia que culminó con la intervención internacional de 1999 en la región y las negociaciones posteriores sobre su estatuto definitivo. Aunque los albaneses de Kosovo proclamaron su independencia en febrero 2008 y la mayoría de los Estados miembros de la UE decidieron reconocer Kosovo como un Estado independiente, la retórica de Europa occidental ha Estado bastante dividida. Este artículo muestra que, además de cinco miembros de la UE que han decidido no reconocer Kosovo desde el principio, y por lo tanto son suficientemente potentes para afectar a su progreso, tanto a nivel local como a nivel internacional, algunos de los Estados que lo han reconocido, a pesar de haber abandonado la política de “normas antes del estatuto”, también se han esforzado por desarrollar su pleno apoyo a la provincia – una discrepancia que seguramente cuestiona el apoyo de Occidente en general por la independencia de Kosovo.

  18. Introduction and Establishment of Pissodes castaneus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Andean Patagonia of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, V A; Gomez, C A; La Manna, L; Roux, G; Lanteri, A A; Vallejos, N C; Marvaldi, A E

    2016-02-01

    The pine weevils that occur in plantations of Pinus spp. in Andean Patagonia of Argentina belong to the species Pissodes castaneus (De Geer), a Eurasian endemic species, according to the identification based on molecular and morphological characters. Sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome oxidase subunit I and nuclear genes (28 S rDNA and ITS2) were obtained for individuals of 13 afforestations, covering the entire distribution area of the established populations in the Andean Patagonia of Argentina. Sequence comparison with representative species of the genus (European, North American, and Chinese species) shows that Patagonian specimens are conspecific to those of P. castaneus sequenced from Europe. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that all terminals from Patagonia form a monophyletic unit without evident subclades, eliminating the possibility of existence of more than one species of Pissodes Germar in this area, including cryptic ones. Moreover, the very low genetic divergence between the Patagonian populations suggests that it is plausible that P. castaneus was introduced into Patagonia from just one location. Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows that Patagonian terminals group together with a French haplotype and are clearly separated from other P. castaneus individuals represented in our sample, and reveal that established populations in Andean Patagonia originated via a limited introduction.

  19. Patagonia, Land of Nomads: A Glance at a Territory Shaped by Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Chiuminatto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the nineteenth century, as global voyages became popular, and transcontinental empires settled, remote corners of the third world such as Patagonia began to be explored and became the subject of European travel literatures. The opening of this region to the global scenario produced profound transformations in its territorial conformation, poetic imaginary, and local culture. As Patagonia became a land of travellers, local nomads which had inhabited this land for centuries became extinguished. The historical context of this re-shaping is conceptualised in literary theory through notions such as nomadism, elaborated by Gilles Deleuze and its aesthetical counterpart, geo-poetics, by Kenneth White. The travel literature about Patagonia, such as that produced by Charles Darwin, Lady Florence Dixie, and Bruce Chatwin, depicts the difficulties these travellers faced in trying to endow their writings of adequate descriptions and images. Instead, they recurred to images from their homeland, and thus created an imaginary of Patagonia through displacement: their own, and that of images brought by themselves to this land. When Chilean poets like Gabriela Mistral and Pablo Neruda begun to write about Patagonia, they found it already populated by strange images, shaped indeed, by nomads, travellers and dis-located identities.

  20. Hábitos alimenticios de poblaciones periféricas de Zaedyus pichiy y Chaetophractus villosus (Cingulata, Chlamyphoridae en la Patagonia chilena

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    Aldo Arriagada

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En Chile los armadillos Zaedyus pichiy (Desmarest, 1804 y Chaetophractus villosus (Desmarest, 1804 tienen poblaciones periféricas restringidas a planicies de altura y estepa patagónica en la vertiente occidental de la Cordillera de los Andes, donde además han sido escasamente estudiadas. En este trabajo entregamos información sobre los hábitos alimenticios de ambas especies de armadillos, obtenida mediante el análisis de heces colectadas en dos áreas de la región de Aysén, Patagonia chilena. En 38 heces de Z. pichiy identificamos dos taxones de plantas, seis de invertebrados y cuatro de vertebrados, mientras que en 72 heces C. villosus identificamos tres, nueve y cuatro taxones de las mismas categorías. En ambas especies de armadillos los invertebrados fueron la categoría más diversa y con mayor frecuencia de ocurrencia, siendo Coleoptera, Orthoptera y Hemiptera los grupos mejor representados en términos de abundancia. Entre los vertebrados se observó mayor frecuencia de restos del camélido Lama guanicoe (Müller, 1776 y el lagomorfo Lepus europaeus (Pallas, 1778. El análisis de rarefacción muestra que la riqueza de taxones fue mayor en C. villosus que en Z. pichiy, y el índice de Pianka indica que no existió un solapamiento trófico significativo entre especies de armadillos. Nuestras observaciones indican que poblaciones periféricas de ambas especies de armadillos muestran dietas omnívoras oportunistas, con un mayor consumo de invertebrados y plantas; además, sugieren que C. villosus se desarrolla en un rango ambiental más amplio, con una dieta más diversa y mayor presencia de esta especie en ambas áreas de estudio.

  1. Permian to late Cenozoic evolution of northern Patagonia: Main tectonic events, magmatic activity, and depositional trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliana, M. A.; Biddle, K. T.

    The late Paleozoic to late Cenozoic evolution of northern Patagonia was influenced significantly by events that occurred while the area was part of the South American sector of Gondwanaland. Late Paleozoic to Middle Triassic subduction along the edge of the supercontinent formed a broad convergent-margin system that is the underpinning of northern Patagonia. Deformation (Gondwanidian orogeny) associated with the subduction is recognized in both the forearc and the convergent backarc areas. Regional extension, accompanied by bimodal volcanism, began in the Late Triassic and led to the formation of a number of north-northwest trending rift basins in Patagonia, which generally followed the Gondwanidian basement grain. Continued extension in the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous led to the opening of the Rocas Verdes marginal basin in southern Chile and, ultimately, to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Once oceanic crust began to form, faulting and volcanism declined in Patagonia. During the late Early Cretaceous to the Late Cretaceous, sags over the rift basins coalesced to form a broad backarc basin behind the volcanic arc to the west. These sags are suggestive of thermally driven subsidence. Subsidence of the evolving Atlantic margin allowed extensive marine transgressions to take place from the east. The stratigraphic record of northern Patagonia reflects these events. The upper Paleozoic to upper Mesozoic sedimentary sequences were deposited in basins directly associated with convergent activity along the margin of Gondwanaland or in rift basins created during its breakup. Even though the Tertiary evolution of Patagonia was dominated by events along the western margin of South America, the patterns of sediment transport, thickness, and general shoreline position were still influenced by the locations of the Mesozoic rifts formed during the breakup of Gondwanaland.

  2. Hydrogen energy demonstration plant in Patagonia: Description and safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprea, Jose Luis [CNEA (Argentine Atomic Energy Commission), AAH, IRAM, Comahue University, CC 805, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina)

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogen safety issues and especially hydrogen hazard's address are key points to remove any safety-related barrier in the implementation process of hydrogen energy systems. Demonstrative systems based on hydrogen technologies represent a clear contribution to the task of showing the feasibility of the new technologies and their beneficial capabilities among the public. In this paper, the safety features of the first hydrogen energy demonstrative plant conceived in Latin America are analyzed. The facilities, located in the village of Pico Truncado, Patagonia, Argentina, serve to gain day-to-day experience in the production, storage, distribution, conversion and use of hydrogen in several applications. The plant uses electrolysis to generate pure hydrogen from renewable primary sources, taking advantage of the installed wind power capacity that is continually growing in the region. The installations were designed to accomplish with two primary objectives: total safety assurance and minimization of human errors. Some details of the plant, including a general layout, are presented here, in addition with design criteria, hydrogen hazards, structural precautions, gas monitoring system, existing regulations and safety requirements. (author)

  3. Root proliferation in native perennial grasses of arid Patagonia, Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanina A. TORRES; Mara M. MUJICA; Sandra S. BAIONI; Jos ENTO; Mara N. FIORETTI; Guillermo TUCAT; Carlos A. BUSSO; Oscar A. MONTENEGRO; Leticia ITHURRART; Hugo D. GIORGETTI; Gustavo RODRGUEZ; Diego BENTIVEGNA; Roberto E. BREVEDAN; Osvaldo A. FERNNDEZ

    2014-01-01

    Pappophorum vaginatum is the most abundant C4 perennial grass desirable to livestock in rangelands of northeastern Patagonia, Argentina. We hypothesized that (1) defoliation reduce net primary productivity, and root length density and weight in the native species, and (2) root net primary productivity, and root length density and weight, are greater in P. vaginatum than in the other, less desirable, native species (i.e., Aristida spegazzinii, A. subulata and Sporobolus cryptandrus). Plants of all species were either exposed or not to a severe defoliation twice a year during two growing seasons. Root proliferation was measured using the cylinder method. Cylindrical, iron structures, wrapped up using nylon mesh, were buried diagonally from the periphery to the center on individual plants. These structures, initially filled with soil without any organic residue, were dug up from the soil on 25 April 2008, after two successive defoliations in mid-spring 2007. During the second growing season (2008-2009), cylinders were destructively harvested on 4 April 2009, after one or two defoliations in mid-and/or late-spring, respectively. Roots grown into the cylinders were obtained after washing the soil manually. Defoliation during two successive years did reduce the study variables only after plants of all species were defoliated twice, which supported the first hypothesis. The greater root net primary productivity, root length den-sity and weight in P. vaginatum than in the other native species, in support of the second hypothesis, could help to explain its greater abundance in rangelands of Argentina.

  4. Chironomid (Chironomidae: Diptera checklist from Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina Lista de los quironómidos (Chironomidae: Diptera del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Donato

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first inventory of modern and subfossil taxa of the Family Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera from Nahuel Huapi National Park in Patagonia, Argentina. The catalogued fauna contains 104 species in 48 genera and 6 sub-families for modern fauna and 52 morphotypes in 36 genera and 4 subfamilies for sub-fossil fauna.Este trabajo presenta el primer catálogo de taxones modernos y subfósiles de la familia Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi en Patagonia, Argentina. La fauna catalogada contiene 104 especies en 48 géneros y 6 subfamilias para la fauna moderna y 52 morfotipos en 36 géneros y 4 subfamilias para la fauna subfósil.

  5. El tiempo en "El hombre muerto": -Estudio de fenomenología genética- Time in "The Dead Man": -Study of Genetic Phenomenology-

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    Germán Vargas Guillén

    Full Text Available Resumen Estudio de fenomenología genética que examina la constitución de la subjetividad afirmativa cartesiana sobre suelo americano. La investigación se orienta a discutir algunas tesis de P. Virno -en su diálogo con Simondon- sobre la temporalidad en los procesos de individuación en los que se constituye la subjetividad. Para ello, se caracteriza la transformación de la experiencia y la conceptualización del tiempo del contexto fordista al posfordista, y se confronta la tesis fenomenológica sobre la temporalidad (I, como base para presentar el tiempo en El hombre muerto, de Horacio Quiroga. El análisis muestra la relación entre "civilización" y "barbarie", como lugar en el que se instala la emergencia del yo en América Latina. Se presenta el argumento sobre el tiempo en uno de los cuentos de Horacio Quiroga, El hombre muerto (II, 1. Se caracteriza la noción de tiempo en el paso de barbarie a civilización (II, 2.Se alude a la idolatría, desplegada en torno a los dispositivos civilizatorios (II, 3. Se indican algunas de las vías para el desmontaje de la idolatría civilizatoria (II, 4. Se discute el fenómeno de la constitución subjetiva en su cotejo con la individuación, como colofón del escrito (III.Abstract A study of genetic phenomenology which examines the constitution of affirmative cartesian subjectivity in its relation to Latin-American history. This research aims to discuss some of P. Virno's theses -in their dialogue with Simondon- concerning temporality in the processes of individuation in which subjectivity is constituted. To do this, the transformation of experience and the conceptualization of time, from the Fordist to the Postfordist context is characterized and is confronted with the phenomenological thesis of temporality (I, as a basis to present time in The death man by Horacio Quiroga. The analysis shows the relationship between "civilization" and "barbarism", as a place in which the self emergences, is

  6. OCCIDENTAL VERTICAL MODIFIED IN SITU PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF OIL FROM OIL SHALE. PHASE II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Reid M.

    1980-09-01

    The progress presented in this report covers the period June 1, 1980 through August 31, 1980 under the work scope for.Phase II of the DOE/Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. (OOSI) Cooperative Agreement. The major activities at OOSI 1s Logan Wash site during the quarter were: mining the voids at all levels for Retorts 7, 8 and 8x; completing Mini-Retort (MR) construction; continuing surface facility construction; tracer testing the MR 1 s; conducting Retorts 7 & 8 related Rock Fragmentation tests; setting up and debugging the Sandia B-61 trailer; and preparing the Phase II instrumentation plan.

  7. Islams y Occidentes. Límites de la interpretación esencialista

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri, Enrico, 1856-1929

    2014-01-01

    El autor destaca y critica la llamada interpretación esencialista del Islam, difundida no solo en algunos entornos del orientalismo europeo y americano, sino también en contextos intelectuales de las más variadas orientaciones políticas. Según estas visiones, el Islam sería en su naturaleza y esencia “intrínsecamente incompatible” con Occidente. De esta forma se identifica, como hace Huntington en The Clash of Civilizations, Islam e islamismo fundamentalista, considerándose ...

  8. Escenario de Sismo y Tsunami en el Borde Occidental del la Region Central del Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Tavera, Hernando

    2014-01-01

    En el presente informe se analiza la información publicada sobre la ocurrencia de grandes sismos en el Perú, con el propósito de consolidar el posible escenario sísmico y de tsunami que pueda presentarse en el borde occidental de la región central del Perú y que afectaría a la ciudad de Lima Metropolitana y a la provincia Constitucional del Callao. Se considera como fuentes primarias los trabajos de investigación realizados por Tavera y Bernal (2005) “Distribución espacial de á...

  9. El papel de la ONU en el conflicto del Sahara Occidental

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La democracia hoy: una mirada desde el temor a la El conflicto del Sahara Occidental comienza en el período de descolonización del continente africano, en la década de los setenta ms exactamente. Este confr. Acto se ha caracterizado por contar con dos tendencias que hasta el momento se presentan totalmente irreconciliables: los intereses de las partes, Marruecos y la República arave Saharaui Democrática (RASD), que han llegado a despertar la atención de otras naciones, quienes por efectos de ...

  10. Pensamiento, gnosis y resistencia en el Islam contemporáneo de África Occidental

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo ofrece una introducción a la historia del sufismo en África Occidental. A la vez, se intentará desmitificar el paradigma historiográfico del Islam Noire y la supuesta heterodoxia africana frente a una pretendida ortodoxia. Nuestra tesis, es que el sufismo en África es fundamental para entender su historia y su filosofía. Para llevar a cabo esta labor se analizan distintos personajes, doctrinas y conceptos, especialmente de los últimos dos siglos. ...

  11. Medicina indígena y occidental : diálogo de saberes

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad del Rosario, Programa de Divulgación Científica

    2006-01-01

    Sin bisturí, sin radiografía, sin anestesia, en medio de la selva, cientos de indígenas son curados de todo tipo de enfermedades por sus chamanes, que hacen uso de su única herramienta: la sabiduría ancestral de la madre naturaleza. Por primera vez en Colombia, un grupo de estudios busca la protección y articulación de la medicina tradicional con la medicina occidental para mejorar la prestación de servicios de salud. El descubrimiento de medicamentos extraordinarios para curar cientos d...

  12. El concepto de creación en Occidente, entre mitología y arte

    OpenAIRE

    Martire, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    El artículo analiza el concepto de creación en la cultura artística occidental, en particular en relación con el cambio de paradigma de la época renacentista italiana. A partir del análisis de la creación como rebelión al divino y de las conexiones entre las culturas renacentista y clásica, se destacará la tensión del arte entre expresión de la individualidad y proceso colectivo. This paper analyzes the concept of creation in the western artistic culture, particularly in relation to the pa...

  13. Craniectomia descompresiva en trauma craneoencefalico: experiencia en el hospital occidente de Kennedy

    OpenAIRE

    Solano Romero, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    El trauma craneoencefálico (TCE) afecta hasta el 2% de la población por año según lo publicado por BRAIN TRAUMA FOUNDATION1; el trauma es la principal causa de muerte en las primeras cuatro décadas de la vida, estando el trauma craneoencefálico implicado en por lo menos la mitad de los casos. Se presenta una serie de pacientes (52 adultos y 14 pediátricos) desde 2003 al 2010 en el Hospital Occidente de Kennedy, mediante revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas con diferentes variables. S...

  14. Japón y occidente. Encuentros y desencuentros tras la segunda posguerra

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Villalobos, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    A lo largo del siglo XX la influencia de Japón en la arquitectura occidental ha tenido momentos destacados. Alison y Peter Smithson estudiaron las miradas al mundo japonés de las generaciones precedentes de arquitectos y subrayaron nuevos aspectos a considerar en él, relacionados con la estética de lo desechable y la cultura pop. La vivienda japonesa inspiró conceptualmente algunas de sus utopías domésticas, que influirían de manera especial en el grupo británico Archigram y, a través de ello...

  15. Sahara Occidental: los factores económicos como detonante de la violencia organizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel García Guindo

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo aborda en primer lugar y desde una perspectiva teórica, la incidencia de los factores económicos y políticos en el germen de la violencia organizada para después, analizar como los cambios sociodemográficos que se han sucedido en el Sahara Occidental desde 1975 hasta nuestros días, sumados a la política asistencialista de Marruecos y los privilegios de los que se benefician determinados grupos han desestabilizado la región.

  16. Firewood Resource Management in Different Landscapes in NW Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela V. Morales

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems, their components, processes and functions are all subject to management by human populations, with the purpose of adapting the environments to make them more habitable and ensuring the availability and continuity of subsistence resources. Although a lot of work has been carried out on resources of alimentary or medicinal interest, little has been done on associating processes of domestication with firewood extraction, a practice considered to be destructive of the environment. In the arid steppe of NW Patagonia, inhabited and managed for different purposes for a long time by Mapuche-Tehuelche communities, the gathering of combustible plant species has up to the present time played a crucial role in cooking and heating, and work is required to achieve sustainability of this resource. In this study we evaluate whether environments with less landscape domestication are more intensively used for firewood gathering. Using an ethnobiological approach, information was obtained through participant observation, interviews and free listing. The data were examined using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Twenty-eight firewood species are gathered, both native (75% and exotic (25%. The supply of firewood mainly depends on gathering from the domesticated (10 species, semi-domesticated (17 species and low human intervention landscapes (17 species. In contrast to our hypothesis, average use intensity is similar in all these landscapes despite their different levels of domestication. That is, the different areas are taken advantage of in a complementary manner in order to satisfy the domestic demand for firewood. Neither do biogeographic origin or utilitarian versatility of collected plants vary significantly between the different landscape levels of domestication. Our results show that human landscape domestication for the provision of firewood seems to be a socio-cultural resilient practice, and shed new light on the role of culture in

  17. Organic carbon in glacial fjords of Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Gutiérrez, Marcelo; Tapia, Fabián; Abarzúa, Leslie; Daneri, Giovanni; Reid, Brian; Díez, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Ice Field in Chilean Patagonia is the largest (13,000 km2) temperate ice mass in the Southern hemisphere, yearly transporting ca. 40 km3 of freshwater to fjords. This volume of fresh and cold water likely affects adjacent marine ecosystems by changing circulation, productivity, food web dynamics, and the abundance and distribution of planktonic and benthic organisms. We hypothesize that freshwater-driven availability of inorganic nutrient and transport of organic and inorganic suspended matter, as well as microbes, become a controlling factor for productivity in the fjord associated with the Baker river and Jorge Montt glacier. Both appear to be sources of silicic acid, but not of nitrate and particulate organic carbon, especially during summer, when surface PAR and glacier thawing are maximal. In contrast to Baker River, the Jorge Montt glacier is also a source of dissolved organic carbon towards a proglacial fjord and the Baker Channel, indicating that a thorough chemical description of sources (tidewater glacier and glacial river) is needed. Nitrate in fiord waters reaches ca. 15 μM at 25 m depth with no evidence of mixing up during summer. Stable isotope composition of particulate organic nitrogen reaches values as low as 3 per mil in low-salinity waters near both glacier and river. Nitrogen fixation could be depleting δ15N in organic matter, as suggested by the detection at surface waters of nif H genes belonging to diazotrophs near the Montt glacier. As diazotrophs have also been detected in other cold marine waters (e.g. Baltic Sea, Arctic Ocean) as well as glaciers and polar terrestrial waters, there is certainly a potential for both marine and freshwater microbes to contribute and have a significant impact on the Patagonian N and C budgets. Assessing the impact of freshwater on C and N fluxes and the microbial community structure in Patagonian waters will allow understanding future scenarios of rapid glacier melting. This research was funded

  18. Regional mid-Pleistocene glaciation in central Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Andrew S.; Cogez, Antoine; Darvill, Christopher M.; Mendelova, Monika; Kaplan, Michael R.; Herman, Frédéric; Dunai, Tibor J.; Norton, Kevin; Xu, Sheng; Christl, Marcus; Rodés, Ángel

    2017-05-01

    Southern South America contains a glacial geomorphological record that spans the past million years and has the potential to provide palaeoclimate information for several glacial periods in Earth's history. In central Patagonia, two major outlet glaciers of the former Patagonian Ice Sheet carved deep basins ∼50 km wide and extending over 100 km into the Andean plain east of the mountain front. A succession of nested glacial moraines offers the possibility of determining when the ice lobes advanced and whether such advances occurred synchronously. The existing chronology, which was obtained using different methods in each valley, indicates the penultimate moraines differ in age by a full glacial cycle. Here, we test this hypothesis further using a uniform methodology that combines cosmogenic nuclide ages from moraine boulders, moraine cobbles and outwash cobbles. 10Be concentrations in eighteen outwash cobbles from the Moreno outwash terrace in the Lago Buenos Aires valley yield surface exposure ages of 169-269 ka. We find 10Be inheritance is low and therefore use the oldest surface cobbles to date the deposit at 260-270 ka, which is indistinguishable from the age obtained in the neighbouring Lago Pueyrredón valley. This suggests a regionally significant glaciation during Marine Isotope Stage 8, and broad interhemispheric synchrony of glacial maxima during the mid to late Pleistocene. Finally, we find the dated outwash terrace is 70-100 ka older than the associated moraines. On the basis of geomorphological observations, we suggest this difference can be explained by exhumation of moraine boulders.

  19. Estado actual del conocimiento del orden Odonata en la Patagonia Current knowledge of Patagonian Odonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Muzón

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El orden Odonata se encuentra representado en la Patagonia por 36 especies, reunidas en nueve familias y 18 géneros. El nivel de endemismo de esta taxocoenosis es alto, aproximadamente el 60% de las especies y casi el 40% de los géneros endémicos. La riqueza específica en la Patagonia decrece de Oeste a Este y de Norte a Sur, las áreas de mayor riqueza resultan ser las cordilleras de Nahuel Buta (Chile y de los Andes entre 38° y 41° S, y la meseta de Somuncurá (Argentina en la estepa. Se brinda una actualización del estado de conocimiento y un análisis de los principales patrones de distribución.The Odonata order is represented in Patagonia by 36 species belonging to nine families and 18 genera. The endemicity level is high being approximately 60% of the species and 40% of genera endemic. The specific richness in Patagonia decreases from West to East and from North to South, being Nahuel Buta (Chile and Andes mountains between 38° and 41° S on the forest area, and the Somuncurá plateau (Argentina on the steppe the richest areas. An update of its records and an analysis of the main distribution patterns are provided in this paper.

  20. Mesianismo salesiano en Patagonia septentrional? Último cuarto del siglo XIX, pueblo General Roca/Salesian Messianism in Northern Patagonia? Last Quarter of 19th Century, General Roca Town

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    María Alejandra Estrada

    2011-01-01

    ...; however, the Indians never assigned them those features. This paper addresses the development of this situation in Northern Patagonia during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, particularly in the town of General Roca...

  1. Lluvia de flores, cosecha de huesos. Guacas, brujería e intercambio con los muertos en la Tragedia de Armero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Suárez Guava

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La razón última que la cultura popular reconoce como explicación de la Tragedia de Armero es el Destino. De las múltiples formas que el Destino adopta para manifestarse en la historia del norte del Tolima, este artículo explora la noción de entierro en su polisemia y profundidad analítica. A través del examen de la relación entre vivos y muertos, la materialidad de la brujería y las historias de guacas, el texto alcanza dos grandes conclusiones: en primer lugar, que la noción de guaca es todo un concepto espacio-temporal que permite entender la cosmología del centro de Colombia; y en segundo lugar, que en esa cosmología la relación suerte-muerte delata la persistencia de un conjunto de ideas y prácticas relativas al destino que solo en Armero, delante de 23.000 muertes, se desvelan por completo.

  2. Moraine-dammed lake failures in Patagonia and assessment of outburst susceptibility in the Baker Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren Anacona, P.; Norton, K. P.; Mackintosh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age has resulted in the development or expansion of hundreds of glacial lakes in Patagonia. Some of these lakes have produced large (≥ 106 m3) Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) damaging inhabited areas. GLOF hazard studies in Patagonia have been mainly based on the analysis of short-term series (≤ 50 years) of flood data and until now no attempt has been made to identify the relative susceptibility of lakes to failure. Power schemes and associated infrastructure are planned for Patagonian basins that have historically been affected by GLOFs, and we now require a thorough understanding of the characteristics of dangerous lakes in order to assist with hazard assessment and planning. In this paper, the conditioning factors of 16 outbursts from moraine-dammed lakes in Patagonia were analysed. These data were used to develop a classification scheme designed to assess outburst susceptibility, based on image classification techniques, flow routine algorithms and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. This scheme was applied to the Baker Basin, Chile, where at least seven moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time. We identified 386 moraine-dammed lakes in the Baker Basin of which 28 were classified with high or very high outburst susceptibility. Commonly, lakes with high outburst susceptibility are in contact with glaciers and have moderate (> 8°) to steep (> 15°) dam outlet slopes, akin to failed lakes in Patagonia. The proposed classification scheme is suitable for first-order GLOF hazard assessments in this region. However, rapidly changing glaciers in Patagonia make detailed analysis and monitoring of hazardous lakes and glaciated areas upstream from inhabited areas or critical infrastructure necessary, in order to better prepare for hazards emerging from an evolving cryosphere.

  3. Moraine-dammed lake failures in Patagonia and assessment of outburst susceptibility in the Baker Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Iribarren Anacona

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age has resulted in the development or expansion of hundreds of glacial lakes in Patagonia. Some of these lakes have produced large (≥106 m3 Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs damaging inhabited areas. GLOF hazard studies in Patagonia have been mainly based on the analysis of short-term series (≤50 years of flood data and until now no attempt has been made to identify the relative susceptibility of lakes to failure. Power schemes and associated infrastructure are planned for Patagonian basins that have historically been affected by GLOFs, and we now require a thorough understanding of the characteristics of dangerous lakes in order to assist with hazard assessment and planning. In this paper, the conditioning factors of 16 outbursts from moraine dammed lakes in Patagonia were analysed. These data were used to develop a classification scheme designed to assess outburst susceptibility, based on image classification techniques, flow routine algorithms and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. This scheme was applied to the Baker Basin, Chile, where at least 7 moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time. We identified 386 moraine-dammed lakes in the Baker Basin of which 28 were classified with high or very high outburst susceptibility. Commonly, lakes with high outburst susceptibility are in contact with glaciers and have moderate (>8° to steep (>15° dam outlet slopes, akin to failed lakes in Patagonia. The proposed classification scheme is suitable for first-order GLOF hazard assessments in this region. However, rapidly changing glaciers in Patagonia make detailed analysis and monitoring of hazardous lakes and glaciated areas upstream from inhabited areas or critical infrastructure necessary, in order to better prepare for hazards emerging from an evolving cryosphere.

  4. Agresividad y resolución de problemas interpersonales en alumnado de cultura occidental y alumnado de cultura amazigh

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido Cerón, Rafael de Fátima

    2015-01-01

    En la presente tesis se analiza la relación que guardan entre sí variables como: agresividad y la resolución de problemas interpersonales, con variables culturales (cultura amazigh, cultura occidental), personales (sexo) y socioeconómicas (estatus socioeconómico), y con impulsividad en una muestra de estudiantes de cultura occidental y estudiantes de cultura amazigh escolarizados en tercer ciclo de Educación Primaria. Desarrollo teórico: Se empieza realizando una aproximación a la cultu...

  5. Cristianismo y maternidad en el ordenamiento jurídico del occidente tardorromano: el Código de Teodosio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallego Franco, Hernan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This researching work explores and evaluates the influence of Christianity and its family values, which have been considered prevailing in the occidental late-roman society, in the image of motherhood contained in the Theodosian Code.

    El presente estudio explora y evalúa la influencia del cristianismo y de los valores familiares a él asociados, que se han venido considerando predominantes en la sociedad occidental tardorromana, en la figura de la madre que se contiene en el marco jurídico del Código de Teodosio.

  6. Cretaceous and Tertiary terrane accretion in the Cordillera Occidental of the Andes of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard A.; Pilatasig, Luis F.

    2002-02-01

    New field, geochronological, geochemical and biostratigraphical data indicate that the central and northern parts of the Cordillera Occidental of the Andes of Ecuador comprise two terranes. The older (Pallatanga) terrane consists of an early to late (?) Cretaceous oceanic plateau suite, late Cretaceous marine turbidites derived from an unknown basaltic to andesitic volcanic source, and a tectonic mélange of probable late Cretaceous age. The younger (Macuchi) terrane consists of a volcanosedimentary island arc sequence, derived from a basaltic to andesitic source. A previously unidentified, regionally important dextral shear zone named the Chimbo-Toachi shear zone separates the two terranes. Regional evidence suggests that the Pallatanga terrane was accreted to the continental margin (the already accreted Cordillera Real) in Campanian times, producing a tectonic mélange in the suture zone. The Macuchi terrane was accreted to the Pallatanga terrane along the Chimbo-Toachi shear zone during the late Eocene, probably in a dextral shear regime. The correlation of Cretaceous rocks and accretionary events in the Cordillera Occidental of Ecuador and Colombia remains problematical, but the late Eocene event is recognised along the northern Andean margin.

  7. Effect of time outs on the score and type of defence used by teams in basketball Efecto de la solicitud de tiempos muertos sobre el marcador y el tipo de defensa empleados por los equipos en baloncesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Ibáñez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    During the competition, coach have a reduce number of occasions to affect directly to the game. Basketball rules let coaches to ask for time-outs to contact directly with his/her players, give them information, stop the match, etc. The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of the time-outs on the score and the type of defense use. A total of 80 time-outs of 14 matches from Spanish Championship under-20 were analyzed. The information of five phases before and after the time-out was analyzed. The variables studied were: a total score point by attack phase; b final action of each attack phase; and c type of defense used by teams in each phase. A descriptive and inferential analysis (multivariate analysis of repeat measurement was done. The results found show that: a the principal situation that provokes to ask for a time-out was: no score in more of the three out of five previous actions; b teams that ask the time-out improve their performance after it, teams that ask the time-out reduce their performance; and c teams that ask the time-out change their type of defense after it.
    Key Words:
    match analyses, coaching, team sports, offence, defence

     

    Durante la competición, el entrenador tiene escasas ocasiones para intervenir directamente sobre el juego. El reglamento de baloncesto permite a los entrenadores solicitar tiempos muertos para interaccionar directamente con sus jugadores, aportarles información, parar el juego, etc. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer el efecto que tiene la solicitud de tiempos muertos sobre el marcador y sobre los tipos de defensa utilizados. Se analizaron 80 tiempos muertos de 14 partidos del Campeonato de España Masculino Sub-20. Se registró la información relativa a las cinco fases de ataques anteriores y posteriores a la solicitud de cada

  8. LA PATAGONIA EN EL CONTEXTO DE LAS TRANSFORMACIONES REGIONALES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Saint Lary

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available La reestructuración económica internacional en curso, producto de la crisis de expansión del capitalismo, es un eje indispensable para la comprensión de los fenómenos regionales, y puede caracterizarse sintéticamente con las palabras de E. Laurelli y J. Linden-boim: "...se asienta en un proceso de continua centralización del capital, de aceleración de la utilización de los avances científico-técnicos, de mayor participación de los Estados en asociaciones supranacionales; de fortalecimiento de grandes grupos económicos locales; de intensificación de los lazos dependientes de nuestros países con los países capitalistas centrales dentro de los cuales se destacan los efectos del endeudamiento externo; la difusión de políticas de ajuste, básicamente asentadas en orientaciones neoliberales." En este marco, el rol del Estado ha cambiado fundamentalmente su perfil en América Latina, a partir de la "imposición de una imagen antiestatista y la aplicación de medidas que achican, degradan y desmembran el aparato estatal en tamaño y atribuciones" (¡bidem a diferencia del papel regulador y de control social que mantiene e los países centrales, especialmente de Europa occidental, y la tendencía a un mayor intervencionismo que se está dando en Estados Unidos.

  9. Estado actual del conocimiento de la familia Ceratopogonidae en la Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera Current knowledge of the family Ceratopogonidae in Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. Spinelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopogonidae incluye pequeños dípteros nematoceros que crían en hábitats acuáticos o semiacuáticos. Hasta los '80, el conocimiento de su taxonomía en la Patagonia se hallaba limitado a la contribución de los comienzos de los '30 de Ingram y Macfie, sobre la base de material capturado en 1926-27, en el área del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi y zonas vecinas de Chile. En los últimos 25 años, se pusieron en marcha diferentes proyectos, resultando la descripción o registro de numerosos taxones para la región. Si se contabilizan los datos publicados, 102 especies habitan en la Patagonia, de las cuales 86 (84,31% son endémicas para la región. Este alto porcentaje es evidente en los bosques de Nothofagus, con 71 especies endémicas de este bioma, nueve lo son de la estepa y seis presentan registros en bosque y estepa. Datos aún no publicados concuerdan con este esquema. Diecinueve géneros están representados en la Patagonia, diez de ellos con amplia distribución, tres de distribución transantártica y seis son endémicos para el área. Para la misma, se hallan publicadas las revisiones de Forcipomyia, Atrichopogon, Borkenthelea, Macrurohelea y Paradasyhelea; se han finalizado y aún no publicado aquellas de Dasyhelea y Palpomyia, está muy avanzada la de Stilobezzia y se prevé comenzar con las de Austrohelea, Austrosphaeromias, Physohelea y Bezzia. Se calcula que estos datos no divulgados contienen al menos 55 especies todavía no descriptas. Con respecto a los aspectos biogeográficos se pueden destacar estudios que tienden a establecer relaciones entre las áreas reconocidas en esquemas biogeográficos propuestos para la región andina.Ceratopogonidae includes small nematoceran Diptera which breed in aquatic and semiaquatic habitats. Until the 80´s its taxonomic knowledge in Patagonia was limited to the early 30´s contribution of Ingram and Macfie, from material collected in 1926-27 in the area of the Nahuel Huapi National

  10. Biodiversidad de Heteroptera (Hemiptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas de la Patagonia argentina Biodiversity of aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (Hemiptera from Argentinean Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Melo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Las Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas (infraórdenes Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha y Leptopodomorpha no presentan una alta diversidad específica en Argentina, hasta el momento se han registrado 208 especies. Carlos Berg en 1881, publica el primer trabajo que hace referencia a heterópteros de la Patagonia, en el que lista los insectos recolectados durante la Campaña del Desierto. Desde principios de la década del '60, las Heteroptera acuáticas han sido estudiadas principalmente por A.O. Bachmann y colaboradores. Hasta el momento, se han registrado 36 especies pertenecientes a las familias Corixidae, Notonectidae, Belostomatidae, Gelastocoridae, Naucoridae y Nepidae (Nepomorpha; Hydrometridae, Veliidae y Mesoveliidae (Gerromorpha, y Saldidae (Leptopodomorpha. La mayoría de estas especies extienden su distribución geográfica hacia el norte de la Argentina, excepto Sigara (Tropocorixa egbertae Hungerford, S. (T. trimaculata (Le Guillou, S. (T. vuriloche Bachmann, S. (T. forciceps (Spinola, Trichocorixa milicorum Bachmann (Corixidae, Notonecta (Paranecta virescens Blanchard, N. (P. fazi Hungerford, N. (P. vereertbruggheni Hungerford (Notonectidae, Pseudosaldula bergi (Haglund y P. paralia (Torres, P. angusta (Drake & Carvalho, P. sola (Drake & Carvalho, P. doeringi (Drake & Carvalho y Saldula differata Drake & Carvalho (Saldidae, que son exclusivas de la Patagonia. El conocimiento de la diversidad de Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas en la Patagonia es bueno y, por los datos recogidos, su estado de conservación es aceptable ya que aproximadamente el 40% de la especies encontradas en áreas naturales protegidas son exclusivas de la región y representan cerca del 40 % del número de especies exclusivas de la Patagonia.The aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (infraorders Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha and Leptopodomorpha show a low diversity in Argentina; up to now 208 species have been recorded. In 1881 Carlos Berg provided the first reference

  11. Last millenium environmental changes in Lake Bertrand sediments, Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacré, V.; Fagel, N.; Schmidt, S.; Alvarez, D.; Araneda, A.; Urrutia, R.

    2012-04-01

    Our study focuses on a multiproxy analysis of sedimentary records from Lago Bertrand (area 50 km2; 227 masl; 46°55'S 72°50'W). Three cores were retrieved during fieldtrips in 2009 and 2011 with an Uwitec gravity corer. One core was collected in the main lake (LBt09, 102 cm) and two others in a lateral extension (LBb11-A, 162 cm and LBb11-B, 156 cm). Data 210Pb and 137Cs give average sedimentation rates of 2 mm/yr for the upper core section from the main lake, allowing a decennial resolution. Our aim is to document the climatic variability during the last millennium in Northern Patagonia and its impact on the environment. Lago Bertrand is separated from a pro-glacial lake (Lago Plomo) by a morainic barrier. The sediments of this lake are mainly composed of clayed silts and very few sandy silts. In the cores from the Eastern branch of Lago Bertrand, X-ray radiographies and magnetic susceptibility profiles evidence well-defined pluri-millimetric laminations with organic-rich layers, especially in the central core section. In the main lake, X-ray radiographies show diffuse pluri-millimetric laminations while magnetic susceptibility profiles do not confirm it. The sediments of the main lake appear more homogeneous with less organic-rich layers. They are characterized by low C/N ratio (10), supporting an important aquatic productivity; high inorganic content (90-95% of the bulk sediment); two peaks in the biological silica profile; and abundant diatoms (50-100 µm). According to the age model, the changes in aquatic productivity occurred between 1700 and 1850 AD. The cores from the Eastern branch of Lago Bertrand are under investigation to confirm the extension of the sedimentological changes observed in the main lake. The main sedimentological change observed in Lago Bertrand occurs during an interval equivalent to a part of the Little Ice Age. A similar biogenic silica-rich layer was also recorded in another relatively distant lake (Lago Thompson at 45°30'S, 72°47

  12. Use of timesat to estimate phenological parameters in Northwestern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddi, Facundo; Minotti, Priscilla; Ghermandi, Luciana; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Under a global change context, ecosystems are receiving high pressure and the ecology science play a key role for monitoring and assessment of natural resources. To achieve an effective resources management to develop an ecosystem functioning knowledge based on spatio-temporal perspective is useful. Satellite imagery periodically capture the spectral response of the earth and remote sensing have been widely utilized as classification and change detection tool making possible evaluate the intra and inter-annual plant dynamics. Vegetation spectral indices (e.g., NDVI) are particularly suitable to study spatio-temporal processes related to plant phenology and remote sensing specific software, such as TIMESAT, has been developed to carry out time series analysis of spectral indexes. We used TIMESAT software applied to series of 25 years of NDVI bi-monthly composites (240 images covering the period 1982-2006) from the NOAA-AVHRR sensor (8 x 8 km) to assessment plant pheonology over 900000 ha of shrubby-grasslands in the Northwestern of Patagonia, Argentina. The study area corresponds to a Mediterranean environment and is part of a gradient defined by a sharp drop west-east in the precipitation regime (600 mm to 280 mm). We fitted the temporal series of NDVI data to double logistic functions by least-squares methods evaluating three seasonality parameters: a) start of growing season, b) growing season length, c) NDVI seasonal integral. According to fitted models by TIMESAT, start average of growing season was the second half of September (± 10 days) with beginnings latest in the east (dryer areas). The average growing season length was 180 days (± 15 days) without a clear spatial trend. The NDVI seasonal integral showed a clear trend of decrease in west-east direction following the precipitation gradient. The temporal and spatial information allows revealing important patterns of ecological interest, which can be of great importance to environmental monitoring. In this

  13. Un breve recorrido por la concepción de las emociones en Filosofía Occidental.

    OpenAIRE

    Casado-Lumbreras, Cristina; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    El presente artículo representa un breve recorrido por las aportaciones de los máximos exponentes del pensamiento occidental, haciendo hincapié en aquellos pensadores que han tenido una especial influencia en el desarrollo posterior de teorías psicológicas sobre la emoción.

  14. Lo que dicen del virus del Nilo Occidental (The Buzz-z-z on West Nile Virus)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-12

    En este podcast para niños, los chicos de Kidtastics hablan sobre el virus del Nilo Occidental y cómo protegerse de él.  Created: 1/12/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/30/2012.

  15. Salazarismo y Franquismo (1945-1955) : sobrevivir en Occidente = Salazarismo and Franquismo (1945-1955) : surviving in the West

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo Sanz, Rosa María

    2013-01-01

    En 1945 las dos dictaduras peninsulares constituían una excepción política en el marco de una Europa Occidental democrática que iniciaba su reconstrucción al amparo de una nueva potencia hegemónica. El arranque de la Guerra Fría benefició sus inte

  16. Modernity/Coloniality and Eurocentric Education: Towards a Post-Occidental Self-Understanding of the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article sketches a post-Occidental interpretation of the historical/conceptual relationships between modern western education and European civilizational identity formation. Modern western education will be interpreted as a modern/colonial institution that emerged along with the sixteenth-century responses to the questions provoked by the…

  17. Simbiosis entre clima, lugar y arquitectura. Desarrollo de estrategias bioclimáticas aplicadas en la Costa del Sol Occidental

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Galaso, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Análisis de la incidencia del clima local en la configuración urbanística y el diseño arquitectónico de los sectores residenciales de baja densidad situados a lo largo de la Costa del Sol Occidental.

  18. Composición por tallas, edad y crecimiento de Litopenaeus vannamei (Natantia: Penaeidae, en la laguna Mar Muerto, Oaxaca-Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Ramos-Cruz

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available De mayo a noviembre de 1996 se muestreó la captura comercial de camarón blanco (L. vannamei en la laguna Mar Muerto, localizada entre los estados de Oaxaca y Chiapas, México. Con la finalidad de conocer el crecimiento de esta especie en el interior de este sistema lagunar se registraron las tallas y pesos individuales de 16,378 camarones que en conjunto pesaron 68,645 g. Las tallas observadas fluctuaron entre 11 y 145 mm de longitud total, con pesos entre 0.1 y 26.3 g. La talla media mínima de reclutamiento a la fase explotada es de 45 mm. Los organismos abandonan el sistema lagunar para reclutarse a la zona marina con una talla que varía entre 83 y 120 mm, con una edad de1.5 a 4.5 meses. Con el análisis de progresión modal se detectaron 13 generaciones en el interior de la laguna. Las tasas de crecimiento fluctuaron entre 0.13 y 1.27 mm/día con un valor medio de 0.64 mm/día. Las longitudes asintóticas estimadas para cada generación variaron entre 105 y 159 mm, ubicándose la talla media en 136 mm, mientras que el peso asintótico medio fue de 15 g, con valores extremos de 8 y 23 g. Los parámetros del modelo de crecimiento de von Bertalanffy son: L = 136 mm, P = 15 g, k = 0.0161 mm y to = 5 mm. Tanto L como P no representan, al menos en este caso, las tallas y pesos asintóticos que la especie alcanza dentro del sistema lagunar, sino que deben de interpretarse como las tallas y pesos medios que debieran tener los organismos al momento de abandonarlo.The commercial catches of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were sampled (May through November 1996 in the Mar Muerto lagoon located between Oaxaca and Chiapas states, Mexico. To measure it’s growth rate at the innermost portions of this system, 16 378 length and weight records were obtained. Length fluctuated between 11 and 145 mm, and weights between 0.1 and 26.3 g. The minimum mean size for recruitment to the exploited phase is 45 mm. Organisms leave the lagunar system for

  19. L’aide humanitaire internationale non-gouvernementale : un monopole occidental

    OpenAIRE

    Bazin, Marie; Fry, Antoine; Levasseur, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    En matière d’aide humanitaire d'urgence, l’omniprésence quasi-exclusive des ONG du Nord dans toutes les régions du monde traduit un véritable monopole occidental. Un tel monopole passe la plupart du temps pour « normal » tant la conception de l’humanitaire qui le sous-tend est littéralement « occidentale », c’est-à-dire liée à l’histoire de l’Occident et aux valeurs qui s’y rattachent. On peut même se demander dans quelle mesure l’humanitaire ne représente pas dans l’inconscient collectif de ...

  20. The energy situation in the Western region; Situacion energetica en el hemisferio occidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weintraub, Sidney [Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The Inter-American affairs have never been simple, in fact, they become even more complicated when the energy is the topic. Due to political and economic reasons as well as those provoked by the resources availability, the western countries seem to have the same differences among them. On the other hand, by means of an analysis of 11 nations, there can be found the challenges that American continent confronts with regard to the energy issue. [Spanish] Las relaciones interamericanas nunca han sido faciles. Menos aun cuando se trata de energia. Debido a razones tanto politicas y economicas como a las ocasionadas por la disponibilidad de recursos, los paises del hemisferio occidental parecen no poder reconciliar sus diferencias. Mediante el analisis de 11 naciones se aprecian los desafios que encara el continente americano en materia energetica.

  1. Industria y competitividad regional: elementos para una estrategia en el Occidente colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lotero

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este estudio es presentar algunos elementos para el diseño de una estrategia de competitividad de la industria manufacturera desde la perspectiva regional. Partiendo de un breve análisis de la industria en el caso de la región del occidente colombiano, se plantea que en el marco de un nuevo modelo de desarrollo económico e industrial, le compete a los entes regionales promover acciones para elevar la competitividad de las actividades económicas. Dichas acciones deben centrarse en la generación de externalidades que incrementan la productividad total de los factores en la industria.

  2. RAÍCES LATINAS: TEOLOGÍA SECULAR Y FORMACIÓN IMPERIAL OCCIDENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fitzpatrick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo concierne el olvido de las formas deíficas, o político-teológicas, del imperialismo moderno. De manera particular, localiza el marco de dicho imperialismo en el lenguaje teológico presente en los trabajos de Francisco de Vitoria acerca de la colonización de las Américas. La adopción operativa de este marco en su versión «secular» se sostiene en el olvido activo de esta teología. Se concluye que esta combinación de adopción y olvido se extiende al afecto imperial que informa la formación política occidental.

  3. Italian Transnational Spaces in Japan: Doing Racialised, Gendered and Sexualised Occidentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Miyake

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the global success of the Made in Italy brand in the 1980s, Japan has witnessed an Italian boom which has turned Italy in the last decade into the most loved foreign country in Japan, especially among women and youth. This popularity is unparalleled in intensity and duration, but had seen little academic investigation. This essay explores how the transnational space of Italianness takes form through cumulative encounters between emotional geographies of 'the West' articulated in Japan (Occidentalism, as well as of 'the East' in Italy (Orientalism. There is a focus on the fluid intersections with the lived experience and projections of both Japanese and Italians in contemporary Japan to issues of nation, race, ethnicity, gender and sexuality.

  4. Patterns of tree species diversity in relation to climatic factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Silva-Flores

    Full Text Available Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different species of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole, 54 species of Quercus (ca. 9-14%, 7 species of Arbutus (ca. 50% and many other trees species. The objectives of this study were to model how tree species diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum tree species diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of tree species are generally

  5. Patterns of tree species diversity in relation to climatic factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Flores, Ramón; Pérez-Verdín, Gustavo; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different species of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole), 54 species of Quercus (ca. 9-14%), 7 species of Arbutus (ca. 50%) and many other trees species. The objectives of this study were to model how tree species diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum tree species diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of tree species are generally higher in cold

  6. K-Ar geochronology of the late cenozoic volcanic rocks of the Cordillera Occidental, southernmost Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosdal, Richard M.; Farrar, Edward; Clark, Alan H.

    1981-05-01

    Twenty-four K-Ar radiometric ages are presented for late Cenozoic continental volcanic rocks of the Cordillera Occidental of southernmost Perú (lat. 16° 57'-17° 36'S). Rhyodacitic ignimbrite eruptions began in this transect during the Late Oligocene and continued episodically through the Miocene. The development of andesitic-dacitic strato volcanoes was initiated in the Pliocene and continues to the present. The earliest ignimbrite flows (25.3-22.7 Ma) are intercalated in the upper, coarsely-elastic member of the Moquegua Formation and demonstrate that this sedimentary unit accumulated in a trough, parallel to Andean tectonic trends, largely in the Oligocene. More voluminous ash-flow eruptions prevailed in the Early Miocene (22.8-17.6 Ma) and formed the extensively preserved Huaylillas Formation. This episode was coeval with a major phase of Andean uplift, and the pyroclastics overlie an erosional surface of regional extent incised into a Paleogene volcano-plutonic arc terrain. An age span of 14.2-8.9 Ma (mid-Late Miocene) is indicated for the younger Chuntacala Formation, which again comprises felsic ignimbrite flows, largely restricted to valleys incised into the pre-Huaylillas Formation lithologies, and, at lower altitudes, an extensive aggradational elastic facies. The youngest areally extensive ignimbrites, constituting the Sencca Formation, were extruded during the Late Miocene. In the earliest Pliocene, the ignimbrites were succeeded by more voluminous calcalkaline, intermediate flows which generated numerous large and small stratovolcanoes; these range in age from 5.3 to 1.6 Ma. Present-day, or Holocene, volcanism is restricted to several large stratovolcanoes which had begun their development during the Pleistocene (by 0.7 Ma). The late Oligocene/Early Miocene (ca. 22-23 Ma) reactivation of the volcanic arc coincided with a comparable increase in magmatic activity throughout much of the Cordilleras Occidental and Oriental of the Central Andes.

  7. Mujeres de Edipo y los avatares de lo femenino en la mentalidad de occidente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Refugio Navarro-Hernández

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La crítica a la modernidad plantea una intervención a la centralidad misma del paradigma del sistema patriarcal, para develar la relación elíptica entre masculino-femenino como ontologías equidistantes entre sí, y enlazadas no solo como una complementariedad clásica, sino como la estructura de la simbolización de lo masculino desde el silencio de la madre. Se analiza, desde la construcción de lo simbólico de las estructu-ras del mito, hacia una explicación hermenéutica de las apreciaciones de las conductas más estandarizadas de las mujeres mexicanas, que pueden ser un modelo comprensivo de la interioridad femenina. Así se encuentra que la sexualidad materna y sus implicaciones en el Edipo nos ofrecen un cuestionamiento esencial a la cultura occidental y una nueva perspectiva para aprehender los avatares de la mentalidad. Una topolo-gía desmanteladora del proceso edípico y una tesis epistémica de la fe-minidad. Juego de desplazamientos y trampas de espejismos en las es-trategias de las relaciones, la trama de la red, la funcionalidad del siste-ma patriarcal y una exposición de relatos claves de la conformación del ente masculino de occidente, hasta convertirse en un ser integral (Edipo-Job que se define en la perversidad o monstruosidad de sus dominaciones y poderes, que lo hacen errar ciego y sostenido por Antígonas; estas herederas de todas las mujeres de Edipo, esfinges o pedazos que, de ideal en ideal, se adhieren a la persona de Edipo mientras vaga en las sombras, en el silencio de su amante y madre.

  8. "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina: Preliminary results "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Patagonia, Argentina: Resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Hernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Simuliidae is a family of Diptera with approximately 2072 described species worldwide. The females of the majority of the species feed from vertebrates' blood, which makes them a significant plague that affects both men as well as cattle, birds, and other vertebrates. The objective of this paper is to create an inventory of Simuliidae and to reveal certain aspects of the biology and distribution of this family of aquatic insects in the Nahuel Huapi National Park. Moreover, information on the zoogeography of Simuliidae in Patagonia is provided. Five genera, 3 subgenera and 32 species Simuliidae are recorded from Patagonia: Cnesia (three spp., Cnesiamima (one sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (one sp., Simulium (Ectemnaspis (one sp., S. (Psaroniocompsa (one sp. and S. ( Pternaspatha (11 spp., At present, we have collected all five genera, one subgenus of Simulium (Pternaspatha, and 19 species of Simuliidae in the park, which amounts to 57% of the Simuliidae fauna in this area. Puerto Blest, a characteristic area of the High-Andean phytogeographical province (humid forest, showed the highest diversity of Simuliidae.Los simúlidos pertenecen a una familia de Diptera (Simuliidae con alrededor de 2.072 especies descritas a nivel mundial. Las hembras de la mayoría de las especies se alimentan con sangre de vertebrados, lo cual las convierte en importantes plagas que afectan tanto al hombre como al ganado, aves y otros vertebrados. Los objetivos de este trabajo son llevar a cabo un inventario de Simuliidae y dar a conocer algunos aspectos de la biología y la distribución de esta familia de insectos acuáticos en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Además, se proporciona información sobre la biogeografía de Simuliidae en la Patagonia. Cinco géneros, un subgénero y 32 especies de simúlidos han sido registrados para Patagonia: Cnesia (3 spp., Cnesiamima (1 sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (1 sp., Simulium

  9. Conifer woods from the Salamanca Formation (early Paleocene), Central Patagonia, Argentina: Paleoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Daniela P.; Brea, Mariana; Raigemborn, M. Sol; Matheos, Sergio D.

    2017-07-01

    The main objective of the present work is to describe the first conifer assemblage of a mixed forest from the Danian Salamanca Formation at the Estancia Las Violetas locality (San Jorge Basin, Central Patagonia, Argentina), based on detailed descriptions of secondary xylem. Also, sedimentological description of the Estancia Las Violetas outcrops are made in order to understand the paleoenvironmental conditions under which paleocommunities developed. Six conifer woods are described and assigned to one Podocarpoxylon Gothan and three Cupressinoxylon Göppert species (including a new species). This is the first record of Patagonia forest where the conifer assemblage is dominated by Cupressinoxylon, associated with Podocarpaceae and palms (recorded as fruits), conforming a mixed forest with a floristic composition similar to present-day New Caledonia forests. Las Violetas fossil forest represent a parautochtonous community developed in a forested coastal setting, a tide-dominated estuary, at ∼51-50° S paleolatitudes of South America during the early-middle Danian.

  10. Turismo sostenible y proyectos hidroeléctricos: contradicciones en la patagonia chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Inostroza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las perspectivas del turismo sostenible en la Patagonia chilena en relación a la probable implantación de centrales hidroeléctricas en su territorio. Se estudia el impacto de un gran proyecto hidroeléctrico en la región de Aysén (Chile y su repercusión en el turismo. Se concluye que la construcción y operación de grandes embalses y presas con sus correspondientes líneas de trasmisión eléctrica atentarían contra la principal ventaja competitiva del sector turístico de la Patagonia: una naturaleza que aún se conserva y que se ha proyectado en el imaginario social.

  11. SRTM Anaglyph: Meseta de Somuncura, Patagonia, Argentina (Near Los Menucos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Meseta de Somuncura is a semi-arid basalt plateau in northern Patagonia. This view of the northwestern part of the plateau, near Los Menucos, Argentina, shows numerous depressions where the upper basalt layers are missing or collapsed. Collapse occurs above voids in the underlying rock. These voids might have been caused by lava tubes carrying away molten lava from under the cooled and solidified surface of a lava flow. Alternatively, voids might result when ground water dissolves carbonate (limestone) or evaporite (salt) deposits that the lava may be covering.Many of the depressions have salty lakes. Light wind streaks downwind (eastward) from the lakes show that salt crystals blow off the lake beds during dry times. Some eroded sand and silt debris from the basalt must also blow downwind, but the degree to which wind plays a role in the erosion of the depressions is not clear.This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same

  12. SRTM Stereo Pair: Meseta de Somuncura, Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Meseta de Somuncura is a semi-arid basalt plateau in northern Patagonia. This view of the northwestern part of the plateau, near Los Menucos, Argentina, shows numerous depressions where the upper basalt layers are missing or collapsed. Collapse occurs above voids in the underlying rock. These voids might have been caused by lava tubes carrying away molten lava from under the cooled and solidified surface of a lava flow. Alternatively, voids might result when ground water dissolves carbonate (limestone) or evaporite (salt) deposits that the lava may be covering.Many of the depressions have salty lakes. Light wind streaks downwind (eastward) from the lakes show that salt crystals blow off the lake beds during dry times. Some eroded sand and silt debris from the basalt must also blow downwind, but the degree to which wind plays a role in the erosion of the depressions is not clear.This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the

  13. Recent drainage events of glacial Lake Cachet 2, Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, G.; Wendt, J.; Wendt, A.; Escobar, F.; Lopez, P.; Carrasco, J.; Rivera, A.; Leidich, J.

    2009-04-01

    Lake Cachet 2 (47°12' S, 73°15' W, 422 m a.s.l.) is a proglacial lake of 4 km2 located on the eastern margin of the Northern Patagonia Icefield (3,953 km2, Rivera et al., 2007), which is dammed on its southern margin by Colonia Glacier. Until April 2008 there was no historical evidence of catastrophic flooding of this lake. In 2008 three sudden drainage events occurred at Lake Cachet 2 (April 6-7; October 7-8 and 21-22 December). During each event the flood wave traveled down Colonia River to the confluence with Baker River, then affected Baker River to a distance of up to 25 km upstream from the confluence and downstream all the way to its mouth on the Pacific Ocean fjords at Caleta Tortel (100 km to the southwest), transporting abundant sediments. In April the runoff of Baker River close to the confluence with Colonia River increased from a base level of 1,200 m3/s on April 7 to a peak runoff of 3,570 m3/s within a period of less than 48 hours, resulting in a river level increase of 4.5 m and an associated water temperature drop from 8°C to 4°C. In October the base level was 573 m3/s, with a peak runoff of 3,007 m3/s, a river level increase of 4.7 m and a water temperature drop from 7.3°C to 4.8°C, while in December the corresponding values were 1,145 m3/s, 3,052 m3/s, 11°C and 8°C. The flood affected roads, bridges, farms and cattle, fortunately not resulting in any human damage. Similar floods had been reported on Colonia River several decades ago, the last having occurred in the 1970s, all of which originated at that time at glacial Lake Arco, located south of Colonia Glacier. Airborne and ground explorations carried out after each event in 2008 confirmed that the floods originated at Lake Cachet 2, draining under Colonia Glacier for a distance of 8 km and emerging at the front of the glacier. As a result parts of the glacier front collapsed after each event, where large ice fractures could be observed. During the October event a complete drainage of

  14. Chironomid (Chironomidae: Diptera checklist from Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano DONATO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta el primer catálogo de taxones modernos y subfósiles de la familia Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi en Patagonia, Argentina. La fauna catalogada contiene 104 especies en 48 géneros y 6 subfamilias para la fauna moderna y 52 morfotipos en 36 géneros y 4 subfamilias para la fauna subfósil.

  15. Repeated glacial-lake outburst floods in Patagonia: An increasing hazard?

    OpenAIRE

    Dussaillant, Alejandro; Benito, Gerardo; Buytaert, Wouter; Carling, Paul; Meier, Claudio; Espinoza, Fabián

    2009-01-01

    Five similar glacial-lake outburst floods (GLOFs) occurred in April, October, December 2008, March and September 2009 in the Northern Patagonia Icefield. On each occasion, Cachet 2 Lake, dammed by the Colonia Glacier, released circa 200-million m3 water into the Colonia River. Refilling has occurred rapidly, such that further outbreak floods can be expected. Pipeflow calculations of the subglacial tunnel drainage and 1D hydraulic models of the river flood give consistent results, with an esti...

  16. Estudio de la calidad de las aguas del Estero del Muerto en base a la concentración de oxígeno disuelto.- Estación fija

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia, M.; Burgos, L.; Espinoza, M.

    1987-01-01

    Se presenta un análisis de la influencia de la marea y profundidad sobre la concentración de oxígeno disuelto en aguas del Estero del Muerto, Provincia del Guayas. Se establece que existe una relación directa de estos dos factores sobre la msima. Se encuentra mayor concentración de oxígeno disuelto en superficie, la cual disminuye conforme aumenta la profundidad, siendo mayor durante el flujo que durante el reflujo; existe un leve incremento durante la noche como producto de la agitación de l...

  17. Cretaceous/Paleogene floral turnover in Patagonia: drop in diversity, low extinction, and a Classopollis spike.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana D Barreda

    Full Text Available Nearly all data regarding land-plant turnover across the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary come from western North America, relatively close to the Chicxulub, Mexico impact site. Here, we present a palynological analysis of a section in Patagonia that shows a marked fall in diversity and abundance of nearly all plant groups across the K/Pg interval. Minimum diversity occurs during the earliest Danian, but only a few palynomorphs show true extinctions. The low extinction rate is similar to previous observations from New Zealand. The differing responses between the Southern and Northern hemispheres could be related to the attenuation of damage with increased distance from the impact site, to hemispheric differences in extinction severity, or to both effects. Legacy effects of the terminal Cretaceous event also provide a plausible, partial explanation for the fact that Paleocene and Eocene macrofloras from Patagonia are among the most diverse known globally. Also of great interest, earliest Danian assemblages are dominated by the gymnosperm palynomorphs Classopollis of the extinct Mesozoic conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae. The expansion of Classopollis after the boundary in Patagonia is another example of typically Mesozoic plant lineages surviving into the Cenozoic in southern Gondwanan areas, and this greatly supports previous hypotheses of high latitude southern regions as biodiversity refugia during the end-Cretaceous global crisis.

  18. Cretaceous/Paleogene floral turnover in Patagonia: drop in diversity, low extinction, and a Classopollis spike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Viviana D; Cúneo, Nestor R; Wilf, Peter; Currano, Ellen D; Scasso, Roberto A; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all data regarding land-plant turnover across the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary come from western North America, relatively close to the Chicxulub, Mexico impact site. Here, we present a palynological analysis of a section in Patagonia that shows a marked fall in diversity and abundance of nearly all plant groups across the K/Pg interval. Minimum diversity occurs during the earliest Danian, but only a few palynomorphs show true extinctions. The low extinction rate is similar to previous observations from New Zealand. The differing responses between the Southern and Northern hemispheres could be related to the attenuation of damage with increased distance from the impact site, to hemispheric differences in extinction severity, or to both effects. Legacy effects of the terminal Cretaceous event also provide a plausible, partial explanation for the fact that Paleocene and Eocene macrofloras from Patagonia are among the most diverse known globally. Also of great interest, earliest Danian assemblages are dominated by the gymnosperm palynomorphs Classopollis of the extinct Mesozoic conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae. The expansion of Classopollis after the boundary in Patagonia is another example of typically Mesozoic plant lineages surviving into the Cenozoic in southern Gondwanan areas, and this greatly supports previous hypotheses of high latitude southern regions as biodiversity refugia during the end-Cretaceous global crisis.

  19. [Survival capacity of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis in different soil types from Chubut, Argentine Patagonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Laura; William, Aillin; Castro, Isabel; Valenzuela, Fernanda; Estevao Belchior, Silvia

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is transmitted among sheep in Argentine Patagonia causing pseudotuberculosis. The bacterium penetrates the skin or mucous membrane wounds, infecting the superficial lymph nodes and viscera. When surface abscesses are cut during shearing, they drain their purulent contents and contaminate tools and the soil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the survival capacity of C. pseudotuberculosis over time, in soils from the extra-Andean Patagonia region. Five types of superficial soils were collected from different areas in Chubut province (extra-Andean Patagonia), having distinctive physicochemical properties including organic matter content (very high to nonexistent), pH (neutral to strongly alkaline), electrical conductivity (saline to non-saline) and texture (sandy, clayey, silty loam). Different aliquots of each type of soil were inoculated with C. pseudotuberculosis PAT10 strain isolated from a Patagonian sheep, and were stored at room temperature. The number of surviving bacteria was determined at various times. Sixty percent (60%) of the inoculated C. pseudotuberculosis population survived for 80 to 210 days in soils with moderate to high organic matter content respectively. Silty soils favored bacterial survival, whereas the variables pH and salinity had no effect on survival. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Gastrointestinal helminths of Commerson's dolphins Cephalorhynchus commersonii from central Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berón-Vera, B; Pedraza, S N; Raga, J A; Gil de Pertierra, A; Crespo, E A; Alonso, M K; Goodall RNP

    2001-12-05

    The stomachs and intestines of 9 Commerson's dolphins incidentally caught in trawl nets in central Patagonia and 23 stranded on beaches in Tierra del Fuego were surveyed for helminth parasites. A total of 267 individuals belonging to 4 species of parasites (1 nematode, 3 digeneans) were found in the dolphins from the first area: Anisakis sp. (larvae type 1 = A. simplex), Braunina cordiformis, Hadwenius sp. and Pholeter gastrophilus. In the Tierra del Fuego dolphins, 142 specimens belonging to 3 species (2 nematodes, 1 digenean, 1 cestode) were found: A. simplex, Hadwenius sp. and Strobilocephalus triangularis. Only 2 of the helminth species were shared in the 2 study areas, A. simplex and Hadwenius sp., and both were more common in central Patagonia. Among the species, A. simplex was most prevalent and abundant in both study areas. In Tierra del Fuego, adults of A. simplex appeared in only 1 host. Hadwenius sp., P. gastrophilus and S. triangularis are new host records for Commerson's dolphin. Species diversity and species richness were low in both study areas. Helminth communities were more diverse in central Patagonia (t = 1.97, df = 258, p Tierra del Fuego. The results may suggest some differences in habitat use, diet and sex between Commerson's dolphin populations in the 2 study areas.

  1. IMÁGENES DE AUTOR E IMÁGENES DE PATAGONIA: TRELEW DE MARCELO ECKHARDT Images of author and images of Patagonia: Trelew by Marcelo Eckhardt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Andrea Mellado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Trelew (1997 del escritor argentino Marcelo Eckhardt está compuesto por ensayos, relatos y una novela que se desarrollan de modo intercalado. Caracterizado por la mixtura genérica, así como por una insistente descripción del espacio geográfico y cultural de PatagoniaTrelew despliega la mitografía de la ciudad homónima a la vez que construye la del propio autor que expande y diversifica su enunciación en otras voces, convirtiendo el texto en un texto plural no sólo en cuanto a las formas sino, también, en cuanto a las voces que lo configuran.Trelew (1997 of the Argentine writer Marcelo Eckhardt is composed by essays, stories and a novel that they develop in an inserted way. Characterized by the generic mixture, and by a insistent description of the geographic and cultural space of the Patagonia, Trelew develops the mitografìa of the city homonym simultaneously that constructs that of the own author who expands and diversifies his speech in other voices, turning the text in a plural text by the forms and by the voices that form it.

  2. Insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura, Patagonia, Argentina. Inventario preliminar Aquatic insects from Somuncura plateau, Patagonia, Argentina. Preliminary inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Muzón

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Se brinda un inventario preliminar de los insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura y su área de influencia (Patagonia, Argentina realizado sobre la base de colecciones y registros previos de especies pertenecientes a los órdenes Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (familias Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae y Psychodidae y Coleoptera. Se han relevado diversos tipos de ambientes en 14 localidades. El número de especies registrado asciende a 78, agrupadas en 51 géneros y 26 familias, de las cuales 33 se citan por primera vez del área. De los taxa registrados 83% de los géneros corresponden a grupos de amplia distribución (neotropicales, americanos o cosmopolitas, mientras que 41% de las especies presentan una distribución patagónica o andina.ABSTRACT. A preliminary inventory of the aquatic insects from the Somuncura plateau and its area of influence (Patagonia, Argentina is presented. It was done on the basis of the study of collections and previous records of species belonging to the orders Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (families Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae, and Psychodidae and Coleoptera. Different kinds of environments were surveyed in 14 localities. Seventy eigth species grouped in 51 genera and 26 families were registered, and 33 species are new records for the area. Eighty three % of the registered genera are widely distributed (neotropical, american or cosmopolitan, while 41 % of the species exhibit patagonic or andean distribution.

  3. High Holocene lake levels in eastern Patagonia (Argentina) as a result of persistent Atlantic rainfall (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariztegui, D.; Compagnucci, R.; Agosta, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Today's precipitation in central Patagonia, Argentina, mostly follows the intensity of the Westerlies. However, the extraordinary persistence of daily easterly winds can trigger episodes of intense rainfall reflected as water level variations in Lago Cardiel, a closed lacustrine basin located at 49°S. Meteorological data from 11-20 March 2002 at nearby Gobernador Gregores station recorded a heavy rain spell of 50mm accounting for 30% of the mean annual rainfall (167mm/year). The synoptic situation during this interval shows rainfall produced by wet air mass advection from the Atlantic. The weather surface maps for these days display a cyclone incoming at 45°S to the west of western Patagonia together with a concomitant anticyclone to the southwest, while a cyclogenesis initiates in eastern Patagonia. This pressure dipole produced east-north-eastern winds at the lake latitude and a generalized drop in the Westerlies intensity almost across the entire Patagonia. This is shown in distant stations such as Bariloche(41.9°S) and Rio Gallegos (51.4°S) in northwestern and southeastern Patagonia, respectively, as well as in Chilean stations such as Balmaceda (45.9°S) and Chile Chico (46.9°S). Similar pressure anomalies along with changes in wind intensity and direction have been previously simulated for the Austral winter (JJA) during the middle Holocene (7.0 to 4.5 kcal yrs BP). Thus, weaker Westerlies along with a higher frequency of the dipole-type atmospheric circulation than at present increased the described easterly winds-triggered rainfall. This inference agrees with high lake levels in the Lago Cardiel record along with more negative - Atlantic type - oxygen isotopic composition of authigenic carbonates. An increase in the frequency of this climatic configuration during longer time intervals could further explain the extreme lake highstands reconstructed for the early Holocene, and the contemporaneous negative isotopic signature of the carbonates. It could

  4. El antiguo festival céltico pagano de Samain y su continuación en la fiesta laica de Halloween, el día de los difuntos cristiano y el día de muertos en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alberro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se analiza la festividad mexicana del Día de Muertos, sus raícesparciales en la Festividad de los Muertos de los antiguos aztecas, y la forma en quese desarrolló a partir del Día de los Difuntos cristiano, cuyo origen se retrotrae a suvez a la antigua festividad céltica pagana de Samain. Se estudia también la recienteintroducción en México de la actual fiesta laica de Halloween, derivada asimismo deSamain, y la forma en la que los mexicanos reaccionan ante este acontecimiento.

  5. El antiguo festival céltico pagano de Samain y su continuación en la fiesta laica de Halloween, el día de los difuntos cristiano y el día de muertos en México

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Alberro

    2004-01-01

    En el artículo se analiza la festividad mexicana del Día de Muertos, sus raícesparciales en la Festividad de los Muertos de los antiguos aztecas, y la forma en quese desarrolló a partir del Día de los Difuntos cristiano, cuyo origen se retrotrae a suvez a la antigua festividad céltica pagana de Samain. Se estudia también la recienteintroducción en México de la actual fiesta laica de Halloween, derivada asimismo deSamain, y la forma en la que los mexicanos reaccionan ante este acontecimiento....

  6. Petrografia y geoquimica de las rocas intrusivas aflorantes entre los municipios de Mistrato y Belen de Umbria (Departamento de Risaralda, Cordillera Occidental Colombiana)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vallejo Hincapie, Diego Felipe; Salazar Rios, Andres Felipe; Toro Toro, Luz Mary

    2011-01-01

    Las rocas Intrusivas objeto de estudio afloran en los municipios de Mistrato y Belen de Umbria, Departamento de Risaralda, sobre el flanco oriental de la Cordillera Occidental y al oeste del Sistema...

  7. A new species of broad-headed eleutherodactylus from the cordillera occidental of Colombia (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae A new species of Broad-Headed Eleutherodactylus from the Cordillera Occidental of Colombia (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae

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    Lynch John D.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The broad-headed eleutherodactyline frogs have been studied by Lynch(1975, 1981. Although frogs of this assembly are easily identified (Lynch,1975, 1976, 1981, the assembly is not a natural group (Lynch, 1986.Recently, Rivero (1984 described a new species, E. sernai, from westernAntioquia, Colombia. Although Rivero associated E. sernai with thebiporcatus group, the species appears to be a member of the sulcatus group(because it possesses the plesiornorphic condition of the mandibular musclesadductors and the trigeminal nerve mandibular ramus. However, this characteristicis not sufficient to place E. sernai within the sulcatus group; theassignment will be defended in a future paper on the osteology of the variousspecies of the group. For the moment, the sulcatus group contains thefollowing species: E. cerasies Lynch, E. cornutus (Jimenez de la Espada,E. helonotus (Lynch, E. ingeri (Cochran and Gain, E. ruizi Lynch, E.sernai Rivero, and E. sulcatus Se describe Eleutherodactylus cadenai sp. nov. de las selvas de la vertiente occidental de la Cordillera Occidental de Colombia (corregimiento .de Murrí, Municipio de Frontino, Antioquia.  La especie parece tener un ancestro común con Eleutherodactylus ingeri de los bosques nublados de la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia y las dos tienen parentescos con Eleutherodactylus ruizi de las cordilleras Central y Occidental de Colombia.

  8. Tratado del burro y otras bestias. Una historia del simbolismo animal en Occidente, de Alberto del Campo Tejedor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Montero-Cruzada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la máxima de Persio como jáquima, Auriculas asini quis non habet?, se apuntan los aspectos principales que han llevado a realizar una revisión analítica y crítica del contenido de la obra Tratado del burro y otras bestias. Una historia del simbolismo animal en Occidente, del antropólogo Alberto del Campo Tejedor.

  9. Modeling the Potential Distribution of Picea chihuahuana Martínez, an Endangered Species at the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) help identify areas for the development of populations or communities to prevent extinctions, especially in the face of the global environmental change. This study modeled the potential distribution of the tree Picea chihuahuana Martínez, a species in danger of extinction, using the maximum entropy modeling method (MaxEnt) at three scales: local, state and national. We used a total of 38 presence data from the Sierra Madre Occidental. At the local scale, we...

  10. Nuevas manifestaciones ígneas básicas en el flanco occidental de la cordillera oriental, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se describen y localizan nuevas manifestaciones ígneas básicas en la parte central del flanco occidental de la Cordillera Oriental, las cuales se presentan generalmente a manera de diques y silos.  De acuerdo con los análisis preliminares de los resultados petrográficos y geoquímicos, las rocas corresponden a gabros similares a los reportados anteriormente al sur del área.

  11. Tratado del burro y otras bestias. Una historia del simbolismo animal en Occidente, de Alberto del Campo Tejedor

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Montero-Cruzada

    2015-01-01

    Con la máxima de Persio como jáquima, Auriculas asini quis non habet?, se apuntan los aspectos principales que han llevado a realizar una revisión analítica y crítica del contenido de la obra Tratado del burro y otras bestias. Una historia del simbolismo animal en Occidente, del antropólogo Alberto del Campo Tejedor.

  12. Religiosidad en Al-Andalus: el hombre santo en el Islam occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Mediano, Fernando

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Hagiographical literature in Western Islam is abundant from the 12th-13th centuries onward, and is tied to the introduction and expansión of sufism in al-Andalus and Morocco. In this paper I analyse three hagiographical texts from al-Andalus in order to understand how the authority of a holy man is constructed from two perspectives: fear of his miraculous power and love inspired in his followers. Through these two passions, love and fear, one can infer the existence of a political and religious pattern for authoritarian relationships in Western Islam.Los siglos XII y XIII son fundamentales para la expansión del sufismo en el Occidente musulmán y para la creación de una tradición hagiográfica puramente magrebí. En este artículo se utilizan tres textos hagiográficos andalusíes de esa época para analizar cómo se construye la autoridad del hombre santo desde una doble perspectiva: la del miedo a la acción del santo y la del amor que inspira. A través de estas pasiones se puede rastrear la existencia de un modelo de autoridad que es a la vez religioso y político.

  13. Clínica de Occidente: Franca Recuperación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO CAMILO FERNÁNDEZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento muestra cómo bajo un sólido planteamiento estratégico y un adecuado despliegue táctico se puede superar condiciones desfavorables de una organización que ha estado deficientemente gestionada y que se debe desenvolver en un entorno fuertemente regulado por el estado y grupos económicos poderosos. En el presente caso, se trata la historia de la Clínica de Occidente de Cali, hasta el año 2011, que pasó de ser una entidad con altos márgenes de rentabilidad enfocada en estratos medio-altos, a tener que acogerse a la Ley de Quiebra en 2004, por efecto de la implementación del nuevo Sistema de Salud de 1993. Después de un efectivo proceso de planeación estratégica alineado con el entorno, ha presentado una notoria recuperación, llevándola a un alto posicionamiento.

  14. El bosque del escarpe occidental del rio Parana (Argentina: composicion floristica y estructura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darién E Prado

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available El borde occidental de la llanura aluvial del río Paraná en Argentina presenta un pronunciado escarpe que no es superado por las crecientes. Su vegetación en un bosque subtropical semideciduo de linaje paranaense-amazónico, dominado por Holocalyx balansae, Ficus luschnathiana, Patagonula americana, Gleditsia amorphoides y otras. Se analizaron seis stands de este bosque empleando el método de los cuadrantes de Cottam y Curtis. Los resultados del relevamiento se exponen aquí, suministrando frecuencia, densidad y dominancia relativas, el valor de importancia de cada especie, junto con la descripción estructural del bosque. Se discute su composición florística comparada con la de bosques semejantes em otras áreas de Argentina y Brasil.The western limit of the alluvial plains of the river Parana in Argentina presents a pronounced scarp, above the level of floodings. The vegetation, a semideciduos subtropical forest of Amazonian origin, was analyzed using the point-centred quarter method. The parameters relative frequency, relative density, relative dominance and importance value index for each species are provided, together with a brief structural description. The floristic composition is compared with similar forests elsewhere in Argentina and Brazil.

  15. Fishery of the short-necked clam Paphia undulata in Southern Negros Occidental, Central Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Villarta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study documents the fishery of the short-necked clam Paphia undulata in coastal waters of southern Negros Occidental. Catch and effort estimates were determined based on daily records of compressor divers gathered between February-July 2008 in Himamaylan City and July 2008-May 2009 in the town of Hinigaran. Fishing and marketing practices in both areas were also documented and population biology information noted.Compared to earlier conditions, present fishing patterns show a worsened stage of overexploitation primarily characterized by collection of predominantly small and immature (mostly <45 mm shell lengths sizes. Intensity/duration and location of fishing also varied due to both abundance and demand factors.The difference in sizes of clams and the varying fishing durations in each area suggest a non-uniform pattern of settlement resulting most likely from differential larval recruitment, the likely factors causing the local boom and bust fishery. The larger and long term extent of the effect of these factors can only be further investigated by parallel 2-3 year fishery-dependent and -independent surveys

  16. Clínica de Occidente: Franca Recuperación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Camilo Fernández, Mg

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este documento muestra cómo bajo un sólido planteamiento estratégico y un adecuado despliegue táctico se puede superar condiciones desfavorables de una organización que ha estado deficientemente gestionada y que se debe desenvolver en un entorno fuertemente regulado por el estado y grupos económicos poderosos. En el presente caso, se trata la historia de la Clínica de Occidente de Cali, hasta el año 2011, que pasó de ser una entidad con altos márgenes de rentabilidad enfocada en estratos medio-altos, a tener que acogerse a la Ley de Quiebra en 2004, por efecto de la implementación del nuevo Sistema de Salud de 1993. Después de un efectivo proceso de planeación estratégica alineado con el entorno, ha presentado una notoria recuperación, llevándola a un alto posicionamiento.

  17. Las lluvias de barro en el Mediterráneo Occidental: El caso de Mallorca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan J. Fornós

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una relación de 222 días con lluvias de barro observadas en Palma de Mallorca (Mediterráneo Occidental desde 1979. La serie presenta una tendencia creciente, y los casos se dan preferentemente en la mitad más cálida del año. Se han estudiado las situaciones meteorológicas asociadas a este fenómeno, que combinan advección cálida del sur en niveles bajos con sudoestes asociados a una depresión o vaguada en la troposfera media. Las muestras estudiadas presentan una textura limosa, y se componen principalmente de cuarzo y calcita. En unas pocas ocasiones se ha observado precipitación de barro seco en forma de esférulas, que han debido formarse por evaporación total de las gotas de la lluvia de barro durante su caída.

  18. Formas terminales de Hippidion (Mammalia, Perissodactyla de los yacimientos del Pleistoceno Tardio-Holoceno de la Patagonia (Argentina y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado, J. L.

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a revision of the terminal forms of the South-American horses coming from the archeological sites of Patagonia. They are compared with those from the Northwest of Argentine. The study also includes paleoenvironmental and cronological related aspects.El presente estudio comprende una revisión de las formas terminales de caballos sudamericanos recuperados de sitios arqueológicos de la Patagonia. Se comparan con las formas del noroeste argentino. Incluye aspectos paleoambientales y cronológicos relacionados.

  19. Matar y comer del muerto

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    Belén del Rocío Moreno Cardozo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El filme de Joshua Oppenheimer, Elacto de matar, presenta la recreaciónde algunos episodios de ungenocidio perpetrado en Indonesia,en 1965; muestra tanto la distintaposición de los asesinos con relaciónal crimen, como algunosaspectos referidos al colectivo queles sirve de referencia, en particular,el que concierne al ascenso delcriminal al lugar del ideal social.De manera correlativa, indica lalógica que gobierna la construccióndel enemigo y los dispositivos discursivosque allí operan. El marcode impunidad expuesto da claracuenta de las licencias que se tomael hombre libre, el free man, dellibre mercado.

  20. Capacity building for freshwater insect studies in northern Patagonia, Argentina: DARWIN Initiative programme Biodiversidad de insectos acuáticos en Patagonia Norte, Argentina: programa Iniciativa DARWIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Brooks

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This project was funded from September 2006 for three years by the British Government's Darwin Initiative programme. The focus of our project is the study of aquatic insects from Nahuel Huapi National Park (NHNP in Patagonia, Argentina. The park includes a wide range of wetlands, including montane streams, lowland lakes and marshes, distributed within temperate rainforest and arid steppe. The material will be identified and stored in a fully referenced and accessible collection at La Plata Museum and the Natural History Museum, London. Darwin Initiative funding has been used to equip a biodiversity laboratory at National Park Headquarters in Bariloche and also a field station at Puerto Blest. Information on the insect species in NHNP will be entered into a GIS database, together with a vegetation classification and wetland characteristics, to model freshwater insect data spatially and create a biodiversity database, the first of its kind in Patagonia. We hope that the experiences we gain during the project, the insect collections and databases, the publications, and the many other products, will be used to further enhance wetland conservation throughout Argentina and southern South America.Este proyecto fue financiado durante un período de tres años, desde septiembre de 2006 a través de la Iniciativa Darwin del gobierno Británico. El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de los insectos acuáticos del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi (PNNHP, Patagonia, Argentina. El parque incluye una gran variedad de hábitats que comprenden arroyos, ríos y lagos los cuales se distribuyen desde el bosque siempreverde frío, hasta la zona árida de estepa. Todo el material será identificado y depositado en las colecciones del Museo La Plata y el Museo de Historia Natural de Londres. Los fondos de la Iniciativa Darwin han sido utilizados para equipar un laboratorio de biodiversidad en las oficinas del PNNHP en Bariloche y la estación de investigación en

  1. Extensive MIS 3 glaciation in southernmost Patagonia revealed by cosmogenic nuclide dating of outwash sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvill, Christopher M.; Bentley, Michael J.; Stokes, Chris R.; Hein, Andrew S.; Rodés, Ángel

    2015-11-01

    The timing and extent of former glacial advances can demonstrate leads and lags during periods of climatic change and their forcing, but this requires robust glacial chronologies. In parts of southernmost Patagonia, dating pre-global Last Glacial Maximum (gLGM) ice limits has proven difficult due to post-deposition processes affecting the build-up of cosmogenic nuclides in moraine boulders. Here we provide ages for the Río Cullen and San Sebastián glacial limits of the former Bahía Inútil-San Sebastián (BI-SSb) ice lobe on Tierra del Fuego (53-54°S), previously hypothesised to represent advances during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 12 and 10, respectively. Our approach uses cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al exposure dating, but targets glacial outwash associated with these limits and uses depth-profiles and surface cobble samples, thereby accounting for surface deflation and inheritance. The data reveal that the limits formed more recently than previously thought, giving ages of 45.6 ka (139.9/-14.3) for the Río Cullen, and 30.1 ka (+45.6/-23.1) for the San Sebastián limits. These dates indicate extensive glaciation in southern Patagonia during MIS 3, prior to the well-constrained, but much less extensive MIS 2 (gLGM) limit. This suggests the pattern of ice advances in the region was different to northern Patagonia, with the terrestrial limits relating to the last glacial cycle, rather than progressively less extensive glaciations over hundreds of thousands of years. However, the dates are consistent with MIS 3 glaciation elsewhere in the southern mid-latitudes, and the combination of cooler summers and warmer winters with increased precipitation, may have caused extensive glaciation prior to the gLGM.

  2. Mass balance of Nef glacier (Patagonia) by means of laser altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, P.; Casassa, G.; Wendt, J.; Wendt, A.; Delclaux, F.

    2009-04-01

    Glaciers of Southern Patagonia Icefield (SPI) and Northern Patagonia Icefield (NPI) have shown an enhanced wasting and an increased melting in recent decades, mainly in reaction to regional warming. In consequence, water resources originating from those glaciers are also affected by their negative mass balance. Mass balance measurements provide information about the mass changes of both the accumulation and the ablation zones. A main limitation in attempting estimations of glacier mass balance of the NPI (4,197 km²) and the SPI (13,000 km²) is the difficulty in performing field observations, particularly within the accumulation areas, largely because of unfavourable meteorological conditions as well as the limitations due to the large size of the icefields. There is thus a need for carrying out detailed analyses of individual representative glaciers in Patagonia, covering both the ablation and accumulation areas. The Nef Glacier (138 km² in February 2005), is one of the largest and most representative glaciers of the eastern side of the NPI. During the last century it has been retreating and losing mass, and its evolution has been similar to other large glaciers of the NPI. Moreover, the Nef River is one of the most important tributaries of the Baker River, the largest drainage basin in the region and the river with the highest discharge in Chile. In this paper we present results of mass balance (2008 - 2009) of Nef glacier estimated using the geodetic method, where Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of the glacier constructed at different dates are compared. The DEMs have been constructed using data from airborne laser altimetry with CECS Airborne Laser Scanner (Wendt et al., 2008), which has the advantage over airborne photogrammetry that it involves less data processing and practically no ground control, yielding excellent sub-meter precision.

  3. Hepatitis Infecciosa Necrosante en ovinos Merino de la Patagonia argentina, parasitados con Thysanosoma actinioides Black Disease in Merino sheep infected with Thysanosoma actinioides in Patagonia Region, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Robles

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un brote de hepatitis infecciosa necrosante en un rebaño Merino de la Patagonia Argentina, en donde de 1200 ovejas mueren 80 de ellas (6,7% en forma súbita. Los hallazgos de necropsia más llamativos fueron la gran cantidad de líquido en cavidades torácica y peritoneal, áreas de necrosis coagulativa en el parénquima hepático y la abundante cantidad de Thysanosoma actinioides en canalículos biliares y colédoco. En improntas de hígado se identificó Clostridium novyi mediante inmunofluorescencia. De este mismo órgano se aisló posteriormente Clostridium novyi tipo B. Ante la falta del predisponente más comúnmente citado, Fasciola hepatica, se postula que el severo parasitismo por Thysanosoma actinioides fue el factor desencadenante de este brote de hepatitis infecciosa necrosanteAn outbreak of Black disease in Argentinean Patagonia where 80 sheep out of 1200 Merino ewes suddenly died, is reported. Big amounts of fluid in the thoracic and abdominal cavities, the presence of focal coagulative necrosis in the liver parenchyma and plenty Thysanosoma actinioides specimens in bile ducts were the most important findings observed at necropsy. Clostridium novyi was early detected in liver smears through immunofluorescence. Later, Clostridium novyi type B was isolated from liver cultures. Due to the absence of the commonest predisposing agent, i.e. Fasciola hepatica, the severe parasitism by Thysanosoma actinioides is proposed as the predisposing factor of the present outbreak of Black disease

  4. Chondrichthyans of the San Matías Gulf, Patagonia, Argentina Los condrictios del Golfo San Matías, Patagonia, Argentina

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    María R PERIER

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The San Matías Gulf (SMG; 41°- 42° S; 64°- 65° W is the largest gulf in Northern Patagonia, Argentina. Up to date, the chondrichthyan fauna of this area has not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this work is to provide a list with species presence and biological characteristics of the chondrichthyans recorded in SMG during the last 30 years. A total of 13 sharks distributed in 11 families, 19 skates and rays distributed in six families, and one holocephalan have been so far recorded in SMG. From the zoogeographical point of view, this chondrichthyan fauna is a mixed assemblage of species typically found in the Argentinean and Magellanean Provinces. The holocephalan Callorhinchus callorynchus is the most landed chondricthyan of the local fishery. With it, five sharks and seven skates are also exploited.El Golfo San Matías (SMG; 41°- 42° S - 64°-65° O se encuentra ubicado en el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina. Hasta la fecha no se cuentan con reportes de la fauna de condrictios de esta zona. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es proporcionar una lista de la presencia y las características biológicas de los condrictios registrados en el SMG durante los últimos 30 años. Un total de 13 tiburones distribuidos en 11 familias, 19 batoideos distribuidos en seis familias y un holocefalo han sido reportados para la zona. Desde el punto de vista zoogeográfico, el SMG presenta un ensamble de especies pertenecientes a las Provincias Magallánica y Argentina. El holocefalo Callorhinchus callorynchus es el condrictio más desembarcado de la pesquería local. Con menor importancia son explotadas comercialmente, cinco especies de tiburones y siete de rayas.

  5. INCORPORACIÓN DEL PAISAJE EN LA GESTIÓN DEL TERRITORIO DE LA PATAGONIA CHILENA

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Dolores Muñoz; Gerardo Azócar

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una metodología para el análisis y gestión del paisaje en la Patagonia chilena, un territorio que se destaca por la belleza y diversidad de los paisajes del agua generados por la presencia de grandes lagos, ríos, fiordos, humedales y campos de hielo. El primer caso de estudio es una investigación para evaluar las potencialidades turísticas y territoriales de los paisajes del agua en la cuenca del río Baker. Se utiliza una metodología interdisciplinaria y técnicas de ...

  6. Magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size and resistivity of the mineralized area beneath overburden, a regional east-west magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. This is a data release report of the magnetotelluric sounding data collected along the east-west profile; no interpretation of the data is included.

  7. Audio-magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size, resistivity, and skin depth of the polarizable mineral deposit concealed beneath thick overburden, a regional east-west audio-magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. The purpose of this report is to release the audio-magnetotelluric sounding data collected along that east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  8. Outburst floods of glacial lakes in Patagonia: is there an increasing trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, Gino; Wendt, Jens; Wendt, Anja; López, Paulina; Schuler, Thomas; Maas, Hans-Gerd; Carrasco, Jorge; Rivera, Andrés.

    2010-05-01

    Glaciers in Patagonia are temperate and many of them are receding at an accelerated rate, with a consequent enlargement of glacial lakes. We will review the occurrence of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) recorded during the last century in Patagonia (Northern and Southern Patagonia icefields), and analyse them in view of the general warming of 0.5°C affecting the region during the last 40 years. Special attention will be devoted to Lake Cachet 2 (47°12' S, 73°15' W, 422 m a.s.l.) which has experienced 6 GLOF events during the last 2 years: April 6-7 2008, October 7-8 2008, 21-22 December 2008, 5 March 2009, 16 September 2009 and 5-6 January 2010. Lake Cachet 2 has an area of 4 km2, located on the eastern margin of the Northern Patagonia Icefield, being dammed on its southern margin by Colonia Glacier. Prior to the April 2008 event there had been no historical record of catastrophic flooding of this lake. Each event resulted in a flood wave of which travelled down Colonia River to the confluence with Baker River in a period of less than 48 hours, where it reached peak flows of approximately 2,000 m3/s. Here we present airborne and ground explorations carried out in the period 2008-2009 which confirm that the Lake Cachet 2 floods drain through an englacial tunnel under Colonia Glacier for a distance of 8 km, emerging at the front of the glacier. We propose that the lake started draining in 2008 as a result of the weakening of the ice dam produced by long-term thinning of Colonia Glacier. Measurements of the empty lake bed were performed with the CECS airborne laser scanner onboard a helicopter, which show that the maximum water volume of the lake is 200 x 106 m3. Modelling of the flood events has been carried out based on the subglacial flood model of Clarke (2003), showing that a semi-circular subglacial tunnel attaining a maximum dimension of 15 m can evacuate Lake Cachet 2 in approximately 48 hours, with peak flows on the order of 4000 m3/s. Preliminary

  9. Rime Mushrooms - Extreme Rime Ice Buildup on Mountain Summits of Southern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Southern Patagonian Andes are known among mountain climbers for a meteorological phenomenon that occurs there but is unknown in many other mountain areas. The phenomenon is the buildup of rime ice in large bulbous or mushroom-shaped accretions on the windward side of projecting mountain summits, ridges and exposed near-vertical rock faces. These "ice mushrooms" have never been investigated scientifically. This talk will introduce the audience to ice mushrooms, describe where they are found, consider the meteorological factors leading to their formation, and illustrate how they are negotiated by mountain climbers using photographs and descriptions from Southern Patagonia.

  10. Estado de conocimiento del orden Ephemeroptera en la Patagonia Current knowledge of Patagonian Ephemeroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pessacq

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento actual del orden Ephemeroptera en la Patagonia se debe en gran parte a la labor original y compilatoria de M.L. Pescador, W.L. Peters y E. Domínguez, llevada a cabo en la década del 80 del siglo pasado. Se suman a ésta, importantes contribuciones que han conducido a un adecuado conocimiento del grupo en la cordillera norte y centro de la Patagonia, aunque menor en la zona austral de esta región (Santa Cruz y Tierra del Fuego y las áreas de estepa. Merced al trabajo de campo realizado en 80 sitios de muestreo relevados en el marco del "Darwin Initiative Project" en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, se incluyen aquí nuevos registros para la Argentina (Hapsiphlebia anastomosis Demoulin, la región Andina (Apobaetis Day y la provincia de Río Negro (Chaquihua bullocki (Navás, Andesiops ardua (Lugo-Ortíz & McCafferty, Murphyella needhami Lestage y Dactylophlebia carnulenta Pescador & Peters. Con estos registros, la riqueza de Ephemeroptera de la Patagonia alcanza 43 especies y 24 géneros, de las cuales 33 (en 20 géneros se conocen para la Argentina.The current knowledge of the Patagonian Ephemeroptera is due to the original and compiling work by M.L. Pescador, W.L. Peters and E. Domínguez during last Century's 80´s . Besides, other previous publications exist that contributed to achieve a reasonable knowledge of its taxonomy for the norhtern and central Patagonian Andes, though poor for the southernmost mountain areas (Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego provinces and the steppe. From the field work carried in 80 collecting sites during the development of the "Darwin Initiative Project" in the Nahuel Huapi Nacional Park, some species are recorded for the first time in Argentina (Hapsiphlebia anastomosis Demoulin, the Andean region (Apobaetis Day and the province of Río Negro (Chaquihua bullock (Navás, Andesiops ardua (Lugo-Ortíz & McCafferty, Murphyella needhami Lestage, Dactylophlebia carnulenta Pescador & Peters. With

  11. Lake-level variations and tides in Lago Argentino, Patagonia: insights from pressure tide gauge records

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Based on precise pressure tide gauge observations lake-level records are derived for two sites in Lago Argentino, southern Patagonia, of 2.5 and 1 years of duration. Applying the tools of time series analysis, the principal processes affecting the lake level are identified and quantified. Lake-level changes reflecting variations in lake volume are dominated by a seasonal cycle of 1.2 m in amplitude. Lake-volume changes occur in addition with a daily period in response to melt water influx fro...

  12. Migración y movilidad mapuche entre Araucanía y nor Patagonia

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    Hans Gunderman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta antecedentes acerca de la migración y movilidad campesina e indígena mapuche desde las regiones de Araucanía, Los Ríos y Los Lagos a la Patagonia argentina, especialmente al Neuquén y Río Negro, durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Se establece lo anterior como parte de un proceso mucho más amplio de redistribución espacial que incluye el centro de Chile, Magallanes y la Patagonia trasandina. Se describe su condición de migración económica y los cambios que en ella han tenido lugar, tanto por los vaivenes de las economías y las relaciones entre Chile y Argentina, como por la formación de redes sociales de parentesco y comunalidad entre áreas de origen y de destino. Lo anterior se pone en relación con la pauta de integración regional que el pueblo mapuche ha construido en la época moderna y las relaciones translocalizadas que siguen favoreciendo una notable dinámica movilidad, vinculando sus segmentos rurales y urbanos, peri o semi urbanos.This article offers background information on the migration and mobility of peasants and Mapuche people from the Araucanía, Los Rios and Los Lagos regions to the Argentinian Patagonia, especially to Neuquén and Río Negro, during the second half of the 20th century. This event is part of a larger process of spatial redistribution that includes central Chile, Magallanes and the Patagonia region across the Andes. We describe this economic migration as well as the changes that have taken place because of the oscillation of economies and the relations between Chile and Argentina, or because of the formation of kinship and community social nets between the areas of origin and destination. This idea is related to the regional integration pattern that the Mapuche people have created in the modern era as well as to the translocated relationships that keep favoring mobility between rural, urban and semi urban components.

  13. NEMATODOS FITOPARÁSITOS ASOCIADOS AL TOMATE EN LA ZONA OCCIDENTAL DE NICARAGUA

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    Wilber Salazar-Ant\\u00F3n

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la diversidad y dinámica poblacional de los nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al tomate en los departamentos de León y Chinandega pertenecientes al occidente de Nicaragua. Durante el ciclo agrícola 2010-2011 se muestrearon cinco plantaciones en cada departamento. Se realizaron ocho muestreos en cada plantación para un total de 80 muestras en las diez plantaciones seleccionadas. Estas fueron tomadas a 10 m entre sí en forma de zig-zag. Se extrajeron los nematodos de suelo mediante el método de Baermann modificado y extracción de nematodos de raíces mediante el método de macerado y tamizado de raíces. Los datos obtenidos fueron correlacionados con factores que afectan las poblaciones de nematodos, tales como tipo de suelo, rotación de cultivos y precipitaciones. Igualmente se describió el crecimiento poblacional de los principales géneros mediante modelos matemáticos. Las densidades más altas fueron obtenidas de muestras de suelo, los más frecuentes en 100 g de suelo fueron especies no identificadas de Meloidogyne sp. con 739, Pratylenchus con 555, Tylenchorhynchus 386 y Helicotylenchus 252 individuos. Se evidenció también que el factor precipitaciones no tuvo un efecto significativo sobre las poblaciones de nematodos. Finalmente, Meloidogyne y Pratylenchus presentaron un crecimiento poblacional que se ajusta a un modelo matemático lineal (R2=0,98 para ambos géneros, donde existió una correlación positiva y lineal entre las etapas fenológicas del tomate y el incremento de nematodos en el suelo.

  14. TODESCHINI, Giacomo. Commerciare nell’Occidente medievale: Il Sacro quotidiano. Tradução por

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvino José Assmann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2013v10n2p409 TODESCHINI, Giacomo. Commerciare nell’Occidente medievale: Il Sacro quotidiano. Disponível em: http://dipeco.economia.unimib.it/pdf/iniziative/todescihini%20wp.pdf. Acessado em agosto de 2012. Tradução portuguesa de Selvino J. Assmann ORIGENS MEDIEVAIS DA RACIONALIDADE ECONÔMICA MODERNA Apresentamos a tradução de um historiador italiano, Giacomo Todeschini, que gentilmente nos cedeu o direito de apresentar um texto representativo de uma obra que traz um tema recorrente: o da origem medieval e, digamos, católica da racionalidade econômica moderna e capitalista.  Esta posição assumida pelo autor insere-se num debate importante em curso, em que desponta a interpretação feita por Max Weber no início do século XX, sobretudo com sua "A Ética protestante e o espírito do capitalismo". Se para este e tantos outros autores, o capitalismo tem como origem, mesmo que não seja a única, a reforma protestante em sua vertente calvinista e puritana, Todeschini defende outra leitura: a de que é no contexto do surgimento e fortalecimento do comércio na Idade Média, em que se estabelece uma relação problemática entre mercadores cristãos e não-cristãos (incluindo os judeus, e no qual se debate longamente a legitimidade e a pecaminosidade da usura, que se vai forjando um significado sagrado para o próprio comércio ("metáfora da salvação cristã" e se lançam as raízes de uma nova mentalidade, que marcará a modernidade.

  15. Un finale a sorpresa: Roma, l’Occidente e la gabbia bizantina

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    Emanuela Susca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Questo contributo vuole essere una rilettura teorico-analitica indirizzata principalmente agli ultimi paragrafi del Trattato di sociologia generale. Nelle pagine che seguono, quindi, proporremo dapprima una breve sintesi del capitolo XIII – da Pareto intitolato L’equilibrio sociale nella storia – e ci concentreremo poi principalmente sulle sezioni conclusive e dedicate a una lunga vicenda tante volte rivisitata da storici e letterati: la vita e la caduta dell’Impero romano nelle sue due ramificazioni, quella occidentale e quella orientale. Si avrà così modo di mettere in rilievo come la lettura operata dal grande sociologo non solo offra un punto di vista originale rispetto a molta della letteratura esistente, ma presenti anche significative differenze rispetto agli schemi interpretativi fatti valere in generale nel Trattato. Infatti, sia la parabola dell’antica Roma sia – e ancor di più – quella di Bisanzio vengono da Pareto ripercorse sulla scorta di una contrapposizione radicale tra Occidente e Oriente che è poco o per nulla presente nelle altre pagine paretiane, così come praticamente assente vi è anche la profezia finale sull’imminente avvento di un’«organizzazione» di tipo bizantino nei Paesi economicamente e socialmente più avanzati. Infine, concludono l’intervento alcune osservazioni sull’attuale e perdurante vitalità del dibattito che circonda Bisanzio/Costantinopoli/Istanbul, multiforme città-simbolo che è stata ed è oggetto di trasfigurazioni positive o più spesso negative e che – come mostra esemplarmente il discorso paretiano – rinvia in modo diretto alla nostra realtà e auto-rappresentazione di europei e “occidentali”.

  16. Los sistemas de armamento vislumbrados en las figuras de guerreros del Occidente de México

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    Cervera Obregón, Marco Antonio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The following work outlines some of the present details on the study of the war and armament in the designated cultural region like Mesoamérica. It presents in form makes specific the case of the cultural subarea of the West of Mexico, proposing like main archaeological indicator to know the phenomenon the war, the weapons and military tactics in the Preclassic and Classic periods, to the representations of soldiers recognized like part of the archaeological context of the calls Tumbas de Tiro. The study is based on a icongraphic analysis and of the design of the devices that carry these artistic manifestations, considering the respective archaeological limitations that altogether the region.

    El siguiente trabajo esboza algunos de los pormenores actuales sobre el estudio de la guerra y armamento en la macroregión cultural designada como Mesoamérica. Presenta en forma concreta el caso de la subárea cultural del Occidente de México, proponiendo como principal indicador arqueológico para conocer el fenómeno de la guerra, los sistemas de armamento y las tácticas militares en los periodos Preclásico y Clásico, a las representaciones de guerreros reconocidas como parte del contexto arqueológico de las llamadas Tumbas de Tiro. El estudio se basa en un análisis iconográfico y del diseño de los artefactos que portan dichas manifestaciones artísticas, considerando las respectivas limitaciones arqueológicas que en conjunto presenta la región.

  17. Plantas asociadas a los bosques de Abies guatemalensis (Pinaceae del occidente de Guatemala

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    José Vicente Martínez Arévalo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hay una carencia de información detallada sobre la composición y estructura de las comunidades montanas guatemaltecas. El objetivo del estudio fue contribuir al conocimiento de la flora de bosques de abeto (Abies guatemalensis, para esto se hizo el levantamiento florístico en bosques de abeto del occidente de Guatemala. Se encontraron 119 especies, 92 géneros, 50 familias en cuatro divisiones. Las familias más numerosas fueron: Asteraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae y Solanaceae y los géneros más abundantes Salvia, Alchemilla y Bidens. Las especies se ubicaron en cuatro estratos, 33 en el herbáceo inferior, 49 en el herbáceo superior, 30 en arbustos y siete en árboles. Se hace énfasis en la contribución del estudio al conocimiento de la flora de bosques de A. guatemalensis y la necesidad de otros similares en los demás bosques de esta especie, que sirva para fomentar su conocimiento y conservación. Se consideraron seis grupos de distribución geográfica, el principal es del centro de México a Centroamérica con 67% de especies. Se realiza una comparación fitogeográfica y de composición florística, con otras áreas de Abies de Guatemala y México. Se propone que a pesar de haber familias y géneros comunes, que proporcionan la estructura general entre los bosques de abeto, se deben considerar las particularidades florísticas de cada área, en el manejo y conservación influidas por suelo, latitud y microclima.

  18. La presencia catalana en la Andalucía Occidental a finales de la Edad Media

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    Bello León, Juan Manuel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking for granted that the Catalan-Aragonese expansion through the Mediterranean sea has received due attention from historians, this work deals with some realms and locations less often visited by sailors and merchants from Catalonia, Valencia or Mallorca. Its aim is to provide a view of the Catalan presence in western Andalusia throughout the late Middle Ages, analyzing its role in the Andalusian allotment and the conditions accounting for the development of such a presence in the region between the thirteenth and the fifteenth centuries. It deals particularly with the creation of family and economic bonds standing as the foundations of Catalan influence on Andalusia, which help to better understand its interest in the Middle Atlantic some time later.

    Tomada como punto de partida la idea de que la historiografía conoce bastante bien la expansión catalanoaragonesa por distintos puntos del Mediterráneo, este trabajo pretende acercarse a otros ámbitos menos frecuentados por marinos y comerciantes de aquel reino, aunque no por ello es menos importante para el desarrollo económico de Cataluña, Valencia o Mallorca. Así, el objetivo de este artículo es ofrecer una muestra de lo que fue la presencia catalana en la Andalucía Occidental a lo largo de los siglos finales de la Edad Media, analizando su participación en los repartimientos andaluces, las condiciones que afectaron al desarrollo de su presencia en la región entre los siglos XIII-XV, así como prestar una especial atención a la formación de los vínculos familiares y económicos que cimentaron su influencia en Andalucía y ayudan a explicar mejor su posterior interés por el Atlántico Medio.

  19. Exploring options for farm-level strategic and tactical decision-making in fruit production systems of South Patagonia Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.; Ridder, de N.; Keulen, van H.; Claassen, G.D.H.

    2008-01-01

    In South Patagonia, Argentina, sweet cherry is the main fruit-tree crop grown for export, resulting in a highly seasonal labour demand. Managers of deciduous perennial fruit orchards must consider both biological and economic relationships in selecting crop species and orchard design. This makes

  20. Sweet cherries from the end of the world: options and constraints for fruit production systems in South Patagonia, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.

    2007-01-01

    In South Patagonia, development of the fruit production sector has been almost exclusively based on the production of sweet cherry, with an area increase from 176 ha in 1997 to 578 ha at the end of 2006. These orchards are designed as intensive systems and oriented to export markets. Even though

  1. Sweet cherries from the end of the world: options and constraints for fruit production systems in South Patagonia, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.

    2007-01-01

    In South Patagonia, development of the fruit production sector has been almost exclusively based on the production of sweet cherry, with an area increase from 176 ha in 1997 to 578 ha at the end of 2006. These orchards are designed as intensive systems and oriented to export markets. Even though swe

  2. Inter-subjectivity and Domestication in the Making of a Global Region: Territorialization of Salmon in the Chilean Patagonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, Gustavo; Arce, A.M.G.; Fisher, E.F.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines transformations in the Chilean Patagonia, a region that has become a world leader in Salmon production for global markets. Employing ethnographic methods, this study examines the possibilities of considering inter-subjectivities in the processes of conforming important regions

  3. The Odonata (Insecta) of Patagonia: a synopsis of their current status with illustrated keys for their identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzón, Javier; Pessacq, Pablo; Lozano, Federico

    2014-03-31

    Patagonia is a vast landmass with a distinctive environmental and biotic heterogeneity. Its Odonata biodiversity is the best known of South America, and it is composed of 36 species, of which more than 50% are endemic. We summarize the main taxonomic, distributional and biological information including illustrated keys for adults and known larvae, and distributional maps.

  4. Sweet cherries from the end of the world: options and constraints for fruit production systems in South Patagonia, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.

    2007-01-01

    In South Patagonia, development of the fruit production sector has been almost exclusively based on the production of sweet cherry, with an area increase from 176 ha in 1997 to 578 ha at the end of 2006. These orchards are designed as intensive systems and oriented to export markets. Even though swe

  5. Inter-subjectivity and Domestication in the Making of a Global Region: Territorialization of Salmon in the Chilean Patagonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, Gustavo; Arce, A.M.G.; Fisher, E.F.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines transformations in the Chilean Patagonia, a region that has become a world leader in Salmon production for global markets. Employing ethnographic methods, this study examines the possibilities of considering inter-subjectivities in the processes of conforming important regions

  6. Eastern Andean environmental and climate synthesis for the last 2000 years BP from terrestrial pollen and charcoal records of Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottile, G. D.; Echeverria, M. E.; Mancini, M. V.; Bianchi, M. M.; Marcos, M. A.; Bamonte, F. P.

    2015-06-01

    The Southern Hemisphere Westerly Winds (SWW) constitute an important zonal circulation system that dominates the dynamics of Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude climate. Little is known about climatic changes in the Southern South America in comparison to the Northern Hemisphere due to the low density of proxy records, and adequate chronology and sampling resolution to address environmental changes of the last 2000 years. Since 2009, new pollen and charcoal records from bog and lakes in northern and southern Patagonia at the east side of the Andes have been published with an adequate calibration of pollen assemblages related to modern vegetation and ecological behaviour. In this work we improve the chronological control of some eastern Andean previously published sequences and integrate pollen and charcoal dataset available east of the Andes to interpret possible environmental and SWW variability at centennial time scales. Through the analysis of modern and past hydric balance dynamics we compare these scenarios with other western Andean SWW sensitive proxy records for the last 2000 years. Due to the distinct precipitation regimes that exist between Northern (40-45° S) and Southern Patagonia (48-52° S) pollen sites locations, shifts on latitudinal and strength of the SWW results in large changes on hydric availability on forest and steppe communities. Therefore, we can interpret fossil pollen dataset as changes on paleohydric balance at every single site by the construction of paleohydric indices and comparison to charcoal records during the last 2000 cal yrs BP. Our composite pollen-based Northern and Southern Patagonia indices can be interpreted as changes in latitudinal variation and intensity of the SWW respectively. Dataset integration suggest poleward SWW between 2000 and 750 cal yrs BP and northward-weaker SWW during the Little Ice Age (750-200 cal yrs BP). These SWW variations are synchronous to Patagonian fire activity major shifts. We found an in phase

  7. Sobre el desconocido comitente de Santo di Tito del Pesar ante el Cristo muerto de la Galleria dell’Accademia de Florencia: el español Hernando Sastre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaza, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article definitively confirms the identity of the Spanish patron of Santo di Tito’s painting Lamentation of Christ, and constructs a biographical profile revealing the major political and social role played by Hernando Sastre in 16th century Florence, thereby helping to further clarify why this important work, now in the Galleria dell’Accademia in Florence, was commissioned and painted.El artículo confirma definitivamente la identidad del comitente español de la obra de Santo di Tito del Pesar ante el Cristo muerto, construyendo también un perfil biográfico que da a conocer su importante papel político y social en la Florencia del Quinientos, esclareciendo así un poco más la realización y el encargo de la importante obra, hoy conservada en la Galleria dell’Accademia de Florencia.

  8. PALEOCLIMAS Y PALEOESCENARIOS EN LA PATAGONIA AUSTRAL Y EN TIERRA DEL FUEGO DURANTE EL CUATERNARIO

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    Andrea Coronato

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan evidencias geomorfológicas y palinológicas indicadoras de paleoescenarios existentes en los últimos dos millones de años en el extremo sur de Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego. Estos procesos indican la ocurrencia de cambios climáticos no forzados por intervención humana en la atmósfera. Los períodos fríos habrían sido progresivamente menos intensos desde la Gran Glaciación Patagónica, ocurrida hace 1 millón de años. Durante el Holoceno y los tiempos históricos, las glaciaciones se restringieron a las zonas superiores a los 900 m s.n.m. y el deterioro climático no habría afectado significativamente al ecosistema bosque ubicado a menos de 400 m s.n.m. Un importante período cálido ocurrido en tiempos históricos fue registrado en las zonas de altura en Patagonia Norte y en las cercanías al nivel del mar en Tierra del Fuego

  9. Last glacial maximum environments in northwestern Patagonia revealed by fossil small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammone, Mauro N.; Hajduk, Adan; Arias, Pablo; Teta, Pablo; Lacey, Eileen A.; Pardiñas, Ulyses F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Comparisons of historical and modern assemblages of mammals can yield important insights into patterns and processes of environmental change. Here, we present the first analyses of small mammal assemblages present in northern Patagonia during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Using remains obtained from owl pellets excavated from an archeological cave site (Arroyo Corral I, levels VII-V, carbon dates of 22,400-21,530 cal yr BP), we generate estimates of the minimum number of individuals for all species detected; these estimates, in turn are used to determine relative species abundances. Comparisons of these data with similar analyses of small mammal remains obtained from a second archeological site (ACoII, levels IV-V, carbon dates of 10,010-9220 cal yr BP) as well as from modern owl pellets reveal pronounced changes in relative species abundance since the LGM. In particular, Euneomys chinchilloides and Ctenomys sociabilis - the predominant species during the LGM - declined markedly, suggesting a change from open, bare habitat punctuated by patches of wet meadows and shrubs to the more densely vegetated mosaic of ecotone habitats found in this region today. These data provide important new insights into the environmental changes that have occurred in northern Patagonia over the last 20,000 years.

  10. Little Ice Age advance and retreat of Glaciar Jorge Montt, Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.; Koppes, M.; Bravo, C.; Aravena, J. C.

    2012-03-01

    Glaciar Jorge Montt (48°20' S/73°30' W), one of the main tidewater glaciers of the Southern Patagonian Icefield (SPI), has experienced the greatest terminal retreat observed in Patagonia during the past century, with a recession of 19.5 km between 1898 and 2011. This retreat has revealed trees laying subglacially until 2003. These trees were dated using radiocarbon, yielding burial ages between 460 and 250 cal yrs BP. The presence of old growth forest during those dates indicates that Glaciar Jorge Montt was upvalley of its present position before the commonly recognized Little Ice Age (LIA) period in Patagonia. The post-LIA retreat was most likely triggered by climatically induced changes during the 20th century; however, Glaciar Jorge Montt has responded more dramatically than its neighbours. The retreat of Jorge Montt opened a 19.5 km long fjord since 1898, which reaches depths in excess of 390 m. The bathymetry is well correlated with glacier retreat rates, suggesting that dynamic responses of the glacier are at least partially connected to near buoyancy conditions at the ice front, resulting in high calving fluxes, accelerating thinning rates and rapid ice velocities.

  11. Episodic Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous intraplate compression in Central Patagonia during Gondwana breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, César; Gianni, Guido; Echaurren, Andrés; Kingler, Federico Lince; Folguera, Andrés

    2016-12-01

    From Lower Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous, several intraplate compression events affected discrete sectors of Central Patagonia, under a general context of crustal extension associated with Gondwana breakup. This was demonstrated by means of 2D and 3D seismic and borehole data, which show partial inversion of Lower and Middle Jurassic extensional structures of the Chubut and Cañadón Asfalto basins, during the earliest stages of breakup. A comparison with surrounding areas in Patagonia, where similar Jurassic intraplate compression was described, allowed the discrimination of three discrete pulses of subtle compression (C1: ∼188-185 Ma; C2: ∼170-163; C3: ∼157-136? Ma). Interestingly, episodic intraplate compressional events are closely followed by high flux magmatic events linked to the westward expansion of the Karoo-Ferrar thermal anomaly, which impacted on the lithosphere of southwest Gondwana in Lower Jurassic. In addition, we determined the approximate direction of the main compressive strain (σ1) compatible with other Jurassic intraplate belts of South America. These observations led us to propose a linkage between a thermo mechanically weakened continental crust due to LIPs activity, changes in plate motions and ridge-push forces generated by the opening of the Weddell Sea, in order to explain intraplate shortening, interrupted while Karoo LIPs magmatic invigoration took place.

  12. Nutritional status and obesity in children and young adults with disabilities in Punta Arenas, Patagonia, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Juan C; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Barbosa, Clara I; Díaz, Mauricio; Urzua, Miyochi; Andrade, Asterio H

    2008-12-01

    Childhood obesity is reaching epidemic proportions throughout the world; however, little is known on the nutritional status of children with disabilities. To address this issue, medical records of 748 children aged 18 years or younger receiving physical therapy during 2004-2005 at a privately sponsored free rehabilitation clinic in Punta Arenas, Patagonia, Chile were abstracted. Data included demographic, clinical, and anthropometric information recorded at the first visit. As a comparison, height and weight were also collected in 215 children attending local schools. Nutritional status was calculated as body mass index (above 6 years of age) or evaluated by growth curves (6 years of age or below) as undernourished, normal, overweight, obese, or morbidly obese. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for obesity in these children. Overall, a significant difference in nutritional status between disabled and non-disabled children was found (Pcerebral palsy were less than half as likely to be obese than non-disabled children (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.20-1.03). We conclude that overnutrition continues to be a problem for both disabled and non-disabled children in Patagonia. Programs to increase physical activity and improve nutrition are needed in this isolated part of the world.

  13. Efectividad de morfina intratecal versus endovenosa / histerectomía vaginal en el Hospital Occidente de Kennedy

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Introducción: la histerectomía vaginal es una cirugía frecuente, esta investigación comparo dos vías de suministro de opiáceos: intratecal y endovenosa en un estudio realizado en el Hospital Occidente de Kennedy. Método: Estudio prospectivo observacional comparando dolor utilizando la escala de dolor numérica verbal y determinando los requerimientos de morfina de rescate y o Aines, describiendo la presencia de efectos secundarios del uso de opiáceos en dos grupos. Resultados: Particip...

  14. La evolución histórica del judo femenino: Japón versus Occidente

    OpenAIRE

    Villamón Herrera, Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Se analiza la evolución histórica del judo femenino. De este modo, se pretende constatar la diferente evolución que, en el devenir de los tiempos, ha experimentado la práctica del judo por la mujer en Japón y en Occidente. Si bien dicho proceso evolutivo se unificaría, como se pone de manifiesto, fruto de la occidentalización o, lo que es lo mismo, de la deportivización que desplazaría el arraigo tradicional caracterizador del judo japonés.

  15. Hydrothermal precious-metal deposits related to graben-calderas of the Sierra Madre Occidental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Labarthe-Hernandez, G.; Nieto-Obregon, J.; Tristan-Gonzalez, M.; Gonzalez-Partida, E.

    2007-05-01

    The Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) covers the NW portion of Mexico and it is the host for several important precious metal mine operations, such as Tayoltita, Cienega, Topia, Fresnillo, Zacatecas, Guanajuato and Bolaños, just to mention a few. The southern part of the Basin and Range extension affected also NW Mexico and formed NW- to NE-trending normal faults that bound many large grabens, which are particularly long and deep in the southern SMO. Both graben formation and mid-Tertiary silicic volcanic activity coincided in space and time, particularly for the 38-23 Ma period, the Ignimbrite Flare-up event, but this activity dates back to Eocene and was as young as Miocene. This volcanism included large rhyolitic domes, too. At the southern SMO, the vents of this silicic volcanism are related to graben's master faults and we have named them graben-calderas. Evidences include large pyroclastic dikes and post-ignimbrite aligned rhyolitic domes and lava dikes. All these features were found along the graben-caldera walls or on the graben's shoulders. Some of these vents are related to gold and silver hydrothermal mineralization. In most cases a paleo-lake filled the graben-caldera for a period of time, either during the ignimbrite emplacement or after it. Some of the graben-caldera ignimbrites were deposited in subaqueous environments and post-ignimbrite rhyolitic domes and dikes were intruded in non-consolidated water-saturated tuffs or sedimentary deposits. This lacustrine environment provided the necessary water for the hydrothermal system. The combination of all these factors in space and time, grabens+volcanism+water, resulted in the development of precious-metal hydrothermal ore deposits. Bolaños mine in the Bolaños graben represent our case-study, but we have confirmed the same tectono-volcanic-lake relationship at other mine-districts along the SMO. We conclude that locating the fissural vents of the silicic ignimbrites by means of just geologic mapping is be

  16. Criterios de nuliparidad y de paridad en Lutzomyia townsendi (Ortiz, 1959 del occidente de Venezuela

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    Margarita Márquez

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia townsendi (Ortiz, 1959 es un flebótomo antropofílico con concordancia gonadotrófica, en las zonas endémicas de Leishmania brasiliensis y L. garnhami en el occidente de Venezuela. Mediante el estudio de hembras colonizadas en el laboratorio, nuliparas o paridas, de hembras silvestres alimentadas sobre voluntarios y de hembras silvestres mantenidas con sacarosa, se establecen criterios de nuliparidad con un 56,6% de confianza. En cambio, signos de paridad aparecen en un 82% de las hembras consideradas como tales. La digestión de un ingesta sanguínea inicia un ciclo gonadotrófico con oogénesis abortiva y acumulación de fosfolípidos en las células epiteliales del estómago y en las glândulas accesorias. La ovoposición completa produce un calix ovárico grueso e irregular con restos de oocitos abortivos y acumulación de pigmentos. Estos caracteres son suficientes para precisar un criterio de paridad. La presencia de fosfolípidos en el estómago y en las glândulas accesorias de hembras nulíparas es una indicación de ingesta incompleta de sangre.Lutzomyia townsendi (Ortiz, 1959 is the main anthropophilic sandfly in endemic places for Leishmania braziliensis and L. garnhami in Western Venezuela. The study of laboratory bred females, nulliparous or parous and, wild females fed on man as well as wild females maintained with sucrose, allowed to establish a criterion of nulliparity with 56.6% of confidence for those captured in field conditions. In the same wild females, parity can be assessed with 81.5% of confidence. After blood digestion of full-engorged females a gonotrophic cycle is completed. Abortive oogenesis and accumulation of phospholipids in midgut epitelial cells and into accessory glands are observed. The ovoposition produces a thick and irregular ovaric calix with rests of abortive oocytes and accumulation of a melanin-like black pigment. All these changes are enough for identification of a parous fly. The presence

  17. The Spanish influenza pandemic in occidental Europe (1918-1920) and victim age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkoreka, Anton

    2010-03-01

    Studies of the Spanish Influenza pandemic (1918-1920) provide interesting information that may improve our preparation for present and future influenza pandemic threats. We studied archives from France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, obtaining high-quality data that allowed us to calculate mortality rates associated with the Spanish flu and to characterize the proportional distribution of influenza deaths by age in the capital cities of these countries. French and American troops who fought in the First World War began to be affected from April 1918 onwards by a benign influenza epidemic, which hardly caused any deaths. The first occidental European country in which the pandemic spread to large sectors of the population, causing serious mortality, was Spain. The associated influenza provoked in Madrid a mortality rate of 1.31 per 1000 inhabitants between May and June (1918). In the following months of June and July, the epidemic spread to Portugal, but did not reach the Pyrenees. In September 1918, the influenza pandemic spread with tremendous virulence, presenting itself simultaneously during the month of October in South Western European countries. In Madrid, the 1918 excess mortality due in large part to the influenza pandemic is estimated at 5.27 per 1000. In Paris, the 1918 mortality rate provoked by the influenza and pathologies of the respiratory system was 6.08 per 1000. In South Western European countries, mortality rates oscillated between 10.6 and 12.1 per 1000 inhabitants. A study of the age distribution of deaths due to influenza between 1916 and 1921 reveals that the Spanish influenza principally affected men and women between 15 and 44 years of age. Deaths associated with the seasonal influenza of 1916, 1917 and 1921 represented 19.7%, 12.5% and 21.0% of all deaths respectively, whereas during the rawest moments of the Spanish influenza, in 1918, the proportion of deaths due to flu for those aged between 15 and 44 years of age reached 68.2% in Paris and

  18. Frontières et nationalisme autour du Sahara Occidental (Borders and Nationalism in Western Sahara

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    Luis Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Le conflit du Sahara Occidental apparaît comme le principal facteur de blocage dans la construction d'une intégration régionale. Pour la monarchie marocaine, il lui a permis de s'approprier le sentiment nationaliste alors porté par le mouvement de l'Istiqlal qui faisait de la cause du grand Maroc l'un de ses combats politiques. Pour le régime algérien, il a représenté un moyen de justifier le pouvoir d'une armée et d'entretenir le sentiment nationaliste. L'avantage du conflit saharien était évident : l'instauration, sous couvert d'un sentiment nationaliste, de régimes politiques autoritaires. Depuis une décennie, ce conflit « gelé » est bloqué à la fois par « le statut avancé » du Maroc avec l'UE, qui n'ose aborder ce problème et le retour de l'abondance financière en Algérie qui alimente son intransigeance sur le dossier.(The conflict in Western Sahara is the main stumbling block to the construction of an integrated region. The Moroccan monarchy used the conflict to gain the support of nationalists previously allied with the Istiqlal movement whose principal political goal was the creation of a greater Morocco. The Algerian regime used the conflict as a justification for a strong military and to stir up nationalist sentiment. The advantage of the Saharan conflict was obvious: the establishment, under the guise of nationalism, of authoritarian regimes. For a decade resolution of this “frozen” conflict has been blocked by the EU’s unwillingness to address the issue in light of the “advanced status” of Morocco in the EU and by the increased intransigence of Algeria made possible by its renewed financial strength.

  19. El megadeslizamiento del cerro Uritorco, ladera occidental de la Sierra chica de Córdoba

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    Claudio A Carignano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available En el extremo norte de la Sierra Chica de Córdoba, sobre el flanco oeste del cerro Uritorco (1.949 m s.n.m., se ha identificado un megadeslizamiento (30°49'55,46"S y 64°29'50,31"O. Los materiales movilizados del frente del escarpe de la falla Sierra Chica, han cubierto parcialmente el granito de Capilla del Monte y los abanicos aluviales pleistocenos del piedemonte. El lóbulo y bloques rotados del deslizamiento conforman un alto topográfico que oficia de límite entre los valles de Punilla (al sur y de Charbonier (al noroeste. Mediante técnicas de procesamiento e interpretación de imágenes satelitales multiespectrales de media (Landsat-ETM y muy alta resolución (GeoEye-1, análisis digital del terreno a partir de modelos de elevación (SRTM y Aster-GDEM y el correspondiente control de campo, se ha delimitado y caracterizado esta megageoforma nunca antes advertida. Dada la elevada sismicidad actual e histórica de la zona y los indicios morfotectónicos que señalan como activas a las fallas Sierra Chica y Pajarillo-Copacabana-Masa, se estima que este deslizamiento posiblemente fue gatillado por un evento sísmico, acontecido en alguna de esas estructuras. Tanto el depósito del deslizamiento como su cicatriz de despegue presentan un significativo grado de erosión hídrica. Por análisis comparativos con otros deslizamientos ya datados y de características similares, situados en el escarpe occidental de las Sierras de San Luis, se le asigna una edad pleistocena medio-tardía. Por su volumen y características (2,1 x109 m³ se estableció que se trata de un megadeslizamiento único en las Sierras de Córdoba y constituye uno de los deslizamientos de mayor tamaño entre los registrados hasta el presente en Argentina.

  20. Tipología predial del sector productor de cerezas del sur de la Patagonia argentina Farm typology of the sweet cherry production sector of southern Argentinean Patagonia

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    E. Righi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de tipologías prediales es una herramienta útil para sintetizar la diversidad intrínseca de cada sistema de producción y puede ser eficientemente usada para realizar una selección racional y metódica de las fincas representativas en el contexto de proyectos de investigación y extensión. Sin embargo, las metodologías que se utilizan más comúnmente para producir una tipología presentan algunas características que limitan su aplicación expeditiva para la selección de fincas piloto. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar una identificación cuantitativa y una caracterización de tipologías prediales, sobre la base de análisis multivariado de fincas productoras de cerezas en el sur de la Patagonia argentina. Se aplicó una metodología innovadora combinando escala multidimensional, análisis de conglomerados y análisis de porcentajes de semejanza, sobre la base de la cual se identificaron seis diferentes tipos de fincas. Las ventajas de este método para la selección de fincas representativas son mostradas y discutidas a través de la individuación de una finca piloto dentro de cada tipo.Farm typology identification is a useful tool to summarize the diversity that is intrinsic to every farming system and it can be efficiently used to carry out a rational and methodical selection of representative farms within the context of research and extension projects. However, the methodologies that are most commonly used to produce a typology present some features that limit its expeditious application for the selection of pilot farms. The objective of this study was to make a quantitative identification and characterization of farm typologies based on multivariate analysis of the farms of southern Argentinian Patagonia that grow sweet cherry. An innovative methodology which combines multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis and similarity percentages analysis was applied and six relevantly different farm types were

  1. Nueva especie de Planorbidae (Gastropoda: Basommatophora en la Patagonia chilena: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. First record of Planorbidae (Mollusca: Basommatophora in Chilean Patagonia: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov.

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    Carmen Fuentealba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile la familia Planorbidae está representada por el género Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, compuesta por siete especies distribuidas desde Isluga hasta el río Puelo. De estas especies, solo B.peregrina, ampliamente distribuida en el neotrópico, y Biomphalaria aymara de Isluga, han sido reconocidas sobre la base de la morfología del sistema reproductor y la rádula, caracteres que fueron utilizados en el presente estudio para diferenciar a Biomphalaria cristiani como nueva especie del grupo y primer registro de la familia en la Patagonia chilena, ampliando su actual rango de distribución. Los caracteres que permiten la diagnosis de B. cristiani son el saco vaginal vestigial truncado, ausencia del desarrollo de los músculos suspensores del pene, vaina del pene corta en relación al prepucio, oviducto largo en relación al espermioducto y vaso deferente más delgado y largo que la vaina del pene, de tamano similar al prepucio. La localidad tipo de Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. es Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S, 72°27'40.65"W, región de Aysén.The family Planorbidae in Chile is represented by the genus Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, consisting of seven species distributed from Isluga to Puelo River. Of these species, only Biomphalaria peregrina widely distributed in the neotropical and Biomphalaria aymara from Isluga are recognized based on the morphology of the reproductive system and radula, characters that were used in the following study to differentiate Biomphalaria cristiani as a new species of this group and first record of the family in Chilean Patagonia, extending its current distribution range. The characters for the diagnosis of B. cristiani are: truncated vestigial vaginal pouch, lack of development of the penis retractor muscles, penis sheath shorter than the prepuce, oviduct longer than the spermiduct and vas deferens thinner and longer than the penis sheath, similar size to the prepuce. The type locality of B. cristiani nov. sp

  2. Gestión de suelo en la configuración de bordes de ciudad. El caso del borde occidental de Bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Velasco Bernal; Fabiu00E1n Du00EDaz; Maru00EDa L. Lu00F3pez

    2011-01-01

    El presente documento plantea identificar la incidencia de los instrumentos de gestión de suelo en la conformación de estructura urbana, en particular en el borde de ciudad (caso Bogotá, borde occidental). Igualmente, busca analizar el papel de los instrumentos en la conformación de una estructura urbana que soporte las decisiones del Modelo de Ordenamiento Territorial de Bogotá, articulado con la región y con las estrategias de ordenamiento de los municipios colindantes al borde occidental. ...

  3. Gestión de inventarios como factor de competitividad, en el sector metalmecánico de la región occidental de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La investigación que se presenta a continuación, tiene como objeto analizar la gestión de inventario como factor de competitividad, en las empresas del Sector Metalmecánico de la Región Occidental de Venezuela. La metodología es de tipo descriptivo, no experimental, transeccional. La población se compone de veinte (20) empresas del sector metalmecánico destinadas a la producción de máquinas herramientas, específicamente tornos y fresadoras, circunscritas a la región del occidente de Venezuela...

  4. La Historia: ¿concepto y herramienta metodológica universal o prejuicio teórico occidental?

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    Maximiliano E. Korstanje

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente ensayo intenta resaltar el pensamiento de dos grandes investigadores y antropólogos del siglo XX, sobre la historia y el tiempo como formas analíticas, y discursivas propias de las Ciencias Sociales; Clifford Geertz y Eric Wolf continúan deslumbrándonos con sus reflexiones y consecuentemente, nos introducen, en un dilema de difícil solución ¿es la historia un concepto universal o sólo un prejuicio occidental?________________________ABSTRACT:The following essay tries to focus about the thesis of two great thinkers who written amid the XX century. The point is to know the relation between the History and Time as analytic and discursive issues along with Social Sciences; Clifford Geertz and Eric Wolf still go in dazzling with their reflections, and consequently they place upon the table a slippery matter. ¿Is the history an universal concept or just a mere occidental prejudice?  

  5. Estado actual del conocimiento de la familia Ceratopogonidae en la Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera

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    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopogonidae incluye pequeños dípteros nematocerosque crían en hábitats acuáticos o semiacuáticos. Hasta los ‘80, el conocimiento de su taxonomía en la Patagonia se hallaba limitado a la contribución de los comienzos de los ‘30 de Ingram y Macfie, sobre la base de material capturado en 1926-27, en el área del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi y zonas vecinasde Chile. En los últimos 25 años, se pusieron en marcha diferentes proyectos, resultando la descripción o registro de numerosos taxones para la región. Si se contabilizan los datos publicados, 102 especies habitan en la Patagonia, de las cuales 86 (84,31% son endémicas para la región. Este alto porcentaje es evidente en los bosques de Nothofagus, con 71 especies endémicas de estebioma, nueve lo son de la estepa y seis presentan registros en bosque y estepa. Datos aún no publicados concuerdan con este esquema. Diecinueve géneros están representados en la Patagonia, diez de ellos con amplia distribución,tres de distribución transantártica y seis son endémicos para el área. Para la misma, se hallan publicadas las revisiones de Forcipomyia, Atrichopogon, Borkenthelea, Macrurohelea y Paradasyhelea; se han finalizado y aún no publicado aquellas de Dasyhelea y Palpomyia, está muy avanzada la de Stilobezzia y se prevé comenzar con las de Austrohelea, Austrosphaeromias, Physohelea y Bezzia. Se calcula que estos datos no divulgados contienen al menos 55 especies todavía no descriptas. Con respecto a los aspectos biogeográficos se pueden destacar estudios que tienden a establecer relaciones entre las áreas reconocidas en esquemas biogeográficos propuestos para la región andina.

  6. Polen de las Mieles de la Patagonia Andina (Chubut-Argentina Pollen of honeys from the Andean Patagonia (Chubut-Argentina

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    Alicia Forcone

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran mediante fotomicrografías tomadas con MO y MEB, 30 tipos polínicos, determinados en las mieles producidas en la región andina de Chubut (Patagonia Argentina. Los tipos morfológicos descriptos pertenecen a las siguientes familias: Alstroemeriaceae, Apiaceae, Buddlejaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Celastraceae, Clusiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ericaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygalaceae, Proteaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Saxifragaceae, Solanaceae, Thymelaceae y Verbenaceae. La mayoría de los tipos polínicos descriptos fueron hallados en las mieles como polen de menor importancia o traza con excepción de Aristotelia chilensis y Escallonia sp., que alcanzaron la categoría de polen dominante, y de Lomatia hirsuta, hallada como polen secundario.Thirty pollen types identified in the honeys from the Andean region of Chubut are described and illustrated by means of LM and SEM photomicrographs. Pollen types belong to the following families: Alstroemeriaceae, Apiaceae, Buddlejaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Celastraceae, Clusiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ericaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygalaceae, Proteaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Saxifragaceae, Solanaceae, Thymelaceae, and Verbenaceae. Most pollen types described were found in the honeys as minor important pollen or traces, except Aristotelia chilensis, Escallonia sp., which reached the category of dominant pollen, and Lomatia hirsuta, which was found as secondary pollen.

  7. Preliminary K/Ar geochronology of the Crater Basalt volcanic field (CBVF, northern Patagonia

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    Z. Pécskay

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Crater Basalt volcanic field is one of the Quaternary intraplate basaltic fields in northern Patagonia. A systematic geological, volcanological and geochronological study of CBVF indicates a multistage history of eruptions of basaltic volcanoes. K/Ar dating, using whole rock samples shows that the measured analytical ages are fully consistent with the available stratigraphic control. The radiometric ages fall into three distinct, internally consistent age groups, which give evidence that there were at least three major episodes of volcanic activity, at about 1.0 Ma, 0.6 Ma and 0.3 Ma ago. The age differences appear to be just significant, even although less than 10 % radiogenic argon was found in the isotope analysis of whole rock samples.

  8. A gigantic, exceptionally complete titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from southern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacovara, Kenneth J; Lamanna, Matthew C; Ibiricu, Lucio M; Poole, Jason C; Schroeter, Elena R; Ullmann, Paul V; Voegele, Kristyn K; Boles, Zachary M; Carter, Aja M; Fowler, Emma K; Egerton, Victoria M; Moyer, Alison E; Coughenour, Christopher L; Schein, Jason P; Harris, Jerald D; Martínez, Rubén D; Novas, Fernando E

    2014-09-04

    Titanosaurian sauropod dinosaurs were the most diverse and abundant large-bodied herbivores in the southern continents during the final 30 million years of the Mesozoic Era. Several titanosaur species are regarded as the most massive land-living animals yet discovered; nevertheless, nearly all of these giant titanosaurs are known only from very incomplete fossils, hindering a detailed understanding of their anatomy. Here we describe a new and gigantic titanosaur, Dreadnoughtus schrani, from Upper Cretaceous sediments in southern Patagonia, Argentina. Represented by approximately 70% of the postcranial skeleton, plus craniodental remains, Dreadnoughtus is the most complete giant titanosaur yet discovered, and provides new insight into the morphology and evolutionary history of these colossal animals. Furthermore, despite its estimated mass of about 59.3 metric tons, the bone histology of the Dreadnoughtus type specimen reveals that this individual was still growing at the time of death.

  9. Linked canopy, climate, and faunal change in the Cenozoic of Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Regan E; Strömberg, Caroline A E; Madden, Richard H; Kohn, Matthew J; Carlini, Alfredo A

    2015-01-16

    Vegetation structure is a key determinant of ecosystems and ecosystem function, but paleoecological techniques to quantify it are lacking. We present a method for reconstructing leaf area index (LAI) based on light-dependent morphology of leaf epidermal cells and phytoliths derived from them. Using this proxy, we reconstruct LAI for the Cenozoic (49 million to 11 million years ago) of middle-latitude Patagonia. Our record shows that dense forests opened up by the late Eocene; open forests and shrubland habitats then fluctuated, with a brief middle-Miocene regreening period. Furthermore, endemic herbivorous mammals show accelerated tooth crown height evolution during open, yet relatively grass-free, shrubland habitat intervals. Our Patagonian LAI record provides a high-resolution, sensitive tool with which to dissect terrestrial ecosystem response to changing Southern Ocean conditions during the Cenozoic. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Ethical and Civic Education. Difficulties during the Curricular Reform in Argentine Patagonia

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    Isabelino Siede

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.41folios51.68 What type of ethical and civic education is effectively provided at school? This article analyzes the curricular prescriptions of Ethical and Citizenship Education in primary schools of the Argentine Patagonia, as well as its relations and contradictions with the school practices of moral education It inquires the process of definition of the area in the context of the Educational Reform in the 90s. Also, it pursuits to remake the way it was incorporated in the provincial curriculum design. Throughout focus groups and interviews to teachers from different public and private schools of three towns from de north of Santa Cruz, we analyze the descriptions and expectative of the teachers about their teaching practice in the moral area, as well as the possible causes of the differences and the contradictions between the policies of the curricular statement and educational proposals offered at school.

  11. El cariotipo fundamental de Alstroemeria patagonica (Alstroemeriaceae The fundamental karyotype of Alstroemeria patagonia (Alstroemeriaceae

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    Carlos M Baeza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el cariotipo de Alstroemeria patagonica Phil. a partir de material de Chile. Esta especie presenta un cariotipo 2n = 2x = 16, y una fórmula haploide de 1m + 2sm + 1sm-sat + 2st + 1st-sat + 1t. El cariotipo encontrado es muy asimétrico (AsK % = 76,0.The karyotype of Alstroemeria patagonia Phil. from Chile was described. The species had a karyotype 2n = 2x = 16, and the haploid formula was 1m + 2sm + 1sm-sat + 2st + 1st-sat + 1t. The reported karyotype was very asymmetric (AsK % = 76.0.

  12. Cretaceous Small Scavengers: Feeding Traces in Tetrapod Bones from Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Valais, Silvina; Apesteguía, Sebastián; Garrido, Alberto C.

    2012-01-01

    Ecological relationships among fossil vertebrate groups are interpreted based on evidence of modification features and paleopathologies on fossil bones. Here we describe an ichnological assemblage composed of trace fossils on reptile bones, mainly sphenodontids, crocodyliforms and maniraptoran theropods. They all come from La Buitrera, an early Late Cretaceous locality in the Candeleros Formation of northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. This locality is significant because of the abundance of small to medium-sized vertebrates. The abundant ichnological record includes traces on bones, most of them attributable to tetrapods. These latter traces include tooth marks that provde evidence of feeding activities made during the sub-aerial exposure of tetrapod carcasses. Other traces are attributable to arthropods or roots. The totality of evidence provides an uncommon insight into paleoecological aspects of a Late Cretaceous southern ecosystem. PMID:22253800

  13. Alien invasions and the game of hide and seek in Patagonia.

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    Martin Lindegren

    Full Text Available The introduction, establishment and spread of alien species is a major threat to biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services for human wellbeing. In order to reduce further loss of biodiversity and maintain productive and sustainable ecosystems, understanding the ecological mechanisms underlying species invasions and avoiding potentially harmful effects on native communities is urgently needed, but largely lacking. We here demonstrate, by means of hydroacoustics and advanced spatial modelling, how native fish species as a result of previous exposure to native predators may successfully respond to invasive novel predators through a complicated game of hide and seek, minimizing spatio-temporal overlap with predators, and potentially facilitating coexistence between native prey species (Galaxiids and introduced novel predators (Salmonids in a deep Andean lake, Patagonia.

  14. Lack of founding Amerindian mitochondrial DNA lineages in extinct aborigines from Tierra del Fuego-Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalueza, C; Pérez-Pérez, A; Prats, E; Cornudella, L; Turbón, D

    1997-01-01

    Ancient DNA from bones and teeth of 60 individuals from four extinct human populations from Tierra del Fuego-Patagonia (Selknam, Yamana, Kaweskar and Aonikenk) has been extracted and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) amplified by using the polymerase chain reaction. High-resolution analysis of endonuclease restriction site variation in the mtDNA and sequencing of its hypervariable non-coding control region, revealed complete absence of two of the four primary mitochondrial haplotype groups present in contemporary Amerinds, namely A and B. In contrast, haplogroups C and D were found in all but one sample with frequencies of approximately 38% and 60%. These results, together with the decreasing incidence of group A in more southerly latitudes in the American continent and the absence of cluster B above 55 degrees North in America and Asia, argue that the first settlers entering America 21000-14000 years ago already lacked both mtDNA lineages.

  15. Insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura, Patagonia, Argentina. Inventario preliminar

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    Javier MUZÓN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se brinda un inventario preliminar de los insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura y su área de influencia (Patagonia, Argentina realizado sobre la base de colecciones y registros previos de especies pertenecientes a los órdenes Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (familias Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae y Psychodidae y Coleoptera. Se han relevado diversos tipos de ambientes en 14 localidades. El número de especies registrado asciende a 78, agrupadas en 51 géneros y 26 familias, de las cuales 33 se citan por primera vez del área. De los taxa registrados 83% de los géneros corresponden a grupos de amplia distribución (neotropicales, americanos o cosmopolitas, mientras que 41% de las especies presentan una distribución patagónica o andina.

  16. Estado del conocimiento taxonómico de la fauna de Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera de la Patagonia Current state of the taxonomic knowledge of the Chironomidae fauna (Diptera: Nematocera from Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Donato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera es uno de los grupos de insectos más ampliamente distribuidos y abundantes en cuerpos de agua dulce. Los representantes de esta familia pueden explotar áreas con amplios gradientes ambientales. La información que se presenta está basada en la recopilación de datos distribucionales bibliográficos, del estudio del material tipo de las especies de Chironomidae depositadas en el Natural History Museum (UK y del material de colección del Museo de La Plata (Argentina. En la Patagonia, se registran 9 subfamilias, la subfamilia monotípica Chilenomyiinae es endémica de esta área. Dentro de estas subfamilias, 53 de los 111 géneros conocidos para América del Sur están presentes en la Patagonia. Del total de géneros de la Patagonia, el 20 % es endémico y 7 de ellos muestran relaciones transantárticas. En la Patagonia, se registran 177 especies de Chironomidae, el 98% de éstas son endémicas, el 3 % son consideradas nomina dubia y el 17% requiere revisión ya que su ubicación sistemática es dudosa. Las descripciones originales de las especies patagónicas de Chironomidae están basadas principalmente sobre machos (n=58 y machos y hembras (n=43, ambas representan el 57% del total; el resto de las especies han sido descriptas con diferentes combinaciones de estadios del ciclo de desarrollo.The Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera family is one of the most widely distributed group of insects and often the most abundant in freshwater environments. Representatives of this family can exploit a wide range of environmental gradients. The information here presented is based on the compilation of distributional data obtained from bibliography, the study of the type material deposited in the Natural History Museum (UK and the collection material from Museo de La Plata (Argentina. Nine subfamilies are recorded from Patagonia, being the monotypic subfamily Chilenomyiinae endemic for the area. From the 111 known

  17. Cultural Transmission of Traditional Knowledge in two populations of North-western Patagonia

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    Lozada Mariana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study we have investigated the cultural transmission of two types of traditional plant knowledge in two communities of North-western Patagonia, Argentina. In the Pilcaniyeu community, we studied the transmission of traditional knowledge related to horticultural practices in home-gardens, greenhouses and gardens; while in the community of Cuyin Manzano, we studied wild plant gathering customs. Methods Ethnobotanical fieldwork was conducted by means of semi-structured interviews, in which we investigated which plants are used, at what life history phase was learned, modes of transmission and who the principal transmitters were in childhood and adulthood. In both communities, each of this three aspects related to cultural transmission were categorized and the frequencies of each category were obtained. The total number of species recorded in each community was also calculated. Frequencies were analyzed with the Chi-square test of independence. Results and discussion In both communities, transmission of traditional plant knowledge begins at an early age, as a family custom, in which women play a predominant role. Wild plant use and horticultural knowledge continue to be learned during adulthood. This was particularly registered associated with horticultural learning, which receives greater influence from extension agents who are introducing new practices and technology. This outside influence, which implies novelty, could imply syncretism but also traditional knowledge loss. Conclusion Given the remarkable acculturation processes occurring at present in rural communities of Northwestern Patagonia, it might be of vital importance to document traditional knowledge of ancient practices. Moreover, it could be interesting to share our results with both populations in order to encourage participatory activities within the communities which could enhance traditional knowledge horizontal transmission, particularly among

  18. Fire affects size and shape of Fabiana imbricata Shurblands in northwestern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddi, Facundo; Ghermandi, Luciana

    2010-05-01

    Fire is a major environmental ecological agent acting in the landscape configuration and a factor that models vegetation in Mediterranean environments. Fire impacts differently in the landscape due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of the environments and the characteristics associated with each fire event. After fire, density of patches may be increased and the size of them may be reduced because fire generates areas of different successional stages. Landscape ecology seems to be the ideal theoretical approach to study the fire impact in fire prone environments. Landscape ecology has been greatly favoured by a significant progress in the last years of geographic information technologies (GIT) (remote sensing, GIS, GPS). The study area of this work is the San Ramon ranch (22,000 ha) located in Northwester Patagonia in the ecotone between the sub Antarctic forest in the West and the Patagonian steppe in the East. We studied sectors of the ranch with different fire recurrence in the last 40 years and we mapped Fabiana imbricata shrubland with GPS. This specie is a native shrub characteristic of Northwester Patagonia grasslands and its dynamic is not very known. Shrublands compete for the space with palatable grasses that are used for forage and livestock production, the main economic resource of the region. We analysed the mapped patches with GIS software, and we assessed landscape metrics to determine differences between sites with different fire recurrence. In the future we foresee the integrated use of satellite imagery with different resolution to add to GIS other important spatial variables (topography, hydrography, aspect, soil) to develop models that can explain landscape metrics, spatial configuration and the potential shrub invasion in the grassland.

  19. Capacity building for freshwater insect studies in northern Patagonia, Argentina: DARWIN Initiative programme

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    Stephen J. BROOKS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este proyecto fue financiado durante un período de tres años, desde septiembre de 2006 a través de la Iniciativa Darwin del gobierno Británico. El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de los insectos acuáticos del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi (PNNHP, Patagonia, Argentina. El parque incluye una gran variedad de hábitats que comprenden arroyos, ríos y lagos los cuales se distribuyen desde el bosque siempreverde frío, hasta la zona árida de estepa. Todo el material será identificado y depositado en las colecciones del Museo La Plata y el Museo de Historia Natural de Londres. Los fondos de la Iniciativa Darwin han sido utilizados para equipar un laboratorio de biodiversidad en las oficinas del PNNHP en Bariloche y la estación de investigación en Puerto Blest. Toda la información de los insectos acuáticos y las distintas formaciones vegetales donde éstos se han encontrado, se incluirá en una base de datos (la primera de su tipo en Patagonia que utilizará la metodología GIS para analizar patrones de distribución de las especies en el parque. En estos momentos se están produciendo varias guías de campo para identificar los insectos acuáticos del PNNHP. Es nuestro deseo que los resultados obtenidos en este proyecto, contribuyan a la conservación de los sistemas acuáticos en Argentina y América del Sur

  20. Preliminary K/Ar geochronology of the Crater Basalt volcanic field (CBVF, northern Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pécskay

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Crater Basalt volcanic field is one of the Quaternary intraplate basaltic fields in northern Patagonia. A systematic geological, volcanological and geochronological study of CBVF indicates a multistage history of eruptions of basaltic volcanoes. K/Ar dating, using whole rock samples shows that the measured analytical ages are fully consistent with the available stratigraphic control. The radiometric ages fall into three distinct, internally consistent age groups, which give evidence that there were at least three major episodes of volcanic activity, at about 1.0 Ma, 0.6 Ma and 0.3 Ma ago. The age differences appear to be just significant, even although less than 10 % radiogenic argon was found in the isotope analysis of whole rock samples.El campo volcánico del Basalto Cráter (CVBC constituye uno de los campos basálticos cuaternarios de intraplaca de la Patagonia septentrional. El estudio sistemático de la geología, volcanología y geocronología del CVBC muestra una historia eruptiva multiepisódica de volcanes basálticos. Las dataciones K-Ar realizadas sobre roca total son coherentes con el control estratigráfico. Las edades obtenidas para el Basalto Cráter permiten distinguir tres episodios diferentes, pero individualmente coherentes, de actividad volcánica, ocurridos hace ~1,0 Ma; 0,6 Ma y 0,3 Ma. Las diferencias de edad parecen ser significativas, aún cuando el contenido de argón radiogénico determinado en los análisis de roca total resultó menor al 10 %.

  1. Respiratory Function in Voluntary Participating Patagonia Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens) in Sternal Recumbency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Andreas; Madigan, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    We measured esophageal pressures (n = 4), respiratory flow rates (n = 5), and expired O2 and CO2 (n = 4) in five adult Patagonia sea lions (Otaria flavescens, body mass range 94.3-286.0 kg) during voluntary breaths while laying down out of water. The data were used to estimate the dynamic specific lung compliance (sCL), the O2 consumption rate ([Formula: see text]O2) and CO2 production rates ([Formula: see text]CO2) during rest. Our results indicate that the resting tidal volume in Patagonia sea lions is approximately 47-73% of the estimated total lung capacity. The esophageal pressures indicated that expiration is passive during voluntary breaths. The average sCL of sea lions was 0.41 ± 0.11 cmH2O(-1), which is similar to those measured in anesthetized sea lions and awake cetaceans, and significantly higher as compared to humans (0.08 cmH2O(-1)). The average estimated [Formula: see text]O2 and [Formula: see text]CO2 using breath-by-breath respirometry were 1.023 ± 0.327 L O2 min(-1) (range: 0.695-1.514 L O2 min(-1)) and 0.777 ± 0.318 L CO2 min(-1), (range: 0.510-1.235 L CO2 min(-1)), respectively, which is similar to previously published metabolic measurements from California and Steller sea lions using conventional flow-through respirometry. Our data provide end-tidal gas composition and offer novel data for respiratory physiology in pinnipeds, which may be important for clinical medicine and conservation efforts.

  2. Respiratory function in voluntary participating Patagonia sea lions in sternal recumbency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fahlman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We measured esophageal pressures (n=4, respiratory flow rates (n=5, and expired O2 and CO2 (n=4 in five adult Patagonia sea lions (Otaria flavescens, body mass range 94.3-286.0 kg during voluntary breaths while laying down. The data were used to estimate the dynamic specific lung compliance (sCL, cmH2O-1, the O2 consumption rate (VO2 and CO2 production rates (VCO2 during rest. Our results indicate that the resting tidal volume in Patagonia sea lions is approximately 47-73% of the estimated total lung capacity. The esophageal pressures indicated that expiration is passive during voluntary breaths. The average sCL of dolphins was 0.41±0.11 cmH2O−1, which is similar to those measured in anesthetized sea lions and awake cetaceans, and significantly higher as compared with humans (0.08 cmH2O−1. The average estimated and using breath-by-breath respirometry were 1.023 ± 0.327 L O2 min-1 (range: 0.695-1.514 L O2 min−1 and 0.777 ± 0.318 L CO2 min-1, (range: 0.510-1.235 L CO2 min-1, respectively, which is similar to previously published metabolic measurements from California and Steller sea lions using conventional flow-through respirometry. Our data provide end-tidal gas composition and provide novel data for respiratory physiology in pinnpeds, which may be important for clinical medicine and conservation efforts.

  3. Graben calderas of the Sierra Madre Occidental: The case of Guanajuato, central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Tristán-González, M.; Labarthe-Hernández, G.; Marti, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) volcanic province is characterized by voluminous silicic ignimbrites that reach an accumulated thickness of 500 to 1500 m. A single ignimbrite can reach up to 350 m thick in its outflow facies. This ignimbrite sequence formed mostly within 38-23 Ma, building up a total estimated volume of ca. 580,000 km3 making the SMO the largest ignimbrite province of the world. We have showed that several and probably most of the SMO ignimbrites were erupted from fissures associated to Basin and Range fault systems or grabens (Geology, 2003), thus naming these volcano-tectonic structures as graben calderas (Caldera Volcanism book, Elsevier, 2008). Generally, the sequence observed in graben calderas include, from oldest to youngest, alluvial fan deposits combined with lacustrine deposits, pyroclastic surge deposits and minor volume ignimbrites, a large-volume ignimbrite that could be massive or made of successive layers, and sometimes silicic lava domes and/or mafic fissural lavas both with vents aligned with the graben trend. Fallout deposits, plinian or non-plinian, are not observed in the sequence. Thus, onset of caldera collapse represented by the major ignimbrite must occur just after deposition of continental sediments within the graben domain. A similar volcano-tectonic development is observed in pull-apart grabens. Therefore, extensional or transtensional tectonics, before and during caldera collapse, and the emplacement of a subgraben shallow silicic magma chamber are the necessary conditions for the development of graben calderas. We describe here the case of the Guanajuato graben caldera, located in the central part of Mexico and in the southeastern portion of the SMO volcanic province. The caldera is part of the economically important mining district of Guanajuato, with 28 silver mines, some active since the 16th century. The caldera structure, a rectangle of 10 x 16 km, was controlled by NW and NE regional fault systems. Most ore

  4. Detection of Salmonella enterica in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) of Chilean Patagonia: evidences of inter-species transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougnac, C; Pardo, C; Meza, K; Arredondo, C; Blank, O; Abalos, P; Vidal, R; Fernandez, A; Fredes, F; Retamal, P

    2015-04-01

    Patagonia in southern South America is among the few world regions where direct human impact is still limited but progressively increasing, mainly represented by tourism, farming, fishing and mining activities. The sanitary condition of Patagonian wildlife is unknown, in spite of being critical for the assessment of anthropogenic effects there. The aim of this study was the characterization of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from wild colonies of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) located in Magdalena Island and Otway Sound, in Chilean Patagonia. Eight isolates of Salmonella were found, belonging to Agona and Enteritidis serotypes, with an infection rate of 0·38%. Resistance to ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftiofur and tetracycline antimicrobials were detected, and some of these strains showed genotypic similarity with Salmonella strains isolated from humans and gulls, suggesting inter-species transmission cycles and strengthening the role of penguins as sanitary sentinels in the Patagonian ecosystem.

  5. Stable oxygen isotopes ( δ 18O) in Austrocedrus chilensis tree rings reflect climate variability in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, F. A.; Siegwolf, R.; Boninsegna, J. A.

    2006-11-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ( δ 18O) composition of Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Endl. (Cupressaceae) tree rings potentially provide retrospective views of changes in environment and climate in the semi-arid lands of Patagonia. We report the development of the first annually resolved δ 18O tree-ring chronology obtained from natural forests of the foothills of the northwestern Patagonian Andes. The isotope record spans between 1890 and 1994 AD. We explore the probable links between this record and the climate of the region. Air temperatures during summer conditions are significantly, but not strongly, inversely correlated with annual δ 18O values from Austrocedrus tree rings. The strongest correlations are between the southern oscillation index (SOI) and the tree rings. The existence of millennial-age Austrocedrus trees in northern Patagonia provides interesting possibilities for examining these climate-related isotopic signals over most of the last 1,000 years.

  6. Stable oxygen isotopes (delta18(O)) in Austrocedrus chilensis tree rings reflect climate variability in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, F A; Siegwolf, R; Boninsegna, J A

    2006-11-01

    The stable oxygen isotope (delta (18)O) composition of Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Endl. (Cupressaceae) tree rings potentially provide retrospective views of changes in environment and climate in the semi-arid lands of Patagonia. We report the development of the first annually resolved delta (18)O tree-ring chronology obtained from natural forests of the foothills of the northwestern Patagonian Andes. The isotope record spans between 1890 and 1994 AD. We explore the probable links between this record and the climate of the region. Air temperatures during summer conditions are significantly, but not strongly, inversely correlated with annual delta (18)O values from Austrocedrus tree rings. The strongest correlations are between the southern oscillation index (SOI) and the tree rings. The existence of millennial-age Austrocedrus trees in northern Patagonia provides interesting possibilities for examining these climate-related isotopic signals over most of the last 1,000 years.

  7. Status and conservation of old-growth forests and endemic birds in the pine-oak zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammertink, J.M.; Rojas-Tomé, J.A.; Casillas-Orona, F.M.; Otto, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental, a mountain range in NW Mexico, have recently been recognized as an area of high endemism and biodiversity. Selective logging threatens three bird species endemic to this habitat, who depend on standing dead trees (snags). This report is based on

  8. Gestión de suelo en la configuración de bordes de ciudad. El caso del borde occidental de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Velasco Bernal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento plantea identificar la incidencia de los instrumentos de gestión de suelo en la conformación de estructura urbana, en particular en el borde de ciudad (caso Bogotá, borde occidental. Igualmente, busca analizar el papel de los instrumentos en la conformación de una estructura urbana que soporte las decisiones del Modelo de Ordenamiento Territorial de Bogotá, articulado con la región y con las estrategias de ordenamiento de los municipios colindantes al borde occidental. Para esto, se estudian los siguientes aspectos: qué es un borde y cómo se define su estructura urbana, definición de los instrumentos de gestión e identificación de aquellos adoptados que inciden en el borde occidental, análisis de las decisiones de ordenamiento de municipios vecinos que inciden en el borde, caracterización del borde occidental y conclusiones de la incidencia de los instrumentos de gestión de suelo en su conformación.

  9. El fenómeno de El Niño -la oscilación del sur- y la Arqueología del occidente de Cuba

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    Alexis Rives Pantoja

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian diversas evidencias arqueológicas, especialmente de materiales cerámicos, en asentamientos establecidos en el occidente de Cuba, a través de las cuales se pueden observar las problemáticas ambientales y la influencia del fenómeno El Niño en el pasado aborigen.

  10. Virus del Nilo Occidental: Lo que debe saber - Agosto de 2012 (West Nile Virus: What You Need to Know Now - August 2012)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-21

    Este podcast nombra los estados en donde se han notificado la mayoría de casos del virus del Nilo Occidental y explica la manera en que las personas se pueden proteger contra ese virus.  Created: 8/21/2012 by .   Date Released: 8/22/2012.

  11. El concepto de "Europa" en la Revista de Occidente (1923-1936) y su recepción en José Ortega y Gasset

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carl Antonius Lemke Duque

    2015-01-01

    ... by José Ortega y Gasset (1883-1955). Through discourse analysis the paper deepenth into the key factors of influence that were transfered to Spain during the interwar period by the Revista de Occidente and the numerous translations made...

  12. Status and conservation of old-growth forests and endemic birds in the pine-oak zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammertink, J.M.; Rojas-Tomé, J.A.; Casillas-Orona, F.M.; Otto, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental, a mountain range in NW Mexico, have recently been recognized as an area of high endemism and biodiversity. Selective logging threatens three bird species endemic to this habitat, who depend on standing dead trees (snags). This report is based on a

  13. Biodiversidad de Heteroptera (Hemiptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas de la Patagonia argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia MELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas (infraórdenes Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha y Leptopodomorpha no presentan una alta diversidad específica en Argentina, hasta el momento se han registrado 208 especies. Carlos Berg en 1881, publica el primer trabajo que hace referencia a heterópteros de la Patagonia, en el que lista los insectos recolectados durante la Campaña del Desierto. Desde principios de la década del ’60, las Heteroptera acuáticas han sido estudiadas principalmente por A.O. Bachmann y colaboradores. Hasta el momento, se han registrado 36 especies pertenecientes a las familias Corixidae, Notonectidae, Belostomatidae, Gelastocoridae, Naucoridae y Nepidae (Nepomorpha; Hydrometridae, Veliidae y Mesoveliidae (Gerromorpha, y Saldidae (Leptopodomorpha. La mayoría de estas especies extienden su distribución geográfica hacia el norte de la Argentina, excepto Sigara (Tropocorixa egbertae Hungerford, S. (T. trimaculata (Le Guillou, S. (T. vuriloche Bachmann, S. (T. forciceps (Spinola, Trichocorixa milicorum Bachmann (Corixidae, Notonecta (Paranecta virescens Blanchard, N. (P. fazi Hungerford, N. (P. vereertbruggheni Hungerford (Notonectidae, Pseudosaldula bergi (Haglund y P. paralia (Torres, P. angusta (Drake & Carvalho, P. sola (Drake & Carvalho, P. doeringi (Drake & Carvalho y Saldula differata Drake & Carvalho (Saldidae, que son exclusivas de la Patagonia. El conocimiento de la diversidad de Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas en la Patagonia es bueno y, por los datos recogidos, su estado de conservación es aceptable ya que aproximadamente el 40% de la especies encontradas en áreas naturales protegidas son exclusivas de la región y representan cerca del 40 % del número de especies exclusivas de la Patagonia.

  14. Tree health influences diameter growth along site quality, crown class and age gradients in Nothofagus forests of southern Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of tree health on annual diameter increment of trees along gradients in stand site quality, crown classes and tree age in Nothofagus pumilio forests of Southern Patagonia. Healthy trees had higher annual diameter increment than unhealthy trees along all gradients (site quality, crown class, tree age). We argue that tree health could be employed as a qualitative variable in models of tree growth to estimate aboveground biomass and carbon stocks in this forest system. ...

  15. Estado del conocimiento taxonómico de la fauna de Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera de la Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano DONATO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La familia Chironomidae (Diptera: Nematocera es uno de los grupos de insectos más ampliamente distribuidos y abundantes en cuerpos de agua dulce. Los representantes de esta familia pueden explotar áreas con amplios gradientes ambientales. La información que se presenta está basada en la recopilación de datos distribucionales bibliográficos, del estudio del material tipo de las especies de Chironomidae depositadas en el Natural History Museum (UK y del material de colección del Museo de La Plata (Argentina. En la Patagonia, se registran 9 subfamilias, la subfamilia monotípica Chilenomyiinae es endémica de esta área. Dentro de estas subfamilias, 53 de los 111 géneros conocidos para América del Sur están presentes en la Patagonia. Del total de géneros de la Patagonia, el 20 % es endémico y 7 de ellos muestran relaciones transantárticas. En la Patagonia, se registran 177 especies de Chironomidae, el 98% de éstas son endémicas, el 3 % son consideradas nomina dubia y el 17% requiere revisión ya que su ubicación sistemática es dudosa. Las descripciones originales de las especies patagónicas de Chironomidae están basadas principalmente sobre machos (n=58 y machos y hembras (n=43, ambas representan el 57% del total; el resto de las especies han sido descriptas con diferentes combinaciones de estadios del ciclo de desarrollo.

  16. Un suelo referible al periodo calido medieval en Patagonia Austral y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina. Aspectos cronologicos y paleoclimaticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favier Dubois, C. M.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Geoarchaeological work done in Southernmost Patagonia and in the north of Tierra del Fuego, have revealed the recurrent presence of a paedogenesis interval represented by a soil of an A-AC-C profile, with a mollic epipedon, in the upper section of eolian and colluvial deposits of the late Holocene. This soil is today buried in the sites that have been analyzed, while it remains exposed in other areas of the landscape. Radiocarbon dates obtained on materials placed below it (maximum ages and those obtained by OCR (Oxidizable Carbon Ratio in the AC horizon of this soil (minimum ages, indicate the beginning of its development around the year 1000 BP. Its chronology and environmental implications suggest a relationship with the medieval climatic fluctuations called Medieval Warm Period or Medieval Optimum in Europe. This period has correlates detected in Patagonia by dendroclimatic studies.Estudios geoarqueológicos realizados en 5 localidades de Patagonia austral y norte Tierra del Fuego han revelado la recurrente presencia de un suelo de perfil A-AC-C, de epipedon mólico, en depósitos eólicos y coluviales del Holoceno tardío. Este suelo se observa sepultado en los yacimientos arqueológicos analizados, mientras que permanece expuesto en otras posiciones del paisaje. Numerosas edades máximas y mínimas obtenidas por 14C y por la técnica de OCR (Oxidizable Carbon Ratio indican el comienzo de su desarrollo hacia el 1000 AP. Su cronología e implicancias ambientales permiten vincularlo con fluctuaciones climáticas desarrolladas durante el denominado Período Cálido Medieval u Optimo Medieval Europeo, con correlatos detectados en Patagonia a través de estudios dendroclimáticos.

  17. Associative nitrogen fixation in nodules of the conifer Lepidothamnus fonkii (Podocarpaceae) inhabiting ombrotrophic bogs in southern Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Borken; Horn, Marcus A.; Stefan Geimer; Nelson A. Bahamonde Aguilar; Klaus-Holger Knorr

    2016-01-01

    Biological N2 fixation (BNF) in the rhizosphere of Podocarpaceae is currently attributed to unspecific diazotrophs with negligible impact on N acquisition. Here, we report specific and high associative BNF in dead cells of root nodules of Lepidothamnus fonkii distributed in ombrotrophic peatlands of Patagonia. BNF of nodulated roots, intact plants of L. fonkii and rhizospheric peat was assessed by 15N2 and acetylene reduction. Diazotrophs were identified by electron microscopy, analysis of ni...

  18. LA PATAGONIA ORIENTAL SEGÚN UNA REAL CÉDULA de 1570 MENOSPRECIADA POR LA HISTORIOGRAFÍA CHILENA

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    MANUEL RAVEST MORA

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Versa este trabajo sobre la Real Cédula de Felipe II que, en 1570, fusionó parte de la Patagonia Oriental con la Provincia del Río de la Plata, origen de la República Argentina, donde, al parecer, supieron del documento treinta años después de finalizado el debate con Chile acerca de los derechos al extremo meridional de América. Descubierta por un diplomático chileno, que informó de ella a su Cancillería en 1876 y la mencionó en un libro publicado en 1903, ha sido sistemáticamente ignorada por los escritores chilenos. Examina este trabajo las posibles causas de ese silencio historiográfico, como también las rectificaciones que la RC introduce en la tesis clásica o fundacional de Chile, formulada a mediados del XIX por Miguel Luis Amunátegui, según la cual ese país siempre ejerció jurisdicción sobre la totalidad de la Patagonia Oriental desde 1554This work deals with a 1570 Phillip the II Decree that fused a section of Atlantic Patagonia with the Rio de la Plata Province, origin of late Argentine Republic, who, apparently, learned about it thirty years after ended the discussion held with Chile in respect the rights of each country towards the southern extreme of America. Found by a chilean diplomat, who informed his Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1876 and wrote about the document in a book published in 1903, it has been systematically ignored by chilean scholars. The work examines the possible causes for this historiographyc silence, and the rectifications that the Royal Decree introduces in the classical chilean thesis about Patagonia, enounced by Miguel Luis Amunategui in middle XIX century, according to which that whole territory always belonged to Chile since 1554

  19. The Usefulness of Edible and Medicinal Fabaceae in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia: Environmental Availability and Other Sources of Supply

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    Soledad Molares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. It is based on a bibliographical analysis of 27 ethnobotanical sources and catalogues of regional flora. Approximately 234 wild species grow in Patagonia, mainly (60% in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to Sub-Antarctic forest. It was found that 12.8% (30 species, mainly woody, conspicuous plants, are collected for food or medicines. Most of the species used grow in arid environments. Cultivation and purchase/barter enrich the Fabaceae offer, bringing it up to a total of 63 species. The richness of native and exotic species, and the existence of multiple strategies for obtaining these plants, indicates hybridization of knowledge and practices. Only 22% of the total species used are mentioned in bothcontexts of food and medicine, reflecting low-use complementation. This study suggests a significant ecological appearance and a high level of availability in shops and exchange networks in Patagonia, highlighting the need to consider the full set of environmental and socioeconomic factors in research related to the use and cultural importance of plants in regional contexts.

  20. First paleoparasitological record of digenean eggs from a native deer from Patagonia Argentina (Cueva Parque Diana archaeological site).

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Ornela, Beltrame; Eleonor, Tietze; Alberto Enrique, Pérez; Norma Haydeé, Sardella

    2017-02-15

    Eggs representative of a digenean species were found in coprolites belonged to an endemic deer from Patagonia. Samples were collected from the archaeological site named "Cueva Parque Diana". This site is a cave located at the Lanín National Park, Neuquén Province, Argentina. The coprolites were dated from 2370±70 to 580±60 years B.P. The eggs were ellipsoidal, operculated, yellowish and thin-shelled. Measurements (n=65) ranged from 120.0 to 142.5 (133.2±6.53) μm long and 62.5 to 87.5 (72.6±6.15) μm wide. Eggs were well-preserved and were identified as belonged to Class Trematoda, Subclass Digenea, similar to those of Fasciola hepatica or with another species not identified at present from Patagonia. This is the first report of digenean eggs from ancient deer worldwide. The present study confirms the presence of representatives of digenean species in endemic deer from Patagonia in ancient times and the presence of a trematode disease prior to the arrival of European cattle.

  1. DESARROLLO DE INSUMOS PARA LA TOMA DE DECISIONES DE CONSERVACIÓN EN LA CUENCA AMAZÓNICA OCCIDENTAL

    OpenAIRE

    Josse, C.; NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr. ,7 th Floor Arlington , VA 22203 USA; Young, B.; NatureServe, Apdo. 358-1260, Plaza Colonial, San José, Costa Rica.; Lyons-Smyth, R.; NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr. ,7 th Floor Arlington , VA 22203 USA.; Brooks, T.; Global Policy and Programme Group-IUCN, Rue Muverney 28, 1196 Gland Switzerland.; Frances, A.; NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr. ,7 th Floor Arlington , VA 22203 USA.; Comer, P.; NatureServe 2108 55th Street, Suite 220 Boulder , CO 80301 USA.; Petry, P.; The Nature Conservancy Latin America Conservation Region 73 Hideaway Lane Hollis, NH 03049 USA/Museum of Comparatuve Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge M.A.; Balslev, H.; Department of Bioscience Ecoinformatics & Biodiversity Research Group, Aarhus University, Built 1540 Ny Munkegade 114, 800 Asrhus C, Denmark.; Bassuner, B.; Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0229 USA.; Goettsch, B.; Department of Aninal and Plant Sciences, The University of Sheffield, Western Bank.; Hak, J.; NatureServe 2108 55th Street, Suite 220 Boulder , CO 80301 USA.; Jørgensen, P.; Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0229 USA.; Larrea-Alcázar, D.; Departamento de Ciencias, Fundación Amigos de la Naturaleza (FAN) Casilla 2241, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.; Navarro, G.; Universidad Católica Boliviana "San Pablo", Carrera de Ingeniería Ambiental, Márquez esq. Parque J. Trigo Andia, Tupuraya, Cochabamba, Bolivia.; Saatchi, S.

    2013-01-01

    El actual modelo de crecimiento económico que estimula a los países ricos en recursos a convertirse en proveedores de materias primas para un mercado global en expansión, está afectando gravemente la condición de grandes áreas naturales, tales como la cuenca occidental del Amazonas, una de las regiones con mayor biodiversidad del planeta. El proceso se acelerará a medida que esta región se vuelva más accesible con el desarrollo de la infraestructura de transporte, así como con la extracción d...

  2. Primer registro de diplostomiasis ocular en trucha arco iris cultivada en Patagonia (Argentina First record of diplostomiasis in cultured rainbow trout in Patagonia (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SEMENAS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe por primera vez para la Patagonia argentina un caso de diplostomiasisocular o catarata verminosa en peces de un establecimiento de críaen estanques en la provincia de Chubut. Para el diagnóstico se analizaroncaracoles (Chilina dombeiana por técnica de aplastamiento y truchasarco iris (Oncorhynchus mykiss por técnica de necropsia con microdisecciónde ojos. El hallazgo de esporocistos de Diplostomidae en el hepatopáncreasde los caracoles y de metacercarias de Diplostomum sp. en los cristalinosde los peces, permitió diagnosticar que la catarata era de origenparasitario. Se detallan las recomendaciones dadas para el control y laprevención de la enfermedad, basadas en métodos ecológicosteniendo en cuenta fundamentalmente el ciclo del parásito y lascaracterísticas de las instalaciones de la piscicultura. Este trabajoamplía la distribución de esta enfermedad en trucha arcoiris cultivada hasta el sur de ArgentinaA case of ocular diplostomiasis (parasite cataract in fish or eyefluke disease is described for the first time in a pisciculture with earth ponds in the province of Chubut. Snails (Chilina dombeiana were analysed by squashing and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss by necropsy with microdissection of eyes, for the diagnosis. The findings of sporocysts of Diplostomidae in the hepatopancreas of snails and metacercariae of Diplostomum sp. in the lens of fish confirm the cataract as parasitic. Detailed recommendations for the control and prevention of the disease, based mainly on ecological methods, taking into account the cycle of the parasite and the characteristics of the building of the pisciculture are given. This paper amplifies the distribution of this disease in cultured rainbow trout, including the southern part of South America

  3. Do native grazers from Patagonia, Argentina, consume the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida? ¿Pueden los pastoreadores nativos de Patagonia, Argentina, consumir al alga invasora Undaria pinnatifida?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Valeria Teso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales was first reported in Golfo Nuevo in 1992 and since then it has spread widely over more than 170 km, all along the northern Patagonian coast, Argentina. Field observations in the region have indicated the potential role of invertebrate grazers, like the sea urchins Arbacia dufresnii and Pseudechinus magellanicus and the gastropod Tegula patagonica, in controlling algal density. Laboratory experiments were conducted to ascertain whether, and if so, to what extent these grazers actually feed on the algae. The studied sea urchins fed on the alga, whereas the snail scraped off biofouling adhered to its surface. Higher densities of grazers were observed on the kelp during summer and might be attributed to increasing in metabolism with increasing temperature, and degradation of blades and sporophylls, which possibly increase their palatability.El alga invasora Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales fue reportada por primera vez en Golfo Nuevo en 1992, dispersándose ampliamente a lo largo de 170 km de costa en el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina. Observaciones de campo hechas en los erizos de mar Arbacia dufresnii y Pseudechinus magellanicus y en el gasterópodo Tegula patagonica evidenciaron que son posibles consumidores de Undaria pinnatifida en la población local. Se realizaron experimentos de laboratorio con el objetivo de probar si estos pastoreadores eran capaces de consumir el alga. Los erizos de mar estudiados consumen el alga, mientras que el gasterópodo ramonea los epibiontes presentes sobre su superficie. Altas densidades de ramoneadores fueron encontradas sobre el alga durante el verano y podrían ser atribuidas a un aumento del su metabolismo con el aumento de la temperatura y a la degradación de las láminas y esporofilos, lo cual posiblemente aumente la palatabilidad del alga.

  4. Evidence of increasing risk of schistosomiasis among school-age children in municipality of Calatrava, Province of Negros Occidental, Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Belizario VY Jr; Erfe JM; Naig JRA; Chua PLC

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore risk of school-age children being infected with schistosomiasis in selected villages in the municipality of Calatrava, province of Negros Occidental, Philippines. Methods:As part of the monitoring and evaluation of the helminth control program in the province of Negros Occidental, parasitological monitoring, through the use microscopy of stool samples processed using Kato-Katz technique, was conducted to describe the baseline and follow-up parasitological status of school-age children in 2010 and 2012, respectively. Seven villages from the municipality of Calatrava were selected as study sites.Results:During baseline assessment, only one case of schistosomiasis was reported from the village of Marcelo. During follow-up assessment, 32 cases (6.9%) of schistosomiasis were reported and the prevalence of moderate-heavy intensity infection was 1.3% in six villages. Among the seven villages included in the follow-up, Minapasuk had the highest prevalence at 14.6%, while San Isidro reported no case of schistosomiasis.Conclusions:Non-endemic villages, which have reported positive cases in school-age children, may need to be assessed for possible endemicity for schistosomiasis. Transmission of the disease may need to be determined in these villages through active parasitological and malacological surveillance. Other non-endemic villages adjacent to or share river networks with endemic villages in Calatrava may need to be explored for possible introduction of the disease, especially after typhoons and flooding. Establishing endemicity for schistosomiasis in these villages will help infected and at risk individuals to receive yearly treatment to reduce morbidities caused by this disease.

  5. La representació occidental de la Xina moderna: orientalisme, culturalisme i crítica historiogràfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martínez-Robles

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La percepció que des d'Occident s'ha tingut de la Xina com a ens històric ha evolucionat al llarg dels segles. La Xina va passar de ser un país de prodigis i meravelles en el món medieval i una cultura refinada i erudita al començament de la modernitat europea, a convertir-se en una nació sense història ni progrés amb el pensament il·lustrat del final del segle XVIII i començament del XIX. Els primers historiadors de la Xina són, de fet, representants dels grans imperis occidentals del final del segle XIX, i la seva obra percep la Xina des de posicionaments epistemològics que s'inscriuen molt clarament en el pensament colonial i orientalista característic d'aquell període. La història escrita durant tot el segle XX, malgrat que s'ha esforçat per superar els prejudicis del passat, no s'ha deslliurat completament d'alguns dels recursos representacionals i els estereotips que el món occidental ha assumit sobre la Xina i l'Àsia oriental des de la Il·lustració. Només en les últimes dècades ha aparegut una historiografia crítica que ha denunciat les problemàtiques inherents del discurs elaborat sobre la Xina, tot i que no ha aconseguit resoldre-les completament. Text complet (PDF Dossier complet (PDF

  6. Enhanced Southern Westerly Activity During the Last Glacial Interglacial Transition in SW Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, P. I.; Villa-Martinez, R. P.; Cardenas, M. L.; Moy, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    Much of the ongoing controversy regarding synchrony or bipolar asynchrony has centered on the timing and structure of temperature changes during the Last Glacial Interglacial Transition (LGIT) in the southern mid- latitudes, in particular the Patagonian region (40°-56°S) of South America. South America is the only continuous continental landmass in the Southern Hemisphere that intersects the entire westerly wind belt and lies in the critical climatic interface between mid- to high latitudes. The region between 50°- 55°S is of particular interest considering its proximity to the polar front and the southern margin of the westerly winds, and the possibility of monitoring paleoclimate changes at or near this important oceanic- atmospheric boundary. Present and past climate studies, including modeling simulations, have emphasized that interactions between changes in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, the southern westerly winds, sea ice, and the polar front are important drivers for deep ocean circulation changes, variations in atmospheric CO2, and equator-to-pole temperature and pressure gradients. Yet, the behavior of the westerly winds and the adjacent Southern Ocean during the LGIT is still poorly understood despite their fundamental influence on modern hemispheric and global climate. In this study we compare sediment cores from small closed-basin lakes and a bog from the Ultima Esperanza area of SW Patagonia (52°S), an area affected solely by the southern westerlies. Lake sediment cores from three lakes show lacustrine sedimentation over the last 17,000 years. In contrast, the Dumestre bog shows subaerial peat deposition since 15 ka interrupted by a prominent lacustrine phase dated between 14.5-11.5 ka. During this interval palynological records indicate the preponderance of cold-resistant herbs, along with aquatic taxa, followed by a rapid expansion of Nothofagus woodlands/forests, a lake regressive phase in Dumestre, and disappearance of laminated calcite

  7. Late Holocene environmental changes in a mesotidal estuary from Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Marcela; Escandell, Alejandra; Velez Agudelo, Camilo

    2016-04-01

    Two sediment records from the lower valley of Negro River, Patagonia, Argentina (41°01´S; 62°47'W) spanning for the last 2000 cal yrs BP were analyzed according to diatoms and sediments contents. The river originates at the junction of the Neuquén and the Limay Rivers, Northern Patagonia, and discharges more than 1000 m3/s to the South Atlantic Ocean. Mesotidal conditions dominate at the inlet (2.95 m) affecting the lower valley (about 20 km) where salinity decreases drastically in the last 2 km. Fossil diatom assemblages and grain size were studied from two cores located at 1.5 km (Villarino site) and 12 km (Criadero site) from the inlet. Samples for modern diatom analyses were collected from the littoral zone at eleven sites along the river. Physical and chemical variables were quantified representing the maximum heterogeneity along the aquatic environment. Turbidity, salinity, conductivity, pH and temperature data were obtained in situ during summer and winter. In addition, a surface sediment sample was taken for grain size analysis and organic matter content, and water samples were taken to analyze nutrients and major ions following standard methods. The diatom content of modern sediment samples were studied in order to achieve ecological information useful as modern analogous for Patagonian rivers. Diatom zones were characterized by constrained incremental sum of squares cluster analysis (single linkage, Euclidean distance) in the fossil sequences. Fossil and modern diatom assemblages were compared with Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). A total of 77 samples (modern and fossils) were analyzed and more than 200 taxa were identified. Diatom assemblages showed distinct abundance patterns in relation to salinity with a shift from communities dominated by marine/brackish taxa in lower sites to communities dominated by freshwater taxa in the middle and upper course of the river. The record of Criadero core (12 km from the inlet) began 2000 cal yrs BP with

  8. Noble gas composition of subcontinental lithospheric mantle: An extensively degassed reservoir beneath Southern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalowitzki, Tiago; Sumino, Hirochika; Conceição, Rommulo V.; Orihashi, Yuji; Nagao, Keisuke; Bertotto, Gustavo W.; Balbinot, Eduardo; Schilling, Manuel E.; Gervasoni, Fernanda

    2016-09-01

    Patagonia, in the Southern Andes, is one of the few locations where interactions between the oceanic and continental lithosphere can be studied due to subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath the continent. In order to characterize the noble gas composition of Patagonian subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), we present the first noble gas data alongside new lithophile (Sr-Nd-Pb) isotopic data for mantle xenoliths from Pali-Aike Volcanic Field and Gobernador Gregores, Southern Patagonia. Based on noble gas isotopic compositions, Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths represent intrinsic SCLM with higher (U + Th + K)/(3He, 22Ne, 36Ar) ratios than the mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) source. This reservoir shows slightly radiogenic helium (3He/4He = 6.84-6.90 RA), coupled with a strongly nucleogenic neon signature (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.085-0.094). The 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary from a near-atmospheric ratio of 510 up to 17700, with mantle source 40Ar/36Ar between 31100-6800+9400 and 54000-9600+14200. In addition, the 3He/22Ne ratios for the local SCLM endmember, at 12.03 ± 0.15 to 13.66 ± 0.37, are higher than depleted MORBs, at 3He/22Ne = 8.31-9.75. Although asthenospheric mantle upwelling through the Patagonian slab window would result in a MORB-like metasomatism after collision of the South Chile Ridge with the Chile trench ca. 14 Ma, this mantle reservoir could have remained unhomogenized after rapid passage and northward migration of the Chile Triple Junction. The mantle endmember xenon isotopic ratios of Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths, which is first defined for any SCLM-derived samples, show values indistinguishable from the MORB source (129Xe/132Xe =1.0833-0.0053+0.0216 and 136Xe/132Xe =0.3761-0.0034+0.0246). The noble gas component observed in Gobernador Gregores mantle xenoliths is characterized by isotopic compositions in the MORB range in terms of helium (3He/4He = 7.17-7.37 RA), but with slightly nucleogenic neon (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.065-0.079). We

  9. Late Holocene environmental changes recorded in the sediments of Lago Thompson, Northern Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagel, Nathalie; Nuttin, Laurence; Bertrand, Sébastien; Borgniet, Geoffrey; Schmidt, Sabine; Araneda, Alberto; Torrejon, Fernando; Urrutia, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the sedimentary record of Lago Thompson, a small lake (area 1.1 km2, watershed ~8 km2) located at an elevation of 750 masl in Northern Chilean Patagonia (45.38 °S, 71.47°W). At Present, the climate conditions around the lake are relatively dry, with annual precipitation averaging 500 mm. The goal of this study is to evaluate the natural climate variability over the Last Millennium in Northern Chilean Patagonia and its impact on the environment. The coring site was selected after a bathymetric survey using an echo-sounder. Several short cores were retrieved in 2008 using an Uwitec gravity corer: the length of the cores ranges between 124 and 132 cm. The preliminary age model is based on 4 AMS radiocarbon ages measured on bulk sediment and organic macro-remains. The radiocarbon ages demonstrate that the sediment cores cover the last 850 to 950 years. This sediment record, which is characterized by accumulation rates ranging between 1 and 3 mm/yr, can therefore be studied at decennial to centennial resolution. To reconstruct past changes in climate and the environment, we conducted a multiproxy study combining sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical analyses (LOI 105, 550 and 950°C, biogenic silica content, magnetic susceptibility, tephrostratigraphy, bulk organic geochemistry, bulk mineralogy by X-ray diffraction, and inorganic geochemistry by ITRAX core scanner and ICP-AES). Visual descriptions and X-ray radiographies demonstrate that the sediment record is relatively undisturbed. The sediment is composed of light brown organic-rich clayey material. The lower part of the core (below 75 cm) is finely laminated whereas the upper part is more homogeneous. Magnetic susceptibility values highlight two tephra layers that represent explosive eruptions of volcanoes from the southern volcanic zone of Chile (Hudson, Cay, or Macá volcanoes). The biogenic silica content of the sediment retrieved in Lago Thompson is high (40 to 80%), and probably

  10. Patagonian and Antarctic dust as recorded in the sediments of Laguna Potrok Aike (Patagonia, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberzettl, Torsten; Stopp, Annemarie; Lisé-Pronovost, Agathe; Gebhardt, Catalina; Ohlendorf, Christian; Zolitschka, Bernd; von Eynatten, Hilmar; Kleinhanns, Ilka; Pasado Science Team

    2010-05-01

    Although an increasing number of terrestrial paleoclimatic records from southern South America has been published during the last decade, these archives mostly cover the Lateglacial and/or the Holocene. Only little is known about the Patagonian climate before the Last Glacial Maximum. Here, we present a continuous, high-resolution magnetic susceptibility record for the past 48 ka from the maar lake Laguna Potrok Aike (51°58' S, 70°23' W, southern Patagonia, Argentina). Magnetic susceptibility serves as an excellent parameter for the parallelization of sediment cores all over Laguna Potrok Aike including sediment cores taken within the ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) project PASADO (Potrok Aike maar lake Sediment Archive Drilling prOject). Additionally, magnetic susceptibility is assumed to be a proxy for dust deposition in this lake. Distinct similarities were found between the independently dated magnetic susceptibility record from Laguna Potrok Aike and the non-sea-salt calcium (nss-Ca) flux from the EPICA Dome C ice core record (75°06'S, 123°24'E) the latter being a proxy for mineral dust deposition in Antarctica [1]. Comparison of the two records and variations in grain size of the Laguna Potrok Aike sediment records indicate a relatively high aeolian activity in southern South America during the glacial period. During the Holocene climatic conditions driving sediment deposition seem to have been more variable and less dominated by wind compared to glacial times. Although the source of the dust found in Antarctic ice cores often has been attributed to Patagonia [2], we present the first evidence for contemporaneity of aeolian deposition in both the target area (Antarctica) and the major source area (Patagonia). Considering the similarities of the two records, magnetic susceptibility might yield the potential for chronological information: transfer of the ice core age model to a lacustrine sediment record. This would be important

  11. The origin of pyroxene megacrysts in alkali basalts from Patagonia, Argentina

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    Ntaflos, Theo; Bjerg, Ernesto; Gregoire, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Clinopyroxene and othopyroxene megacrysts have been brought to the surface together with mantle xenoliths by Neogene and Quaternary alkali basalts from the back-arc environment in Patagonia. The collected megacrysts are from Pali Aike Volcanic Field (El Ruido, maar) and the Gobernador Gregores cinder cone in southern Patagonia, and from the Laguna Fria outcrop in northern Patagonia. The most frequent pyroxene megacrysts are augites (twelve samples), one diopside and two enstatites. Enstatites were found in El Ruido and Laguna Fria. The augites are magnesian rich with MG# that vary from 73.1 to 75.3 in Gobernador Gregores, fairly constant at 76.6 in El Ruido and from 74.0 to 78.6 in Laguna Fria. The MG# of diopside is 91.1 and the two enstatites, one from Gobernador Gregores and the other from Laguna Fria, have MG#s 78.3 and 82.5 respectively. The Na2O and TiO2 contents in augites vary from 0.99 to 2.06 wt% and from 0.69 to 1.86 wt% repectively. Systematically, the Gobernador Gregores augites have the highest TiO2 and Na2O contents. The primitive mantle normalized REE abundances have concave upwards patterns. While the Gobernador Gregores augites have (La/Y)N ratios that vary from 2.4 to 3.8, the El Ruido and Laguna Fria augites have ratios that vary from 0.91 to 1.74. The enstatites from both localities have similar MREE but they differ markedly in their LREE (in GG LaN=0.04xPM and in El Ruido LAN=0.14) and in their HREE (in Gobernador Gregores YbN=0.25 and in El Ruido YBN=0.6). The AL IV/AL VI in all augites is high and vary from 0.75 to1.07 suggesting that they have been formed at - more than 30 km depth. The calculated minimum equilibrium temperatures vary between 1260 to 1320°C. Pressure estimates for augites, with exception of the El Ruido augites with a pressure of 1.65 GP, vary between 1.27 and 1.47 GPa. Especially the pressure estimates from Gobernador Gregores megacrysts vary within a small interval from 1.29 to 1.36 GPa indicating an isobaric

  12. Neogene kinematic history of Nazca-Antarctic-Phoenix slab windows beneath Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula

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    Breitsprecher, Katrin; Thorkelson, Derek J.

    2009-01-01

    The Patagonian slab window is a subsurface tectonic feature resulting from subduction of the Nazca-Antarctic spreading-ridge system (Chile Rise) beneath southern South America. The geometry of the slab window had not been rigorously defined, in part because of the complex nature of the history of ridge subduction in the southeast Pacific region, which includes four interrelated spreading-ridge systems since 20 Ma: first, the Nazca-Phoenix ridge beneath South America, then simultaneous subduction of the Nazca-Antarctic and the northern Phoenix-Antarctic spreading-ridge systems beneath South America, and the southern Phoenix-Antarctic spreading-ridge system beneath Antarctica. Spreading-ridge paleo-geographies and rotation poles for all relevant plate pairs (Nazca, Phoenix, Antarctic, South America) are available from 20 Ma onward, and form the mathematical basis of our kinematic reconstruction of the geometry of the Patagonia and Antarctic slab windows through Neogene time. At approximately 18 Ma, the Nazca-Phoenix-Antarctic oceanic (ridge-ridge-ridge) triple junction enters the South American trench; we recognize this condition as an unstable quadruple junction. Heat flow at this junction and for some distance beneath the forearc would be considerably higher than is generally recognized in cases of ridge subduction. From 16 Ma onward, the geometry of the Patagonia slab window developed from the subduction of the trailing arms of the former oceanic triple junction. The majority of the slab window's areal extent and geometry is controlled by the highly oblique (near-parallel) subduction angle of the Nazca-Antarctic ridge system, and by the high contrast in relative convergence rates between these two plates relative to South America. The very slow convergence rate of the Antarctic slab is manifested by the shallow levels achieved by the slab edge (< 45 km); thus no point on the Antarctic slab is sufficiently deep to generate "normal" mantle-derived arc-type magmas

  13. Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records

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    A. Holz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47–48° S in southern South America (SSA we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby sample sites. We examined the temporal and spatial correspondence between the two fire proxies and also compared them to published charcoal records from distant sites in SSA, and with published proxy reconstructions of regional climate variability and large-scale climate modes. Two of our three charcoal records record fire activity for the last 4 ka yr and one for the last 11 ka yr. For the last ca. 400 yr, charcoal accumulation peaks tend to coincide with high fire activity in the tree-ring fire scar records, but the charcoal records failed to detect some of the fire activity recorded by tree rings. Potentially, this discrepancy reflects low-severity fires that burn in herbaceous and other fine fuels without depositing charcoal in the sedimentary record. Periods of high fire activity tended to be synchronous across sample areas, across proxy types, and with proxy records of regional climatic variability as well as major climate drivers. Fire activity throughout the Holocene in western Patagonia has responded to regional climate variation affecting a broad region of southern South America that is teleconnected to both tropical- and high-latitude climate drivers-El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. An early Holocene peak in fire activity pre-dates any known human presence in our study area, and consequently implicates lightning as the ignition source. In contrast, the increased fire activity during the 20th century, which was concomitantly recorded by charcoal from all the sampled bogs and at all fire-scar sample sites, is attributed to human-set fires

  14. Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, A.; Haberle, S.; Veblen, T. T.; de Pol-Holz, R.; Southon, J.

    2012-03-01

    Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47-48° S) in southern South America (SSA) we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby sample sites. We examined the temporal and spatial correspondence between the two fire proxies and also compared them to published charcoal records from distant sites in SSA, and with published proxy reconstructions of regional climate variability and large-scale climate modes. Two of our three charcoal records record fire activity for the last 4 ka yr and one for the last 11 ka yr. For the last ca. 400 yr, charcoal accumulation peaks tend to coincide with high fire activity in the tree-ring fire scar records, but the charcoal records failed to detect some of the fire activity recorded by tree rings. Potentially, this discrepancy reflects low-severity fires that burn in herbaceous and other fine fuels without depositing charcoal in the sedimentary record. Periods of high fire activity tended to be synchronous across sample areas, across proxy types, and with proxy records of regional climatic variability as well as major climate drivers. Fire activity throughout the Holocene in western Patagonia has responded to regional climate variation affecting a broad region of southern South America that is teleconnected to both tropical- and high-latitude climate drivers-El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. An early Holocene peak in fire activity pre-dates any known human presence in our study area, and consequently implicates lightning as the ignition source. In contrast, the increased fire activity during the 20th century, which was concomitantly recorded by charcoal from all the sampled bogs and at all fire-scar sample sites, is attributed to human-set fires and is outside the

  15. History of views on the relative positions of Antarctica and South America: A 100-year tango between Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.

    2007-01-01

    Discussion of continental drift around Antarctica began nearly 100 years ago. While the Gondwana connections of Antarctica to Africa and Australia have been well defined for decades, the relative pre-drift positions of the Antarctic Peninsula and Patagonia continue to be subjects of controversy. Certainly older figures, which showed a paleo-position of the Peninsula crossing over continental crust of the Falkland Plateau or even South Africa or Patagonia, are out of consideration now. But contradictory opinions remain over the relative paleo-position of the Peninsula as a more or less straight prolongation of the Patagonian Andes, versus a position parallel to Patagonia along the Pacific coast. Geological reasons are found for both opinions, but geophysical observations on the adjacent ocean floors, particularly the evolution of the Weddell Sea crust, speak for the last-mentioned reconstruction.

  16. OSTEOMETRÍA DE VICUGNA VICUGNA MOLINA, 1782 EN EL PLEISTOCENO FINAL DE PATAGONIA MERIDIONAL CHILENA: IMPLICANCIAS PALEOECOLÓGICAS Y BIOGEOGRÁFICAS / Osteometry of Vicugna vicugna Molina, 1782 in the late Pleistocene of southern chilean Patagonia

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    Rafael Labarca Encina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Se presenta un análisis osteométrico uni y multivariado con los materiales fósiles -principalmente huesos cortos y falanges- de Vicugna sp. del yacimiento Cueva Lago Sofía 4 (13500 – 11000 AP, ubicado en la provincia de Última Esperanza (Región de Magallanes, Chile. Los resultados indican que los elementos analizados poseen un tamaño compatible con los registrados para Vicugna vicugna, no superando en ningún caso a los especímenes conocidos para Vicugna gracilis del Pleistoceno de la región Pampeana. Esto confirma la información morfológica y de ADN antiguo que indicaba la presencia de Vicugna vicugna en la Patagonia meridional chilena. Se discuten los resultados en términos taxonómicos, biogeográficos y paleoecológicos sugiriendo que la presencia de este taxón fuera de su rango actual de distribución se debió a las condiciones ambientales compartidas entre la Puna y Patagonia austral durante la transición Pleistoceno-Holoceno. La extinción de V. vicugna se habría debido al impacto de los cambios climáticos ocurridos al inicio del Holoceno producto de su dieta pastadora y etología no migratoria y territorial, a lo que se habría sumado una caza por parte de depredadores humanos y no humanos.Palabras clave: género Vicugna, osteometría, Pleistoceno, Patagonia AbstractThis contribution presents the results of single and multi-variable osteometric analyses performed on a sample of short bones and phalanxes assigned to Vicugna sp. from Lago Sofía Cave 4 site (13500 – 11000 BP, Región de Magallanes, Chile. The elements analyzed show a similar size to the reference collections for Vicugna vicugna, and do not exceed the metrics for the pampean pleistocenic specimens of Vicugna gracilis. This confirms the morphological and ancient DNA data that indicated the presence of vicuña in southern Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic, biogeographic and palaeoecologic discussion of these results, suggests that the presence of this

  17. Bacterial composition of microbial mats in hot springs in Northern Patagonia: variations with seasons and temperature.

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    Mackenzie, Roy; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Díez, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal shifts in bacterial diversity of microbial mats were analyzed in three hot springs (39-68 °C) of Patagonia, using culture-independent methods. Three major bacterial groups were detected in all springs: Phyla Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and Order Thermales. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Green Non-Sulfur Bacteria were also detected in small amounts and only in some samples. Thermophilic filamentous heterocyst-containing Mastigocladus were dominant Cyanobacteria in Porcelana Hot Spring and Geyser, and Calothrix in Cahuelmó, followed by the filamentous non-heterocyst Leptolyngbya and Oscillatoria. Bacteroidetes were detected in a wide temperature range and their relative abundance increased with decreasing temperature in almost all samples. Two Meiothermus populations with different temperature optima were found. Overall, fingerprinting analysis with universal bacterial primers showed high similarities within each hot spring despite differences in temperature. On the other hand, Cahuelmó Hot Spring showed a lower resemblance among samples. Porcelana Hot Spring and Porcelana Geyser were rather similar to each other, possibly due to a common geological substrate given their geographic proximity. This was even more evident with specific cyanobacterial primers. The different geological substrate and the seawater influence in Cahuelmó might have caused the differences in the microbial community structure with the other two hot springs.

  18. An assessment of oil pollution in the coastal zone of patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commendatore, Marta Graciela; Esteves, José Luis

    2007-11-01

    The Patagonian coast is considered a relatively pristine environment. However, studies conducted along coastal Patagonia have showed hydrocarbon pollution mostly concentrated at ports that have fishing, oil loading, general merchant, and/or tourist activities. A high value of total aliphatic hydrocarbons (TAH) was found at the Rawson fishing port (741 microg/g dw). In other ports with and without petroleum-related activities, hydrocarbon values were approximately 100 microg/g dw. The highest values for TAH and total aromatic hydrocarbons (TArH) were found in Faro Aristizábal, north of San Jorge gulf (1304 and 737 microg/g dw, respectively). This is very likely the result of petroleum-related activities at the Comodoro Rivadavia, Caleta Cordova, and Caleta Olivia ports located within this gulf. In other coastal areas away from potential anthropogenic sources, hydrocarbon values were less than 2 and 3 microg/g dw for TAH and TArH, respectively. This review of published and unpublished information suggests that ports are important oil pollution sources in the Patagonian coast. More detailed studies are needed to evaluate the area affected by port activities, to understand the mechanisms of hydrocarbon distribution in surrounding environments, and to assess bioaccumulation in marine organisms. Despite that some regulations exist to control oil pollution derived from port and docked vessel activities, new and stricter management guidelines should be implemented.

  19. Discovery of a short-necked sauropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Patagonia.

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    Rauhut, Oliver W M; Remes, Kristian; Fechner, Regina; Cladera, Gerardo; Puerta, Pablo

    2005-06-01

    Sauropod dinosaurs are one of the most conspicuous groups of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates. They show general trends towards an overall increase in size and elongation of the neck, by means of considerable elongation of the length of individual vertebrae and a cervical vertebra count that, in some cases, increases to 19 (ref. 1). The long neck is a particular hallmark of sauropod dinosaurs and is usually regarded as a key feeding adaptation. Here we describe a new dicraeosaurid sauropod, from the latest Jurassic period of Patagonia, that has a particularly short neck. With a neck that is about 40% shorter than in other known dicraeosaurs, this taxon demonstrates a trend opposite to that seen in most sauropods and indicates that the ecology of dicraeosaurids might have differed considerably from that of other sauropods. The new taxon indicates that there was a rapid radiation and dispersal of dicraeosaurids in the Late Jurassic of the Southern Hemisphere, after the separation of Gondwana from the northern continents by the late Middle Jurassic.

  20. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene glacial events in the Colonia valley, Northern Patagonia Icefield, southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimick, David A.; Mcgrath, Daniel; Mahan, Shannon; Friesen, Beverly A.; Leidich, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The Northern Patagonia Icefield (NPI) is the primary glaciated terrain worldwide at its latitude (46.5–47.5°S), and constraining its glacial history provides unique information for reconstructing Southern Hemisphere paleoclimate. The Colonia Glacier is the largest outlet glacier draining the eastern NPI. Ages were determined using dendrochronology, lichenometry, radiocarbon, cosmogenic 10Be and optically stimulated luminescence. Dated moraines in the Colonia valley defined advances at 13.2 ± 0.95, 11.0 ± 0.47 and 4.96 ± 0.21 ka, with the last being the first constraint on the onset of Neoglaciation for the eastern NPI from a directly dated landform. Dating in the tributary Cachet valley, which contains an ice-dammed lake during periods of Colonia Glacier expansion, defined an advance at ca. 2.95 ± 0.21 ka, periods of advancement at 810 ± 49 cal a BP and 245 ± 13 cal a BP, and retreat during the intervening periods. Recent Colonia Glacier thinning, which began in the late 1800s, opened a lower-elevation outlet channel for Lago Cachet Dos in ca. 1960. Our data provide the most comprehensive set of Latest Pleistocene and Holocene ages for a single NPI outlet glacier and expand previously developed NPI glacial chronologies.

  1. Nuisance ecology: do scavenging condors exact foraging costs on pumas in Patagonia?

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    L Mark Elbroch

    Full Text Available Predation risk describes the energetic cost an animal suffers when making a trade off between maximizing energy intake and minimizing threats to its survival. We tested whether Andean condors (Vultur gryphus influenced the foraging behaviors of a top predator in Patagonia, the puma (Puma concolor, in ways comparable to direct risks of predation for prey to address three questions: 1 Do condors exact a foraging cost on pumas?; 2 If so, do pumas exhibit behaviors indicative of these risks?; and 3 Do pumas display predictable behaviors associated with prey species foraging in risky environments? Using GPS location data, we located 433 kill sites of 9 pumas and quantified their kill rates. Based upon time pumas spent at a carcass, we quantified handling time. Pumas abandoned >10% of edible meat at 133 of 266 large carcasses after a single night, and did so most often in open grasslands where their carcasses were easily detected by condors. Our data suggested that condors exacted foraging costs on pumas by significantly decreasing puma handling times at carcasses, and that pumas increased their kill rates by 50% relative to those reported for North America to compensate for these losses. Finally, we determined that the relative risks of detection and associated harassment by condors, rather than prey densities, explained puma "giving up times" (GUTs across structurally variable risk classes in the study area, and that, like many prey species, pumas disproportionately hunted in high-risk, high-resource reward areas.

  2. Mercury and selenium in the food web of Lake Nahuel Huapi, Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcagni, Marina; Rizzo, Andrea; Juncos, Romina; Pavlin, Majda; Campbell, Linda M; Arribére, María A; Horvat, Milena; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Despite located far from point sources of Hg pollution, high concentrations were recorded in plankton from the deep oligotrophic Lake Nahuel Huapi, located in North Patagonia. Native and introduced top predator fish with differing feeding habits are a valuable economic resource to the region. Hence, Hg and Se trophic interactions and pathways to these fish were assessed in the food web of this lake at three sites, using stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes. As expected based on the high THg in plankton, mercury did not biomagnify in the food web of Lake Nahuel Huapi, as most of the THg in plankton is in the inorganic form. As was observed in other aquatic systems, Se did not biomagnify either. When trophic pathways to top predator fish were analyzed, they showed that THg biomagnified in the food chains of native fish but biodiluted in the food chains of introduced salmonids. A more benthic diet, typical of native fish, resulted in higher [THg] bioaccumulation than a more pelagic or mixed diet, as in the case of introduced fish. Se:THg molar ratios were higher than 1 in all the fish species, indicating that Se might be offering a natural protection against Hg toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Yeast diversity in the acidic Rio Agrio-Lake Caviahue volcanic environment (Patagonia, Argentina).

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    Russo, Gabriel; Libkind, Diego; Sampaio, José P; van Broock, Maria R

    2008-09-01

    The Rio Agrio and Lake Caviahue system (RAC), in Northwestern Patagonia, is a natural acidic environment. The aims of this study were to characterize the yeast community and to provide the first ecological assessment of yeast diversity of this extreme aquatic environment. Yeast occurrence and diversity were studied at seven sites where the water pH varied between 1.8 and 6.7. Yeast CFU counts in the river ranged from 30 to 1200 CFU L(-1), but in the Lake the values were lower (30-60 CFU L(-1)). A total of 25 different yeast species were found, 11 of which belonged to undescribed taxa. Among these was an unusual strongly acidophilic Cryptococcus species. The RAC yeast community resembles that of acidic aquatic environments resulting from anthropic activities such as the São Domingos mines in Portugal and the Rio Tinto in Spain, respectively. The isolated yeast species were organized into different grades of adaptation to the RAC aquatic system. Based on the proposed grades, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Rhodosporidium toruloides and two novel Cryptococcus species were the most adapted species. These Cryptococcus species are apparently specialists of acidic aquatic environments, and might bear physiological features that possibly account for their ability to thrive in such extreme environments.

  4. Drainage network over the migrating front of dynamic uplift in Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandet, Louise; Robert, Xavier; Audin, Laurence; Husson, Laurent; Guillaume, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic topography disturbs the regional morphology at long wavelength and with very low topographic gradients. Nevertheless, fluvial erosion and the drainage pattern should respond to the spatial and temporal topographic variations. In Patagonia, the mid-Miocene, opening and northward migration of an asthenospheric window beneath the South American plate triggered a northward propagating wave of dynamic topography. Based on a morphometric analysis, we explore the long-wavelength response of the drainage system to the recent dynamics of the continental lithosphere. Our analysis of Patagonian rivers (stream profile analysis) and basins (R/Sr analysis) shows a transient state of the drainage network responding to a likely recent signal that prevails at the latitudes of the Chile Triple Junction in Argentina. Moreover, the distribution of the perturbation signal among the drainage network shows a South-to-North gradient, with the low Strahler order tributaries more affected with increasing latitudes. We interpret this observation as the differential timing of response to a Northward propagating signal of dynamic topography. We further use the geometry of the drainage network combined to numerical model predictions to infer the characteristic response time of the surface processes. While the main tributaries respond within ~1-3 Ma, the lower order remain disturbed for longer times. This observation is further supported by the persistently high mean elevation where incision is high, which we take as indicative of the fact that erosion has not yet thoroughly achieved its resurfacing action.

  5. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Embothrium coccineum Used as Traditional Medicine in Patagonia against Multiresistant Bacteria

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    Nicole Canales

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Embothrium coccineum J.R. Forst. & G. Forst is an evergreen tree that has been used as a folk remedy for the treatment of neuralgia, tooth pains, wound healing, and glandular conditions, as well as an antiseptic agent against bacterial infection. The antibacterial activities of sequential extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol from the leaves of E. coccineum were evaluated by means of the micro-dilution assay against six (Escherichia coli; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Proteus mirabilis; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes multiresistant bacteria strains. Ethyl acetate extract showed the best spectra of antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, and was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS for its composition. The results of the present work provide useful baseline information for the potential development and use of nanoparticles and/or nanofibers doped with extracts of E. coccineum in the fight against multiresistant bacteria, which would allow the validation of the traditional use of E. coccineum by native peoples of Patagonia as an antimicrobial agent in the biomedical Field.

  6. Physiological characterization of Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces eubayanus from Patagonia and their potential for cidermaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Flores, Melisa; Rodríguez, María Eugenia; Oteiza, Juan Martín; Barbagelata, Raúl Jorge; Lopes, Christian Ariel

    2017-05-16

    A diversity of yeast strains belonging to the cryotolerant fermentative species S. uvarum and S. eubayanus have been recovered from natural habitats and traditional fermentations in North Patagonia. The aim of this work was to evaluate the most relevant physiological features in a set of Patagonian strains belonging to S. uvarum and S. eubayanus, in order to analyze their potentiality to be used as starter cultures for cidermaking elaborated at low temperature. We evidenced that S. uvarum strains isolated from natural habitats (Araucaria araucana bark) showed similar physiological features to S. eubayanus strains obtained from the same habitat, and different from S. uvarum strains from fermentative environments (apple chichas). We also confirm the capacity of S. uvarum to produce high glycerol levels, low acetic acid and elevated production of the higher alcohol 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate and demonstrated similar properties in S. eubayanus. Finally, we evidenced for the first time the antagonistic activity of S. eubayanus and selected three strains (two S. uvarum and one S. eubayanus) bearing the best combination of features to be used as a starter culture in cidermaking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial dynamics of Fabiana imbricata shrublands in northwestern Patagonia in relation to natural fires

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    L. Ghermandi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a critical disturbance in the structuring and functioning of most Mediterranean ecosystems. In northwestern Patagonia, vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by fire and environmental heterogeneity. Dendroecology, together with satellite imagery and GIS, have been demonstrated to be useful tools in studies that relate to fire effects with patches, patterns and species dynamics at landscape scale. Such studies can be approached from landscape ecology, which has evolved in the last years supported by the development of remote sensing and GIS technologies. This study evaluates the spatial dynamic of F. imbricata in response to fire using remote sensing, GIS and dendrochronology techniques, at landscape scale. Two sites were evaluated and one of them was affected by fire in the year 1999. The digital processing images (using the NBR spectral index and the dendroecological analysis verified this. A fire, occurring in 1978, was also detected by the analysis of F. imbricata growth rings. The relation between F. imbricata shrubland dynamics and spatial configuration with fire, land topography and hydrography was established in the study area.

  8. High resolution isotopic ages for the early Miocene "Patagoniense" transgression in Southwest Patagonia: Stratigraphic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuitiño, José I.; Pimentel, Marcio M.; Ventura Santos, Roberto; Scasso, Roberto A.

    2012-10-01

    The classical marine Patagoniense succession at Lago Argentino, southwestern Patagonia (Argentina), known as Estancia 25 de Mayo Formation, was dated by radiometric U-Pb on zircon grains from pyroclastic rocks and 87Sr/86Sr ratio on calcitic oyster shells. U-Pb data yielded an age of 19.14 Ma for the lower portion of the Patagoniense succession and 18.85 Ma for the lowermost part of the overlying Santa Cruz Formation. 87Sr/86Sr data yielded ages ranging from 20.05 Ma at the lower part and 19.1 Ma for the upper portion of the Estancia 25 de Mayo Formation, in good agreement with respect to the U-Pb results. Our results constrain the age of these beds entirely into the early Miocene Burdigalian stage, and locally into the Superpatagoniense stage. Correlation with other Patagoniense units in Santa Cruz, especially in the westernmost parts of the Austral Basin, reveals the existence of a shallow and extended sea, and lack of correlation with global sea-level highstands suggests a local Andean tectonic overprint as the cause of the sea level rise.

  9. A systematic overview of Descolea (Agaricales) in the Nothofagaceae forests of Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Francisco; Smith, Matthew E; Mujic, Alija; Truong, Camille; Nouhra, Eduardo

    2017-10-01

    The descolea clade includes species of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes in the genera Descolea, Setchelliogaster, Descomyces, and Timgrovea that are known primarily from the Southern Hemisphere. Taxa in this group produce basidiomes that range in morphology from typical epigeous mushrooms (Descolea) and secotioid taxa (Setchelliogaster) to fully gasteroid species (Descomyces and Timgrovea). High intraspecific morphological variation has been reported in several species within this clade, suggesting that careful morphological and molecular studies are needed to refine species concepts. Molecular analyses of fresh Patagonian collections in conjunction with taxonomic studies have confirmed high variability in key morphological features, including overall sporocarp form, spore shape and dimensions, universal veil remnants, and cuticle configuration. Based on our synthesis, we emend the genus Descolea to include sequestrate species. We describe the new sequestrate taxon Descolea inferna sp. nov. from Nothofagaceae forests in Patagonia and we propose Cortinarius squamatus as a synonym of our new combination Descolea brunnea. We also formalize the identity of Descolea pallida as a synonym of Descolea antarctica and provide new specimens of Cortinarius archeuretus, a species that has not been encountered since the original discovery during the expeditions of Roland Thaxter in 1905-1906. Here we re-describe and transfer this species to Descolea as D. archeureta. We also discuss diagnostic features that can be used to delimitate the four known South American taxa in the descolea clade. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of plant growth enhancing features in psychrotolerant yeasts from Patagonia (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, María Cecilia; Fontenla, Sonia; Bruzone, María Clara; Fernández, Natalia Veronica; Dames, Joanna

    2016-10-01

    This study explores the biotechnological potential for plant production of twelve psychrotolerant yeasts strains from Northwest-Patagonia. These strains were isolated from different substrates associated with Nothofagus sp. in native forests and Vaccinium sp. in a commercial plantation. Yeasts characterization was performed using in vitro assays to evaluate the production of auxin-like compounds and siderophores, ability to solubilize inorganic phosphate and to reduce common plant pathogen growth. Strain YF8.3 identified as Aureobasidium pullullans was the main producer of auxin-like and siderophores compounds. Phosphate solubilization was a characteristic observed by strains L8.12 and CRUB1775 identified as Holtermaniella takashimae and Candida maritima, respectively. Different yeast strains were able to inhibit the growth of Verticillium dahliae PPRI5569 and Pythium aphanidermatum PPRI 9009, but they all failed to inhibit the growth of Fusarium oxysporum PPRI5457. The present study, suggests that yeasts present in different environments in Northwestern-Patagonian have physiological in vitro features which may influence plant growth. These results are promising for the developing of biological products based on Patagonian yeasts for plant production in cold-temperate regions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Millennial-scale climate variability in northwest Patagonia over the last 15 000 yr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Patricio I.

    2004-01-01

    A pollen record from Lago Condorito (41°45'S, 73°07'W) shows prominent vegetation and climate changes at millennial time-scales, superimposed on multimillennial trends in temperature and westerly activity in northwest Patagonia during the past 15 000 yr. The record shows that evergreen temperate rainforests have dominated the landscape over this interval, with floristic changes ranging from cold-resistant North Patagonian forests with podocarp conifers to Valdivian forests with thermophilous, summer-drought resistant species. The long-term trend shows that cool-temperate and humid conditions prevailed between 15 000 and 11 000 cal. yr BP, followed by an extreme warm and dry phase between 11 000 and 7600 cal. yr BP, and subsequent cooling events and increase in precipitation that peaked at ca. 5000 cal. yr BP, when Southern Hemisphere alpine glaciers achieved their first Neoglacial maximum. Modern conditions were established at ca. 1800 cal. yr BP, following a warm and dry phase between ca. 2900 and 1800 cal.yrBP. These results suggest that millennial-scale climate variability during deglacial and post-glacial times also affected the mid-latitude region of the South Pacific, supporting the idea that changes in the tropical Pacific might be a key factor in the initiation and/or propagation of millennial-scale climate variability at regional, hemispheric and global scales. Copyright

  12. Analysis of admixture and genetic structure of two Native American groups of Southern Argentinean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Andrea; Corach, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Argentinean Patagonia is inhabited by people that live principally in urban areas and by small isolated groups of individuals that belong to indigenous aboriginal groups; this territory exhibits the lowest population density of the country. Mapuche and Tehuelche (Mapudungun linguistic branch), are the only extant Native American groups that inhabit the Argentinean Patagonian provinces of Río Negro and Chubut. Fifteen autosomal STRs, 17 Y-STRs, mtDNA full length control region sequence and two sets of Y and mtDNA-coding region SNPs were analyzed in a set of 434 unrelated individuals. The sample set included two aboriginal groups, a group of individuals whose family name included Native American linguistic root and urban samples from Chubut, Río Negro and Buenos Aires provinces of Argentina. Specific Y Amerindian haplogroup Q1 was found in 87.5% in Mapuche and 58.82% in Tehuelche, while the Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were present in all the aboriginal sample contributors investigated. Admixture analysis performed by means of autosomal and Y-STRs showed the highest degree of admixture in individuals carrying Mapuche surnames, followed by urban populations, and finally by isolated Native American populations as less degree of admixture. The study provided novel genetic information about the Mapuche and Tehuelche people and allowed us to establish a genetic correlation among individuals with Mapudungun surnames that demonstrates not only a linguistic but also a genetic relationship to the isolated aboriginal communities, representing a suitable proxy indicator for assessing genealogical background.

  13. Saccharomyces uvarum is responsible for the traditional fermentation of apple chicha in Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Maria E; Pérez-Través, Laura; Sangorrín, Marcela P; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo; Lopes, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    Apple chicha is a fresh low alcoholic beverage elaborated by aboriginal communities of Andean Patagonia (Argentina and Chile). In the present work, we identified the yeast microbiota associated with this fermentation, and characterized genetically those belonging to the genus Saccharomyces. Both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. uvarum were found in the analyzed fermentations. Phylogenetic and population structure analyses based on genes sequence analysis were carried out for both S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum strains obtained in this study and a set of additional strains from diverse origins. The results demonstrate that S. cerevisiae strains from apple chicha belong to the big group of wine/European strains of this species, while S. uvarum strains were included in the Holartic population of this species. Additionally, some S. uvarum strains from chichas evidenced as an admixture of both pure Holartic and pure South American populations. Our results suggest that Holartic strains could have been introduced in South America together with the domestication of apple trees by Mapuche communities. This Holartic population suffered admixis with the naturally present South American population of this species, originating strains bearing genetic features from the two populations, detectable in both chichas and natural habitats. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Chemosensory perception and medicinal plants for digestive ailments in a Mapuche community in NW Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molares, Soledad; Ladio, Ana

    2009-06-25

    To document the richness of plant species used in gastrointestinal disorders and to investigate about the criteria of aroma and flavor associated with its recognition, classification, selection and use. Ethnobotanical fieldwork consisted of interviews to 30 inhabitants living in a Mapuche community of Northwestern Patagonia; data collected was analyzed by means of non-parametric statistics. This work records 75 ethnospecies, pertaining to 40 botanic families. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Chenopodiaceae were the most frequently mentioned and described in terms of smell and taste. Most of species (69%) have notable aroma and/or flavor characteristics. The species presenting highest consensus in the population are positively associated with a higher frequency of organoleptic descriptions. In addition, local people consider these perceptions to be potentially useful in the search for substitutes when species are scarce or disappear from a locality. It is possible to establish a preliminary system of classification of medicinal plants based on their organoleptic characteristics and relate this to their effects on health. Moreover the cultural interpretation of smell and taste is of great heuristic importance to ethnopharmacology, in that it indicates which plants are most likely to contain the main active ingredients sought.

  15. Radar remote sensing of wind-driven land degradation processes in northeastern Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, H F; Blanco, P D; Metternicht, G I; Zinck, J A

    2010-01-01

    Wind-driven land degradation negatively impacts on rangeland production and infrastructure in the Valdes Peninsula, northeastern Patagonia. The Valdes Peninsula has the most noticeable dunefields of the Patagonian drylands. Wind erosion has been assessed at different scales in this region, but often with limited data. In general, terrain features caused by wind activity are better discriminated by active microwaves than by sensors operating in the visible and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper aims to analyze wind-driven land degradation processes that control the radar backscatter observed in different sources of radar imagery. We used subsets derived from SIR-C, ERS-1 and 2, ENVISAT ASAR, RADARSAT-1, and ALOS PALSAR data. The visibility of aeolian features on radar images is mostly a function of wavelength, polarization, and incidence angle. Stabilized sand deposits are clearly observed in radar images, with defined edges but also signals of ongoing wind erosion. One of the most conspicuous features corresponds to old track sand dunes, a mixture of active and inactive barchanoid ridges and parabolic dunes. This is a clear example of deactivation of migrating dunes under the influence of vegetation. The L-band data reveal details of these sand ridges, whereas the C-band data only allow detecting a few of the larger tracks. The results of this study enable us to make recommendations about the utility of some radar sensor configurations for wind-driven land degradation reconnaissance in mid-latitude regions.

  16. Gamma irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh pome fruits produced in Patagonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J.; Lires, C.; Horak, C.; Pawlak, E.; Docters, A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza Presbitero Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No. 15, (B1802AYA) Ezeiza, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kairiyama, E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza Presbitero Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No. 15, (B1802AYA) Ezeiza, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: kairiyam@cae.cnea.gov.ar

    2009-07-15

    Argentina produces 1.8 million tons/year of apples (Malus domestica L.) and pears (Pyrus communis L.) in the Patagonia region. Cydia pomonella, codling moth, and Grapholita molesta, Oriental fruit moth, (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are quarantine pests in pome fruits. Irradiation is a promising phytosanitary treatment because a dose of 200 Gy completely prevents pest adult emergence. A pilot irradiation process of commercially packaged 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears was performed in an irradiation facility with a Cobalt 60 source. Quality analyses were carried out at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of storage (1 deg. C, RH 99%) to evaluate fruit tolerance at 200, 400 and 800 Gy. Irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy had no undesirable effects on fruit quality (pulp firmness, external colour, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and sensory evaluations). Irradiation of 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears can be applied as a commercial quarantine treatment with a minimum absorbed dose of 200 Gy (to control codling moth and Oriental fruit moth) and <800 Gy (according to quality results)

  17. Microbial life in a fjord: metagenomic analysis of a microbial mat in Chilean patagonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Ugalde

    Full Text Available The current study describes the taxonomic and functional composition of metagenomic sequences obtained from a filamentous microbial mat isolated from the Comau fjord, located in the northernmost part of the Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic composition of the microbial community showed a high proportion of members of the Gammaproteobacteria, including a high number of sequences that were recruited to the genomes of Moritella marina MP-1 and Colwelliapsycherythraea 34H, suggesting the presence of populations related to these two psychrophilic bacterial species. Functional analysis of the community indicated a high proportion of genes coding for the transport and metabolism of amino acids, as well as in energy production. Among the energy production functions, we found protein-coding genes for sulfate and nitrate reduction, both processes associated with Gammaproteobacteria-related sequences. This report provides the first examination of the taxonomic composition and genetic diversity associated with these conspicuous microbial mat communities and provides a framework for future microbial studies in the Comau fjord.

  18. Microbial Life in a Fjord: Metagenomic Analysis of a Microbial Mat in Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, Juan A.; Gallardo, Maria J.; Belmar, Camila; Muñoz, Práxedes; Ruiz-Tagle, Nathaly; Ferrada-Fuentes, Sandra; Espinoza, Carola; Allen, Eric E.; Gallardo, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study describes the taxonomic and functional composition of metagenomic sequences obtained from a filamentous microbial mat isolated from the Comau fjord, located in the northernmost part of the Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic composition of the microbial community showed a high proportion of members of the Gammaproteobacteria, including a high number of sequences that were recruited to the genomes of Moritella marina MP-1 and Colwelliapsycherythraea 34H, suggesting the presence of populations related to these two psychrophilic bacterial species. Functional analysis of the community indicated a high proportion of genes coding for the transport and metabolism of amino acids, as well as in energy production. Among the energy production functions, we found protein-coding genes for sulfate and nitrate reduction, both processes associated with Gammaproteobacteria-related sequences. This report provides the first examination of the taxonomic composition and genetic diversity associated with these conspicuous microbial mat communities and provides a framework for future microbial studies in the Comau fjord. PMID:24015199

  19. A Middle Jurassic heterodontosaurid dinosaur from Patagonia and the evolution of heterodontosaurids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Diego; Rauhut, Oliver W. M.; Becerra, Marcos

    2011-05-01

    Heterodontosauridae is a morphologically divergent group of dinosaurs that has recently been interpreted as one of the most basal clades of Ornithischia. Heterodontosaurid remains were previously known from the Early Jurassic of southern Africa, but recent discoveries and studies have significantly increased the geographical and temporal range for this clade. Here, we report a new ornithischian dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto Formation in central Patagonia, Argentina. This new taxon, Manidens condorensis gen. et sp. nov., includes well-preserved craniomandibular and postcranial remains and represents the only diagnostic ornithischian specimen yet discovered in the Jurassic of South America so far. Derived features of its anatomy indicate that Manidens belongs to Heterodontosauridae, as the sister taxon of Heterodontosaurus and other South African heterodontosaurids. The presence of posterior dentary teeth with high crowns but lacking extensive wear facets in Manidens suggests that this form represents an intermediate stage in the development of the remarkable adaptations to herbivory described for Heterodontosaurus. The dentition of Manidens condorensis also has autapomorphies, such as asymmetrically arranged denticles in posterior teeth and a mesially projected denticle in the posteriormost teeth. At an estimated total length of 60-75 cm, Manidens furthermore confirms the small size of basal heterodontosaurids.

  20. Using dental enamel wrinkling to define sauropod tooth morphotypes from the Canadon Asfalto Formation, Patagonia, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke M Holwerda

    Full Text Available The early Middle Jurassic is regarded as the period when sauropods diversified and became major components of the terrestrial ecosystems. Not many sites yield sauropod material of this time; however, both cranial and postcranial material of eusauropods have been found in the Cañadón Asfalto Formation (latest Early Jurassic-early Middle Jurassic in Central Patagonia (Argentina, which may help to shed light on the early evolution of eusauropods. These eusauropod remains include teeth associated with cranial and mandibular material as well as isolated teeth found at different localities. In this study, an assemblage of sauropod teeth from the Cañadón Asfalto Formation found in four different localities in the area of Cerro Condor (Chubut, Argentina is used as a mean of assessing sauropod species diversity at these sites. By using dental enamel wrinkling, primarily based on the shape and orientation of grooves and crests of this wrinkling, we define and describe three different morphotypes. With the exception of one taxon, for which no cranial material is currently known, these morphotypes match the local eusauropod diversity as assessed based on postcranial material. Morphotype I is tentatively assigned to Patagosaurus, whereas morphotypes II and III correspond to new taxa, which are also distinguished by associated postcranial material. This study thus shows that enamel wrinkling can be used as a tool in assessing sauropod diversity.

  1. Melt Patterns and Dynamics in Alaska and Patagonia Derived from Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures

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    Kathryn Semmens

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers and icefields are critical components of Earth’s cryosphere to study and monitor for understanding the effects of a changing climate. To provide a regional perspective of glacier melt dynamics for the past several decades, brightness temperatures (Tb from the passive microwave sensor Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I were used to characterize melt regime patterns over large glacierized areas in Alaska and Patagonia. The distinctness of the melt signal at 37V-GHz and the ability to acquire daily data regardless of clouds or darkness make the dataset ideal for studying melt dynamics in both hemispheres. A 24-year (1988–2011 time series of annual Tb histograms was constructed to (1 characterize and assess temporal and spatial trends in melt patterns, (2 determine years of anomalous Tb distribution, and (3 investigate potential contributing factors. Distance from coast and temperature were key factors influencing melt. Years of high percentage of positive Tb anomalies were associated with relatively higher stream discharge (e.g., Copper and Mendenhall Rivers, Alaska, USA and Rio Baker, Chile. The characterization of melt over broad spatial domains and a multi-decadal time period offers a more comprehensive picture of the changing cryosphere and provides a baseline from which to assess future change.

  2. Muscular reconstruction and functional morphology of the forelimb of early Miocene sloths (Xenarthra, Folivora) of Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Néstor; Bargo, M Susana; Vizcaíno, Sergio F

    2013-02-01

    Early Miocene sloths are represented by a diversity of forms ranging from 38 to 95 kg, being registered mainly from Santacrucian Age deposits in southern-most shores of Patagonia, Argentina. Their postcranial skeleton differs markedly in shape from those of their closest living relatives (arboreal forms of less than 10 kg), Bradypus and Choloepus. In order to gain insight on functional properties of the Santacrucian sloths forelimb, musculature was reconstructed and a comparative, qualitative morphofunctional analysis was performed, allowing proposing hypotheses about biological role of the limb in substrate preferences, and locomotor strategies. The anatomy of the forelimb of Santacrucian sloths resembles more closely extant anteaters such as Tamandua and Myrmecophaga, due to the robustness of the elements, development of features related to attachment of ligaments and muscles, and conservative, pentadactylous, and strong-clawed manus. The reconstructed forelimb musculature was very well developed and resembles that of extant Pilosa (especially anteaters), although retaining the basic muscular configuration of generalized mammals. This musculature allowed application of powerful forces, especially in adduction of the forelimb, flexion and extension of the antebrachium, and manual prehension. These functional properties are congruent with both climbing and digging activities, and provide support for proposed Santacrucian sloths as good climbing mammals, possibly arboreal or semiarboreal, being also capable diggers. Their climbing strategies were limited, thus these forms relied mainly on great muscular strength and curved claws of the manus to move cautiously on branches.

  3. Condiciones productivas y exigencias de calidad en la fruticultura de la Patagonia argentina

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    Belén Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción alimentaria está regida, a partir de los años noventa, por requerimientos de calidad e inocuidad que modifican sustancialmente las condiciones productivas del eslabón primario, en el marco de una reestructuración del sistema agroalimentario mundial. El caso en estudio aborda la conformación social de la cadena frutícola localizada en el norte de la Patagonia argentina, donde estos requerimientos se formalizan, entre otros, en las buenas prácticas agrícolas, abordadas como dispositivos de control que interpelan y vuelven complejas las condiciones de reproducción social de los chacareros, como productores independientes en la cadena, con impactos en sus trayectorias vitales y productivas. Se consultaron fuentes secundarias, y se realizó el relevamiento primario de casos. Las conclusiones se inscriben en las tensiones entre configuraciones productivas locales y avances de los controles del capital concentrado.

  4. A Middle Jurassic abelisaurid from Patagonia and the early diversification of theropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Diego; Rauhut, Oliver W M

    2012-08-22

    Abelisaurids are a clade of large, bizarre predatory dinosaurs, most notable for their high, short skulls and extremely reduced forelimbs. They were common in Gondwana during the Cretaceous, but exceedingly rare in the Northern Hemisphere. The oldest definitive abelisaurids so far come from the late Early Cretaceous of South America and Africa, and the early evolutionary history of the clade is still poorly known. Here, we report a new abelisaurid from the Middle Jurassic of Patagonia, Eoabelisaurus mefi gen. et sp. nov., which predates the so far oldest known secure member of this lineage by more than 40 Myr. The almost complete skeleton reveals the earliest evolutionary stages of the distinctive features of abelisaurids, such as the modification of the forelimb, which started with a reduction of the distal elements. The find underlines the explosive radiation of theropod dinosaurs in the Middle Jurassic and indicates an unexpected diversity of ceratosaurs at that time. The apparent endemism of abelisauroids to southern Gondwana during Pangean times might be due to the presence of a large, central Gondwanan desert. This indicates that, apart from continent-scale geography, aspects such as regional geography and climate are important to reconstruct the biogeographical history of Mesozoic vertebrates.

  5. Primer registro de Naupactus ruizi (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea asociado con Pinus ponderosa (Gymnospermae: Pinaceae en Patagonia

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    Cecilia A. GOMEZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Naupactus ruizi (Brèthes es un gorgojo de rostro corto, distribuido en la Argentina y Chile, que habita en ambientes áridos asociado con vegetación xerofítica y alcanza el rango más austral entre los miembros de la tribu Naupactini. Un relevamiento de insectos y de patógenos como plagas potenciales, realizado durante el 2005 en plantaciones de Pinus spp. en la Patagonia andina argentina, resultó en el hallazgo de adultos de N. ruizi que se alimentaban de acículas de Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. Este hallazgo es sorprendente dado que las especies de Naupactini, consumen casi exclusivamente angiospermas. Interpretamos que el cambio de huésped, habría ocurrido como consecuencia de una colonización reciente favorecida por la amplia distribución geográfica del gorgojo y su capacidad para sobrevivir en hábitats marginales, donde probablemente las plantas nativas son escasas y el nuevo huésped presenta una gran abundancia local.

  6. Iridium, platinum and rhodium baseline concentration in lichens from Tierra del Fuego (South Patagonia, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro; Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Bocca, Beatrice

    2010-10-06

    Lichen samples of Usnea barbata were used as possible biomonitors of the atmospheric background level of iridium (Ir), platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh) in the remote region of Tierra del Fuego (South Patagonia, Argentina). Lichens were collected in 2006 at 53 sites covering 7 different areas of the region (24 transplanted lichens of the northern region and 29 native lichen samples of the central-southern region). A microwave acidic digestion procedure was used to mineralize the samples and a sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method was developed to quantify the elements. The study of the influence of interferences on analyte signals and a quality control procedure were carried out. The analytical protocol was further applied to evaluate Ir, Pt and Rh bioaccumulation in lichens. The detection limits obtained were 0.010 ng g⁻¹, 0.013 ng g⁻¹ and 0.030 ng g⁻¹ for Ir, Pt and Rh, respectively. Recoveries at different fortification levels were between 96.3% and 106% and precision was 3.3% on average. The metals concentration (as dry weight) spanned the following ranges: Ir, Tierra del Fuego. Values detected are more likely influenced by the long-range atmospheric transport of these pollutants and, in comparison with densely populated areas in the world, they can represent the baseline for low impacted areas.

  7. New species of dictyostelids from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadell, Eduardo M; Cavender, James C; Romeralo, Maria; Edwards, Sally M; Stephenson, Steven L; Baldauf, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    In late Jan and early Feb 2005 samples for isolation of dictyostelid cellular slime molds (dictyostelids) were collected in five different provinces and from six national parks (all located 39-55°S) in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Southern beech (Nothofagus) forests represented the primary vegetation type investigated, but some samples were obtained from Patagonian steppe, alpine meadows, Valdivian temperate rainforests and coniferous forests dominated by Araucaria, Austrocedrus and Fitzroya. Among the dictyostelids isolated from the samples we collected were seven species new to science. These species (Dictyostelium austroandinum, D. chordatum, D. fasciculoideum, D. gargantuum, D. leptosomopsis, D. valdivianum and Polysphondylium patagonicum) are described herein on the basis of both morphology and molecular (SSU rDNA) data. One of the new species, D. gargantuum, is one of the largest representatives of the group reported to date. Another unusual species, D. chordatum, produces long interwoven sorocarps that do not appear to respond to a spacing gas similar to the condition first noted in D. implicatum.

  8. Zero methane emission bogs: extreme rhizosphere oxygenation by cushion plants in Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Christian; Pancotto, Veronica A; Elzenga, Josephus T M; Visser, Eric J W; Grootjans, Ab P; Pol, Arjan; Iturraspe, Rodolfo; Roelofs, Jan G M; Smolders, Alfons J P

    2011-04-01

    • Vascular wetland plants may substantially increase methane emissions by producing root exudates and easily degradable litter, and by providing a low-resistance diffusion pathway via their aerenchyma. However, model studies have indicated that vascular plants can reduce methane emission when soil oxygen demand is exceeded by oxygen released from roots. Here, we tested whether these conditions occur in bogs dominated by cushion plants. • Root-methane interactions were studied by comparing methane emissions, stock and oxygen availability in depth profiles below lawns of either cushion plants or Sphagnum mosses in Patagonia. • Cushion plants, Astelia pumila and Donatia fascicularis, formed extensive root systems up to 120 cm in depth. The cold soil (microbial activity and oxygen consumption. In cushion plant lawns, high soil oxygen coincided with high root densities, but methane emissions were absent. In Sphagnum lawns, methane emissions were substantial. High methane concentrations were only found in soils without cushion plant roots. • This first methane study in Patagonian bog vegetation reveals lower emissions than expected. We conclude that cushion plants are capable of reducing methane emission on an ecosystem scale by thorough soil and methane oxidation. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. The Domuyo volcanic system: An enormous geothermal resource in Argentine Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, Giovanni; Liccioli, Caterina; Vaselli, Orlando; Calabrese, Sergio; Tassi, Franco; Caliro, Stefano; Caselli, Alberto; Agusto, Mariano; D'Alessandro, Walter

    2014-03-01

    A geochemical survey of the main thermal waters discharging in the southwestern part of the Domuyo volcanic complex (Argentina), where the latest volcanic activity dates to 0.11 Ma, has highlighted the extraordinarily high heat loss from this remote site in Patagonia. The thermal water discharges are mostly Na-Cl in composition and have TDS values up to 3.78 g L- 1 (El Humazo). A simple hydrogeochemical approach shows that 1,100 to 1,300 kg s- 1 of boiling waters, which have been affected by shallow steam separation, flow into the main drainage of the area (Rio Varvarco). A dramatic increase of the most conservative species such as Na, Cl and Li from the Rio Varvarco from upstream to downstream was observed and related solely to the contribution of hydrothermal fluids. The equilibrium temperatures of the discharging thermal fluids, calculated on the basis of the Na-K-Mg geothermometer, are between 190 °C and 230 °C. If we refer to a liquid originally at 220 °C (enthalpy = 944 J g- 1), the thermal energy release can be estimated as high as 1.1 ± 0.2 GW, a value that is much higher than the natural release of heat in other important geothermal fields worldwide, e.g., Mutnovsky (Russia), Wairakei (New Zealand) and Lassen Peak (USA). This value is the second highest measured advective heat flux from any hydrothermal system on Earth after Yellowstone.

  10. Glacial lake drainage in Patagonia (13-8 kyr) and response of the adjacent Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Neil F; Jansson, Krister N; Duller, Geoffrey A T; Singarayer, Joy; Holloway, Max; Harrison, Stephan

    2016-02-12

    Large freshwater lakes formed in North America and Europe during deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum. Rapid drainage of these lakes into the Oceans resulted in abrupt perturbations in climate, including the Younger Dryas and 8.2 kyr cooling events. In the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere major glacial lakes also formed and drained during deglaciation but little is known about the magnitude, organization and timing of these drainage events and their effect on regional climate. We use 16 new single-grain optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates to define three stages of rapid glacial lake drainage in the Lago General Carrera/Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Cohrane/Pueyrredón basins of Patagonia and provide the first assessment of the effects of lake drainage on the Pacific Ocean. Lake drainage occurred between 13 and 8 kyr ago and was initially gradual eastward into the Atlantic, then subsequently reorganized westward into the Pacific as new drainage routes opened up during Patagonian Ice Sheet deglaciation. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments using HadCM3 with an imposed freshwater surface "hosing" to simulate glacial lake drainage suggest that a negative salinity anomaly was advected south around Cape Horn, resulting in brief but significant impacts on coastal ocean vertical mixing and regional climate.

  11. New evidence of the sabertooth cat Smilodon (Carnivora: Machairodontinae in the late Pleistocene of southern Chilean Patagonia Nueva evidencia del gato dientes de sable Smilodon (Carnivora: Machairodontinae en el Pleistoceno tardío de Patagonia meridional chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO PRIETO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Southern Patagonia is rich in late Pleistocene mammals, especially herbivores such as Camelids, Equids and Xenarthrans. Carnivores, on the other hand, are not commonly found in the paleontological record. One genus, Smilodon, is of particular interest because its presence in the region has not been demonstrated. In this paper, we present new fossil dental evidence that supports the presence of Smilodon populator (Lund in the region. This evidence corresponds to the most southern record of the genus in the world, and the final step in the colonization of South America after the Great American Biotic Interchange. An AMS radiocarbon date on teeth indicates that the remains from Southern Chilean Patagonia are the most recent record for the genus in South America.Surpatagonia es particularmente rica en mamíferos finiplesitocenos, particularmente camélidos, équidos y xenartros. Los carnívoros, por su parte, se encuentran representados en menor número en el registro paleontológico. Dentro de estos, el género Smilodon, es de particular interés debido a que su presencia en la región no ha sido convincentemente demostrada. En este trabajo presentamos evidencia dental que permite confirmar la presencia de Smilodon populator (Lund en la región. Esta evidencia corresponde al registro más sureño de este taxón y al paso final en la colonización de América del Sur después del Gran Intercambio Biótico Americano. Un fechado radiocarbónico directo AMS indica que los restos de Patagonia del Sur corresponden a los registros más tardíos para este género en el subcontinente.

  12. Trace elements deposition in the Tierra del Fuego region (south Patagonia) by using lichen transplants after the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle (north Patagonia) volcanic eruption in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Jasan, Raquel; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Iavicoli, Ivo; Plá, Rita

    2016-04-01

    Lichen Usnea barbata transplants were tested as a biomonitor of atmospheric deposition in an apparently pristine environment that is Tierra del Fuego region (Patagonia, Argentina). The present survey is connected with the volcanic eruption that started in north Patagonia on June 4, 2011 from the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcano, Chile (north Patagonia, at 1700 km of distance of our sampling sites). Lichens were collected in September 2011 (one month of exposure) and September 2012 (1 year of exposure) in 27 sites covering the northern region of the province where trees are not present. The atmospheric deposition of 27 elements by using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was determined in the collected samples. The first aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the volcanic eruption on the regional atmospheric deposition comparing our results with baseline data we determined in U. barbata in 2006 in the same sites. The second aim was to test possible patterns of bioaccumulation between the two sampling campaigns after the volcanic eruption. With respect to 2006 baseline levels, we found significant higher levels for As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Na, Sb and U in lichens collected after 1 month of exposure (first sampling campaign--2011). Between the two sampling campaigns (2011-2012) after the eruption, lichens reflected the natural contamination by volcanic ashes with significantly higher median levels of Br, Cr, Fe, K, Na, Sc, and Se. Results confirmed the very good aptitude of U. barbata to reflect the levels of elements in the environment at global scale and to reflect the volcanic emissions at distant places. Volcanic eruptions cause the emission in the atmosphere of elevated levels of particulate matter. In this regard, our findings demonstrate the importance to evaluate the metal composition of the particles to avoid possible health effects.

  13. Fotografía de ficción en Japón en el siglo XIX. Recreaciones de escenas para el mercado occidental

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrejas Almena, M. Carmen

    2009-01-01

    El artículo analiza la aparición y desarrollo en Japón durante el siglo XIX de un tipo de fotografía de ficción, las recreaciones de escenas de género y tipos, en relación con la orientación de la producción fotográfica al comercio con Occidente, así como las características y temática que se explotaron en estas imágenes con destino al espectador occidental. [ABSTRACT] The article analyzes the emergence and development of a type of fictional photography (the reconstruction of genre s...

  14. Julio Sanguily y Garritte (1846-1906 y los alzamientos de febrero de 1895 en el occidente de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Paz Sánchez, Manuel

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the failed uprisings of February, 1895 in Cuba´s West has been a controversial matter among historians for almonst as long ago as the events themselves. A number of Cuban scholars, as well as the accounts of people who participated in the uprisings, have not helped to the search for the truth. The reasons for this controversy are very much related to the hypothetical relevance of an all-out rebellion emerging just a short distance from Cuba´s capital, which would have accelerated the independence movement and changed the conflict's outcome. While in a previous work on Cuban banditry I insisted on the critical importance of these uprisings, in this paper I intend to call attention to new data on them, particularly on their most relevant aspect: the role played by the Cuban general Julio Sanguily y Garritte. He has been blamed for the failure of the western revolt, on account of the death of rebel officer -and former social bandit- Manuel García Ponce.

    El tema de los fracasados alzamientos insurreccionales del occidente cubano, en febrero de 1895, ha sido objeto de un largo debate historiográfico desde pocos años después de su acaecimiento. Diversos estudiosos cubanos, así como los testimonios de los propios protagonistas de los hechos han contribuido, en numerosas ocasiones, a hacer aún más difícil la búsqueda de la verdad. Las razones de esta polémica están profundamente relacionadas con la hipotética relevancia de un levantamiento en toda regla a escasos kilómetros de la capital cubana, lo que, en teoría, hubiera acelerado el proceso emancipador y cambiado, de diversas maneras, el devenir de la contienda que se saldó con la pérdida de Cuba para España. En nuestro trabajo sobre el bandolerismo cubano (1, insistimos en la importancia crucial de tales acontecimientos y, en esta ocasión, nos proponemos aportar nuevos datos sobre los hechos mencionados, particularmente sobre su aspecto más relevante: el

  15. PRIMERAS INVESTIGACIONES SOBRE UNA ESTRUCTURA MORTUORIA SINGULAR DE CAZADORES-RECOLECTORES EN LA PATAGONIA ARGENTINA: EL ENTIERRO SHAG (The Shag Burial: Preliminary Research Results from a Singular Mortuary Structure of Hunter-Gatherers in Argentinian Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Zilio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available El entierro Shag se ubica en la costa norte de la provincia de Santa Cruz, Patagonia argentina. Se trata de una estructura con morfología anular o de anillo, de aproximadamente 10 m de diámetro, conformada por rocas. La estructura fue alterada por pingüinos de Magallanes, quienes realizaron un pozo de nidificación y, como consecuencia, expusieron en superficie una serie de restos óseos humanos. Para la Patagonia no existen antecedentes de estructuras mortuorias similares a Shag. Se presenta una datación radiocarbónica, el plano de la estructura, determinaciones bioantropológicas, estudios de isótopos estables δ13C y δ15N, y análisis tafonómicos de los restos óseos. Se interpreta que el sitio corresponde a una estructura mortuoria de cazadores-recolectores datada en el Holoceno tardío. Los estudios isotópicos permiten inferir que el individuo analizado basó su dieta en recursos de ambientes marinos y terrestres. ENGLISH: The Shag burial is located in the Santa Cruz province along the northern coast of the Argentinian Patagonia. The Shag burial site is contained by a structure with annular or ring morphology made out of rocks and approximately 10 m in diameter. The structure was altered by Magellanic penguins that built a nesting well, exposing a series of human bone remains on the surface. There is no record of similar mortuary structures within Patagonia. This paper presents a number of data including absolute radiocarbon dates, the plan of the structure, bioanthropological determinations, stable isotope studies of δ13C and δ15N, and taphonomic analyses of the bone remains. The site is interpreted to as a hunter-gatherers mortuary structure dated to the Late Holocene. The isotopic studies on the individual allow us to infer a varied diet, in which both marine and terrestrial food products were consumed.

  16. Mortality of the outbreak defoliator Ormiscodes amphimone (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae caused by natural enemies in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina Mortalidad del defoliador epidémico Ormiscodes amphimone (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae causada por enemigos naturales en el noroeste de la Patagonia Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN PARITSIS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of the defoliator moth Ormiscodes amphimone are occurring more frequently in numerous Nothofagus forests of Patagonia. However, little is known about the life history of this species including its natural enemies as mortality agents. In this work we quantified mortality by parasitoids and generalist predators at the egg, larval and pupal life stages of O. amphimone in a Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. & Endl. Krasser forest in northwestern Patagonia. Parasitism of eggs was relatively low (ca. 11 %, and we did not record significant larval predation by insectivorous birds. However, we recorded elevated mortality caused by larval parasitoids (ca. 50 % in third instar larvae and pupal predators (ca. 75 %, which suggests that these natural enemies could play a significant role in regulating O. amphimone populations. Our research is an initial step towards understanding the influence of natural enemies on O. amphimone population dynamics.Las irrupciones poblacionales de la polilla defoliadora Ormiscodes amphimone están ocurriendo de manera más frecuente en numerosos bosques de Nothofagus de la Patagonia. Sin embargo, se sabe poco de la historia natural de esta especie y, particularmente, de sus enemigos naturales. En este estudio se cuantificó la depredación de huevos, larvas y pupas de O. amphimone por parasitoides y otros depredadores en un bosque de Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. & Endl. Krasser en el noroeste de la Patagonia. Se encontró que el parasitismo de huevos fue relativamente bajo (ca. 11 % y no se registró depredación significativa de larvas por aves insectívoras. No obstante, registramos niveles elevados de mortalidad causada por parasitoides de larvas (ca. 50 % en larvas en tercer instar y por depredadores de pupas (ca. 75 %, lo que parece indicar que estos enemigos naturales desempeñan un papel significativo en la regulación de poblaciones de O. amphimone. Este estudio representa un paso inicial hacia el entendimiento de la

  17. Revisión de la distribución de Hyalella Smith, 1874 (Crustacea, Amphipoda en la Patagonia e islas adyacentes Revision of the distribution of Hyalella Smith, 1874 (Crustacea, Amphipoda in Patagonia and adjacent islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio De los Ríos-Escalante

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una revisión de las especies de anfípodos del género Hyalella en aguas continentales de la Patagonia, isla Tierra del Fuego, Reserva de la Biosfera de Cabo de Hornos e islas adyacentes (38-54°S. Esta zona austral presenta numerosos tipos de ambientes acuáticos continentales como lagos, humedales y arroyos, y las principales especies en ambientes bentónicos corresponden a anfípodos del género Hyalella. La bibliografía menciona la presencia de H. costera, H. chiloensis, H. falklandensis, H. franciscae, H. neonoma, H. patagónica, H. rionegrina y H. simplex. La distribución de estas especies concuerda con estudios biogeográficos sobre la presencia de especies endémicas y de amplia distribución en el sur de la Patagonia y zona subantárticas. A pesar de la presencia de especies depredadoras introducidas, sobre la base de la literatura, los anfípodos serían más abundantes debido a la presencia de materia orgánica particulada.This study reviews the amphipod species of the genus Hyalella in the inland waters of Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego Island, Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, and adjacent islands (38-54°S. This southern zone has numerous kinds of continental water bodies such as lakes, wetlands, and streams, and the main species in benthic assemblages are amphipods of the genus Hyalella. The literature mentions the presence of H. costera, H. chiloensis, H. falklaidensis, H. franciscae, H. neonoma, H. patagonica, H. rionegrina, and H. simplex. The distribution of these species agrees with biogeographical studies about the presence of widespread, endemic species in southern Patagonia and the sub-Antarctic zone. In spite of the presence of introduced predatory species, the literature indicates that the amphipods are more abundant due to the presence of particulated organic matter.

  18. Clave de géneros de larvas de Trichoptera (Insecta de la Vertiente Occidental de los Andes, Lima, Perú

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    Ana A. Huamantinco

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una clave para identificación de larvas de Trichoptera en el último estadio de desarrollo. El material biológico fue colectado en quebradas situadas en la cuenca media y alta de ríos del departamento de Lima, Vertiente Occidental de los Andes. Se presenta una sinopsis de los géneros y especies para el Perú de las familias encontradas en este estudio.

  19. Enterobacteriaceas como índice de contaminación bacteriana en las canales procesadas en carnes y derivados de occidente, y los mataderos de Palmira y Florida

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    Tamayo C. Bertha L.

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar el grado de contaminación por Enterobacterias en las carnes resultantes del sacrificio en un matadero tecnificado ("carnes y derivados de occidente" y en dos cuyas normas higiénicas no eran las recomendadas (Palmira y Florida situados en el Departamento del valle del Cauca, República de Colombia. La evaluación bacteriológica comprendió el estado de las salas de sacrificio, el sistema de sacrificio y el faenado. Se tomaron en dos ocasiones muestras del brazo, costillar y pierna, la primera tan pronto se retiró la piel del animal (testigo y la segunda cuando terminó el faenado de la carne. Las muestras se procesaron según los métodos estandarizados. El mayor aislamiento se logró en los mataderos de Palmira y Florida, en ellos se aislaron Escherichia coli y klebsiella spp. Los gérmenes aislados en "Carnes de Occidente" fueron en general contaminantes de poca incidencia patológica y propios de procedimiento de toma, envío y otros factores.The degree of Enterobacteria contamination in meats processed in a modem abbatoire (carnes y derivados de occidente and in two others where hygiene was no strict was determined. The bacteriological evaluation was conducted in the slaughtering room s, and in the whole slaughtering and processing systems. Samples from front and back legs and from the ribs were take in two occasions; first as soon as the animal was skimed and then at the end or the cutting process. The samples were processed in the standard way. Both, at Palmira and Florida abbatories were Escherichia coli and klebsiella spp isolated. Bacteria isolated at "Carnes de Occidente "were low virulence contaminats and possibly present because of the techniques used in the sampling procedure.

  20. El aporte de la etnografía al análisis del estilo en el arte prehistórico : las ceramistas del Rif occidental (Marruecos)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Ruiz Idarraga

    2005-01-01

    Se presenta el estado actual de una línea de investigación que tiene por objeto la caracterización del estilo en el arte prehistórico. Para ello se propone un modelo basado en grupos de decoradoras de crámica del Rif occidental (Marruecos). En este modelo se analizan lso criterios que definen el estilo de las autoras individuales, el estilo de un taller y el estilo de una escuela

  1. Gestión de inventarios como factor de competitividad, en el sector metalmecánico de la región occidental de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel J. Aguilar O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación que se presenta a continuación, tiene como objeto analizar la gestión de inventario como factor de competitividad, en las empresas del Sector Metalmecánico de la Región Occidental de Venezuela. La metodología es de tipo descriptivo, no experimental, transeccional. La población se compone de veinte (20 empresas del sector metalmecánico destinadas a la producción de máquinas herramientas, específicamente tornos y fresadoras, circunscritas a la región del occidente de Venezuela, tomándose para el estudio, la totalidad de las mismas. Los resultados obtenidos mediante el análisis estadístico, permiten concluir que la gestión de inventario dentro de la industria metalmecánica de la Región Occidental de Venezuela, no constituye un factor de competitividad en las empresas del sector

  2. Transient simulations, empirical reconstructions and forcing mechanisms for the Mid-holocene hydrological climate in southern Patagonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Sebastian; Widmann, Martin; Jones, Julie [Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Haberzettl, Torsten; Ohlendorf, Christian; Zolitschka, Bernd [University of Bremen, Institute of Geography, Bremen (Germany); Luecke, Andreas; Mayr, Christoph [Research Centre Juelich, Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere V, Juelich (Germany); Schaebitz, Frank [University of Cologne, Seminar for Geography and its Didactics, Cologne (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    This study investigates the atmospheric circulation in transient climate simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (GCM) for the mid-Holocene (MH) period 7-4.5 ka BP driven with combinations of orbital, solar and greenhouse gas forcings. The focus is on southern South America. Statistical downscaling models are derived from observational data and applied to the simulations to estimate precipitation in south-eastern Patagonia during the MH. These estimates are compared with lake level estimates for Laguna Potrok Aike (LPA) from sediments. Relative to pre-industrial conditions (i.e. 1550-1850), which show extraordinarily high lake levels, the proxy-based reconstructed lake levels during the MH are lower. The downscaled simulated circulation differences indicate higher LPA precipitation during the MH from March to August, higher annual means, and reduced precipitation from September to February. Thus the reconstructed lower LPA lake levels can not be explained solely by the simulated precipitation changes. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Based on proxy data from southern South America hypotheses have also been proposed on the latitudinal position of the southern hemispheric westerlies (SHWs). In agreement with some of these hypotheses our simulations show an increased seasonal cycle of the latitudinal position of the SHWs during the MH, which can be explained by the orbital forcing. The simulations also show stronger SHWs over southern Patagonia during austral summer and weaker SHWs during winter. The downscaling model associates weaker SHWs with increased precipitation in the LPA region. However, this relationship is only moderate, and therefore the downscaling model does not support the assumption of a strong link between mean SHWs and precipitation over south-eastern Patagonia, which is the basis of many proxy-based hypotheses about the SHWs. (orig.)

  3. INVITACIÓN AL GEOTURISMO. REFLEXIONES SOBRE GEODIVERSIDAD Y POTENCIAL GEOTURÍSTICO EN LA PATAGONIA ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Paloma Martínez Fernandez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Geotourism as a type of nature tourism comes to fill an empty field on the use of geological resources of the landscape in Argentina. With an approach sustained by the ideas and progresses achieved along the last decades about sustainable tourism, geosites and geoparks are getting a boost worldwide. However, in Argentina this concept has not being incorporated yet within public or private touristic policies, despite owning a valuable geodiversity both scientific or aesthetically. Based on a review of concepts and foreign experiences on the subject, this article analyses the possibilities and parameters for geotourism developing in Argentinean Patagonia.

  4. Robustez craneofacial y estrés masticatorio en cazadores recolectores del holoceno tardío de Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    La morfología craneofacial de los grupos cazadores recolectores que habitaron Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego durante el Holoceno tardío (ca. 3000 años 1 4C BP a tiempos históricos) ha sido caracterizada por la presencia de elevados niveles de robustez no observados en otras poblaciones modernas (Lahr 1995; Lahr y Wright 1996). En este sentido, diversos estudios previos (Lahr y Wright 1996; Gonzalez-José 2003) destacan el pronunciado desarrollo de la región supraorbital y glabelar, de la cresta ...

  5. El patrimonio material y espiritual en el proceso de formación de dos provincias de la Patagonia argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Colantuono, María Rosa; Pérez, Gabriela; Vives, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén are located in the northern Argentinean Patagonia. One of them, Neuquén, is at the foothills of the Andes; meanwhile, the other extends from this mountain chain to the Atlantic Ocean. In spite of their vicinity, their material and spiritual patrimonies are different enough to give each their own identity. At Neuquén, the richest petroleum deposits of Argentina are found, which provide most of the oil and gasto the country, giving a good share to Neuquén ...

  6. Abundance estimates of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) in Bahía San Antonio, Patagonia, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, Els; Cammareri, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Aerial surveys were conducted to estimate the abundance of southern right whales in Bahía San Antonio, a bay located in the north-western region of the San Matías Gulf (40°50¿S 64°50¿W), Rio Negro, Patagonia Argentina. The transect for the realization of aerial surveys was designed using the program DISTANCE 6.0 and consisted out of 14 North-South (up to S 40.9°) parallel transect lines with a 2.5km separation, covering a total surface of 418km² (mean coverage probability=0.78). Transect leng...

  7. Mangrove Forest Cover Extraction of the Coastal Areas of Negros Occidental, Western Visayas, Philippines Using LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pada, A. V.; Silapan, J.; Cabanlit, M. A.; Campomanes, F.; Garcia, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Mangroves have a lot of economic and ecological advantages which include coastal protection, habitat for wildlife, fisheries and forestry products. Determination of the extent of mangrove patches in the coastal areas of the Philippines is therefore important especially in resource conservation, protection and management. This starts with a well-defined and accurate map. LiDARwas used in the mangrove extraction in the different coastal areas of Negros Occidental in Western Visayas, Philippines. Total coastal study area is 1,082.55 km² for the 14 municipalities/ cities processed. Derivatives that were used in the extraction include, DSM, DTM, Hillshade, Intensity, Number of Returns and PCA. The RGB bands of the Orthographic photographs taken at the same time with the LiDAR data were also used as one of the layers during the processing. NDVI, GRVI and Hillshade using Canny Edge Layer were derived as well to produce an enhanced segmentation. Training and Validation points were collected through field validation and visual inspection using Stratified Random Sampling. The points were then used to feed the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on tall structures. Only four classes were used, namely, Built-up, Mangroves, Other Trees and Sugarcane. Buffering and contextual editing were incorporated to reclassify the extracted mangroves. Overall accuracy assessment is at 98.73% (KIA of 98.24%) while overall accuracy assessment for Mangroves only is at 98.00%. Using this workflow, mangroves can already be extracted in a large-scale level with acceptable overall accuracy assessments.

  8. Catálogo de los Megachilidae del Mediterráneo occidental (Hymenoptera, Apoidea. I. Osmiini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornosa, C.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work is the first of three by the authors that make up a catalogue of the family Megachilidae in the western Mediterranean region, based on the revision currently undertaken on Iberian Megachilidae. It includes taxa of the tribe Osmiini, their synonymies, discussion, when necessary, as well as their geographic distribution. The results of our study indicate that the fauna of this tribe in the western Mediterranean is composed of 10 genera, 33 subgenera, 243 species and 278 subspecies, all of which are included.

    El catálogo objeto de este trabajo es una primera entrega de una serie de tres que los autores han realizado sobre la familia Megachilidae en el área mediterránea occidental, como base de la revisión que se está llevando a cabo sobre los megaquílidos ibéricos. En esta ocasión, se trata de los componentes de la tribu Osmiini, formada por 10 géneros, 33 subgéneros y 243 especies, muchas de ellas diferenciadas en varias poblaciones subespecíficas, que hacen un total de 278 y asimismo se incluyen. De todos los taxones, además de la correspondiente discusión, si procede, se incluye su lista sinonímica y la distribución geográfica.

  9. La cerámica de la Edad del Hierro en el sector centro-occidental cantábrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Suárez, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de la Edad del Hierro en la región cantábrica sigue siendo deficitario respecto a las regiones circundantes, siendo patentes los grandes vacíos de información. Un claro ejemplo lo tenemos en las cerámicas, escasamente tratadas por la literatura arqueológica. Además, los contados estudios sobre vasijas prerromanas siguen realizándose desde la perspectiva tipologicista del historicismo-cultural y desde la sistemática confusión de aquellas producciones con las de la cerámica común romana o con la cerámica altomedieval. En el presente trabajo se plantea una revisión y sistematización de los datos publicados para el sector centro-occidental cantábrico desde la perspectiva teórico-metodológica de las cadenas tecnológico-operativas (CTO. Posteriormente se presentan una serie de áreas alfareras o grupos arqueológicos. En el último punto se plantean unas hipótesis interpretativas que tienen en cuenta los sistemas sexo-género y las particularidades sociológicas de los grupos castreños septentrionales.

  10. Comportamiento de variedades de Chile dulce (capsicum annum en la región occidental de el Salvador

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    Lesser Linares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsicun annum en la región occidental de El Salvador. Con el objetivo de seleccionar material vegetativo adaptable a las diferentes condiciones agroecológicas de El Salvador, se implementó una investigación de seis variedades de chile dulce. Los ensayos se realizaron en Candelaria de la Frontera, Atiquizaya y Chalchuapa en el año 2002. El diseño experimental fue de bloques al azar, con cuatro repeticiones y seis tratamientos, conformados por los variedades Nathalie, Comandante, Lido, Tikal, Quetzal y una variedad Criolla. Hubo diferencias significativas al 1 % de probabilidad para las variables de altura de planta, largo, peso, diámetro, numero de frutos y rendimiento, en el combinado de las tres localidades. El material Nathalie, sobresalió en las variables altura de planta (0,49 m, número de frutos (259.500 frutos/ha, y rendimiento (25,11 t/ha, y como consecuencia reportó el mejor ingreso ($ 19.332,80 y la mejor relación beneficio costo (3,31. La duración de anaquel varió entre seis y nueve días con respecto a los diferentes materiales de chile dulce. Los resultados obtenidos podrían crear la base para validar el cultivar Nathalie en las zonas de influencia.

  11. Factors influencing the geographical distribution of Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in the Sierra Madre Occidental, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Ma Guadalupe; Salinas-Moreno, Yolanda; Olivo-Martínez, Antonio; Zúñiga, Gerardo

    2011-06-01

    The bark beetle, Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas & Bright, is endemic to the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC) in México. This bark beetle is a major pest of the seedlings and young saplings of several pine species that are of prime importance to the nation's forest industry. Despite the significance of this bark beetle as a pest, its biology, ecology, and distribution are poorly known. Three predictive modeling approaches were used as a first approximation to identify bioclimatic variables related to the presence of D. rhizophagus in the SMOC and to obtain maps of its potential distribution within the SMOC, which is a morphotectonic province. Our results suggest that the bark beetle could have an almost continuous distribution throughout the major mountain ranges of the SMOC. This beetle has a relatively narrow ecological niche with respect to some temperature and precipitation variables and inhabits areas with climatic conditions that are unique from those usually prevalent in the SMOC. However, the bark beetle has a broad ecological niche with respect to the number of hosts that it attacks. At the macro-scale level, the D. rhizophagus distribution occurs within the wider distribution of its main hosts. The limit of the geographical distribution of this bark beetle coincides with the maximum temperature isotherms. Our results imply a preference for temperate habitats, which leads to the hypothesis that even minor changes in climate may have significant effects on its distribution and abundance.

  12. Rusia ante, contra o con Occidente: diferentes posiciones en las relaciones entre dos ejes complementarios del poder mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Serra

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La Federación Rusa basa sus relaciones exteriores, desde su creación, en un triple eje que se complementa perfectamente. En primer lugar, Moscú privilegia unas relaciones de confianza y complementariedad con Europa occidental que han llevado a una cooperación económica necesaria para la reconstrucción de Rusia tras el hundimiento de la URSS. En segundo lugar, las relaciones de carácter estratégico han vivido momentos de inestabilidad jalonados por intensas etapas de colaboración. Por último, Rusia se impone como prioridad la preservación de su papel como potencia y como líder regional, para lo cual ha precisado a menudo de la concurrencia de las potencias occidentales. Todo ello lleva necesariamente a una dinámica en que aparentes distanciamientos y tensiones forman parte de una intensa colaboración donde a menudo los actores se intercambian sus roles para permitir un mayor dinamismo que legitima amistades y actitudes poco justificables del Kremlin ante su sociedad y sus propios aliados, pero cuyos resultados, al fin, benefician a todos los implicados

  13. 西方哲学中的理性之起源%On the Origin of Ration in Occidental Philosophies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焱麒

    2015-01-01

    Philosophy came from the replacement of primary religion and myths by rational thinking, whose development and ideas later became a tradition of occidental philosophy. Tracing the rational gene of western phi-losophies requires the analysis of various schools of ancient Greek philosophers ' different understandings and ideas of ration. "Nous" and "Logos" are the earliest names of ration to the ancient Greek philosophers, which later became the core of the development of the rational concept of the ancient Greek philosophy. Thus, it is nec-essary to understand this point.%哲学起源于理性思维对原始宗教、神话幻想的取代,而理性的发展及其观念成为后来西方哲学的一大传统。追溯西方哲学中的理性基因,要从古希腊各流派哲学家对理性做出不同层面理解及不同角度的思考说起。“努斯”“逻各斯”是古希腊哲学家对理性的最早规定,成为后来古希腊哲学理性观念发展的核心,摸清这一发展脉络对于理解西方理性至关重要。

  14. Propuesta de zonificación de uso del sector occidental del Parque Nacional Canaima. Estado Bolívar

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    Roberto J. Rivera Lombardi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se establece una propuesta de zonificación del sector occidental del Parque Nacional Canaima, adecuada a las potencialidades y limitaciones de los recursos naturales, los usos y actividades desarrolladas por la población residente, considerando la materia previamente reglamentada en la normativa ambiental venezolana; documento que pretende coadyuvar con el plan de ordenamiento y reglamento de uso del referido sector. Esta propuesta se realiza con orientación geográfica integradora, a fin de constituir las bases de la zonificación de uso oficial de un instrumento reglamentario que se requiere para la gestión, conservación y manejo adecuado de esta área protegida. En este trabajo se resaltan los aspectos metodológicos, teniendo como herramienta la superposición y análisis de mapas temáticos. El resultado permitió identificar usos y actividades económicas distintas a las permitidas en la normativa legal vigente, tales como actividades de minería y turismo no controlado; así como aquellas no acordes con las potencialidades y limitaciones de los recursos naturales, como es el caso de la actividad agrícola de subsistencia practicada por la población residente.

  15. Sobre la introducción del Castaño, Castanea sativa, en el Mediterráneo Occidental

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    Antonio GUILLEN OTERINO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Una idea generalizada y bastante aceptada en torno a la introducción del Castaño, Castanea sativa, en el área occidental del Mediterráneo y concretamente en la Península es la que sostiene que esta especie fue extendida por los romanos quienes tomándola en su zona de origen, Asia menor y Caucaso, la naturalizaron en toda la Europa mediterránea hasta llegar a la Península Ibérica. Muchos autores modernos en sus publicaciones, al hablar del Castaño, siguen haciendo mención a lo expuesto anteriormente (JONKER, 1952; STRASBURGER, 1894; LANZARA y PIZZETTI, 1977 y FONT QUER, 1961 entre otros. Sin embargo, parece que los datos que la palinología y el estudio de carbones han aportado en investigaciones realizadas en yacimientos arqueológicos y turberas constatan la presencia del Castaño en épocas muy anteriores a la de la expansión romana.

  16. Modeling the Potential Distribution of Picea chihuahuana Martínez, an Endangered Species at the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico

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    Victor Aguilar-Soto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs help identify areas for the development of populations or communities to prevent extinctions, especially in the face of the global environmental change. This study modeled the potential distribution of the tree Picea chihuahuana Martínez, a species in danger of extinction, using the maximum entropy modeling method (MaxEnt at three scales: local, state and national. We used a total of 38 presence data from the Sierra Madre Occidental. At the local scale, we compared MaxEnt with the reclassification and overlay method integrated in a geographic information system. MaxEnt generated maps with a high predictive capability (AUC > 0.97. The distribution of P. chihuahuana is defined by vegetation type and minimum temperature at national and state scales. At the local scale, both models calculated similar areas for the potential distribution of the species; the variables that better defined the species distribution were vegetation type, aspect and distance to water flows. Populations of P. chihuahuana have always been small, but our results show potential habitat greater than the area of the actual distribution. These results provide an insight into the availability of areas suitable for the species’ regeneration, possibly through assisted colonization.

  17. Yacimientos de Halloysita en Mamil Choique,provincia de Río Negro, Patagonia Halloysite deposits in Mamil Choique, provinceof Río Negro, Patagonia

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    Fernanda Cravero

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available En la provincia de Río Negro, al norte de la localidadde Mamil Choique, se explotan depósitos minerales cuyo material secomercializacomo caolín. Mediante estudios mineralógicos se determinó que el mineralprincipal es halloysita-(10 Å acompañado por cantidades menores de esmectita ycristobalita, siendo el primer yacimiento en la Argentina de este mineral y unode los pocos en el mundo. La halloysita se presenta en cristales tubulares,cilíndricos, menores a 0,5 µm de largo y condiámetros menores a 0,2 µm. Laidentificación de la halloysita-(10Å, corroborada mediante la intercalacióncon formamida, fue además posible debido al cuidado puesto en el embalaje ytraslado de las muestras pues este mineral se deshidrataa temperatura ambientetransformándose en halloysita- (7 Å, la cual es fácilmente confundida concaolinita. El mineral se presenta en zonas alteradas, sobre rocas ignimbritas decomposición riolítica pertenecientes a la Formación Huitrera de edad eocena.Este proceso se caracteriza principalmente por una intensa lixiviación de loselementos alcalinos y alcalinos térreos, y un incremento en la concentraciónrelativa de alúmina. El origen de la alteración no se ha establecido conprecisión, pero la mineralogía simple, la ausencia de minerales característicosy de elementos minoritarios o trazas de ambientes epitermales, sumado a laexistencia de un clima templado húmedo a partir del Eoceno, permite suponer unaformación de tipo meteórico. La determinación de halloysita plantea la revisiónen la utilización de material de este depósito, ya que este mineral poseepropiedades muy diferentes a las de los otros minerales del grupo del caolín.A white material in RíoNegro Province, Patagonia, has been mined as kaolin. Through mineralogicalstudies, the main mineral has been identified as halloysite-(10 Å with minoramounts of smectite and cristobalite. Halloysite tubes and cylinders are about0.5 µm long and 0.2 µm in diameter

  18. Variability of Soil Types in Wetland Meadows in the South of the Chilean Patagonia Variabilidad de Tipos de Suelos en Las Vegas del Sur de la Patagonia Chilena

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    Ladislava Filipová

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The wetland meadows and pastures (vegas of the agricultural zone of the Magallanes Region and the Chilean Patagonia are productive and intensively exploited ecosystems. However, there is scarce data about the typology and the physical and chemical properties of the soils that determine the agricultural potential of vegas sites. Sampling of the main horizons of 47 soil profiles was conducted throughout the area. The profiles were described in the field and consequently classified according to the soil typology system of the WRB (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2006. Analyses of bulk and particle densities, capillary water capacity, pH (H2O, pH (CaCl2, texture, organic material, C:N ratio, electrical conductivity, effective cation exchange capacity, N, P, Ca-Mg-K-Na, exchangeable Al,  extractable Al, sulfur SO4(2-, B, and micronutrients (Cu-Zn-Mn-Fe were carried out.  The most frequently recorded groups of soil types in the studied vegas were Histosols - peat soils (20 profiles, and Fluvisols (19. Gleysols (3, Vertisols (1, Regosols (3, Solonchaks (1 and Solonetzs (1 were detected with much less frequency. There is also considerable variability in soil properties among and within the groups of soil types. The principal differences between the Histosols and the Fluvisols are the content of organic matter (often peat, pH level (related to the absence/presence of carbonates and associated soil properties. Fluvisols are more susceptible to salinization under conditions of aridity, whereas the main threat to Histosols is artificial drainage.Las praderas húmedas (vegas de la zona de uso agropecuario de la Región de Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena son ecosistemas productivos e intensamente explotados. No obstante, los conocimientos de los factores edáficos que determinan el potencial de las vegas son escasos. En este trabajo se realizó el muestreo de los horizontes principales de 47 perfiles del suelo de distintos tipos de vegas de la zona. Los perfiles

  19. Cosmogenic age constraints on the last deglaciation in Southern Patagonia (49 - 50°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, D. S.; Singer, B. S.; Carlson, A. E.; Caffee, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    The glacial-to-interglacial transition since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) reflects climate system dynamics and the mechanisms that force climate change. Numerous studies of glacier behavior, mainly in the Northern Hemisphere, have sought to delineate the LGM termination as well as post-LGM climate reversals. We know far less about the Southern Hemisphere, where the extent and timing of climate shifts, and the degree of linkage to changes in the Northern Hemisphere, remain uncertain. Quantifying the temperature and precipitation changes across southern South America can help assess the migration of precipitation patterns tied to the position of the Southern Westerlies and the Antarctic Polar Front. This data can also be used to detect the extent of temperature reversals across and between continents, such as the Antarctic Cold Reversal, if present. The testing of hypotheses regarding changes in global atmospheric and oceanic circulation since the LGM is partly dependent on the deconvolution of these two parameters. Glacial activity in the Southern Patagonian Icefield is highly sensitive to changes in temperature and precipitation, while the adjacent Andean rainshadow desert preserves a remarkably complete set of glacial deposits that span a wide transect of the southern mid-latitudes. These deposits are ideal for surface exposure dating, which in turn can provide a proxy for glacial activity and for changes in the factors that govern glacial mass balance. We use a new beryllium-10 production rate calibrated to the southern mid-latitudes to recalculate published surface exposure chronologies from Patagonia (46 to 53°S). The revised temporal framework indicates the presence of expansive ice from ~30 ka until regional retreat 17-18 ka, with a significant late-glacial re-advance or still-stand ending ~13 ka. This latitudinal transect is notable for a gap in glacial records between 49 and 50°S. New surface exposure age determinations from the Santa Teresita moraine

  20. Polen y vegetación en la Patagonia extraandina argentina a 45º S

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    Burry, Lidia S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern pollen dispersal and deposition in relation to vegetation and environmental variables at 45° S was studied in Argentinian Patagonia east of the Andes to build a modern pollen model. This model will serve to identify modern pollen assemblages that are analog of past pollen assemblages. A west-to-east gradient of decreasing precipitation and increasing temperature determines four vegetation units: (1 grass steppe, (2 grass-bush steppe, (3 bush steppe and (4 bush-brush steppe. Pollen samples were analyzed by classification and ordination methods, and correlated to environmental variables. The steppes (a dominated by the functional type grass, (1 grass steppe, and (2 grass-bush steppe located in the more humid and cooler west end of the region were separated from the (b bush-dominated steppes (3 bush steppe and (4 bush-brush steppe occurring in the central and eastern parts of the region, where conditions are drier and warmer. Azonal communities were identified as halophytic bush steppes within different vegetation units along the west-east gradient. Environmental variables related to vegetation distribution are temperature and interannual precipitation variability associated with the precipitation gradient from the cordillera to the coast, and soil salinity in the case of azonal communities.Se investigó la relación de la dispersión-deposición del polen actual con la vegetación y con variables ambientales en la Patagonia extraandina argentina a 45° S con el fin de construir un modelo polínico actual. Este modelo servirá para identificar los conjuntos polínicos actuales que sean análogos de conjuntos polínicos fósiles. En la región hay un gradiente decreciente de precipitación y creciente de temperatura de oeste a este, que determina la existencia de diferentes unidades de vegetación: (1 estepa graminosa; (2 estepa graminosa-arbustiva; (3 estepa arbustiva y (4 estepa arbustiva-matorral. Los datos de polen de muestras de suelo

  1. Validating numerical simulations of snow avalanches using dendrochronology: the Cerro Ventana event in Northern Patagonia, Argentina

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    A. Casteller

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by snow avalanches to property and human lives is underestimated in many regions around the world, especially where this natural hazard remains poorly documented. One such region is the Argentinean Andes, where numerous settlements are threatened almost every winter by large snow avalanches. On 1 September 2002, the largest tragedy in the history of Argentinean mountaineering took place at Cerro Ventana, Northern Patagonia: nine persons were killed and seven others injured by a snow avalanche. In this paper, we combine both numerical modeling and dendrochronological investigations to reconstruct this event. Using information released by local governmental authorities and compiled in the field, the avalanche event was numerically simulated using the avalanche dynamics programs AVAL-1D and RAMMS. Avalanche characteristics, such as extent and date were determined using dendrochronological techniques. Model simulation results were compared with documentary and tree-ring evidences for the 2002 event. Our results show a good agreement between the simulated projection of the avalanche and its reconstructed extent using tree-ring records. Differences between the observed and the simulated avalanche, principally related to the snow height deposition in the run-out zone, are mostly attributed to the low resolution of the digital elevation model used to represent the valley topography. The main contributions of this study are (1 to provide the first calibration of numerical avalanche models for the Patagonian Andes and (2 to highlight the potential of Nothofagus pumilio tree-ring records to reconstruct past snow-avalanche events in time and space. Future research should focus on testing this combined approach in other forested regions of the Andes.

  2. The origin of oriented lakes in the Andean foreland, Parque Nacional Torres del Paine (Chilean Patagonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Joseph; Aydin, Atilla

    2008-05-01

    The Parque Nacional Torres Del Paine and surrounding area in the Magallanes foreland basin in Chilean Patagonia is the site for numerous lakes fed by glaciers and rivers in the Andean highlands to the west. The lakes are elongate and have conspicuously systematic orientations. We hypothesize that the origin of the oriented lakes lies in the fault system, composed of a right-lateral strike-slip fault set oriented 58° from north, a left-lateral strike-slip set oriented 87°, and a thrust fault set oriented 167°, that exists within the underlying rocks. To test this hypothesis quantitatively, we determined the shape and orientation of the lakes by fitting each lake with an ellipse of appropriate aspect ratio, and later with multiple ellipses consistent with the composite geometry of some lakes. We then examined the faults in the area in terms of their kinematics, orientation and distribution. The distribution of lake orientations showed three distinct groups which appear to correspond to the three main fault groups. For lakes fitted with multiple ellipses, the difference in means between the right-lateral, left-lateral, and thrust faults and their corresponding groups of lakes are 3.05°, 1.57°, and 5.17°. Using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) statistical test to compare the orientations of faults with respect to the lakes suggests that there is not a strongly significant difference between the fault orientations and the corresponding lake groups. These results indicate that the faults have a profound control on the orientation, shape, and distribution of the lakes. We attribute this to faults and their damage zones being weaker and therefore prone to a faster rate of erosion, and to stress perturbations associated with discontinuous faults resulting in localized high density fracturing and surface subsidence. These results have implications for lake and drainage system morphologies in other foreland basins along the Andes and other similar settings.

  3. Validating numerical simulations of snow avalanches using dendrochronology: the Cerro Ventana event in Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteller, A.; Christen, M.; Villalba, R.; Martínez, H.; Stöckli, V.; Leiva, J. C.; Bartelt, P.

    2008-05-01

    The damage caused by snow avalanches to property and human lives is underestimated in many regions around the world, especially where this natural hazard remains poorly documented. One such region is the Argentinean Andes, where numerous settlements are threatened almost every winter by large snow avalanches. On 1 September 2002, the largest tragedy in the history of Argentinean mountaineering took place at Cerro Ventana, Northern Patagonia: nine persons were killed and seven others injured by a snow avalanche. In this paper, we combine both numerical modeling and dendrochronological investigations to reconstruct this event. Using information released by local governmental authorities and compiled in the field, the avalanche event was numerically simulated using the avalanche dynamics programs AVAL-1D and RAMMS. Avalanche characteristics, such as extent and date were determined using dendrochronological techniques. Model simulation results were compared with documentary and tree-ring evidences for the 2002 event. Our results show a good agreement between the simulated projection of the avalanche and its reconstructed extent using tree-ring records. Differences between the observed and the simulated avalanche, principally related to the snow height deposition in the run-out zone, are mostly attributed to the low resolution of the digital elevation model used to represent the valley topography. The main contributions of this study are (1) to provide the first calibration of numerical avalanche models for the Patagonian Andes and (2) to highlight the potential of textit{Nothofagus pumilio} tree-ring records to reconstruct past snow-avalanche events in time and space. Future research should focus on testing this combined approach in other forested regions of the Andes.

  4. Soil erosion rates in rangelands of northeastern Patagonia: A dendrogeomorphological analysis using exposed shrub roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Marcelo Pablo; Rostagno, César Mario; Roig, Fidel Alejandro

    2009-05-01

    Soil erosion is an important process of land degradation in many rangelands and a significant driver of desertification in the world's drylands. Dendrogeomorphology is an alternative to traditional methods for determining soil erosion rate. Specifically, the vertical distance between the upper portion of exposed roots and the actual soil surface can be used as a bioindicator of erosion since plant establishment. In this study, we determined (i) the soil erosion rate from exposed roots of the dwarf shrub Margyricarpus pinnatus [Lam.] Kuntze in two ecological sites in the northeastern rangelands of Patagonia and (ii) the relationship between shrub age and upper root diameter. We selected two ecological sites, a pediment-like plateau and a flank pediment, where the dominant soils were Xeric Haplocalcids and Xeric Calciargids, respectively. The soil erosion rates in the pediment-like plateau and in the flank pediment were 2.4 and 3.1 mm yr - 1 , respectively. Data clearly indicate a high rate of soil erosion during the mean 8-year life span of the dwarf shrubs in degraded patches, which represent ~ 10% of surface cover in the study area. Simple linear regression analysis yielded a highly significant predictive model for age estimation of M. pinnatus plants using the upper root diameter as a predictor variable. The measurement of ground lowering against datable exposed roots represents a simple method for the determination of soil erosion rates. In combination with other soil surface features, it was used to infer the episodic nature of soil erosion. This approach could be particularly useful for monitoring the effects of land management practices on recent soil erosion and for the establishment of records in regions where historical data regarding this process are scarce or absent.

  5. Upper cretaceous to paleocene depositional sequences and sandstone petrography of southwestern Patagonia (Argentina and Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macellari, C. E.; Barrio, C. A.; Manassero, M. J.

    Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene strata exposed along the Andean margin of Patagonia south of 50°S were deposited in a foreland basin and comprise a complex transition from continental to marine facies. Three unconformity-bounded sequences are observed within the sedimentary succession studied. Sequence 1 (upper Campanian) displays a rapid north-to-south transition from upper delta plain mudstones (Cerro Fortaleza Formation) through lower delta plain and subaqueous delta plain sandstones (La Anita Formation) to delta-slope and basinal turbidites (Alta Vista and Tres Pasos Formations). Sequence 2 (Maastrichtian-Paleocene) was initiated with braided river sediments (La Irene Formation), deposited over a Type II unconformity ( sensu Vail et al., 1984). These rocks are overlain by meandering fluvial sandstones and mudstones (Chorrillo Formation) that interfinger to the south with fossiliferous shallow marine sandstones (upper Cerro Cazador Formation). Sequence 3 (Paleocene) is composed of shallow marine conglomerates and crossbedded sandstones (Calafate and Cerro Dorotea Formations). These rocks are separated by an angular unconformity from subjacent units. Sandstone petrographic analysis indicates the presence of two main petrofacies within the rocks studied. A quartz-rich petrofacies, present to the north of the basin during late Campanian to early Maastrichtian time, was derived from continental crustal block and recycled orogen sources that were possibly exposed to the northwest of the basin. The second petrofacies (volcanic-rich petrofacies) was restricted to the south of the basin during the late Campanian to early Maastrichtian, but covered the entire area during the late Maastrichtian and Paleocene. These sediments were derived from a dissected magmatic arc located to the west of the study area. The presence of abundant tuffaceous intercalations, as well as fresh andesitic fragments, indicates contemporaneous volcanism near the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. The

  6. Tectonic events reflected by palaeocurrents, zircon geochronology, and palaeobotany in the Sierra Baguales of Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Nestor M.; Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Vásquez, Ana; Carreño, Catalina; Pedroza, Viviana; Araos, José; Oyarzún, José Luis; Pablo Pino, J.; Rivera, Huber A.; Hinojosa, L. F.

    2017-01-01

    The Sierra Baguales, situated north of the Torres Del Paine National Park in the Magallanes region of southern Chile, shows a well-exposed stratigraphic sequence ranging from the Late Cretaceous to late Pliocene, which presents a unique opportunity to study the evolution of sedimentological styles and trends, palaeoclimate changes, and tectonic events during this period. The depositional environment changed from a continental slope and shelf during the Cenomanian-Campanian (Tres Pasos Formation) to deltaic between the Campanian-Maastrichtian (Dorotea Formation) and estuarine in the Lutetian-Bartonian (Man Aike Formation). During the Rupelian, a continental environment with meandering rivers and overbank marshes was established (Río Leona Formation). This area was flooded in the early Burdigalian (Estancia 25 de Mayo Formation) during the Patagonian Transgression, but emerged again during the late Burdigalian (Santa Cruz Formation). Measured palaeocurrent directions in this Mesozoic-Cenozoic succession indicate source areas situated between the northeast and east-southeast during the Late Cretaceous, east-southeast during the middle Eocene, and southwest during the early Oligocene to early Miocene. This is confirmed by detrital zircon age populations in the different units, which can be linked to probable sources of similar ages in these areas. The east-southeastern provenance is here identified as the Antarctic Peninsula or its northeastern extension, which is postulated to have been attached to Fuegian Patagonia during the Eocene. The southwestern and western sources were exhumed during gradual uplift of the Southern Patagonian Andes, coinciding with a change from marine to continental conditions in the Magallanes-Austral Basin, as well as a decrease in mean annual temperature and precipitation indicated by fossil leaves in the Río Leona Formation. The rain shadow to the east of the Andes thus started to develop here during the late Eocene-early Oligocene ( 34

  7. Litter and soil properties are not altered by invasive deer browsing in forests of NW Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relva, María Andrea; Castán, Elisa; Mazzarino, María Julia

    2014-01-01

    It is largely accepted that large mammalian herbivores can indirectly influence ecosystem properties by changing the quantity and quality of litter inputs to soil through selective browsing on plant communities. However, idiosyncratic effects (positive, neutral and negative) have been found for different vegetation types, herbivory and soil properties. In this study we tested whether browsing by exotic deer introduced into Patagonian forests 90 years ago alters physical, chemical and biological soil properties and litter quantity and quality. As in many terrestrial ecosystems, N is the main nutrient that limits plant growth in Patagonia. Consequently, any disturbance that alters the N cycle, such as changes in the type or intensity of herbivory, is expected to affect these forest ecosystems. We compared soil and total litter from inside and outside five 7-yr old exclosures located on Isla Victoria, Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Despite introduced deer has significantly affected the composition, abundance and structure of the understory vegetation, we found no differences between browsed and unbrowsed areas in the physical (bulk density, moisture), chemical (pH, base cations, organic C and total N) and biological (potential microbial respiration and net N mineralization) soil properties. This could be attributable to the high capacity of volcanic soils to stabilize organic matter, buffering disturbance-induced changes. However, the quantity and quality (C, N and C/N ratio) of total litter were also not different between browsed and unbrowsed areas. Although non-significant differences were found between treatments in both compartments, litter and soil, most variables showed a slight trend toward higher values in unbrowsed areas. This suggests that 7 years of browsing exclusion would be not enough to detect changes induced by browsing, particularly in highly stable volcanic soils.

  8. Hystricognath rodents from the Pinturas Formation, Early Middle Miocene of Patagonia, biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramarz, Alejandro G.; Bellosi, Eduardo S.

    2005-01-01

    The Pinturas Formation is a continental succession, characterized by eolian sediments (mainly tuffaceous) and paleosols, originated in an upland setting of west central Patagonia. The main intraformational erosive surfaces and lithological changes define three sequences. The Formation bears a rich mammalian association (Florentino Ameghino's Astrapothericulan fauna), whose age in relation to the Santacrucian SALMA (middle Miocene) is still controversial. Recent collections from the Pinturas Formation, performed with stratigraphic control, allow differentiation of two distinct hystricognath rodent associations. The lower and middle sequences bear a particular combination of Colhuehuapian (early Miocene) and Santacrucian genera, mostly represented by species exclusively known to the Pinturas Formation ('Pinturan' association). The upper sequence bears typical Santacrucian species, more derived than its Pinturan counterparts. According to the rodent record, the lower and middle sequences of the Pinturas Formation are older than the base of the Santa Cruz Formation exposed at Monte Observación and Monte León, and the upper sequence may be correlated with the lowermost levels of the Santa Cruz Formation and deposits exposed at Karaiken that bear Ameghino's 'Notohippidian' fauna. These correlations agree with more recent radiometric dates and other biostratigraphic evidence, supporting Ameghino's original hypothesis. The Pinturan rodent assemblage of the lower and middle sequences suggests the presence of humid forests, in accordance with other faunal components and palynological data. Sedimentologic, paleopedologic, and ichnologic evidence, however, suggest environments dominated by herbaceous vegetation. This seeming contradiction is interpreted as the result of a marked environmental gradient due to the paleotopography and/or climatic fluctuations. The mammal record corresponds to the more humid intervals, which have less representation in the sedimentary record

  9. INCORPORACIÓN DEL PAISAJE EN LA GESTIÓN DEL TERRITORIO DE LA PATAGONIA CHILENA

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    MARÍA DOLORES MUÑOZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una metodología para el análisis y gestión del paisaje en la Patagonia chilena, un territorio que se destaca por la belleza y diversidad de los paisajes del agua generados por la presencia de grandes lagos, ríos, fiordos, humedales y campos de hielo. El primer caso de estudio es una investigación para evaluar las potencialidades turísticas y territoriales de los paisajes del agua en la cuenca del río Baker. Se utiliza una metodología interdisciplinaria y técnicas de medición, cualitativa y cuantitativa, que permitieran analizar los valores espaciales, ambientales, territoriales y culturales asociados al paisaje. Un aspecto esencial fue incorporar la valoración social del paisaje. El segundo caso, ubicado en el estrecho de Magallanes, corresponde a una metodología de análisis territorial como base para diseñar un Plan de Manejo Turístico en el Área Marina Protegida Francisco Coloane (que incluye al Parque Marino Francisco Coloane. Comprende el análisis de las condiciones ambientales, las características del paisaje y potencialidades del turismo de intereses especiales asociado al paisaje para respaldar la propuesta de gestión. En ambos casos, la metodología considera al paisaje como principal recurso territorial y plantea una forma de gestión respaldada por principios de sustentabilidad ambiental y social.

  10. Detrital zircon geochronology and provenance of the Chubut Group in the northeast of Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Edgardo L.; Astini, Ricardo A.; Belousova, Elena; Guler, M. Verónica; Gehrels, George

    2015-11-01

    The Chubut Group constitutes the most widespread sedimentary unit in NE Patagonia, characterized by variable-energy fluvial deposits. U-Pb analysis of detrital zircons from two sections of the Chubut Group constraint the age of the oldest sedimentary rocks in the northeast of the Somuncurá - Cañadón Asfalto Basin. In the Cañadón Williams area, at San Jorge section, 20 km NW of Telsen locality, dating of 56 detrital zircons from a medium to coarse sandstone indicated a maximum depositional age of 109 ± 1 Ma (n = 4). These sandstones were interpreted to represent shallow channels, associated with a lacustrine system. In the Telsen locality, a laser ablation analysis of 115 detrital zircons from a medium to coarse-grained sandstone, from fluvial channel facies, yielded a maximum depositional age of ca. 106 ± 1 Ma (n = 8). Both ages are consistent with volcanic events of the Barremian to Albian age in the central Patagonian Andes Region. Cathodoluminescence images of zircons from the San Jorge sample suggest an igneous origin, which is further supported by Th/U values above 0.5 in most of the grains. The distribution of the statistical modes of the main age populations of detrital zircons for the two samples [182, 185 and 189 Ma for Telsen sample (T2S) and 181 ± 1 Ma for San Jorge sample (SJS)] matches the age of the volcanic Marifil Formation. The rocks of the Marifil Formation of these ages are exposed NE to SE of the study area. The abundance of zircons of similar Jurassic ages (n = 52 for SJS and n = 105 for T2S) and the external morphology of the zircons in the sample SJS, implies a close proximity of the source area. Suggestion that the Marifil Formation was the main provenance source is also supported by northeast-southeasterly paleocurrents measured at the San Jorge and Telsen sections.

  11. Fluid typing and tortuosity analysis with NMR-DE techniques in volcaniclastic reservoirs, Patagonia/Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Ulises Daniel [Schlumberger Argentina S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Breda, Eduardo Walter [Repsol YPF Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    Alternative hydrocarbon-detection techniques are used to differentiate water from hydrocarbon where resistivity-based methods are difficult to apply, such as freshwater reservoirs and complex lithologies. One of these areas is represented by the complex volcaniclastic freshwater reservoirs in the Golfo San Jorge basin, Patagonia Argentina, where water and oil have often identical response on conventional logs. Some advances in hydrocarbon identification based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques were achieved in long T1 environments (very light oils, gas) in the Golfo San Jorge basin by previous NMR fluid typing methods. However, since medium to heavy oils are commonly present in these intervals, hydrocarbon detection by such techniques cannot be properly achieved. In addition, restricted diffusion phenomena recognized in these intervals, constitute further complications in fluid typing since its presence have similar response than native oil. To address this problem, a fluid characterization method using NMR Diffusion-Editing techniques and processing/interpretation with D-T2 maps in a suite of NMR measurements was applied. The technique allowed the detection and evaluation of restricted diffusion in these reservoirs, enabling better hydrocarbon characterization in a broad viscosity range (from light to heavy). The method also improved the petrophysical evaluation because restricted diffusion is related to tortuosity in the reservoir. Since the application of this innovative reservoir evaluation method, fluid prognosis vs well completion results was increased from around 68% to around 88% in Golfo San Jorge basin. Moreover, in some of these areas rates above 95% were recently achieved in 2004. (author)

  12. An Unusual New Theropod with a Didactyl Manus from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apesteguía, Sebastián; Smith, Nathan D.; Juárez Valieri, Rubén; Makovicky, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Late Cretaceous terrestrial strata of the Neuquén Basin, northern Patagonia, Argentina have yielded a rich fauna of dinosaurs and other vertebrates. The diversity of saurischian dinosaurs is particularly high, especially in the late Cenomanian-early Turonian Huincul Formation, which has yielded specimens of rebacchisaurid and titanosaurian sauropods, and abelisaurid and carcharodontosaurid theropods. Continued sampling is adding to the known vertebrate diversity of this unit. Methodology/ Principal Findings A new, partially articulated mid-sized theropod was found in rocks from the Huincul Formation. It exhibits a unique combination of traits that distinguish it from other known theropods justifying erection of a new taxon, Gualicho shinyae gen. et sp. nov. Gualicho possesses a didactyl manus with the third digit reduced to a metacarpal splint reminiscent of tyrannosaurids, but both phylogenetic and multivariate analyses indicate that didactyly is convergent in these groups. Derived characters of the scapula, femur, and fibula supports the new theropod as the sister taxon of the nearly coeval African theropod Deltadromeus and as a neovenatorid carcharodontosaurian. A number of these features are independently present in ceratosaurs, and Gualicho exhibits an unusual mosaic of ceratosaurian and tetanuran synapomorphies distributed throughout the skeleton. Conclusions/ Significance Gualicho shinyae gen. et sp. nov. increases the known theropod diversity of the Huincul Formation and also represents the first likely neovenatorid from this unit. It is the most basal tetatanuran to exhibit common patterns of digit III reduction that evolved independently in a number of other tetanuran lineages. A close relationship with Deltadromaeus from the Kem Kem beds of Niger adds to the already considerable biogeographic similarity between the Huincul Formation and coeval rock units in North Africa. PMID:27410683

  13. Centennial and millennial-scale hydroclimate changes in northwestern Patagonia since 16,000 yr BP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Patricio I.; Videla, Javiera

    2016-10-01

    We examine hydroclimate changes at centennial/millennial timescales since 16,000 yr BP in northwestern Patagonia based on the pollen and charcoal record from Lago El Salto, a small closed-basin lake located in the Chilean Lake District (41°38‧48.02″S, 73° 5‧48.42″W). We observe cold/wet conditions between 14,500-16,000 yr BP, followed by further cooling with increased precipitation until 13,000 yr BP, enhanced precipitation seasonality and/or variability between 11,600-13,000 yr BP, and an extended warm-and-dry interval between 7600 and 11,300 yr BP with peak paleofire activity. Colder-and-wetter than present conditions and muted paleofire activity prevail between 5300 and 7600 yr BP, followed by alternating cold/wet and centennial-scale warm/dry phases starting at 5300 yr BP with three conspicuous megadroughts since 2500 yr BP. The most recent megadrought occurred during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. We identify a cold reversal that spans the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) and the Younger Dryas (YD) chrons with stronger-than-present westerly influence during the former and enhanced variability during the latter. These results extend the northern limit of strong cooling and increase in precipitation during the ACR and the southern limit of influence of strong hydrologic variations during the YD in terrestrial environments, suggesting an overlap in the spheres of influence of processes originating from southern and northern polar latitudes. An extended warm southern westerly wind (SWW)-minimum interval is evident between 7600 and 11,300 yr BP, followed by a rapid shift to cool-moist conditions between 5300 and 7600 yr BP brought by a mid-Holocene SWW maximum. Since then we observe centennial-scale hydroclimate variability, which has driven biodiversity and fire-regime shifts of evergreen temperate rainforests.

  14. Novel aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes from coastal marine sediments of Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrero Marcela A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, widespread pollutants in the marine environment, can produce adverse effects in marine organisms and can be transferred to humans through seafood. Our knowledge of PAH-degrading bacterial populations in the marine environment is still very limited, and mainly originates from studies of cultured bacteria. In this work, genes coding catabolic enzymes from PAH-biodegradation pathways were characterized in coastal sediments of Patagonia with different levels of PAH contamination. Results Genes encoding for the catalytic alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHDs were amplified from intertidal sediment samples using two different primer sets. Products were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Clones representing each restriction pattern were selected in each library for sequencing. A total of 500 clones were screened in 9 gene libraries, and 193 clones were sequenced. Libraries contained one to five different ARHD gene types, and this number was correlated with the number of PAHs found in the samples above the quantification limit (r = 0.834, p nahAc-like genes, phnAc-like genes as identified in Alcaligenes faecalis AFK2, and phnA1-like genes from marine PAH-degraders from the genus Cycloclasticus. Conclusion These results show the presence of hitherto unidentified ARHD genes in this sub-Antarctic marine environment exposed to anthropogenic contamination. This information can be used to study the geographical distribution and ecological significance of bacterial populations carrying these genes, and to design molecular assays to monitor the progress and effectiveness of remediation technologies.

  15. Lake-level variations and tides in Lago Argentino, Patagonia: insights from pressure tide gauge records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Richter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on precise pressure tide gauge observations lake-level records are derived for two sites in Lago Argentino, southern Patagonia, of 2.5 and 1 years of duration. Applying the tools of time series analysis, the principal processes affecting the lake level are identified and quantified. Lake-level changes reflecting variations in lake volume are dominated by a seasonal cycle of 1.2 m in amplitude. Lake-volume changes occur in addition with a daily period in response to melt water influx from surrounding glaciers. Sporadic lake-volume jumps are caused by bursting of the ice dam of Perito Moreno glacier. Water movements in Lago Argentino are dominated by surface seiches reaching 20 cm in amplitude. Lake tides reach a maximum amplitude of 3 mm. The comparison of the tidal signal extracted from the lake-level observations with a model composed of the contributions of body tide and ocean tidal loading indicates a phase shift of 23° which is most likely explained by an 1 hour phase lag of global ocean tide models in the region of the highly fragmented Pacific coast. The comparison of the obtained results with those of a previous study of Lago Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego, allows to relate differences in the hydrological and hydrodynamic processes between both lakes to morphological properties. This leads to a tentative prediction of the lake-level variability to be expected from other great Patagonian lakes. The presented geodetic results shall serve as a starting point for a detailed limnological investigation of these aquatic ecosystems.

  16. A Water Resources Management Model to Evaluate Climate Change Impacts in North-Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciarelli, L. F.; Losano, F. T.; Marizza, M.; Cello, P.; Forni, L.; Young, C. A.; Girardin, L. O.; Nadal, G.; Lallana, F.; Godoy, S.; Vallejos, R.

    2014-12-01

    Most recently developed climate scenarios indicate a potential future increase in water stress in the region of Comahue, located in the North-Patagonia, Argentina. This region covers about 140,000 km2 where the Limay River and the Neuquén River converge into the Negro River, constituting the largest integrated basins in Argentina providing various uses of water resources: a) hydropower generation, contributing 15% of the national electricity market; b) fruit-horticultural products for local markets and export; c) human and industrial water supply; d) mining and oil exploitation, including Vaca Muerta, second world largest reserves of shale gas and fourth world largest reserves of shale-oil. The span of multiple jurisdictions and the convergence of various uses of water resources are a challenge for integrated understanding of economically and politically driven resource use activities on the natural system. The impacts of climate change on the system could lead to water resource conflicts between the different political actors and stakeholders. This paper presents the results of a hydrological simulation of the Limay river and Neuquén river basins using WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) considering the operation of artificial reservoirs located downstream at a monthly time step. This study aims to support policy makers via integrated tools for water-energy planning under climate uncertainties, and to facilitate the formulation of water policy-related actions for future water stress adaptation. The value of the integrated resource use model is that it can support local policy makers understand the implications of resource use trade-offs under a changing climate: 1) water availability to meet future growing demand for irrigated areas; 2) water supply for hydropower production; 3) increasing demand of water for mining and extraction of unconventional oil; 4) potential resource use conflicts and impacts on vulnerable populations.

  17. Biomarkers of environmental stress in gills of ribbed mussel Aulacomya atra atra (Nuevo Gulf, Northern Patagonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Malanga, Gabriela

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we assessed in gills of native ribbed mussels Aulacomya atra atra from three sites within Nuevo Gulf (Northern Patagonia) several biomarkers such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid radicals (LR), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and metallothionein (MT). Furthermore, concentrations of main trace metals (Fe, Al, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb) were quantified in mussel tissue. Results showed significant induction of SOD, GST, MT and MDA, as well as, higher concentration of Fe, Al and Cd in winter than in summer. The high MDA content measured in mussels from Folías Wreck seemed to be caused by the very high levels of Fe that would come from the corrosion of the vessel. Mussels from the control site Punta Cuevas presented the lowest levels of Cd and the highest of Al in winter. Despite positive correlations were found between Al and GST and MT, no spatial differentiation was detected in those biomarkers. On the other hand, MT was only related to Al been most likely influenced by environmental variables than by the trace metals. It has to be highlighted that the relationship detected among water temperature, nutrients and antioxidant responses in gills is probably related to the fact that this tissue is in direct contact with water and it is sensitive to its fluctuations. Taking into account that mussel gill is a tissue actively proliferating and the first target of contaminants present in water, so that changes in its antioxidant system can provide an earlier warning signal than in other tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental Niche Overlap between Common and Dusky Dolphins in North Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Guillermo Martín; Romero, María Alejandra; Williams, Gabriela Noemí; Gagliardini, Domingo Antonio; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; Dans, Silvana Laura; González, Raúl Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Research on the ecology of sympatric dolphins has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, many dolphin associations such as that between common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) are poorly understood. The present study was conducted in the San Matías Gulf (SMG) ecosystem (North Patagonia, Argentina) where a high diet overlap among both species was found. The main objective of the present work was to explore the niche overlap of common and dusky dolphins in the habitat and temporal dimensions. The specific aims were (a) to evaluate the habitat use strategies of both species through a comparison of their group attributes (social composition, size and activity), and (b) to evaluate their habitat preferences and habitat overlap through Environmental Niche modeling considering two oceanographic seasons. To accomplish these aims, we used a historic database of opportunistic and systematic records collected from 1983 to 2011. Common and dusky dolphins exhibited similar patterns of group size (from less than 10 to more than 100 individuals), activity (both species use the area to feed, nurse, and copulate), and composition (adults, juveniles, and mothers with calves were observed for both species). Also, both species were observed travelling and feeding in mixed-species groups. Specific overlap indices were higher for common dolphins than for dusky dolphins, but all indices were low, suggesting that they are mainly segregated in the habitat dimension. In the case of common dolphins, the best habitats were located in the northwest of the gulf far from the coast. In the warm season they prefer areas with temperate sea surface and in the cold season they prefer areas with relatively high variability of sea surface temperature. Meanwhile, dusky dolphins prefer areas with steep slopes close to the coast in the southwestern sector of the gulf in both seasons. PMID:26091542

  19. Environmental Niche Overlap between Common and Dusky Dolphins in North Patagonia, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Martín Svendsen

    Full Text Available Research on the ecology of sympatric dolphins has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, many dolphin associations such as that between common dolphins (Delphinus delphis and dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus are poorly understood. The present study was conducted in the San Matías Gulf (SMG ecosystem (North Patagonia, Argentina where a high diet overlap among both species was found. The main objective of the present work was to explore the niche overlap of common and dusky dolphins in the habitat and temporal dimensions. The specific aims were (a to evaluate the habitat use strategies of both species through a comparison of their group attributes (social composition, size and activity, and (b to evaluate their habitat preferences and habitat overlap through Environmental Niche modeling considering two oceanographic seasons. To accomplish these aims, we used a historic database of opportunistic and systematic records collected from 1983 to 2011. Common and dusky dolphins exhibited similar patterns of group size (from less than 10 to more than 100 individuals, activity (both species use the area to feed, nurse, and copulate, and composition (adults, juveniles, and mothers with calves were observed for both species. Also, both species were observed travelling and feeding in mixed-species groups. Specific overlap indices were higher for common dolphins than for dusky dolphins, but all indices were low, suggesting that they are mainly segregated in the habitat dimension. In the case of common dolphins, the best habitats were located in the northwest of the gulf far from the coast. In the warm season they prefer areas with temperate sea surface and in the cold season they prefer areas with relatively high variability of sea surface temperature. Meanwhile, dusky dolphins prefer areas with steep slopes close to the coast in the southwestern sector of the gulf in both seasons.

  20. Oxidation state of Paleozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle below the Pali Aike volcanic field in southernmost Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Hattori, Keiko H.; Li, Jianping; Stern, Charles R.

    2008-09-01

    Mantle xenoliths in the Quaternary Pali Aike alkaline basalts of southernmost Patagonia include lherzolites and harzburgites with and without garnet. The values of fO 2 for all xenoliths range from 0.33 logarithmic unit below the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer (FMQ - 0.33) to FMQ + 0.75, which overlap those for abyssal peridotites. The fO 2 data, together with the bulk rock and mineral compositions, suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) below Pali Aike formed through the accretion of oceanic lithosphere. The oceanic accretion likely occurred in mid to late Paleozoic time when the southern Patagonian terrane formed along the southwest margin of Gondwana. Relict spinel inclusions in garnet suggest that garnet-facies peridotites formed from spinel-facies peridotites most likely in response to pressure increase during the accretion. Comparable fO 2 for garnet- and spinel-facies peridotites suggests that this spinel-garnet transformation was not accompanied by changes in fO 2. Metasomatism by asthenosphere-derived melt through a slab window resulted in the formation of Ti-bearing minerals, and lowering of Mg and enrichment of Ti in bulk rocks and minerals. The replacement of olivine by orthopyroxene formed orthopyroxenites in extreme cases. No significant change in fO 2 is associated with this metasomatism since similar oxidation state is observed between un-metasomatized (FMQ - 0.23 to + 0.48) and metasomatized (FMQ - 0.33 to + 0.75) samples. This is explained by the fO 2 of the asthenospheric melt (~ FMQ - 0.50) similar to the SCLM prior to the metasomatism.

  1. Extracción y clasificación automatizada para la Unidad de Vigilancia Tecnológica e Inteligencia Competitiva de la Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo presenta la constitución, desarrollo y actividades realizadas por la Unidad de Vigilancia Tecnológica e Inteligencia Competitiva de la Patagonia. En particular el desarrollo realizado de una herramienta que permite automatizar y homogeneizar las ecuaciones de búsqueda que utilizarán los expertos de la Unidad de Vigilancia.

  2. Checklist of the Discomycetes (Fungi of Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and adjacent antarctic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma J. Gamundí

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La información brindada en este catálogo consiste en registrar las especies de hongos pertenecientes a los órdenes Cyttariales, Helotiales, Ostropales, Pezizales, Rhytismatales y Thelebolales (Discomycetes coleccionadas en Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego y áreas adyacentes antárticas (Patagonia. Además datos sobre sus organismos asociados fueron localizados, resumidos, validados y editados. Las fuentes de información fueron las exsiccatae depositadas en colecciones de Argentina y otros países y de las publicaciones listadas en la bibliografía. Otros registros derivaron de observaciones de campo sobre material fresco y colecciones de referencia. La información fue acumulada en un sistema computarizado relacional de datos taxonómicos, nomenclaturales, bibliográficos, de distribución geográfica y de observaciones biológicas. Este sistema permite la acumulación de datos paralelos en diferentes idiomas, y distingue la información original de la opinión corriente de lo que puede significar esa información. En la Biological Records Database, 5029 registros fueron creados para observaciones sobre la ocurrencia temporal y espacial de los organismos vivos de la región. De éstos, 2613 corresponden a registros de colecciones de Discomycetes de la Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego, con la siguiente distribución: 1854 para a la Argentina, 687 para Chile y 72 para áreas adyacentes antárticas. Excluyendo los sinónimos, los Discomycetes están representados por 361 especies y taxones subespecíficos (160 géneros, 22 familias y 7 órdenes. Los registros remanentes fueron de organismos asociados con los Discomycetes: 163 animales (8 especies, 8 géneros, 6 familias y 5 órdenes; 2 Chromista; 223 hongos (52 especies, 54 géneros, 26 familias y 13 ódenes; 2028 plantas (159 especies, 122 géneros, 59 familias y 39 órdenes. Cada uno de estos taxones (y cada sinónimo conocido está representado por un registro separado en la Base de Datos Taxon

  3. Papel y significación urbana de los espacios para la música en la ciudad occidental Papel y significación urbana de los espacios para la música en la ciudad occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Goycoolea Prado

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To know the urban location and the characteristics the spaces designed for a specific social activity contributes to understand its function in the city and the relations established with the other activities and social estates. Starting off of this idea, the spaces for “classical music”, understood like results of the interactions between the music and the estates of the political and/or economic power that have promoted them in the modern western city, are analyzed in the article. It is not purpose of the article to make a history of the appearance and urban meaning of the spaces for music, if not to study those that are assumption new ways to understand the relation art-power in the public space.Conocer la localización urbana y las características de los espacios diseñados para una actividad social específica contribuye a comprender su papel en la ciudad y las relaciones establecidas con las demás actividades y estamentos sociales. Partiendo de esta idea, se analizan en el artículo los espacios para la “música culta”, entendidos como resultados de las interacciones entre la música y los estamentos del poder político y/o económico que los han promovido en la ciudad occidental moderna. No es objetivo del artículo realizar una historia de la apariencia y significación urbana de los espacios para la música, sino estudiar los que han supuesto nuevas maneras de entender la relación arte-poder en el espacio público.

  4. Little ice age advance and retreat of Glaciar Jorge Montt, Chilean Patagonia, recorded in maps, air photographs and dendrochronology

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    A. Rivera

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Glaciar Jorge Montt (48°20' S/73°30' W, one of the main tidewater glaciers of the Southern Patagonian Icefield (SPI, has experienced the fastest frontal retreat observed in Patagonia during the past century, with a recession of 19.5 km between 1898 and 2011. This record retreat uncovered trees overridden during the Little Ice Age (LIA advance of the glacier. Samples of these trees were dated using radiocarbon methods, yielding burial ages between 460 and 250 cal yr BP. The dendrochronology and maps indicate that Glaciar Jorge Montt was at its present position before the beginning of the LIA, in concert with several other glaciers in Southern Patagonia, and reached its maximum advance position between 1650 and 1750 AD. The post-LIA retreat is most likely triggered by climatically induced changes during the 20th century, however, Glaciar Jorge Montt has responded more dramatically than its neighbours. The retreat of Jorge Montt opened a new fjord 19.5 km long, and up to 391 m deep, with a varied bathymetry well correlated with glacier retreat rates, suggesting that dynamic responses of the glacier are at least partially connected to near buoyancy conditions at the ice front, resulting in high calving fluxes, accelerating thinning rates and rapid ice velocities.

  5. Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) naturally infecting introduced European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in northern Patagonia: phenotype, prevalence and potential risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo, Pablo F; Cataldo, Sophia Di; Fantozzi, M Cecilia; Deis, Erika; Isenrath, Gabriela Diaz; Viberti, Gabriela; Artigas, Patricio; Peixoto, Raquel; Valero, M Adela; Sierra, Roberto Mera Y; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2015-09-01

    Fascioliasis has recently been included in the WHO list of Neglected Zoonotic Diseases. Besides being a major veterinary health problem, fascioliasis has large underdeveloping effects on the human communities affected. Though scarcely considered in fascioliasis epidemiology, it is well recognized that both native and introduced wildlife species may play a significant role as reservoirs of the disease. The objectives are to study the morphological characteristics of Fasciola hepatica adults and eggs in a population of Lepus europaeus, to assess liver fluke prevalence, and to analyze the potential reservoir role of the European brown hare in northern Patagonia, Argentina, where fascioliasis is endemic. Measures of F. hepatica found in L. europaeus from northern Patagonia demonstrate that the liver fluke is able to fully develop in wild hares and to shed normal eggs through their faeces. Egg shedding to the environment is close to the lower limit obtained for pigs, a domestic animal whose epidemiological importance in endemic areas has already been highlighted. The former, combined with the high prevalence found (14.28%), suggest an even more important role in the transmission cycle than previously considered. The results obtained do not only remark the extraordinary plasticity and adaptability of this trematode species to different host species, but also highlight the role of the European brown hare, and other NIS, as reservoirs capable for parasite spillback to domestic and native cycle, representing a potentially important, but hitherto neglected, cause of disease emergence.

  6. Cerro Bombero: registro de Hippidion saldiasi Roth, 1899 (Equidae, Perissodactyla en el Holoceno temprano de Patagonia (Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberdi, M. T.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A new record of Hippidion saldiasi with new radiocarbon data referred to early Holocene (8,850 ± 80 year C-14 B.P of Patagonia is reported. Both its peculiar geographic location in a scarcely prospected zone and its radiocarbon age, provide new elements to discuss the previous hypotheses about the extinction of the horses and its relations with the human beings that inhabited the different environments of South America.Presentamos un nuevo registro de Hippidion saldiasi con datación radiocarbónica directa correspondiente al Holoceno temprano de Patagonia (8.850 ± 80 años C-14 AP. Su particular ubicación temporal y geográfica en una zona poco estudiada hasta ahora y su registro reciente, aportan nuevos elementos para discutir las hipótesis previas sobre la extinción de los caballos y su relación con los grupos humanos que colonizaron los diferentes ambientes de América del Sur.

  7. Hb Wilde and Hb Patagonia: two novel elongated beta-globin variants causing dominant beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheps, Karen G; Hasenahuer, Marcia A; Parisi, Gustavo; Fornasari, María S; Pennesi, Sandra P; Erramouspe, Beatriz; Basack, Felisa N; Veber, Ernesto S; Aversa, Luis; Elena, Graciela; Varela, Viviana

    2015-06-01

    We describe here the molecular and hematological characteristics of novel frameshift mutations in exon 2 of the HBB gene (in heterozygous state) found in two Argentinean pediatric patients with dominant β-thalassemia-like features. In Hb Wilde, HBB:c.270_273delTGAG(p.Glu90Cysfs*67), we detected the deletion of the third base of the codon 89 (T) and the codon 90 (GAG), whereas in Hb Patagonia, HBB:c.296_297dupGT(p.Asp99Trpfs*59), the frameshift mutation was due to a duplication of a 'GT' dinucleotide after the second base of codon 98 (GTG). The Hb Patagonia and Hb Wilde mutations would result in elongated β-globin chains with modified C-terminal sequences and a total of 155 and 157 amino acids residues, respectively. Based on bioinformatics and structural analysis, as well as protein modeling, we predict that the elongated β-globins would affect the formation of the αβ dimers and their stability, which would further support the mechanism for the observed clinical features in both patients.

  8. Sistemas de Conversores Fluidodinámicos de Energías Alternativas para la Patagonia Argentina

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    Carlos Labriola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La UNPA-UACO comenzó a estudiar el tema de Energía Oceánica y sus conversores con el PI 29 B 125 del 2010: “Análisis de Sistemas de Conversores Fluidodinámicos de Energía Renovable para la Patagonia Austral de Argentina”. Luego en el 2014 se comienza el PI 29 B 163: “Sistemas Conversores Fluido-dinámicos de Energía Renovable para la Patagonia, Argentina”. Este proyecto analiza los recursos oceánicos de las corrientes marinas y undimotriz a macroescala y además se utilizaran modelos desarrollados de conversores de energía de las corrientes marinas y de las olas para estudio y posterior dimensionamiento de prototipos de aplicación para dichas fuentes. Durante el 2014 el becario se propone para estudiar el recurso de las mareas en Río Gallegos y determinación de ubicación de un futuro prototipo en la Ría de Rio Gallegos. El presente informe detalla el trabajo desarrollado durante el 2015 en lo que respecta a estudio del recurso mareomotriz y posible localización de prototipo de turbina hidrocinética flotante para la Ría de Río Gallegos, santa Cruz, Argentina.

  9. Las microfacies carbonatadas neógenas en un sector occidental de la depresión del Bajo Guadalquivir

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    Clauss, F. L.

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available It sets up limestone microfacies (microfacies A to G in the neogene calcarenitic materials of Carmona, Alcalá de Guadaira and Arcos de la Frontera-Bornos, localizated in the occidental sector of the Guadalquivir Basin. Their analysis allow to define the implantation of a mixed shelf environment, a carbonate ramp in a open marine ambient, during Upper Miocene-Lower Pliocene, in such sectors. The composition of these limestones represents the «Foramol» lithofacies. More closely, «molechfor» (Carmona-Alcalá de Guadaira and «bryomol» (Arcos de la Frontera-Bornos. Minimum and medium temperature were Se establecen las microfacies carbonatadas (microfacies A a G, de los materiales calcareníticos neógenos de Carmona, Alcalá de Guadaira y Arcos de la Frontera-Bornos, situados en el extremo occidental de la Depresión del Guadalquivir. Su estudio ha permitido caracterizar la implantación en dichos sectores de una plataforma mixta detrítico carbonatada tipo rampa en un medio marino abierto, durante el Mioceno superior y el Plioceno Inferior. Las asociaciones bióticas determinadas pertenecen al tipo «Foramol». Concretamente se trata de la asociación «molechfor» (Carmona-Alcalá de Guadaira y «bryomol» (Arcos de la Frontera-Bornos. Las temperaturas del agua, mínima y media eran inferiores a los 15 y 180 ºC, respectivamente. La salinidad oscilaba entre 30 y 40 ‰ aproximadamente (salinidad marina normal. En la plataforma del área de Carmona se han diferenciado los tipos estándar de microfacies SMF 9 y SMF 11, y las zonas de facies FZ 2 y FZ 6, aguas poco profundas con circulación abierta en o justamente por debajo del nivel de base y bordes de la plataforma agitada con acción constante del oleaje en o por encima de dicho nivel. La energía del medio varía entre intermitente (microfacies A y moderada (microfacies B-C. En Alcalá de Guadaira y Arcos de la Frontera-Bornos se han establecido igualmente los

  10. MANGROVE FOREST COVER EXTRACTION OF THE COASTAL AREAS OF NEGROS OCCIDENTAL, WESTERN VISAYAS, PHILIPPINES USING LIDAR DATA

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    A. V. Pada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves have a lot of economic and ecological advantages which include coastal protection, habitat for wildlife, fisheries and forestry products. Determination of the extent of mangrove patches in the coastal areas of the Philippines is therefore important especially in resource conservation, protection and management. This starts with a well-defined and accurate map. LiDARwas used in the mangrove extraction in the different coastal areas of Negros Occidental in Western Visayas, Philippines. Total coastal study area is 1,082.55 km² for the 14 municipalities/ cities processed. Derivatives that were used in the extraction include, DSM, DTM, Hillshade, Intensity, Number of Returns and PCA. The RGB bands of the Orthographic photographs taken at the same time with the LiDAR data were also used as one of the layers during the processing. NDVI, GRVI and Hillshade using Canny Edge Layer were derived as well to produce an enhanced segmentation. Training and Validation points were collected through field validation and visual inspection using Stratified Random Sampling. The points were then used to feed the Support Vector Machine (SVM based on tall structures. Only four classes were used, namely, Built-up, Mangroves, Other Trees and Sugarcane. Buffering and contextual editing were incorporated to reclassify the extracted mangroves. Overall accuracy assessment is at 98.73% (KIA of 98.24% while overall accuracy assessment for Mangroves only is at 98.00%. Using this workflow, mangroves can already be extracted in a large-scale level with acceptable overall accuracy assessments.

  11. El género Polygala (Polygalaceae en el Mediterráneo Occidental

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    Paiva, Jorge

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Polygala L. comprises about 720 species (400 American, 206 African, 32 European, 70 Asiatic and 12 Australian.The genus is extended all over the world except Polynesia. New Zealand and the polar regions. The 24 Western Mediterranean species of Polygala belong to three subgenera (5 to the subgen. Chamaebuxus, 1 to the subgen. Brachytropis and 18 to the subgen. Polygala. Looking into morphological, caryological, Palynological, anatomical and ontogenic data, subgenus Chamaebuxus looks more primitive than subgenus Polygala, and subgenus Brachytropis is perhaps derived from the former.

    Polygala es un género con cerca de 720 especies (400 americanas, 206 africanas, 32 europeas, 70 asiáticas y 12 australianas distribuidas por casi lodo el globo excepto Polinesia, Nueva Zelanda y las regiones polares. Las 24 especies de Polygala confinadas en el Mediterráneo Occidental pertenecen a 3 subgéneros (5 al subgénero Chamaebuxus, 1 al subgénero Brachytropis y 18 al subgénero Polygala. De los datos morfológicos, cariológicos, palinológicos, anatómicos y ontogénicos, se desprende que el subgénero Chamaebuxus resulta más primitivo que el subgénero Polygala y que el subgénero Brachytropis se deriva tal vez del primero de los citados.

  12. Reproductive Biology of the Short-Necked Clam, Paphia undulata (Born 1778 from Southern Negros Occidental, Central Philippines

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    Fenelyn M. Nabuab

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The short-necked clam, Paphia undulata, occurs in coastal muddy bottoms of Hinigaran, Binalbagan, and Himamaylan, Negros Occidental where it has an important contribution to fisheries. However, stocks in these areas are dwindling and in order to formulate sound management strategies, information on the reproductive biology of this species is a prerequisite. Also, knowledge on the reproduction of this species is a prelude to its laboratory breeding and rearing. Reproductive biology of the short-necked clam from the three areas was studied over an annual cycle. Short-necked clams were collected monthly from catches of compressor divers. Five gonad stages were described based on histological examinations: developing, mature, partially spawned, redeveloping, and spent. Immature or indeterminate gonads were also noted. Although occasional presence of hermaphrodite gonads was observed this species is still functionally dioecious with 1.00M: 1.02F sex ratio. Sexual maturity is attained at 42.6 mm for males and 44.8 mm for females. Short-necked clams have continuous breeding season. However, peak of spawning activities is on the months of August to November which coincide with the monsoon transition months probably due to the decrease in salinity and nutrient influx during these months. Organisms smaller than 45mm must not be collected and collection must be regulated during peaks of spawning activities to leave a portion of reproductively mature individuals to ensure sustainability of fisheries. However, in terms of laboratory breeding and rearing of this species, it is fundamental to consider the spawning peaks and size at sexual maturity to ensure successful spawning in the laboratory. Hence, broodstock to be used in the experiments must be sexually mature (>45mm and collected during peaks of spawning activities.

  13. Economic evaluation of three populational screening strategies for cervical cancer in the county of Valles Occidental: CRICERVA clinical trial

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    Bonet Josep M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high percentage of cervical cancer cases have not undergone cytological tests within 10 years prior to diagnosis. Different population interventions could improve coverage in the public system, although costs will also increase. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and the costs of three types of population interventions to increase the number of female participants in the screening programmes for cancer of the cervix carried out by Primary Care in four basic health care areas. Methods/Design A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from the perspective of public health system including women from 30 to 70 years of age (n = 20,994 with incorrect screening criteria from four basic health care areas in the Valles Occidental, Barcelona, Spain. The patients will be randomly distributed into the control group and the three intervention groups (IG1: invitation letter to participate in the screening; IG2: invitation letter and informative leaflet; IG3: invitation letter, informative leaflet and a phone call reminder and followed for three years. Clinical effectiveness will be measured by the number of HPV, epithelial lesions and cancer of cervix cases detected. The number of deaths avoided will be secondary measures of effectiveness. The temporal horizon of the analysis will be the life expectancy of the female population in the study. Costs and effectiveness will be discounted at 3%. In addition, univariate and multivariate sensitivity analysis will be carried out. Discussion IG3 is expected to be more cost-effective intervention than IG1 and IG2, with greater detection of HPV infections, epithelial lesions and cancer than other strategies, albeit at a greater cost. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier NCT01373723

  14. Velocidades sismicas de las unidades aflorantes en el flanco occidental de la Sierra de la invernada, precordillera de San Juan

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    Sofía Pérez Luján

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestran determinaciones de velocidades de ondas sísmicas P (Vp en un sector (Reserva Don Carmelo del flanco occidental de la sierra de la Invernada, Departamento Ullúm, Provincia de San Juan. Las velocidades obtenidas con el método de refracción sísmica indican valores de Vp de 550; 1.670 y 4.134 m/s y espesores de 1 m y 7 m aproximadamente, para un modelo de dos capas apoyadas sobre un substrato correspondiente a la mayor velocidad. Las unidades aflorantes reconocidas abarcan grauvacas y areniscas muy bien compactadas que se correlacionan con los valores más altos de Vp determinados en el experimento geofísico para los niveles interpretados a mayor profundidad. Asimismo los valores más bajos de Vp son consistentes con material de tipo aluvional situado en las capas sísmicas más superficiales (< 7m de profundidad. Otras unidades relevadas en el terreno indican afloramientos de diabasas y gabros, los cuales no han sido explorados geofísicamente. Sin embargo, a partir de la comparación de las litologías y velocidades sísmicas Vp observadas con bases de datos globales, es posible predecir la continuación en profundidad de las litologías máficas con velocidades sísmicas de Vp aún mayores que aquellas determinadas en superficie. Estos resultados son de interés debido a que ayudan a identificar una posible faja ofiolítica en Precordillera, en un sector donde el espesor cortical actual estimado en 64 km aproximadamente, estaría engrosado.

  15. Observation de terrain et télédétection (Baie du Roi, Spitsberg nord-occidental

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    Dominique Laffly

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Les observations de terrain sont fondamentales en télédétection. Selon la finalité de l’étude, la description des paysages observés sera plus ou moins détaillée. Une simple reconnaissance des principaux postes d’occupation du sol demande peu d’indicateurs et ne nécessite pas une localisation à la tachèle près. En revanche, l’analyse du contenu des pixels en vue d’une modélisation statistique s’appuie sur une description thématique détaillée de points localisés très précisément. Dans ce cas les images utilisées doivent être correctement géoréférencées et la localisation sur le terrain se fait à l’aide d’un GPS différentiel. Restent les problèmes du choix des points à analyser ainsi que celui de l’observation elle-même de leur "contenu". Nous présentons dans cet article une méthode qui vise à répondre à ces deux questions. Notre approche est fondée sur la technique du sondage systématique non-aligné. Cette dernière permet de tenir compte à la fois de la valeur des points observés et de leur localisation pour définir le plan d’échantillonnage. Les exemples présentés sont issus d’une étude réalisée sur les sandurs de la presqu’île de Br¯gger au Spitsberg nord-occidental (images SPOT XSP.

  16. CARACTERIZACIÓN FÍSIOGRÁFICA DE LA PUNA DE SAJAMA, CORDILLERA OCCIDENTAL DE LOS ANDES (BOLIVIA

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    Fernando Javier Santa Cecilia Mateos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aproxima a la realidad física de la cordillera Occidental de los Andes. Un espacio geográfico donde los caracteres geológicos relacionados con el vulcanismo adquieren una relevancia especial en la configuración del paisaje andino. Los nevados y llanuras intermedias o altiplanos, son los dos elementos que constituyen la imagen de la puna andina, un territorio situado por encima de los 4.000 metros, ámbito intermedio entre los valles húmedos o yungas y las más altas cumbres de los Andes. A la singularidad volcánica habría que añadir la relacionada con el modelado glaciar, los aspectos hidrográficos y la biogeografia en esta área. El artículo toma como ejemplo de estudio la puna de Sajama en eldepartamento de Oruro, en la frontera boliviano-chilena.Abstract. This article approaches the physical reality of the Western Cordillera of the Andes. A geographical space where characters related geological volcanism are of particular importance in shaping the landscape Andean. The intermediate plains or mountains and plateaus, are the two elements that make up the image of the Andean puna, an area located above 4,000 meters, the middle ground between Yungas wet valley and the highest peaks of the Andes. A volcanic uniqueness should add that related to glacier modeling, hydrographic aspects and biogeography in this area. The article uses the example of the highlands of Sajama study in thedepartment of Oruro in Bolivian-Chilean border.

  17. The kidney transplant experience at Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente, IMSS, Guadalajara México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteón, Francisco J; Gómez, Benjamin; Valdespino, Carlos; Chávez, Salvador; Sandoval, Mario; Flores, Antonio; Herrera, Roberto; Ramos, Francisco; Hernandez, Alfonso; Camarena, José L; Páez, Hugo; Ramírez, José; Nieves, Juan J; Bassols, Angel; Rosales, Guillermo; Romero, Omar; Paredes, Graciela; Andrade, Jorge; Ruelas, Sara; Contreras, Ana M

    2003-01-01

    A total of 1,356 kidney transplants has been performed in the Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente, IMSS, in Guadalajara Mexico, including 935 in the past 8 years. This represents an important increase of this activity in our country. Of the total transplants, 1,218 (90%) were from living donors and only 138 (10%) were from cadaveric donors, a number that we hope to increase. Most recipients were young adults, with an average age of 31 years old. The overall one-year graft and patient survival rates for living-donor kidney recipients were 90% and 82%, and for cadaveric kidney recipients they were 80% and 70%, respectively. Acute rejections occurred in 17% and chronic allograft nephropathy was diagnosed in 7% of our kidney transplant recipients. The main cause of patient death was infection, frequently invasive CMV. Cardiovascular complications were a relatively infrequent cause of death as has been seen in other international series. Hepatitis B and C have been widley studied. Hepatitis C is the most prevalent viral infection in our population. Both living and cadaveric donors in our series were young, which may explain the good results. We have had very few complications among living donors and no mortality. Two donors developed chronic renal insufficiency after the kidney donation (0.001%). This excellent safety record reflects the experience of our team. We hope to increase the number of cadaveric transplant donors with the renewed interest in enlarging the transplantation programs in Mexico while maintaining our high percentage of living donors in order to benefit more patients.

  18. El cambio climático global en la Patagonia desde el viaje de Charles Darwin hasta nuestros días The global climatic change in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego since voyage of Charles Darwin until present times

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    Jorge Rabassa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El viaje del Beagle que trajo a Charles Darwin a América del Sur entre 1832 y 1835 AD y en particular, al territorio argentino, se desarrolló bajo condiciones climáticas muy desfavorables: frías, secas y ventosas, correspondientes a las condiciones predominantes en la última fase de la pequeña edad del hielo, un episodio frío global que caracterizó a los siglos XVII, XVIII y XIX. Esta fase es conocida como mínimo de Dalton, en referencia a la disminución relativa de la frecuencia de las manchas solares, lo cual redunda en una disminución de la radiación solar y como consecuencia, en menores temperaturas medias globales en ese período. Darwin fue perfectamente consciente de dichas condiciones climáticas, que se manifestaban fuertemente en Europa, en particular en los Alpes, y así lo transmite en sus escritos. Desde el viaje de Darwin a la Patagonia, las condiciones climáticas y ambientales cambiaron sustancialmente, especialmente luego de 1850 AD y, finalmente, después de mediados de la década de 1970 AD. Algunas de las más importantes consecuencias del cambio climático global son el aumento de la temperatura media anual o la temperatura estacional, la elevación o disminución de las precipitaciones al nivel regional, el continuo ascenso global del nivel del mar y un incremento significativo de la frecuencia de eventos meteorológicos extremos. El impacto de esos cambios ha sido observado en los glaciares de Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego, por lo menos desde 1978 AD, y particularmente en la última década del siglo XX. Los impactos más notables son la rápida recesión de las márgenes del hielo en los glaciares, el adelgazamiento de la cobertura glacial, la elevación de la línea de nieve regional y la reducción de las áreas andinas bajo condiciones de suelos permanentemente congelados (permafrost, como han demostrado estudios científicos recientes. A la tasa presente de recesión del hielo glacial, la mayoría, si no

  19. Petrology of suprasubductive mantle xenoliths from Estancia Sol De Mayo (Central Patagonia, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, M.; Coltorti, M.; Gregoire, M.; Benoit, M.

    2012-04-01

    A new suite of mantle xenoliths from Estancia Sol de Mayo (Patagonia) has been investigated. They were entrained in alkaline lavas from the south western sector of Meseta Lago Buenos Aires. Trace element abundances of these lavas are well comparable with those of the main and post-plateau lavas from the Triple Junction Province and resemble those of OIB. Xenoliths are spinel-bearing harzburgites and dunites, with minor lherzolites and one wehrlite. They are characterized by a coarse grained protogranular texture and devoid of modal metasomatic features and hydrated minerals. They show two texturally different clinopyroxenes. One is protogranular (cpx1), while the second surrounds, and is genetically related to, spinel (cpx2). Three different types of orthopyroxenes are also recognized: the first one is represented by large protogranular crystals with exsolution lamellae (opx1), the second one by small clean and undeformed grains without exsolution lamellae (opx2) and the last one occurs as small grains filling veins (opx3). Major element compositions of both clinopyroxenes and orthopyroxenes highlight two different trends. The first one is characterized by high Al2O3 (high-Al trend) content at almost constant mg# [MgO/(MgO+FeO) mol %], while the second shows a slight increase in Al2O3 (low-Al trend) content with decreasing mg#. Trace element contents of cpx are enriched in LREE and characterized by prominent to slightly negative Nb, Zr and Ti anomalies. No differences are observed between cpx1 and cpx2. The three groups of orthopyroxenes are variably depleted in LREE, with opx1 and opx2 always showing prominent to slightly negative Ti and Zr anomalies, while opx3 is characterized by a prominent positive Zr anomaly. Al2O3 in cpx is inversely correlated with LREE and LILE suggesting that a refertilization event occur within the upper mantle beneath Estancia Sol de Mayo. The most likely melt which can account for this event has a tholeiitic affinity, as supported by i

  20. Carbonatite metasomatized peridotite xenoliths from southern Patagonia: implications for lithospheric processes and Neogene plateau magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorring, Matthew L.; Kay, Suzanne M.

    The mineral chemistry, major and trace element, and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of Cr-diopside, spinel peridotite xenoliths from the Estancia Lote 17 locality in southern Patagonia document a strong carbonatitic metasomatism of the backarc continental lithosphere. The Lote 17 peridotite xenolith suite consists of hydrous spinel lherzolite, wehrlite, and olivine websterite, and anhydrous harzburgite and lherzolite. Two-pyroxene thermometry indicates equilibration temperatures ranging from 870 to 1015°C and the lack of plagioclase or garnet suggests the xenoliths originated from between 40 and 60km depth. All of the xenoliths are LILE- and LREE-enriched, but have relatively low 87Sr/86Sr (0.70294 to 0.70342) and high ɛNd (+3.0 to +6.6), indicating recent trace element enrichment ( 25Ma, based on the low 87Sr/86Sr and high Rb concentrations of phlogopite separates) in the long-term, melt-depleted Patagonian lithosphere. Lote 17 peridotite xenoliths are divided into two basic groups. Group 1 xenoliths consist of fertile peridotites that contain hydrous phases (amphibole+/-phlogopite+/-apatite). Group 1 xenoliths are further subdivided into three groups (a, b, and c) based on distinctive textures and whole-rock chemistry. Group 1 xenolith mineralogy and chemistry are consistent with a complex metasomatic history involving variable extents of recent carbonatite metasomatism (high Ca/Al, Nb/La, Zr/Hf, low Ti/Eu) that has overprinted earlier metasomatic events. Group 2 xenoliths consist of infertile, anhydrous harzburgites and record cryptic metasomatism that is attributed to CO2-rich fluids liberated from Group 1 carbonatite metasomatic reactions. Extremely variable incompatible trace element ratios and depleted Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of Lote 17 peridotite xenoliths indicate that the continental lithosphere was neither the primary source nor an enriched lithospheric contaminant for Neogene Patagonian plateau lavas. Neogene plateau magmatism associated with formation

  1. Annual burned area across a precipitation gradient in northwestern patagonia steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddi, Facundo; Ghermandi, Luciana; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2013-04-01

    study area in relation to precipitation gradient establishing two zones (wet and xeric). To delimit area of wildfires on Landsat scenes we used the NBR index. Then, we calculated the annual burned area in each zone, compared the annual burned area between zones and also explored relationships between that variable of the fire regime and precipitation/temperature data. We expect to contribute to the discussions about the importance of drought/fuel on the fire activity across the productivity/aridity gradient, specifically on Mediterranean environments. Finally, with this work we expect to improve future management and conservation practices in Northwestern Patagonia grasslands.

  2. Ignition probability of fine dead surface fuels in native Patagonia forests of Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, L.; Defosse, G. E.

    2014-06-01

    Aim of study: The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) is being implemented all over the world. This index is being adapted to the Argentinean ecosystems since the year 2000. With the objective of calibrating the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC) of the FWI system to Patagonian forests, we studied the relationship between ignition probability and fine dead surface fuel moisture content (MC) as an indicator of potential fire ignition. Area of study: The study area is located in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, and comprised two main forest types (cypress and nire) grown under a Mediterranean climate, with a dry summer and precipitations during winter and autumn ({approx}500-800 mm per year). Material and methods: We conducted lab ignition tests fires to determine the threshold of fine dead fuel ignition at different MC levels. Moisture content of dead fine surface fuels in the field was measured every 10-15 days from November to March for three seasons. We calculated the FFMC during these seasons and correlated it with the measured MC by applying a logistic regression model. We combined the results of the ignition tests and of the regressions to suggest FFMC categories for estimating fire danger in Patagonian forests. Main results: The ignition threshold occurred at MC values of 21.5 and 25.0% for cypress and nire sites, respectively. The MC measured varied from 7.3 to 129.6%, and the calculated FFMC varied between 13.4 and 92.6. Highly significant regressions resulted when FFMC was related to MC. The ignition threshold corresponded to a FFMC = 85. We proposed to divide the FFMC scale in three fire danger categories: Low (FFMC {<=} 85), High (85 < FFMC{<=}89) and Extreme (FFMC > 89). Research highlights: Our results provide a useful tool for predicting fire danger in these ecosystems, and are a contribution to the development of the Argentinean Fire Danger Rating and a reference for similar studies in other countries where the FWI is being implemented. (Author)

  3. A new peat bog testate amoeba transfer function and quantitative palaeohydrological reconstructions from southern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bellen, S.; Mauquoy, D.; Payne, R.; Roland, T. P.; Hughes, P. D.; Daley, T. J.; Street-Perrot, F. A.; Loader, N.

    2013-12-01

    Testate amoebae have been used extensively as proxies for environmental change and palaeoclimate reconstructions in European and North American peatlands. The presence of these micro-organisms in surface samples is generally significantly linked to the local water table depth (WTD) and preservation of the amoeba shells downcore allows for millennial length water table reconstructions. Peat bog archive records in southern Patagonia are increasingly the focus of palaeoecological research due to the possibility of detecting changes in the Southern Westerlies. These Sphagnum magellanicum-dominated peat bogs are characterised by a wide range of water table depths, from wet hollows to high hummocks (>100 cm above the water table). Here we present the first transfer function for this region along with ~2k-year palaeorecords from local peat bogs. A modern dataset (155 samples) was sampled along transects from five bogs in 2012 and 2013. Measurements of WTD, pH and conductivity were taken for all samples. The transfer function model was based on the 2012 dataset, while the 2013 samples served as an independent test set to validate the model. Besides the standard leave-one-out cross-validation, we applied leave-one-site-out and leave-one transect-out cross-validation, which are effective means of verifying the degree of clustering in the dataset. To ensure that the environmental gradient had been evenly sampled we quantified the root-mean-squared error of prediction (RMSEP) individually for segments of this gradient. Ordinations showed a clear hydrological gradient in amoeba assemblages, with the dominant Assulina muscorum at the dry end and Amphitrema wrightianum and Difflugia globulosa at the wet end. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that WTD was the most important environmental variable, accounting for 18% of the variance in amoeba assemblages. A weighted averaging-partial least squares model showed best performance in cross-validation, using the 2013 data as an

  4. Ice elevation and areal changes of glaciers from the Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Andrés; Benham, Toby; Casassa, Gino; Bamber, Jonathan; Dowdeswell, Julian A.

    2007-10-01

    High thinning rates (up to - 4.0 ± 0.97 m a - 1 ) have been measured at Campo de Hielo Patagónico Norte (CHN) or Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile between 1975 and 2001. Results have been obtained by comparing a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from regular cartography compiled by Instituto Geográfico Militar of Chile (IGM) based upon 1974/1975 aerial photographs and a DEM generated from Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite images acquired in September 2001. A complete cloud-free Landsat ETM+ satellite image mosaic acquired in March 2001 was used to update the available glacier inventory of the CHN, including all glaciers larger than 0.5 km 2 (48 new glaciers). A new delineation of ice divides was also performed over the accumulation areas of glaciers sharing the high plateau where the existing regular cartography exhibits poor coverage of topographic information. This updated glacier inventory produced a total ice area for 2001 of 3953 km 2, which represents a decrease of 3.4 ± 1.5% (140 ± 61 km 2 of ice) with respect to the total ice area of the CHN in 1979 calculated from a Landsat MSS satellite image. Almost 62% of the total area change between 1979 and 2001 took place in glaciers located at the western margin of the CHN, where the maximum area loss was experienced by Glaciar San Quintín with 33 km 2. At the southern margin, Glaciar Steffen underwent the largest ice-area loss (12 km 2 or 2.6% of the 1979 area), whilst at the eastern margin the greatest area loss took place in Glaciares Nef (7.9 km 2, 5.7% of the 1979 area) and Colonia (9.1 km 2, 2.7% of the 1979 area). At the northern margin of the CHN the lower debris-covered ablation area of Glaciar Grosse collapsed into a new freshwater lake formed during the late 1990s. The areal changes measured at the CHN are much larger than previously estimated due to the inclusion of changes experienced in the accumulation areas. The CHN as a whole is

  5. Peat decomposition records in three pristine ombrotrophic bogs in southern Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Broder

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ombrotrophic bogs in southern Patagonia have been examined with regard to paleoclimatic and geochemical research questions but knowledge about organic matter decomposition in these bogs is limited. Therefore, we examined peat humification with depth by Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR measurements of solid peat, C/N ratio, and δ13C and δ15N isotope measurements in three bog sites. Peat decomposition generally increased with depth but distinct small scale variation occurred, reflecting fluctuations in factors controlling decomposition. C/N ratios varied mostly between 40 and 120 and were significantly correlated (R2 > 0.55, p < 0.01 with FTIR-derived humification indices. The degree of decomposition was lowest at a site presently dominated by Sphagnum mosses. The peat was most strongly decomposed at the driest site, where currently peat-forming vegetation produced less refractory organic material, possibly due to fertilizing effects of high sea spray deposition. Decomposition of peat was also advanced near ash layers, suggesting a stimulation of decomposition by ash deposition. Values of δ13C were 26.5 ± 2‰ in the peat and partly related to decomposition indices, while δ15N in the peat varied around zero and did not consistently relate to any decomposition index. Concentrations of DOM partly related to C/N ratios, partly to FTIR derived indices. They were not conclusively linked to the decomposition degree of the peat. DOM was enriched in 13C and in 15N relative to the solid phase probably due to multiple microbial modifications and recycling of N in these N-poor environments. In summary, the depth profiles of C/N ratios, δ13C values, and FTIR spectra seemed to reflect changes in environmental conditions affecting decomposition, such as bog wetness, but were dominated by site specific factors, and are further influenced by ash

  6. Jurassic hot spring deposits of the Deseado Massif (Patagonia, Argentina): Characteristics and controls on regional distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Diego M.; Campbell, Kathleen A.

    2011-06-01

    The Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz Province, Argentinean Patagonia, hosts numerous Middle to Late Jurassic age geothermal and epithermal features represented by siliceous and calcareous chemical precipitates from hot springs (sinters and travertines, respectively), hydrothermal breccias, quartz veins, and widespread hydrothermal silicification. They indicate pauses in explosive volcanic activity, marking the final stages in the evolution of an extensive Jurassic (ca. 178-151 Ma) volcanic complex set in a diffuse extensional back-arc setting heralding the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Published paleo-hot spring sites for the Deseado Massif, plus additional sites identified during our recent field studies, reveal a total of 23 locations, five of which were studied in detail to determine their geologic and facies associations. They show structural, lithologic, textural and biotic similarities with Miocene to Recent hot spring systems from the Taupo and Coromandel volcanic zones, New Zealand, as well as with modern examples from Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A. These comparisons aid in the definition of facies assemblages for Deseado Massif deposits - proximal, middle apron and distal siliceous sinter and travertine terraces and mounds, with preservation of many types of stromatolitic fabrics - that likely were controlled by formation temperature, pH, hydrodynamics and fluid compositions. Locally the mapped hot spring deposits largely occur in association with reworked volcaniclastic lacustrine and/or fluvial sediments, silicic to intermediate lava domes, and hydrothermal mineralization, all of which are related to local and regional structural lineaments. Moreover, the numerous geothermal and significant epithermal (those with published minable resources) deposits of the Deseado Massif geological province mostly occur in four regional NNW and WNW hydrothermal-structural belts (Northwestern, Northern, Central, and Southern), defined here by alignment of five or more hot

  7. Sediment records of highly variable mercury inputs to mountain lakes in Patagonia during the past millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Meili, M.; Rizzo, A.; Daga, R.; Arribére, M.

    2010-04-01

    High Hg levels in the pristine lacustrine ecosystems of the Nahuel Huapi National Park, a protected zone situated in the Andes of Northern Patagonia, Argentina, have initiated further investigations on Hg cycling and source identification. Here we report Hg records in sedimentary sequences to identify atmospheric sources during the past millennium. In addition to global transport and deposition, a potential atmospheric Hg source to be considered is the local emissions associated with volcanic activity, because the Park is situated in the Southern Volcanic Zone. Two sediment cores were extracted from Lake Tonček, a small, high-altitude system reflecting mainly direct inputs associated with atmospheric contributions, and Lake Moreno Oeste, a much larger and deeper lake having an extended watershed covered mostly by native forest. The sedimentary sequences were dated based on both 210Pb and 137Cs profiles. In addition, tephra layers were identified and geochemically characterized for chronological application and to investigate any association of volcanic eruptions with Hg records. Hg concentrations in sediments were measured along with 32 other elements, as well as organic matter, subfossil chironomids, and biogenic silica. Observed background Hg concentrations, determined from the sequence domains with lower values, ranged from 50 to 100 ng g-1 dry weight (DW), whereas the surficial layers reached 200 to 500 ng g-1 DW. In addition to this traditional pattern, however, two deep domains in both sequences showed dramatically increased Hg levels reaching 400 to 650 ng g-1 DW; the upper dated to the 18th to 19th centuries, and the lower around the 13th century. These concentrations are not only elevated in the present profiles but also many-fold above the background values determined in other fresh water sediments, as were also the Hg fluxes, reaching 120 to 150 μg m-2 y-1 in Lake Tonček . No correlation was observed between Hg concentrations and the contents of

  8. New Constraints on Maar Geometry and Sedimentary Fill of Laguna Potrok Aike, Southern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, C. A.; Niessen, F.; Anselmetti, F.; Ariztegui, D.; de Batist, M.; Haberzettl, T.; Ohlendorf, C.; Zolitschka, B.

    2007-12-01

    Laguna Potrok Aike is located in Southern Patagonia, Argentina, at 52°S and 70°W. The maar lake has a diameter of 3.5 km and is almost circular and bowl-shaped with a deep, flat plain (100 m water depth) in its central part. Steep flanks separate the lake shoulders at 15 to 35 m water depth from the central plain. The lake is situated in the Pali Aike Volcanic Field at the present boundary between the Southern Hemispheric Westerlies and the Antarctic Polar Front. Its lake level is highly susceptible to changes in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that controls the regional precipitation patterns. Its sedimentary infill possibly contains a long and continuous record of several glacial and interglacial cycles, which is unique in the southern South American realm. Two major stratigraphic units (I and II) were distinguished in the seismic sections. Unit I consists of the lacustrine infill and was further subdivided into Sub-units I-a and I-b on the lake shoulders and I-ab, I-c, and I-d in the central basin. Sub-units I-a and I-b on the lake shoulders are separated by a major unconformity and contain several paleoshoreline structures formed during a step-wise transgression after a lake level lowstand of approx. 35 m below the present lake level. In the central basin, Sub-units I-a and I-b are merged into Sub-unit I-ab, not being separated by any unconformity. Pelagic sedimentation dominates in the northern and central parts, whereas mass movement deposits were found in the southern, western and eastern parts close to the steep diatreme flanks. The boundary between I-ab and I-c is non-erosive with I-ab forming downlaps onto I-c from the eastern and western parts of the lake, pointing at a significantly lower lake level during its accumulation. Sub-unit I-d shows similar characteristics as I-ab. The bedrock (Unit II) that forms the steep diatreme flanks consists of the well-layered sandstones found in the lake surroundings.

  9. Algunas consideraciones sobre una cuestión sobradamente conocida : la caída del Imperio Romano de Occidente (476 d.c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pitillas Salañer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se indican en este artículo algunas de las claves interpretativas a la hora de valorar el hundimiento del Imperio Romano de Occidente. El texto que sirve como punto de referencia para el desarrollo de esta reflexión es el de Orosio (VII, 22, 7, 9.Some of the keys for the interpretation of the West Roman Empire’s collapse, are indicated in this article. The text which is used as reference point for the development of this reflection is by Orosio (VII, 22, 7,9.

  10. Esquema tecnológico para el diseño de sistemas de minirriego en el altiplano occidental de Guatemala

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    Adalberto Bladimiro Rodríguez García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una propuesta de esquema tecnológico para el diseño de sistemas de minirriego en el altiplano occidental de Guatemala. La propuesta incluye los componentes de los sistemas y la descripción general de los mismos adaptados a las condiciones de caudales y tipología de las fuentes de agua disponibles, topografía extrema y característica económica, social y medioambiental de las comunidades rurales en la región objeto de estudio.

  11. Instrumentos para el dimensionamiento hidráulico de sistemas de minirriego con pasos aéreos en el altiplano occidental de Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Bladimiro Rodríguez García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio de diversas ecuaciones clásicas para el dimensionamiento hidráulico de redes de tuberías adaptadas a las condiciones de topografía del altiplano occidental de Guatemala. Como resultado de estos estudios, se recomiendan algunos instrumentos para la selección de diámetros en sistemas de captación y conducción del agua a través de pasos aéreos como única alternativa viable para la conducción del agua hasta los sistemas de mini riego.

  12. Aspectos sociales de la muerte materna: análisis de 5 años en el Hospital General de Occidente: Jalisco, México

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía M,Martha Leticia; Ortiz V,Roberto Carlos; Laureano E,Jorge; Alcántara H,Elizabeth Clotilde Guillermina; López Z,María del Carmen; Gil H,Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar los aspectos sociales de las muertes maternas ocurridas en el Hospital General de Occidente, Jalisco, México (2006-2010). Método: Se recurrió al archivo del hospital para identificar los expedientes de las muertes maternas ocurridas durante el periodo de estudio. Las fuentes de información fueron certificados de defunción, autopsia verbal, cuestionario confidencial y dictamen de las muertes. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y medidas de tendencia central para el análisis ...

  13. Geomorfología Tectónica del Sistema de Fallas del Zulia en el flanco occidental del Sinclinal del Zulia, Norte de Santander – Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Oviedo Reyes, Jorge Adrián

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este estudio fue caracterizar la tectónica activa en el área comprendida entre el valle del rio Zulia y la serranía de Aguardiente, en la terminación noreste de la Cordillera Oriental colombiana, utilizando morfometría y análisis morfotectónico. Previamente, el hallazgo de una franja de terrazas deformadas en el flanco occidental del rio Zulia, con una altura de 80 metros respecto al cauce actual, se manifestó como un indicador morfológico contundente de deformación ...

  14. Autoagresión corporal entre los jóvenes del occidente de México: psicopatología y cultura

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    María del Carmen Rojas Hernández

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es analizar, mediante conceptos del psicoanálisis y de la antropología simbólica, algunas prácticas de autoagresión corporal entre jóvenes urbanos del Occidente de México, como una manifestación de enfermedad, de sí mismos y de su sociedad, esta articulación se propone a partir del análisis de trastornos de alimentación, y del acto de auto cortarse la piel.

  15. Distribución geográfica y depredación de Porites lobata (Antbozoa: Scleractinia) en la costa occidental de México

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Bonilla, Héctor; Pérez Viva, Tito Livio; Ketchum Mejía, James T

    2015-01-01

    El coral hermatípico Porites [obata Dana, 1846 es una de las especies más importantes en las comunidades arrecifales de América Central. pero fue registrada en México hasta 1992, en el Archipiélago de. Revillagigedo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue el de dar a conocer la distribución geográfica y algunos aspectos de la biología de P. labata en la costa occidental de México, a partir de observaciones de campo y datos de literatura. Esta especie se distribuye en México dentro de un segment...

  16. Política cultural y regeneración urbana en las ciudades de Europa Occidental: lecciones aprendidas de la experiencia y perspectivas para el futuro

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    El presente artículo aborda los usos de la política cultural y de la planificación como herramientas de regeneración urbana en ciudades de Europa Occidental. Tras una breve evaluación de la evolución de la política cultural europea de las últimas décadas, el artículo se centra en los orígenes y el desarrollo del programa Ciudad/Capital Europea de la Cultura y explora la experiencia de ciudades que han logrado un cambio de imagen y una regeneración mediante actividades culturale...

  17. Flujos migratorios en el mediterráneo occidental: ¿causas demográficas, sociales o económicas?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo pretende contribuir al debate sobre las posibles causas de los flujos migratorios entre regiones del mundo, tomando los países del Mediterráneo Occidental como caso de estudio. Con las teorías de las «migraciones de reemplazo» y el «dividendo demográfico» como punto de partida, se analiza en primer lugar las diferencias en las estructuras de población en tres países europeos del sur (Francia, España e Italia) y en tres norteafricanos (Marruecos, Argelia y Túnez), demostrándose q...

  18. Apuntes al estudio del dragón como elemento festivo en Oriente y Occidente : China y España

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Beltrán, Juan Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Los dragones son animales mitológicos que aparecen tanto en las culturas orientales, como en las Occidentales; sin embargo, mientras que en Oriente son considerados unos animales benefactores y por lo tanto deben ser cuidados, en Occidente simbolizan el mal y por ello deben ser combatidos. El dragón ha sido representado en ambas culturas y su figura se ha mantenido con el paso de los años, llegando a ser un elemento imprescindible en muchas celebraciones civiles y religiosas. En la actualidad...

  19. El Sahara Occidental : alimentación y cocina tradicional : aspectos culturales, lingüísticos y etnobotánicos

    OpenAIRE

    Baya E., Moulay-Lahssan

    2014-01-01

    Esta tesis aborda diversos aspectos relacionados con la alimentación y la cocina tradicional de las sociedades beduinas o seminómadas del Sahara Occidental. Dichos aspectos se enmarcan dentro de su contexto cultural y sociológico; de modo que, además de los temas alimentarios, se abordan aspectos culturales, lingüísticos y etnobotánicos. La investigación está basada fundamentalmente en fuentes orales, que, a su vez, son contrastadas y complementadas con la documentación que suministran algun...

  20. La tectonique panafricaine du secteur d’Igherm : implication des dômes extensifs tardi a post-orogeniques (Anti-Atlas Occidental, Maroc

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    Soulaimani, A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available L’évolution tectonique tardi-orogénique panafricaine du secteur d’Igherm (Anti-Atlas occidental, Maroc se caractérise par l’exhumation des parties profondes paléoprotérozoïques à l’image des dômes extensifs. Elle est contrôlée par un détachement principal ductile de faible pendage et des détachements de fort pendage de type extensionnel qui succèdent à un raccourcissement régional de direction NW-SE. Le détachement principal subhorizontal, est souligné par des mylonites de faible degré métamorphique. Il sépare deux unités : l’unité inférieure (complexe métamorphique du Paléoprotérozoïque à comportement ductile et l’unité supérieure (Quartzites néoprotérozoïques du Supergroupe de l’Anti-Atlas à comportement fragile. Cette évolution coïncide avec la mise en place des bassins « supradétachement » du Supergroupe de Ouarzazate durant l’extension qui aurait débuté après le raccourcissement panafricain datés vers 650 Ma. L’évènement extensionnel peut être généralisé à tout l’Anti-Atlas occidental.La evolución tectónica tardi-orogénica panafricana del sector de Igherm (Anti-Atlas occidental, Marruecos se caracteriza por la exhumación de las partes profundas proterozoicas como domos extensivos. Está controlada por un despegue principal dúctil con poco buzamiento y despegues con alto buzamiento de tipo extensional que se sobreponen a un acortamiento regional de dirección NO-SE. El despegue principal subhorizontal viene marcado por milonitas con metamorfismo de grado bajo. Este accidente separa dos unidades : la unidad inferior (complejo metamórfico del Paleoproterozoico de comportamiento dúctil y la unidad superior (cuarcitas del neoproterozoico del Supergrupo del Anti-Atlas de comportamiento frágil. Esta evolución coincide con el origen de las cuencas de «supra-detachment» del Supergrupo de Ouarzazate durante la extensión que se habría producido después del acortamiento

  1. Utopías artísticas del mundo contemporáneo, 1989-2012: arte, movimientos sociales y utopía en Europa Occidental

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Blanco, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo estudia la centralidad de los discursos utópicos en Europa occidental después de la caída del Muro de Berlín, dentro de los movimientos sociales extraparlamentarios y el arte. Considerando la importancia de distinguir entre las diferentes esferas analizadas, la presente Tesis Doctoral ha adoptado una estructura tripartita. En una gradación que va in crescendo, la primera parte comienza con el estudio de la creatividad utópica de algunos movimientos sociales entre 1989 y 2003 (cap...

  2. Desarrollo de una nueva línea de negocio para Aromáticos de Occidente S.A.S

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Escobar, María Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    Este proyecto plantea una nueva línea de negocio para la empresa Aromáticos de Occidente (Aroc), con la cual se busca diversificar el mercado de esta empresa por medio de la elaboración de propuestas comerciales orientadas a desarrollar fragancias que aromatizarán locales comerciales y/o oficinas, y dulces saborizados que identifiquen la marca. Se espera que estas fragancias y sabores generen experiencias sensoriales estimulantes para el sentido del olfato y del gusto, y asociaciones que cont...

  3. Los colores de las conchas marinas en el antiguo occidente de México. El caso del Posclásico

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Gómez Gastélum

    2007-01-01

    A partir de los estudios sobre la cosmovisión mesoamericana –en especial aquellos relacionados con el cuerpo humano y las signifi caciones del color–, se analizan los patrones de uso de las conchas marinas y los objetos elaborados con éstas en las sociedades prehispánicas del occidente de México durante el periodo Posclásico (1100-1350 d.C.), con la fi nalidad de acercarse al simbolismo que les fueron otorgados por parte de quienes las utilizaron.

  4. A Combined Observational and Modeling Approach to Study Modern Dust Transport from the Patagonia Desert to East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasso, S.; Stein, A.; Marino, F.; Castellano, E.; Udisti, R.; Ceratto, J.

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of present atmospheric transport processes from Southern Hemisphere (SH) landmasses to Antarctica can improve the interpretation of stratigraphic data in Antarctic ice cores. In addition, long range transport can deliver key nutrients normally not available to marine ecosystems in the Southern Ocean and may trigger or enhance primary productivity. However, there is a dearth of observational based studies of dust transport in the SH. This work aims to improve current understanding of dust transport in the SH by showing a characterization of two dust events originating in the Patagonia desert (south end of South America). The approach is based on a combined and complementary use of satellite retrievals (detectors MISR, MODIS, GLAS ,POLDER, OMI,), transport model simulation (HYSPLIT) and surface observations near the sources and aerosol measurements in Antarctica (Neumayer and Concordia sites). Satellite imagery and visibility observations confirm dust emission in a stretch of dry lakes along the coast of the Tierra del Fuego (TdF) island (approx.54deg S) and from the shores of the Colihue Huapi lake in Central Patagonia (approx.46deg S) in February 2005. Model simulations initialized by these observations reproduce the timing of an observed increase in dust concentration at the Concordia Station and some of the observed increases in atmospheric aerosol absorption (here used as a dust proxy) in the Neumayer station. The TdF sources were the largest contributors of dust at both sites. The transit times from TdF to the Neumayer and Concordia sites are 6-7 and 9-10 days respectively. Lidar observations and model outputs coincide in placing most of the dust cloud in the boundary layer and suggest significant de- position over the ocean immediately downwind. Boundary layer dust was detected as far as 1800 km from the source and approx.800 km north of the South Georgia Island over the central sub-Antarctic Atlantic Ocean. Although the analysis suggests the

  5. Nacionalismo territorialista en textos escolares: representaciones de la Patagonia en la dictadura militar argentina (1966-1983 Territorialist nationalism in school textbooks: representations of Patagonia in Argentinian military dictatorship (1966-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Jaramillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los textos escolares desde hace tiempo se han constituido en una de las fuentes primarias para el campo de la Historia de la Educación en tanto son instrumentos de socialización formal básica. Sea considerado registro escrito editorial, herramienta didáctica o registro de memoria escolar, los textos escolares instituyen - y, en ocasiones, eternizan - concepciones e intereses reflejados en sus contenidos "oficiales". Investigaciones recientes en la búsqueda de la realidad escolar han enfatizado la importancia de los mismos en la construcción de las identidades nacionales, pero también de las identidades de grupos socio-culturales, socio-étnicos y regionales. Este artículo, a partir de una indagación historiográfica sobre libros de lectura, intenta reconstruir las diferentes tramas discursivas textuales e iconográficas en que ha sido representada la Patagonia durante los periodos dictatoriales argentinos 1966-1973 y 1976-1983, en escuelas primarias de Río Negro y Neuquén. En principio, puede advertirse un conjunto de relatos de la Patagonia y sus habitantes sobre la base de tres núcleos de sentido: el de territorio indígena, desierto e inculto; el de promisión para el progreso y el turismo; y el de soberanía nacional. A través de sus argumentos daremos cuenta que los libros escolares de edición nacional con rasgos eminentemente políticos pero también étnicos y raciales fueron medios de formación y, sobre todo, dispositivos que coadyuvaron a la conformación de una línea ideológica, política y pedagógica propia del nacionalismo católico militar.School textbooks have long been taken as one of the primary sources for the field of the History of Education, since they are instruments of basic formal socializing. Either as editorial written records, as didactic tools, or as records of school memory, school textbooks institute - and sometimes crystallize - conceptions and interests reflected in their "official" contents

  6. Distribución del ictioplancton en la Patagonia austral de Chile: potenciales efectos del deshielo de Campos de Hielo Sur Ichthyoplankton distribution in South Patagonia, Chile: potential effects of ice melting from the Southern Ice Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio F Landaeta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante octubre-noviembre de 2009 se realizó un crucero oceanográfico entre 50 y 53°S de Chile austral, en las cercanías del glaciar Campos de Hielo Sur. Las estaciones cercanas al glaciar presentaron baja temperatura (1-3°C y salinidad ( 0,1 ciclos s-1. Los principales taxa del ictioplancton fueron huevos y larvas de sardina fueguina Sprattus fuegensis, pez hacha Maurolicus parvipinnis, Macrouridae y merluza austral Merluccius australis. El desove principal de S. fuegensis (~ 8000 huevos 10 m-2 ocurrió en zonas mezcladas de la plataforma continental adyacente, mientras que el desove de M. parvipinnis ocurrió en canales intermedios asociado a valores intermedios de estabilidad (N~0,06 ciclos s-1. Se observó una nula o baja abundancia de huevos y larvas de peces en las cercanías del glaciar, y la abundancia de huevos de M. parvipinnis estuvo relacionada positivamente con la temperatura y salinidad de la columna de agua y negativamente con la estabilidad de la columna de agua. Además, hubo una relación negativa entre la densidad del agua de mar y el diámetro de los huevos de S. fuegensis. La relación entre deshielo e ictioplancton podría tener consecuencias en el transporte advectivo y mortalidad masiva de huevos y larvas de peces y el acople pelágico-bentónico en la Patagonia austral de Chile. Como el cambio climático global ha incrementado los deshielos de glaciares en latitudes altas, y el aumento del ingreso de aguas de baja temperatura y salinidad podría tener consecuencias en el ictioplancton de la Patagonia chilena.In October-November 2009, an oceanographic survey was carried out between 50 and 53°S off southern Chile, near the Southern Ice Field. The stations near the glacier showed low temperatures (1-3°C and salinity ( 0.1 cycles s-1. Main ichthyoplankton taxa were eggs and larvae of southern sprat Sprattus fuegensis, lightfish Maurolicus parvipinnis, Macrouridae, and southern hake Merluccius australis. The main

  7. Cenozoic back-arc magmatism of the southern extra-Andean Patagonia (44° 30' - 52° S: A review of geochemical data and geodynamic interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D'Orazio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Huge amounts of basaltic s.l. lavas were persistently erupted along the eastern side of the Andean Cordillera, throughout Cenozoic time, forming extensive plateaus, hundreds of monogenetic scoria cones and other volcanic structures in a continental back-arc setting. The igneous products exposed in the southern sector of the extra-Andean Patagonia (44° 30' - 52° S are dominantly mafic with minor slightly evolved compositions and rare highly differentiated products. The many published chemical analyses of these rocks, indicate that the mafic lavas range from strongly silica - undersaturated basanites to oversaturated basaltic andesites, and that most of the lavas have a typical within-plate geochemical signature. However, a number of lavas, generally erupted in the western-central sectors of Patagonia, are characterized by different distributions of the incompatible elements with high LILE/HFSE and LREE/HFSE ratios. The REE distribution modelling suggests a low degree of melting of a deep (> 70 km garnet-bearing source for the alkaline magmas, and a higher degree of melting of the same source, or an even higher degree of melting of an enriched source, for the subalkaline magmas. The available Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions clearly attest to a major geographic variation: the southernmost lavas have lower 87Sr/86Sr and higher 143Nd/144Nd and 206Pb/204Pb ratios with respect to those erupted to the north. On the whole, the Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of the southern Patagonia lavas fall within the typical range of within-plate continental magmas; in addition the Pb isotope ratios fall in the range of the Southern Hemisphere Dupal Pb isotope anomaly. The geochemical variations of the southern Patagonia lavas are discussed in terms of different geochemical components: depleted and enriched sub-slab asthenosphere, enriched continental lithospheric mantle, continental crust and subducted materials. The geodynamic significance is interpreted with in the

  8. Diplodon shells from Northwest Patagonia as continental proxy archives: Oxygen isotopic results and sclerochronological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, A. L.; Beierlein, L.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Freshwater mussels of the genus Diplodon (Bivalvia, Hyriidae) are the most abundant bivalve (today and in the past) in freshwater bodies at both sides of the South-Andean Cordillera. There are about 25 different Diplodon genera in Argentina and Chile that could be assigned almost completely to the species Diplodon chilensis (Gray, 1828) and two subspecies: D. ch. chilensis and D. ch. patagonicus; this latter species is found in Argentina between Mendoza (32˚ 52' S; 68˚ 51' W) and Chubut (45˚ 51' S; 67˚ 28' W), including the lakes and rivers of the target area, the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Castellanos, 1960). Despite their wide geographic distribution, Diplodon species have only rarely been used as climate archives in the southern hemisphere. Kaandorp et al. (2005) demonstrated for Diplodon longulus (Conrad 1874) collected from the Peruvian Amazonas that oxygen isotopic patterns in the shells could be used in order to reconstruct the precipitation regime and dry/wet seasonal of the monsoonal system in Amazonia. Although this study demonstrated the potential of Diplodon in climatological and ecological reconstructions in the southern hemisphere, as of yet, no systematic study of Diplodon as a multi-proxy archive has been undertaken for the Patagonian region. In this work we present sclerochronological analyses supported by ^18Oshell in recent mussel of Diplodon chilensis patagonicus (D'Orbigny, 1835) collected at Laguna El Trébol (42°S-71°W, Patagonia Argentina), one of the best studied water bodies in the region for paleoclimate analysis. Water temperature was measured every six hours for one year using a temperature sensor (Starmon mini®) placed at 5m depth in the lake, close to a mussel bank. Additionally, ^18Owater was measured monthly for the same time range.g^18Oshell values obtained by micro-milling at high spatial resolution in the growth increments of three Diplodon shells were compared to these records, and to air temperature and

  9. Origin and evolution of the Laguna Potrok Aike maar (Patagonia, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, A. C.; de Batist, M.; Niessen, F.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Ariztegui, D.; Ohlendorf, C.; Zolitschka, B.

    2009-04-01

    Laguna Potrok Aike, a maar lake in southern-most Patagonia, is located at about 110 m a.s.l. in the Pliocene to late Quaternary Pali Aike Volcanic Field (Santa Cruz, southern Patagonia, Argentina) at about 52°S and 70°W, some 20 km north of the Strait of Magellan and approximately 90 km west of the city of Rio Gallegos. The lake is almost circular and bowl-shaped with a 100 m deep, flat plain in its central part and an approximate diameter of 3.5 km. Steep slopes separate the central plain from the lake shoulder at about 35 m water depth. At present, strong winds permanently mix the entire water column. The closed lake basin contains a sub saline water body and has only episodic inflows with the most important episodic tributary situated on the western shore. Discharge is restricted to major snowmelt events. Laguna Potrok Aike is presently located at the boundary between the Southern Hemispheric Westerlies and the Antarctic Polar Front. The sedimentary regime is thus influenced by climatic and hydrologic conditions related to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, the Southern Hemispheric Westerlies and sporadic outbreaks of Antarctic polar air masses. Previous studies demonstrated that closed lakes in southern South America are sensitive to variations in the evaporation/precipitation ratio and have experienced drastic lake level changes in the past causing for example the desiccation of the 75 m deep Lago Cardiel during the Late Glacial. Multiproxy environmental reconstruction of the last 16 ka documents that Laguna Potrok Aike is highly sensitive to climate change. Based on an Ar/Ar age determination, the phreatomagmatic tephra that is assumed to relate to the Potrok Aike maar eruption was formed around 770 ka. Thus Laguna Potrok Aike sediments contain almost 0.8 million years of climate history spanning several past glacial-interglacial cycles making it a unique archive for non-tropical and non-polar regions of the Southern Hemisphere. In particular, variations of

  10. CONTENIDO DE POLIAMINAS LIBRES EN PALMAS AFECTADAS POR PUDRICION DEL COGOLLO EN LAS ZONAS CENTRAL Y OCCIDENTAL DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prada Fausto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La pudrición del cogollo (PC es la principal enfermedad de la palma en Colombia. En las zonas palmeras Central (ZC y Oriental (ZE, las palmas enfermas pueden recuperarse naturalmente. En la Zona Occidental (ZW el proceso de recuperación no es evidente. La recuperación de palmas está ligada a gran actividad meristemática que podría involucrar la acción inductora de metabolitos como las poliaminas (PA. Este trabajo muestra la relación entre poliaminas del meristemo y la capacidad de recuperación de palmas con PC, en dos zonas agroclimáticas diferentes. Poliaminas extraídas del meristemo de palmas sembradas en ZC y ZW, fueron analizadas por HPLC. En ZC, donde existe recuperación espontánea, los niveles más altos de PA se presentan en palmas sanas y en recuperación y a medida que avanza la enfermedad la concentración desciende hasta un mínimo en el estado de PC inicial (PCI. Luego la concentración de PA aumenta hasta el estado de Buena Recuperación (BR donde los valores de poliaminas son más altos que los de palmas sanas. En la ZW, con la enfermedad el contenido de PA aumenta llegando al máximo en plantas sin recuperación y el mínimo se presenta en plantas sanas. Las diferencias entre zonas pueden explicarse por diferentes roles de las poliaminas en plantas. En la ZC la cantidad elevada de PA en palmas sanas o en recuperación funcionaría en la inducción de actividad meristemática, para la recuperación espontánea. En la ZW el aumento en el contenido de PA con la enfermedad induciría la generación de especies reactivas de oxígeno para defensa secundaria de la planta ante la imposibilidad de, a través de incrementos en la actividad meristemática producir rápidamente estructuras sanas que no sean reinfectadas.

  11. La Evolución de la Lanza en Occidente (Piezas de Hierro de Hallstatt al Siglo XV

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    Cirlot, Juan Eduardo

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available See Abstract in Spanish.

    DETERMINAR la evolución de la lanza es difícil, incluso en el área occidental. Fijar el período a que corresponde una determinada pieza con frecuencia implica los más graves problemas, y la posibilidad de error siempre está al acecho. Naturalmente, seriar cronológicamente lanzas de fecha determinada por hallazgos arqueológicos precisos: excavaciones de ruinas, tumbas, etc., es fácil. Pero aplicar los resultados que se obtienen con esta organización supuesta ya no lo es tanto. Ello se debe esencialmente a un hecho: la falta de caracterización estilística suficiente en gran número de piezas, aunque es innegable que hay otras cuya forma «dice» con claridad a qué mundo cultural pertenecen. Complementa esa falta de caracterización la riqueza tipológica que suele darse en cada período. El canon varía con libertad e igualmente las dimensiones e incluso la técnica. Para el coleccionista de lanzas, o para el investigador que se enfrenta con piezas que no proceden de hallazgos fechados, es muy arduo, pues, saber con aproximación a qué época y lugar corresponden tales armas. Tiene a su disposición varios elementos de juicio: la comparación con las armas procedentes de hallazgos fechados, la «calidad» (textura de la pieza, es decir, su aspecto táctil, que acaba por ser inconfundible o poco menos para el que frecuenta los objetos antiguos. Finalmente, por escasa que sea la «caracterización estilística», siempre hay alguna, y ayuda a corroborar o a rectificar las hipótesis formuladas con la base de los dos principios primeros.

  12. La España de Franco desde el exterior: el inacabado camino hacia Occidente (1955-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito de la Torre Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de combinar la ya bien conocida evolución política de la España de Franco con las percepciones que generó en las potencias occidentales. El bienio 1957-1959 (guerra de Ifni y colaboración con Francia; reorientación de la política económica supuso un importante viraje hacia Occidente de la diplomacia de Madrid. El franquismo carecía ya de cualquier alternativa. La modernización socio-económica lo estaba consolidando, al tiempo que preparaba las bases de un futuro democrático tras la desaparición de Franco. Las potencias democráticas tenían que aceptar la realidad de una España nueva, que ya no era aquella quantité négligeable de los primeros tiempos, pero cuya naturaleza política impedía el pleno desarrollo de todas sus potencialidades exteriores. Entre tanto los poderes occidentales debían ir apostando por el momento de la sucesión. This article tries to combine the wellknown political developments in Franco’s Spain and the perceptions generated by these in Western powers. The biennium 1957-1959 (War of Ifni and collaboration with France; reorientation of economic policy was a major turning point in Madrid’s diplomacy towards the West. Franco´s regime was already a reality without choice. Socio-economic modernization was backing the dictatorship, while laying the foundations for a democratic future after the Caudillo´s demise. The western powers had to accept the reality of this New Spain, which was no longer the quantité négligeable of early days, but whose political hindrances prevented the full development of its international potential. Meanwhile, the democracies had to go betting on the succession.

  13. Incidentes en la zona aérea de Canarias y Africa occidental durante la II Guerra Mundial

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    Juan José Díaz Benítez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available La política exterior española durante la II Guerra Mundial empezó a virar hacia la neutralidad con la llegada de Gómez Jordana al Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores en 1942. Sin embrago, la colaboración con el Eje, aún no concluida, provocó, fuertes presiones por parte de los aliados durante el resto de la guerra y alentó la sospecha de que aún continuaba el abastecimiento clandestino de submarinos alemanes en Canarias. Por ello. los aviones aliados sobrevolaron frecuentemente la Zona Aérea de Canarias y África Occidental entre principios de 1943 y el verano de 1944, provocando la reacción de las baterías de artillería antiaérea españolas e incluso la intervenci6n de los cazas con base en Gando. En ningún momento las fuerzas españolas intentaron derribar a los aviones aliados que atravesaban las aguas territoriales, sino sólo avisarlos para que se retiraran. No obstante, los aviones aliados persistieron, dando lugar a graves incidentes que estuvieron punto de ocasionar una fatalidad. Finalmente, las prolongadas gestiones diplomáticas emprendidas a finales de 1943 acabaron con estos incidentes, los cuales son un ejemplo olvidado de las tensas relaciones entre España y los aliados durante el declive del Eje.Spanish foreign policy through World War II turned to the way of neutrality after Gómez Jordana arrived at the Ministry of Foreign Affaires in 1943.  Howver, the persistent aid to tha Axis rose strong pressures by the Allies for the rest of the war and encouraged them for searching German U-boots at the Canary Islands. So Allied airplanes frequently flew over the Canary Islands and West Africa Aerial Zone between the beginning of 1943 and the summer of 1944, tempting the Spanish anti-aircraft batteries and the fighters based in Gaildo Gando reaction. The Spanish forces never tried to destroy the Allied aircrafts, but baut only warned them to keep away from yje Spanish aerial zone. Nevertheless, Allied planes still went on

  14. Caracterización estructural de bosques montanos dominados por encino en el centro-occidente de México

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    M. Olvera-Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron tres asociaciones florísticas dominadas por encinos (Quercus spp en bosques montanos del centro-occidente de México con el fin de conocer si existe diferenciación estructural de sus poblaciones en función de las características del sitio donde se localizan. Se establecieron 84 parcelas circulares a lo largo de un gradiente ambiental de 10 km. Las variables consideradas para caracterizar la estructura de las poblaciones fueron la densidad, el área basal, la distribución diamétrica y un índice de rendimiento (IR estimado mediante la sumatoria de los valores de densidad relativa y volumen relativo de cada una de las especies presentes en cada asociación florística. Para cada especie se estimó el coeficiente de Gini con el fin de determinar si se presenta una desigualdad en la distribución diamétrica de las poblaciones en función de la asociación florística donde se localiza; además se aplicó una prueba no-paramétrica para evaluar la diferencia en tamaños diamétricos de las seis especies que presentaron las abundancias más sobresalientes entre asociaciones y un modelo lineal general para determinar si la especie y la asociación donde ésta se encuentra, tiene un impacto en el tamaño diamétrico. Los resultados indicaron que existe diferenciación estructural entre especies de acuerdo a la asociación florística; la asociación donde se encontró el mayor número de especies de encino coexistiendo en el dosel (ocho especies, presentó valores intermedios de IR y la mayor desigualdad (G en tamaños diamétricos. Con respecto a la variación de los tamaños diamétricos, solo tres especies mostraron diferencias significativas entre asociaciones. A partir de los resultados obtenidos se hipotetiza que la estructura diferencial de las especies por asociación, y en particular el tamaño diamétrico de las especies de encino, puede ser una respuesta estratégica de las especies para compartir, proporcionalmente al

  15. Tectonomagmatic relationship between the Sierra Madre Occidental ignimbrite flare-up and the southern Basin and Range province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Labarthe-Hernandez, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) is a Mid-Tertiary, large-volume, ignimbrite province at least 1,200 km long and 200-500 km wide, extending continuously from the U.S.-Mexico border (31\\deg N) to its intersection with the Mexican Volcanic Belt (21\\deg N). Considering the average thickness of 1,000 m for the ignimbrite plateau, based on several measured sections along the province, and the average wide of the province of 300 km, a conservative estimate of the physical volume of the SMO ignimbrites is about 360,000 km3. The southern part of the Basin and Range province is in Mexico. This extensional province overlaps in space and time with the SMO ignimbrite flare-up and formed NW- to NE-trending normal faults that bound many large grabens, which are particularly long and deep in the southern SMO. Basin and Range faulting occurred between at least 32 Ma and 12 Ma with both limits probably extending until the Eocene and the Quaternary. Ignimbrite activity can be as old as 51 Ma and as young as 17-16 Ma, but most of the ignimbrite volume was erupted in the 38-23 Ma period. Thus, the ignimbrite flare-up can be defined as a period of intense explosive volcanic activity that produced enormous volumes of silicic ignimbrite sheets, which took place mainly between 38 and 23 Ma in Mexico. The ignimbrite flare-up coincided in time with peaks in Basin and Range faulting, and the ignimbrite activity apparently migrated from the east-northeast to the west-southwest, i.e., from central Chihuahua (38-27 Ma) to Durango-Tayoltita-Nazas (32-29 Ma) to Zacatecas-Tepic (24-23 Ma), finishing by 16 Ma at Jalisco-Nayarit, as deduced from the compilation of geologic works done in the SMO. It is unknown yet whether there was a west-southward migration of Basin and Range faulting and if the ignimbrite flare-up occurred episodically as peaks (38-27 Ma, 32-29 Ma, and 24-23 Ma) or was continuous. Nevertheless, by the time that the ignimbrite flare-up started, the Basin and Range extension was

  16. Exploring the Diversity and Antimicrobial Potential of Marine Actinobacteria from the Comau Fjord in Northern Patagonia, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Claverías, Fernanda P; González, Myriam; Moore, Edward R B; Seeger, Michael; Cámara, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Bioprospecting natural products in marine bacteria from fjord environments are attractive due to their unique geographical features. Although, Actinobacteria are well known for producing a myriad of bioactive compounds, investigations regarding fjord-derived marine Actinobacteria are scarce. In this study, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria isolated from marine sediments within the Comau fjord, in Northern Chilean Patagonia, were assessed by culture-based approaches. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that members phylogenetically related to the Micrococcaceae, Dermabacteraceae, Brevibacteriaceae, Corynebacteriaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Dietziaceae, Nocardiaceae, and Streptomycetaceae families were present at the Comau fjord. A high diversity of cultivable Actinobacteria (10 genera) was retrieved by using only five different isolation media. Four isolates belonging to Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium and Kocuria genera showed 16S rRNA gene identity Actinobacteria with biotechnological potential for producing biologically active compounds.

  17. Charles Darwin and the oldestglacial events in Patagonia: the erratic blocks of the Río Santa Cruz valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Strelin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Althoughthe depositational environment assigned by Darwin to the large erratic blocksand gravels in the Río Santa Cruz valley has been reinterpreted, hisgeomorphological and stratigraphic observations are still in force. The largeerratic blocks he described as crowning the Condor Cliff terrace and spread atthe bottom of the valley just east of this locality (Sites 2 and 3, are nowinterpreted as indicators of the maximum glacial expansion in Patagonia.Similar blocks, though of a different lithology, accumulated over a lowerterrace located up-valley (Site 4, are now linked to moraines and glacifluvialterraces of the Penultimate Glaciation. Finally, in addition to the erraticblock discovered by Darwin in the lower Río Santa Cruz valley (Site 1, thereare others - recently discovered - which probably account for a catastrophicevent ascribed to a big glacier-lake outburst during the last interglacial.

  18. Génesis de suelos en el valle del río de las Vueltas, provincia Santa Cruz, Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela C. Villegas; Fernando X. Pereyra; Jorge. A. Irisarri; José A. Ferrer; Adriana Viaggio

    2004-01-01

    Se han estudiado los factores de formación de los suelos "material originario" y "relieve", en un sector del oeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz (Patagonia Austral). El área de estudio se localiza en el valle del río de las Vueltas, entre la laguna del Desierto y el lago Viedma (49°S y 49°30'S y a los 73°O). Se ha observado una estrecha relación entre la variabilidad de los suelos y los fuertes gradientes bioclimáticos y geomorfológicos de la región. Los suelos fueron estudiados según una tra...

  19. New record of anoplocephalid eggs (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) collected from rodent coprolites from archaeological and paleontological sites of Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, María Ornela; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Barberena, Ramiro; Sauthier, Daniel Edgardo Udrizar; Sardella, Norma Haydée

    2013-10-01

    Results of paleoparasitological examination of rodent coprolites collected from archaeological and paleontological sites from Patagonia, Argentina, are present. Each coprolite was processed, rehydrated, homogenized, spontaneously sedimented and examined using light microscope. Coprolites and eggs were described, measured and photographed, and were compared with current faeces of Lagidium viscacia. Eggs with morphological features, attributed to an anoplocephalid cestode were found in samples collected from Cueva Huenul 1 (36°56'45″S, 69°47'32″W, Neuquén Province, Holocene) and Los Altares Profile (43º53'35″S, 68º23'21″W, Chubut Province, Late Holocene). These are the first findings of this anoplocephalid from faecal material from patagonic rodents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A new species of Ascocotyle (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, off Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús Servando; Montero, Francisco Esteban; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; García, Néstor Aníbal; Raga, Juan Antonio; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2012-08-01

    We describe a new heterophyid species, Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis n. sp., based on specimens collected from the intestines of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens from Patagonia (Argentina). Ascocotyle (A.) patagoniensis n. sp. is distinguished from the other species of the subgenus by the number of circumoral spines, which are arranged in 2 rows of 18 to 23. The new species also differs from the other species in having a gonotyl without papillae. The specimens exhibited the widest seminal receptacle described for a species of this subgenus. Species of the subgenus Ascocotyle usually infect fish-eating birds or mammals in freshwater or brackish habitats. Ascocotyle (A.) patagoniensis n. sp. is the first species of the subgenus described from a marine mammal. However, no metacercariae of Ascocotyle spp. were found in 542 marine teleosts from 20 species collected in the same locality. The life cycle of the marine species from the Ascocotyle -complex infecting pinnipeds remains elusive.

  1. Epidemiological studies on intestinal helminth parasites of the patagonian grey fox (Pseudalopex griseus) in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Fabián; Laferrara, Miguel; Bitsch, Matías; Pérez, Héctor; Elissondo, Maria Celina

    2006-03-31

    The present work was performed to study the intestinal helminths of the patagonian grey fox (Pseudalopex griseus) and to obtain information about its possible role in the sylvatic life cycle of Echinococcu granulosus in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina. Eighty-one foxes were captured and subject to post-mortem analysis. Thirty-one foxes (38.3%) harboured helminths. A total of six helminth species were recovered. Only one adult of E. granulosus was found in the studied samples. The current study is the first report of the intestinal helminths of the patagonian grey fox in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina and showed that this specie is probably not an important reservoir host for E. granulosus.

  2. Using glacial morphology to constrain the impact of the Chile active spreading ridge subduction in Central Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalabrino, B.; Ritz, J. F.; Lagabrielle, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The Central Patagonian Cordillera is a unique laboratory to study interaction between oceanic and continental lithospheres during the subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath a continent. The subduction of the South Chile spreading Ridge, which separates the Nazca plate from the Antarctic plate, started ca. 15-14 Ma at the southern tip of Patagonia (55°S latitude). The northwards migration of the Chile Triple Junction induces the subduction of several segments especially around 46°S latitude. There, three segments subducted at ca. 6, 3 and 0.3 Ma, leading to the formation of a large asthenospheric slab-window beneath Central Patagonia. Contemporaneously, the Central Patagonia reliefs are undergoing major glacial events since at least 7 Ma. These events are evidenced to the east of the Central Patagonian morphotectonic front within perched relict surfaces. Inset in these perched glacial surfaces are found mid-Pleistocene glacial valleys, as the Lake General Carrera-Buenos Aires amphitheatre (LGCBA), which formed between 1.1 Ma and 16 ka. We used the relationships between the glacial valleys and the volcanism associated with the asthenospheric slab-window to better constraints the structural evolution of the Patagonian Cordillera related to the subduction of the Chili active spreading Ridge. The present work focused within two well-preserved perched flat surfaces named Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires and Meseta del Cerro Galera: (i) The meseta del Lago Buenos Aires defines a plateau made of interbedded units of tills and lavas dated between 12 Ma and 3 Ma. The top surface of the meseta, ˜2000 meters high is dated at 3 Ma, and is shaped by four NE-SW trending glacial lobes characterized with kettles, lineations and moraines. The glacial valleys are beheaded westwards and define perched valleys 200 to 400 meters higher than the western Cordillera. This suggests recent vertical movement along N160 extensive/transtensive corridor located between the morphotectonic

  3. Late Cretaceous-early Eocene counterclockwise rotation of the Fueguian Andes and evolution of the Patagonia-Antarctic Peninsula system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, F.; Roperch, P.; Arriagada, C.; Ruffet, G.; Ramírez de Arellano, C.; Hervé, F.; Poujol, M.

    2016-02-01

    The southernmost Andes of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego present a prominent arc-shaped structure: the Patagonian Bend. Whether the bending is a primary curvature or an orocline is still matter of controversy. New paleomagnetic data have been obtained south of the Beagle Channel in 39 out of 61 sites. They have been drilled in Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous sediments and interbedded volcanics and in mid-Cretaceous to Eocene intrusives of the Fuegian Batholith. The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility was measured at each site and the influence of magnetic fabric on the characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRM) in plutonic rocks was corrected using inverse tensors of anisotropy of remanent magnetizations. Normal polarity secondary magnetizations with west-directed declination were obtained in the sediments and they did not pass the fold test. These characteristic directions are similar to those recorded by mid Cretaceous intrusives suggesting a remagnetization event during the normal Cretaceous superchron and describe a large (> 90°) counterclockwise rotation. Late Cretaceous to Eocene rocks of the Fueguian Batholith, record decreasing counterclockwise rotations of 45° to 30°. These paleomagnetic results are interpreted as evidence of a large counterclockwise rotation of the Fueguian Andes related to the closure of the Rocas Verdes Basin and the formation of the Darwin Cordillera during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene. The tectonic evolution of the Patagonian Bend can thus be described as the formation of a progressive arc from an oroclinal stage during the closure of the Rocas Verdes basin to a mainly primary arc during the final stages of deformation of the Magallanes fold and thrust belt. Plate reconstructions show that the Antarctic Peninsula would have formed a continuous margin with Patagonia between the Early Cretaceous and the Eocene, and acted as a non-rotational rigid block facilitating the development of the Patagonian Bend.

  4. Study of cloud enhanced surface UV radiation at the atmospheric observatory of Southern Patagonia, Río Gallegos, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Elian A.; Salvador, Jacobo; Orte, Facundo; Bulnes, Daniela; D'Elia, Raul; Antón, Manuel; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Quel, Eduardo

    2013-05-01

    Ozone and ultraviolet (UV) radiation are two important issues in the study of Earth's atmosphere. The anthropogenic perturbation of the ozone layer has induced change in the amount of UV radiation that reaches the Earth's surface, mainly through the Antarctic ozone hole. Also clouds have been identified as the main modulator of UV amount over short time scales. While clouds can decrease direct radiation, they can produce an increase in the diffuse component, and as a consequence the surface UV radiation may be higher than during an equivalent clear sky scenario. In particular this situation can be important when a low ozone column and partially cloud coverered skies occur simultaneously. These situations happen frequently in southern Patagonia, where the CEILAP Lidar Division has established the Atmospheric Observatory of Southern Patagonia, an atmospheric remote sensing site near the city of Río Gallegos (51°55'S, 69°14'W). In this paper, the impact of clouds on UV radiation is investigated by the use of ground based measurements from the passive remote sensing instruments operating at this site, mainly broad and moderate narrow band filter radiometers. Cloud modification factors (CMF, ratio between the measured UV radiation in a cloudy sky and the simulated radiation under cloud-free conditions) are evaluated for the study site. CMFs higher than 1 are found during spring and summer time, when lower total ozone columns, higher solar elevations and high cloud cover occur simultaneously, producing extreme erythemal irradiance at the ground surface. Enhancements as high as 25% were registered. The maximum duration of the enhancement was around 30 minutes. This produces dangerous sunbathing conditions for the Río Gallegos citizen.

  5. Variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile recovered from Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi) waste from Patagonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cretton, M.; Rost, E.; Mazzuca-Sobczuk, T.; Mazzuca, M.

    2016-07-01

    The fish processing operations in Patagonia produce large amounts of waste. The main fishery resource in Argentina is the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi). The ports of the province of Chubut (the most important of which are Puerto Madryn, Rawson and Comodoro Rivadavia), together with Caleta Paula Port (province of Santa Cruz), in the Argentine Patagonia, capture more than 82,000 tons of hake annualy, 80% of which are of M. hubbsi, which is mostly converted into fillets. From this capture, about 2,296 tons of liver would be available for the extraction of oil. To promote the recovery and industrial use of fish oil, in the present study, we determined the variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of Argentine hake waste from the ports mentioned above at different catch times. Proximate composition was determined according of the Official Methods of Analysis (AOAC). Fatty acid profile was analyzed by gas chromatography of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). A standard mixture of FAMEs was run under identical conditions to identify the compounds on the basis of their retention times. Fatty acids were quantified using heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) as internal standard. The highest lipid recovery (27.0 to 41.8% of total lipids) was obtained from the liver fraction. Palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (18:1 n9), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) were the main constituents. Protein levels in viscera without livers (V-L) were higher than those in the liver. The extraction of marine fish oil and the production of fish offal meal from waste from fish factories would contribute to the sustainability of the regional industry, because it would also decrease the volume of waste, with benefits to the environment. (Author)

  6. Análisis ontogénico de rasgos craneofaciales robustos en poblaciones humanas de Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Paula N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Las poblaciones humanas que habitaron el sur de Patagonia durante el Holoceno tardío presentan rasgos craneofaciales robustos que las diferencian del resto de los humanos modernos. El estudio de los factores causales de la robustez se ha basado en el análisis de individuos adultos, por lo tanto los mecanismos ontogénicos involucrados en la diferenciación de estas poblaciones son aún desconocidos. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la ontogenia de la robustez craneofacial en diversas poblaciones humanas. Se analizaron 5 muestras de individuos subadultos (Sad, de 5 a 15 años y adultos (Ad, procedentes del Noroeste Argentino y Patagonia (n=201. Se emplearon landmarks y semilandmarks con el fin de describir la glabela, los procesos frontal y zigomático, y el mastoides. Para establecer si los rasgos poblacionales específicos se encuentran presentes en Sad se compararon los patrones de ordenación de Ad y Sad obtenidos mediante un análisis de PROTEST. Los resultados indican que el patrón de variación morfológica se establece tempranamente en Sad. Se evaluó si la diferenciación en los Ad de las diversas poblaciones es atribuible al escalamiento ontogénico o a diferencias en las trayectorias. Los resultados muestran que si bien las poblaciones del sur alcanzan un mayor tamaño, las trayectorias ontogénicas entre las poblaciones estudiadas difieren significativamente. Por lo tanto, la robustez se establece tempranamente en la ontogenia postnatal y es modificada por la divergencia en los patrones de cambio en forma asociados a los cambios en tamaño.

  7. Vegetation, Fire and Climate Over the Last 2000 Yrs in Central West Patagonia (45°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Martinez, R. P.; Simi, E. I.; Moreno, P. I.

    2014-12-01

    We report high-resolution pollen and charcoal records from lake sediments obtained from Lago Mellizas and Lago Churrasco to reconstruct the history of vegetation, fire and past variations of the southern westerly winds (SWW) over the last 2000 years. Both sites are located near to the climate-modulated forest-steppe ecotone in central west Patagonia. In this region the SWW are the only source of precipitation and is ideal for reconstructing past changes in atmospheric circulation. This is facilitated by the marked west-east precipitation gradient across the Patagonian Andes that induces a zonation of the regional vegetation which can be used for inferring past changes in precipitation regimes based on fossil pollen records. Furthermore, the Chilean-European colonization process in central west Patagonia started early in the 20th century, allowing characterization of natural vegetation and climate variability in the absence of human disturbance until the end of the 19th century. The pollen records shows dominance of Nothofagus deciduous forests with minor fluctuations and low herb and aquatics abundances, which suggest humid climate conditions. We detect a major change in the pollen stratigraphy at 200 cal yr BP, when started a sustained decreasing trend in Nothofagus, along with increases of Poaceae and aquatics plants (Cyperaceae, Myriophyllum). We interpret these changes as a forest opening and centripetal expansion of littoral environments toward the lake center driven by lake-level lowering in response to lowered precipitation brought by the SWW. Pinus, Rumex, Plantago, which indicate human perturbation, increase in 1900 AD. Macroscopic charcoal increases at 1750, 1400, 850-700, 500, and 200 cal yr BP, suggesting local fires, followed by sharp increases during the last 100 years. We interpret the pre-20th century charcoal peaks as dry intervals with lowered SWW influence. Acknowledgement: Fondecyt 1121141, Fondap 15110009, and ICM grants P02-51 and NC120066.

  8. Multi-century tree-ring based reconstruction of the Neuquén River streamflow, northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Mundo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In most cases, gauged river flow records in southern South America extend for only a few decades, hampering the detection of long-term, decadal to centennial-scale cycles and trends. Long streamflow series can be reconstructed from tree-ring records, offering the opportunity of extending the limited hydrological instrumental data to several centuries. In northern Patagonia, Argentina, the Neuquén River has great importance for local and national socio-economic activities such as hydroelectric power generation, agriculture and tourism. In this study, new and updated tree-ring chronologies from Araucaria araucana and Austrocedrus chilensis are used to reconstruct the October–June mean streamflow for the Neuquén River and place the period of gauged flows (1903–2009, in a long-term, multi-century context. The reconstruction covers the period 1346–2000 AD and was developed from a network of 43 tree-ring chronologies, grouped in composite series, using a nested principal component regression approach. Analyses of the frequency, intensity, and duration of droughts and pluvial events indicate that the 20th century contains some of the driest and wettest annual to decadal-scale events in the last 654 yr, but longer and more severe events were recorded in previous centuries. Blackman-Tukey and singular spectral analyses identified quasiperiodic oscillations from 3.5 to 17.5 yr. A dominant 6.8-yr cycle explains ca. 23.6% of the total variance in the Neuquén River streamflow reconstruction. Correlation analyses showed that discharges of the Neuquén River are related to variations in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM, a measure of air mass exchanges between middle and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. This association is consistent with previous studies that indicate a strong correlation between rainfall in northern Patagonia and SAM variations.

  9. The sedimentology and dynamics of crater-affiliated wind streaks in western Arabia Terra, Mars and Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Tanaka, K.L.; Yamamoto, A.; Berman, D.C.; Zimbelman, J.R.; Kargel, J.S.; Sasaki, S.; Jinguo, Y.; Miyamoto, H.

    2010-01-01

    Wind streaks comprise recent aeolian deposits that have been extensively documented on Venus, Earth and Mars. Martian wind streaks are among the most abundant surface features on the planet and commonly extend from the downwind margins of impact craters. Previous studies of wind streaks emerging from crater interior deposits suggested that the mode of emplacement was primarily related to the deposition of silt-sized particles as these settled from plumes. We have performed geologic investigations of two wind streaks clusters; one situated in western Arabia Terra, a region in the northern hemisphere of Mars, and another in an analogous terrestrial site located in southern Patagonia, Argentina, where occurrences of wind streaks emanate from playas within maar craters. In both these regions we have identified bedforms in sedimentary deposits on crater floors, along wind-facing interior crater margins, and along wind streaks. These observations indicate that these deposits contain sand-sized particles and that sediment migration has occurred via saltation from crater interior deposits to wind streaks. In Arabia Terra and in Patagonia wind streaks initiate from crater floors that contain lithic and evaporitic sedimentary deposits, suggesting that the composition of wind streak source materials has played an important role in development. Spatial and topographic analyses suggest that regional clustering of wind streaks in the studied regions directly correlates to the areal density of craters with interior deposits, the degree of proximity of these deposits, and the craters' rim-to-floor depths. In addition, some (but not all) wind streaks within the studied clusters have propagated at comparable yearly (Earth years) rates. Extensive saltation is inferred to have been involved in its propagation based on the studied terrestrial wind streak that shows ripples and dunes on its surface and the Martian counterpart changes orientation toward the downslope direction where it

  10. Multi-century tree-ring based reconstruction of the Neuquén River streamflow, northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo, I. A.; Masiokas, M. H.; Villalba, R.; Morales, M. S.; Neukom, R.; Le Quesne, C.; Urrutia, R. B.; Lara, A.

    2012-04-01

    In most cases, gauged river flow records in southern South America extend for only a few decades, hampering the detection of long-term, decadal to centennial-scale cycles and trends. Long streamflow series can be reconstructed from tree-ring records, offering the opportunity of extending the limited hydrological instrumental data to several centuries. In northern Patagonia, Argentina, the Neuquén River has great importance for local and national socio-economic activities such as hydroelectric power generation, agriculture and tourism. In this study, new and updated tree-ring chronologies from Araucaria araucana and Austrocedrus chilensis are used to reconstruct the October-June mean streamflow for the Neuquén River and place the period of gauged flows (1903-2009), in a long-term, multi-century context. The reconstruction covers the period 1346-2000 AD and was developed from a network of 43 tree-ring chronologies, grouped in composite series, using a nested principal component regression approach. Analyses of the frequency, intensity, and duration of droughts and pluvial events indicate that the 20th century contains some of the driest and wettest annual to decadal-scale events in the last 654 yr, but longer and more severe events were recorded in previous centuries. Blackman-Tukey and singular spectral analyses identified quasiperiodic oscillations from 3.5 to 17.5 yr. A dominant 6.8-yr cycle explains ca. 23.6% of the total variance in the Neuquén River streamflow reconstruction. Correlation analyses showed that discharges of the Neuquén River are related to variations in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), a measure of air mass exchanges between middle and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. This association is consistent with previous studies that indicate a strong correlation between rainfall in northern Patagonia and SAM variations.

  11. Multi-century tree-ring based reconstruction of the Neuquén River streamflow, northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Mundo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In most cases, gauged river flow records in southern South America exist for only a few decades, hampering the detection of long-term, decadal to centennial-scale cycles and trends. Long streamflow series can be reconstructed from tree-ring records, offering the opportunity of extending the limited hydrological instrumental data for several centuries or millennia. In northern Patagonia, Argentina, the Neuquén River has great importance for local and national socio-economic activities such as hydroelectric power generation, agriculture and tourism. In this study, new and updated tree-ring chronologies from Araucaria araucana and Austrocedrus chilensis are used to reconstruct the October–June mean streamflow for the Neuquén River and place the period of gauged flows, 1903–2009, in a long-term, multi-century context. The reconstruction covers the period 1346–2000 AD and was developed through a nested principal components regression approach using a network of 43 tree-ring chronologies grouped in composite series. Analyses of the frequency, intensity, and duration of droughts and pluvial events indicate that the 20th century contains some of the driest and wettest annual to decadal-scale events in the past millennium, but longer and more severe events can also be observed in previous centuries. Blackman-Tukey and Singular Spectral Analyses identified various multi-decadal quasiperiodic oscillations with a dominant 6.8-year cycle explaining ca. 23.6% of the total variance in the Neuquén River streamflow reconstruction. We also found that the Neuquén River discharges are related to variations in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM, a measure of air mass exchanges between middle and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. This association is consistent with previous studies which indicate a strong connection between rainfall patterns in northern Patagonia and SAM activity.

  12. Isotopic and fluid-inclusion constraints on the formation of polymetallic vein deposits in the central Argentinian Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonghe, Léon; Darras, Benoît; Hughes, Guillermo; Muchez, Philippe; Scoates, James S.; Weis, Dominique

    2002-03-01

    The lead isotope compositions of galena and the fluid-inclusion systematics of nine barite-bearing polymetallic (Au, Ag, Pb, Zn) deposits of the central Argentinian Patagonia (Chubut and Rio Negro provinces) have been investigated to constrain the compositions and sources of the mineralizing fluids. Most of the deposits occur as veins, with less common wall-rock disseminations and/or stockworks, and are low-sulfidation epithermal deposits hosted in Jurassic volcanic rocks. Fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures (Th) from quartz and sphalerite from the deposits fall within the range of 100-300 °C, with the highest measured average temperatures for the most eastern deposits (Mina Angela - 298 °C; Cañadón Bagual - 343 °C). The salinities of the hydrothermal fluids at all deposits were low to moderate (≤10.4 equiv. wt% NaCl). Three groups of ore deposits can be defined on the basis of 206Pb/204Pb ratios for galena and these show a general decrease from west to east (from 18.506 to 18.000). The central Argentinian Patagonia deposits have distinctly less radiogenic lead isotope compositions than similar deposits from Peru and Chile, except for the porphyry copper deposits of central and southern Peru. Galena from the Mina Angela deposit is characterized by very low radiogenic lead isotope compositions (18.000Precambrian basement. The geographic trend in lead isotope compositions of both galena and whole rocks indicates a crustal contribution which increases eastwards, also reflected in the strontium-neodymium isotope systematics of the host lavas. Finally, due to the lack of precise age determinations for the central Patagonian polymetallic deposits, a potential link with Andean porphyry copper systems remains an open question.

  13. Spatial distribution, feeding and length–mass relationships of Diamphipnopsis samali (Plecoptera, Diamphipnoidae in a North Patagonia Andean stream, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo H. OMAD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Fueron estudiados algunos aspectos de la biología y ecología (patrones de distribución espacial, hábitos alimenticios y relación largo-masa de una población de Diamphipnopsis samali en un arroyo de primer orden que atraviesa un bosque exótico de pino en el centro-norte de Patagonia (Chubut, Argentina. Dos series de muestreos fueron realizados durante períodos de aguas altas y aguas bajas. Toda la información fue tratada con ANOVAS de dos factores y efectos fijos para evaluar diferencias significativas. El análisis de las piezas bucales de D. samali indica que corresponden a un tipo intermedio entre el tipo carnívoro y herbívoro-detritívoro. El contenido estomacal muestra que esta especie se alimenta de hifas fúngicas y madera, aunque en los estadios tempranos se encuentran restos de insectos. No se hallaron diferencias significativas en la alimentación entre períodos de aguas altas y aguas bajas, sin embargo, existieron diferencias significativas entre la dieta de larvas grandes y pequeñas. Fue clara la preferencia por el sustrato tronco y cascada, y también significativamente diferente entre los tipos pozón y corredera. No hubo diferencias significativas en la elección de hábitat entre los períodos de aguas bajas y aguas altas. Esta especie endémica de Patagonia parece estar bien adaptada a la presencia de un bosque ripario exótico, utilizando los troncos caídos como alimento y refugio.

  14. Is forage productivity of meadows influenced by the afforestation of upstream hillsides? A study in NW Patagonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigandt, M.; Gyenge, J.; Fernandez, M. E.; Varela, S.; Schlichter, T.

    2011-07-01

    Meadows are important reserves of water, with a key role in the maintenance of the biodiversity and productivity of ecosystems. In Patagonia, Argentina, afforestation with fast-growing exotic conifers has slowly but continuously increased over recent decades; though unfortunately, knowledge of the effects of afforestation on water resources remains scarce, with no information at all related to its impact on water dynamics and productivity of meadows located down slope to it. The effects of Pinus ponderosa afforestation on water dynamics (soil moisture contents and groundwater level) and productivity (aboveground forage productivity) of Northwest Patagonia meadows under xeric and humid conditions were analyzed. In the humid meadow, gravimetric soil water content, groundwater level and forage productivity were similar down slope of forested and non-forested slopes, with a trend towards higher forage productivity on the forested slope. In the xeric meadow, gravimetric soil water content was always higher down slope of the non-forested slope, with no difference in groundwater level between treatments. Forage productivity was statistically similar between situations (down slope of forested and non-forested slopes), with a trend towards higher productivity in the zone with higher soil water content. The main difference in the latter was related to differences in soil texture between zones. These results suggest that coniferous plantations located upstream of this type of meadow do not produce a direct effect on its aboveground forage productivity. These systems have high complexity linked to precipitation, geomorphology and previous history of land use, which determine primarily soil water dynamics and consequently, forage productivity. (Author) 42 refs.

  15. La ideología. Un punto de acercamiento para el estudio de la interacción entre el occidente de México y Mesoamérica

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El occidente de México es la región mesoamericana donde la historia sociocultural de los pueblos prehispánicos fue prácticamente desconocida hasta la década de los noventa. A partir de este desconocimiento, ocasionado por la falta de investigaciones de largo plazo en la región, se afirmó que si el occidente era marginal o, incluso, estuvo fuera de la tradición cultural mesoamericana básica, ésta hipótesis se aplicaba mayormente al lapso temporal comprendido por los periodos Preclásico-Clásico...

  16. Elementos para articular la medicalización con la tradición médica occidental y la Koiné de la salud contemporánea

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo G. Rillo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: racionalidad y mensurabilidad de la salud-enfermedad sustentan los imaginarios sociales para generar una koiné de la salud que se articula con la tradición médica occidental al determinar la manera de vivir en forma saludable. Objetivo: identificar elementos históricos y filosóficos que permitan comprender la medicalización como eje articulador de la tradición médica occidental y la koiné de la salud contemporánea. Desarrollo: punto de partida. La medicalización se remonta a la ...

  17. The Sierra de Mil Cumbres, Michoacán, México: Transitional volcanism between the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Vasconcelos, Martha Gabriela; Garduño-Monroy, Víctor Hugo; Macías, José Luis; Layer, Paul W.; Benowitz, Jeff A.

    2015-08-01

    The Sierra de Mil Cumbres is a Miocene volcanic range located in central México, in the north-eastern part of the State of Michoacán, near the city of Morelia. Structurally it is a ENE-trending horst that covers an area of 1022 km2 (approximately 20 km wide × 60 km long) and contains exposures of chemically-bimodal volcanism in the form of ignimbrites, lava domes, lava flows, cinder cones, and related deposits. The main volcanic manifestations of this range are the La Escalera Caldera (16.3-23 Ma), the Garnica Volcanic Complex (18.3-17.9 Ma), the Atécuaro Caldera (16.3-19.4 Ma), and the Indaparapeo Volcanic Complex (14.1-17.5 Ma). The Sierra de Mil Cumbres stands in space and time at the intersection between the Miocene-Recent Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Late Cretaceous-Early Miocene Sierra Madre Occidental, and so provides new insights into the geological evolution of central México. Arc volcanism in the Sierra de Mil Cumbres was initiated by a massive NNW-SSE extension, probably during the counterclockwise rotation of the Sierra Madre Occidental. New geological mapping, stratigraphic analysis, detailed geochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology demonstrates that this intra-plate volcanism was emplaced between 14 and 23 Ma.

  18. Evaluación por competencias y estimación de potencial en las empresas eléctricas de occidente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Peñaloza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar las competencias y estimación de potencial en las empresas eléctricas de occidente, tomando en cuenta las preferencias psicológicas, técnicas, operativas, administrativas y de seguridad. La muestra objeto de estudio fue de tipo censal, estuvo conformada por 50 supervisores. La investigación fue de tipo descriptiva bajo la modalidad de campo. Se aplicó un instrumento dirigido a los supervisores de las empresas del sector eléctrico, para medir las variables competencias y estimación de potencial, con preguntas cerradas de cuatro alternativas: siempre, casi siempre, algunas veces y nunca. El instrumento fue sometido a un proceso de validez y confiabilidad de contenido y construcción interna. Se concluyó que existe la necesidad de aplicar un instrumento de evaluación y estimación de potencial que direccionen las competencias laborales del personal, arrojó un 89%, lo cual presentó la urgencia de diagnosticar y evaluar constantemente las nuevas demandas del entorno, no solo para el tiempo presente, sino para proyectar las acciones futuras. Se recomendó proponer un instrumento de evaluación de competencias y estimación de potencial, que debe ser sometido a consideración por las empresas eléctricas de occidente para su aplicación.

  19. A New Sample Transect through the Sierra Madre Occidental Silicic Large Igneous Province in Southern Chihuahua State, Mexico: First Stratigraphic, Petrologic, and Geochemical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, G. D.; Davila Harris, P.; Brown, S. R.; Anderson, L.; Moreno, N.

    2014-12-01

    We completed a field sampling transect across the northern Sierra Madre Occidental silicic large igneous province (SMO) in December 2013. Here we present the first stratigraphic, petrological, and geochemical data from the transect between Hidalgo del Parral and Guadalupe y Calvo, Chihuahua, Mexico. This is the first new transect across the SMO in 25 years and the only one between existing NE - SW transects at Chihuahua - Hermosillo and Durango - Mazatlan. The 245 km-long transect along Mexican Highway 24 crosses the boundary between the extended (Basin and Range) and non-extended (Sierra Madre Occidental plateau) parts of the SMO, and allows sampling of previously undescribed Oligocene (?) - early Miocene (?) rhyolitic ignimbrites and lavas, and occasional post-rhyolite, Miocene (?) SCORBA basaltic andesite lavas. 54 samples of rhyolitic ignimbrites (40) and lavas (7), and basaltic andesite lavas (7) were sampled along the transect, including 8 canyon sections with more than one unit. The ignimbrites are overwhelming rhyodacitic (plagioclase and hornblende or biotite phyric) or rhyolitic (quartz (+/- sanidine) in additon to plagioclase and hornblende or biotite phyric) and sparsely to highly phyric. Preliminary petrographic (phenocryst abundances) and geochemical (major and trace element) will be presented and compared to existing data from elsewhere in the SMO. Future work will include U-Pb zircon dating and whole rock and in-zircon radiogenic isotopes analyses.

  20. DIVERSIDAD MITOCONDRIAL EN EL NOR-OCCIDENTE DE VENEZUELA. IMPLICACIONES PARA PROBABLES RUTAS MIGRATORIAS PREHISPÁNICAS

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    PUJOL FLOR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    La utilidad del ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt para determinar afinidad genética entre grupos indígenas contemporáneos e inferir sobre migraciones, ha sido demostrada; pero la imposibilidad de estudiar grupos prehispánicos extintos, limita las inferencias sobre migraciones en esa época. El mestizaje en poblaciones neoamericanas ha sido caracterizado por uniones entre hombres europeos y mujeres indígenas, permitiendo detectar en la población contemporánea haplogrupos mitocondriales amerindios que informan sobre poblaciones extintas. Para conocer los linajes femeninos en el occidente de Venezuela, se estudiaron los haplogrupos del ADNmt a partir de RFLP, en una muestra de 193 individuos con antepasados procedentes del occidente de Venezuela, 81 del Estado Lara (Barquisimeto y 112 de tres pueblos del Estado Falcón (Macu-quita=25, Macanillas=29 y Churuguara=58. Se comparó la distribución de haplogrupos entre las poblaciones y se estimó el mestizaje por línea femenina en ellas. Se comparó la distribución de cuatro haplogrupos indígenas con otras regiones de América.

    Se observa que en las cuatro poblaciones predominan haplogrupos amerindios, seguidos de los africanos. Al comparar la fracción indígena con el resto de América encontramos que Macanillas, Lara y Churuguara se asemejan a grupos de Amazonas y Suramérica, mientras que Macuquita a Aruba. Esto sugiere una diversidad genética importante en esa zona como probable ruta de paso hacia el sur y el Caribe; además refleja vínculos genéticos importantes entre grupos prehispánicos de Aruba y los de la Península de Paraguaná. Evidencias arqueológicas soportan estos postulados. Se recomienda aumentar la muestra y realizar análisis de secuencias para un nivel mayor de precisión.

  1. Oriente e Occidente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nullo Minissi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper strives to analyze the ways in which the division between East and West is manifest in modern historiographical thinking and in political language. The modern idea of the East took form in the eighteenth century, after more than a century of Portuguese, Dutch, and English trading and of Jesuit missionary activity. This concept became clearer in the nineteenth century with the advent of Orientalism, or rather with research that was not exclusively linguistic, emerging from European culture known as the West; nevertheless in its primal, modern features, the West-East dichotomy seems to express an artificial antithesis in a cultural and vaguely geographical term – the East – and a strictly political concept – the West. The East-West divide has lost its significance, giving way to a new Christian–Islamic opposition, not religious so much as ideological, evident in a clash of civilizations. The conflict does not lie between civilizations, however, so much as between interests. This pernicious argument pertains to the struggle between the will of the West to dominate over the Middle East and to its resistance: while the one hides itself behind the rhetoric of globalization, the other has been taken by a militancy leading to extreme interpretations of Koranic concepts which reject modernity together with their very Islamic traditions. 

  2. Recent acceleration of ice loss in the Northern Patagonia Icefield based on an updated decennial evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. López

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ice elevation changes of the Northern Patagonia Icefield (NPI were analyzed by comparing three Digital Elevation Models (DEM corresponding to 1975 (constructed based on topographic maps, the SRTM DEM of 2000 yr and a SPOT 5 DEM of 2005. In addition, the glacier length fluctuations and the surface area evolution between 2001 and 2011 of 25 glaciers of the NPI were studied: the information extracted from the Landsat ETM+ satellite image of 11 March 2001 was compared to the measurements performed based on the Landsat ETM+ satellite image of 19 February 2011. From a global point of view, the majority of the studied glaciers thinned, retreated and lost surface between 2001 and 2011, only few glaciers (Leones, Nef, Pared Sur and Soler located on the eastern side of the NPI have been stable. Glaciers located on the western side of the NPI suffered a stronger wasting compared to the glaciers located on the eastern side.

    Overall, over the ablation areas of the NPI (below 1150 m a.s.l. a more rapid thinning of 2.6 m yr−1 occurred between 2000 and 2005 yr compared to the period 1975–2000, in which a mean thinning of 1.7 m yr−1 was measured for the same zones of the NPI. For the whole period (1975–2005 the most important thinning of the ablation areas has been estimated for HPN-1 Glacier (4.4 m yr−1 followed by Benito (3.4 m yr−1, Fraenkel (2.4 m yr−1, Gualas (2.1 m yr−1 and Acodado glaciers, all of them located on the western side of the NPI.

    Between 2001 and 2011, a noteworthy retreat of 1.9 km was experienced by Gualas Glacier and by Reichert Glacier with 1.6 km, both located on the north-western side of the NPI. On the south-western side of the NPI, during the same decennia, Steffen Glacier experienced a remarkable retreat of 1.6 km as well. During the 2001–2011 period, Steffen Glacier more than doubled its rate of retreat (compared to the 1979–2001

  3. Recent acceleration of ice loss in the Northern Patagonia Icefield based on an updated decennial evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, P.; Casassa, G.

    2011-12-01

    Ice elevation changes of the Northern Patagonia Icefield (NPI) were analyzed by comparing three Digital Elevation Models (DEM) corresponding to 1975 (constructed based on topographic maps), the SRTM DEM of 2000 yr and a SPOT 5 DEM of 2005. In addition, the glacier length fluctuations and the surface area evolution between 2001 and 2011 of 25 glaciers of the NPI were studied: the information extracted from the Landsat ETM+ satellite image of 11 March 2001 was compared to the measurements performed based on the Landsat ETM+ satellite image of 19 February 2011. From a global point of view, the majority of the studied glaciers thinned, retreated and lost surface between 2001 and 2011, only few glaciers (Leones, Nef, Pared Sur and Soler) located on the eastern side of the NPI have been stable. Glaciers located on the western side of the NPI suffered a stronger wasting compared to the glaciers located on the eastern side. Overall, over the ablation areas of the NPI (below 1150 m a.s.l.) a more rapid thinning of 2.6 m yr-1 occurred between 2000 and 2005 yr compared to the period 1975-2000, in which a mean thinning of 1.7 m yr-1 was measured for the same zones of the NPI. For the whole period (1975-2005) the most important thinning of the ablation areas has been estimated for HPN-1 Glacier (4.4 m yr-1) followed by Benito (3.4 m yr-1), Fraenkel (2.4 m yr-1), Gualas (2.1 m yr-1) and Acodado glaciers, all of them located on the western side of the NPI. Between 2001 and 2011, a noteworthy retreat of 1.9 km was experienced by Gualas Glacier and by Reichert Glacier with 1.6 km, both located on the north-western side of the NPI. On the south-western side of the NPI, during the same decennia, Steffen Glacier experienced a remarkable retreat of 1.6 km as well. During the 2001-2011 period, Steffen Glacier more than doubled its rate of retreat (compared to the 1979-2001 period) and experienced the disintegration of its main front as well as a lateral tongue that retreated 3.1 km. The

  4. Depositional Environments of Late Danian Plant Localities: Chubut Provice, Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, E.; Slingerland, R. L.; Wilf, P.

    2010-12-01

    Diverse, well-preserved macroflora are observed within Cretaceous and Paleocene sediments of Chubut Province, Patagonia, Argentina. These macroflora are the most well preserved early Paleocene flora from Gondwana and add new insight into the diversity and environments of that epoch. Two major sites of fossil preservation, Palacio de los Loros and Parque Provincial Ormachea, sit near the top of the Late Danian (65.5-61.7 Ma) Salamanca Formation. Understanding the depositional history of the Salamanca is important in characterizing paleoenvironments in which these flora lived and relating these Patagonian macroflora to concurrent Paleocene flora within the Gondwanan supercontinent. During a two week field season, twenty stratigraphic sections were measured along the outcrop belt at Palacio de los Loros and Ormachea Park as well as two minor sites; Las Flores, and Rancho Grande. Photo mosaics, laser ranger data, and stratigraphic columns were merged with elevated geologic maps and imported into Fledermaus to generate a 3-D visualization of facies relationships. Rock samples were also collected and will be thin sectioned and analyzed for petrography and grain size. The Salamanca Fm. consists of 7 facies, listed here in stratigraphically ascending order: 1)Transgressive sands, 2)Wispy-bedded claystone, 3)Banco Verde, 4)White Cross bedded sandstone, 5)Accretion set siltstone, 6)Transitional silty claystone and 7)Banco Negro. Based on these facies, the Salamanca Fm. is interpreted as a marine-shelf to brackish, tide-dominated, estuarine deposit. The base of the Salamanca Fm. rests on an unconformity representing a marine flooding surface and lower sections of the Salamanca, facies 1 and 2, contain abundant glauconite and fossils indicative of a marine shelf environment. These facies give way upwards to bi-directional trough cross bedded sandstones interspersed with flaser bedded sandy siltstones (facies 3 and 4) indicating a less marine estuary with strong flow regimes

  5. Plantas Medicinales en el Parque Nacional los alerces, Chubut, Patagonia Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Toledo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las plantas con valor medicinal empleadas por los antiguos pobladores del Parque Nacional Los Alerces y relacionarlas con la riqueza específica de plantas medicinales presentes en el área. Se entrevistaron 16 pobladores asentados en la Reserva Nacional que tenían conocimiento de las plantas medicinales, más allá de que hicieran uso o no de las mismas. Las entrevistas fueron semiestructuradas, completadas de manera escrita e individual por el entrevistador. Las mismas incluían diez preguntas que recopilaban información respecto a las especies usadas como medicina, modo de preparación y aplicación, frecuencia de uso, localización de las plantas en el ámbito del área protegida, forma de obtención de las especies, y el modo de adquisición de los conocimientos respecto a las plantas. Los pobladores mencionaron el uso de 42 especies con valor medicinal, distribuidas en 24 familias, de las cuales las mejor representadas fueron Lamiaceae (21,4% y Asteraceae (14,2%. En cuanto al origen de las plantas medicinales citadas por los pobladores, el 58, 5% correspondió a especies exóticas. Los usos más frecuentes fueron para trastornos del sistema digestivo, seguido en orden decreciente y en menor proporción para tratar afecciones respiratorias, cardiovasculares y de la piel. Al comparar la riqueza total de especies medicinales presentes en el Parque y las registradas a partir de las entrevistas, se observa que se hace uso de un 28,6% de lo disponible en el área.Medicinal plants in The Alerces National Park, Chubut, Argentinean Patagonia. The aim of this study was to identify the medicinal plants used by the old residents in The Alerces National Park and to relate this information with medicinal species richness in the area. An interview was employed with 16 local people settled in the National Reserve who had knowledge of medicinal plants, past or not to make use of them. The interviews were semi

  6. High potential of nitrogen fixation in pristine, ombrotrophic bogs in Southern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Horn, Marcus A.; Bahamonde Aguilar, Nelson A.; Borken, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) input in pristine peatlands occurs via natural input of inorganic N through atmospheric deposition or biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation. However, N2 fixation is to date mostly attributed to bacteria and algae associated to Sphagnum and its contribution to plant productivity and peat buildup has been often underestimated in previous studies. Based on net N storage, exceptionally low N deposition, and high abundance of vascular plants at pristine peatlands in Southern Patagonia, we hypothesized that there must be a high potential of non-symbiotic N2 fixation not limited to the occurrence of Sphagnum. To this end, we chose two ombrotrophic bogs with spots that are dominated either by Sphagnum or by vascular, cushion-forming plants and sampled peat from different depths for incubation with 15N2 to determine N2 fixation potentials. Moreover, we analyzed 15N2 fixation by a nodule-forming, endemic conifer inhabiting the peatlands. Results from 15N2 uptake were compared to the conventional approach to study N2 fixation by the acetylene reduction assay (ARA). Using 15N2 as a tracer, high non-symbiotic N2 fixation rates of 0.3-1.4 μmol N g-1 d-1 were found down to 50 cm under micro-oxic conditions (2 vol.%) in samples from both plots either covered by Sphagnum magellanicum or by vascular cushion plants. Peat N concentrations suggested a higher potential of non-symbiotic N2 fixation under cushion plants, likely because of the availability of easily decomposable organic compounds as substrates and oxic conditions in the rhizosphere. In the Sphagnum plots, high N2 fixation below 10 cm depth would rather reflect a potential fixation that may switch on during periods of low water levels when oxygen penetrates deeper into the peat. 15N natural abundance of live Sphagnum from 0-10 cm pointed to N uptake solely from atmospheric deposition and non-symbiotic N2 fixation. 15N signatures of peat from the cushion plant plots indicated additional N supply from N

  7. Geophysical characterization of two circular structures at Bajada del Diablo (Patagonia, Argentina): Indication of impact origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezzi, Claudia B.; Orgeira, María Julia; Acevedo, Rogelio D.; Ponce, Juan Federico; Martinez, Oscar; Rabassa, Jorge O.; Corbella, Hugo; Vásquez, Carlos; González-Guillot, Mauricio; Subías, Ignacio

    2012-02-01

    An impact origin has been proposed for the circular structures found in Bajada del Diablo, Patagonia, Argentina. Taking into account its extension and the number of impact structures, Bajada del Diablo would be the largest meteoritic impact areas known on Earth, being an extremely interesting area for the research of impact events and processes. Moreover, the global distribution of known impact structures shows a surprising asymmetry. Particularly, South America has only seven described areas. It is evident that this situation is an artifact, highlighting the importance of intensifying the research in the least studied areas such as Argentina. Circular structures in Bajada del Diablo have been identified on two rock types: the Quiñelaf eruptive complex and Pampa Sastre Formation. In the first case, circular structures are placed in olivine basalts. On the other hand, Pampa Sastre Formation (late Pliocene/early Pleistocene) corresponds to conglomerate layers with basalt clasts boulder and block in size in a coarse sandy matrix. With the aim of further the investigation of the proposed impact origin for these circular structures, we carried out detailed topographic, magnetic and electromagnetic ground surveys in two circular structures ("8" and "A") found in Pampa Sastre conglomerates. Both circular structures are simple, bowl-shaped with rim diameters of 300 m and maximum depths of 10 m. They have been partially filled in by debris flows from the rims and wind-blown sands. Two preliminary magnetic profiles have also been carried out in circular structure "G" found in Quiñelaf basalts. The magnetic anomalies show a circular pattern with a slightly negative and relatively flat signal in the circular structures' bases. Furthermore in the circular structures' rims, high-amplitude, conspicuous and localized (short wavelength) anomalies are observed. Such large amplitude and short wavelength anomalies are not detected outside the circular structures. For all used

  8. Environmental History of Southern Patagonia Unraveled by Seismic Stratigraphy and Sediment Cores of Laguna Potrok Aike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmetti, F. S.; Ariztegui, D.; de Batist, M.; Gebhardt, C.; Haberzettl, T.; Niessen, F.; Ohlendorf, C.; Zolitschka, B.

    2006-12-01

    Laguna Potrok Aike, located in Southernmost Patagonia (Argentina, 52°S) is a maar lake and likely provides the only continental Southern Patagonian archive that covers a long and continuous interval of several glacial- to-interglacial cycles. In the context of a proposed ICDP-drilling initiative (see Zolitschka et al., this session), several site surveys have been undertaken that characterize in detail the shallow subsurface of the lake. A variety of environmental changes are identified based on seismic stratigraphic analyses of a dense grid of high- resolution data. Long sediment cores recovered the material to date and calibrate these changes providing a chronology of events. The paleoenvironmental history reflects the complex interplay between variations in the hydrologic cycle, wind regime, and volcanic/tectonic activity. Laguna Potrok Aike is the largest and deepest lake (maximum depth 100 m) in the Pali Aike Volcanic Field. It is steeply-rimmed, circular in shape with a diameter of 3 km and surrounded subaerially by a series of paleoshorelines, reflecting its sensitivity to changes in the evaporation/precipitation ratio. Seismic subsurface data indicate a basinwide erosional unconformity, that consistently occurs on the shoulder of the lake down to a depth of -35 m (below modern lake level) marking the lowest lake level during the Late Glacial-to-Holocene times. Cores that penetrate this unconformity comprise MIS3-dated sediments (45 ka) 3.5 m below the unconformity that were deposited during high lake levels. These cores also provide an age of 6800 cal BP for the transgressional sediments burying the unconformity. This middle Holocene transgression following the maximum lake level lowstand marks the onset of a stepwise increase in moisture, as shown by a series of buried paleoshorelines that were formed during at least five lake level stillstands between the depths of -32 and -12 m. No indications point towards an intermittent lake level lowering, so that

  9. Unravelling the collapse mechanisms at a Jurassic caldera of the Chon Aike silicic LIP in Southern Patagonia (47° 15 'S, 71° 40'W), Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sruoga, P.; Japas, S.; Salani, F.; Kleiman, L.; Graffigna, M.

    2008-10-01

    La Peligrosa Caldera is located at Sierra Colorada (47° 15'S, 71° 40' W) in the Chon-Aike silicic LIP. It represents an unique window to understand the eruptive mechanisms that prevailed throughout the ignimbritic flare-up in Southern Patagonia during middle to late Jurassic times. Key pieces of lithologic and structural evidences are taken into account to reconstruct the volcanic structure.

  10. Una mirada arqueológica sobre la arquitectura doméstica en tierra en la Patagonia argentina durante los siglos XVIII, XIX y XX

    OpenAIRE

    Casanueva, María Laura

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo busca poner en valor las estrategias que permitieron la supervivencia y permanencia de inmigrantes campesinos, que en distintos momentos históricos y bajo diferentes coyunturas políticas, arribaron a la Patagonia argentina en busca de un progreso económico y patrimonial. La necesidad de cobijo urgente y de hacer frente a las adversidades en un nuevo destino territorial y social, provocaron respuestas concretas. Las viviendas levantadas por aquellos pioneros europeos so...

  11. Paleoecología: el uso de los quironómidos fósiles (Diptera: Chironomidae en reconstrucciones paleoambientales durante el Cuaternario en la Patagonia Paleoecology: the use of fossil chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae for paleoenvironmental reconstructions in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Massaferro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre los indicadores biológicos lacustres más utilizados en las reconstrucciones ambientales, se encuentran el polen, los ostrácodos y las diatomeas, y entre los insectos, los coleópteros y los quironómidos. Este grupo ha cobrado gran importancia en los últimos tiempos, debido a los resultados prometedores que se han obtenido en reconstrucciones climáticas realizadas en América del Norte y Europa. En América del Sur, el uso de los quironómidos fósiles en estudios cuaternarios es relativamente limitado, principalmente por su escaso conocimiento taxonómico regional. La mayor parte de estos estudios fueron realizados en lagos glaciares patagónicos de Argentina y Chile. Las larvas de quironómidos constituyen una valiosa herramienta paleolimnológica, por ser un grupo de organismos altamente sensible a cambios ambientales, tanto naturales como artificiales. Además, es un grupo de insectos ampliamente distribuido y con una abundancia y diversidad relativamente altas. Sus cápsulas cefálicas se preservan en los sedimentos lacustres y poseen caracteres importantes que permiten identificar géneros y muchas veces especies. El estudio de los ensambles de quironómidos en sedimentos lacustres puede ser utilizado con distintos objetivos, por ejemplo, para estudios de eutrofización, ya que responden rápidamente a cambios en la concentración de nutrientes, materia orgánica y otros elementos, como metales pesados. No obstante, uno de los potenciales más importantes de este grupo de insectos es su sensibilidad a los cambios de temperatura, por este motivo, la aplicación más importante de su estudio en sedimentos se centra en las reconstrucciones climáticas. Esta contribución es una síntesis de los resultados de los trabajos publicados en la Patagonia argentina y chilena, sobre la base del uso de los quironómidos fósiles en reconstrucciones paleoambientales.Pollen, ostracods, diatoms and insects such as beetles and chironomids are

  12. El Califato de Touba como factor socio cultural relevante en la conformación de la geopolítica africana subsahariana occidental en el periodo 1960 - 1980

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Pardo, María Lucía

    2009-01-01

    Esta investigación se tiene en cuenta al Califato de Touba ubicado en Senegal como factor relevante para el análisis de dinámicas regionales que dieron respuesta a la conformación geopolítica del África subsahariana occidental durante los años sesentas y ochentas.

  13. Reconstruction and modelling of the 1977 Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) of the Engaño Lake, Chilean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren Anacona, Pablo; Norton, Kevin; Mackintosh, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Floods from moraine-dammed lake failures can result in severe damage to mountain communities. GLOFs can also cause long-standing effects in riverine landscapes, due to the high intensity (i.e. great depth and high velocities) and long reach capacity of these events. GLOFs may increase in frequency as glaciers retreat and new lakes develop, highlighting the need for a better understanding of GLOF dynamics and the measures to reduce their negative outcomes. In Patagonia at least 16 moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time, however, data about GLOF dynamics and impacts are limited since GLOFs have mainly affected uninhabited areas and ungauged rivers. In March 1977, however, a GLOF flooded a small village (~130 inhabitants) in Chilean Patagonia. We reconstruct the dynamics of this event by semi-structured interviews, interpretation of satellite images (Landsat MSS) and two dimensional (2D) hydraulic modelling (using HEC-RAS 5.0 BETA and the SRTM v4 DEM). This reconstruction provides insights into GLOF behaviour, as well as the planning issues that led to socioeconomic consequences, which included relocation of the village. We mapped the flood extent and compiled data of flood depth and timing to constrain the 2D GLOF simulations. Modelling shows that the water released by the GLOF was in the order of 12-13 million cubic metres and that the flood reached Bahía Murta Viejo, located ~26 km from the failed lake, 2-3 hours after the moraine dam was breached. The flood lasted for about ten hours (at the village), although the peak discharge occurred after only one hour at this site. The maximum water depth at Bahía Murta Viejo was 1.5 m, however, water depths of up to 20 metres were simulated in upstream constricted reaches. The overall flood dynamics suggested by interviews and geomorphic mapping, including hydraulic ponding upstream of bedrock gorges, was well represented in the 2D simulations in spite of the coarse resolution (~80 m) of the DEM used. The

  14. Estructura y organización de los ensambles de roedores de un bosque de la Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango, México Structure and organization of rodent assembles of a forest of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZABETH E ARAGÓN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad biológica de los bosques templados en la región de montaña denominada "Sierra Madre Occidental», México, es rica. Esta zona se encuentra en la Zona de Transición, un área biogeográficamente importante de Norteamérica caracterizada por una gran heterogeneidad ambiental local. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre la composición taxonómica y la organización de los mamíferos pequeños nativos y sobre la influencia de los factores ecológicos locales, en particular en tipos de vegetación diferentes. Por lo tanto, se estudió la composición de especies y la estructura de los ensambles de pequeños mamíferos de esta sierra y se proporcionó información sobre el nivel de anidamiento y la detección de patrones en su organización. El área de estudio fue el rancho "El Durangueño", Durango, México. Se muestrearon tres tipos de vegetación diferentes (pastizales y bosques de encino-pino y pino-encino por estación de 2005 y 2006. Los roedores fueron capturados, recapturados e identificados durante tres noches por sitio. Los resultados produjeron 520 individuos (386 capturas, 134 recapturas de 18 especies de mamíferos pequeños (14 ratones, cuatro ardillas de tamaños corporales diferentes, de afinidades neártica, neotropical o compartida; se encontraron endemismos y taxas en alguna categoría de riesgo de extinción. La riqueza y la equitabilidad fueron altas, la diversidad y los niveles poblacionales fueron moderados, a excepción de un bosque de encino-pino con densidad de pequeños mamíferos alta y la dominancia de alguna especie en el bosque de pino-encino, debido probablemente a perturbaciones. El patrón espacial de las especie de tamaño mediano no fue azaroso. El ensamblaje de especies no presentó anidamiento y tuvo una distribución log-normal, con cuatro especies comunes y de amplia distribución (Peromyscus truei, P. maniculatus, Reithrodontomys montanus y Sigmodon leucotis y siete de distribución restringida

  15. El etnocentrismo del pensamiento occidental: aportaciones desde los movimientos de las mujeres en América Latina a través del video

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    El etnocentrismo puede definirse como la hegemonía de una etnia sobre otras, legitimada como portadora de la civilización. Históricamente, la cultura occidental fue sinónimo de civilización con vocación política universal que sustentó la colonización y la destrucción de la organización social, política y cultural de otros pueblos de otros continentes como América, Africa, etc. La organización política de esos pueblos en torno a un estado centralizador o no (lo primero era lo que caracterizaba...

  16. Allium pyrenaicum Costa and Vayr. (Liliaceae en el Valle del Roncal (Pirineo Occidental, Navarra : Propuesta para su protección legal /

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorda López, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium pyrenaicum (Liliaceae se cita por primera vez para Navarra (Pirineo Occidental ; se trata de una planta endémica del Pirineo, con área disyunta en Cataluña, al Este, y en Aragón-Navarra, al Oeste. Además de los datos corológicos, en esta nota se estima el tamaño de la población y se comentan su hábitat, posibles riesgos y grado de protección. Tambien se aporta in mapa de distribución del taxón y fotografía de este ajo silvestre.

  17. 3ro informe del proyecto de investigación MI SIERRA : Gobernanza y usos de la biodiversidad en la Sierra Occidental de Jalisco.

    OpenAIRE

    Bessy, Anouck; Leparquier, Fleur; Bourbousson, Céline; Mercier, Delphine; Bahuchet, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Este informe presenta una parte de los resultados del proyecto de investigación-acción MI SIERRA del CEMCA y del MNHN, lo cual tiene el objetivo desarrollar el seguimiento científico de un proyecto piloto de área protegida en el occidente de México. La primera parte del informe se enfoca en el análisis de la implementación del proyecto en su territorio, y la segunda parte sobre el análisis etnoecológico y socioeconómico de 4 productos y servicios de la región: el café, los dulces de fruta, lo...

  18. Contexto histórico de un territorio. El centro occidente colombiano antes de la colonización antioqueña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Martínez Botero

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de la idea de que los territorios son espacios sociales, y por ende históricos y cambiantes, este artículo pretende trazar los rasgos generales del territorio que se configuró entre la conquista hispánica y el proceso de re-poblamiento conocido como “colonización antioqueña” en el centro occidente de la actual República de Colombia. El enunciamiento de las principales características históricas del territorio estudiado, permitirán componer un contexto general del mismo que servirá de apoyo al estudio de esta región que, salvo pocos ejemplos, ha permanecido descuidada por los historiadores.

  19. La mer et les milieux mystiques d’après la production hagiographique du Maghreb occidental (xiie-xve siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaoua Amara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La production hagiographique du Maghreb occidental médiéval montre que la mer constituait un espace mystique. Plusieurs aspects sont sans cesse présents dans les récits : la marche sur l’eau, l’arrêt des tempêtes et la résistance aux pirates. La mer jouait un rôle important dans le développement des réseaux mystiques, entraînant une réorganisation de l’espace. À travers l’analyse des récits hagiographiques, est étudiée la présence des saints sur le littoral et au large, dont la conséquence principale est la contribution à la fixation des populations.

  20. Reflexión sobre los trastornos de ansiedad en la sociedad occidental Reflexion on the anxiety disorders in the Western society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha González Ceinos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos de ansiedad constituyen la forma más prevalente de enfermedad psiquiátrica en la sociedad occidental, y sin embargo, la gran mayoría de los pacientes que sufren estos trastornos no son correctamente identificados ni reciben un tratamiento adecuado. El capitalismo, así como la falta de responsabilidad para asumir decisiones, conllevan al estrés del individuo.The anxiety disorders are the prevailing form of psychiatric disease in the Western society; however, most of the patients suffering from these disorders are not correctly identified, and they do not receive an adequate treatment. Capitalism, as well as the lack of responsibility lead to the individual's stress.

  1. Eduard Maria Balcells i Buïgas : un arquitecte de darrera generació modernista al Vallès Occidental /

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Martínez, José María

    2016-01-01

    La tesi "Eduard Maria Balcells Buïgas. Un arquitecte de darrera generació modernista al Vallès Occidental" pretén abordar la producció de l'arquitecte i contextualitzar-la des d'una doble perspectiva. Per una banda destacant la rellevància que va tenir des d'un vessant local i comarcal pel que fa a la difusió del modernisme i dels successius moviments arquitectònics. L'estudi de la seva trajectòria, les obres i diverses tipologies i camps als què es va dedicar han de permetre també definir le...

  2. SINDICATOS, DIÁLOGO SOCIAL Y EMPLEO EN EUROPA OCCIDENTAL. UNA APROXIMACIÓN AL CASO DE ESPAÑA EN PERSPECTIVA COMPARADA

    OpenAIRE

    Mosquera, Marcial Sánchez; Universidad de Sevilla

    2017-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un estudio preliminar de los sindicatos españoles más representativos como agentes de cambio y regulación de los mercados de trabajo a través del diálogo social entre 1996 y 2013 en perspectiva comparada con el área de Europa Occidental. Para conseguir este propósito, se plantea un estudio la evolución del diálogo social en España desde 1996 a 2013, con especial atención a los cambios operados sobre el mercado de trabajo y su impacto sobre la evolución de las tasas de d...

  3. Acerca de la antropología crítica en Los argonautas del Pacífico occidental, de Bronislaw Malinowski

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo explora la posibilidad de reconstruir ciertos fragmentos de una suerte de antropología crítica en una de las obras seminales de la teoría antropológica: Los argonautas del Pacífico occidental, escrita por Bronislaw Malinowski. Para ello, consideraremos el uso de un modelo de análisis que contiene tres variantes de crítica: crítica empírica, crítica inmanente y crítica normativa o posible ser-otro. Así, el objetivo es utilizar el modelo para ubicar algunos fragmentos de Lo...

  4. "Merecemos un tratamiento mejor": Auge y caída de las milicias negras en el hemisferio occidental durante el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Mixon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora la historia de las milicias negras del hemisferio occidental durante el siglo xix. Para los afrodescendientes, la milicia fue un vehículo para establecer su sentido de pertenencia y participación en los emergentes estados nacionales de América del Norte y del Sur. Mientras que en Latinoamérica esta emergió como componente de las guerras independentistas y civiles que marcaron la construcción de los Estados-nación en la primera mitad del xix, en EE.UU. los negros libres formaron milicias para defender sus cuerpos, alcanzar autonomía económica y política, y afirmar su ciudadanía y su libertad.

  5. Científicos en nómina: mecenazgo científico en el Occidente islámico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rius Piniés, Mònica

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Western Islamic world science was widespread and effectively practiced, but who funded it and why? By exploring those Arabic sources (chronicles and biographic dictionaries which might shed light on these questions, this paper will try to map the patronage of the sciences and, ultimately, to place the practice of science in its social context.

    La ciencia fue cultivada, en el occidente islámico, de manera amplia y eficaz, pero ¿quién la financió y por qué? El artículo explora este vastísimo campo a partir de las fuentes árabes que aportan datos (crónicas históricas y diccionarios biográficos para trazar un panorama del mecenazgo científico. De este modo, además, se contribuye a situar a la ciencia en su contexto social.

  6. CONSIDERACIONES PETROGRÁFICAS, GEOQUÍMICAS Y GEOCRONOLÓGÍCAS DE LA PARTE OCCIDENTAL DEL BATOLITO DE SANTA MARTA

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    PABLO MEJÍA HERRERA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del análisis químico de elementos mayores y trazas para muestras tomadas en la margen occidental del Batolito de Santa Marta. También se describe petrográficamente el batolito, incluyendo sus facies félsicas, máficas y diques pegmatíticos asociados. Con los resultados de estos análisis químicos, llevados a aracno-gramas y de discriminación tectonomagmática propuestos por Pearce et al. (1984 y Pearce (1996, sumado a las relaciones de campo encontradas, se propone un Arco Magmático para el ambiente de formación del batolito. Una edad U-Pb convencional de 51.57 ± 1.3 Ma confirma la presencia del magmatismo paleógeno en esta zona.

  7. Aves y endemismo en los bosques relictos de la vertiente occidental andina del norte del Perú y sur del Ecuador

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    Jeremy N. M. Flanagan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Los bosques relictos de las vertientes occidentales de los Andes del norte del Perú y el sur del Ecuador forman parte de dos regiones, una la denominada región de endemismo tumbesina (caracterizada principalmente por bosques secos y otra, en altitudes mayores, la región de endemismo del sur de los Andes centrales (caracterizada por bosques nublados y páramo. La región tumbesina es reconocida por albergar gran cantidad de aves endémicas, muchas de las cuales están amenazadas, y también por el alto grado de deforestación y fragmentación de sus hábitats naturales. Este artículo presenta un resumen del estado de conservación de dichas aves y bosques, con recomendaciones para mejorar la conservación de los últimos bosques de la vertiente occidental.

  8. Algunas aportaciones de la demografía histórica en el occidente de México. Siglos XVIII y XIX

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    Lilia Oliver Sánchez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende hacer una breve revisión de los estudios que se han hecho en el campo de la demografía histórica en el occidente de nuestro país, especialmente para la ciudad de Guadalajara y el estado de Jalisco, a lo largo de los siglos XVIII y XIX. Existen a la fecha valiosas investigaciones que nos permiten adentrarnos al conocimiento de los niveles, tendencias, y factores del cambio demográfico de las poblaciones que nos antecedieron en esta región. En este artículo, he tratado de revisar los dos temas que considero han sido trabajados con mayor dedicación para Guadalajara y su región, a saber: la mortalidad y la estructura familiar. Intento revisar también algunas de las hipótesis planteadas y los hallazgos más relevantes.

  9. Niveles básicos de susceptibilidad del Anopheles pseudopunctipennis al DDT y al Dieldrin en la región occidental del Perú

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    Manuel Acosta

    1958-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre diciembre, 1957, y mayo, 1958, se han efectuado pruebas de susceptibilidad del Anopheles pseudopunctipennis al DDT y el Dieldrín en 11 localidades de varios valles de la región occidental del Perú, localidades en las que con anterioridad se había rociado insecticidas clorados en campañas de salud pública. En la determinación de la susceptibilidad se ha empleado la técnica recomendada por la Organización Mundial de Salud. Las dosis medias letales (CL50 que se ha determinado oscilan entre 0.38 y 0.92 por ciento para el DDT; y 0. 13 y 0.26 por ciento para el Dieldrín, valores que se encuentran dentro de los límites de susceptibilidad natural o normal de los anofelinos no resistentes.

  10. Entre el diálogo y el belicismo: dos actitudes ante el turco desde el Occidente a fines del Medievo

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    Mitre Fernández, Emilio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Four authors of XV central century (Nicholas of Cusa, Juan de Segovia, the humanist Eneas Silvio Piccolomini –pope Pio II– and the Bohemian King George Podiebrad and another of the beginning of Modern Age (Erasmus of Rotterdam show correctly the occidental reaction face to the Ottoman pressure, from the fall of Constantinople (1453 to the Hungarian defeat in Mohacs (1526. They consider two ways to solve the problem: the religious dialogue that leads Turkeys to convert to Christianism and then make legitimate their conquest, for example, the short work of Nicholas of Cusa De pace fidei, and partially the Epistula ad Mahumetem of Pius II, and the foundation of a great alliance of Christian princes: vg. the paneuropean project of George Podiebrad, inspired by the old idea of crusade.

    Cuatro autores del siglo XV central, Nicolás de Cusa, Juan de Segovia, el humanista Eneas Silvio Piccolomini –Papa Pío II– y el rey bohemio Jorge Podiebrad, y otro de principios de la Edad Moderna –Erasmo de Rótterdam– muestran correctamente la reacción occidental frente a la presión del Imperio Otomano, desde la caída de Constantinopla en 1453 a la derrota de Hungría en Mohacs en 1526. Examinan dos formas de resolver el problema: el diálogo interreligioso que busca convertir a los turcos al cristianismo y luego legitimar la conquista, por ejemplo el pequeño libro de Nicolás de Cusa De pace fidei y, en parte, la Epistula ad Mahumetem de Pío II; y la creación de una gran alianza de los príncipes cristianos: vg. el proyecto paneuropeo de Jorge Podiebrad, inspirado en la vieja idea de cruzada.

  11. Iconoclasmo e iconodulia entre oriente y occidente (siglos VIII-IX Iconoclasm and iconoduly between east and west (8th-9th centuries

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    Alfonso Hernández Rodríguez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo trata acerca de la recepción en el occidente carolingio de la crisis iconoclasta. Reflexiona sobre la forma en que ambas cristiandades trataron el problema que las imágenes representan para las prácticas religiosas y las consecuencias políticas del culto de los iconos. El escrito afirma también que durante los siglos VIII y IX la crisis iconoclasta permitió la aparición de una tradición cristiana latina consciente de sí misma. Por lo tanto, se trató del momento que puso en evidencia el nacimiento de dos formas divergentes de piedad cristiana y la alienación de una respecto de la otra. La cristiandad occidental centrada en el edificio eclesiástico y que privilegiaba la ubicación de lo sagrado en el rito eucarístico, y la oriental cuyo centro era la adoración de las imágenes, con la consecuente multiplicación de los espacios sagrados.The following paper deals with the reception in the Carolingian west of the Byzantine Iconoclast Crisis. It considers the way both Christianities dealed with the problem that images presented to religious practices and the political consequences of iconic worship. The paper also states that during the VIII and IX centuries the iconoclast crisis allowed the emergence of a self conscious Latin Christian tradition. Consequently it was the moment that showed the beginning of two differing ways of Christian piety and the alienation of one towards the other. Western Christianity focused its religion practice in church building and the idea of Sacrality in the Eucharistic Rite. The oriental church, moreovers, centered its practices and theology on icon worship.

  12. Masila mamba : as Nexen predecessor Canadian Occidental raced to produce first oil from its Yemen concession, its lead engineer juggled a succession of challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.W.

    2007-03-15

    This article described the challenges faced by Canadian Occidental's lead engineer when scouting and laying a pipeline for the Masila complex in Yemen. The engineer was sent to Yemen in 1991 to lay initial construction plans for the pipeline. The Yemeni president was relying on the project to boost the country's poor economic performance. The project's central processing facility was located on a plateau interspersed with deep canyons and limestone fault scarps. Wells drilled by Canadian Occidental produced a flow rate of 3,767 barrels per day of oil. A 24 inch pipeline was used to transport oil from holding tanks to a terminal located in Ash Shir. For the first 60 km, the pipeline climbed at an incline of 1 per cent, then sloped gradually for the next 30 km. The route included a cliff edge where pumps were used to push the oil to the edge of the escarpment. In order to build the pipeline, construction crews stockpiled equipment at several locations on the pipeline's route, which also bypassed several villages. The pipeline was buried to keep the oil at an even temperature as well as to avoid acts of vandalism. The buried pipelines did not interfere with the movement of Yemeni tribespeople. A road was then built along a series of switchbacks wide enough to allow for the haulage of hundreds of tonnes of equipment. An experienced workforce was coordinated to complete the pipeline, feeder lines, processing facility and storage tanks. The work camp assembled for the project housed approximately 5000 workers from various countries. While the initial estimates for the oilfield were 243 million barrels, drilling success led to a revised estimate of over a billion barrels of recoverable oil. Reservoir engineers were required to expand beyond their initial targets. It was concluded that the project was completed 1 year ahead of schedule. 5 figs.

  13. Asuntos de familia: La construcción del poder en la patagonia: el caso de Neuquén

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    Susana Bandieri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende aproximarse al proceso de constitución de los sectores dominantes en la Patagonia a partir del estudio de los grupos terratenientes y mercantiles, muchas veces subsumidos en un único sujeto social. Para ello, se analiza la formación de los más importantes grupos familiares vinculados a la propiedad de la tierra y a la producción de bienes ganaderos, así como al comercio en sus múltiples expresiones, rurales y urbanas. Se pone especial énfasis en descubrir las estrategias de acumulación de estos grupos, ya sean las referidas a los adelantos a la producción, al manejo del crédito y a la provisión de bienes a los diversos gobiernos de los Territorios Nacionales, así como las vinculadas a las ventajas comparativas brindadas por el aprovechamiento simultáneo de los mercados del Atlántico y del Pacífico. Finalmente, se estudian los vínculos surgidos a partir de los lazos étnicos, particularmente importantes en el caso de las familias sirio-libanesas de Neuquén, y se representan asimismo los entramados de poder a que dieron lugar los entrecruzamientos familiares de los distintos ejemplos estudiados.This paper offers an approach to the process of consolidation of dominant sectors in Patagonia from the study of landowners and merchant groups, traditionally reduced to a single social subject. The formation of the most important family groups entailed to land property and cattle ranching is studied, as so the urban and rural trade is also included. A special emphasis is put to find this groups' accumulation strategies, which were related to production advancements, credit management and the supply of goods to the different governments of the National Territories . Likewise, this article shows those strategies based on the exploitation of comparative advantages obtained from the simultaneous handling of Atlantic and Pacific markets. Finally, relations spouted from ethnic ties are analyzed because they are very

  14. North Patagonia climate over the last millennium inferred from variations in tree-ring width and isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Aliénor; Villalba, Ricardo; Daux, Valérie

    2014-05-01

    To disentangle natural variability from man-induced climate changes, current climatic trends should be placed in a longer perspective. Tree-rings provide a wealth of information on past climates with high-resolution records covering up to thousands years. Recent tree-ring studies have highlighted the divergence phenomenon in Northern Hemisphere forests. At some temperature-limited northern sites, tree growth responses to climate during recent decades have changed, raising concerns about the quality of historical climate reconstructions based on tree-ring widths. This shift in the eco-physiological response of trees to climate has not yet been documented in the Southern Hemisphere. The aim of this study is to present the tree-ring evolution over the last centuries in northern Patagonia (southern South America; 41° 10'S-71° 50'W) in order to assess 1) divergence in tree-growth response to climate in recent decades, and 2) the potential of tree-ring parameters (width and δ18O) to reconstruct temperature and atmospheric circulation patterns such as the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Based on quality and extent, instrumental temperature records across North Patagonia (39° -41° S) were selected for comparison with tree-ring records. Detection and correction of series inhomogeneities were conducted using HOMER software. A set of homogenized temperature data was developed for the period 1901-2013. Increment-borer samples from Fitzroya cupressoides and Nothofagus pumilio were collected along the regional precipitation gradient from the wet Valdivian rainforest to the mesic Patagonian forests during the austral summer of 2013. Six sampling sites (2 for Fitzroya, 4 for Nothofagus) along the gradient were established to maximize differences in tree-growth responses to climate and to assess the effect of precipitation on the responses. More than 500 cores were cross-dated, detrended and indexed. Composite tree-ring index (TRI) chronologies of F. cupressoides and N. pumilio

  15. The Last Transition From Extreme Glacial to Extreme Interglacial Climate in NW Patagonia: Regional and Global Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, P. I.

    2004-12-01

    The study of interhemispheric climate linkages during and since the last ice age has benefited from the recent development of high-resolution ice core and marine records from the mid- and high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Few paleoclimate records from terrestrial environments in these regions, however, have the temporal continuity, time resolution, and adequate chronologic control to allow a detailed examination of the timing, rates, direction, and phasing of climate change at millennial timescales. Stratigraphic, palynologic, and charcoal records from small, high-sediment accumulating lakes in the Chilean Lake District (41ºS) afford useful data for examining the interval between the LGM to the early Holocene (25-8 ka, ka=cal kyr BP). Millennial-scale changes in glacier extent and vegetation patterns within this interval match key events both in the Northern Hemisphere and Antarctic records, in particular the EPICA Dome C data, highlighting the role of an atmosphere-based conduit for the global propagation of abrupt climate changes. The onset of the last termination in NW Patagonia is marked by glacial collapse and the expansion of rainforest trees at 17.7 ka. An apparent antiphase relationship among the polar hemispheres between 17.7-14.7 ka, might reflect the hemispheric-scale effects of a quasi-total shut down of Atlantic Meridional Overturning circulation driven by Heinrich event 1. Extreme glacial and interglacial modes in the position/strength of the westerlies at multi-millennial timescales in the southern westerlies accompany important shifts in the abundance and composition of rainforest communities during the last termination and the early Holocene. At millennial timescales, this interval is characterised by successive warming pulses interrupted by a generalized reversal in trend with cooling events starting at 14.7 and 13.4 ka. Fires between 12.9-11.5 ka, i.e. Younger Dryas Chron (YDC), led to the expansion of opportunistic rainforest species

  16. Chemical and petrological heterogenity of lithospheric mantle beneath N Patagonia (Argentina) - case study of Cerro Chenque xenoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozdrowska, Dominika; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Puziewicz, Jacek; Bjerg, Ernesto

    2015-04-01

    Mantle-xenoliths-bearing, back-arc Pliocene - Quaternary alkali basalts occur in N Patagonia, Argentina (Bjerg et al., 2005, J. of S. Am. Sci.). The Cerro Chenque (Rio Negro province) trachybasaltic lavas carry small (up to 10 cm in diameter) xenoliths of anhydrous, spinel bearing harzburgites, dunites and less abundant clino- , orthopyroxenites, websterites. The xenolith suite comprises also gabbros and norites, which are not discussed in this study. All the phases forming xenoliths are rich in Mg (Fo=90.5-93.5%; mg#Opx=0.90-0.94; mg#Cpx=0.91-0.95). Composition of spinel is extremely variable (mg#=0.65-0.85; cr#=0.00-0.70). Three types (A, B, C) of REE patterns occur in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene: (1) type A (harzburgites and orthopyroxenites) is U-shaped in both the pyroxenes, REE contents vary significantly (e.g. La=~0.5 primitive mantle values (PM), ~5 PM, and ~50PM); (2) type B (dunites and harzburgites) clinopyroxene has flat HREE and is continuously enriched in LREE up to 10x PM, orthopyroxene is U-shaped; (3) type C (harzburgites) clinopyroxene is convex upward, La=5-7PM), orthopyroxene is continuously depleted in LREE. Clinopyroxene of all the types is poor in Ti, while normalized content of other trace elements is strongly variable. Trace element compositions of Cerro Chenque xenolithc clinopyroxene cover whole compositional range of mantle-derived clinopyroxene from Rio Negro province presented by Bjerg et al., 2005 (op.cit.). In xenoliths where clino- and orthopyroxene are in equilibrium, the calculated temperatures are always around 1000°C (Brey and Köhler,1990, JoP). No spinel-clinopyroxene symplectites suggesting peridotite provenance from garnet stability field were observed. Strong variations in rock-type and chemical composition of minerals forming Cerro Chenque xenoliths suggest complicated structure of upper mantle beneath N Patagonia. At present stage of study we suggest that Earth's lithospheric mantle in this region: - suffered from

  17. CO2 and CH4 fluxes of contrasting pristine bogs in southern Patagonia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchberger, Wiebke; Blodau, Christian; Kleinebecker, Till; Pancotto, Veronica

    2015-04-01

    South Patagonian peatlands cover a wide range of the southern terrestrial area and thus are an important component of the terrestrial global carbon cycle. These extremely southern ecosystems have been accumulating organic material since the last glaciation up to now and are - in contrast to northern hemisphere bogs - virtually unaffected by human activities. So far, little attention has been given to these pristine ecosystems and great carbon reservoirs which will potentially be affected by climate change. We aim to fill the knowledge gap in the quantity of carbon released from these bogs and in what controls their fluxes. We study the temporal and spatial variability of carbon fluxes in two contrasting bog ecosystems in southern Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego. Sphagnum-dominated bog ecosystems in Tierra del Fuego are similar to the ones on the northern hemisphere, while cushion plant-dominated bogs can almost exclusively be found in southern Patagonia. These unique cushion plant-dominated bogs are found close to the coast and their occurrence changes gradually to Sphagnum-dominated bogs with increasing distance from the coast. We conduct closed chamber measurements and record relevant environmental variables for CO2 and CH4 fluxes during two austral vegetation periods from December to April. Chamber measurements are performed on microforms representing the main vegetation units of the studied bogs. Gas concentrations are measured with a fast analyzer (Los Gatos Ultraportable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer) allowing to accurately record CH4 fluxes in the ppm range. We present preliminary results of the carbon flux variability from south Patagonian peat bogs and give insights into their environmental controls. Carbon fluxes of these two bog types appear to be highly different. In contrast to Sphagnum-dominated bogs, cushion plant-dominated bogs release almost no CH4 while their CO2 flux in both, photosynthesis and respiration, can be twice as high as for Sphagnum

  18. Cuatro nuevas especies del género Liolaemus (Iguania: Liolaemidae, pertenecientes al grupo boulengeri, de la Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdala, Cristian Simón

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen cuatro nuevas especies del género Liolaemus, pertenecientes al grupo boulengeri, caracterizado por la presencia de un parche femoral de escamas agrandadas en la parte posterior del fémur. Una especie fue colectada en el sur de la provincia de Neuquén y las otras tres en el suroeste, centro y este de la provincia de Río Negro, en la Patagonia Argentina. Dentro del grupo las nuevas especies están relacionadas fenéticamente a Liolaemus boulengeri. Se estudiaron 98 caracteres morfológicos externos, referidos principalmente a caracteres de lepidosis, patrón de coloración y proporciones corporales, corrientemente estudiados en Liolaemus. Las diferencias más significativas entre estas especies y Liolaemus boulengeri se dan principalmente en el patrón de coloración y en algunos caracteres de escamación. Estas especies ocupan parte de las tres regiones patagónicas que se diferencian con base en la orografía y vegetación asociada. Las nuevas especies del centro y suroeste de la provincia de Río Negro, soportan grandes diferencias de temperatura diarias y estacionales. Las cuatro especies que se describen aquí se alimentan principalmente de insectos. Four new species of Liolaemus are described from the Patagonia region of southern Argentina. One species was collected in southern Neuquén Province and the other three are from Río Negro Province. Each of the new species has a patch of enlarged scales on the posterior surface of the thighs, indicating their relationship to members of the boulengeri group. Within this group, the four new species are morphologically most similar, and may be most closely related to, Liolaemus boulengeri. A total of 98 external morphological characters, principally squamation, color pattern, and body proportions, were recorded for these new members of the boulengeri group and compared with those for Liolaemus boulengeri. Significant differences between the new species and Liolaemus boulengeri were

  19. Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, J S; Montero, F E; Juan-García, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of

  20. Parasitological findings of lesser rhea, Pterocnemia pennata (D´ ORBIGNY in faeces FROM NORTHERN PATAGONIA, ARGENTINA Hallazgos parasitológicos en deposiciones de Lesser Rhea, Pterocnemia Pennata (D'orgiby, del norte de la patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chang Reissig

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La información acerca de parásitos que afectan a la producción de choiques criados en granjas en Argentina es escasa. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de enfermedades parasitarias en granjas de choiques. Durante un año se realizaron muestreos periódicos en 10 granjas de choiques (Pterocnemia pennata localizadas en el norte de la Patagonia Argentina. Un total de 310 muestras de materia fecal fresca de pichones, juveniles y adultos fueron recolectadas y analizadas por las técnicas de Willis y McMaster. De 310 muestras de material fecal analizadas, 31.3% de las muestras presentaron ooquistes de Eimeria spp, 1.9% huevos de Capillaria sp y 8.7% huevos de Trichostrongylus sp. Los recuentos de huevos y ooquistes por gramo de materia fecal resultaron bajos en la mayoría de los análisis. Se registró infección por Capillaria sp (Nematoda en 32% de las aves de una granja. De acuerdo a nuestros resultados, las infecciones parasitarias en choiques no constituirían un grave problema en los sistemas productivos de Argentina. Este es el primer estudio realizado en Argentina que reporta el nivel de parasitismo en choiques criados en granjas