WorldWideScience

Sample records for mud pumps

  1. METHODS OF IMPROVING THE MUD PUMP VALVE LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miruna BĂLTĂREȚU IANCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum drilling rigs are used for identifying geologic reservoirs and for creating wells for extraction. The mud pumps of drilling rigs are operated at high mud rates to make possible the drilling process. The durability of the mud pump valves to erosive wear, due to the action of abrasive drilling fluid containing solid particles, depends on their constructive form and on the mud flow velocity. This paper analyzes a few methods of increasing the wear resistance of mud pump valves.

  2. Selection of parameters for mud pumps used for HDD Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ziaja

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Design solutions of rigs used for HDD are presented in the paper. HDD devices are classified on the basis of presented criteria, and then a division of rigs was proposed. The principles of determining technological parameters of piston mud pumps for HDD are presented. The principles of determining volume flow rate for an arbitrary rheological model of drilling mud are discussed. The dependences enabling a calculation of resistance of drilling fluid flow in a circulation system are also presented.

  3. Delay Pressure Detection Method to Eliminate Pump Pressure Interference on the Downhole Mud Pressure Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of applying delay pressure detection method to eliminate mud pump pressure interference on the downhole mud pressure signals is studied. Two pressure sensors mounted on the mud pipe in some distance apart are provided to detect the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals on the surface according to the delayed time produced by mud pressure wave transmitting between the two sensors. A mathematical model of delay pressure detection is built by analysis of transmission path between mud pump pressure interference and downhole mud pressure signals. Considering pressure signal transmission characteristics of the mud pipe, a mathematical model of ideal low-pass filter for limited frequency band signal is introduced to study the pole frequency impact on the signal reconstruction and the constraints of pressure sensor distance are obtained by pole frequencies analysis. Theoretical calculation and numerical simulation show that the method can effectively eliminate mud pump pressure interference and the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals can be reconstructed successfully with a significant improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR in the condition of satisfying the constraints of pressure sensor distance.

  4. Principles of selection ofdrilling mud stream volume when drilling with a stream pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Macuda

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The reverse mud circulation induced by a stream pump is most frequently applied for large diameter drilling. This system is treated as auxiliary in all design solutions. It is implemented to drilling wells from the surface to the depth of deposition of the preliminary column. It enables performing wells in loose sands, gravel, clays clayey shales, marls, limestones, sandstones and other sedimentary rocks.A principle of selecting a drilling mud stream volume for various bit diameters and drilling rates in loose rocks are presented in the paper. A special attention has been paid to the drop of efficiency of cuttings removal with an increasing depth of the borehole.

  5. THE COURSE IN TESTING THE WEARING OUT OF MUD PUMPS PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Matanović

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Piston and cylinder are such parts in the mud pumps which cause the greatest expences due to the work stoppage of drilling rig. To reduce so caused expences it is necessary to produce spare parts of better quality. In determining the abrasion wear resistance for chosen materials, so called dry sand/rubber wheel abrasion test as an ASTM standard has been used (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Wear Performance of Bionic Dimpled-Shape Pistons of Mud Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejing Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The piston is one of the parts that most easily become worn out and experience failure in mud pumps for well drilling. By imitating the body surface morphology of the dung beetle, this paper proposed a new type (BW-160 of mud pump piston that had a dimpled shape in the regular layout on the piston leather cup surface and carried out a performance test on the self-built test rig. Firstly, the influence of different dimple diameters on the service life of the piston was analyzed. Secondly, the analysis of the influence of the dimple central included angle on the service life of the piston under the same dimple area density was obtained. Thirdly, the wear of the new type of piston under the same wear time was analyzed. The experimental results indicated that the service life of the piston with dimples on the surface was longer than that of L-Standard pistons, and the maximum increase in the value of service life was 92.06%. Finally, the Workbench module of the software ANSYS was used to discuss the wear-resisting mechanism of the new type of piston.

  7. Increasing Mud Pump Motor Reliability against Malfunctions of DC Motor Excitation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, O. V.; Shabanov, V. A.

    2017-10-01

    The most widely used drilling machinery, such as mud pumps, draw-works, and rotors, use direct-current (DC) motors with independent excitation as the electric drive. Drilling machinery drives operate in harsh ambient conditions, including those with the presence of moisture, dust and vibration, which increases the malfunction rate of both drilling equipment and their electric drives. One of the frequently encountered malfunctions are DC motor excitation coil faults, which disrupt the normal functioning of electric drives, often leading to shutdown of the drilling process. In a four-pole DC motor, the malfunction of one coil leads to lack of excitation current in just one coil pair, while the other pair remains functional. In this case, DC motors and drilling equipment can remain operational, which would allow for continuing the drilling process. This paper considers the possibility of operation of a DC motor on a drilling rig in those cases when one pair of excitation coils is non-functional, and describes the device for switching between the excitation coils and the auxiliary winding in a DC motor with independent excitation.

  8. Drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusayev, A A; Bibikov, K V; Simonenkov, I D; Surkova, K I

    1982-01-01

    Drilling mud is proposed which contains clay, water, water output reducer, pH regulator, viscosity reducer and hydrogen sulfide absorber. In order to improve the absorbing capacity of the drilling mud with pH 8-11 and simultaneously preservation of the technological properties of the mud, it contains as the absorber of hydrogen sulfide pyrite cinders with the following ratio of components, % by mass: clay 5.0-35.0; water output reducer 0.2-2.0; pH regulator 0.05-0.25; viscosity reducer 0.1-1.0; pyrite cinders 0.5-4.0; water--the rest.

  9. Drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranovskiy, V D; Brintsev, A I; Gusev, V G; Katenev, Ye P; Pokhorenko, I V

    1979-10-25

    A drilling mud is proposed, which contains a dispersion medium, a dispersion phase, for instance, clay, a stabilizer reagent, for instance, carboxymethylcellulose and a weighter. In order to reduce the viscosity and to increase the stability of the mud it contains as the dispersion medium a 75% aqueous solution of the L-7 reagent. To increase the salt resistance of the mud, it additionally contains sodium chloride in a volume of 4.04.5 percent by weight, and to regulate the alkalinity, it additionally contains sodium hydroxide in a volume of 1.1 to 1.3 percent by weight.

  10. Marvelous Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2011-01-01

    The author visited the Open Spaces Preschool in Whangarei, New Zealand and was surprised to see the most amazing natural preschool play. There were six preschoolers stripped down to tee shirts and underpants slipping, slopping, and sliding in the dirt spot which had now become the most lovely, silky-smooth deep-brown mud ever. Studies have…

  11. Drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babets, M A; Nechayev, N D; Vinogradova, G P

    1982-01-01

    A drilling mud is proposed which contains clay, alkali, water and stabilizer reagent. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the viscosity and static shear stress, the stabilizer reagent contained is composted solid general wastes with the following ratio of components (% by weight): clay 10-15, alkali 0.1-0.2; composted solid general wastes 2-5; water--the rest.

  12. PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  13. The anaerobic digestion of organic matter in sugarbeet mud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, M.G.; Haan, de F.A.M.; Blom, J.J.C.; Knaapen, J.W.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    Storage of sugar-beet mud in the traditional way, i.e., direct dewatering after pumping the slurry in storage basins, may cause odor nuisance because of digestion of organic substances. In order to prevent these bad odor problems the mud should remain submerged during the digestion period. No

  14. Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    An electromagnetic pump for circulating liquid -metal coolant through a nuclear reactor wherein opposite walls of a pump duct serve as electrodes to transmit current radially through the liquid-metal in the ducts. A circumferential electric field is supplied to the liquid-metal by a toroidal electromagnet which has core sections interposed between the ducts. The windings of the electromagnet are composed of metal which is superconductive at low temperatures and the electromagnet is maintained at a temperature at which it is superconductive by liquid helium which is fed through the conductors which supply the excitation for the electromagnet. The walls of the ducts joining the electrodes include metal plates insulated from the electrodes backed up by insulators so that they are capable of withstanding the pressure of the liquid-metal. These composite wall structures may also be of thin metal strips of low electrical conductivity backed up by sturdy insulators. (author)

  15. Thermal Mud Molecular Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Odabasi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal mud (peloids, which are frequently used for thermal therapy purposes consist of organic and inorganic (minerals compounds in general. Organic structure is formed after a variety of chemical processes occurring in decades and comprise of a very complex structure. Stagnant water environment, herbal diversity, microorganism multiplicity and time are crucial players to form the structure. Data regarding description of organic compounds are very limited. Nowadays, it was clearly understood that a variety of compounds those are neglected in daily practice are found in thermal mud after GC-MS and similar methods are being frequently used. Those compounds which are biologically active are humic compounds, carboxylic acids, terpenoids, steroids and fatty acids. By comprising the thermal mud, these different compound groups which are related to divers areas from cosmetology to inflammation, make the thermal mud very meaningful in the treatment of human disease. In this review, it was tried to put forward the effects of several molecule groups those consisting of the thermal mud structure. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 257-264

  16. From oil-based mud to water-based mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, C.

    1991-01-01

    Maersk Olie og Gas AS has used low toxic oil-based muds extensively since 1982 for drilling development wells and later in the development of horizontal well drilling techniques. However, in view of the strong drive towards a reduction in the amount of oil discharged to the North Sea from the oil industry, Maersk Olie og Gas AS initiated trials with new or improved types of water-based mud, first in deviated wells (1989) and then in horizontal wells (1990). The paper reviews Maersk Olie og Gas As experience with oil-based mud since the drilling of the first horizontal well in 1987, specifically with respect to cuttings washing equipment, oil retention on cuttings, and the procedure for monitoring of this parameter. It describes the circumstances leading to the decision to revert to water-based mud systems. Finally, it reviews the experience gained so far with the new improved types of water-based mud systems, mainly glycol and KCl/polymer mud systems. Comparison of operational data, such as rate of penetration, torque and drag, etc., is made between wells drilled with oil-based mud and water-based mud. The trials with the new improved types of water-based mud systems have been positive, i.e. horizontal wells can be drilled successfully with water-based mud. As a result, Maersk Olie og and Gas AS has decided to discontinue the use of low toxic oil-based muds in the Danish sector of the North Sea

  17. Mud Brick Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2012-01-01

    In the seemingly endless circle of demolition and illegal rebuilding hand-made mud bricks produced from the soil of contested territory become an act of resistance. In June 2011, the Palestinian village Fasayel encountered the Israeli military’s demolition of 21 of the village’s built structures....

  18. Wadden Sea Mud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, P.

    The present thesis deals with the transport phenomena of estuarine cohesive sediment from a laboratory and a numerical point of view. The cohesive sediment used throughout the whole process was natural mud from the Danish part of the Wadden sea, Ho Bay. In the laboratory, the work was concentrated...

  19. MUD and Self Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Min

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework for analyzing the effect of MUD (Multi-User Dungeons) playing on users' self-efficacy by applying Bandura's social learning theory, and introduces three types of self-efficacy: computer self-efficacy; social self-efficacy; and generalized self-efficacy. Considers successful performance, vicarious experience,…

  20. Advanced Mud System for Microhole Coiled Tubing Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Oglesby

    2008-12-01

    An advanced mud system was designed and key components were built that augment a coiled tubing drilling (CTD) rig that is designed specifically to drill microholes (less than 4-inch diameter) with advanced drilling techniques. The mud system was tailored to the hydraulics of the hole geometries and rig characteristics required for microholes and is capable of mixing and circulating mud and removing solids while being self contained and having zero discharge capability. Key components of this system are two modified triplex mud pumps (High Pressure Slurry Pumps) for advanced Abrasive Slurry Jetting (ASJ) and a modified Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) Separator for well control, flow return and initial processing. The system developed also includes an additional component of an advanced version of ASJ which allows cutting through most all materials encountered in oil and gas wells including steel, cement, and all rock types. It includes new fluids and new ASJ nozzles. The jetting mechanism does not require rotation of the bottom hole assembly or drill string, which is essential for use with Coiled Tubing (CT). It also has low reactive forces acting on the CT and generates cuttings small enough to be easily cleaned from the well bore, which is important in horizontal drilling. These cutting and mud processing components and capabilities compliment the concepts put forth by DOE for microhole coiled tubing drilling (MHTCTD) and should help insure the reality of drilling small diameter holes quickly and inexpensively with a minimal environmental footprint and that is efficient, compact and portable. Other components (site liners, sump and transfer pumps, stacked shakers, filter membranes, etc.. ) of the overall mud system were identified as readily available in industry and will not be purchased until we are ready to drill a specific well.

  1. Shallow-Water Mud Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Shallow-Water Mud Acoustics William L. Siegmann...models and methods that explain observed material and acoustic properties of different physical types of shallow-ocean mud sediments. Other goals...are to assess prior data relating to the acoustic properties of mud and to provide guidance in the development and interpretation of experiments. A

  2. Multi-Sensor Mud Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2010-01-01

    Robust mud detection is a critical perception requirement for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) autonomous offroad navigation. A military UGV stuck in a mud body during a mission may have to be sacrificed or rescued, both of which are unattractive options. There are several characteristics of mud that may be detectable with appropriate UGV-mounted sensors. For example, mud only occurs on the ground surface, is cooler than surrounding dry soil during the daytime under nominal weather conditions, is generally darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and is highly polarized. However, none of these cues are definitive on their own. Dry soil also occurs on the ground surface, shadows, snow, ice, and water can also be cooler than surrounding dry soil, shadows are also darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and cars, water, and some vegetation are also highly polarized. Shadows, snow, ice, water, cars, and vegetation can all be disambiguated from mud by using a suite of sensors that span multiple bands in the electromagnetic spectrum. Because there are military operations when it is imperative for UGV's to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, passive sensors are desirable. JPL has developed a daytime mud detection capability using multiple passive imaging sensors. Cues for mud from multiple passive imaging sensors are fused into a single mud detection image using a rule base, and the resultant mud detection is localized in a terrain map using range data generated from a stereo pair of color cameras.

  3. Use of Oil-Based Mud Cutting Waste in Cement Clinker Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Saif Al-Dhamri, H; Black, L

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based Mud (OBM) cutting waste is generated during the process of oil well drilling. The drilled rocks are removed from deep within the drilled well and pumped to the surface. The portion removed , known at "cutting", is a mixture of rocks, mud, water and oil. Most drilling companies store this waste in open yards with no specific treatment solution. The environmental regulations in Oman specify that storage should involve isolation, to prevent penetration of the contamination to the surfa...

  4. Multiphase modelling of mud volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Clarke, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    Mud volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon, classically considered as the surface expression of piercement structures rooted in deep-seated over-pressured sediments in compressional tectonic settings. The release of fluids at mud volcanoes during repeated explosive episodes has been documented at numerous sites and the outflows resemble the eruption of basaltic magma. As magma, the material erupted from a mud volcano becomes more fluid and degasses while rising and decompressing. The release of those gases from mud volcanism is estimated to be a significant contributor both to fluid flux from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, and to the atmospheric budget of some greenhouse gases, particularly methane. For these reasons, we simulated the fluid dynamics of mud volcanoes using a newly-developed compressible multiphase and multidimensional transient solver in the OpenFOAM framework, taking into account the multicomponent nature (CH4, CO2, H2O) of the fluid mixture, the gas exsolution during the ascent and the associated changes in the constitutive properties of the phases. The numerical model has been tested with conditions representative of the LUSI, a mud volcano that has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. The activity of LUSI mud volcano has been well documented (Vanderkluysen et al., 2014) and here we present a comparison of observed gas fluxes and mud extrusion rates with the outcomes of numerical simulations. Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E. & Smekens, J.-F. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 15, 2932-2946

  5. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud flats. 230.42 Section 230.42... Aquatic Sites § 230.42 Mud flats. (a) Mud flats are broad flat areas along the sea coast and in coastal rivers to the head of tidal influence and in inland lakes, ponds, and riverine systems. When mud flats...

  6. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  7. Mud Logging; Control geologico en perforaciones petroliferas (Mud Logging)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumarega Lafuente, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Mud Logging is an important activity in the oil field and it is a key job in drilling operations, our duties are the acquisition, collection and interpretation of the geological and engineering data at the wellsite, also inform the client immediately of any significant changes in the well. (Author)

  8. 30 CFR 250.1614 - Mud program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud program. 250.1614 Section 250.1614 Mineral... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1614 Mud program. (a) The quantities, characteristics, use, and testing of drilling mud and the related drilling procedures shall be designed and...

  9. Additive to clay drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytenko, V.S.; Nekrasova, V.B.; Nikitinskiy, E.L.; Ponomarev, V.N.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to improve the lubricating and strengthening properties of clay drilling muds. This goal is achieved because the lubricating and strengthening additive used is waste from the pulp and paper industry at the stage of reprocessing crude sulfate soap into phytosterol.

  10. Rheological measurements on artifical muds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wit, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The rheological behaviour of three artificial muds was determined using a rotational viscometer. First some characteristics of the viscometer used were rneasured. For want of an appropriate calibration tluid, the viscosity of demineralized water was determined. The result agreed very well with what

  11. Mud Flow - Slow and Fast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, C. C.; Liu, K.-F.; Yuhi, M.

    Heavy and persistent rainfalls in mountainous areas can loosen the hillslope and induce mud flows which can move stones, boulders and even trees, with destructive power on their path. In China where 70% of the land surface is covered by mountains, debris flows due to landslides or rainfalls affect over 18.6% of the nation. Over 10,000 debris flow ravines have been identified; hundreds of lives are lost every year [1]. While accurate assessment is still pending, mud flows caused by Hurr icane Mitch in 1998 have incurred devastating floods in Central America. In Honduras alone more than 6000 people perished. Half of the nation's infrastructures were damaged. Mud flows can also be the result of volcanic eruption. Near the volcano, lava and pyroclastic flows dominate. Further downstream solid particles become smaller and can mix with river or lake water, rainfall, melting snow or ice, or eroded soil, resulting in hyperconcentrated mud mixed with rocks. The muddy debris can travel at high speeds over tens of miles down the hill slopes and devastate entire communities. In 1985 the catastrophic eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia resulted in mud flows which took the life of 23,000 inhabitants in the town of Amero [2]. During the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in Phillipnes in 1991, one cubic mile of volcanic ash and rock fragments fell on the mountain slopes. Seasonal rain in the following months washed down much of the loose deposits, causing damage to 100,000 villages. These catastrophes have been vividly recorded in the film documentary by Lyons [3].

  12. Chemical Speciation of Chromium in Drilling Muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Takeyoshi; Yoshii, Mitsuru; Shinoda, Kohzo

    2007-01-01

    Drilling muds are made of bentonite and other clays, and/or polymers, mixed with water to the desired viscosity. Without the drilling muds, corporations could not drill for oil and gas and we would have hardly any of the fuels and lubricants considered essential for modern industrial civilization. There are hundreds of drilling muds used and some kinds of drilling muds contain chromium. The chemical states of chromium in muds have been studied carefully due to concerns about the environmental influence. However it is difficult to determine the chemical state of chromium in drilling muds directly by conventional analytical methods. We have studied the chemical form of chromium in drilling muds by using a laboratory XAFS system and a synchrotron facility

  13. Modeling of Mud-Wave Interaction: Mud-Induced Wave Transport & Wave-Induced Mud Transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winterwerp, Johan C

    2007-01-01

    .... Also a new rheological model has been proposed to describe liquefaction of soft mud by waves, and the subsequent strength recovery after the passage of the waves. A scheme is presented on how to implement these formulations in Delft3D.

  14. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  15. Numerical simulation of mud erosion rate in sand-mud alternate layer and comparison with experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Oyama, H.; Sato, T.

    2015-12-01

    For gas production from methane hydrates in sand-mud alternate layers, depressurization method is expected as feasible. After methane hydrate is dissociated, gas and water flow in pore space. There is a concern about the erosion of mud surface and it may result in flow blockage that disturbs the gas production. As a part of a Japanese National hydrate research program (MH21, funded by METI), we developed a numerical simulation of water-induced mud erosion in pore-scale sand-mud domains to model such mud erosion. The size of which is of the order of 100 micro meter. Water flow is simulated using a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and mud surface is treated as solid boundary with arbitrary shape, which changes with time. Periodic boundary condition is adopted at the domain boundaries, except for the surface of mud layers and the upper side. Shear stress acting on the mud surface is calculated using a momentum-exchange method. Mud layer is eroded when the shear stress exceeds a threshold coined a critical shear stress. In this study, we compared the simulated mud erosion rate with experimental data acquired from an experiment using artificial sand-mud core. As a result, the simulated erosion rate agrees well with that of the experiment.

  16. 33 CFR 117.177 - Mud Slough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud Slough. 117.177 Section 117.177 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.177 Mud Slough. The draw of the Union Pacific...

  17. Factors controlling mud accumulation in the Heuksan mud belt off southwestern Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tae Soo; Ha, Hun Jun; Chun, Seung Soo

    2015-12-01

    The Heuksan mud belt (hereafter HMB) is 20~50 km wide, ~200 km long, and ~50 m thick, having accumulated in the course of the Holocene transgression on the tide-dominated epicontinental shelf southwest of Korea. The internal architecture of the HMB is characterized by offshore prograding clinoforms. Of particular interest are the depositional processes responsible for this anomalously thick mud accumulation within a relatively short period of time. Tidal currents are important in the dispersal of mud in the HMB, although these alone cannot explain such an enormous mud deposit. In order to understand the formative processes of the HMB, a detailed sedimentary facies analysis, including high-resolution grain-size measurements, has been conducted on more than 30 short cores and three long drill cores recovered from the mud belt. Five major mud facies were identified. Of these, mud sequences showing a thickening-thinning trend of alternating silt and clay laminae suggestive of a tidal origin occur dominantly at inner to mid shelf locations. By contrast, internally structureless muds with sharp bases and no bioturbation, which are interpreted of representing fluid-mud deposits, are widespread at mid to outer shelf locations. Wave-generated mud ripples and storm beds on the inner shelf suggest that storm waves in winter resuspend previously deposited mud to form near-bed fluid-mud suspensions with resulting gravity-driven mud transport across the low-gradient outer shelf. This previously not recognized process is probably a major factor controlling depositional processes on the giant mud belt, enabling rapid accumulation and offshore progradation even during transgression, i.e., at times of sea-level rise.

  18. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF UNSTEADY FLOW BEHAVIOR IN DEEPWATER CONTROLLED MUD-CAP DRILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Li

    Full Text Available Abstract A new mathematical model was developed in this study to simulate the unsteady flow in controlled mud-cap drilling systems. The model can predict the time-dependent flow inside the drill string and annulus after a circulation break. This model consists of the continuity and momentum equations solved using the explicit Euler method. The model considers both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids flowing inside the drill string and annular space. The model predicts the transient flow velocity of mud, the equilibrium time, and the change in the bottom hole pressure (BHP during the unsteady flow. The model was verified using data from U-tube flow experiments reported in the literature. The result shows that the model is accurate, with a maximum average error of 3.56% for the velocity prediction. Together with the measured data, the computed transient flow behavior can be used to better detect well kick and a loss of circulation after the mud pump is shut down. The model sensitivity analysis show that the water depth, mud density and drill string size are the three major factors affecting the fluctuation of the BHP after a circulation break. These factors should be carefully examined in well design and drilling operations to minimize BHP fluctuation and well kick. This study provides the fundamentals for designing a safe system in controlled mud-cap drilling operati.

  19. Mud Volcanoes as Exploration Targets on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2010-01-01

    Tens of thousands of high-albedo mounds occur across the southern part of the Acidalia impact basin on Mars. These structures have geologic, physical, mineralogic, and morphologic characteristics consistent with an origin from a sedimentary process similar to terrestrial mud volcanism. The potential for mud volcanism in the Northern Plains of Mars has been recognized for some time, with candidate mud volcanoes reported from Utopia, Isidis, northern Borealis, Scandia, and the Chryse-Acidalia region. We have proposed that the profusion of mounds in Acidalia is a consequence of this basin's unique geologic setting as the depocenter for the tune fraction of sediments delivered by the outflow channels from the highlands.

  20. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with flame...

  1. Morphodynamic Modeling of Tidal Mud Flats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winterwerp, Johan C

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the current research proposal is to develop and test a numerical model to simulate and predict the seasonal morphodynamic evolution of intertidal mud flats in macrotidal environments...

  2. Radioactivity of peat mud used in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska, Maria; Mnich, Krystian; Kapała, Jacek; Bielawska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Grzegorz; Mnich, Stanisław

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of natural and artificial isotopes in peat mud and to estimate the radiation dose absorbed via skin in patients during standard peat mud treatment. The analysis included 37 samples collected from 8 spas in Poland. The measurements of isotope concentration activity were conducted with the use of gamma spectrometry methods. The skin dose in a standard peat mud bath therapy is approximately 300 nSv. The effective dose of such therapy is considered to be 22 nSv. The doses absorbed during peat mud therapy are 5 orders of magnitude lower than effective annual dose absorbed from the natural radiation background by a statistical Pole (3.5 mSv). Neither therapeutic nor harmful effect is probable in case of such a small dose of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Penis Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your appointment might be less involved. Choosing a penis pump Some penis pumps are available without a ... it doesn't get caught in the ring. Penis pumps for penis enlargement Many advertisements in magazines ...

  5. A reagent for processing drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, G.A.; Khon-Pak, A.T.; Khon, A.V.; Normatov, L.N.; Telegin, B.V.

    1983-01-01

    A reagent is proposed for processing drilling muds. It contains an acrylic polymer and potassium permanganate. The reagent is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the quality of the drilling muds by increasing their salt resistance, the reagent contains hydrolized nitron fiber as the acrylic polymer with the following component relationship (in percent by weight): potassium permanganate, 0.015 to 0.065 and hydrolyzed nitron fiber, the remainder.

  6. Mud volcanism of South-Caspian depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyev, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : South-Caspian depression is presented by area of large warping with thick (more than 25 km) sedimentary series and with wide development of mud volcanism. This depression is unique according to its number of mud volcanoes and intensity of their eruptions. There are about 400 mud volcanoes in this area, which is more than than a half of all volcanoes of the planet. Among them - 220 are continental, more 170 are marine, defined by different methods in the South-Caspian aquatorium. As a result of mudvolcanic activity islands, banks, shoals and underwater ridges are formed in marine conditions. Depths of underwater volcanoes vary from few meters to 900 m as the height of cones are different too. Marine mud volcanoes in geological history of Caspian sea evolution and in its recent history had and important significance. Activity of mud volcanoes in sea conditions lead to the formation of positive elements of relief. Products of ejection take part in the formation of microrelief of surrounding areas of sea bottom influence upon its dynamics and composition of bottom sediments. The carried out comparative analysis of mud volcanism manifestation both onshore and offshore showed the basic differences and similarities in morphology of volcanoes and geology-geochemical peculiarities of eruption products. New data on tectonics of mud volcanism development has been obtained over recent years. Mud volcanoes of South-Caspian depression are studied for assessment and oil-gas content of deep-seated deposits. Geochemical method of search of oil and gas deposits in mudvolcanic areas had been worked out.

  7. Clay-free drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmadeyev, R G; Panov, V B; Simonenkov, O I

    1982-01-01

    A clay-free drilling mud is proposed which contains humate-containing substance, alkali electrolyte, gel-former, inhibitor and water. In order to reduce viscosity of the static shear stress and water output under conditions of polyvalent aggression, it additionally contains organic stabilizer with the following ratio of components, % by mass: humate-containing substance 4.0-8.0; alkali electrolyte 0.2-1.5; gel-former 1.0-3.0; organic stabilizer 0.1-1.0; inhibitor 1.0-40.0; water--the rest. The solution is also distinguished by the fact that the gel-former used is magnesium chloride or magnesium sulfate, or calcium chloride or aluminum sulfate, or iron chloride (III) or iron sulfate (II) or waste of chlorides of titanium production with average chemical composition, % by mass: Ti 1.5-7.0; Fe 5.0-15.0; Al 1.5-10.0; Na 5.0-16.0; Mg 0.5-3.0; Cl 30.0-60.0; Ca 0.2-2.0; Cr 0.2-2.0; Cu 0.2-1.5.

  8. Mud volcanos and mud domes of the central Mediterranean Ridge: near bottom and in situ observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguen, C.; Mascle, J.; Woodside, J.M.; Zitter, T.A.C.; Foucher, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    The first high-resolution mapping of mud volcanoes and mud domes of the Central Mediterranean Ridge (Eastern Mediterranean) presented here is based on successive in situ observations from the Nautile submersible [MEDINAUT (1998) and NAUTINIL (2003) surveys] and near-bottom side-scan sonar data

  9. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1981-01-01

    Centrifugal Pumps describes the whole range of the centrifugal pump (mixed flow and axial flow pumps are dealt with more briefly), with emphasis on the development of the boiler feed pump. Organized into 46 chapters, this book discusses the general hydrodynamic principles, performance, dimensions, type number, flow, and efficiency of centrifugal pumps. This text also explains the pumps performance; entry conditions and cavitation; speed and dimensions for a given duty; and losses. Some chapters further describe centrifugal pump mechanical design, installation, monitoring, and maintenance. The

  10. Red mud characterization using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Matjacic, L.; Valkovic, V.

    2011-01-01

    Red mud is a toxic waste left as a byproduct in aluminum production Bayer process. Since it contains significant concentrations of other chemical elements interesting for industry, including REE, it is also potential secondary ore source. Recent events in some countries have shown that red mud presents a serious environmental hazard if not properly stored. The subject of our study is the red mud from an ex-aluminum plant in Obrovac, Croatia, left from processing of bauxite mined during late 70's and early 80's at the eastern Adriatic coast and since than stored in open concrete basins for more than 30 years. We have used energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (both tube and radioactive source excitation), fast neutron activation analysis and passive gamma spectrometry to identify a number of elements present in the red mud, their concentration levels and radioactivity in the red mud. The high concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe have been measured. Chemical elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Pb, Th and U were found in lower concentrations. No significant levels of radioactivity have been measured. (authors)

  11. Bioactive substances of the Techirghiol therapeutic mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Hoteteu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to characterize Techirghiol's sapropelic mud both by determining the organic and inorganic composition of the constituent phases and by isolating some compounds of humic substances. The distribution between the solid and liquid phases of the peloid of the Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+cations, PO43- anion, bioactive compounds of the protein, lipid and carbohydrate classes as well as the phosphatase activity of Techirghiol sapropelic mud are analyzed. The mud is fractionated using the pH and solvent polarity variation and is spectrophotometrically characterized based on absorption in the wavelength range 340-700 nm humic acids and fulvic acids differentiated on the basis of solubility and molecular mass.

  12. Ferroacryl mud for drilling deep bore holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisyanskiy, V I; Chepiga, V I; Devydenko, V N

    1982-01-01

    The composition, technology of production and control of the parameters of a ferroacyl (FAR) mud for drilling for prospecting holes in the Donets-Basin are developed. The mud consists of Chasov Yal clay (150-160 kg), hypane (40 1), iron sulfate (1kg) and water (approximately 1 m/sup 3/). The mud exhibits the following parameters: density 1.05 -1.1 g/cm/sup 3/, viscosity 20-21 s; water yield 3-5 cm/sup 3/; crust 0.5 mm. Compared to existing flushing fluids based on hypane the FAR contains fewer components and the cost of the materials is considerably less. It features very high flocculating properties.

  13. Aerobic Degradation of Drill Muds by Axenic and Mixed Bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    significant difference in the degradation of the drilling muds by the isolates (p > 0.05). ... the potentials of some indigenous bacteria to biodegrade drilling muds used in ... transported to the laboratory aseptically for evaluation, in labeled plastic.

  14. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Mud Lake, MN/SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Mud Lake, MN/SD Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Mud Lake, located on the Minnesota...

  15. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Dong-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content in Sintering red mud is higher, Bayer red mud has more hazardous elements such as As, Pb and Hg and both have a high concentration of radioactivity. The micro particle of Bayer red mud is finer and more disperse, but the Sintering red mud has higher shear strength. Combining the TG and hydraulic characteristics analysis, it can be shown that Bayer red mud has higher value of water content and Sintering red mud has higher hydraulic conductivity. The paper then illustrates that Sintering red mud can become the main filling material of supporting structure of red mud stocking yard. Bayer red mud has a high reuse value and also can be used as a mixing material of masonry mortar.

  16. Reagent for treating clay drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachenko, P V; Leshchinskiy, P A; Shnaper, B I; Zinchuk, I F; Zlobin, V P

    1982-01-01

    A reagent is proposed for treating clay drilling muds. It contains lignite, caustic soda and modifying agent. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to reduce the cost of the reagent with simultaneous decrease in the viscosity and static shear stress of the drilling mud, it additionally contains iron sulfate, and the modifying agent contained is wastes of carbonic acid production with the following ratio of components (parts by weight): lignite 10.0-15.0, caustic soda 2.0-3.0, wastes of carbonic acid production 0.5-0.75; iron sulfate 1.0-2.0.

  17. Recovery of rare earths from red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The prospect for the recovery of rare earths from red mud, the bauxite tailings from the production of alumina is examined. The Jamaican red mud by far has the higher trace concentrations of lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, and yttrium. Scandium is also present. The dissolution of the rare earth is a major extraction problem because of the large volume of other materials. The recovery processes that have been proposed include the production of co-products such as iron, alumina, and titanium concentrates, with the rare earths going with the titanium. In this paper a critical examination of the possible processes are presented with the recommended research projects to be carried out

  18. Monitoring drilling mud composition using flowing liquid junction electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinski, R; Fletcher, P; Vercaemer, C

    1990-06-27

    The concentration of a chosen ionic component of a drilling mud is determined from the potential difference between an ion selective electrode, selective to the component and a reference electrode, the reference electrode being connected to the mud by a liquid junction through which reference electrolyte flows from the electrode to the mud. The system avoids errors due to undesirable interactions between the mud and the reference electrode materials. (author).

  19. Mud dynamics on the shoreface and upper shelf, Noordwijk, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.; Montfort, O.; Dankers, P.J.T.; Rijn, L.C. van; Bonne, W.

    2005-01-01

    Mud dynamics on the shoreface were studied with measured mud concentrations in the water related to hydrodynamics and measured mud concentrations in the sandy bed. In addition, mud infiltration into the bed was modelled and mud inmixing into the bed by macro-benthos was assessed. The mud

  20. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud

  1. Hyperspectral remote sensing and mud volcanism in Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    The fact that Azerbaijan mud volcanoes are closely associated with oil and gas makes their study and identification of the physical and chemical properties of insitu mud volcano surfaces important. Although the composition of in-situ mud volcano surfaces can be highly variable, it usually

  2. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@unisa.edu.au

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  3. Clay mineralogy of the mud banks of Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Murty, P.S.N.

    The mineralogy of the sediments constituting the mud banks formed off Cochin, Kerala, India was studied. The clay mineral composition was used as a means of understanding the nature and source of origin of the muds. Fine fraction of the mud samples...

  4. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  5. AML (Advanced Mud Logging: First Among Equals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Loermans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years an enormous development in mud logging technology has been made. Traditional mud logging was only qualitative in nature, and mudlogs could not be used for the petrophysical well evaluations which form the basis for all subsequent activities on wells and fields. AML however can provide quantitative information, logs with a reliability, trueness and precision like LWD and WLL. Hence for well evaluation programmes there are now three different logging methods available, each with its own pros and cons on specific aspects: AML, LWD and WLL. The largest improvements have been made in mud gas analysis and elemental analysis of cuttings. Mud gas analysis can yield hydrocarbon fluid composition for some components with a quality like PVT analysis, hence not only revolutionising the sampling programme so far done with only LWD/WLL, but also making it possible to geosteer on fluid properties. Elemental analysis of cuttings, e.g. with XRF, with an ability well beyond the capabilities of the spectroscopy measurements possible earlier with LWD/WLL tools, is opening up improved ways to evaluate formations, especially of course where the traditional methods are falling short of requirements, such as in unconventional reservoirs. An overview and specific examples of these AML logs is given, from which it may be concluded that AML now ought to be considered as “first among its equals”.

  6. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queißer, M; Burton, M R; Arzilli, F; Chiarugi, A; Marliyani, G I; Anggara, F; Harijoko, A

    2017-06-01

    Studying the quantity and origin of CO 2 emitted by back-arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid-dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO 2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO 2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO 2 flux of 1.4 kg s -1 (117 t d -1 ) was determined, in line with the CO 2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO 2 flux of 3 kt d -1 , comparable with the expected back-arc efflux of magmatic CO 2 . After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO 2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO 2 , with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man-portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom-up quantification of CO 2 fluxes.

  7. Preadolescent Girls' and Boys' Virtual MUD Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Strong, Bonnie L.; Huffaker, David A.; Lai, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Same and opposite-sex pairs of preadolescents interacted twice in a MUD, a virtual domain where they created characters known as avatars and socially interacted with one another. Boys interacted primarily through rapid scene shifts and playful exchanges; girls interacted with one another through written dialogue. Opposite-sex pairs lagged behind…

  8. Red mud flocculation process in alumina production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, E. R.; Firsov, A. Yu

    2018-05-01

    The process of thickening and washing red mud is a gooseneck of alumina production. The existing automated systems of the thickening process control involve stabilizing the parameters of the primary technological circuits of the thickener. The actual direction of scientific research is the creation and improvement of models and systems of the thickening process control by model. But the known models do not fully consider the presence of perturbing effects, in particular the particle size distribution in the feed process, distribution of floccules by size after the aggregation process in the feed barrel. The article is devoted to the basic concepts and terms used in writing the population balance algorithm. The population balance model is implemented in the MatLab environment. The result of the simulation is the particle size distribution after the flocculation process. This model allows one to foreseen the distribution range of floccules after the process of aggregation of red mud in the feed barrel. The mud of Jamaican bauxite was acting as an industrial sample of red mud; Cytec Industries of HX-3000 series with a concentration of 0.5% was acting as a flocculant. When simulating, model constants obtained in a tubular tank in the laboratories of CSIRO (Australia) were used.

  9. Detection of Buried Objects : The MUD Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Vossen, R. van; Zampolli, M.; Beckers, A.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Mine Underwater Detection (MUD) project at TNO is to experimentally investigate the acoustic and magnetic detection of explosives underwater, buried in a soft sediment layer. This problem is relevant for the protection of harbors and littoral assets against terrorist attacks and for

  10. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  11. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Chuan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.

  12. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Gülich, Johann Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book gives an unparalleled, up-to-date, in-depth treatment of all kinds of flow phenomena encountered in centrifugal pumps including the complex interactions of fluid flow with vibrations and wear of materials. The scope includes all aspects of hydraulic design, 3D-flow phenomena and partload operation, cavitation, numerical flow calculations, hydraulic forces, pressure pulsations, noise, pump vibrations (notably bearing housing vibration diagnostics and remedies), pipe vibrations, pump characteristics and pump operation, design of intake structures, the effects of highly viscous flows, pumping of gas-liquid mixtures, hydraulic transport of solids, fatigue damage to impellers or diffusers, material selection under the aspects of fatigue, corrosion, erosion-corrosion or hydro-abrasive wear, pump selection, and hydraulic quality criteria. As a novelty, the 3rd ed. brings a fully analytical design method for radial impellers, which eliminates the arbitrary choices inherent to former design procedures. The d...

  13. Cyclic Activity of Mud Volcanoes: Evidences from Trinidad (SE Caribbean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, E.

    2007-12-01

    Fluid and solid transfer in mud volcanoes show different phases of activity, including catastrophic events followed by periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. This can be notably shown by historical data onshore Trinidad. Several authors have evoked a possible link between the frequencies of eruption of some mud volcanoes and seismic activity, but in Trinidad there is no direct correlation between mud eruptions and seisms. It appears that each eruptive mud volcano has its own period of catastrophic activity, and this period is highly variable from one volcano to another. The frequency of activity of mud volcanoes seems essentially controlled by local pressure regime within the sedimentary pile. At the most, a seism can, in some cases, activate an eruption close to its term. The dynamics of expulsion of the mud volcanoes during the quiescence phases has been studied notably from temperature measurements within the mud conduits. The mud temperature is concurrently controlled by, either, the gas flux (endothermic gas depressurizing induces a cooling effect), or by the mud flux (mud is a vector for convective heat transfer). Complex temperature distribution was observed in large conduits and pools. Indeed, especially in the bigger pools, the temperature distribution characterizes convective cells with an upward displacement of mud above the deep outlet, and ring-shaped rolls associated with the burial of the mud on the flanks of the pools. In simple, tube-like shaped, narrow conduits, the temperature is more regular, but we observed different types of profiles, with either downward increasing or decreasing temperatures. If the upward flow of mud would be regular, we should expect increasing temperatures and progressively decreasing gradient with depth within the conduits. However, the variable measured profiles from one place to another, as well as time-variable measured temperatures within the conduits and especially, at the base of the

  14. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The name PUMPKIN may suggest a research centre focused on American Halloween traditions or the investigation of the growth of vegetables – however this would be misleading. Researchers at PUMPKIN, short for Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease, are in fact interested in a large family o......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  15. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): recovery of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Zebra mussels invade Lake Erie muds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Haltuch, Melissa A.; Tichich, Emily; Garton, David W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Gannon, John E.; Mackey, Scudder D.; Fuller, Jonathan A.; Liebenthal, Dale L.

    1998-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) originated in western Russia but have now become widespread in Europe and North America. They are widely known for their conspicuous invasion of rocks and other hard substrates in North American and European watersheds. We have found beds of zebra mussels directly colonizing sand and mud sediments each year across hundreds of square kilometres of North America's Lake Erie. This transformation of sedimentary habitats into mussel beds represents an unforeseen change in the invasive capacity of this species.

  17. Function of drilling mud during well boring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinko, B

    1982-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of primary functions that an emulsion mud must have when shallow wells are drilled: remove drilled waste matter from well, monitor stratal pressure, retain material when circulation is absent, release material to the surface, form an impermeable clay coating on walls of the well, prevent caving of soil, and prevent instrument corrosion. Recommendations are provided to achieve the above listed requirements in mud characteristics: density, filtration, viscosity, gelation and alkalization must be adjusted to the given requirements. It is concluded that fresh water alone cannot satisfy all the necessary requirements and it is recommended to avoid using it where possible, and instead utilize water with additives (emulsions). A number of water and additive compositions are offered. A polymer solution, consisting of water, NaCl or CaCl/sub 2/ to the required density, polymer (vegetative rubber or hydroxethylcellulose) in the amount of 3-6 kg/m/sup 3/ for circulation and 6-9 kg/m/sup 3/ when there's mud loss, can be utilized. Also finely ground CaCO/sub 3/ in the amount of 20-30 kg/m/sup 3/ can be utilized for cementing media. Formulas for a bentonite emulsion and others are included.

  18. Origin and in situ concentrations of hydrocarbons in the Kumano forearc basin from drilling mud gas monitoring during IODP NanTroSEIZE Exp. 319

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersberg, Thomas; Schleicher, Anja M.; Horiguchi, Keika; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eguchi, Nobuhisa; Erzinger, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exp. 319 of IODP was the first cruise in the history of scientific ocean drilling with drilling mud gas monitoring. • Hydrocarbons were the only formation-derived gases identified in drilling mud. • Chemical and isotopic compositions of hydrocarbons exhibit a microbial origin. • Absolute CH 4 concentrations in the formation reaching up to 24 L gas /L sediment . - Abstract: NanTroSEIZE Exp. 319 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) was the first cruise in the history of scientific ocean drilling with drilling mud circulation through a riser. Drilling mud was pumped through the drill string and returned to the drill ship through the riser pipe during drilling of hole C0009A from 703 to 1604 mbsf (meter below sea floor) and hole enlargement from 703 to 1569 mbsf. During riser drilling, gas from returning drilling mud was continuously extracted, sampled and analyzed in real time to reveal information on the gas composition and gas concentrations at depth. Hydrocarbons were the only formation-derived gases identified in drilling mud and reached up to 14 vol.% of methane and 48 ppmv of ethane. The chemical and isotopic compositions of hydrocarbons exhibit a microbial origin. Hydrocarbons released from drilling mud and cuttings correlate with visible allochthonous material (wood, lignite) in drilling cuttings. At greater depth, addition of small but increasing amounts of hydrocarbons probably from low-temperature thermal degradation of organic matter is indicated. The methane content is also tightly correlated with several intervals of low Poisson’s ratio from Vp/Vs observed in sonic velocity logs, suggesting that the gas is situated in the pore space of the rock as free gas. The gas concentrations in the formation, determined from drilling mud gas monitoring, reaching up to 24 L gas /L sediment for methane in hole C0009A, in line with gas concentrations from interpreted downhole sonic logs

  19. AudioMUD: a multiuser virtual environment for blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jaime; Hassler, Tiago

    2007-03-01

    A number of virtual environments have been developed during the last years. Among them there are some applications for blind people based on different type of audio, from simple sounds to 3-D audio. In this study, we pursued a different approach. We designed AudioMUD by using spoken text to describe the environment, navigation, and interaction. We have also introduced some collaborative features into the interaction between blind users. The core of a multiuser MUD game is a networked textual virtual environment. We developed AudioMUD by adding some collaborative features to the basic idea of a MUD and placed a simulated virtual environment inside the human body. This paper presents the design and usability evaluation of AudioMUD. Blind learners were motivated when interacted with AudioMUD and helped to improve the interaction through audio and interface design elements.

  20. Feasibility study for an innovative industrial red mud utilisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounalakis, Petros; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Karayianni, ChS

    2016-02-01

    Red mud is a high volume industrial waste, and its management poses a unique challenge. For the utilisation of red mud, an economical, energy saving, environmental friendly and widely applicable method has been found. The proposed novel method is purely chemical, and achieves the recovery of all the oxides contained in red mud totally and transforms them into high value added products. The present work shows that an investment in an industrial plant, treating red mud and turning a toxic industrial waste in commercial products, is safe and viable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Bulk additive system reduces mud costs and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisnie, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    Today, personnel safety and environmental acceptability are high priorities in oil and gas operations. Many advances have been made, but packaging and handling of drilling mud has not changed in 35 years. In most cases, bulk barite is available, however, drilling muds are typically built from chemicals contained in 50 to 100-lb sacks or 5-gal buckets. Materials must be physically opened by rig personnel and mixed into drilling mud. Chemical exposure liability, and lifting or housekeeping related injuries associated with large quantities of packaging pose serious occupational safety risk. Figures from OSHA (1986) indicate that of 1,492 serious injury cases in Louisiana oil and gas operations, 42% were to back and lower extremities, 3% were eye injuries and 1% were chemical burns. Although exact figures are not available, experience suggests that a significant number of injuries are related to mud product physical handling. Another problem with current mud packaging is generated waste. Mud material lost because of broken sacks, inefficient transfer and as residue is unacceptable. Most mud engineers agree that 5 to 15% of mud products are lost or damaged on typical offshore jobs, depending on weather. When material that is spilled or left in packages, probably 2 to 3%, is added, the total is significant. Reusable containers for drilling mud products and manifold system design effectively eliminate these problems

  2. Organic chemical composition of mud from the LUSI mud volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, R. J.; Campbell, P.; Lam, A.

    2009-12-01

    Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia is the site of LUSI, a terrestrial mud volcano that has been erupting since May 29, 2006. In response to a U.S. Department of State request, the U.S. Geological Survey has been assisting the Indonesian Government to describe the geological and geochemical aspects and potential health risk of the mud eruption. We report here on the organic chemical composition of the mud. Organic chemical analyses were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy following organic extraction by microwave-assisted solvent extraction and compound fractionation by adsorption chromatography. There is a petroliferous component in the mud that is fresh, immature, and nonbiodegraded. There is a complete suite of n-alkanes with a bell-shaped pattern typical of fresh petroleum with a Cmax around C20. The alkane content ranges from 0.12 to 1.01 mg/kg dry mud. The presence of certain hopanes (i.e. 17 α,21β(H)-30-norhopane and 17α,21β(H)-hopane) is also indicative of the presence of oil. The proportions of other biomarker compounds (pristane/phytane = 2.4) and the dominance of the C27 sterane (5α(H),14α(H),17α(H)-chlolestane) suggest that oil formed under oxic conditions and has a likely coastal marine or terrigenous source. The presence of oleanane indicates a Cretaceous or younger age for the petrogenic material. These geochemical parameters are consistent with Indonesian oil derived from Tertiary marlstone source rocks that contained kerogen deposited under oxic conditions, probably the upper Miocene Klasafet Formation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present and range in content from 0.1 to 2.2 mg/kg dry mud. The low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, in particular, naphthalene and methyl-naphthalene are dominant except for perylene which is ubiquitous in the environment. The presence of both parent and higher homologue PAHs indicate a petrogenic rather than combustion source. PAHs are known carcinogens but toxicity data in sediments are

  3. Liquid metals pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Frere, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pumps used to pump liquid metals depend on the liquid metal and on the type of application concerned. One deals more particularly with electromagnetic pumps, the main pumps used with mechanical pumps. To pump sodium in the nuclear field, these two types of pumps are used; the pumps of different circuits of Super Phenix are presented and described [fr

  4. Electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Suetake, Norio; Aizawa, Toshie; Nakasaki, Masayoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic pump suitable to a recycling pump for liquid sodium as coolants of an FBR type reactor. Namely, a stator module of the electromagnetic pump of the present invention comprises a plurality of outer laminate iron core units and outer stator modules stacked alternately in the axial direction. With such a constitution, even a long electromagnetic pump having a large number of outer stator coils can be manufactured without damaging electric insulation of the outer stator coils. In addition, the inner circumferential surface of the outer laminate iron cores is urged and brought into contact with the outer circumferential surface of the outer duct by an elastic material. With such a constitution, Joule loss heat generated in the outer stator coils and internal heat generated in the outer laminate iron cores can be released to an electroconductive fluid flowing the inner circumference of the outer duct by way of the outer duct. (I.S.)

  5. Electrokinetic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2007-11-20

    A method for altering the surface properties of a particle bed. In application, the method pertains particularly to an electrokinetic pump configuration where nanoparticles are bonded to the surface of the stationary phase to alter the surface properties of the stationary phase including the surface area and/or the zeta potential and thus improve the efficiency and operating range of these pumps. By functionalizing the nanoparticles to change the zeta potential the electrokinetic pump is rendered capable of operating with working fluids having pH values that can range from 2-10 generally and acidic working fluids in particular. For applications in which the pump is intended to handle highly acidic solutions latex nanoparticles that are quaternary amine functionalized can be used.

  6. Elementary concentration of Peruibe black mud by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Ponciano, Ricardo; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: jeffkoy@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Peruibe Black Mud is used in therapies such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne, seborrehea, myalgia arthritis and rheumatic non-articular processes. This material is characterized by is fine organic matter particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is considered natural, it may not be free of possible adverse health effects, like toxic chemical elements, when used for therapeutic purposes. In the therapeutic treatments involving clays, clays are used in mud form also called peloids, obtained by maturation process. Five in natura and three maturated Black Mud samples were collected in Peruibe city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. To investigate the distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements in the in natura and maturated clays that constitute the Peruibe Black Mud, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used. A comparison between in natura and maturated mud shows that major, trace and rare earth elements follow the same order in both types. Generally, the concentrations in the maturated mud are slightly lower than in natura mud. Enrichment on the upper continental crust could be observed for the elements As, Br, Sb and Se, in these types of mud. (author)

  7. Calcification–carbonation method for red mud processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ruibing [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Laboratory for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems, Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800 (Australia); Zhang, Tingan, E-mail: zhangta@smm.neu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Yan; Lv, Guozhi; Xie, Liqun [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • A new approach named calcification–carbonation method for red mud processing is proposed. • The method can prevent emission of red mud from alumina production and is good for the environment. • Thermodynamics characteristics were investigated. • The method was verified experimentally using a jet-flow reactor. - Abstract: Red mud, the Bayer process residue, is generated from alumina industry and causes environmental problem. In this paper, a novel calcification–carbonation method that utilized a large amount of the Bayer process residue is proposed. Using this method, the red mud was calcified with lime to transform the silicon phase into hydrogarnet, and the alkali in red mud was recovered. Then, the resulting hydrogarnet was decomposed by CO{sub 2} carbonation, affording calcium silicate, calcium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide. Alumina was recovered using an alkaline solution at a low temperature. The effects of the new process were analyzed by thermodynamics analysis and experiments. The extraction efficiency of the alumina and soda obtained from the red mud reached 49.4% and 96.8%, respectively. The new red mud with <0.3% alkali can be used in cement production. Using a combination of this method and cement production, the Bayer process red mud can be completely utilized.

  8. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gulf of Cadiz is one of the most interesting areas to study mud volcanoes and structures related to cold fluid seeps since their discovery in 1999. In this study, we present results from gravity cores collected from Ginsburg and Meknes mud volcanoes and from circular structure located in the gulf of Cadiz (North Atlantic ...

  9. Serpentinite mud volcanism: observations, processes, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Large serpentinite mud volcanoes form on the overriding plate of the Mariana subduction zone. Fluids from the descending plate hydrate (serpentinize) the forearc mantle and enable serpentinite muds to rise along faults to the seafloor. The seamounts are direct windows into subduction processes at depths far too deep to be accessed by any known technology. Fluid compositions vary with distance from the trench, signaling changes in chemical reactions as temperature and pressure increase. The parageneses of rocks in the mudflows permits us to constrain the physical conditions of the decollement region. If eruptive episodes are related to seismicity, seafloor observatories at these seamounts hold the potential to capture a subduction event and trace the effects of eruption on the biological communities that the slab fluids support, such as extremophile Archaea. The microorganisms that inhabit this high-pH, extreme environment support their growth by utilizing chemical constituents present in the slab fluids. Some researchers now contend that the serpentinization process itself may hold the key to the origin of life on Earth.

  10. PAO mud boosts ROP, minimizes enviro impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A North Sea well drilled with a drilling fluid based on polyalphaolefin (PAO) chemistry has helped increase penetration rates and reduce torque and drag while minimizing environmental impact, according to a paper presented at the 1993 SPE/IADC Drilling Conference in Amsterdam. The paper, ''Superior Performance with Minimal Environmental Impact: A Novel Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluid'' (SPE/IADC 25753), written by J.E. Friedheim and R. Pantermuehl of M-I Drilling Fluids, says the rate of penetration was some 15% higher than in offset wells drilled with mineral-oil-base mud. Average penetration rates at the beginning of the 8,856-ft (2,700-m) 12 1/4-in. interval drilled exceeded 100 ft/hr (30.5 m/hr) and averaged higher than 90 ft/hr (27.4 m/hr) for the entire section. The authors attributed the performance to better hole cleaning. Hole cleaning, lubricity, inhibition and equivalent bottom-hole density were primary concerns while drilling the well. ''Environmental aspects of the PAO fluid show that it should be essentially non-toxic to aquatic life,'' the authors contended. ''Various toxicity, bioaccumulation and biodegradation work indicate that the PAO mud will have little impact on the environment while slowly biodegrading.''

  11. Pumps and pump facilities. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, W.; Bauerfeind, H.; Gutmann, G.; Leuschner, G.; Matthias, H.B.; Mengele, R.; Neumaier, R.; Vetter, G.; Wagner, W.

    1981-01-01

    This book deals with the common fundamental aspects of liquid pumps and gives an exemplary choice of the most important kinds of pumps. The scientific matter is dealt with by means of practical mathematical examples among other ways of presenting the matter. Survey of contents: Division on main operational data of pumps - pipe characteristics - pump characteristics - suction behaviour of the pumps - projecting and operation of rotary pumps - boiler feed pumps - reactor feed pumps - oscillating positive-displacement pumps - eccentric spiral pumps. (orig./GL) [de

  12. Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs

  13. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Hosein

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i Digity; (ii Piparo and (iii Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  14. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M.

    2014-01-01

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region. PMID:25370529

  15. Durability of Bricks Coated with Red mud Based Geopolymer Paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Smita; Basavanagowda, S. N.; Aswath, M. U.; Ranganath, R. V.

    2016-09-01

    The present study is undertaken to assess the durability of concrete blocks coated with red mud - fly ash based geopolymer paste. Concrete blocks of size 200 x 200 x 100mm were coated with geopolymer paste synthesized by varying the percentages of red mud and fly ash. Uncoated concrete blocks were also tested for the durability for comparison. In thermal resistance test, the blocks were subjected to 600°C for an hour whereas in acid resistance test, they were kept in 5% sulphuric acid solution for 4 weeks. The specimens were thereafter studied for surface degradation, strength loss and weight loss. Pastes with red mud percentage greater than 50% developed lot of shrinkage cracks. The blocks coated with 30% and 50% red mud paste showed better durability than the other blocks. The use of blocks coated with red mud - fly ash geopolymer paste improves the aesthetics, eliminates the use of plaster and improves the durability of the structure.

  16. Use of red mud as addition for portland cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, D.V.; Morelli, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present research work was to investigate the possibility of adding red mud, an alkaline leaching waste that is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production, in the raw meal of Portland cement mortars. The red mud is classified as dangerous, according to NBR 10004/2004, and world while generation reached over 117 million tons/year. This huge production requires high consuming products to be used as incorporation matrix and we studied the influence of red mud addition on the characteristics of cement mortars and concrete. In this paper the properties of Portland cement mortars incorporating high amounts of red mud was evaluated: pH variation, fresh (setting time, workability or normal consistency and water retention), and hardened state (mechanical strength, capillary water absorption, density and apparent porosity). Results seem promising for red mud additions up to 20 wt%. (author)

  17. Mud volcanoes of trinidad as astrobiological analogs for martian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M

    2014-10-13

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil's Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  18. Mud Flow Characteristics Occurred in Izuoshima Island, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, H.; Egashira, S.; Fujita, M.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides and mud flows were occurred in the west part of the Izuoshima Island, Japan on 16 October 2013. The Izuoshima Island is a volcanic island and the land surface is covered by the volcanic ash sediment in 1m depth. Hence, the mud flow with high sediment concentration was formed. The laminar layer is formed in the debris flow from the bed to the fluid surface. On the other hand, the laminar flow is restricted near the bed in the mud flow and the turbulence flow is formed on the laminar flow layer. As a result, the equilibrium slope of the mud flow becomes smaller comparing to the debris flow. In this study, the numerical analysis mud flow model considering the effect of turbulence flow on the equilibrium slope of the mud flow is developed. Subsequently, the model is applied to the mud flow occurred in the Izuoshima Island and discussed the applicability of the model and the flow characteristics of the mud flow. The differences of the horizontal flow areas between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the outline of the horizontal shape of the flow areas is reproduced well. Furthermore, the horizontal distribution of the erosion and deposition area is reproduced by the numerical analysis well except for the residential area (Kandachi area). Kandachi area is judged as the erosion area by the field observation, but the sediment was deposited in the numerical analysis. It is considered that the 1.5hour heavy rain over 100mm/h after the mud flow makes the discrepancy. The difference of the horizontal distribution of the maximum flow surface elevation between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the simulated flow depth is overestimated slightly, because of the wider erosion area due to the coarse resolution elevation data. The averaged velocity and the depth of the mud flow was enough large to collapse the houses.

  19. Geochemical surveys in the Lusi mud eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Mazzini, Adriano; Etiope, Giuseppe; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Hussein, Alwi; Hadi J., Soffian

    2016-04-01

    The Lusi mud eruption started in May 2006 following to a 6.3 M earthquake striking the Java Island. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we carried out geochemical surveys in the Sidoarjo district (Eastern Java Island, Indonesia) to investigate the gas bearing properties of the Watukosek fault system that crosses the Lusi mud eruption area. Soil gas (222Rn, CO2, CH4) concentration and flux measurements were performed 1) along two detailed profiles (~ 1km long), trending almost W-E direction, and 2) inside the Lusi embankment (about 7 km2) built to contain the erupted mud. Higher gas concentrations and fluxes were detected at the intersection with the Watukosek fault and the antithetic fault system. These zones characterized by the association of higher soil gas values constitute preferential migration pathways for fluids towards surface. The fractures release mainly CO2 (with peaks up to 400 g/m2day) and display higher temperatures (up to 41°C). The main shear zones are populated by numerous seeps that expel mostly CH4. Flux measurements in the seeping pools reveal that φCO2 is an order of magnitude higher than that measured in the fractures, and two orders of magnitude higher for φCH4. An additional geochemical profile was completed perpendicularly to the Watukosek fault escarpement (W-E direction) at the foots of the Penanngungang volcano. Results reveal CO2 and CH4 flux values significantly lower than those measured in the embankment, however an increase of radon and flux measurements is observed approaching the foots of the escarpment. These measurements are complemented with a database of ~350 CH4 and CO2 flux measurements and some soil gas concentrations (He, H2, CO2, CH4 and C2H6) and their isotopic analyses (δ13C-CH4, δD-CH4 and δ13C-CO2). Results show that the whole area is characterized by diffused gas release through seeps, fractures, microfractures and soil degassing. The collected results shed light on the origin of the

  20. Fluidic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priestman, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    A fluidic pump has primary and secondary vessels connected by a pipe, a displacement vessel having liquid to be delivered through a pipe via a rectifier provided with a feed tank. A drive unit delivers pressure fluid to a line to raise liquid and compress trapped gas or liquid in the space, including the pipe between the liquids in the two vessels and thus drive liquid out of the displacement vessel. The driving gas is therefore separated by the barrier liquid and the trapped gas or liquid from the liquid to be pumped which liquid could be e.g. radioactive. (author)

  1. Pumped storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    The privately financed 1,000 MW Rocky Point Pumped Storage Project located in central Colorado, USA, will be one of the world's highest head, 2,350 feet reversible pump/turbine projects. The project will offer an economical supply of peaking power and spinning reserve power to Colorado and other southwestern states. This paper describes how the project will be made compatible with the environmental conditions in the project area and the type of terrestrial mitigation measures that are being proposed for those situations where the project impacts the environment, either temporarily or permanently

  2. Mud concrete paving block for pedestrian pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chameera Udawattha

    2017-12-01

    This is an attempt to search for alternative eco-friendly earth paving material for public walkways with both the strength and durable properties of concrete while ensuring pedestrian comfort. Approaches were made to change the fine particle percentage while keeping the sand and gravel constant, once the optimum most practical mixture was known, the standard tests were done. The results obtained revealed that the proposed self-compacting block can be produced by using soil with less than 5% fine particles, 55% of 65% sand particles and 18% of 22% cement by weight together with the moisture content between 14% and 15%The tested mud concrete paving blocks were already used in practical application in Sri Lankan urban context.

  3. Did mud contribute to freeway collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Susan E.; Friberg, Paul A.; Busby, Robert; Field, Edward F.; Jacob, Klaus H.; Borcherdt, Roger D.

    At least 41 people were killed October 17 when the upper tier of the Nimitz Freeway in Oakland, Calif., collapsed during the Ms = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. Seismologists studying aftershocks concluded that soil conditions and resulting ground motion amplification were important in the failure of the structure and should be considered in the reconstruction of the highway.Structural design weaknesses in the two-tiered freeway, known as the Cypress structure, had been identified before the tragedy. The seismologists, from Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory in Palisades, N.Y., and the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, Calif., found that the collapsed section was built on fill over Bay mud. A southern section of the Cypress structure built on alluvium of Quaternary age did not collapse (see Figure 1).

  4. The diversity of mud volcanoes in the landscape of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidov, Tofig

    2014-05-01

    As the natural phenomenon the mud volcanism (mud volcanoes) of Azerbaijan are known from the ancient times. The historical records describing them are since V century. More detail study of this natural phenomenon had started in the second half of XIX century. The term "mud volcano" (or "mud hill") had been given by academician H.W. Abich (1863), more exactly defining this natural phenomenon. All the previous definitions did not give such clear and capacious explanation of it. In comparison with magmatic volcanoes, globally the mud ones are restricted in distribution; they mainly locate within the Alpine-Himalayan, Pacific and Central Asian mobile belts, in more than 30 countries (Columbia, Trinidad Island, Italy, Romania, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Pakistan, Indonesia, Burma, Malaysia, etc.). Besides it, the zones of mud volcanoes development are corresponded to zones of marine accretionary prisms' development. For example, the South-Caspian depression, Barbados Island, Cascadia (N.America), Costa-Rica, Panama, Japan trench. Onshore it is Indonesia, Japan, and Trinidad, Taiwan. The mud volcanism with non-accretionary conditions includes the areas of Black Sea, Alboran Sea, the Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana coast), Salton Sea. But new investigations reveal more new mud volcanoes and in places which were not considered earlier as the traditional places of mud volcanoes development (e.g. West Nile Rive delta). Azerbaijan is the classic region of mud volcanoes development. From over 800 world mud volcanoes there are about 400 onshore and within the South-Caspian basin, which includes the territory of East Azerbaijan (the regions of Shemakha-Gobustan and Low-Kura River, Absheron peninsula), adjacent water area of South Caspian (Baku and Absheron archipelagoes) and SW Turkmenistan and represents an area of great downwarping with thick (over 25 km) sedimentary series. Generally, in the modern relief the mud volcanoes represent more or less large uplifts

  5. Treatment and use of muds of wastewaters in the agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez A, Hernando

    1995-01-01

    The plant includes a preliminary treatment of the domestic residual waters; with two anaerobic reactors type UASB and a facultative lagoon as pos-treatment, system that reaches a removal of 85% of organic load, obtaining a tributary of 20 g/cm 3 of biodegradable oxygen. It is in the primary treatment where muds of interest are generated from the point of view of their application with agricultural and forest aims. These muds present a majors elements as P, Ca, K, Mg and minor, Fe, Cu, Zn being these nutrients and the organic matter the components that allow a good development of the material vegetable forest and agricultural type. In the agricultural area of CORPOICA and the CDMB jointly developed studies of laboratory greenhouse and of field with the purpose of knowing the potential of the muds like nutrition source. The greenhouse study, showed significant results of the muds on the development of the plants of corn and under field conditions the grain production increased from 1.051 kg/ha to 2;077 kg/ha with the treatments without muds and with three tons for hectare respectively. In another study on the pathogen population of muds handling, the behavior of the population of some pathogens organisms, of the blended muds was evaluated with agricultural lime, it diminished the population of fecal coliform bacteria, clastridium, mushrooms and yeasts significantly

  6. Chemical monitoring of mud products on drilled cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.L.; Jones, T.G.J.; Tomkins, P.G.; Gilmour, A.; Houwen, O.H.; Sanders, M.

    1991-01-01

    An increasing area of concern for offshore drilling practices in the environmental impact of discharged drilled cuttings contaminated with drilling fluids. The standard retort analysis is of limited accuracy and chemical specificity. Anticipating future requirements for a more complete accounting of mud chemicals discharged to the environment, we present here results for chemical monitoring using a modern comprehensive chemical analysis technique. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry. In this paper description is given of sampling methods found to be practical and the main calibration requirements are discussed. The techniques developed in the course of this work give a good mineralogical breakdown of mud solids (commercial and drilled solids) in addition to the environmentally relevant measurements relating to mud on cuttings. The possibility of using the new technique for the rigsite monitoring of drilling cuttings is demonstrated. Cuttings samples simultaneously from the flow line, shaker screen, desilter and mud cleaner were analyzed. It is found that mud polymers and other organic additives can be measured with sufficient accuracy to measure the removal of mud products by discharged cuttings. The technique is also applicable to quantify the losses of oil-based mud on cuttings. Field testing has shown that the instrumentation used in sufficiently robust and simple to use for rig-site application

  7. PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT OF LAPINDO MUD DISASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundakir Mundakir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lapindo mud disaster that occurred since 29 May 2006 is considered as the longest disaster that occurred in Indonesia. This disaster has caused damage and lost of property which has been affecting the viability of the residents of the affected areas. Psychosocial well being is one af the impacts of disaster. Research was conducted using qualitative design with descriptive phenomenology method. The purpose required of this research was to identify the psychological impact, social impact, and hope for the settlement of problems and health services. Method: Number of participants were involved in this research based on the saturation of data was 7 people. This study used purposive sampling technique using the key informant. Procedure of data collection techniques using depth interviews with a semi-structured form of used questions. The Digital Voice Record was utilized to record the interviews, and verbatim transcripts made and analyzed using the methods of Colaizi (1978, in Daymon and Dolloway, 2008. Result: This study revealed 9 theme of core and 2 additional theme. Nine the core theme is emotional changes, cognitive changes, coping mechanism, changes in family function, changes in social relationships, social support, hope to the problem to the government and PT Lapindo, physical health service needs and psychological health. Discussion: While two additional theme that is risk and growth trouble, and distres spiritual. Conclusion of this research society of victim of mud of Lapindo experience of impact of psikosoial and hope to government and PT Lapindo settle the payment phase II (80% and also provide service of health of physical and also psikososial. This research recommend the importance of intervention of psikososial to society of victim and research of continuation after society of victim take possession of new residences.

  8. Thermal mud maturation: organic matter and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centini, M; Tredici, M R; Biondi, N; Buonocore, A; Maffei Facino, R; Anselmi, C

    2015-06-01

    Many of the therapeutic and cosmetic treatments offered in spas are centred on mud therapy, to moisturize the skin and prevent skin ageing and rheumatic diseases. Thermal mud is a complex matrix composed of organic and inorganic elements which contribute to its functions. It is a natural product derived from the long mixing of clay and thermal water. During its maturation, organic substances are provided by the microalgae, which develop characteristic of the composition of thermal water. The aim of this study was to identify methods for introducing objective parameters as a basis for characterizing thermal mud and assessing its efficacy. Samples of thermal mud were collected at the Saturnia spa, where there are several sulphureous pools. The maturation of the mud was evaluated by organic component determination using extractive methods and chromatographic analysis (HPLC, GC-MS, SPME). We also studied the radical scavenging activity of mud samples at different stages of maturation, in a homogeneous phase, using several tests (DPPH, ORAC, ABTS). We identified several classes of compounds: saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, hydroxyl acids, dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, alcohols and others. SPME analysis showed the presence of various hydrocarbons compounds (C(11) -C(17)) and long-chain alcohols (C(12) -C(16)). Six or seven months seemed appropriate to complete the process of maturation, and the main effect of maturation time was the increase of lipids. Six-month mud showed the highest activity. The hydrophilic extract was more active than the lipophilic extract. The results indicate that maturation of thermal mud can be followed on the basis of the changes in its organic composition and antioxidant properties along the time. They also highlight the need to develop reference standards for thermal muds in relation to assess their use for therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. Binding of Vapour-Phase Mercury (Hg0) on Chemically Treated Bauxite Residues (Red Mud)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, Hg capture using red mud, seawater-neutralized red mud, and acid-treated red mud is evaluated and compared to other, more conventional sorbent materials. Red mud (also known as bauxite residue) is a by-product of extracting alumina from ground bauxite ore by treati...

  10. Mud extrusion and ring-fault gas seepage - upward branching fluid discharge at a deep-sea mud volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loher, M; Pape, T; Marcon, Y; Römer, M; Wintersteller, P; Praeg, D; Torres, M; Sahling, H; Bohrmann, G

    2018-04-19

    Submarine mud volcanoes release sediments and gas-rich fluids at the seafloor via deeply-rooted plumbing systems that remain poorly understood. Here the functioning of Venere mud volcano, on the Calabrian accretionary prism in ~1,600 m water depth is investigated, based on multi-parameter hydroacoustic and visual seafloor data obtained using ship-borne methods, ROVs, and AUVs. Two seepage domains are recognized: mud breccia extrusion from a summit, and hydrocarbon venting from peripheral sites, hosting chemosynthetic ecosystems and authigenic carbonates indicative of long-term seepage. Pore fluids in freshly extruded mud breccia (up to 13 °C warmer than background sediments) contained methane concentrations exceeding saturation by 2.7 times and chloride concentrations up to five times lower than ambient seawater. Gas analyses indicate an underlying thermogenic hydrocarbon source with potential admixture of microbial methane during migration along ring faults to the peripheral sites. The gas and pore water analyses point to fluids sourced deep (>3 km) below Venere mud volcano. An upward-branching plumbing system is proposed to account for co-existing mud breccia extrusion and gas seepage via multiple surface vents that influence the distribution of seafloor ecosystems. This model of mud volcanism implies that methane-rich fluids may be released during prolonged phases of moderate activity.

  11. Numerical investigation of fluid mud motion using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and two-dimensional fluid mud coupling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Qinghe; Hao, Linnan

    2015-03-01

    A water-fluid mud coupling model is developed based on the unstructured grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) to investigate the fluid mud motion. The hydrodynamics and sediment transport of the overlying water column are solved using the original three-dimensional ocean model. A horizontal two-dimensional fluid mud model is integrated into the FVCOM model to simulate the underlying fluid mud flow. The fluid mud interacts with the water column through the sediment flux, current, and shear stress. The friction factor between the fluid mud and the bed, which is traditionally determined empirically, is derived with the assumption that the vertical distribution of shear stress below the yield surface of fluid mud is identical to that of uniform laminar flow of Newtonian fluid in the open channel. The model is validated by experimental data and reasonable agreement is found. Compared with numerical cases with fixed friction factors, the results simulated with the derived friction factor exhibit the best agreement with the experiment, which demonstrates the necessity of the derivation of the friction factor.

  12. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario....

  13. THE USE OF MUD "TINAKSKAYA" IN MEDICINE (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Tsurigova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the published data on the therapeutic properties of the mud "Tinakskaya". In addition, data on the use of natural factors lake "Therapeutic" in medicine is performed.

  14. Mechanism of high-temperature resistant water-base mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, P

    1981-01-01

    Based on experiments, the causes and laws governing the changes in the performance of water-base mud under high temperature are analyzed, and the requisites and mechanism of treating agents resisting high temperature are discussed. Ways and means are sought for inhibiting, delaying and making use of the effect of high temperature on the performance of mud, while new ideas and systematic views have been expressed on the preparation of treating agents and set-up of a high temperature resistant water-base mud system. High temperature dispersion and high temperature surface inactivation of clay in the mud, as well as their effect and method of utilization are reviewed. Subjects also touched upon include degradation and cross-linking of the high-temperature resistant treating agents, their use and effect. Based on the above, the preparation of a water-base and system capable of resisting 180 to 250/sup 0/C is recommended.

  15. Evaluation of New Fluid Mud Survey System at Field Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engler

    1992-01-01

    This technical note presents an intermediate evaluation of a fluid mud survey system with respect to operability, practicability, and repeatability based on field tests conducted at Calcasieu River, Louisiana...

  16. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A drilling mud for drilling wells in collapsing rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochkarev, G P; Anderson, B A; Minkhayrov, K A; Sharipov, A U

    1982-01-01

    In a known drilling mud for drilling wells in collapsing rocks, which contains clay, sodium silicate and polyacrylamide (PAA), in order to increase its specific electrical resistance and to increase the strengthening properties, a silicoorganic liquid is additionally introduced into its composition with the following component ratio (percent): clay, 5 to 7; sodium silicate, 5 to 7; polyacrylamide, 0.3 to 0.5; silicoorganic liquid, GKZh-94, 0.5 to 1.5 and water, the remainder. The GKZh-94 is a chemical compound based on alkylphenylchlorsilanes and substituted ethers of orthosilicic acid, used for waterproofing fabrics and soils. The addition of GKZh-94 provides the required values of the specific electric resistance of the mud and does not distort the gas logging indications. The proposed mud has low water production (4 to 6 cubic centimeters), optimal viscosity (25 to 31 seconds) and high structural and mechanical properties. Its strengthening properties are substantially above those of the known mud.

  18. Solar Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pique, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Proposed pump moves liquid by action of bubbles formed by heat of sun. Tube of liquid having boiling point of 100 to 200 degrees F placed at focal axis of cylindrical reflector. Concentrated sunlight boils liquid at focus, and bubbles of vapor rise in tube, carrying liquid along with them. Pressure difference in hot tube sufficient to produce flow in large loop. Used with conventional flat solar heating panel in completely solar-powered heat-storage system.

  19. Experimental Study of Goaf Filling Materials Based on Red Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Mangen; Gao, Xiaozhen; Guo, Taoming; Hu, Xinping

    2018-01-01

    Red mud as soild waste is difficult to treatment. Goaf filling materials can make a large use of red mud. By the experimental study,we find that the red mud, fly ash, ground slag and desulfida-tion gypsum can be used to make goaf filling materials based on the principle of alkali excitation and metalion stability.Through the control variable method, we find that the optimal proportion of goaf filling materials based on red mud is red mud 55%, fly ash 30%, cement 7.5%, fly ash 2.5%, desulfurization gypsum 5%, admixture 1%, and water solid ratio=1:1.2.The 28days final material strength was 2.0 MPa,which achives the technical specification requirements.Through the test of SEM, XRD and IR, it is indicated that the strength formation of goaf filling material based on red mud is from the unformed linking hydration products of amorphous alkali excitation system. With curing time from 3 to 7 days, the unformed linking hydration products grown a lot of vitreous hydration products. When hydration reaction basicly finished after 28 days, the hydration products have developed into a large volume of massive vitreous with an extremely dense structure. The Ca2SiO3 mineral phase is significantly reduced, which is participate in hydration reactions. The decrease of Ca2SiO3 indicates that the Si-O bond in the system have been ruptured and reorganized.

  20. Dead Sea mud packs for chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Mahmoud; Mayer, Amit; Friger, Michael; Harari, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is chronic disease without a curative therapy. Alternative and complementary therapies are widely used in the management of this condition. To evaluate the efficacy of home application of Dead Sea mud compresses to the back of patients with chronic LBP. Forty-six consecutive patients suffering from chronic LBP were recruited. All patients were followed at the Soroka University Rheumatic Diseases Unit. The patients were randomized into two groups: one group was treated with mineral-rich mud compresses, and the other with mineral-depleted compresses. Mud compresses were applied five times a week for 3 consecutive weeks. The primary outcome was the patient's assessment of the overall back pain severity. The score of the Ronald & Morris questionnaire served as a secondary outcome. Forty-four patients completed the therapy and the follow-up assessments: 32 were treated with real mud packs and 12 used the mineral-depleted packs. A significant decrease in intensity of pain, as described by the patients, was observed only in the treatment group. In this group, clinical improvement was clearly seen at completion of therapy and was sustained a month later. Significant improvement in the scores of the Roland & Morris questionnaire was observed in both groups. The data suggest that pain severity was reduced in patients treated with mineral-rich mud compresses compared with those treated with mineral-depleted compresses. Whether this modest effect is the result of a "true" mud effect or other causes can not be determined in this study.

  1. Biological properties of mud extracts derived from various spa resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilioti, Eliana; Vargiami, Margarita; Letsiou, Sophia; Gardikis, Konstantinos; Sygouni, Varvara; Koutsoukos, Petros; Chinou, Ioanna; Kassi, Eva; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2017-08-01

    Spa resorts are known for thousands of years for their healing properties and have been empirically used for the treatment of many inflammatory conditions. Mud is one of the most often used natural materials for preventive, healing and cosmetic reasons and although it has been used since the antiquity, little light has been shed on its physical, chemical and biological properties. In this study we examined the effect of mud extracts on the expression of adhesion molecules (CAMs) by endothelial cells as well as their effects on monocyte adhesion to activated endothelial cells. Most of mud extracts inhibited the expression of VCAM-1 by endothelial cells and reduced monocyte adhesion to activated endothelial cells, indicating a potent anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, the mud extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity; however, most of them appeared inactive against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. One of the mud extracts (showing the best stabilization features) increased significantly the expression of genes involved in cell protection, longevity and hydration of human keratinocytes, such as, collagen 6A1, forkhead box O3, sirtuin-1, superoxide dismutase 1 and aquaporin-3. The present study reveals that mud exerts important beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory and anti-aging activity as well as moisturizing effects, implicating important cosmeceutical applications.

  2. Heavy metals distribution in the Dead Sea black mud, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momani, K.; El-Hasan, T.; Auaydeh, S.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb) were investigated in the Dead Sea black mud and river sediments in the northern basin of the Dead Sea region, Jordan. The pH of the mud was slightly above 8 while it was around 6 for the seawater. All analyzed heavy metal content in the black mud, except Pb, was less than their contents in other types of mud. Tlis might be due to the effect of the mildly acideic pH of seawater, which would enhance the metal solubility or incorporation within salt mineral structure, rather than precipitation. The sequential extraction results showed that Ni and Co transferred into the carbonate fraction, Mn is found mostly as manganese-iron oxide, and the residual phase contained Cr, Cu, Fe,and Pb. This study illustrated that the black mud had low heavy metal contents, thus indicating low toxicity. additionally, it shows insignificance effect of the mixing of freshwater with seawater on the heavy metal contents in the black mud. (authors).

  3. Dewatering cuts drilling mud and disposal costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.; Pharis, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on rig site dewatering of drilling fluids with recycling of processed water that can help an operator to comply with environmental rules by reducing volumes of waste and reducing long term liabilities. It can also reduce disposal costs and provide a cleaner drill site overall. Rig site dewatering is the process of injecting coagulants or flocculating chemicals into the mud entering a large clarifying centrifuge. This coagulates the fine, drilled particles allowing them to be separated from the fluid which can then be handled separately. Most of the environmental concerns during the 1980s involved hazardous materials and toxic wastes. Drilling fluids, many of which are chemically benign, have escaped many of the difficult-to-comply-with rules and regulations. During the 1990s, however, operators may be required to submit a written plan for liquid waste reduction for even nonhazardous materials. Many states and local agencies may institute total bans on oil field wastes. Drilling rigs typically produce about 1 bbl of liquid waste for every 1 ft of hole drilled. Thus, a typical drilling operation can produce a large quantity of waste

  4. Pumping behavior of sputter ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; McCafferty, D.

    The ultrahigh vacuum requirements of ISABELLE is obtained by distributed pumping stations. Each pumping station consists of 1000 l/s titanium sublimation pump for active gases (N 2 , H 2 , O 2 , CO, etc.), and a 20 l/s sputter ion pump for inert gases (methane, noble gases like He, etc.). The combination of the alarming production rate of methane from titanium sublimation pumps (TSP) and the decreasing pumping speed of sputter ion pumps (SIP) in the ultrahigh vacuum region (UHV) leads us to investigate this problem. In this paper, we first describe the essential physics and chemistry of the SIP in a very clean condition, followed by a discussion of our measuring techniques. Finally measured methane, argon and helium pumping speeds are presented for three different ion pumps in the range of 10 -6 to 10 -11 Torr. The virtues of the best pump are also discussed

  5. Investigation of the Dashigil mud volcano (Azerbaijan) using beryllium-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.J., E-mail: kjkim@kigam.re.kr [Korea Geological Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Baskaran, M.; Jweda, J. [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Feyzullayev, A.A.; Aliyev, C. [Geology Institute of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS), Baku, AZ 1143 (Azerbaijan); Matsuzaki, H. [MALT, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Jull, A.J.T. [NSF Arizona AMS Lab, University of Arizona, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    We collected and analyzed five sediments from three mud volcano (MV) vents and six suspended and bottom sediment samples from the adjoining river near the Dashgil mud volcano in Azerbaijan for {sup 10}Be. These three MV are found among the 190 onshore and >150 offshore MV in this region which correspond to the western flank of the South Caspian depression. These MVs overlie the faulted and petroleum-bearing anticlines. The {sup 10}Be concentrations and {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios are comparable to the values reported for mud volcanoes in Trinidad Island. It appears that the stable Be concentrations in Azerbaijan rivers are not perturbed by anthropogenic effects and are comparable to the much older sediments (mud volcano samples). The {sup 10}Be and {sup 9}Be concentrations in our river sediments are compared to the global data set and show that the {sup 10}Be values found for Kura River are among the lowest of any river for which data exist. We attribute this low {sup 10}Be concentration to the nature of surface minerals which are affected by the residual hydrocarbon compounds that occur commonly in the study area in particular and Azerbaijan at large. The concentrations of {sup 40}K and U-Th-series radionuclides ({sup 234}Th, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 228}Ra) indicate overall homogeneity of the mud volcano samples from the three different sites. Based on the {sup 10}Be concentrations of the mud volcano samples, the age of the mud sediments could be at least as old as 4 myr.

  6. Pump characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Providing a wealth of information on pumps and pump systems, Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition details how pump equipment is selected, sized, operated, maintained, and repaired. The book identifies the key components of pumps and pump accessories, introduces the basics of pump and system hydraulics as well as more advanced hydraulic topics, and details various pump types, as well as special materials on seals, motors, variable frequency drives, and other pump-related subjects. It uses example problems throughout the text, reinforcing the practical application of the formulae

  7. Inscuteable Regulates the Pins-Mud Spindle Orientation Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauser, Jonathon F.; Prehoda, Kenneth E.

    2012-01-01

    During asymmetric cell division, alignment of the mitotic spindle with the cell polarity axis ensures that the cleavage furrow separates fate determinants into distinct daughter cells. The protein Inscuteable (Insc) is thought to link cell polarity and spindle positioning in diverse systems by binding the polarity protein Bazooka (Baz; aka Par-3) and the spindle orienting protein Partner of Inscuteable (Pins; mPins or LGN in mammals). Here we investigate the mechanism of spindle orientation by the Insc-Pins complex. Previously, we defined two Pins spindle orientation pathways: a complex with Mushroom body defect (Mud; NuMA in mammals) is required for full activity, whereas binding to Discs large (Dlg) is sufficient for partial activity. In the current study, we have examined the role of Inscuteable in mediating downstream Pins-mediated spindle orientation pathways. We find that the Insc-Pins complex requires Gαi for partial activity and that the complex specifically recruits Dlg but not Mud. In vitro competition experiments revealed that Insc and Mud compete for binding to the Pins TPR motifs, while Dlg can form a ternary complex with Insc-Pins. Our results suggest that Insc does not passively couple polarity and spindle orientation but preferentially inhibits the Mud pathway, while allowing the Dlg pathway to remain active. Insc-regulated complex assembly may ensure that the spindle is attached to the cortex (via Dlg) before activation of spindle pulling forces by Dynein/Dynactin (via Mud). PMID:22253744

  8. Internal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushima, Jun; Hayashi, Youjiro; Ueda, Masayuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an internal pump. A water hole allowing communication between internal and external circumferences of a stretch tube is provided at the portion of the stretch tube corresponding to a position where an end face of a nozzle portion of a motor case and an end face of a diffuser are joined with each other so that hot filtered water inside a pressure container which has entered from where the end face of the nozzle portion of the motor case and the end face of the diffuser are joined with each other is combined with the purged water so that it can be sent back to the pressure container again. (author) figs

  9. Pozzolanic Activity Assessment of LUSI (LUmpur SIdoarjo) Mud in Semi High Volume Pozzolanic Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardjito, Djwantoro; Antoni; Wibowo, Gunadi M.; Christianto, Danny

    2012-01-01

    LUSI mud obtained from the mud volcano in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, is a viable aluminosilicate material to be utilized as pozzolanic material. LUSI is an abbreviation of the local name of the mud, i.e., Lumpur Sidoarjo, meaning Sidoarjo mud. This paper reports the results of an investigation to assess the pozzolanic activity of LUSI mud, especially in semi high volume pozzolanic mortar. In this case, the amount of mud incorporated is between 30% to 40% of total cementitious material, by mass. The content of SiO2 in the mud is about 30%, whilst the total content of SiO2, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 is more than 70%. Particle size and degree of partial cement replacement by treated LUSI mud affect the compressive strength, the strength activity index (SAI), the rate of pozzolanic activity development, and the workability of mortar incorporating LUSI mud. Manufacturing semi high volume LUSI mud mortar, up to at least 40% cement replacement, is a possibility, especially with a smaller particle size of LUSI mud, less than 63 μm. The use of a larger percentage of cement replacement by LUSI mud does not show any adverse effect on the water demand, as the flow of the fresh mortar increased with the increase of percentage of LUSI mud usage.

  10. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pump is best? You can buy or rent a breast pump from lactation consultants, hospitals, retail ... place to do it. Many companies offer their employees pumping and nursing areas. If yours doesn't, ...

  11. Production of Green Steel from Red Mud: A Novel Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Bhagyadhar; Behera, Pravas Ranjan; Mishra, Chitta Ranjan

    Red mud of Indian origin contains around 55% plus of Fe2O3 and is considered as a hazardous waste for the alumina industry. For production of one tone of alumina employing the Bayer's Process, around two tones of red mud is generated from three tones of Bauxite. Conventional process of steel making is not devoid of environmental pollution. In the present investigation, efforts have been made to produce steel from red mud by adopting reduction roasting, magnetic separation and hydrogen plasma smelting route. Magnetic fraction, containing enriched iron oxide and minimal content of alumina, is produced following the first two stages which is then subjected to hydrogen plasma smelting process for production of steel. This novel concept follows a green path way for production of steel free from pollution and is termed as green steel. Further, the only by-product that is produced in the process, is water, which is eco-friendly and recyclable.

  12. A novel approach in red mud neutralization using cow dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sucharita; Pal, Bhatu Kumar; Patel, Raj Kishore

    2018-05-01

    In this study, cow dung was identified as a neutralizing agent for red mud (RM). Present research estimated a significant reduction in pH value of red mud (10 g) from 10.28 to 8.15 and reduction in alkalinity of ~148 mg/L from ~488 mg/L by adding 80 g of cow dung in 40 days of anaerobic condition. XRD results exhibit a high intensity of quartz and found new compound, the calcium carbide. The acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of NRM reduces to ~0.87 from ~1.506 mol H + /kg. Based on the resultant research, present study proposes cow dung as an efficient neutralizing agent for reducing the pH and alkalinity in the red mud.

  13. Analysis of chloride diffusivity in concrete containing red mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Red mud is a solid waste produced in the alumina production process and, due to its high pH, is classified as hazardous. Its incorporation in concrete mixtures, acting as filler due to the particles fineness, might be an interesting reuse alternative. The focus of this paper is to study the chloride diffusivity of concrete mixtures containing red-mud. The concentration of chlorides was monitored by measuring the conductivity of the anolyte, which was distilled water initially. In addition, the estimation of the chloride ions diffusion coefficients in steady and non-steady conditions, Ds and Dns, was obtained from the ''time-lag'' and ''equivalent time'' between diffusion and migration experiments. Due to superfine particle-size distribution and the "filler" effect, the red mud addition seems to assure lower chloride diffusivity.

  14. Valorization of mud from Fergoug dam in manufacturing mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Laoufi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of calcined mud, with pozzolanic properties, from the large quantities of sediments dredged from Algerian dams, could be a good opportunity for the formulation of high performance mortars and pozzolanic concretes, with lower costs and less greenhouse gas (CO2 emissions. The optimal temperatures selected for calcination were 750, 850 and 950 °C. The burning operation was continuous over a period of 3 h. Therefore, a series of physical, chemical, mechanical and microstructural analyses were conducted on sediment samples, collected from the waters of Fergoug dam. The results obtained from the analyses of the calcined mud, from the dam, allowed saying that mortars with different percentages of that mud represent a potential source of high reactivity pozzolanic materials.

  15. Mud peeling and horizontal crack formation in drying clays

    KAUST Repository

    Style, Robert W.

    2011-03-01

    Mud peeling is a common phenomenon whereby horizontal cracks propagate parallel to the surface of a drying clay. Differential stresses then cause the layer of clay above the crack to curl up to form a mud peel. By treating the clay as a poroelastic solid, we analyze the peeling phenomenon and show that it is caused by the gradient in tensile stress at the surface of the clay, analogously to the spalling of thermoelastic materials. For a constant water evaporation rate at the clay surface we derive equations for the depth of peeling and the time of peeling as functions of the evaporation rate. Our model predicts a simple relationship between the radius of curvature of a mud peel and the depth of peeling. The model predictions are in agreement with the available experimental data. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. LMFBR with booster pump in pumping loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    A loop coolant circulation system is described for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) utilizing a low head, high specific speed booster pump in the hot leg of the coolant loop with the main pump located in the cold leg of the loop, thereby providing the advantages of operating the main pump in the hot leg with the reliability of cold leg pump operation

  17. Experimental study on rule of radioactive change of red mud concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Tan, Zhuoying; Yu, Zhongtao

    2017-12-01

    Red mud was used to partially replace cement to prepare red mud concrete, with replacement rate of red mud mass being 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% respectively, and hydration age being 3d, 28d and 90d. The experiment of cube compressive strength and radioactivity were conducted for 90 cubical test pieces respectively. The results show that with rise of replacement rate of red mud, the cube compressive strength of red mud concrete at the same hydration age first increased and then decreased, leading to increase of content of 226Ra,232Th,40K in red mud concrete, and increase of material’s radioactivity accordingly; as hydration age was prolonged, with the replacement rate of red mud being the same, the compressive strength increased, and internal and external exposure indices and total specific activity all increased yet with small increase range. Generally the hydration age does not significantly influence the radioactivity of red mud concrete.

  18. A Bingham-plastic model for fluid mud transport under waves and currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-rong; Wu, Bo; Huhe, Ao-de

    2014-04-01

    Simplified equations of fluid mud motion, which is described as Bingham-Plastic model under waves and currents, are presented by order analysis. The simplified equations are non-linear ordinary differential equations which are solved by hybrid numerical-analytical technique. As the computational cost is very low, the effects of wave current parameters and fluid mud properties on the transportation velocity of the fluid mud are studied systematically. It is found that the fluid mud can move toward one direction even if the shear stress acting on the fluid mud bed is much smaller than the fluid mud yield stress under the condition of wave and current coexistence. Experiments of the fluid mud motion under current with fluctuation water surface are carried out. The fluid mud transportation velocity predicted by the presented mathematical model can roughly match that measured in experiments.

  19. Liquid metal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  20. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair

  1. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  2. HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE MUD SEDIMENT IN EKATERINBURG (RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Seleznev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement. Now the most part of the world’s population lives in cities, thus, it is relevant the search for universal, low-cost and express methods for environmental geochemical investigations of an urban environment. The objective of the study is the assessment of content and properties of surface mud sediment at the urban territory (on the example of Ekaterinburg, Russia. Methods of the study. The 30 samples of surface mud sediment, soils and ground were collected in the residential area of the city. Particle size composition, measurements of heavy metals content, correlation analysis was conducted for the samples. Results. Surface mud sediment at the residential territories can be classified as surface facie of the recent anthropogenic sediment. Samples of the environmental compartments were collected at the territories of six blocks of houses of various years of construction, located in various parts of the city and at the various geological units. Five samples were collected in each block: 3 samples within the block and 2 samples – outside. The content of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, and Mn was measured in particle size fractions of the samples. Particle size composition of the surface mud sediment in Ekaterinburg is similar to the particle size composition of the grounds formed on the sediments of Holocene age in Urals region. The positive statistically significant correlation was found between the couples of metals: Zn and Pb, Zn and Cu, Co and Ni. The distribution of concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cu over particle size fractions of surface mud sediment is heterogeneous. Pollution of the ground and soil in urban areas is due to the transition of heavy metals with particles of dust and fine sand. Typical geochemical association of metals for particle size fraction of surface mud sediment 0.002–0.01 mm – Mn-Zn-Ni-Cu-Pb-Co, that is similar to the association for sediments of surface puddles in local zones of relief, soils and bottom

  3. [Herpesvirus detection in clinically healthy West African mud turtles (Pelusioscastaneus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, R E; Heckers, K O; Heynol, V; Weider, K; Behncke, H

    2015-01-01

    First description of a herpesvirus in West African mud turtles. A herpesvirus was detected in two clinically healthy West African mud turtles (Pelusios castaneus) by PCR during a quarantine exam. The animals had been imported from Togo, West Africa to Germany for the pet trade. Analysis of a portion of the genome of the detected virus showed that it is a previously unknown virus related to other chelonid herpesviruses. The virus was named pelomedusid herpesvirus 1. This case highlights the importance of testing for infectious agents during quarantine, even in clinically healthy animals.

  4. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  5. Status of the mud crab fishery in Kenya: A review | Mirera | Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Kenya, mud crabs are fished mainly by men and to a lesser extent by women and children due to the accessibility of the fishing areas by foot. This makes mud crabs a key fishery that is easily accessible for exploitation by most coastal artisanal fishers for subsistence and commercial purposes. Mud crabs have been a ...

  6. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the ‘most likely’ di...

  7. Determination of chromate ion in drilling mud filtrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfill, D.

    1980-01-01

    A method of determining the amount of chromate ion in an aqueous drilling mud filtrate containing organic color bodies such as lignosulfate wherein the method comprises: (A) treating the aqueous filtrate with an effective amount of hydrogen peroxide to destroy said color bodies, and (B) measuring the amount of chromate ion in the filtrate by means of a spectrophotometer

  8. Neither a Toddler nor a Stick-in-the-Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea Livi

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to express the views from the "outside," from laypeople who want to go to museums, but perhaps find themselves not going very often. Adult visitors to history museums are often treated as either toddlers or sticks-in-the-mud, where they are assumed to break anything they touch, or enjoy didactic lectures. As a result,…

  9. Laboratory experiments on consolidation and strength evolution of mud layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many harbours in the world suffer from high siltation rates in their basins. To guarantee safe shipping, harbour authorities have to maintain the navigable depth by dredging large amounts of mud. Some authorities relate the navigable depth to the depth at which the density is equal to a certain

  10. Mud cloth from Mali: its making and use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    book covers and wrapping paper. ... used in mud cloth can be traced back to the 12th cen- tury AD ... cluded a bogolan wrap in his winter collection (Adire .... Stencils made from cardboard or plastic are also used. These stencilled cloths can be ...

  11. Removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution by waste mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemer, Baris; Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Bulut, Volkan N.; Duran, Celal; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the ability of original waste mud (o-WM) and different types of activated waste mud which are acid-activated (a-WM) and precipitated waste mud (p-WM), in order to remove excess of fluoride from aqueous solution by using batch technique. The p-WM exhibited greater performance than the others. Adsorption studies were conducted as a function of pH, contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent concentration, temperature, etc. Studies were also performed to understand the effect of some co-existing ions present in aqueous solutions. Adsorption process was found to be almost independent of pH for all types of waste mud. Among the kinetic models tested for p-WM, pseudo-second-order model fitted the kinetic data well with a perfect correlation coefficient value of 1.00. It was found that the adequate time for the adsorption equilibrium of fluoride was only 1 h. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (ΔG o ), enthalpy (ΔH o ), and entropy (ΔS o ) revealed that adsorption of fluoride ions on the p-WM was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 0-40 deg. C. Experimental data showed a good fit with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Results of this study demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of WM for removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution.

  12. Removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution by waste mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemer, Baris; Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Bulut, Volkan N.; Duran, Celal [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr [Erciyes University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    The present study was carried out to assess the ability of original waste mud (o-WM) and different types of activated waste mud which are acid-activated (a-WM) and precipitated waste mud (p-WM), in order to remove excess of fluoride from aqueous solution by using batch technique. The p-WM exhibited greater performance than the others. Adsorption studies were conducted as a function of pH, contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent concentration, temperature, etc. Studies were also performed to understand the effect of some co-existing ions present in aqueous solutions. Adsorption process was found to be almost independent of pH for all types of waste mud. Among the kinetic models tested for p-WM, pseudo-second-order model fitted the kinetic data well with a perfect correlation coefficient value of 1.00. It was found that the adequate time for the adsorption equilibrium of fluoride was only 1 h. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}), enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}), and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) revealed that adsorption of fluoride ions on the p-WM was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 0-40 deg. C. Experimental data showed a good fit with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Results of this study demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of WM for removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution.

  13. Mud Crab (Scylla serrata) Culture: Understanding the Technology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—A study was conducted in Mtwapa creek on the north coast Kenya, during 2005-2007 to evaluate the viability of pens and drive-in cages for mud crab (S. serrata) culture as a mangrove management strategy and alternative source of income for local communities. Other objectives were to assess the effectiveness ...

  14. Mud peeling and horizontal crack formation in drying clays

    KAUST Repository

    Style, Robert W.; Peppin, Stephen S. L.; Cocks, Alan C. F.

    2011-01-01

    equations for the depth of peeling and the time of peeling as functions of the evaporation rate. Our model predicts a simple relationship between the radius of curvature of a mud peel and the depth of peeling. The model predictions are in agreement

  15. Solar Pumping : The Basics

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2018-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic water pumping (SWP) uses energy from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels to power an electric water pump. The entire process, from sunlight to stored energy, is elegant and simple. Over last seven years, the technology and price of solar pumping have evolved dramatically and hence the opportunities it presents. Solar pumping is most competitive in regions with high solar inso...

  16. Multiple pump housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  17. Centrifugal pump handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pumps, Sulzer

    2010-01-01

    This long-awaited new edition is the complete reference for engineers and designers working on pump design and development or using centrifugal pumps in the field. This authoritative guide has been developed with access to the technical expertise of the leading centrifugal pump developer, Sulzer Pumps. In addition to providing the most comprehensive centrifugal pump theory and design reference with detailed material on cavitation, erosion, selection of materials, rotor vibration behavior and forces acting on pumps, the handbook also covers key pumping applications topics and operational

  18. Time-dependent source model of the Lusi mud volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzaei, M.; Rudolph, M. L.; Manga, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Lusi mud eruption, near Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia, began erupting in May 2006 and continues to erupt today. Previous analyses of surface deformation data suggested an exponential decay of the pressure in the mud source, but did not constrain the geometry and evolution of the source(s) from which the erupting mud and fluids ascend. To understand the spatiotemporal evolution of the mud and fluid sources, we apply a time-dependent inversion scheme to a densely populated InSAR time series of the surface deformation at Lusi. The SAR data set includes 50 images acquired on 3 overlapping tracks of the ALOS L-band satellite between May 2006 and April 2011. Following multitemporal analysis of this data set, the obtained surface deformation time series is inverted in a time-dependent framework to solve for the volume changes of distributed point sources in the subsurface. The volume change distribution resulting from this modeling scheme shows two zones of high volume change underneath Lusi at 0.5-1.5 km and 4-5.5km depth as well as another shallow zone, 7 km to the west of Lusi and underneath the Wunut gas field. The cumulative volume change within the shallow source beneath Lusi is ~2-4 times larger than that of the deep source, whilst the ratio of the Lusi shallow source volume change to that of Wunut gas field is ~1. This observation and model suggest that the Lusi shallow source played a key role in eruption process and mud supply, but that additional fluids do ascend from depths >4 km on eruptive timescales.

  19. Designing a suitable alternative to oil-based mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgate, M.; Irwin, G.; Cousins, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on wireline logging problems which have plagued the reservoir section of development wells in Welton oil field in the East Midlands area of England. And resulting incomplete or poor-quality logging data spurred a look at ways of improving hole conditions. Oil-based muds often are seen as the ideal solution, but they are expensive. Their use also commits the operator to additional costs from safeguarding personnel and limiting environmental impact. Such expense was initiated to develop a cheaper, more environmentally friendly, water-based alternative. A wide-ranging review was carried out to determine the most cost-effective options to obtain reservoir information. This included an examination of lithology, casing design, bit selection, hydraulics, logging requirements and techniques, and development of a suitable water-based mud. This holistic approach was seen as the most effective method of avoiding use of oil-based mud. After successful experimentation, a water-based mud was used in subsequent wells at Welton. A high-salt mud system and the drilling principles discussed here produced significant improvement in hole conditions. Application of a holistic approach led to many operational improvements. For instance, the casing shoe was deepened to case off the most troublesome zone in the local Edlington formation. There also was a better awareness of alternative logging techniques, the commercial factors that influenced their use and their operational and technical limitations. Logging problems were reduced but not eliminated. Where there were problems, application of improved techniques minimized their impact. Last, but not least, there was an unexpected spin-off in that the bit chosen to reduce hole erosion also reduced the time taken to drill the section

  20. Sequential extraction applied to Peruibe black mud, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson Koyaishi

    2014-01-01

    The Peruibe Black mud is used in therapeutic treatments such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne and seborrhoea, as well as in the treatment of myalgia, arthritis, rheumatism and non-articular processes. Likewise other medicinal clays, it may not be free from possible adverse health effects due to possible hazardous minerals leading to respiratory system occurrences and other effects, caused by the presence of toxic elements. Once used for therapeutic purposes, any given material should be fully characterized and thus samples of Peruibe black mud were analyzed to determine physical and chemical properties: moisture content, organic matter and loss on ignition; pH, particle size, cation exchange capacity and swelling index. The elemental composition was determined by Neutron Activation Analysis, Atomic Absorption Graphite Furnace and X-ray fluorescence; the mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction. Another tool widely used to evaluate the behavior of trace elements, in various environmental matrices, is the sequential extraction. Thus, a sequential extraction procedure was applied to fractionate the mud in specific geochemical forms and verify how and how much of the elements may be contained in it. Considering the several sequential extraction procedures, BCR-701 method (Community Bureau of Reference) was used since it is considered the most reproducible among them. A simple extraction with an artificial sweat was, also, applied in order to verify which components are potentially available for absorption by the patient skin during the topical treatment. The results indicated that the mud is basically composed by a silty-clay material, rich in organic matter and with good cation exchange capacity. There were no significant variations in mineralogy and elemental composition of both, in natura and mature mud forms. The analysis by sequential extraction and by simple extraction indicated that the elements possibly available in larger

  1. Battlefield: mud, cold, grit and no TV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    1997-10-06

    The early history of Suncor, initially called the Great Canadian Oil Sands (GCOS) Corporation, beginning with the marathon drive of men and equipment on unpaved roads up to Fort McMurray in 1966, was told. Despite the hardships of the early years, no proper housing, sanitation, churches, schools, doctors or dentists, no television or radio, recruits came from all over Canada and Europe because the pay was very good and skills requirements were very low. Early experiences with the giant bucketwheel excavators were recalled, including the constant need to change the giant teeth that snapped in the frozen tundra every two to four hours. Conveyor belts made from rubber-coated steel cables were a constant fire hazard (they were sprayed with diesel oil to prevent the tarry sand from sticking). Unreliable boilers and monster sand pumps that plugged the oil extraction plant were other trials to endure in the constant battle with nature and the laws of physics. Although the attrition rate was high, enough people endured to keep the plant operating. Thirty years later 1,600 employees celebrated production records, the opening of a new Suncor mine, and the inauguration of a new bridge for Fort McMurray, now a thriving modern city and home to some 41,000 people.

  2. Mud diaprism and it's effect on the hydrocarbon system in the south Caspian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baganz, O.W.; Ballard, J.H.; Krenov, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Mud diapirism plays a special role in the geology and petroleum system of the south Caspian basin. Hundreads of mud intrusions penetrate the thick Plio-Pleistocene section. This article talks in detail about aspects of the influence of mud diapirs and their related with mud volcanoes on the generation and trapping of hydrocarbons. Some of these aspects are : 1) The influence on the sedimentation; 2) Structural impact; 3) Stress and strain in the surrounded formations; 4) Thermal effect; 5) Pressure effect. All these aspects of the diapiric and mud-volcanic activity should be kept in mind during the volumetric calculations and play evaluation.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2003-01-01

    This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting October 2002 through December 2002. Even though we are awaiting the optimization portion of the testing program, accomplishments included the following: (1) Smith International participated in the DOE Mud Hammer program through full scale benchmarking testing during the week of 4 November 2003. (2) TerraTek acknowledges Smith International, BP America, PDVSA, and ConocoPhillips for cost-sharing the Smith benchmarking tests allowing extension of the contract to add to the benchmarking testing program. (3) Following the benchmark testing of the Smith International hammer, representatives from DOE/NETL, TerraTek, Smith International and PDVSA met at TerraTek in Salt Lake City to review observations, performance and views on the optimization step for 2003. (4) The December 2002 issue of Journal of Petroleum Technology (Society of Petroleum Engineers) highlighted the DOE fluid hammer testing program and reviewed last years paper on the benchmark performance of the SDS Digger and Novatek hammers. (5) TerraTek's Sid Green presented a technical review for DOE/NETL personnel in Morgantown on ''Impact Rock Breakage'' and its importance on improving fluid hammer performance. Much discussion has taken place on the issues surrounding mud hammer performance at depth conditions.

  4. Red mud as a carbon sink: variability, affecting factors and environmental significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Chunhua; Ma, Yingqun; Lin, Chuxia

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of red mud to sequester CO(2) varied markedly due to differences in bauxite type, processing and disposal methods. Calcium carbonates were the dominant mineral phases responsible for the carbon sequestration in the investigated red mud types. The carbon sequestration capacity of red mud was not fully exploited due to shortages of soluble divalent cations for formation of stable carbonate minerals. Titanate and silicate ions were the two major oxyanions that appeared to strongly compete with carbonate ions for the available soluble Ca. Supply of additional soluble Ca and Mg could be a viable pathway for maximizing carbon sequestration in red mud and simultaneously reducing the causticity of red mud. It is roughly estimated that over 100 million tonnes of CO(2) have been unintentionally sequestered in red mud around the world to date through the natural weathering of historically produced red mud. Based on the current production rate of red mud, it is likely that some 6 million tonnes of CO(2) will be sequestered annually through atmospheric carbonation. If appropriate technologies are in place for incorporating binding cations into red mud, approximately 6 million tonnes of additional CO(2) can be captured and stored in the red mud while the hazardousness of red mud is simultaneously reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pumping mechanisms in sputter-ion pumps low pressure operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that significant H 2 pumping occurs in the walls of triode pumps. Also, H 2 is pumped in the anode cells of sputter-ion pumps. This pumping occurs in a manner similar to that by which the inert gases are pumped. That is, H 2 pumped in the walls of the anode cells by high energy neutral burial. Hydrogen in the pump walls and anodes limits the base pressure of the pump. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  6. Pumping mechanisms in sputter-ion pumps low pressure operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that significant H 2 pumping occurs in the walls of triode pumps. Also, H 2 is pumped in the anode cells of sputter-ion pumps. This pumping occurs in a manner similar to that by which the inert gases are pumped. That is, H 2 is pumped in the walls of the anode cells by high energy neutral burial. Hydrogen in the pump walls and anodes limits the base pressure of the pump

  7. Optimization of Mud Hammer Drilling Performance--A Program to Benchmark the Viability of Advanced Mud Hammer Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2006-03-01

    Operators continue to look for ways to improve hard rock drilling performance through emerging technologies. A consortium of Department of Energy, operator and industry participants put together an effort to test and optimize mud driven fluid hammers as one emerging technology that has shown promise to increase penetration rates in hard rock. The thrust of this program has been to test and record the performance of fluid hammers in full scale test conditions including, hard formations at simulated depth, high density/high solids drilling muds, and realistic fluid power levels. This paper details the testing and results of testing two 7 3/4 inch diameter mud hammers with 8 1/2 inch hammer bits. A Novatek MHN5 and an SDS Digger FH185 mud hammer were tested with several bit types, with performance being compared to a conventional (IADC Code 537) tricone bit. These tools functionally operated in all of the simulated downhole environments. The performance was in the range of the baseline ticone or better at lower borehole pressures, but at higher borehole pressures the performance was in the lower range or below that of the baseline tricone bit. A new drilling mode was observed, while operating the MHN5 mud hammer. This mode was noticed as the weight on bit (WOB) was in transition from low to high applied load. During this new ''transition drilling mode'', performance was substantially improved and in some cases outperformed the tricone bit. Improvements were noted for the SDS tool while drilling with a more aggressive bit design. Future work includes the optimization of these or the next generation tools for operating in higher density and higher borehole pressure conditions and improving bit design and technology based on the knowledge gained from this test program.

  8. Adsorption pump for helium pumping out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donde, A.L.; Semenenko, Yu.E.

    1981-01-01

    Adsorption pump with adsorbent cooling by liquid helium is described. Shuttered shield protecting adsorbent against radiation is cooled with evaporating helium passing along the coil positioned on the shield. The pump is also equipped with primed cylindrical shield, cooled with liquid nitrogen. The nitrogen shield has in the lower part the shuttered shield, on the pump casing there is a valve used for pump pre-burning, and valves for connection to recipient as well. Pumping- out rates are presented at different pressures and temperatures of adsorbent. The pumping-out rate according to air at absorbent cooling with liquid nitrogen constituted 5x10 -4 Pa-3000 l/s, at 2x10 -2 Pa-630 l/s. During the absorbent cooling with liquid hydrogen the pumping-out rate according to air was at 4x10 -4 Pa-580 l/s, at 2x10 -3 Pa-680 l/s, according to hydrogen - at 8x10 -5 Pa-2500 l/s, at 5x10 -3 Pa-4200 l/s. During adsorbent cooling with liquid helium the rate of pumping-out according to hydrogen at 3x10 5 Pa-2400% l/s, at 6x10 3 Pa-1200 l/s, and according to helium at 3.5x10 -5 Pa-2800 l/s, at 4x10 -3 Pa-1150 l/s. The limit vacuum is equal to 1x10 -7 Pa. The volume of the vessel with liquid helium is equal to 3.5 l. Helium consumption is 80 cm 3 /h. Consumption of liquid nitrogen from the shield is 400 cm 3 /h. The limit pressure in the pump is obtained after forevacuum pumping-out (adsorbent regeneration) at 300 K temperature. The pump is made of copper. The pump height together with primed tubes is 800 mm diameter-380 mm [ru

  9. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cyropumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels the alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independent pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped

  10. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cyropumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels the alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independent pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped.

  11. Evaluation of the hurricanes Gustav and Ike impact on healing mud from San Diego River using nuclear and geochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, Oscar; Gelen Rudnikas, Alina Katia; Rodriguez, D'Alessandro; Arado Lopez, Juana O.; Dominguez Rodriguez, Roberto; Gonzalez Hernandez, Patricia; Melian Rodriguez, Clara M.; Suarez Munnoz, Margaret; Fagundo Castillo, Juan R.; Blanco Padilla, Dagoberto

    2011-01-01

    Effects induced by the hurricanes Gustav and Ike on San Diego River mud characteristics have been studied. X-ray fluorescence analysis, gamma spectrometry and measurement of some physico-chemical characteristics in mud samples, collected before and after hurricane impacts, shows that hurricanes induced changes in mud major composition and in some other mud characteristics. The average sedimentation rate determined by gamma spectrometry in San Diego River outlet permitted to estimate that the original mud characteristics will be recovered never before than 5-7 years. Further studies of the influence of mud characteristics changes due the hurricanes impact in mud therapeutic properties are recommended.(author)

  12. Mobility of 232Th and 210Po in red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Miklós; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Jónás, Jácint; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2018-04-01

    The valorization of industrial by-products such as red mud became a tempting opportunity, but the understanding of the risks involved is required for the safe utilization of these products. One of the risks involved are the elevated levels of radionuclides (in the 100-1300 Bq/kg range for both the 238 U and 232  Th decay chains, but usually lower than 1000 Bq/kg, which is the recommended limit for excemption or clearance according to the EU BSS released in 2013) in red mud that can affect human health. There is no satisfactory answer for the utilization of red mud; the main current solution is still almost exclusively disposal into a landfill. For the safe utilization and deposition of red mud, it is important to be able to assess the leaching behaviour of radionuclides. Because there is no commonly accepted measurement protocol for testing the leaching of radionuclides in the EU a combined measurement protocol was made and tested based on heavy metal leaching methods. The leaching features of red mud were studied by methods compliant with the MSZ-21470-50 Hungarian standard, the CEN/TS 14429 standard and the Tessier sequential extraction method for 232 Th and 210 Po. The leached solutions were taken to radiochemical separation followed by spontaneous deposition for Po and electrodeposition for Th. The 332 ± 33 Bq/kg 232 Th content was minimally mobile, 1% became available for distilled water 1% and 6% for Lakanen-Erviö solution; the Tessier extraction showed minimal mobility in the first four steps, while more than 85% remained in the residue. The 210 Po measurements had a severe disturbing effect in many cases, probably due to large amounts of iron present in the red mud, from the 310 ± 12 Bq/kg by aqua regia digestion, distilled water mobilized 23%, while Lakanen-Erviö solution mobilized ∼13%. The proposed protocol is suitable for the analysis of Th and Po leaching behaviour. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electron microscopy study of red mud after seawater neutralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, S.P.; Kiyohara, P.K.; Antunes, M.L.P.; Frost, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Red Mud, residue of Bayer process for extracting alumina from bauxite, is produced in large quantity. This residue is very alkaline and can cause damage to health and the environment. One way to minimize the environmental impact of this residue is neutralization by sea water. The Brazilian Red Mud was treated with sea water. It appears that the initial pH of the samples is reduced to 8. The analysis by x-ray diffraction allows to identify the formation of hydrotalcite and aragonite. The transmission electron microscopy images show that this consists of particles with dimensions between 0.02 to 2 μm. It was possible to identify by EDS/MET particles of magnesium, confirming the formation of hydrotalcite. (author)

  14. Novel Desorber for Online Drilling Mud Gas Logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackowski, Marcin; Tobiszewski, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the construction solution and experimental results of a novel desorber for online drilling mud gas logging. The traditional desorbers use mechanical mixing of the liquid to stimulate transfer of hydrocarbons to the gaseous phase that is further analyzed. The presented approach is based on transfer of hydrocarbons from the liquid to the gas bubbles flowing through it and further gas analysis. The desorber was checked for gas logging from four different drilling muds collected from Polish boreholes. The results of optimization studies are also presented in this study. The comparison of the novel desorber with a commercial one reveals strong advantages of the novel one. It is characterized by much better hydrocarbons recovery efficiency and allows reaching lower limits of detection of the whole analytical system. The presented desorber seems to be very attractive alternative over widely used mechanical desorbers.

  15. Novel Desorber for Online Drilling Mud Gas Logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Lackowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the construction solution and experimental results of a novel desorber for online drilling mud gas logging. The traditional desorbers use mechanical mixing of the liquid to stimulate transfer of hydrocarbons to the gaseous phase that is further analyzed. The presented approach is based on transfer of hydrocarbons from the liquid to the gas bubbles flowing through it and further gas analysis. The desorber was checked for gas logging from four different drilling muds collected from Polish boreholes. The results of optimization studies are also presented in this study. The comparison of the novel desorber with a commercial one reveals strong advantages of the novel one. It is characterized by much better hydrocarbons recovery efficiency and allows reaching lower limits of detection of the whole analytical system. The presented desorber seems to be very attractive alternative over widely used mechanical desorbers.

  16. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  17. Method of preparing light-weight plugging mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorskiy, V F; Melnichuk, A N; Vernikovskiy, A N

    1982-01-01

    A method is proposed for preparing a light-weight plugging mud which includes mixing Portland cement on an aqueous suspension of palygorskite. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the quality of the mud and strength of the cement stone with simultaneous decrease in the gas permeability, before mixing the Portland cement, the aqueous suspension of palygorskite is dispersed to stabilization of viscosity, and after mixing the Portland cement, the obtained cement-clay mixture is exposed to additional dispersion under pressure. The ratio of the ingredients is the following (% by mass): Portland cement 32.0-61.0; palygorskite 1.2-2.9; water--the rest.

  18. Utilization of red mud and Pb/Zn smelter waste for the synthesis of a red mud-based cementitious material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Cheng; Min, Xiao-Bo; Ke, Yong; Chai, Li-Yuan; Shi, Mei-Qing; Tang, Chong-Jian; Wang, Qing-Wei; Liang, Yan-Jie; Lei, Jie; Liu, De-Gang

    2018-02-15

    A new method in which Pb/Zn smelter waste containing arsenic and heavy metals (arsenic sludge), red mud and lime are utilized to prepare red mud-based cementitious material (RCM) is proposed in this study. XRD, SEM, FTIR and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were employed to assess the physicochemical properties of RCM. In addition, ettringite and iron oxide-containing ettringite were used to study the hydration mechanism of RCM. The results show that the UCS of the RCM (red mud+arsenic sludge+lime) was higher than that of the binder (red mud+arsenic sludge). When the mass ratio of m (binder): m (lime) was 94:6 and then maintained 28days at ambient temperature, the UCS reached 12.05MPa. The red mud has potential cementitious characteristics, and the major source of those characteristics was the aluminium oxide. In the red mud-arsenic sludge-lime system, aluminium oxide was effectively activated by lime and gypsum to form complex hydration products. Some of the aluminium in ettringite was replaced by iron to form calcium sulfoferrite hydrate. The BCR and leaching toxicity results show that the leaching concentration was strongly dependent on the chemical speciation of arsenic and the hydration products. Therefore, the investigated red mud and arsenic sludge can be successfully utilized in cement composites to create a red mud-based cementitious material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. New insights into the sorption mechanism of cadmium on red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Lei; Ma Chenyan; Ma Yibing; Zhang Shuzhen; Lv Jitao; Cui Mingqi

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness and mechanism of cadmium (Cd) sorption on original, acidified and ball milling nano-particle red muds were investigated using batch sorption experiments, sequential extraction analysis and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The maximum sorption capacity of Cd was 0.16, 0.19, and 0.21 mol/kg for the original, acidified, and nano-particle red muds at pH 6.5, respectively. Both acidification and ball-milling treatments significantly enhanced Cd sorption and facilitated transformation of Cd into less extractable fractions. The Cd L III -edge XANES analysis indicated the formation of inner-sphere complexes of Cd similar to XCdOH (X represents surface groups on red mud) on the red mud surfaces although outer-sphere complexes of Cd were the primary species. This work shed light on the potential application of red mud to remediate Cd-contaminated soils and illustrated the promising tool of XANES spectroscopy for speciation of multicomponent systems of environmental relevance. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Red mud has a strong affinity for Cd contaminants. → Ball-milling treatments significantly enhance Cd sorption on red mud. → Cadmium partially formed inner-sphere complexes on the red mud surfaces. → Red mud can be used to remediate Cd contaminated soils effectively. - Cadmium can be strongly sorbed and partially forms inner-sphere complexes on red mud.

  20. Using mine waste mud to produce environmentally friendly new binders

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2007-01-01

    It is now accepted that new binders, such as alkali-activated binders, are needed to replace portland cement for enhanced environmental and durability performance. Alkali-activated binders have emerged as an alternative to (ordinary portland cement ) OPC binders, which seem to have superior durability and environmental impact.This paper reports results of a research project on the development of an alkali-activated binders using mineral waste mud from the Panasqueira tungsten mine in Portugal...

  1. Geochemistry of mud volcano fluids in the Taiwan accretionary prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Chenfeng; Gieskes, Joris M.; Lee, Typhoon; Yui Tzenfu; Chen Hsinwen

    2004-01-01

    Taiwan is located at the collision boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Asian Continental Plate and is one of the most active orogenic belts in the world. Fluids sampled from 9 sub-aerial mud volcanoes distributed along two major geological structures in southwestern Taiwan, the Chishan fault and the Gutingkeng anticline, were analyzed to evaluate possible sources of water and the degree of fluid-sediment interaction at depth in an accretionary prism. Overall, the Taiwanese mud volcano fluids are characterized by high Cl contents, up to 347 mM, suggesting a marine origin from actively de-watering sedimentary pore waters along major structures on land. The fluids obtained from the Gutingkeng anticline, as well as from the Coastal Plain area, show high Cl, Na, K, Ca, Mg and NH 4 , but low SO 4 and B concentrations. In contrast, the Chishan fault fluids are much less saline (1/4 seawater value), but show much heavier O isotope compositions (δ 18 O=5.1-6.5 %o). A simplified scenario of mixing between sedimentary pore fluids and waters affected by clay dehydration released at depth can explain several crucial observations including heavy O isotopes, radiogenic Sr contents ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr=0.71136-0.71283), and relatively low salinities in the Chishan fluids. Gases isolated from the mud volcanoes are predominantly CH 4 and CO 2 , where the CH 4 -C isotopic compositions show a thermogenic component of δ 13 C=-38 %o. These results demonstrate that active mud volcano de-watering in Taiwan is a direct product of intense sediment accretion and plate collision in the region

  2. Evidence for Basinwide Mud Volcanism in Acidalia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2010-01-01

    High-albedo mounds in Acidalia Planitia occur in enormous numbers. They have been variously interpreted as pseudocraters, cinder cones, tuff cones, pingos, ice disintegration features, or mud volcanoes. Our work uses regional mapping, basin analysis, and new data from the Context Camera (CTX), High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), and Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) to re-assess the origin and significance of these structures.

  3. Sediment Scaling for Mud Mountain Fish Barrier Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-28

    River serves as a collection point of migratory fish. Operators at the structure collect the fish and transport them upstream of Mud Mountain Dam...fixed weir does not allow for structure operations to mobilize the sediment. Thus, a new structure is desired to both mitigate sediment accumulation...gradation, respectively. This analysis should be based on a representative prototype gradation taken from non- slack water areas (Einstein 1950). For this

  4. Pumps in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This article looks at the pump industry as a whole, its historical links with the mining industry, their parallel develop ment, and at the individual manufacturers and pumps, services and auxillary products they have to offer.

  5. Sensory Characteristics of Mud Clam (Polymesoda Erosa) Hydrolysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normah Ismail; Noorasma Mustakim

    2016-01-01

    Mud clam (Polymesoda erosa) was hydrolysed using two different microbial enzymes; alcalase and flavourzyme. The volatile compounds, amino acids and molecular weight associated with umami and bitter taste in mud clam hydrolysate were determined by head space solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GCMS), High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The characteristics of hydrolysates produced using alcalase and flavourzyme were compared. In total, eighteen, seven and six volatile compounds were identified in the flesh, alcalase hydrolysate and flavourzyme hydrolysate, respectively. 2-piperidinone volatile compound content which is associated with bitterness was 6.79 % in alcalase hydrolysate and 3.78 % in flavourzyme hydrolysate. SDS-PAGE results showed that alcalase hydrolysate contains smaller peptide (<52 kDa) compared to flavourzyme hydrolysate (<126 kDa). In addition, sensory analysis using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) showed that flavourzyme hydroysate was the least bitter but elicited more umami taste compared to alcalase hydrolysate. Further treatments are still needed to enhance umami taste and to remove bitter taste in mud clam hydrolysate. (author)

  6. Scientific studies on decorated mud mortar of Ajanta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to reveal the decorated earthen plaster of Ajanta. The mud plaster of Ajanta caves has been analyzed with the help of physical and analytical tools. The results indicate that high silt (>70% low clay soil may have been mixed purposefully with lime (calcite for the reason to enhance the cementing characteristics. The presence of calcium oxalate was detected from FTIR spectra may have been the resultant product of proteic materials presented in mud plaster. Ferrugineous silicate along with rarer gluconite–celendonite and white zeolites were also perceived from SEM and FTIR spectral analysis. The existence of quartz and sepiolite in mud mortar was also detected from XRD and SEM studies. The vegetal matter might have been added to tailor the construction behavior. The analytical results authenticate the similarity of earthen plaster of Ajanta and alluvion deposits of Waghura River just in front of caves, probably used as raw material in improvement of new material that suits for restoration for optimize performance and compatibility with the existing materials.

  7. Rare earth elements behavior in Peruibe black mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Carvalho, Leandro P.; Gouvea, Paulo F.M.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: jeffkoy@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Rare earth elements in sediments have been used as powerful tools for environmental studies because of their behavior during geochemical processes and are also widely accepted as reliable provenance tracers because they are largely water-immobile and thus behave conservatively during sedimentary processes. The Peruibe Black Mud (PBM) is a sedimentary deposit originated from the interactions of marine sediments and organic matter in an estuarine environment that originates a peloid currently used for medicinal purposes. The objective of this study was to examine rare earth elements pattern distribution in the Peruibe black mud sedimentary deposit as a proxy for its geochemical development. Elemental ratios such as LaN/YbN, Th/U and La/Th were determined and a normalization of the mean rare earth elements concentrations in the samples related to NASC indicates that the light (La to Eu) rare earth elements present values close to the unity while the heavy (Tb to Lu) rare earth elements are depleted related to NASC. It can be observed that the light rare earth elements present enrichment values slightly enriched over the unity while the heavy rare earth elements present values generally below the unity reflecting the enrichment of the light rare earth elements over the heavy rare earth. Rare earth elements concentrations determined in Peruibe black mud samples showed a distribution similar to that found in the NASC for the light rare earth elements and depleted for the heavy rare earth elements. (author)

  8. Rare earth elements behavior in Peruibe black mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Carvalho, Leandro P.; Gouvea, Paulo F.M.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements in sediments have been used as powerful tools for environmental studies because of their behavior during geochemical processes and are also widely accepted as reliable provenance tracers because they are largely water-immobile and thus behave conservatively during sedimentary processes. The Peruibe Black Mud (PBM) is a sedimentary deposit originated from the interactions of marine sediments and organic matter in an estuarine environment that originates a peloid currently used for medicinal purposes. The objective of this study was to examine rare earth elements pattern distribution in the Peruibe black mud sedimentary deposit as a proxy for its geochemical development. Elemental ratios such as LaN/YbN, Th/U and La/Th were determined and a normalization of the mean rare earth elements concentrations in the samples related to NASC indicates that the light (La to Eu) rare earth elements present values close to the unity while the heavy (Tb to Lu) rare earth elements are depleted related to NASC. It can be observed that the light rare earth elements present enrichment values slightly enriched over the unity while the heavy rare earth elements present values generally below the unity reflecting the enrichment of the light rare earth elements over the heavy rare earth. Rare earth elements concentrations determined in Peruibe black mud samples showed a distribution similar to that found in the NASC for the light rare earth elements and depleted for the heavy rare earth elements. (author)

  9. Investigating Created Properties of Nanoparticles Based Drilling Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Nahid; Mirzaee, Mojtaba; Aghayari, Reza; Maddah, Heydar

    2018-05-01

    The success of drilling operations is heavily dependent on the drilling fluid. Drilling fluids cool down and lubricate the drill bit, remove cuttings, prevent formation damage, suspend cuttings and also cake off the permeable formation, thus retarding the passage of fluid into the formation. Typical micro or macro sized loss circulation materials (LCM) show limited success, especially in formations dominated by micropores, due to their relatively large sizes. Due to unique characteristics of nanoparticles such as their size and high surface area to volume ratio, they play an effective role in solving problems associated with the drilling fluid. In this study, we investigate the effect of adding Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles into the drilling mud. Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles were used in 20 and 60 nm of size and 0.05 wt% in concentration. Investigating the effects of temperature and pressure has shown that an increase in temperature can reduce the drilling mud rheological properties such as plastic viscosity, while an increase in pressure can enhance these properties. Also, the effects of pressure in high temperatures were less than those in low temperatures. Studying the effects of adding nanoparticles has shown that they can reduce the drilling mud rheological properties. Moreover, they can increase gel strength, reduce capillary suction time and decrease formation damage.

  10. Immobilization of copper flotation waste using red mud and clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruh, Semra

    2008-10-01

    The flash smelting process has been used in the copper industry for a number of years and has replaced most of the reverberatory applications, known as conventional copper smelting processes. Copper smelters produce large amounts of copper slag or copper flotation waste and the dumping of these quantities of copper slag causes economic, environmental and space problems. The aim of this study was to perform a laboratory investigation to assess the feasibility of immobilizing the heavy metals contained in copper flotation waste. For this purpose, samples of copper flotation waste were immobilized with relatively small proportions of red mud and large proportions of clinoptilolite. The results of laboratory leaching demonstrate that addition of red mud and clinoptilolite to the copper flotation waste drastically reduced the heavy metal content in the effluent and the red mud performed better than clinoptilolite. This study also compared the leaching behaviour of metals in copper flotation waste by short-time extraction tests such as the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), deionized water (DI) and field leach test (FLT). The results of leach tests showed that the results of the FLT and DI methods were close and generally lower than those of the TCLP methods.

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant Evenson

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, consists of 12 inactive sites located in the north and northeast section of the NTS. The 12 CAU 234 sites consist of mud pits, mud spills, mud sumps, and an open post-test cellar. The CAU 234 sites were all used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa areas during the 1950s through the 1970s. The CASs in CAU 234 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting appropriate corrective action alternatives

  12. Photovoltaic pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockgether, J.; Kiessling, K. P.

    1983-09-01

    Solar pump systems for the irrigation of fields and for water supply in regions with much sunshine are discussed. For surface water and sources with a hoisting depth of 12 m, a system with immersion pumps is used. For deep sources with larger hoisting depths, an underwater motor pump was developed. Both types of pump system meet the requirements of simple installation and manipulation, safe operation, maintenance free, and high efficiency reducing the number of solar cells needed.

  13. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  14. Vertical pump assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohnal, M.; Rosel, J.; Skarka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mounting is described of the drive assembly of a vertical pump for nuclear power plants in areas with seismic risk. The assembly is attached to the building floor using flexible and damping elements. The design allows producing seismically resistant pumps without major design changes in the existing types of vertical pumps. (E.S.). 1 fig

  15. Environmental isotopes to test hypotheses for fluid mud (mud bank) generation mechanisms along the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, N.; Ansari, M.A.; Revichandran, C.

    the sea (Mallik et al., 1988). Fluidmud has high socio-economic importance as it is considered responsible for the enormous fish catch during monsoon. Fluid mud is associated with high biological productivity as it is rich in organic matter, phytoplankton... tritium (3H), sourced from the fallout of thermo nuclear weapons testing, carried out in the atmosphere during 1950e1963, could be effectively used to identify the recent recharge (estimate residence time) from precipitation or surface water bodies...

  16. Irradiation of residual muds and its use in the oat cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.J.; Colin, C.A.; Gomeztagle, M.M.; Frias, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    The irradiation of residual muds samples from a wastewater treatment plant at gamma radiation dose of 15 kGy removes from muds on average: fats and oils (33%), detergent (92%), phenols (50%) and over 99% of microorganisms of total account. The evaluation of irradiated residual mud and without irradiation as soil conditioner in oat growing (avena safira), was realized by triplicate, using different rates (80, 60, 40 and 20%) of frank sandy soil and irradiated and non-irradiated residual mud. The growing with rates 60/40 % of soil and irradiated mud respectively, resulted being more adequate as soil conditioner. It is important to clarify that for putting residual mud it is necessary that metals concentration not exceed the maximum permissible levels for the soil type and the corresponding growing. (Author)

  17. Geochemical recovery of the Torna-Marcal river system after the Ajka red mud spill, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Á D; Klebercz, O; Magyar, Á; Burke, I T; Jarvis, A P; Gruiz, K; Mayes, W M

    2014-12-01

    The failure of the Ajka red mud depository in October 2010 led to the largest single release of red mud into the surface water environment. This study provides a comparative assessment of stream sediment quality in the Torna-Marcal-Rába catchment between post-disaster surveys (2010) and follow up surveys at an identical suite of 21 locations in 2013. The signature of red mud apparent in initial surveys with high Al, As, Cr, Na, V was only apparent at a small number of sample stations in recent surveys. These constitute 20 km reach of affected sediments in the immediate aftermath of the spill. Concentrations of red mud-derived contaminants are predominately associated with fine fractions of the red mud (mud-derived contaminants and, along with extensive remedial efforts, has substantially limited the within-channel inventory of potentially ecotoxic metals and metalloids.

  18. Ecological effects of low toxicity oil-based mud drilling in the Beatrice oilfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, J M; Hartley, J P; Tibbetts, P J.C.

    1984-12-01

    To investigate the effects of drilling discharges on the seabed fauna, surveys were carried out in the Beatrice oilfield after drilling 13 wells with water-based muds, and then after one and five further wells had been drilled using low toxicity oil-based muds. Localized benthic effects were found after the water-based mud drilling. After the use of oil-based muds, the nature of the effects was different, although there was little increase in the area involved. Possible reasons for this are discussed and burial and organic enrichment are suggested as the major influences. It is concluded that the use of low toxicity oil-based mud at Beatrice has resulted in only limited benthic effects, suggesting that the use of these muds is environmentally acceptable.

  19. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. These can generally be classified as: Mechanical; Hydraulic; Tribological; Chemical; and Other (including those associated with the pump driver). Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump

  20. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid metal pump comprising a shaft support structure which is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft carries an impeller and the support structure carries an impeller cage which is slidably disposed in a diffuser so as to allow complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair. The diffuser is concentrically supported in the pump housing which also takes up all reaction forces generated by the discharge of the liquid metal from the diffuser, with floating seals arranged between impeller cage and the diffuser. The space between the diffuser and the pump housing permits the incoming liquid to essentially surround the diffuser. (author)

  1. Jet pump assisted artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  2. Biodiesel Production from Castor Oil by Using Calcium Oxide Derived from Mud Clam Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, S.; Ahmed, A. S.; Anr, Reddy; Hamdan, S.

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic potential of calcium oxide synthesized from mud clam shell as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production was studied. The mud clam shell calcium oxide was characterized using particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and BET gas sorption analyzer. The catalyst performance of mud clam shell calcium oxide was studied in the transesterification of castor oil as biodiesel. Catalyst characterization and transesterification s...

  3. A Mineralogical Assessment on Residues after Acidic Leaching of Bauxite Residue (Red Mud) for Titanium Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gözde Alkan; Claudia Schier; Lars Gronen; Srecko Stopic; Bernd Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    Due to its alkalinity, red mud produced by the Bayer process may affect both the environment and human health. For this reason, its further utilization instead of disposal is of great importance. Numerous methods have already been studied for hydrometallurgical treatment of red mud, especially for the recovery of various metallic components such as iron, aluminum, titanium or rare earth elements. This study focuses on the extraction of titanium from red mud and in particular the mineralogical...

  4. Development of alkali activated cements and concrete mixture design with high volumes of red mud

    OpenAIRE

    Krivenko, Pavel; Kovalchuk, Oleksandr; Pasko, Anton; Croymans, Tom; Hutt, Mikael; Lutter, Guillaume; Vandevenne, Niels; Schreurs, Sonja; Schroeyers, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Dedicated cement compositions were formulated to enable the incorporation of large volume fractions of red mud in alkali activated cements, taking into account the role of the aluminosilicate phase in the processes of hydration and hardening. High volume red mud alkali activated cements were synthesized using a proper combination of red mud, low basic aluminosilicate compounds with a glass phase (blast-furnace slag) and additives selected from high-basic Ca-containing cements with a crystalli...

  5. Linking geochemical processes in mud volcanoes with arsenic mobilization driven by organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chuan; Kar, Sandeep; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Wang, Chung-Ho; Lee, Yao-Chang; Sracek, Ondra; Li, Zhaohui; Bundschuh, Jochen; Yang, Huai-Jen; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2013-11-15

    The present study deals with geochemical characterization of mud fluids and sediments collected from Kunshuiping (KSP), Liyushan (LYS), Wushanting (WST), Sinyangnyuhu (SYNH), Hsiaokunshui (HKS) and Yenshuikeng (YSK) mud volcanoes in southwestern Taiwan. Chemical constituents (cations, anions, trace elements, organic carbon, humic acid, and stable isotopes) in both fluids and mud were analyzed to investigate the geochemical processes and spatial variability among the mud volcanoes under consideration. Analytical results suggested that the anoxic mud volcanic fluids are highly saline, implying connate water as the probable source. The isotopic signature indicated that δ(18)O-rich fluids may be associated with silicate and carbonate mineral released through water-rock interaction, along with dehydration of clay minerals. Considerable amounts of arsenic in mud irrespective of fluid composition suggested possible release through biogeochemical processes in the subsurface environment. Sequential extraction of As from the mud indicated that As was mostly present in organic and sulphidic phases, and adsorbed on amorphous Mn oxyhydroxides. Volcanic mud and fluids are rich in organic matter (in terms of organic carbon), and the presence of humic acid in mud has implications for the binding of arsenic. Functional groups of humic acid also showed variable sources of organic matter among the mud volcanoes being examined. Because arsenate concentration in the mud fluids was found to be independent from geochemical factors, it was considered that organic matter may induce arsenic mobilization through an adsorption/desorption mechanism with humic substances under reducing conditions. Organic matter therefore plays a significant role in the mobility of arsenic in mud volcanoes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Propagation of Measurement-While-Drilling Mud Pulse during High Temperature Deep Well Drilling Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hongtao; Meng, Yingfeng; Li, Gao; Wei, Na; Liu, Jiajie; Ma, Xiao; Duan, Mubai; Gu, Siman; Zhu, Kuanliang; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Signal attenuates while Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) mud pulse is transmited in drill string during high temperature deep well drilling. In this work, an analytical model for the propagation of mud pulse was presented. The model consists of continuity, momentum, and state equations with analytical solutions based on the linear perturbation analysis. The model can predict the wave speed and attenuation coefficient of mud pulse. The calculated results were compared with the experimental dat...

  7. New technology of extracting the amount of rare earth metals from the red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoyan, G A; Karamyan, G G; Vardan, G A

    2016-01-01

    The paper outlined the environmental and economic problems associated with red mud - the waste generated in processing of bauxite ore for aluminum production. The chemical analysis of red mud has identified a number of useful elements including rare earth metals. The electromembrane technology of red mud processing with extraction of valuable elements is described. A possible scheme of separation of these metals through electrolysis is also given. (paper)

  8. Pumps for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The guide describes how the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls pumps and their motors at nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities. The scope of the control is determined by the Safety Class of the pump in question. The various phases of the control are: (1) review of construction plan, (2) control of manufacturing, and construction inspection, (3) commissioning inspection, and (4) control during operation. STUK controls Safety Class 1, 2 and 3 pumps at nuclear facilities as described in this guide. STUK inspects Class EYT (non-nuclear) pumps separately or in connection with the commissioning inspections of the systems. This guide gives the control procedure and related requirements primarily for centrifugal pumps. However, it is also applied to the control of piston pumps and other pump types not mentioned in this guide

  9. Internal pump monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Toshikazu.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a thermometer is disposed at the upper end of an internal pump casing of a coolant recycling system in a BWR type reactor to detect leakage of reactor water thereby ensuring the improvement of reliability of the internal pump. Namely, a thermometer is disposed, which can detect temperature elevation occurred when water in the internal pump leaked from a reactor pressure vessel passes through the gap between a stretch tube and an upper end of the pump casing. Signals from the thermometer are transmitted to a signal processing device by an instrumentation cable. The signal processing device generates an alarm when the temperature signal exceeds a predetermined value and announces that leakage of reactor water occurs in the internal pump. Since the present invention can detect the leakage of the reactor water in the pump casing in an early stage, it can contribute to the improvement of the safety and reliability of the internal pump. (I.S.)

  10. Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brain Hoenes

    2004-08-01

    This report presents the findings of the human and ecological risk assessment for the NTS mud pits. The risk assessment utilizes data from 52 of the 270 NTS mud pits in conjunction with corroborative data from 87 other DOE mud pits associated with nuclear testing (at locations on the NTS, in the western United States, and Alaska) as well as relevant process knowledge. Based on the risk assessment findings, the report provides a strategy for further evaluation, characterization, and closure of all 270 NTS mud pit CASs using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  11. Plugging wellbore fractures : limit equilibrium of a Bingham drilling mud cake in a tensile crack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garagash, D.I. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Resource Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The proper selection of drilling muds is important in order to successfully drill hydrocarbon wells in which wellbore mud pressure remains low enough to prevent circulation loss and high enough to support the uncased wellbore against the shear failure. This paper presented a mathematical model to study invasion of mud cake into a drilling-induced planar fracture at the edge of a wellbore perpendicular to the minimum in situ principal stress. The model assumed a planar edge-crack geometry loaded by the wellbore hoop stress, variable mud pressure along the invaded region adjacent to the wellbore, and uniform pore-fluid pressure along the rest of the crack. The invading mud was assumed to freely displaces the pore-fluid in the crack without mixing with it. The case corresponding to a sufficiently permeable formation was considered. This solution provides a means to evaluate whether or not the mud cake could effectively plug the fracture, thereby prevent fracture propagation and associated uncontrollable loss of wellbore drilling mud. The toughness or tensile strength is evaluated based on criterion for initiation of crack propagation, which may lead to uncontrollable loss of mud circulation in a well. The study provided information on the breakdown pressure as a function of the rock ambient stress, ambient pore pressure, pre-existing crack length, and mud cake properties. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Use of clay-free polymer saline drilling muds. Primeneniye bezglinistykh polimerosolevykh burovykh rastvorov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krysin, N I; Ishmukhametova, A M; Krysina, T I; Mavlyutov, M R

    1982-01-01

    A brief analysis is made of the geological and technical and technological conditions for drilling and stripping productive beds in the Perm Prikamye. Domestic and foreign experience in the area of studies covering the effect of properties of the drilling muds on the indicators of operation of bits and preservation of stability of the well shaft walls, as well as for development of formulas for clay-free drilling muds is generalized. Results are presented of studies on viscosity and filtering properties of drilling muds, development of clay-free drilling muds based on potassium containing wastes and bed waters.

  13. Pump element for a tube pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a tube pump comprising a tube and a pump element inserted in the tube, where the pump element comprises a rod element and a first and a second non-return valve member positioned a distance apart on the rod element. The valve members are oriented in the same direction...... relative to the rod element so as to allow for a fluid flow in the tube through the first valve member, along the rod element, and through the second valve member. The tube comprises an at least partly flexible tube portion between the valve members such that a repeated deformation of the flexible tube...... portion acts to alternately close and open the valve members thereby generating a fluid flow through the tube. The invention further relates to a pump element comprising at least two non-return valve members connected by a rod element, and for insertion in an at least partly flexible tube in such tube...

  14. Pumping behavior of sputtering ion pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, T.S.; Bittner, J.; Schuchman, J.

    1991-12-31

    To optimize the design of a distributed ion pump (DIP) for the Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS) the stability of the rotating electron cloud at very high magnetic field beyond transition, must be re-examined. In this work the pumping speed and frequency spectrum of a DIP at various voltages (1 to 10 KV) and various magnetic fields (0.1 to 4 Tesla) are measured. Three cell diameters 10 mm, 5 mm and 2.5 mm, each 8 mm long, and with 3 or 4 mm gaps between anode and cathode are investigated. In this study both the titanium cathodes and the stainless steel anode plates are perforated with holes comparable in size to the anode cell diameters. Only the partially saturated pumping behavior is under investigation. The ultimate pressure and conditioning of the pump will be investigated at a later date when the stability criterion for the electron cloud is better understood.

  15. Pumping behavior of sputtering ion pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, T.S.; Bittner, J.; Schuchman, J.

    1991-01-01

    To optimize the design of a distributed ion pump (DIP) for the Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS) the stability of the rotating electron cloud at very high magnetic field beyond transition, must be re-examined. In this work the pumping speed and frequency spectrum of a DIP at various voltages (1 to 10 KV) and various magnetic fields (0.1 to 4 Tesla) are measured. Three cell diameters 10 mm, 5 mm and 2.5 mm, each 8 mm long, and with 3 or 4 mm gaps between anode and cathode are investigated. In this study both the titanium cathodes and the stainless steel anode plates are perforated with holes comparable in size to the anode cell diameters. Only the partially saturated pumping behavior is under investigation. The ultimate pressure and conditioning of the pump will be investigated at a later date when the stability criterion for the electron cloud is better understood.

  16. Identification Method of Mud Shale Fractures Base on Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Weixu; Lai, Fuqiang; Luo, Han

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, inspired by seismic analysis technology, a new method for analysing mud shale fractures oil and gas reservoirs by logging properties has emerged. By extracting the high frequency attribute of the wavelet transform in the logging attribute, the formation information hidden in the logging signal is extracted, identified the fractures that are not recognized by conventional logging and in the identified fracture segment to show the “cycle jump”, “high value”, “spike” and other response effect is more obvious. Finally formed a complete wavelet denoising method and wavelet high frequency identification fracture method.

  17. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation to Mud Turbine for LWD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaojiang; Dong, Jingxin; Shang, Jie; Zhang, Guanqi

    Hydraulic performance analysis was discussed for a type of turbine on generator used for LWD. The simulation models were built by CFD analysis software FINE/Turbo, and full three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out for impeller group. The hydraulic parameter such as power, speed and pressure drop, were calculated in two kinds of medium water and mud. Experiment was built in water environment. The error of numerical simulation was less than 6%, verified by experiment. Based on this rationalization proposals would be given to choice appropriate impellers, and the rationalization of methods would be explored.

  18. Linking geochemical processes in mud volcanoes with arsenic mobilization driven by organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chia-Chuan; Kar, Sandeep [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jean, Jiin-Shuh, E-mail: jiinshuh@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chung-Ho [Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yao-Chang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Sracek, Ondra [OPV s.r.o. (Groundwater Protection Ltd.), Bělohorská 31, 169 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Li, Zhaohui [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin – Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Bundschuh, Jochen [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Engineering and Surveying and National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture, The University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba (Australia); Yang, Huai-Jen [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Yen [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► Study represents geochemical characteristics and their spatial variability among six mud volcanoes of southern Taiwan. ► Anoxic mud volcanic fluids containing high NaCl imply connate water as the possible source. ► δ{sup 18}O-rich fluids is associated with silicate and carbonate mineral released through water–rock interaction. ► High As content in mud and its sequential extraction showed mostly adsorbed As on organic and sulphidic phases. ► Organic matter specially humic acid showed redox dependence and it may play an important role in binding and mobility of arsenic. -- Abstract: The present study deals with geochemical characterization of mud fluids and sediments collected from Kunshuiping (KSP), Liyushan (LYS), Wushanting (WST), Sinyangnyuhu (SYNH), Hsiaokunshui (HKS) and Yenshuikeng (YSK) mud volcanoes in southwestern Taiwan. Chemical constituents (cations, anions, trace elements, organic carbon, humic acid, and stable isotopes) in both fluids and mud were analyzed to investigate the geochemical processes and spatial variability among the mud volcanoes under consideration. Analytical results suggested that the anoxic mud volcanic fluids are highly saline, implying connate water as the probable source. The isotopic signature indicated that δ{sup 18}O-rich fluids may be associated with silicate and carbonate mineral released through water–rock interaction, along with dehydration of clay minerals. Considerable amounts of arsenic in mud irrespective of fluid composition suggested possible release through biogeochemical processes in the subsurface environment. Sequential extraction of As from the mud indicated that As was mostly present in organic and sulphidic phases, and adsorbed on amorphous Mn oxyhydroxides. Volcanic mud and fluids are rich in organic matter (in terms of organic carbon), and the presence of humic acid in mud has implications for the binding of arsenic. Functional groups of humic acid also showed variable sources of

  19. Warts phosphorylates mud to promote pins-mediated mitotic spindle orientation in Drosophila, independent of Yorkie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Evan B; Sanchez, Desiree; Johnston, Christopher A

    2015-11-02

    Multicellular animals have evolved conserved signaling pathways that translate cell polarity cues into mitotic spindle positioning to control the orientation of cell division within complex tissue structures. These oriented cell divisions are essential for the development of cell diversity and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Despite intense efforts, the molecular mechanisms that control spindle orientation remain incompletely defined. Here, we describe a role for the Hippo (Hpo) kinase complex in promoting Partner of Inscuteable (Pins)-mediated spindle orientation. Knockdown of Hpo, Salvador (Sav), or Warts (Wts) each result in a partial loss of spindle orientation, a phenotype previously described following loss of the Pins-binding protein Mushroom body defect (Mud). Similar to orthologs spanning yeast to mammals, Wts kinase localizes to mitotic spindle poles, a prominent site of Mud localization. Wts directly phosphorylates Mud in vitro within its C-terminal coiled-coil domain. This Mud coiled-coil domain directly binds the adjacent Pins-binding domain to dampen the Pins/Mud interaction, and Wts-mediated phosphorylation uncouples this intramolecular Mud interaction. Loss of Wts prevents cortical Pins/Mud association without affecting Mud accumulation at spindle poles, suggesting phosphorylation acts as a molecular switch to specifically activate cortical Mud function. Finally, loss of Wts in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelial cells results in diminished cortical Mud and defective planar spindle orientation. Our results provide new insights into the molecular basis for dynamic regulation of the cortical Pins/Mud spindle positioning complex and highlight a novel link with an essential, evolutionarily conserved cell proliferation pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biogeochemical interactions among the arsenic, iron, humic substances, and microbes in mud volcanoes in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chuan; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Sracek, Ondra; Kar, Sandeep; Li, Zhaohui; Bundschuh, Jochen; Chen, Chien-Yen; Lu, Hsueh-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Fluid and mud samples collected from Hsiaokunshui (HKS), Wushanting (WST), Yenshuikeng (YSK), Kunshuiping (KSP), Liyushan (LYS), and Sinyangnyuhu (SYNH) mud volcanoes of southwestern Taiwan were characterized for major ions, humic substances (HS) and trace elements concentrations. The relationship between the release of arsenic (As) and activities of sulfate-reducing bacteria has been assessed to understand relevant geochemical processes in the mud volcanoes. Arsenic (0.02-0.06 mg/L) and humic substances (4.13 × 10(-4) to 1.64 × 10(-3) mM) in the fluids of mud volcanoes showed a positive correlation (r = 0.99, p volcano. Arsenic and iron in mud sediments formed two separate groups i) high As, but low Fe in HKS, WST, and SYNH; and ii) low As, but high Fe in the YSK, KSP, and LYS mud volcanoes. The Eh(S.H.E.) values of the mud volcano liquids were characterized by mild to strongly reducing conditions. The HKS, SYNH, and WST mud volcanoes (near the Chishan Fault) belongs to strong reducing environment (-33 to -116 mV), whereas the LYS, YSK, and KSP mud volcanoes located near the coastal plain are under mild reducing environment (-11 to 172 mV). At low Eh values mud volcanoes, saturation index (SI) values of poorly crystalline phases such as amorphous ferric hydroxide indicate understaturation, whereas saturation is reached in relatively high Eh(S.H.E.) values mud volcanoes. Arsenic contents in sediments are low, presumably due to its release to fluids (As/Fe ratio in YSK, KSP, and LYS sediment: 4.86 × 10(-4)-6.20 × 10(-4)). At low Eh(S.H.E.) values (mild to strong reducing environment), arsenic may co-precipitate with sulfides as a consequence of sulfate reduction (As/Fe ratios in WST, HKS, and SYNH sediments: 0.42-0.69).

  1. Electrical resistivity and rheological properties of sensing bentonite drilling muds modified with lightweight polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the electrical resistivity and rheological properties of a water-based bentonite clay drilling mud modified with the lightweight polymer (guar gum under various temperature were investigated. Based on the experimental and analytical study, the electrical resistivity was identified as the sensing property of the bentonite drilling mud so that the changes in the properties can be monitored in real-time during the construction. The bentonite contents in the drilling muds were varied up to 8% by the weight of water and temperature was varied from 25 °C to 85 °C. The guar gum content (GG% was varied between 0% and 1% by the weight of the drilling mud to modify the rheological properties and enhance the sensing electrical resistivity of the drilling mud. The guar gum and bentonite clay were characterized using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The total weight loss at 800 °C for the bentonite decreased from 12.96% to 0.7%, about 95% reduction, when the bentonite was mixed with 1% of guar gum. The results also showed that 1% guar gum decreased the electrical resistivity of the drilling mud from 50% to 90% based on the bentonite content and the temperature of the drilling mud. The guar gum modification increased the yield point (YP and plastic viscosity (PV by 58% to 230% and 44% to 77% respectively based on the bentonite content and temperature of the drilling mud. The rheological properties of the drilling muds have been correlated to the electrical resistivity of the drilling mud using nonlinear power and hyperbolic relationships. The model predictions agreed well with the experimental results. Hence the performance of the bentonite drilling muds with and without guar gum can be characterized based on the electrical resistivity which can be monitored real-time in the field. Keywords: Bentonite, Polymer (Guar gum, Electrical resistivity, Rheological properties, Temperature, Modeling

  2. Electrokinetic pumps and actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillip M. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Flow and ionic transport in porous media are central to electrokinetic pumping as well as to a host of other microfluidic devices. Electrokinetic pumping provides the ability to create high pressures (to over 10,000 psi) and high flow rates (over 1 mL/min) with a device having no moving parts and all liquid seals. The electrokinetic pump (EKP) is ideally suited for applications ranging from a high pressure integrated pump for chip-scale HPLC to a high flow rate integrated pump for forced liquid convection cooling of high-power electronics. Relations for flow rate and current fluxes in porous media are derived that provide a basis for analysis of complex microfluidic systems as well as for optimization of electrokinetic pumps

  3. Electrokinetic pumps and actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip M. Paul

    2000-03-01

    Flow and ionic transport in porous media are central to electrokinetic pumping as well as to a host of other microfluidic devices. Electrokinetic pumping provides the ability to create high pressures (to over 10,000 psi) and high flow rates (over 1 mL/min) with a device having no moving parts and all liquid seals. The electrokinetic pump (EKP) is ideally suited for applications ranging from a high pressure integrated pump for chip-scale HPLC to a high flow rate integrated pump for forced liquid convection cooling of high-power electronics. Relations for flow rate and current fluxes in porous media are derived that provide a basis for analysis of complex microfluidic systems as well as for optimization of electrokinetic pumps.

  4. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented

  5. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  6. Thermomechanical piston pump development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelman, E. E.

    1971-01-01

    A thermally powered reciprocating pump has been devised to replace or augment an electric pump for the transport of temperature-control fluid on the Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS). The thermally powered pump operates cyclically by extracting heat energy from the fluid by means of a vapor-pressure expansion system and by using the heat to perform the mechanical work of pumping. A feasibility test unit has been constructed to provide an output of 7 cu in during a 10- to 100-second cycle. It operates with a fluid input temperature of 200 to 300 F and a heat sink temperature of 0 to 30 F.

  7. Pumps for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, L.

    1978-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of nuclear industry for the transfer of corrosive, toxic, humidity sensitive or very pure gases, different types of pumps were developped and commercialized. Their main characteristics are to prevent pollution of the transfered fluid by avoiding any contact between this fluid and the lubricated parts of the machine, and to prevent a contamination of the atmosphere or of the fluid by a total tightness. Patellar pumps have been particularly developped because the metallic bellows are quite reliable and resistant in this configuration. Two types are described: patellar pumps without friction and barrel pumps whose pistons are provided with rings sliding in the cylinders without lubrication [fr

  8. Pump safety device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, Francis; Vandervorst, Jean.

    1981-01-01

    Safety device for longitudinally leak proofing the shaft of a pump in the event of the fracture of the dynamic seal separating the pump fluid high pressure chamber from the low pressure chamber. It is designed for fitting to the primary pumps of nuclear reactors. It includes a hollow cyclindrical piston located coaxially around the pump shaft and normally housed in a chamber provided for this purpose in the fixed housing of the dynamic seal, and means for moving this piston coaxially so as to compress a safety O ring between the shaft and the piston in the event of the dynamic seal failing [fr

  9. Optically pumped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad

    2010-01-01

    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  10. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1995-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous special vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Pump head and flow rate are also monitored, per code requirements. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition; advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  11. Champagne Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  12. Laboratory exposures of invertebrate and vertebrate species to concentrations of IA-35 (Petro-Canada) drill mud fluid, production water, and Hibernia mud cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, J.; Fancey, L.; Andrews, C.; Meade, J.; Power, F.; Veinot, G. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Science Branch; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Cook, A. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Environmental Quality Laboratory

    2001-04-01

    The authors studied the short term effects on brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia franciscana), capelin larvae (Mallotus villosus), marine copepods (Calanus finmarchicus), juvenile yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea) and ctenophores (Pleurobrachius pileus) of synthetic drill mud fluid, produced water and drill mud cuttings. In this report, they presented the data collected, including data on the water solubility of Petro-Canada drill mud fluid IA-35 and metal analysis of production water from the Sable Island Offshore Exploration Project. Low acute toxicity potential for drill mud fluid, production water and Hibernia drill cuttings for the species and life stages tested were revealed. The hypothesis to the effect that wastes pose very little or no risk of an acute toxic nature to the marine environment were reinforced by the results from this study. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  13. Effect of potassium-salt muds on gamma ray, and spontaneous potential measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.W.; Raymer, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    Interpretations of the gamma ray and Spontaneous Potential curves generally assume the presence of sodium chloride as the dominant salt in both the formation water and the mud filtrate. However, potassium-salt muds are increasingly being used by the oil industry. The potassium cation is significantly different from the sodium cation in its radioactive and electrochemical properties. Natural potassium contains a radioactive isotope which emits gamma rays. Thus, the presence of potassium salts in the mud system may contribute to Gamma-Ray tool response. Since the Gamma Ray is used quantitatively in many geological sequences as an indicator of clay content, a way to correct for the effect of potassium in the mud column is desirable. Correction methods and charts based on laboratory measurements and field observations are presented. The effect of temperature on the resistivity of potassium muds is also briefly discussed. From data available, it appears to be similar to that for NaCl muds. On the bases of field observations and laboratory work, the electrochemical properties of potassium-chloride and potassium-carbonate muds and mud filtrates are discussed. Activity relationships are proposed, and the influence of these salts on the SP component potentials--namely, the liquid-junction, membrane, and bi-ionic potentials--is described. Several field examples are presented

  14. The effect of drilling muds on the environment in conditions of the extreme North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmin, Yu I; Bratishko, Yu A; Voytenko, V S

    1983-01-01

    The results are cited of experimental studies of the effect of drilling muds on individual links in tundra biogeocenoses (soil, vegetation and bodies of water) The most toxic components (chromates, fusel oil and so on) are identified. The negative effect of the drilling mud on the life of lichens and on the change in the ecological situation in the bodies of water is shown.

  15. Safety evaluation of traces of nickel and chrome in cosmetics: The case of Dead Sea mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'or, Ze'evi; Halicz, Ludwik; Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Russo, Matteo Zanotti; Robino, Federica; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2015-12-01

    Metal impurities such as nickel and chrome are present in natural ingredients-containing cosmetic products. These traces are unavoidable due to the ubiquitous nature of these elements. Dead Sea mud is a popular natural ingredient of cosmetic products in which nickel and chrome residues are likely to occur. To analyze the potential systemic and local toxicity of Dead Sea mud taking into consideration Dead Sea muds' natural content of nickel and chrome. The following endpoints were evaluated: (Regulation No. 1223/20, 21/12/2009) systemic and (SCCS's Notes of Guidance) local toxicity of topical application of Dead Sea mud; health reports during the last five years of commercial marketing of Dead Sea mud. Following exposure to Dead Sea mud, MoS (margin of safety) calculations for nickel and chrome indicate no toxicological concern for systemic toxicity. Skin sensitization is also not to be expected by exposure of normal healthy skin to Dead Sea mud. Topical application, however, is not recommended for already nickel-or chrome-sensitized persons. As risk assessment of impurities present in cosmetics may be a difficult exercise, the case of Dead Sea mud is taken here as an example of a natural material that may contain traces of unavoidable metals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Copper Scavenging Capacity between Two Different Red Mud Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingqun; Si, Chunhua; Lin, Chuxia

    2012-01-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to compare the Cu scavenging capacity between two different red mud types: the first one was a highly basic red mud derived from a combined sintering and Bayer process, and the second one was a seawater-neutralized red mud derived from the Bayer process. The first red mud contained substantial amounts of CaCO3, which, in combination with the high OH− activity, favored the immobilization of water-borne Cu through massive formation of atacamite. In comparison, the seawater-neutralized red mud had a lower pH and was dominated by boehmite, which was likely to play a significant role in Cu adsorption. Overall, it appears that Cu was more tightly retained by the CaCO3-dominated red mud than the boehmite-dominated red mud. It is concluded that the heterogeneity of red mud has marked influences on its capacity to immobilize water-borne Cu and maintain the long-term stability of the immobilized Cu species. The research findings obtained from this study have implications for the development of Cu immobilization technology by using appropriate waste materials generated from the aluminium industry.

  17. Comparison of Copper Scavenging Capacity between Two Different Red Mud Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingqun Ma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A batch experiment was conducted to compare the Cu scavenging capacity between two different red mud types: the first one was a highly basic red mud derived from a combined sintering and Bayer process, and the second one was a seawater-neutralized red mud derived from the Bayer process. The first red mud contained substantial amounts of CaCO3, which, in combination with the high OH− activity, favored the immobilization of water-borne Cu through massive formation of atacamite. In comparison, the seawater-neutralized red mud had a lower pH and was dominated by boehmite, which was likely to play a significant role in Cu adsorption. Overall, it appears that Cu was more tightly retained by the CaCO3-dominated red mud than the boehmite-dominated red mud. It is concluded that the heterogeneity of red mud has marked influences on its capacity to immobilize water-borne Cu and maintain the long-term stability of the immobilized Cu species. The research findings obtained from this study have implications for the development of Cu immobilization technology by using appropriate waste materials generated from the aluminium industry.

  18. A Comparative SEM-EDS Elemental Composition of Mud in Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to understand the comparative abundance and source of elemental constituents in mud of four coastal shrimp farming areas, Vunh Tau (VT), Nha Trang (NT), Da Nang (DN) and Hue (HU) in Viet Nam using SEM-EDS analysis. Mud samples were collected from shrimp farming coastal zones ...

  19. Evidence of methane venting and geochemistry of brines on mud volcanoes of the eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlou, J.-L.; Donval, J.-P.; Zitter, T.; Roy, N.; Jean Baptiste, P.; Foucher, J.P.; Woodside, J.M.; Medinaut, Party

    2003-01-01

    As a part of the Dutch-French MEDINAUT diving expedition in 1998, cold seeps and mud volcanoes were studied and sampled in two distinctive tectonic settings in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The first setting was the Olimpi Mud Volcano field (OMV area), including Napoli, Milano, Maidstone and Moscow

  20. Conditioning of red mud for subsequent titanium and scandium recovery. A conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, G.; Xakalashe, B.; Kaussen, F.; Friedrich, Bernd [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). IME Inst. of Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling; Yagmurlu, B. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). IME Inst. of Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling; MEAB Chemie Technik GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Leaching experiments were undertaken on red mud materials (red mud and red mud slag). The red mud slag was produced via the carbothermic reduction of red mud at high temperatures (T > 1500 C) via SAF treatment. Furthermore, iron was recovered in the smelting step to the metal phase. Ti and Sc were successfully recovered from the red mud materials by hydrometallurgical treatment. For both critical metals, it was found that sulfuric acid was the best mineral acid among others. Since direct red mud leaching had some shortcomings, a route designed to overcome them is proposed. For optimal Ti and Sc recovery from red mud a promising process flowsheet combining pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical treatment is proposed as follows: pyrometallurgical processing (fluxed smelting to produce calcium oxide based slag phases and controlled cooling for crystalline and glassy slags), leaching for maximized Ti- and Sc extraction and followed by a multistage precipitation (for metal recovery and solution purification). Initial trial results showed that the proposed process is promising.

  1. The effects of drilling muds on marine invertebrate larvae and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondi, P.T.; Barnett, A.M.; Krause, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments tested the effects of drilling muds from an active platform off southern California on larvae and adults of marine invertebrates. Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) were used to determine effects of drilling muds on fertilization, early development, survivorship, and settlement, and experiments on adult brown cup corals (Paracyathus stearnsii) tested effects on adult survivorship, viability, and tissue loss. Exposures to drilling muds did not have an effect on abalone fertilization or early development. However, several exposures to drilling muds resulted in weak, but significant, positive effects of drilling muds on settlement of competent larvae. In contrast, settlement of red abalone larvae on natural coralline algal crusts decreased with increasing concentrations of drilling muds. This suggests that drilling muds affect either the abalone's ability to detect natural settlement inducers, or they affect the inducer itself. Exposure of brown cup corals to concentrations of drilling muds adversely impacted their survivorship and viability. These effects were likely caused by increased tissue mortality of the coral polyps

  2. Mud-farming of fine oil sands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Y.; Tol van, F.; Paassen van, L.; Everts, B.; Mulder, A. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Geotechnology

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed an experimental mud-farming technique for fine oil sands tailings. The technique was based on a sub-areal drying technique for dredging sludge developed in the Netherlands for Rotterdam harbour sediments. Between 1960 and 1985, the sludge was deposited in confined disposal sites on land. The sludge was converted to usable clay between 1970 and 1980. The polluted portion of the sludge is stored in a man-made disposal site. The sludge was deposited in thin layers. Stagnant water was then removed. The mud was then dewatered and reused. The sludge was furrowed with amphirol and disc wheels in order to accelerate the ripening process. The dredged material was re-used in a clay factory. The technique was applied to oil sands tailings in order to understand the suction behaviour, sedimentation behaviour, and precipitation deficit of the tailings. State changes of the sludge were monitored. No clear sedimentation phase was identified prior to consolidation. A comparison of material properties showed that the total amount of water to be extracted was more than the Rotterdam sludge, but the suction behaviour was similar. The precipitation deficit from mid-April until September will require a customized deposition strategy. Details and photographs of the experimental studies were included. tabs., figs.

  3. A two dimensional model of undertow current over mud bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Hammadul Azam; Abdul Aziz Ibrahim; Noraieni Hj, Mokhtar

    1996-01-01

    Coastal wave-current dynamics often causes severe erosion and this activity is more prominent within the surf zone. Turbulence generated by breaking wave is a complex phenomena and the degree of complexity increases to a higher degree when it happens over mud bed. A better understanding on wave and current is necessary to enrich the engineering hand to facilitate any coastal development work. Since physical model has certain deficiencies, such as high cost and scaling problem, the need for developing numerical models in such cases is significant. A time averaged two dimensional model has been developed to simulate the undertow over mud bed. A turbulent energy model also included which considers only the vertical variation of mixing length. Production of turbulent kinetic energy in the surf zone has been calculated from an hydraulic jump analogy. The result obtained shows an insignificant vertical variation of current. Further research is needed involving laboratory and field works to get sufficient data for comparing the model results

  4. Induction of Fish Biomarkers by Synthetic-Based Drilling Muds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marthe Monique; Bakhtyar, Sajida

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster), to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs). Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs): an ester (E), an isomerized olefin (IO) and linear alpha olefin (LAO). Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), hepatic detoxification (EROD activity), biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70) were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs. PMID:23894492

  5. Review of The Architecture of Mud and Qudad DVDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Enrico Fodde

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This superb documentary by Caterina Borelli is a study of the craftsmanship involved in the construction of the mud brick architecture of the Hadramaut and Do'an valleys of the Yemen, and the cultural aspects of a traditional architecture which incorporates an understanding of buildings which dates back centuries. Expanding the existing knowledge of these earthen heritage properties, examining their behaviour in the local climate and the preservation of traditional craftsmanship as part of a sustainable conservation future are the other prominent concerns of this work. The traditional heritage of the Hadramaut and Do'an regions in the south east of the Yemen are entirely constructed from loam. Throughout the centuries, the population has developed very sophisticated building techniques, and created a unique architectural environment. Spectacular structures such as ten-story mud brick tower houses rise up from green valleys that are surrounded by arid mountains. As in other parts of the world, with the advent of modern materials such as cement, indigenous construction and conservation practices carried out by craftsmen are rendered intellectually invisible by a process similar to the drawing of a veil. The elimination of these practices equals the erosion of centuries of building and conservation culture. As this heritage is rapidly disappearing, as shown by these obsolete construction techniques, this documentary is an excellent archive for future generations.

  6. Evaluation of older bay mud sediment from Richmond Harbor, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-09-01

    The older, bay mud (OBM) unit predates modem man and could act as a barrier to the downward transport of contaminants from the younger bay mud (YBM) because of its hard-packed consistency. However, its chemical and biological nature have not been well characterized. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted three independent studies of OBM sediment in January 1993, January 1994, and October 1994. These studies evaluated potential chemical contamination and biological effects of OBM that could occur as a result of dredging and disposal activities. These evaluations were performed by conducting chemical analysis, solid-phase toxicity tests, suspended- particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests on the OBM sediment. If the sediment chemistry and toxicity results showed no or minimal contamination and toxicological responses, then either the OBM could be left exposed in Richmond Harbor after dredging the YBM without leaving a source of contamination, or if the project depths necessitate, the OBM would be acceptable for disposal at an appropriate disposal site.

  7. Study on vibration characteristics of the shaft system for a dredging pump based on FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, L M; Liu, X; He, L Y; Wang, Z W; Qin, L; Liu, C Y; He, Y

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of the shaft system for a dredging pump were studied with the Finite Element Method (FEM) by SAMCEF ROTOR. At first, the influence of the fluid-solid coupling interaction of mud water and impeller, water sealing and pump shaft on the lateral critical speeds were analyzed. The results indicated that the mud water must be taken into consideration, while the water sealing need not to. Then the effects of radial and thrust rolling bearings on the lateral critical speeds were discussed, which shows that the radial bearing close to the impeller has greatest impact on the 1st order critical speed. At last, the upper and lower limits of the critical speeds of lateral, axial and torsional vibration were calculated. The rated speed of the dredging pump was far less than the predicted critical speed, which can ensure the safe operation of the unit. Each vibration mode is also shown in this paper. This dynamic analysis method offers some reference value on the research of vibration and stability of the shaft system in dredging pump.

  8. Experimental study and mechanism analysis of modified limestone by red mud for improving desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongtao; Han, Kuihua; Niu, Shengli; Lu, Chunmei; Liu, Mengqi; Li, Hui [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Red mud is a type of solid waste generated during alumina production from bauxite, and how to dispose and utilize red mud in a large scale is yet a question with no satisfied answer. This paper attempts to use red mud as a kind of additive to modify the limestone. The enhancement of the sulfation reaction of limestone by red mud (two kinds of Bayer process red mud and one kind of sintering process red mud) are studied by a tube furnace reactor. The calcination and sulfation process and kinetics are investigated in a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that red mud can effectively improve the desulfurization performance of limestone in the whole temperature range (1,073-1,373K). Sulfur capacity of limestone (means quality of SO{sub 2} which can be retained by 100mg of limestone) can be increased by 25.73, 7.17 and 15.31% while the utilization of calcium can be increased from 39.68 to 64.13%, 60.61 and 61.16% after modified by three kinds of red mud under calcium/metallic element (metallic element described here means all metallic elements which can play a catalytic effect on the sulfation process, including the Na, K, Fe, Ti) ratio being 15, at the temperature of 1,173K. The structure of limestone modified by red mud is interlaced and tridimensional which is conducive to the sulfation reaction. The phase composition analysis measured by XRD of modified limestone sulfated at high temperature shows that there are correspondingly more sulphates for silicate and aluminate complexes of calcium existing in the products. Temperature, calcium/metallic element ratio and particle diameter are important factors as for the sulfation reaction. The optimum results can be obtained as calcium/metallic element ratio being 15. Calcination characteristic of limestone modified by red mud shows a migration to lower temperature direction. The enhancement of sulfation by doping red mud is more pronounced once the product layer has been formed and consequently the promoting

  9. Gypsum addition to soils contaminated by red mud: implications for aluminium, arsenic, molybdenum and vanadium solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Alizée P; Lockwood, Cindy L; Mayes, William M; Stewart, Douglas I; Mortimer, Robert J G; Gruiz, Katalin; Burke, Ian T

    2013-10-01

    Red mud is highly alkaline (pH 13), saline and can contain elevated concentrations of several potentially toxic elements (e.g. Al, As, Mo and V). Release of up to 1 million m(3) of bauxite residue (red mud) suspension from the Ajka repository, western Hungary, caused large-scale contamination of downstream rivers and floodplains. There is now concern about the potential leaching of toxic metal(loid)s from the red mud as some have enhanced solubility at high pH. This study investigated the impact of red mud addition to three different Hungarian soils with respect to trace element solubility and soil geochemistry. The effectiveness of gypsum amendment for the rehabilitation of red mud-contaminated soils was also examined. Red mud addition to soils caused a pH increase, proportional to red mud addition, of up to 4 pH units (e.g. pH 7 → 11). Increasing red mud addition also led to significant increases in salinity, dissolved organic carbon and aqueous trace element concentrations. However, the response was highly soil specific and one of the soils tested buffered pH to around pH 8.5 even with the highest red mud loading tested (33 % w/w); experiments using this soil also had much lower aqueous Al, As and V concentrations. Gypsum addition to soil/red mud mixtures, even at relatively low concentrations (1 % w/w), was sufficient to buffer experimental pH to 7.5-8.5. This effect was attributed to the reaction of Ca(2+) supplied by the gypsum with OH(-) and carbonate from the red mud to precipitate calcite. The lowered pH enhanced trace element sorption and largely inhibited the release of Al, As and V. Mo concentrations, however, were largely unaffected by gypsum induced pH buffering due to the greater solubility of Mo (as molybdate) at circumneutral pH. Gypsum addition also leads to significantly higher porewater salinities, and column experiments demonstrated that this increase in total dissolved solids persisted even after 25 pore volume replacements. Gypsum

  10. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia (*mul_at@yahoo.com). ABSTRACT. A wind ... balanced rotor power and reciprocating pump, hence did not consider the effect of pump size. ... Keywords: Wind pump, Windmill, Performance testing, Pump efficiency, Pump discharge, ... Unfortunately, in rural places, where the houses are.

  11. Radiological survey of the covered and uncovered drilling mud depository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónás, Jácint; Somlai, János; Csordás, Anita; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Kovács, Tibor

    2018-08-01

    In petroleum engineering, the produced drilling mud sometimes contains elevated amounts of natural radioactivity. In this study, a remediated Hungarian drilling mud depository was investigated from a radiological perspective. The depository was monitored before and after a clay layer was applied as covering. In this study, the ambient dose equivalent rate H*(10) of the depository has been measured by a Scintillator Probe (6150AD-b Dose Rate Meter). Outdoor radon concentration, radon concentration in soil gas, and in situ field radon exhalation measurements were carried out using a pulse-type ionization chamber (AlphaGUARD radon monitor). Soil gas permeability (k) measurements were carried out using the permeameter (RADON-JOK) in situ device. Geogenic radon potentials were calculated. The radionuclide content of the drilling mud and cover layer sample has been determined with an HPGe gamma-spectrometer. The gamma dose rate was estimated from the measured radionuclide concentrations and the results were compared with the measured ambient dose equivalent rate. Based on the measured results before and after covering, the ambient dose equivalent rates were 76 (67-85) nSv/h before and 86 (83-89) nSv/h after covering, radon exhalation was 9 (6-12) mBq/m 2 s before and 14 (5-28) mBq/m 2 s after covering, the outdoor radon concentrations were 11 (9-16) before and 13 (10-22) Bq/m 3 after covering and the soil gas radon concentrations were 6 (3-8) before and 24 (14-40) kBq/m 3 after covering. Soil gas permeability measurements were 1E-11 (7E-12-1E-11) and 1E-12 (5E-13-1E-12) m 2 and the calculated geogenic radon potential values were 6 (3-8) and 12 (6-21) before and after the covering. The main radionuclide concentrations of the drilling mud were C U-238 12 (10-15) Bq/kg, C Ra-226 31 (18-40) Bq/kg, C Th-232 35 (33-39) Bq/kg and C K-40 502 (356-673) Bq/kg. The same radionuclide concentrations in the clay were C U-238 31 (29-34) Bq/kg, C Ra-226 45 (40-51) Bq/kg, C Th-232 58 (55

  12. Microbiological influences on fracture surfaces of intact mud-stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.M.; Harrison, H.; Wragg, J.; Wagner, D.; Milodowski, A.E.; Turner, G.; Lacinska, A.; Holyoake, S.; Harrington, J.; Coombs, P.; Bateman, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Sasaki, Y.; Aoki, K.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. It is well recognised that microbes live in a wide range of subsurface environments including potential geological repository host rocks; and their presence can have an impact on transport processes. Microbial activity in any environment is located on chemical or physical interfaces, usually within bio-films. Their impact on transport can be physical (e.g. altering porosity) and/or chemical (e.g. changing redox conditions or altering pH) often resulting in intracellular or extracellular mineral formation or degradation. Consequently, the significance of microbial activity on the transport properties of potential host rocks for geological repositories is now being investigated. This pilot study investigates changes in transport properties that are because of microbial activity in sedimentary mud-stone rock environments at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) Horonobe underground research laboratory (URL) in northern Japan. The geological setting of the URL is summarised elsewhere. Geo-microbiological assessments of ground waters, from boreholes, previously drilled at Horonobe, have revealed the presence of a diverse indigenous microbiological ecosystem. The impacts of the presence of these microbes on the performance of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository, using geo-microbiological data from Horonobe, has shown that denitrifying bacteria is likely to be the group of organisms with the greatest activity. Consequently, the impact of this group of organisms, specifically Pseudomonas denitrificans, on Horonobe rock transport properties, is the focus of this study. In brief, two experiments, one biotic and a 'control', were carried out using a flow-through column operated at a constant rate of fluid flow and under pressurised conditions. Changes in biological and chemical parameters were monitored throughout the experiment together with changes in confining pressure and temperature. The experiments were

  13. Identification of mud crab reovirus VP12 and its interaction with the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein of mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Dong; Su, Hong-Jun; Zou, Wei-Bin; Liu, Shan-Shan; Yan, Wen-Rui; Wang, Qian-Qian; Yuan, Li-Li; Chan, Siuming Francis; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo; Weng, Shao-Ping

    2015-05-01

    Mud crab reovirus (MCRV) is the causative agent of a severe disease in cultured mud crab (Scylla paramamosain), which has caused huge economic losses in China. MCRV is a double-stranded RNA virus with 12 genomic segments. In this paper, SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry and Western blot analyses revealed that the VP12 protein encoded by S12 gene is a structural protein of MCRV. Immune electron microscopy assay indicated that MCRV VP12 is a component of MCRV outer shell capsid. Yeast two hybrid cDNA library of mud crab was constructed and mud crab voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (mcVDAC) was obtained by MCRV VP12 screening. The full length of mcVDAC was 1180 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 849 bp encoding a 282 amino acid protein. The mcVDAC had a constitutive expression pattern in different tissues of mud crab. The interaction between MCRV VP12 and mcVDAC was determined by co-immunoprecipitation assay. The results of this study have provided an insight on the mechanisms of MCRV infection and the interactions between the virus and mud crab. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mud depocenters on continental shelves—appearance, initiation times, and growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Lantzsch, Hendrik; Nizou, Jean

    2015-12-01

    Mud accumulates on continental shelves under a variety of environmental conditions and results in a diverse formation of mud depocenters (MDCs). Their three-dimensional architectures have been in the focus of several recent studies. Due to some terminological confusion concerning MDCs, the present study sets out to define eight individual MDC types in terms of surface sediment distribution and internal geometry. Under conditions of substantial sediment supply, prodeltas (distal zones off river deltas; triangular sheets), subaqueous deltas (disconnected from deltas by strong normal-to-shore currents; wedge-like clinoforms), and mud patches (scattered distribution) and mud blankets (widespread covers) are formed. Forced by hydrodynamic conditions, mud belts in the strict sense (detached from source; elongated bodies), and shallow-water contourite drifts (detached from source; growing normal to prevailing current direction; triangular clinoforms) develop. Controlled by local morphology, mud entrapments (in depressions, behind morphological steps) and mud wedges (triangular clinoforms growing in flow direction) are deposited. Shelf mud deposition took place (1) during early outer-shelf drowning (~14 ka), (2) after inner-shelf inundation to maximum flooding (9.5-6.5 ka), and (3) in sub-recent times (near the fluvial source, (2) uni-directional, extending along advective current transport paths, and (3) progradational, forming clinoforms that grow either parallel or normal to the bottom current direction. Classical mud belts may be initiated around defined nuclei, the remote sites of which are determined by seafloor morphology rather than the location of the source. From a stratigraphic perspective, mud depocenters coincide with sea-level highstand-related, shelf-wide condensed sections. They often show a conformable succession from transgressive to highstand systems tract stages.

  15. A comparative study of modern carbonate mud in reefs and carbonate platforms: Mostly biogenic, some precipitated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischler, Eberhard; Dietrich, Sarah; Harris, Daniel; Webster, Jody M.; Ginsburg, Robert N.

    2013-06-01

    Carbonate mud from reefs and carbonate platforms in six locations of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans (Belize, Bahamas, Florida, the Maldives, French Polynesia, Great Barrier Reef) was systematically and quantitatively analyzed with regard to texture, composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry. Mud composition shows considerable variability, however, the data supports the contention that these muds are largely derived from the breakdown of skeletal grains and codiacean algae. Only mud from the Bahamas and northern Belize, areas which are characterized by common whitings, is interpreted to be mainly inorganically precipitated. Three grain-size fractions (63-20 μm, 20-4 μm, aragonite needles, nanograins, and coccoliths. Coccoliths are common in deeper lagoonal settings of the open ocean settings (Maldives, French Polynesia). The geochemistry of the aragonite contents and strontium concentrations, suggesting physico-chemical precipitation. The northern Belize and Great Barrier Reef samples show the highest magnesium calcite values and, accordingly, produced the lowest aragonite and strontium measurements. The high-magnesium calcite portion of the northern Belize mud is either precipitated or due to abundant micritized skeletal grains (e.g., foraminifera): more studies are needed to verify the origin. In the case of the Great Barrier Reef sample, coralline algae appear to be the source of abundant high-magnesium calcite. This study emphasizes that from a global perspective, modern muds in reefs and carbonate platforms exhibit different compositions but are in many cases biologically derived. Even though the composition of modern carbonate muds varies among the six locations investigated, they may serve as analogs for the formation of muds in Cenozoic and Mesozoic reefs and carbonate platforms. Limitations of the interpretation of carbonate-mud origin include the difficulty of identifying, quantifying, and analyzing small grains, the ease with which small

  16. Comparing the efficacy of mature mud pack and hot pack treatments for knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsan, Ayşe; Akkaya, Nuray; Ozgen, Merih; Yildiz, Necmettin; Atalay, Nilgun Simsir; Ardic, Fusun

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of mature mud pack and hot pack therapies on patients with knee osteoarthritis. This study was designed as a prospective, randomized-controlled, and single-blinded clinical trial. Twenty-seven patients with clinical and radiologic evidence of knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into two groups and were treated with mature mud packs (n 15) or hot packs (n=12). Patients were evaluated for pain [based on the visual analog scale (VAS)], function (WOMAC, 6 min walking distance), quality of life [Short Form-36 (SF-36)], and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) at baseline, post-treatment, and 3 and 6~months after treatment. The mud pack group shows a significant improvement in VAS, pain, stifness, and physical function domains of WOMAC. The difference between groups of pain and physical activity domains is significant at post-treatment in favor of mud pack. For a 6 min walking distance, mud pack shows significant improvement, and the difference is significant between groups in favor of mud pack at post-treatment and 3 and 6 months after treatment. Mud pack shows significant improvement in the pain subscale of SF-36 at the third month continuing until the sixth month after the treatment. Significant improvements are found for the social function, vitality/energy, physical role disability, and general health subscales of SF-36 in favor of the mud pack compared with the hot pack group at post-treatment. A significant increase is detected for IGF-1 in the mud pack group 3 months after treatment compared with the baseline, and the difference is significant between groups 3 months after the treatment. Mud pack is a favorable option compared with hotpack for pain relief and for the improvement of functional conditions in treating patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  17. Comparison with Offshore and Onshore Mud Volcanoes in the Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. H.; Su, C. C.; Chen, T. T.; Liu, C. S.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.; Hsu, H. H.

    2017-12-01

    The offshore area southwest (SW) of Taiwan is on the convergent boundary between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates. The plate convergence manifests in this unique geological setting as a fold-and-thrust-belt. Multi-channel seismic profiles, and bathymetry and gravity anomaly data collected from Taiwan offshore to the SW show the presence of a large amount of mud volcanoes and diapirs with NE-SW orientations. In the absence of comprehensive sampling and detailed geochemistry data from submarine mud volcanoes, the relation between onshore and offshore mud volcanoes remains ambiguous. During two MBARI and IONTU joint cruises conducted in 2017 we collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data (1-m-resolution) and chirp sub-bottom profiles with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) from submarine Mud Volcano III (MV3), and obtained precisely located samples and video observations with a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). MV3 is an active submarine mud volcano at 465 m water depth offshore SW Taiwan. This cone-shape mud volcano is almost 780 m wide, 150 m high, with 8° slopes, and a 30 m wide mound on the top. Several linear features are observed in the southwest of the mound, and these features are interpreted as a series of marks caused by rolling rocks that erupted from the top of MV3. We collected three rocks and push cores from MV3 and its top with the ROV, in order to compare their chemical and mineralogical composition to that of samples collected from mud volcanoes along the Chishan fault. The surface and X-radiography imaging, 210Pb chronology, grain size and X-ray diffractometer analyses were conducted to compare geochemical and sedimentary properties of offshore and onshore mud volcanoes. The results indicate that the offshore and onshore mud volcanoes have similar characteristics. We suggest that offshore and onshore mud volcanoes of SW Taiwan are no different in the source of their materials and their mechanism of creation and evolution.

  18. Implementation of viscoelastic mud-induced energy attenuation in the third-generation wave model, SWAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyramzade, Mostafa; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa

    2018-01-01

    The interaction of waves with fluid mud can dissipate the wave energy significantly over few wavelengths. In this study, the third-generation wave model, SWAN, was advanced to include attenuation of wave energy due to interaction with a viscoelastic fluid mud layer. The performances of implemented viscoelastic models were verified against an analytical solution and viscous formulations for simple one-dimensional propagation cases. Stationary and non-stationary test cases in the Surinam coast and the Atchafalaya Shelf showed that the inclusion of the mud-wave interaction term in the third-generation wave model enhances the model performance in real applications. A high value of mud viscosity (of the order of 0.1 m2/s) was required in both field cases to remedy model overestimation at high frequency ranges of the wave spectrum. The use of frequency-dependent mud viscosity value improved the performance of model, especially in the frequency range of 0.2-0.35 Hz in the wave spectrum. In addition, the mud-wave interaction might affect the high frequency part of the spectrum, and this part of the wave spectrum is also affected by energy transfer from wind to waves, even for the fetch lengths of the order of 10 km. It is shown that exclusion of the wind input term in such cases might result in different values for parameters of mud layer when inverse modeling procedure was employed. Unlike viscous models for wave-mud interaction, the inverse modeling results to a set of mud parameters with the same performance when the viscoelastic model is used. It provides an opportunity to select realistic mud parameters which are in more agreement with in situ measurements.

  19. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  20. Cold seep communities in the deep eastern Mediterranean Sea: composition, symbiosis and spatial distribution on mud volcanoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olu-Le Roy, K; Sibuet, M.; Fiala-Medioni, A.; Gofas, S; Salas, C.; Mariotti, A.; Foucher, J.-P.; Woodside, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Two mud volcano fields were explored during the French-Dutch MEDINAUT cruise (1998) with the submersible NAUTILE, one south of Crete along the Mediteranean Ridge at about 2000 m depth (Olimpi mud field) and the other south of Turkey between 1700 and 2000 m depth (Anaximander mud field) where high

  1. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-01-01

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2003-01-01

    Progress during current reporting year 2002 by quarter--Progress during Q1 2002: (1) In accordance to Task 7.0 (D. No.2 Technical Publications) TerraTek, NETL, and the Industry Contributors successfully presented a paper detailing Phase 1 testing results at the February 2002 IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, a prestigious venue for presenting DOE and private sector drilling technology advances. The full reference is as follows: IADC/SPE 74540 ''World's First Benchmarking of Drilling Mud Hammer Performance at Depth Conditions'' authored by Gordon A. Tibbitts, TerraTek; Roy C. Long, US Department of Energy, Brian E. Miller, BP America, Inc.; Arnis Judzis, TerraTek; and Alan D. Black, TerraTek. Gordon Tibbitts, TerraTek, will presented the well-attended paper in February of 2002. The full text of the Mud Hammer paper was included in the last quarterly report. (2) The Phase 2 project planning meeting (Task 6) was held at ExxonMobil's Houston Greenspoint offices on February 22, 2002. In attendance were representatives from TerraTek, DOE, BP, ExxonMobil, PDVSA, Novatek, and SDS Digger Tools. (3) PDVSA has joined the advisory board to this DOE mud hammer project. PDVSA's commitment of cash and in-kind contributions were reported during the last quarter. (4) Strong Industry support remains for the DOE project. Both Andergauge and Smith Tools have expressed an interest in participating in the ''optimization'' phase of the program. The potential for increased testing with additional Industry cash support was discussed at the planning meeting in February 2002. Progress during Q2 2002: (1) Presentation material was provided to the DOE/NETL project manager (Dr. John Rogers) for the DOE exhibit at the 2002 Offshore Technology Conference. (2) Two meeting at Smith International and one at Andergauge in Houston were held to investigate their interest in joining the Mud Hammer Performance study. (3) SDS Digger Tools (Task 3

  3. Circulation pump mounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.

    1976-01-01

    The suspension is described of nuclear reactor circulating pumps enabling their dilatation with a minimum reverse force consisting of spacing rods supported with one end in the anchor joints and provided with springs and screw joints engaging the circulating pump shoes. The spacing rods are equipped with side vibration dampers anchored in the shaft side wall and on the body of the circulating pump drive body. The negative reverse force F of the spacing rods is given by the relation F=Q/l.y, where Q is the weight of the circulating pump, l is the spatial distance between the shoe joints and anchor joints, and y is the deflection of the circulating pump vertical axis from the mean equilibrium position. The described suspension is advantageous in that that the reverse force for the deflection from the mean equilibrium position is minimal, dynamic behaviour is better, and construction costs are lower compared to suspension design used so far. (J.B.)

  4. BWR series pump recirculation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillmann, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a recirculation system for driving reactor coolant water contained in an annular downcomer defined between a boiling water reactor vessel and a reactor core spaced radially inwardly therefrom. It comprises a plurality of circumferentially spaced second pumps disposed in the downcomer, each including an inlet for receiving from the downcomer a portion of the coolant water as pump inlet flow, and an outlet for discharging the pump inlet flow pressurized in the second pump as pump outlet flow; and means for increasing pressure of the pump inlet flow at the pump inlet including a first pump disposed in series flow with the second pump for first receiving the pump inlet flow from the downcomer and discharging to the second pump inlet flow pressurized in the first pump

  5. High pressure liquid gas pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acres, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Design and development of two types of pumps for handling liquefied gases are discussed. One pump uses mechanical valve shift and other uses pneumatic valve shift. Illustrations of pumps are provided and detailed description of operation is included.

  6. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Shuo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Wu, Bolin, E-mail: wubolin3211@gmail.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) are obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The self-glazing phenomenon in red mud system was first discovered in our research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation levels of red mud can be reduced efficiently by self-glazing layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red mud based ceramic materials will not cause harm to environment and humans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This research possesses important economic significances to aluminum companies. - Abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation

  7. Natural radionuclides in bauxitic tailings (Red-Mud) in the Gulf of Corinth, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papatheodorou, G.; Maratou, A.; Ferentinos, G.; Papaefthymiou, H.

    2004-01-01

    A detailed environmental survey was carried out in the central Gulf of Corinth in order to determine radionuclides in the bauxite ed-mud tailings which have been discharged on the sea floor by a Bauxite Processing Plant (Aluminio Ellados A.E). The discharge of bauxitic tailings via two pipelines at a water depth of 100 m, in Antikyra Bay (Northern Gulf of Corinth), has resulted in the formation of two red-mud mound-like deposits. The red-mud deposits at the mouth of the out falls, are not stable and very often red-mud masses are detached from the two main deposits and are transported to the Corinth central basin, by turbidity currents, at a water depth of 850 m and about 17 km away from the main deposits. Thus, at the Antikyra bay, the red-mud has formed a surficial veneer (0.5-2.0 cm) on the sea floor. On the Corinth central basin floor the red mud has formed successive red-mud layers which are interrupted by layers of natural mud. Fifteen gravity cores have been selected from the studied area and a number of bauxite samples have been collected from mines that supply the bauxite processing plant. Red-mud, natural mud and bauxite samples were analyzed for 238 U 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs by direct gamma spectrometry. The study of radionuclides concentrations has shown that: (a) the enrichment factor of radionuclides in the red-mud in the main deposit at the mouth of the out falls, in relation to bauxite samples, is about 2.0, (b) the enrichment factor of 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th in the red-mud in the main deposit and the central basin, in relation to natural sediments below, is visibly higher than 1.0 (2.0-19.0) whilst 40 K exhibits the opposite trend, and (c) the enrichment/dilution factor of radionuclides in the red-mud surficial veneer at the Antikyra Bay, in relation to the natural sediments below, is ranging between 0.4 and 3.5. (author)

  8. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  9. Electromagnetic pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, R.

    1994-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors have an important role to play in our nuclear power programme. Liquid metal sodium is used as the coolant for removing fission heat generated in fast reactors and a distinctive physical property of sodium is its high electrical conductivity. This enables application of electromagnetic (EM) pumps, working on same principle as electric motors, for pumping liquid sodium. Due to its lower efficiency as compared to centrifugal pumps, use of EM pumps has been restricted to reactor auxiliary circuits and experimental facilities. As part of our efforts to manufacture fast reactor components indigenously, work on the development of two types of EM pumps namely flat linear induction pump (FLIP) and annular linear induction pump (ALIP) has been undertaken. Design procedures based on an equivalent circuit approach have been established and results from testing a 5.6 x 10E-3 Cum/s (20 Cum/h) FLIP in a sodium loop were used to validate the procedure. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs

  10. Bleeding Mud: The Testimonial Poetry of Hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin S Finzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with Rubén Darío, Nicaragua has long prided itself in being a country of poets. During the Sandinista Revolution, popular poetry workshops dispatched by Minister of Culture Ernesto Cardenal taught peasants and soldiers to write poetry about everyday life and to use poetry as a way to work through trauma from the civil war. When Hurricane Mitch--one of the first superstorms that heralded climate change--brought extreme flooding to Nicaragua in 1998, poetry again served as a way for victims to process the devastation. Examining testimonial poetry from Hurricane Mitch, this article shows how the mud and despair of this environmental disaster function as palimpsests of conquest and imperial oppression.

  11. Optimization of drilling mud conditioning for chemically enhanced centrifuging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtanowicz, A. K. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Ye, Y. [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Beijing, (China)

    1998-05-01

    A simple method (the nine point (9-P) experiment) for finding optimum chemical conditioning that would maximize mud volume reduction, (i.e. enhance water removal or dewatering) and minimize the cost of the chemicals required, was described. The 9-P experiment is based on the statistical theory of factorial analysis and derives its name from the fact that it requires only nine tests to find the optimum treatment. The experimental design and the method of analysis are described. When compared to conventional trial-and-error approaches, the 9-P method showed a 1.78 to 2.35-fold increase in volume reduction efficiency, and up to 3.7-fold reduction in chemical usage.

  12. PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF AN ORGANIC MUD AGITATOR SCREW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Dimitrie CAZACU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the special performances obtained by means of the optimisation method applied to the axial runners of run-of-river hydraulic turbines and of wind turbines, as well as in the case of the screws for boat propulsion, perfected by the first of the authors [1] - [10], in this work one extend the application of this method at the case of an organic mud agitator screw for fermentation and biogas production. One presents the obtaining of the bio liquid circulation minimal velocity in the two possible cases [3]: extracting the fluid velocity from the peripheral force exerted by the runner, as well as from the mechanical power consumed for its driving. After the obtaining of the optimal relative peripheral angle one determines also the optimal incidence angles of the profile for other blade radii. This method permits in the same time to find the optimal profile, using the multitude of the profile characteristics, experimentally studied.

  13. Method for depth referencing hydrocarbon gas shows on mud logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for identifying hydrocarbon formations surrounding a borehole, comprising the steps of: a. measuring hydrocarbon gas in the entrained formation cuttings obtained during drilling operations in which a drilling mud is continually circulated past a drill bit to carry the cuttings to the earth's surface, b. simultaneously measuring natural gamma radiation in the cuttings, c. identifying the depths at which the cuttings were obtained within the borehole, d. measuring natural gamma radiation within the borehole following completion of the drilling operations, e. correlating the natural gamma radiation measurements in steps (b) and (d), and f. identifying the depths within the borehole from which the entrained cuttings containing hydrocarbon gas were obtained during drilling operations when there is correlation between the natural gamma radiation measurements in steps (b) and (d)

  14. Chenier plain development: feedbacks between waves, mud and sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardin, W.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Cheniers are sandy ridges parallel to the coast established by high energy waves. Here we discuss Chenier plains ontogeny through dimensional analysis and numerical results from the morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. Our results show that wave energy and shelf slope play an important role in the formation of Chenier plains. In our numerical experiments waves affect Chenier plain development in three ways: by winnowing sediment from the mudflat, by eroding mud and accumulating sand over the beach during extreme wave events. We further show that different sediment characteristics and wave climates can lead to three alternative coastal landscapes: strand plains, mudflats, or the more complex Chenier plains. Low inner-shelf slopes are the most favorable for strand plain and Chenier plain formation, while high slopes decrease the likelihood of mudflat development and preservation.

  15. Evaluation of the hurricanes Gustav and Ike impact on mud from San Diego River using nuclear and geochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Gelen Rudnikas, A.; D'Alessandro Rodriguez, K.; Arado Lopez, J. O.; Dominguez Rodriguez, R.; Gonzalez Hernandez, P.; Melian Rodriguez, C.M.; Suarez Munnoz, M.; Fagundo Castillo, J. R.; Blanco Padilla, D.

    2011-01-01

    Effects induced by the hurricanes Gustav and Ike on San Diego River mud characteristics have been studied. X-ray fluorescence analysis, gamma spectrometry and measurement of some physic-chemical characteristics in mud samples, collected before and after hurricane impacts, shows that hurricanes induced changes in mud major composition and in some other mud characteristics, affecting its properties for therapeutic uses. The average sedimentation rate determined by gamma spectrometry in San Diego River outlet permit to estimate that the original mud characteristics will be recovered never before than 5-7 years. (Author)

  16. Valorisation of waste ilmenite mud in the manufacture of sulphur polymer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Manuel; Gázquez, Manuel Jesús; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J; López, Félix A; Bolívar, Juan Pedro

    2013-10-15

    This paper reports the preparation of sulphur polymer cements (SPCs) incorporating waste ilmenite mud for use in concrete construction works. The ilmenite mud raw material and the mud-containing SPCs (IMC-SPCs) were characterised physico-chemically and radiologically. The optimal IMC-SPC mixture had a sulphur/mud ratio (w/w) of 1.05 (mud dose 20 wt%); this cement showed the greatest compressive strength (64 MPa) and the lowest water absorption coefficient (0.4 g cm(-2) at 28 days). Since ilmenite mud is enriched in natural radionuclides, such as radium isotopes (2.0·10(3) Bq kg(-1)(228)Ra and 5.0·10(2) Bq kg(-1)(226)Ra), the IMC-SPCs were subjected to leaching experiments, which showed their environmental impact to be negligible. The activity concentration indices for the different radionuclides in the IMC-SPCs containing 10% and 20% ilmenite mud met the demands of international standards for materials used in the construction of non-residential buildings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of formulation variables on the physical properties and stability of Dead Sea mud masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Sawsan; Hamed, Saja; Alkhatib, Hatim S

    2015-01-01

    The physical stability of Dead Sea mud mask formulations under different conditions and their rheological properties were evaluated as a function of the type and level of thickeners, level of the humectant, incorporation of ethanol, and mode of mud treatment. Formulations were evaluated in terms of visual appearance, pH, moisture content, spreadability, extrudability, separation, rate of drying at 32 degrees C, and rheological properties. Prepared mud formulations and over-the-shelf products showed viscoplastic shear thinning behavior; satisfactory rheological behavior was observed with formulations containing a total concentration of thickeners less than 10% (w/w). Casson and Herschel-Bulkley models were found the most suitable to describe the rheological data of the prepared formulations. Thickener incorporation decreased phase separation and improved formulation stability. Bentonite incorporation in the mud prevented color changes during stability studies while glycerin improved spreadability. Addition of 5% (w/w) ethanol improved mud extrudability, slightly increased percent separation, accelerated drying at 32 degrees C, and decreased viscosity and yield stress values. Different mud treatment techniques did not cause a clear behavioral change in the final mud preparation. B10G and K5B5G were labeled as "best formulas" based on having satisfactory physical and aesthetic criteria investigated in this study, while other formulations failed in one or more of the tests we have performed.

  18. Mud Banks along the southwest coast of India are not too muddy for plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothibabu, R; Balachandran, K K; Jagadeesan, L; Karnan, C; Arunpandi, N; Naqvi, S W A; Pandiyarajan, R S

    2018-02-07

    Considering Alappuzha Mud Bank in the southern Kerala coast as a typical case of biologically productive Mud Banks that form along the southwest coast of India during the Southwest Monsoon (June - September), the present study addresses several pertinent missing links between the physical environment in Mud Banks and their influence on plankton stock. This study showed that very strong coastal upwelling prevails in the entire study domain during the Southwest Monsoon, which manifests itself in the form of significantly cool, hypoxic and nitrate-rich waters surfacing near the coast. The upwelled water persisting throughout the Southwest Monsoon period was found to have fuelled the exceptionally high phytoplankton stock in the entire study area, including the Mud Bank region. Having accepted that Mud Banks are special because of the calm sea surface conditions and relatively high turbidity level in the water column around them, the present study showed that except at points close to the sea bottom, turbidity level in the Alappuzha Mud Bank was below the critical level to inhibit the plankton stock. The suspended sediments that form in the Mud Bank occasionally could be attributed to the disturbance of the bottom fluid muddy layer and their vertical spurts.

  19. A comparative study of mud-like and coralliform calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Qiao, Tie; Huang, Hai-Yi; Zhong, Hai-Qiang

    2017-07-01

    To gain insight to underlying mechanism of the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) gallbladder stones, we did comparative study of stones with mud appearance and those with coralliform appearance. A total of 93 gallbladder stones with mud appearance and 50 stones with coralliform appearance were analyzed. The appearance, color, texture, and the detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs by microscopic examination were compared between the two groups. Then, the material compositions of stones were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the spectrogram characteristics were compared. Moreover, microstructure characteristics of the two kinds of stones were observed and compared with Scanning Electron Microscopy. Mud-like gallbladder stones were mainly earthy yellow or brown with brittle or soft texture, while coralliform stones were mainly black with extremely hard texture, the differences between the two groups was significant (p mud-like gallbladder stones were CaCO 3 stones, and mainly aragonite; while all of the coralliform stones were CaCO 3 stones, and mainly calcite (p mud-like CaCO 3 stones was lower than that in coralliform CaCO 3 stones (p Mud-like CaCO 3 stones mainly happened to patients with cystic duct obstruction. Clonorchis sinensis infection was mainly associated with coralliform (calcite) CaCO 3 stones. Cystic duct obstruction was mainly associated with mud-like (aragonite) CaCO 3 stones. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Removal of hexavalent chromium by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deliang; Ding, Ying; Li, Lingling; Chang, Zhixian; Rao, Zhengyong; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solution by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was studied. The optimum operation parameters, such as CTAB concentration, pH values, contact time, and initial Cr(VI) concentration, were investigated. The best concentration of CTAB for modifying red mud was found to be 0.50% (mCTAB/VHCl,0.6 mol/L). The lower pH (mud activated with CTAB can greatly improve the removal ratio of Cr(VI) as high as four times than that of original red mud. Adsorption equilibrium was reached within 30 min under the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 100 mg L(-1). The isotherm data were analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on activated red mud fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was estimated as 22.20 mg g(-1) (Cr/red mud). The adsorption process could be well described using the pseudo-second-order model. The result shows that activated red mud is a promising agent for low-cost water treatment.

  1. Propagation of Measurement-While-Drilling Mud Pulse during High Temperature Deep Well Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal attenuates while Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD mud pulse is transmited in drill string during high temperature deep well drilling. In this work, an analytical model for the propagation of mud pulse was presented. The model consists of continuity, momentum, and state equations with analytical solutions based on the linear perturbation analysis. The model can predict the wave speed and attenuation coefficient of mud pulse. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data showing a good agreement. Effects of the angular frequency, static velocity, mud viscosity, and mud density behavior on speed and attenuation coefficients were included in this paper. Simulated results indicate that the effects of angular frequency, static velocity, and mud viscosity are important, and lower frequency, viscosity, and static velocity benefit the transmission of mud pulse. Influenced by density behavior, the speed and attenuation coefficients in drill string are seen to have different values with respect to well depth. For different circulation times, the profiles of speed and attenuation coefficients behave distinctly different especially in lower section. In general, the effects of variables above on speed are seen to be small in comparison.

  2. Determination of rare earth elements in red mud by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Suvarna, S.; Kiran Kumar, G.

    2017-01-01

    Red mud or red sludge is a highly alkaline waste product composed mainly of iron oxide that is generated in the industrial production of aluminum from bauxite. With about 77 million tons of this hazardous material being produced annually, red mud poses a serious disposal problem in the mining industry. Discharge of red mud is hazardous environmentally because of its alkalinity. Many studies have been conducted to develop uses of red mud. An estimated 2 to 3 million tones are used annually in the production of cement, road construction and as a source for iron. Potential applications include the production of low cost concrete, application to sandy soils to improve phosphorus cycling, amelioration of soil acidity, landfill capping and carbon sequestration. Red mud contains a large amount of iron along with appreciable concentrations of many strategic elements such as rare earth elements and therefore can be a source of valuable secondary raw material. This necessitates the elemental characterization of red mud. This paper presents an effective dissolution procedure using a mixture of phosphoric acid and nitric acid for red mud followed by determination of rare earth elements by ICP-MS. The method was validated by spike recovery experiments. The recoveries were found within 98 to 102 %. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method was found to be within 5 %

  3. Remedial Action Work Plan Amchitka Island Mud Pit Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-04-05

    This remedial action work plan presents the project organization and construction procedures developed for the performance of the remedial actions at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sites on Amchitka Island, Alaska. During the late1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (the predecessor agency to DOE) used Amchitka Island as a site for underground nuclear tests. A total of nine sites on the Island were considered for nuclear testing; however, tests were only conducted at three sites (i.e., Long Shot in 1965, Milrow in 1969, and Cannikin in 1971). In addition to these three sites, large diameter emplacement holes were drilled in two other locations (Sites D and F) and an exploratory hole was in a third location (Site E). It was estimated that approximately 195 acres were disturbed by drilling or preparation for drilling in conjunction with these activities. The disturbed areas include access roads, spoil-disposal areas, mud pits which have impacted the environment, and an underground storage tank at the hot mix plant which was used to support asphalt-paving operations on the island. The remedial action objective for Amchitka Island is to eliminate human and ecological exposure to contaminants by capping drilling mud pits, removing the tank contents, and closing the tank in place. The remedial actions will meet State of Alaska regulations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuge management goals, address stakeholder concerns, and address the cultural beliefs and practices of the native people. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office will conduct work on Amchitka Island under the authority of the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Field activities are scheduled to take place May through September 2001. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent Closure Report.

  4. Survey of Legionella spp. in Mud Spring Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, B.-M.; Ma, P.-H.; Su, I.-Z.; Chen, N.-S.

    2009-04-01

    Legionella genera are parasites of FLA, and intracellular bacterial replication within the FLA plays a major role in the transmission of disease. At least 13 FLA species—including Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., and Hartmannella spp.—support intracellular bacterial replication. In the study, Legionellae were detected with microbial culture or by direct DNA extraction and analysis from concentrated water samples or cultured free-living amoebae, combined with molecular methods that allow the taxonomic identification of these pathogens. The water samples were taken from a mud spring recreation area located in a mud-rock-formation area in southern Taiwan. Legionella were detected in 15 of the 34 samples (44.1%). Four of the 34 samples analyzed by Legionella culture were positive for Legionella, five of 34 were positive for Legionella when analyzed by direct DNA extraction and analysis, and 11 of 34 were positive for amoebae-resistant Legionella when analyzed by FLA culture. Ten samples were shown to be positive for Legionella by one analysis method and five samples were shown to be positive by two analysis methods. However, Legionella was detected in no sample by all three analysis methods. This suggests that the three analysis methods should be used together to detect Legionella in aquatic environments. In this study, L. pneumophila serotype 6 coexisted with A. polyphaga, and two uncultured Legionella spp. coexisted with either H. vermiformis or N. australiensis. Of the unnamed Legionella genotypes detected in six FLA culture samples, three were closely related to L. waltersii and the other three were closely related to L. pneumophila serotype 6. Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, L. drancourtii, and L. waltersii are noted endosymbionts of FLA and are categorized as pathogenic bacteria. This is significant for human health because these Legionella exist within FLA and thus come into contact with typically immunocompromised people.

  5. Dynamics of a fluid flow on Mars: Lava or mud?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lionel; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2014-05-01

    A distinctive flow deposit southwest of Cerberus Fossae on Mars is analyzed. The flow source is a ∼20 m deep, ∼12 × 1.5 km wide depression within a yardang associated with the Medusae Fossae Formation. The flow traveled for ∼40 km following topographic lows to leave a deposit on average 3-4 km wide. The surface morphology of the deposit suggests that it was produced by the emplacement of a fluid flowing in a laminar fashion and possessing a finite yield strength. We use topographic data from a digital elevation model (DEM) to model the dynamics of the motion and infer that the fluid had a Bingham rheology with a plastic viscosity of ∼1 Pa s and a yield strength of ∼185 Pa. Although the low viscosity is consistent with the properties of komatiite-like lava, the combination of values of viscosity and yield strength, as well as the surface morphology of the flow, suggests that this was a mud flow. Comparison with published experimental data implies a solids content close to 60% by volume and a grain size dominated by silt-size particles. Comparison of the ∼1.5 km3 deposit volume with the ∼0.03 km3 volume of the source depression implies that ∼98% of the flow material was derived from depth in the crust. There are similarities between the deposit studied here, which we infer to be mud, and other flow deposits on Mars currently widely held to be lavas. This suggests that a re-appraisal of many of these deposits is now in order.

  6. Effects of mud supply on large-scale estuary morphology and development over centuries to millennia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Braat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial river estuaries consist largely of sand but are typically flanked by mudflats and salt marshes. The analogy with meandering rivers that are kept narrower than braided rivers by cohesive floodplain formation raises the question of how large-scale estuarine morphology and the late Holocene development of estuaries are affected by cohesive sediment. In this study we combine sand and mud transport processes and study their interaction effects on morphologically modelled estuaries on centennial to millennial timescales. The numerical modelling package Delft3D was applied in 2-DH starting from an idealised convergent estuary. The mixed sediment was modelled with an active layer and storage module with fluxes predicted by the Partheniades–Krone relations for mud and Engelund–Hansen for sand. The model was subjected to a range of idealised boundary conditions of tidal range, river discharge, waves and mud input. The model results show that mud is predominantly stored in mudflats on the side of the estuary. Marine mud supply only influences the mouth of the estuary, whereas fluvial mud is distributed along the whole estuary. Coastal waves stir up mud and remove the tendency to form muddy coastlines and the formation of mudflats in the downstream part of the estuary. Widening continues in estuaries with only sand, while mud supply leads to a narrower constant width and reduced channel and bar dynamics. This self-confinement eventually leads to a dynamic equilibrium in which lateral channel migration and mudflat expansion are balanced on average. However, for higher mud concentrations, higher discharge and low tidal amplitude, the estuary narrows and fills to become a tidal delta.

  7. Seafloor monitoring for synthetic-based mud discharged in the Western Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candler, J.E.; Hoskin, S.; Churan, M.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic-based muds have been used to simultaneously improve drilling and environmental performance. The fate and effects of synthetic-based mud discharges in the marine environment have been issues of concern with the drilling industry and governmental agencies. Most of the environmental data on synthetic-based muds have been generated under laboratory conditions. This study uses field-collected data to investigate, the fate and effects of a polyalphaolefin synthetic-based drilling fluid. The first well drilled in the Gulf of Mexico using synthetic-based mud was completed in June 1992. Approximately 441 bbl of cuttings and 354 bbl of synthetic-based mud were discharged over a 9-day period. Three sampling trips have been made to the discharge location to collect sediment samples for chemical and biological analysis over a 2-year period. The sediment samples were analyzed for content of organic compounds and barium. On the third trip, infaunal samples were also taken. Information collected from the chemical and biological analysis is documented and compared to similar field studies performed on oil-based and water-based muds. Sampling techniques and analytical protocols are described to facilitate future studies. Two years after discharges of synthetic-based cuttings were completed, an area within 50 m of the discharge point continued to exhibit alterations in the benthic community not normally associated with water-based mud discharges. However, the study indicates that polyalphaolefin synthetic-based mud exhibits significant improvements over oil-based mud in terms of removal of organic contamination and minimization of adverse effects on the benthic community

  8. Comparative toxicity of offshore and oil-added drilling muds to larvae of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes intermedius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conklin, P.J.; Rao, K.R.

    1984-11-01

    Offshore drilling fluids (muds) varied widely in their toxicity to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes intermedius) larvae. The 96-h LC/sub 50/s for the eleven drilling muds tested ranged from 142 to > 100,000 ppM (..mu..l/L). There was a significant correlation between oil content of the drilling muds and their toxicity. Furthermore, addition of diesel oil (No. 2 fuel oil) or mineral oil to an offshore drilling mud having a low oil content or to an oil-free synthetic drilling mud led to a marked increase in the toxicity of these muds. Thus, much of the toxicity of the offshore drilling muds tested can be attributable to the oil content. 24 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Effects of drilling muds on lobster behavior. Progress report, 1 January-1 October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atema, J; Ashkenas, L; Beale, E

    1979-01-01

    Drilling muds, used and discarded in great quantities during the drilling phase of exploration and production of oil wells, represent an unknown threat to the marine environment. The compositions of the muds vary greatly with drilling requirements. The toxicity of their components are largely unknown, but can range from apparently harmless to immediately lethal, as found recently in toxicity tests on a number of marine animals. This report contains eight sections, each describing an aspect of studies of lobster behavior, ecology, physiology and the effects of exposure to various levels of different drilling muds.

  10. Absorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, C.

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it

  11. Nuclear-pumped lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Prelas, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on Nuclear-Pumped Laser (NPL) technology and provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of NPLs, a review of research in the field, and exploration of large scale NPL system design and applications. Early chapters look at the fundamental properties of lasers, nuclear-pumping and nuclear reactions that may be used as drivers for nuclear-pumped lasers. The book goes on to explore the efficient transport of energy from the ionizing radiation to the laser medium and then the operational characteristics of existing nuclear-pumped lasers. Models based on Mathematica, explanations and a tutorial all assist the reader’s understanding of this technology. Later chapters consider the integration of the various systems involved in NPLs and the ways in which they can be used, including beyond the military agenda. As readers will discover, there are significant humanitarian applications for high energy/power lasers, such as deflecting asteroids, space propulsion, power transmission and mining....

  12. Gas fired heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    2006-01-01

    The condensing gas boiler is now state of the art and there is no more room for improvement in performance, technically speaking. The next logical step to improve the overall efficiency is to exploit ambient heat in combination with the primary source of energy, natural gas. That means using natural-gas driven heat pumps and gas-fired heat pumps. Based on this, the Swiss Gas Industry decided to set up a practical test programme enjoying a high priority. The aim of the project 'Gas-fired heat pump practical test' is to assess by field tests the characteristics and performance of the foreign serial heat pumps currently on the market and to prepare and promote the introduction on the market place of this sustainable natural-gas technology. (author)

  13. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  14. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  15. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air

  16. Mechanical vaccum pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, A D

    2007-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the technology of contemporary primary and secondary mechanical vacuum pumps. For reference a brief history of vacuum and a summary of important and basic vacuum concepts are first presented.

  17. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.; Abdelghany, Mohamed A.; Elsayed, Mohannad Yomn; Elshurafa, Amro M; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  18. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  19. GAS METERING PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  20. JET pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenberg, K.; Deksnis, E.; Shaw, R.; Reiter, D.

    1988-01-01

    JET plans to install two pump limiter modules which can be used for belt-limiter, inner-wall and X-point discharges and, also, for 1-2s as the main limiter. A design is presented which is compatible with two diagnostic systems, and which allows partial removal of the pump limiter to provide access for remote-handling operations. The high heat-flux components are initially cooled during a pulse. Heat is removed between discharges by radiation and pressure contacts to a water-cooled support structure. The pumping edge will be made of annealed pyrolytic graphite. Exhaust efficiency has been estimated, for a 1-d edge model, using a Monte-Carlo calculation of neutral gas transport. When the pump limiter is operated together with other wall components we expect an efficiency of ≅ 5% (2.5 x 10 21 part/s). As a main limiter the efficiency increases to about 10%. (author)

  1. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called a bicycle horn pump, consists of a hollow rubber ball attached to a breast-shield. Some ... and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888- ...

  2. A study of the properties of concrete, grout and paste containing red mud for use in repositories for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martensson, P.; Tang, L.; Ding, Z.; Peng, X.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study of the properties of concrete, grout and paste containing red mud - a waste product derived from the digestion of bauxite with a versatile mineralogical composition - for use in repositories for nuclear waste. Two types of red mud from China were used in the experiments. Type 1 was taken from Chiping Xinfa Hoayu Alumina Co. LTD, Liaocheng City, Shandong Province, China and type 2 taken from Xianfeng Alumina Co. LTD, Chongqing, China. In the experiments concrete, grout and paste in which 0, 10, 20 and 30 % of the mass of the binder was replaced by red mud were prepared for studies of the influence on the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the materials. The results show that the compressive strength for concrete in which 30 % of the mass of the binder had been replaced by red mud was reduced from 47 to 29 MPa after curing for 28 days for red mud type 1 and from 46 to 39 MPa for red mud type 2 compared to specimens without red mud. This is attributed to that red mud type 2 contains a larger amount of CaO which can contribute in the hydration process of the cement as nucleation. The influence on dry shrinkage of concrete containing different proportions of red mud differed between the two types of red mud used in this study. A possible influence from the method used for curing the specimens prior to the measurements was also observed. Addition of red mud in grout significantly increased the water permeability. This was attributed to that increasing amounts of red mud increases the porosity of the specimens and that the red mud mainly acts as an inert filler in the grout. Adsorption tests on crushed hardened cement paste containing red mud showed fluctuating results but tests on the raw materials showed a high sorption capacity for Cs. (authors)

  3. Optically pumped laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMaria, A.J.; Mack, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    Laser systems which are pumped by an electric discharge formed in a gas are disclosed. The discharge is in the form of a vortex stabilized electric arc which is triggered with an auxiliary energy source. At high enough repetition rates residual ionization between successive pulses contributes to the pulse stabilization. The arc and the gain medium are positioned inside an optical pumping cavity where light from the arc is coupled directly into the gain medium

  4. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  5. Resorption heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, L.L.; Mishkinis, D.A.; Antukh, A.A.; Kulakov, A.G.; Vasiliev, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    Resorption processes are based on at least two solid-sorption reactors application. The most favorable situation for the resorption heat pumps is the case, when the presence of a liquid phase is impossible. From simple case--two reactors with two salts to complicated system with two salts + active carbon fiber (fabric) and two branch of the heat pump acting out of phase to produce heat and cold simultaneously, this is the topic of this research program

  6. Portable photovoltaic irrigation pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furber, J. D.

    1980-07-01

    Experiences in developing a solar-powered irrigation pump to meet the needs of poor farmers in developing nations are summarized. The design which evolved is small and portable, employing a high-efficiency electric pump, powered by photovoltaic panels. Particular emphasis is placed on how the system works, and on early field problems experienced with the first prototypes. The resolution of these problems and the performance of actual systems in various countries is presented and user responses are noted.

  7. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been done with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a region may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this Z-mode of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described

  8. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1984-01-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6 MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been performed with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scrape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a regime may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this 'Z-mode' of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described. (orig.)

  9. Energy efficiency in pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin [TUBITAK-MRC, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Yigit, K. Suleyman; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk [Engineering Faculty, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kilic, Fatma Canka [Department of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Kocaeli University, Kullar, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, ''energy efficiency'' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems. (author)

  10. Energy efficiency in pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin; Yigit, K. Suleyman; Kilic, Fatma Canka; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, 'energy efficiency' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems

  11. Pump trials for charged liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroni, J.C.; Niver, A.

    1964-01-01

    The pumps intended for the circulation of charged and radioactive liquids have particular qualities. The choice of such a pump has called for endurance tests with various types of equipment: a Goodyear volumetric screw pumps, and RICHIER, Klein and SCHABAVER centrifugal pumps. The latter, fitted with a special oakum, gave the best results. (authors) [fr

  12. BIOMATERIALS FOR ROTARY BLOOD PUMPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOEVEREN, W

    Rotary blood pumps are used for cardiac assist and cardiopulmonary support since mechanical blood damage is less than with conventional roller pumps. The high shear rate in the rotary pump and the reduced anticoagulation of the patient during prolonged pumping enforces high demands on the

  13. Pumps in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that pumps play an important role in nuclear plant operation. For instance, reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) should provide adequate cooling for reactor core in both normal operation and transient or accident conditions. Pumps such as Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) pump in the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) play a crucial role during an accident, and their reliability is of paramount importance. Some key issues involved with pumps in nuclear plant system include the performance of RCP under two-phase flow conditions, piping vibration due to pump operating in two-phase flows, and reliability of LPSI pumps

  14. Inservice testing of vertical pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, R.E. Jr.; Schumann, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problems that may occur with vertical pumps while inservice tests are conducted in accordance with existing American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code, Section XI, standards. The vertical pump types discussed include single stage, multistage, free surface, and canned mixed flow pumps. Primary emphasis is placed on the hydraulic performance of the pump and the internal and external factors to the pump that impact hydraulic performance. In addition, the paper considers the mechanical design features that can affect the mechanical performance of vertical pumps. The conclusion shows how two recommended changes in the Code standards may increase the quality of the pump's operational readiness assessment during its service life

  15. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  16. Evaluation of some vanillin-modified polyoxyethylene surfactants as additives for water based mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.A. El-Sukkary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Water-based drilling fluids are increasingly being used for oil and gas exploration and are generally considered to be more environmentally acceptable than oil-based or synthetic-based fluids. In this study, new types of vanillin-modified polyoxyethylene surfactants were evaluated as additives in water-based mud. Their rheological properties in water-based mud were investigated which included the apparent viscosity, the plastic viscosity, the yield point, the gel strength, the thixotropy as well as the filtration properties. Also, the effect of high temperature on the rheology of the formulated water based mud was studied. The tested ethoxylated non-ionic surfactants showed good results when utilized in the formulation of water-based mud.

  17. Red mud application in construction industry: review of benefits and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M. S. S.; Thives, L. P.; Haritonovs, V.; Bajars, K.

    2017-10-01

    Red mud is a waste originated in the processing of bauxite into aluminium, which properties of high alkalinity make it cumulatively stored, occupying increasing deforested areas. Annually, it is estimated that approximately 117 million tons of red mud are generated in the world, with no prospect of use, what represents an imminent risk of pollution prone to contamination. Nevertheless, environmental liabilities caused by red mud affect not only the environment, but also the companies responsible for the waste, which will be subject to highest fee payments. Although there are studies that prove the feasibility of using this solid waste in the constitution of ceramic materials, there are no large-scale applications. This study seeks to evaluate the possibilities of red mud application in construction industry, focusing into two main areas: cement production/ceramic material and road construction. Backgrounds from other researchers were taken into consideration and analysed according environmental, economic and technical feasibilities.

  18. THE BIOCIDE TRIBUTYLTIN ALTERS TESTOSTERONE ESTERIFICATION IN MUD SNAILS (ILYANASSA OBSOLETA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biocide Tributyltin Alters Testosterone Esterification in Mud Snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta)Meredith P. Gooding and Gerald A. LeBlanc Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633Tributyltin (TBT...

  19. Meiofaunal stratification in relation to microbial food in a tropical mangrove mud flat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A; Sreepada, R.A; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Parulekar, A

    The vertical gradients of meiofauna mainly in relation to biochemical changes and microbial abundance in the upper 20 cm of deposit of a mangrove mud flat were studied. Strong vertical gradients in the redox potential (Eh), interstitial water...

  20. INTEGRATED DRILLING SYSTEM USING MUD ACTUATED DOWN HOLE HAMMER AS PRIMARY ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John V. Fernandez; David S. Pixton

    2005-12-01

    A history and project summary of the development of an integrated drilling system using a mud-actuated down-hole hammer as its primary engine are given. The summary includes laboratory test results, including atmospheric tests of component parts and simulated borehole tests of the hammer system. Several remaining technical hurdles are enumerated. A brief explanation of commercialization potential is included. The primary conclusion for this work is that a mud actuated hammer can yield substantial improvements to drilling rate in overbalanced, hard rock formations. A secondary conclusion is that the down-hole mud actuated hammer can serve to provide other useful down-hole functions including generation of high pressure mud jets, generation of seismic and sonic signals, and generation of diagnostic information based on hammer velocity profiles.

  1. Application of γ ray to field investigation of float mud in ocean outfalls and navigation channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Ruiji; Ding Yuanguo; Cheng Hesen

    2007-01-01

    The γ ray gauge is used to investigate the density and distribution of float mud in navigation channel area on site. The results provide important prototype information for effectively using navigable depth and studying rules of back silting. (authors)

  2. Influence of solids concentration on the sedimentation rate of the mud in the aggregate industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benigno Leyva-de la Cruz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation is to determine, for the mud resulting from the wash process in the Jobo community arid industry in Sagua de Tánamo, the impact of solids percent on the theoretical sedimentation velocity that is predicted by the Stokes velocity Law. Samples of the discharge pipeline and the mud sedimentation area were analyzed from granulometric, density and solids concentration points of view. The solids percentage variable (S was analyzed in four scenarios (4, 12, 20 and 28 % and time (t was evaluated at intervals of 20 minutes for 5 hours. The behavior of mud sedimentation was characterized through the sedimentation velocity. The results indicate that the Stokes velocity law does not apply for estimating the mud sedimentation velocity with a 95% confidence. Therefore, a correction function is obtained for the Stokes velocity law expressed through the polynomial mathematical model of second degree.

  3. Biodiesel Production from Castor Oil by Using Calcium Oxide Derived from Mud Clam Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic potential of calcium oxide synthesized from mud clam shell as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production was studied. The mud clam shell calcium oxide was characterized using particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and BET gas sorption analyzer. The catalyst performance of mud clam shell calcium oxide was studied in the transesterification of castor oil as biodiesel. Catalyst characterization and transesterification study results of synthesized catalyst proved the efficiency of the natural derived catalyst for biodiesel production. A highest biodiesel yield of 96.7% was obtained at optimal parameters such as 1 : 14 oil-to-methanol molar ratio, 3% w/w catalyst concentration, 60°C reaction temperature, and 2-hour reaction time. Catalyst reusability test shows that the synthesized calcium oxide from mud clam shell is reusable up to 5 times.

  4. Discriminating the biophysical impacts of coastal upwelling and mud banks along the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karnan, C.; Jyothibabu, R.; Arunpandi, N.; Jagadeesan, L.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Pratihary, A.K.; Balachandran, K.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Coastal upwelling and mud banks are two oceanographic processes concurrently operating along certain stretches of the southwest (Kerala) coast of India during the Southwest Monsoon period (June-September), facilitating significant enhancement...

  5. Does subterranean flow initiate mud banks off the southwest coast of India?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.

    Coastal waters off the southwest coast of India draw special attention because of the occurrence of mud banks at certain locations during southwest monsoon period. The present study puts forward a hypothesis of a subterranean flow, which could be a...

  6. Effects of Temperature on the Density of Water Based Drilling Mud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Effects of Temperature on the Density of Water Based Drilling Mud. EBIKAPAYE ... Commons Attribution License (CCL), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any .... is tapped briskly on the side until air bubbles are.

  7. Alternatives Analysis Amchitka Island Mud Pit Cap Repair, Amchitka, Alaska January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darr, Paul S. [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages the Nevada Offsites program, which includes a series of reclaimed drilling mud impoundments on Amchitka Island, Alaska (Figure 1). Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc. is the Legacy Management Support contractor (the Contractor) for LM. The Contractor has procured Tetra Tech, Inc. to provide engineering support to the Amchitka mud pit reclamation project. The mud pit caps were damaged during a 7.9-magnitude earthquake that occurred in 2014. The goals of the current project are to investigate conditions at the mud pit impoundments, identify feasible alternatives for repair of the cover systems and the contents, and estimate relative costs of repair alternatives. This report presents descriptions of the sites and past investigations, existing conditions, summaries of various repair/mitigation alternatives, and direct, unburdened, order-of-magnitude (-15% to +50%) associated costs.

  8. Titanium leaching from red mud by diluted sulfuric acid at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agatzini-Leonardou, S.; Oustadakis, P.; Tsakiridis, P.E.; Markopoulos, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-scale research has focused on the recovery of titanium from red mud, which is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production. The leaching process is based on the extraction of this element with diluted sulfuric acid from red mud under atmospheric conditions and without using any preliminary treatment. Statistical design and analysis of experiments were used, in order to determine the main effects and interactions of the leaching process factors, which were: acid normality, temperature and solid to liquid ratio. The titanium recovery efficiency on the basis of red mud weight reached 64.5%. The characterization of the initial red mud, as well as this of the leached residues was carried out by X-ray diffraction, TG-DTA and scanning electron microscopy

  9. Isoform-specific functions of Mud/NuMA mediate binucleation of Drosophila male accessory gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Kokuryo, Akihiko; Imano, Takao; Minami, Ryunosuke; Nakagoshi, Hideki; Adachi-Yamada, Takashi

    2014-12-20

    In standard cell division, the cells undergo karyokinesis and then cytokinesis. Some cells, however, such as cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, can produce binucleate cells by going through mitosis without cytokinesis. This cytokinesis skipping is thought to be due to the inhibition of cytokinesis machinery such as the central spindle or the contractile ring, but the mechanisms regulating it are unclear. We investigated them by characterizing the binucleation event during development of the Drosophila male accessory gland, in which all cells are binucleate. The accessory gland cells arrested the cell cycle at 50 hours after puparium formation (APF) and in the middle of the pupal stage stopped proliferating for 5 hours. They then restarted the cell cycle and at 55 hours APF entered the M-phase synchronously. At this stage, accessory gland cells binucleated by mitosis without cytokinesis. Binucleating cells displayed the standard karyokinesis progression but also showed unusual features such as a non-round shape, spindle orientation along the apico-basal axis, and poor assembly of the central spindle. Mud, a Drosophila homolog of NuMA, regulated the processes responsible for these three features, the classical isoform Mud(PBD) and the two newly characterized isoforms Mud(L) and Mud(S) regulated them differently: Mud(L) repressed cell rounding, Mud(PBD) and Mud(S) oriented the spindle along the apico-basal axis, and Mud(S) and Mud(L) repressed central spindle assembly. Importantly, overexpression of Mud(S) induced binucleation even in standard proliferating cells such as those in imaginal discs. We characterized the binucleation in the Drosophila male accessory gland and examined mechanisms that regulated unusual morphologies of binucleating cells. We demonstrated that Mud, a microtubule binding protein regulating spindle orientation, was involved in this binucleation. We suggest that atypical functions exerted by three structurally different isoforms of Mud regulate

  10. Mud Volcanoes - A New Class of Sites for Geological and Astrobiological Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.C.; Oehler, D.Z.; Baker, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Mud volcanoes provide a unique low-temperature window into the Earth s subsurface - including the deep biosphere - and may prove to be significant sources of atmospheric methane. The identification of analogous features on Mars would provide an important new class of sites for geological and astrobiological exploration. We report new work suggesting that features in Acidalia Planitia are most consistent with their being mud volcanoes.

  11. Environmental impact of toxic elements in red mud studied by fractionation and speciation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milačič, Radmila; Zuliani, Tea; Ščančar, Janez

    2012-06-01

    Aluminum (Al) is mostly produced from bauxite ore, which contains up to 70% of Al(2)O(3) (alumina). Before alumina is refined to aluminum metal, it is purified by hot alkaline extraction. As a waste by-product red mud is formed. Due to its high alkalinity and large quantities, it represents a severe disposal problem. In Kidričevo (Slovenia), red mud was washed with water before disposal, and after drying, covered with soil. In Ajka (Hungary), the red mud slurry was collected directly in a containment structure, which burst caused a major accident in October 2010. In the present work the environmental impact of toxic elements in red mud from Kidričevo and Ajka were evaluated by applying a sequential extraction procedure and speciation analysis. The predominant red mud fraction was the insoluble residue; nevertheless, environmental concern was focused on the highly mobile water-soluble fraction of Al and Cr. Al in the water-soluble Ajka mud fraction was present exclusively in form of toxic [Al(OH)(4)](-), while Cr existed in its toxic hexavalent form. Comparative assessment to red mud from Kidričevo (Slovenia) with a lower alkalinity (pH 9) with that from Ajka demonstrated significantly lower Al solubility and the presence of only trace amounts of Cr(VI), confirming that disposal of neutralized mud is environmentally much more acceptable and carries a smaller risk of ecological accidents. Since during the Ajka accident huge amounts of biologically available Al and moderate Cr(VI) concentrations were released into the terrestrial and aquatic environments, monitoring of Al and Cr(VI) set free during remedial actions at the contaminated site is essential. Particular care should be taken to minimize the risk of release of soluble Al species and Cr(VI) into water supplies and surface waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal.

  13. Origin of Fluids and Salts at Mercator Mud Vulcano, Gulf of Cadiz

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Heeschen; M. Haeckel; C. Berndt; D. Teagle; M. Palmer; D. Green; M. Cooper; H. Vaneste; V. Liebetrau

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz is located at the plate boundary between the Eurasian and African plates and is characterized by widespread mud volcanism all along the continental margins. It is commonly believed that this results from sediment dewatering enhanced by the compressional forces within the accretionary prism. Recently, 3D seismic data and geochemical sediment cores indicated that in addition to compressional tectonics, halokinesis controls the location and dynamics of the Mercator mud volca...

  14. Viral infections stimulate the metabolism and shape prokaryotic assemblages in submarine mud volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    Mud volcanoes are geological structures in the oceans that have key roles in the functioning of the global ecosystem. Information on the dynamics of benthic viruses and their interactions with prokaryotes in mud volcano ecosystems is still completely lacking. We investigated the impact of viral infection on the mortality and assemblage structure of benthic prokaryotes of five mud volcanoes in the Mediterranean Sea. Mud volcano sediments promote high rates of viral production (1.65-7.89 × 10(9) viruses g(-1) d(-1)), viral-induced prokaryotic mortality (VIPM) (33% cells killed per day) and heterotrophic prokaryotic production (3.0-8.3 μgC g(-1) d(-1)) when compared with sediments outside the mud volcano area. The viral shunt (that is, the microbial biomass converted into dissolved organic matter as a result of viral infection, and thus diverted away from higher trophic levels) provides 49 mgC m(-2) d(-1), thus fuelling the metabolism of uninfected prokaryotes and contributing to the total C budget. Bacteria are the dominant components of prokaryotic assemblages in surface sediments of mud volcanoes, whereas archaea dominate the subsurface sediment layers. Multivariate multiple regression analyses show that prokaryotic assemblage composition is not only dependant on the geochemical features and processes of mud volcano ecosystems but also on synergistic interactions between bottom-up (that is, trophic resources) and top-down (that is, VIPM) controlling factors. Overall, these findings highlight the significant role of the viral shunt in sustaining the metabolism of prokaryotes and shaping their assemblage structure in mud volcano sediments, and they provide new clues for our understanding of the functioning of cold-seep ecosystems.

  15. Usage of Vermiculite as Additive Material in Water-Based Drilling Muds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Eser Kök

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Drilling mud is used in drilling operations to ensure well stability and to transport the cut-offs to the surface and is generally classified as; Spud, Lignosulfonate and Polymer types. Spud Mud is the simple mud and mostly used at the beginning of drilling operations. It is mainly composed of bentonite and water. With increasing depth, It is hard to keep well stability and to carry cuttings from the bottom of hole to the surface with the basic drilling fluid. Thus, some materials are used to maintain the rheological and filtration properties of the mud. One of them is vermiculite that is a general name of the hydrated ferromagnesian aluminium silicate group. It has expanded properties when heated. Like all clay minerals, the cation exchange capacity is very high and very similar to the montmorillonites in terms of high cation exchange capacity. In this study, the usage of vermiculite as an additive material in drilling muds was investigated. Spud muds containing vermiculite in different amounts were prepared. Then rheological and filtration analysis of the muds were done according to American Petroleum Institute (API RP-13B-1 Standard. When evaluated the results, AV reached 41cP, PV 27cP, YP 28lb/100ft2 , 10 sec. gel strength 17lb/100ft2 , 10 min. gel strength 26 lb/100ft2 and filtration 9cc. The results showed that the vermiculite can might be used as a viscosifier and fluid loss reducing additive material in the drilling mud.

  16. The problem about the possibility of establishing an interrelation between the activity of the sun and that of mud volcanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekhtiyev, Sh.F.; Khalilov, E.N.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the mud volcanos of Eastern Azerbaydzhan showed that periods of weakening in the mud volcano activity correspond to periods of increased solar activity and the opposite. A graph which characterizes the change in the mud volcano activity in time is built to establish the association between solar activity and the activity of the mud volcanos. Data from 300 eruptions of mud volcanos of the world were used. All the world's mud volcanos are located in zones of high seismic activity. These zones are characterized by the presence of deeply focused (subcrust) earthquakes. All the mud volcanos are located along seismic strips of the earth, which reflect zones of subduction or the Zavaritskiy Benioff zones. The mud volcanos are associated with global geodynamic processes, while their activity characterizes the activity of the subduction zones. The activity of the subduction zones rises in periods of increased solar activity. Building a rectilinear trend of the Gauss capacity showed that the activation of the world's mud volcanos is increased in time at a speed of 0.02 eruptions per year. The activation of the subduction zones also rises in time. These studies are one of the first attempts to analyze data about the eruptions of the world's mud volcanos with consideration of the new global tectonics and certain cosmic processes.

  17. The condition and ways to develop operations to establish standards for drilling muds in the ''Grozneft''' Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, V S; Volkova, A P

    1979-01-01

    Four intervals are strictly defined in the geological section of the sites of ''Grozneft''', which require the use of different types of drilling muds (R). The upper part of the section to the Karagano-Chokraksk sediments inclusively should be drilled with wash through by limestone clay mud, whose use should begin immediately after the lowering of the conducter. The upper Maykop sediments should be drilled with the use of a weighted limestone mud, strictly observing the concentration of the lime and the caustic soda in the mud. In the deposits of the lower Maykop, where the temperature reaches 120/sup 0/C, a gypsum and clay mud should be used, using oxyl for regulating its viscosity. In the deposits of the Upper Cretaceous, for which absorption is characteristic, it is expedient to wash through with water or clay mud, processed by UShchR and bichromate. The deposits of the lower Cretaceous should be drilled with wash through by a gypsum mud, processed by lignosulfonates, where it is recommended to use KSSB-4. The capability is assumed of using chlorocalcium clay mud in drilling the Maykop clays. A condition for the effective use of any types of drilling muds is the improved system for removing drilled out rock from the mud.

  18. Characterization of red mud-epoxy intumescent char using surface imaging and micro analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arogundade, A. I., E-mail: ajiunolorioba@gmail.com; Megat-Yusoff, P. S. M., E-mail: puteris@petronas.com.my; Faiz, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tecknologi Petronas (Malaysia); Bhat, A. H. [Department of Fundamental and Applied Science, Universiti Tecknologi Petronas (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    In this study, red mud (RM), an oxide waste was proposed as reinforcing, synergistic filler for the traditional epoxy intumescent coating (IC). 5.5 wt% of acid-modified and unmodified red mud were introduced into the basic intumescent formulation of ammonium polyphosphate (APP), pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL). In order to predict effect of modification on its suitability, Field emission electron scanning microscopy and Fourier transform infra red were used to obtain detailed characteristics such as the cell size, pore distribution, homogeneity and chemical composition of the red mud-epoxy carbonaceous char. Both acid-modified and unmodified RM-filled ICs produced chars with smaller and more closely packed cells compared to chars from the unfilled coating. Both coating types had hard carbonaceous metal phosphate coverings that could act as heat barriers. The unmodified red mud was found to be antagonistic to the intumescent action with an expansion of only 2 times the initial thickness. The leached, low iron-red mud produced an expansion of 15 times the initial thickness, but possessed a hollow interior. From these findings, it may be deduced that while acid leaching of red mud may improve intumescent expansion, it would be necessary to optimize the percent filler loading to improve residual mass.

  19. Environmental control of drilling mud discharge through dewatering in cold weather climates: effect of ambient temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtanowicz, A. K. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Ye, Y. [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Beijing, (China)

    1998-05-01

    Results of an experimental study of the effects of drilling mud temperature upon dewatering performance at various temperatures were presented. Three temperature ranges (from flowline temperature to room temperature, from room temperature to freezing point, and freeze/thaw, i.e. from -20 degrees C to 12 degrees C) were considered. Both unweighted and weighted fresh water muds and weighted salt water mud were tested using a sealed laboratory batch reactor, to prevent rapid vaporization of separated water at temperatures above 60 degrees C. Deep freezing was achieved by using ice or ice-salt baths. Net water removal was measured with a bench-top plate press under constant expression pressure of 270 kPa. Results showed that the freeze/thaw treatment process proved to be very effective, enhancing water removal by 34 to 39 per cent, and reducing waste mud volume by 64 to 72 per cent. No advantage to dewatering hot drilling mud from active systems was observed at temperatures above 21 degrees C. It was suggested that at temperatures under 21 degrees C, the waste drilling mud diverted from an active system should be dewatered when its temperature is still over 40 degrees C. to reduce the amount of chemicals needed for separation enhancement. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. Evaluation of red mud as pozzolanic material in replacement of cement for production of mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfroi, E.P.; Cheriaf, M.; Rocha, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Red mud is a by-product of the alkaline extraction of aluminum from the bauxite and represents a renewed environmental problem due the significant annual throughput by the plants. In the present work, the pozzolanic properties of Brazilian red mud fired at 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg C were investigated by monitoring lime consumption using DTA analysis and Brazilian standard methodology NBR 5772 (1992). Products and kinetics of hydration were determined in cement pastes produced with 5 and 15% red mud using x-ray diffraction and DTA analysis. Compressive strength and capillary absorption tests were realized on mortars constituted by 5, 10 and 15% red mud in replacement of cement. When calcined at 600 deg C, the red mud develops good pozzolanic properties, and the compressive strength of mortars produced with this waste meet values in accordance with regulatory standard. These results shown than red mud can be used, in partial replacement of cement, as new construction material to produce sustainable mortars with low environmental impact. (author)

  1. Start up study of UASB reactor treating press mud for biohydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radjaram, B.; Saravanane, R.

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of press mud mixed with water for biohydrogen production was performed in continuous fed UASB bioreactor for 120 days. Experiment was conducted by maintaining constant HRT of 30 h and the volume of biohydrogen evolved daily was monitored. Various parameters like COD, VFA, Alkalinity, EC, Volatile solids, pH with respect to biohydrogen production were monitored at regular interval of time. SBPR was 10.98 ml g -1 COD reduced d -1 and 12.77 ml g -1 VS reduced d -1 on peak yield of biohydrogen. COD reduction was above 70 ± 7%. Maximum gas yield was on the 78th day to 2240 ml d -1 . The aim of the experiment is to study the startup process of UASB reactor for biohydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation of press mud. The inoculum for the process is cow dung and water digested in anaerobic condition for 30 days with municipal sewage sludge. The study explores the viability of biohydrogen production from press mud which is a renewable form of energy to supplement the global energy crisis. -- Highlights: → Feasibility of biohydrogen production from press mud was explored in this study. The gas yield was maximum on the 78th day to 2240 ml d -1 with H 2 % of 52-59%. Biohydrogen yield was about 890 ml kg -1 press mud added d -1 . Press mud is identified as an excellent potential waste to tap energy.

  2. Resources Management Strategy For Mud Crabs (Scylla spp.) In Pemalang Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnama Fitri, Aristi Dian; Boesono, Herry; Sabdono, Agus; Adlina, Nadia

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research is to develop resources management strategies of mud crab (Scylla spp.) in Pemalang Regency. The method used is descriptive survey in a case study. This research used primary data and secondary data. Primary data were collected through field observations and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. Secondary data were collected from related publications and documents issued by the competent institutions. SWOT Analysis was used to inventory the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. TOWS matrix was used to develop an alternative of resources management strategies. SWOT analysis was obtained by 6 alternative strategies that can be applied for optimization of fisheries development in Pemalang Regency. The strategies is the control of mud crab fishing gear, restricted size allowable in mud crab, control of mud crab fishing season, catch monitoring of mud crab, needs a management institutions which ensure the implementation of the regulation, and implementation for mud crab aquaculture. Each alternative strategy can be synergized to optimize the resources development in Pemalang Regency.

  3. Sulfur Fixation by Chemically Modified Red Mud Samples Containing Inorganic Additives: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur retention ability of Bayer red mud from alumina plant was investigated. Bayer red mud modified by fusel salt and waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide as the main sulfur fixation agent and the calcium based natural mineral materials as servicing additives; the experimental results showed the following: (1 Through 10 wt% waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide modifying Bayer red mud, sulfur fixation rate can increase by 13 wt%. (2 Magnesium oxide can obviously improve the sulfur fixation performance of Bayer red mud and up to a maximum sulfur fixation rate of 47 wt% at adding 1 wt% magnesium oxide. (3 Dolomite enhanced the sulfur fixation performances with the sulfur fixation rate of 68 wt% in optimized condition. (4 Vermiculite dust reduced sulfur dioxide during the fixed-sulfur process of modified Bayer red mud, and the desulphurization ration could reach up to a maximum 76 wt% at 950°C. (5 An advanced three-component sulfur fixation agent was investigated, in which the optimized mass ratio of modified Bayer red mud, dolomite, and vermiculite dust was 70 : 28 : 2 in order, and its sulfur fixation efficiency has reached to a maximum 87 wt% under its 20 wt% dosage in the coal.

  4. Effect of strong acids on red mud structural and fluoride adsorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wentao; Couperthwaite, Sara J; Kaur, Gurkiran; Yan, Cheng; Johnstone, Dean W; Millar, Graeme J

    2014-06-01

    The removal of fluoride using red mud has been improved by acidifying red mud with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acid. The acidification of red mud causes sodalite and cancrinite phases to dissociate, confirmed by the release of sodium and aluminium into solution as well as the disappearance of sodalite bands and peaks in infrared and X-ray diffraction data. The dissolution of these mineral phases increases the amount of available iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxide sites that are accessible for the adsorption of fluoride. However, concentrated acids have a negative effect on adsorption due to the dissolution of these iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxide sites. The removal of fluoride is dependent on the charge of iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxides on the surface of red mud. Acidifying red mud with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acid resulted in surface sites of the form ≡SOH2(+) and ≡SOH. Optimum removal is obtained when the majority of surface sites are in the form ≡SOH2(+) as the substitution of a fluoride ion does not cause a significant increase in pH. This investigation shows the importance of having a low and consistent pH for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions using red mud. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Capping hazardous red mud using acidic soil with an embedded layer of zeolite for plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingqun; Si, Chunhua; Lin, Chuxia

    2014-01-01

    A nearly three-year microcosm experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of capping red mud using acidic soil with an embedded layer of zeolite in sustaining the growth of a grass species. This 'sandwich-structured' design allowed self-sustaining growth of the plants under rain-fed conditions no matter whether the underlying red mud was neutralized or not. During the initial stage, the plants grew better when the red mud was not neutralized with MgCl2 probably due to pH rise in the root zone. Neutralization of red mud led to salinization and pH decrease in the root zone. However, the difference in plant growth performance between these scenarios became less remarkable over time due to gradual improvement of soil conditions in the neutralized scenarios. Continuous leaching of soluble salts and alkali by rainwater extended the root zone to the red mud layer. As a result of vegetative production, soil organic matter rapidly accumulated. This, combined with increase in pH and decrease in salinity, markedly facilitated microbial activities and consequently improved the supply of nutrients. This study provides abasis for field-scale experimental design that will have implications for effectively establishing vegetative cover in red mud disposal sites to control dust hazards.

  6. Eruption of a deep-sea mud volcano triggers rapid sediment movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R.; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R.; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady-state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a metre in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4 m per day, and significant emissions of methane and CO2 from the seafloor. PMID:25384354

  7. The Dead Sea Mud and Salt: A Review of Its Characterization, Contaminants, and Beneficial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawab, Abeer Al; Bozeya, Ayat; Abu-Mallouh, Saida; Abu Irmaileh, Basha'er; Daqour, Ismail; Abu-Zurayk, Rund A.

    2018-02-01

    The Dead Sea has been known for its therapeutic and cosmetic properties. The unique climatic conditions in the Dead Sea area make it a renowned site worldwide for the field of climatotherapy, which is a natural approach for the provision of medications for many human diseases including unusual exclusive salt composition of the water, a special natural mud, thermal mineral springs, solar irradiation, oxygen-rich and bromine-rich haze. This review focuses on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the Dead Sea mud and salts, in addition to their contaminants, allowing this review to serve as a guide to interested researchers to their risks and the importance of treatment. Beneficial effects of Dead Sea mud and salts are discussed in terms of therapy and cosmetics. Additional benefits of both Dead Sea mud and salts are also discussed, such as antimicrobial action of the mud in relation to its therapeutic properties, and the potency of mud and salts to be a good medium for the growth of a halophilic unicellular algae, used for the commercial production of β-carotene Dunaliella.

  8. Heat driven pulse pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Steve M (Inventor); Martins, Mario S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A heat driven pulse pump includes a chamber having an inlet port, an outlet port, two check valves, a wick, and a heater. The chamber may include a plurality of grooves inside wall of the chamber. When heated within the chamber, a liquid to be pumped vaporizes and creates pressure head that expels the liquid through the outlet port. As liquid separating means, the wick, disposed within the chamber, is to allow, when saturated with the liquid, the passage of only liquid being forced by the pressure head in the chamber, preventing the vapor from exiting from the chamber through the outlet port. A plurality of grooves along the inside surface wall of the chamber can sustain the liquid, which is amount enough to produce vapor for the pressure head in the chamber. With only two simple moving parts, two check valves, the heat driven pulse pump can effectively function over the long lifetimes without maintenance or replacement. For continuous flow of the liquid to be pumped a plurality of pumps may be connected in parallel.

  9. Wet motor geroter fuel pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiernicki, M.V.

    1987-05-05

    This patent describes a wet motor gerotor fuel pump for pumping fuel from a fuel source to an internal combustion which consists of: gerotor pump means comprising an inner pump gear, an outer pump gear, and second tang means located on one of the inner and outer pump gears. The second tang means further extends in a second radial direction radially offset from the first radial direction and forms a driving connection with the first tang means such that the fuel pump pumps fuel from the fuel source into the narrow conduit inlet chamber, through the gerotor pump means past the electric motor means into the outlet housing means substantially along the flow axis to the internal combustion engine.

  10. Meteorological uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion model results (MUD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Amstrup, B.; Feddersen, H. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-08-15

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced from which uncertainties in the various meteorological parameters are estimated, e.g. probabilities for rain. Corresponding ensembles of atmospheric dispersion can now be computed from which uncertainties of predicted radionuclide concentration and deposition patterns can be derived. (Author)

  11. Lahar—River of volcanic mud and debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Vallance, James W.

    2018-05-09

    Lahar, an Indonesian word for volcanic mudflow, is a mixture of water, mud, and volcanic rock flowing swiftly along a channel draining a volcano. Lahars can form during or after eruptions, or even during periods of inactivity. They are among the greatest threats volcanoes pose to people and property. Lahars can occur with little to no warning, and may travel great distances at high speeds, destroying or burying everything in their paths.Lahars form in many ways. They commonly occur when eruptions melt snow and ice on snow-clad volcanoes; when rains fall on steep slopes covered with fresh volcanic ash; when crater lakes, volcano glaciers or lakes dammed by volcanic debris suddenly release water; and when volcanic landslides evolve into flowing debris. Lahars are especially likely to occur at erupting or recently active volcanoes.Because lahars are so hazardous, U.S. Geological Survey scientists pay them close attention. They study lahar deposits and limits of inundation, model flow behavior, develop lahar-hazard maps, and work with community leaders and governmental authorities to help them understand and minimize the risks of devastating lahars.

  12. Meteorological uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion model results (MUD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Amstrup, B.; Feddersen, H.

    2013-08-01

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced from which uncertainties in the various meteorological parameters are estimated, e.g. probabilities for rain. Corresponding ensembles of atmospheric dispersion can now be computed from which uncertainties of predicted radionuclide concentration and deposition patterns can be derived. (Author)

  13. Measurement system analysis of viscometers used for drilling mud characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat-Shayuti, M. S.; Adzhar, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    Viscometers in the Faculty of Chemical Engineering, University Teknologi MARA, are subject to heavy utilization from the members of the faculty. Due to doubts surrounding their result integrity and maintenance management, Measurement System Analysis was executed. 5 samples of drilling muds with varied barite content from 5 - 25 weight% were prepared and their rheological properties determined in 3 trials by 3 operators using the viscometers. Gage Linearity and Bias Study were performed using Minitab software and the result shows high biases in the range of 19.2% to 38.7%, with non-linear trend along the span of measurements. Gage Repeatability & Reproducibility (Nested) analysis later produces Percent Repeatability & Reproducibility more than 7.7% and Percent Tolerance above 30%. Lastly, good and marginal Distinct Categories output are seen among the results. Despite acceptable performance of the measurement system in Distinct Categories, the poor results in accuracy, linearity, and Percent Repeatability & Reproducibility render the gage generally not capable. Improvement to the measurement system is imminent.

  14. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser is described comprising: a toroidal fusion reactor, the reactor generating energetic neutrons; an annular gas cell disposed around the outer periphery of the reactor, the cell including an annular reflecting mirror disposed at the bottom of the cell and an annular output window disposed at the top of the cell; a gas lasing medium disposed within the annular cell for generating output laser radiation; neutron reflector material means disposed around the annular cell for reflecting neutrons incident thereon back into the gas cell; neutron moderator material means disposed between the reactor and the gas cell and between the gas cell and the neutron reflector material for moderating the energy of energetic neutrons from the reactor; converting means for converting energy from the moderated neutrons to energy pumping means for pumping the gas lasing medium; and beam compactor means for receiving output laser radiation from the annular output window and generating a single output laser beam therefrom

  15. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  16. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  17. Geothermal heat pump performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  18. Geothermal Heat Pump Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  19. Heat pump planning handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bonin, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Heat Pump Planning Handbook contains practical information and guidance on the design, planning and selection of heat pump systems, allowing engineers, designers, architects and construction specialists to compare a number of different systems and options. Including detailed descriptions of components and their functions and reflecting the current state of technology this guide contains sample tasks and solutions as well as new model calculations and planning evaluations. Also economic factors and alternative energy sources are covered, which are essential at a time of rising heat costs. T

  20. Carbon sheet pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Sagara, A.; Kawamura, T.; Motojima, O.; Ono, T.

    1993-07-01

    A new hydrogen pumping scheme has been proposed which controls recycling of the particles for significant improvement of the energy confinement in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. In this scheme, a part of the vacuum vessel surface near the divertor is covered with carbon sheets of a large surface area. Before discharge initiation, the sheets are baked up to 700 ∼ 1000degC to remove the previously trapped hydrogen atoms. After being cooled down to below ∼ 200degC, the unsaturated carbon sheets trap high energy charge exchange hydrogen atoms effectively during a discharge and overall pumping efficiency can be as high as ∼ 50 %. (author)

  1. Source Signature of Sr Isotopes in Fluids Emitting From Mud volcanoes in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C.; You, C.; Chao, H.

    2003-12-01

    Located at the boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Asia Continental Plate, abundance of mud volcanoes were erupted on land in Taiwan. According to their occurrences and associated tectonic settings, these mud volcanoes were classified into four groupies. The group (I) mud volcanoes are located in the western coastal plane, whereas group (II) and (III) are situated near the Kutinkung anticline axis and the Chishan fault respectively. The group (IV) mud volcanoes are discovered at the Coastal Range. Although there are numerous studies focused on morphology, possible fluid migration paths and sources are poorly understood. We have collected and analyzed major ions and Sr isotopic ratios in fluids separated from various mud volcanoes in Taiwan. Chemical contents of these fluids were measured by IC and the emitted gasses were analyzed by GC. The Sr concentrations in these fluids were determined using AA and the isotopic compositions were analyzed by TIMS. The dominated ions in fluids are Na and Cl which account for 98% of dissolved materials. All fluids show similar Na/Cl ratios(0.7-0.8), slightly higher than seawater but each group has unique Sr isotopic signature. Waters expelled from group I mud volcanoes featured with low salinity and high Sr isotopic ratios ranged from 0.71150 to 0.71175. Groups II and III were outcroped in the Kutinkung formation but show distinctive chemical compositions. Group II fluids have four times Cl concentrations(358-522mM) compared with those of group III(85-162mM). The latter fluids appear to be more radiogenic(0.71012- 0.71075) indicating possible influence due to water-rock interactions. Low 87Sr/86Sr(0.70692-0.70939) is typical characteristic of mud volcano fluids in group IV where large Mg and K depletion were discovered, suggesting effects due to sediment diagenetic processes. The chemical compositions of mud volcano associated gasses show similar distribution pattern. The major gas constituents in mud volcano zones

  2. Experimental Evidence that Abrasion of Carbonate Sand is a Significant Source of Carbonate Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trower, L.; Kivrak, L.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate mud is a major sedimentary component of modern and ancient tropical carbonate environments, yet its enigmatic origin remains debated. Early views on the origin of carbonate mud considered the abrasion of carbonate sand during sediment transport as a possible mechanism. In recent decades, however, prevailing thought has generally settled on a binary explanation: 1) precipitation of aragonite needles within the water column, and 2) post-mortem dispersal of biological aragonite, in particular from algae, and perhaps aided by fish. To test these different hypotheses, we designed a model and a set of laboratory experiments to quantify the rates of mud production associated with sediment transport. We adapted a recent model of ooid abrasion rate to predict the rate of mud production by abrasion of carbonate sand as a function of grain size and sediment transport mode. This model predicts large mud production rates, ranging from 103 to 104 g CaCO3/m2/yr for typical grain sizes and transport conditions. These rate estimates are at least one order of magnitude more rapid than the 102 g CaCO3/m2/yr estimates for other mechanisms like algal biomineralization, indicating that abrasion could produce much larger mud fluxes per area as other mechanisms. We tested these estimates using wet abrasion mill experiments; these experiments generated mud through mechanical abrasion of both ooid and skeletal carbonate sand for grain sizes ranging from 250 µm to >1000 µm over a range of sediment transport modes. Experiments were run in artificial seawater, including a series of controls demonstrating that no mud was produced via homogenous nucleation and precipitation in the absence of sand. Our experimental rates match the model predictions well, although we observed small systematic differences in rates between abrasion ooid sand and skeletal carbonate sand that likely stems from innate differences in grain angularity. Electron microscopy of the experimental products revealed

  3. A geochemical study on mud volcanoes in the Junggar Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Ryoichi, E-mail: ryo-nakada@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Takahashi, Yoshio [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Tsunogai, Urumu [Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-10 Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Zheng Guodong [Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 382 West Donggang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Shimizu, Hiroshi [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Hattori, Keiko H. [Department of Earth Science, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Gases released from Xinjiang mud volcanoes are dominated by thermogenic origin. > Secondary microbial activities occurring closer to the surface dramatically changed the {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CO2}. > The water-rock interaction occurred at deeper level than gas and petroleum reservoir. - Abstract: A comprehensive study was performed to characterize, for the first time, the mud, water, and gases released from onshore mud volcanoes located in the southern margin of the Junggar Basin, northwestern China. Chemical compositions of mud, along with the geology of the basin, suggest that a source of the mud is Mesozoic or Cenozoic shale. Oxygen and H isotope compositions of the released water suggest a local meteoric origin. Combined with the positive Eu anomalies of the water, a large {sup 18}O shift of the water suggests extensive interaction with rocks. Gases discharged from the mud volcanoes are predominantly thermogenic hydrocarbons, and the high {delta}{sup 13}C values (>+20 per mille VPDB) for CO{sub 2} gases and dissolved carbonate in muddy water suggest secondary methanogenesis with CO{sub 2} reduction after oil biodegradation. The enrichments of Eu and {sup 18}O in water and the low thermal gradient of the area suggest that the water-rock interactions possibly occur deeper than 3670 {+-} 200 m. On the other hand, considering the relationship to the petroleum reservoir around the mud volcanoes, the depth of the gases can be derived from about 3600 m, a depth that is greater than that generally estimated for reservoirs whose gas is characterized by {sup 13}C-enriched CO{sub 2}. Oil biodegradation with CO{sub 2} reduction likely occurs at a shallower depth along the seepage system of the mud volcano. The results contribute to the worldwide data set of gas genesis in mud volcanoes. Moreover, they further support the concept that most terrestrial mud volcanoes release thermogenic gas produced in very deep sediments and may be early indicators of oil

  4. Vacuum pumping concepts for ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homeyer, W.G.

    1980-09-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) poses unique vacuum pumping requirements due to its large size and long burn characteristics. These requirements include torus vacuum pumping initially and between burns and pumping of neutralized gas from divertor collector chambers. It was found that the requirements could be met by compound cryopumps in which molecular sieve 5A is used as the cryosorbent. The pumps, ducts, and vacuum valves required are large but fit with other ETF components and do not require major advances in vacuum pumping technology. Several additional design, analytical, and experimental studies were identified as needed to optimize designs and provide better design definition for the ETF vacuum pumping systems

  5. The effect of barite mud on the division of the detector energy window in density logging while drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Sun Jianmeng; Yu Huawei; Jiang Dong; Zhang Jing

    2012-01-01

    In the litho-density logging, formation density and lithology were acquired by calculating the total counts in certain energy window. Therefore, the division of the energy window directly affects the evaluation of density and lithology value. In the process of the energy window division, mud type affects the determination of the range of energy window. In this work, Monte Carlo simulation method was applied to study the range of energy window regarding to water mud and barite mud, respectively. The results show that the range of the energy window with barite mud is less than that of the water mud, and lithology identification will have greater' error in the barite mud. It is important to analyze influencing factors and improve the measurement accuracy of the litho-density logging. (authors)

  6. Mud Volcanoes - Analogs to Martian Cones and Domes (by the Thousands!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Mud volcanoes are mounds formed by low temperature slurries of gas, liquid, sediments and rock that erupt to the surface from depths of meters to kilometers. They are common on Earth, with estimates of thousands onshore and tens of thousands offshore. Mud volcanoes occur in basins with rapidly-deposited accumulations of fine-grained sediments. Such settings are ideal for concentration and preservation of organic materials, and mud volcanoes typically occur in sedimentary basins that are rich in organic biosignatures. Domes and cones, cited as possible mud volcanoes by previous authors, are common on the northern plains of Mars. Our analysis of selected regions in southern Acidalia Planitia has revealed over 18,000 such features, and we estimate that more than 40,000 occur across the area. These domes and cones strongly resemble terrestrial mud volcanoes in size, shape, morphology, associated flow structures and geologic setting. Geologic and mineralogic arguments rule out alternative formation mechanisms involving lava, ice and impacts. We are studying terrestrial mud volcanoes from onshore and submarine locations. The largest concentration of onshore features is in Azerbaijan, near the western edge of the Caspian Sea. These features are typically hundreds of meters to several kilometers in diameter, and tens to hundreds of meters in height. Satellite images show spatial densities of 20 to 40 eruptive centers per 1000 square km. Many of the features remain active, and fresh mud flows as long as several kilometers are common. A large field of submarine mud volcanoes is located in the Gulf of Cadiz, off the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Spain. High-resolution sonar bathymetry reveals numerous km-scale mud volcanoes, hundreds of meters in height. Seismic profiles demonstrate that the mud erupts from depths of several hundred meters. These submarine mud volcanoes are the closest morphologic analogs yet found to the features in Acidalia Planitia. We are also conducting

  7. Study of Hydrogen Pumping through Condensed Argon in Cryogenic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadeja, K A; Bhatt, S B

    2012-01-01

    In ultra high vacuum (UHV) range, hydrogen is a dominant residual gas in vacuum chamber. Hydrogen, being light gas, pumping of hydrogen in this vacuum range is limited with widely used UHV pumps, viz. turbo molecular pump and cryogenic pump. Pre condensed argon layers in cryogenic pump create porous structure on the surface of the pump, which traps hydrogen gas at a temperature less than 20° K. Additional argon gas injection in the cryogenic pump, at lowest temperature, generates multiple layers of condensed argon as a porous frost with 10 to 100 A° diameters pores, which increase the pumping capacity of hydrogen gas. This pumping mechanism of hydrogen is more effective, to pump more hydrogen gas in UHV range applicable in accelerator, space simulation etc. and where hydrogen is used as fuel gas like tokamak. For this experiment, the cryogenic pump with a closed loop refrigerator using helium gas is used to produce the minimum cryogenic temperature as ∼ 14° K. In this paper, effect of cryosorption of hydrogen is presented with different levels of argon gas and hydrogen gas in cryogenic pump chamber.

  8. Cellular immune responses and phagocytic activity of fishes exposed to pollution of volcano mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risjani, Yenny; Yunianta; Couteau, Jerome; Minier, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Since May 29, 2006, a mud volcano in the Brantas Delta of the Sidoarjo district has emitted mud that has inundated nearby villages. Pollution in this area has been implicated in detrimental effects on fish health. In fishes, leukocyte and phagocytic cells play a vital role in body defenses. We report for the first time the effect of "LUSI" volcano mud on the immune systems of fish in the Brantas Delta. The aim of this study was to find biomarkers to allow the evaluation of the effects of volcanic mud and anthropogenic pollution on fish health in the Brantas Delta. The study took places at the Brantas Delta, which was polluted by volcano mud, and at reference sites in Karangkates and Pasuruan. Leukocyte numbers were determined using a Neubauer hemocytometer and a light microscope. Differential leukocyte counts were determined using blood smears stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa, providing neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Macrophages were taken from fish kidney, and their phagocytic activity was measured. In vitro analyses revealed that leukocyte and differential leukocyte counts (DLC) were higher in Channa striata and Chanos chanos caught from the polluted area. Macrophage numbers were higher in Oreochromis mossambicus than in the other species, indicating that this species is more sensitive to pollution. In areas close to volcanic mud eruption, all specimens had lower phagocytic activity. Our results show that immune cells were changed and phagocytic activity was reduced in the polluted area indicating cytotoxicity and alteration of the innate immune system in fishes exposed to LUSI volcano mud and anthropogenic pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Solar pumped laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.; Weaver, W. R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar pumped laser is described in which the lasant is a gas that will photodissociate and lase when subjected to sunrays. Sunrays are collected and directed onto the gas lasant to cause it to lase. Applications to laser propulsion and laser power transmission are discussed.

  10. Cryogenic vacuum pump design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, A.J.; Lessard, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a review of the problems and tradeoffs involved in cryogenic vacuum pump analysis, design and manufacture. Particular attention is paid to the several issues unique to cryopumps, e.g., radiation loading, adsorption of noncondensible gases, and regeneration. A general algorithm for cryopump design is also proposed. 12 references

  11. Pump monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes how to set up a periodic vibration monitoring program implemented with electronic data loggers. Acquired data will be analyzed and evaluated to determine pump condition. Periodic measuring frequency, reporting procedures, and conditions of mechanical components are discussed in detail based on the actual case study

  12. Magnetic-flux pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density.

  13. Putzmeister pumps for Tchernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Self-propelling concrete pumps are briefly described in this article, they comprise a 52-meter boom, a radiation protection, remote control, videocameras. Several units were ordered by the Soviet Union. The truck cabin is protected against radiation by a 10 millimeter thick shield in lead. 3 photographs [fr

  14. Scroll vacuum pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Etsuo; Suganami, Takuya; Nishida, Mitsuhiro; Kitora, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Sakuei; Fujii, Kosaburo

    1988-02-25

    An effort is made to apply a scroll machine to development of a vacuum pump. In view of mechanical simplification and load patterns, the vacuum pump uses a rotating mechanism to produce paired vortices rotating around each center. Chip seal and atmospheric pressure are utilized for axial gap sealing while a spring and atmospheric pressure for the radial gap sealing. In both gaps, the sealing direction is stationary relative to the environment during rotation, making it much easier to achieve effective sealing as compared to oscillating pumps. Since the compression ratio is high in vacuum pumps, a zero top clearance form is adopted for the central portion of vortices and an gas release valve is installed in the rotating axis. A compact Oldham coupling with a small inertia force is installed behind the vortices to maintain the required phase relations between the vortices. These improvements result in a vacuum of 1 Pa for dry operation and 10/sup -2/ Pa for oil flooded operation of a single-stage scroll machine at 1800 rpm. (5 figs, 1 tab, 4 refs)

  15. Centrifugal blood pump 603

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Centrifugal blood pump 603 pressure obtained for real blood, as shown in figure 6, is a little higher than that for glycerin aqua Solution with the same viscosity as blood. This may indicate the effect of slight non-. Newtonian turbulent flow. The radial whirl motion of the impeller was observed by dual laser position sensors.

  16. Impulse pumping modelling and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, B; Gudmundsson, J S

    2010-01-01

    Impulse pumping is a new pumping method based on propagation of pressure waves. Of particular interest is the application of impulse pumping to artificial lift situations, where fluid is transported from wellbore to wellhead using pressure waves generated at wellhead. The motor driven element of an impulse pumping apparatus is therefore located at wellhead and can be separated from the flowline. Thus operation and maintenance of an impulse pump are facilitated. The paper describes the different elements of an impulse pumping apparatus, reviews the physical principles and details the modelling of the novel pumping method. Results from numerical simulations of propagation of pressure waves in water-filled pipelines are then presented for illustrating impulse pumping physical principles, and validating the described modelling with experimental data.

  17. Reactor recirculation pump test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taka, Shusei; Kato, Hiroyuki

    1979-01-01

    A test loop for a reactor primary loop recirculation pumps (PLR pumps) has been constructed at Ebara's Haneda Plant in preparation for production of PLR pumps under license from Byron Jackson Pump Division of Borg-Warner Corporation. This loop can simulate operating conditions for test PLR pumps with 130 per cent of the capacity of pumps for a 1100 MWe BWR plant. A main loop, primary cooling system, water demineralizer, secondary cooling system, instrumentation and control equipment and an electric power supply system make up the test loop. This article describes the test loop itself and test results of two PLR pumps for Fukushima No. 2 N.P.S. Unit 1 and one main circulation pump for HAZ Demonstration Test Facility. (author)

  18. Pyrolysis and thermal oxidation kinetics of sugar mill press mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangavati, P.B.; Safi, M.J.; Singh, A.; Prasad, B.; Mishra, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    Press mud, a solid waste obtained from the sugar mills, has the potential of energy generation through pyrolysis and gasification. The paper reports its proximate and ultimate analyses, deformation and fusion ash temperatures, lower and higher heating values, physico-chemical and thermal degradation in nitrogen and air atmospheres. The thermal degradation was conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer from room temperature to 900 deg C at heating rates of 20 and 40 K min -1 . The thermogravimetric, derivative thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses were carried out to determine the rate of volatiles evolution, the effect of heating rates on the thermal degradation characteristics and to determine the global mass loss kinetics of thermal degradation. The thermal degradation was found to occur in several distinct phases: each phase giving volatile evolution in an independent parallel lump. Each decomposition phase was modeled by a single irreversible reaction with respect to the solid mass. Global mass loss kinetics was also determined for the entire decomposition process, as if occurring in one single step. The integral and differential techniques were used for the determination of kinetic parameters. Using the method of Agrawal and Sivasubramanian [R.K. Agrawal, M.S. Sivasubramanian, AIChE J. 33 (1987) 7] for the total degradation zone, the orders of reaction were found in the range of 1.00-2.50 in both the atmospheres (i.e. nitrogen and air) and the activation energy in the range of 27.84-33.44 and 57.41-88.92 kJ mol -1 in nitrogen and air, respectively. The pre-exponential factor was found in the range of 32.1-95.1 and 5.10 x 10 4 to 5.46 x 10 9 min -1 in nitrogen and air atmospheres, respectively

  19. Sludge pumping in water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Manuel, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In water treatment processes is frequent to separate residual solids, with sludge shape, and minimize its volume in a later management. the technologies to applicate include pumping across pipelines, even to long distance. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the management of these sludges is very important because their characteristics affect load losses calculation. Pumping sludge can modify its behavior and pumping frequency can concern treatment process. This paper explains advantages and disadvantages of different pumps to realize transportation sludge operations. (Author) 11 refs.

  20. Vivitron dead section pumping tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heugel, J.; Bayet, J.P.; Brandt, C.; Delhomme, C.; Krieg, C.; Kustner, F.; Meiss, R.; Riehl, R.; Roth, C.; Schlewer, B.; Six, P.; Weber, A.

    1990-10-01

    Pumping tests have been conducted on a simulated accelerator dead section. The behavior of different pump types are compared and analyzed. Vacuum conditions to be expected in the Vivitron are reached and several parameters are verified. Selection of a pump for the Vivitron dead section is confirmed

  1. Heat pumps are a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The fact that heat pumps do not achieve what their manufacturers promise in costs efficiency has been realized by the market. In 1981 the sales of heat pumps decreased by 50% of the 1980 market. Public utilities give the reason as economic, since fuel oil is too cheap. The author refutes this argument and presents arguments against heat pumps.

  2. Effect of Lubrication on Sliding Wear of Red Mud Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy 6061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Panwar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In present study, Red mud, an industrial waste, has been utilized as a reinforcement material to fabricate Aluminium 6061 matrix based metal matrix composite. Taguchi L18 orthogonal array has been employed for fabrication of composite castings and for conducting the tribological experimentation. ANOVA analysis has been applied to examine the effect of individual parameters such as sliding condition: dry and wet, reinforcement weight fraction, load, speed, and sliding distance on specific wear rate obtained experimentally. It has been found that tensile strength and impact energy increases while elongation decreases, with increasing weight fraction and decrease in particle size of red mud. The percentage contribution of the effect of factors on SWR is Sliding condition (73.17, speed (7.84, percentage reinforcement (7.35, load (5.75, sliding distance (2.24, and particle size (1.25. It has also been observed that specific wear rate is very low in wet condition. However, it decreases with increase in weight fraction of reinforcement, decrease in load and sliding speed. Al6061/red mud metal matrix composites have shown reasonable strength and wear resistance. The use of red mud in Aluminium composite provides the solution for disposal of red mud and can possibly become an economic replacement of Aluminium and its alloys.

  3. Influence of calcined mud on the mechanical properties and shrinkage of self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Taieb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of SCC has a particular interest in terms of sustainable development. Indeed, their specific formulation leads to a greater volume of dough than for common concretes, thus, a larger quantity of cement. However, for economical, ecological and technical reasons, it is sought to limit their cement content [1]. It is therefore necessary to almost always use mineral additions as a partial replacement for cement because the technology of self-compacting concretes can consume large quantities of fines, in this case calcinated mud issued from dams dredging sediments that can give and/or ameliorate characteristics and performances of this type of concretes. Four SCCs had been formulated from the same composition where the only percentage of calcinated mud of Chorfa (west of Algeria dam changed (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. The effect of calcinated mud on characteristics at fresh state of SCC according to AFGC was quantified. Mechanical strengths and shrinkage deformation (total, autogenous, drying were evaluated. The results show the possibility to make SCCs with different dosages of calcinated mud having strengths that can defy those of the control SCC. The analysis of free deformations indicates the beneficial impact of the mud by contributing to decrease the amplitudes of the shrinkage compared to those of the control SCC.

  4. Red mud enhances methanogenesis with the simultaneous improvement of hydrolysis-acidification and electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jie; Hu, Andong; Ren, Guoping; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Shungui

    2018-01-01

    The role of red mud in the improvement of methanogenesis during sludge anaerobic digestion was innovatively investigated in this study. The results demonstrated that the addition of 20g/L red mud resulted in a 35.5% increase in methane accumulation. Red mud effectively promoted the hydrolysis-acidification of organic compounds in the sludge, which resulted in the increase of protein, polysaccharide, and VFAs by 5.1-94.5%. The activities of key enzymes were improved by 41.4-257.3%. Electrochemical measurements presented direct evidence that the electrical conductivity was significantly improved with red mud. More conductive magnetite was formed during the secondary mineralization after Fe(III) reduction by Fe (III)-reducing genes such as Clostridiaceae and Ruminococcaceae. The higher conductivity enhanced the electron transfer between the syntrophic bacteria (Geobacteraceae) and methanogens (Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina), and then improved the methanogenesis. This research provides a novel perspective on the synergism between sludge and red mud for methane production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of alumina refinery waste (red mud) through neutralization techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, K L; Agnihotri, A

    2017-06-01

    In the Bayer process of extraction of alumina from bauxite, the insoluble product generated after bauxite digestion with sodium hydroxide at elevated temperature and pressure is known as 'red mud' or 'bauxite residue'. This alumina refinery waste is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5 and is conventionally disposed of in mostly clay-lined land-based impoundments. The alkaline constituents in the red mud impose severe and alarming environmental problems, such as soil and air pollution. Keeping in view sustainable re-vegetation and residue management, neutralization/treatment of red mud using different techniques is the only alternative to make the bauxite residue environmentally benign. Hence, neutralization techniques, such as using mineral acids, acidic waste (pickling liquor waste), coal dust, superphosphate and gypsum as amenders, CO 2 , sintering with silicate material and seawater for treatment of red mud have been studied in detail. This paper is based upon and emphasizes the experimental work carried out for all the neutralization techniques along with a comprehensive review of each of the processes. The scope, applicability, limitations and feasibility of these processes have been compared exhaustively. Merits and demerits have been discussed using flow diagrams. All the techniques described are technically feasible, wherein findings obtained with seawater neutralization can be set as a benchmark for future work. Further studies should be focused on exploring the economical viability of these processes for better waste management and disposal of red mud.

  6. Dependence of radon emanation of red mud bauxite processing wastes on heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobbagy, V.; Somlai, J.; Kovacs, J.; Szeiler, G.; Kovacs, T.

    2009-01-01

    Natural radioactivity content, radon emanation and some other physical characteristics of red mud were investigated, so that to identify the possibilities of the safe utilization of such material as a building material additive. Based on the radionuclide concentration, red mud is not permitted to be used directly as a building material, however, mixing of a maximum 20% red mud and 80% clay meets the requirements. The main aim of this work was to determine the dependence of the emanation factor of red mud firing temperature and some other parameters. The relevant experimental procedure was carried out in two different ways: without any additional material, and by adding a known amount of sawdust (5-35 wt%) then firing the sample at a given temperature (100-1000 deg. C). The average emanation factor of the untreated dry red mud was estimated to 20%, which decreased to about 5% at a certain heat treatment. Even lower values were found using semi-reductive atmosphere. It has been concluded that all emanation measurements results correlate well to the firing temperature, the specific surface and the pore volume.

  7. Radiological aspects of the usability of red mud as building material additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somlai, Janos; Jobbagy, Viktor; Kovacs, Jozsef; Tarjan, Sandor; Kovacs, Tibor

    2008-01-01

    Several researchers have examined and achieved favourable results in connection with the building industry's use of red mud extracted in large quantities from the processing of bauxite. These days more and more precedence is being given to limiting the radiological dose to the population. In this study carried out in Hungary, the use of red mud, bauxite, and clay additives recommended for the production of special cements, were examined from a radiological aspect. 226 Ra and 232 Th activity concentrations measured in Hungarian bauxite, red mud and clay samples were significantly similar with the levels for such raw materials mentioned in international literature. Taking radiation protection aspects into consideration, none of these products can be directly used for building construction. Taking Hungarian and international values into consideration, a small amount of red mud, not exceeding 15% could be used for brick production, for example as a colouring material. However, beyond this amount the standards for building materials would not be met. For the production of cements an even stricter limit needs to be determined when both bauxite and red mud are used

  8. Clinical and anti-aging effect of mud-bathing therapy for patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toyoki; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Makino, Naoki

    2017-12-06

    Spa bathing is known as a medical treatment for certain diseases causing chronic pains. Spa water contains mineral components which lower the specific heat of the water, resulting in a higher efficiency to warm body-core temperature. This phenomenon yields pain-relieving effect for rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, sciatic neuralgia, fibromyalgia, etc. Here we introduce medical and biological effects of mud-spa-bathing therapy for fibromyalgia other than pain relief, the changes of blood examination data, and the telomere length of circulating leukocytes. The enrolled 7 patients with fibromyalgia syndrome were hospitalized and were subject to daily mud bathing at 40 °C for 10 min for about a month. Then, their subjective pain was reduced to about a quarter in average. They also showed lowered serum triglyceride and C-reactive protein level, maintaining the levels of aspartate transaminase and creatine phosphokinase, and increases of the red blood cell count, the serum albumin level, and the serum LDL-cholesterol level in comparison with cases without mud-bathing therapy, suggesting that mud bathing prevents inflammation and muscle atrophy and improves nutritional condition in fibromyalgia. In addition, the analysis of telomere length of peripheral leukocytes revealed a trend of negative correlation between telomere shortening and laboratory data change of hemoglobin and serum albumin. These telomeric changes can be explained hypothetically by an effect of mud bathing extending life-span of circulating leukocytes.

  9. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon mud volcano (Nile deep-sea fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Felden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Amon mud volcano (MV, located at 1250 m water depth on the Nile deep-sea fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the Amon MV center in the presence of sulfate and hydrocarbons in the seeping subsurface fluids. By comparing spatial and temporal patterns of in situ biogeochemical fluxes, temperature gradients, pore water composition, and microbial activities over 3 yr, we investigated why the activity of anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders can be low despite high energy supplies. We found that the central dome of the Amon MV, as well as a lateral mud flow at its base, showed signs of recent exposure of hot subsurface muds lacking active hydrocarbon degrading communities. In these highly disturbed areas, anaerobic degradation of methane was less than 2% of the methane flux. Rather high oxygen consumption rates compared to low sulfide production suggest a faster development of more rapidly growing aerobic hydrocarbon degraders in highly disturbed areas. In contrast, the more stabilized muds surrounding the central gas and fluid conduits hosted active anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities. The low microbial activity in the hydrocarbon-vented areas of Amon MV is thus a consequence of kinetic limitations by heat and mud expulsion, whereas most of the outer MV area is limited by hydrocarbon transport.

  10. Pumping characteristics of roots blower pumps for light element gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, Seiji; Abe, Tetsuya; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Nakamura, Jun-ichi; Ohbayashi, Tetsuro

    2002-07-01

    The pumping speed and compression ratio of the two-stage roots blower pumping system were measured for light element gases (H 2 , D 2 and He) and for N 2 , in order to assess validity of the ITER torus roughing system as an ITER R and D task (T234). The pumping system of an Edwards EH1200 (nominal pumping speed of 1200 m 3 /s), two EH250s (ibid. 250 m 3 /s) and a backing pump (ibid. 100 m 3 /s) in series connection was tested under PNEUROP standards. The maximum pumping speeds of the two-stage system for D 2 and N 2 were 1200 and 1300 m 3 /h, respectively at 60 Hz, which satisfied the nominal pumping speed. These experimental data support the design validity of the ITER torus roughing system. (author)

  11. Rotating head for air, gas and mud drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruitt, A.B.

    1983-05-17

    A rotating head assembly having roller thrust bearings rotatably journaling an inner barrel is provided with pump means for continuous forced circulation of lubricating oil to, and around, the thrust bearings during operation. A lubricating oil chamber substantially surrounds the bearings, which chamber is effectively sealed against leakage of oil fluids, and other debris, into the chamber and lubricating oil out of the chamber. The lower end of the rotatably journaled inner barrel is provided with a stripper rubber structured to enable use of the head with drill pipe of diverse outer diameters.

  12. Electroosmotic pumps for microflow analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiayan; Wang, Shili; Gendhar, Brina; Cheng, Chang; Byun, Chang Kyu; Li, Guanbin; Zhao, Meiping; Liu, Shaorong

    2009-01-01

    With rapid development in microflow analysis, electroosmotic pumps are receiving increasing attention. Compared to other micropumps, electroosmotic pumps have several unique features. For example, they are bi-directional, can generate constant and pulse-free flows with flow rates well suited to microanalytical systems, and can be readily integrated with lab-on-chip devices. The magnitude and the direction of flow of an electroosmotic pump can be changed instantly. In addition, electroosmotic pumps have no moving parts. In this article, we discuss common features, introduce fabrication technologies and highlight applications of electroosmotic pumps. PMID:20047021

  13. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.J.; Pennell, W.E.; Wasko, J.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance

  14. Thermo-electric pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, J.-L.; Veyret, J.-F.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a thermo-pump for electrically conductive liquid fluids, e.g. for a liquid metal such as sodium. This pump is characterized in that the piping for the circulation of the conductive liquid is constituted by a plurality of conduits defined by two co-axial cylinders and two walls parallel to their axis. Each conduit limited outside by a magnet, inside by a mild-iron tube, and laterally by two materials forming a thermocouple. The electric current generated by that thermo-couple and the magnetic flux generated by the magnets both loop the loop through an outer cylindrical nickel shell. This can be applied to sodium circulation loops for testing nuclear fuel elements [fr

  15. Heat pumps: heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, R

    1976-01-01

    The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.

  16. Water displacement mercury pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  17. Pocket pumped image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V., E-mail: kotov@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Murray, N. [Centre for Electronic Imaging, Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The pocket pumping technique is used to detect small electron trap sites. These traps, if present, degrade CCD charge transfer efficiency. To reveal traps in the active area, a CCD is illuminated with a flat field and, before image is read out, accumulated charges are moved back and forth number of times in parallel direction. As charges are moved over a trap, an electron is removed from the original pocket and re-emitted in the following pocket. As process repeats one pocket gets depleted and the neighboring pocket gets excess of charges. As a result a “dipole” signal appears on the otherwise flat background level. The amplitude of the dipole signal depends on the trap pumping efficiency. This paper is focused on trap identification technique and particularly on new methods developed for this purpose. The sensor with bad segments was deliberately chosen for algorithms development and to demonstrate sensitivity and power of new methods in uncovering sensor defects.

  18. FTU pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrini, C.; Ciotti, M.; Mattei, A. De; Maddaluno, G.; Mazzitelli, G.

    1989-01-01

    The control of the refuelling and recycling of the plasma is crucial in providing enhanced performances in tokamaks and steady-state operation in future reactors. In this paper, we report details of the design and analysis for the pump limiter to be incorporated into the FTU tokamak. The FTU, presently under commissioning, is a compact high field (B=8T), medium high density, circular cross section machine with small accesses. The dimensions of the equatorial port (width 8 cm) would reduce the length of the entrance throat to a few centimeters, which is unacceptable for efficient particle trapping. We have, therefore, designed a rotating blade of the pump limiter head that, in the working position, extends in the toroidal direction inside the vacuum chamber. (author) 8 refs., 4 figs

  19. Geothermal heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.; Tinti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, for several types of buildings and users, the choice of conditioning by heat pump and low enthalpy geothermal reservoir has been increasing in the Italian market. In fact, such systems are efficient in terms of energy and consumption, they can perform, even at the same time, both functions, heating and cooling and they are environmentally friendly, because they do not produce local emissions. This article will introduce the technology and will focus on critical points of a geothermal field design, from actual practice, to future perspectives for the geo exchanger improvement. Finally, the article presents a best practice case in Bologna district, with an economic analysis showing the convenience of a geothermal heat pump. Conclusions of the real benefits of these plants can be drawn: compared to a non-negligible initial cost, the investment has a pay-back period almost always acceptable, usually less than 10 years. [it

  20. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and...

  1. 14 CFR 23.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 23.991 Section 23.991... § 23.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the following apply: (1) For reciprocating engine installations having fuel pumps to supply fuel to the engine, at least one pump for each engine must be directly...

  2. Provenance discrimination of sediments in the Zhejiang-Fujian mud belt, East China Sea: Implications for the development of the mud depocenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiting; Li, Anchun; Dong, Jiang; Lu, Jian; Huang, Jie; Wan, Shiming

    2018-01-01

    In the past decade, the 800 km elongated mud belt off Zhejiang-Fujian coast, East China Sea (ECS), has been extensively studied for understanding the source to sink processes on the East Asian continental margin in the context of the Asian monsoon. However, to better understand the sediment source and dispersal pattern, the existing mineralogical and geochemical data of adjacent river systems, including the Changjiang River (CJR) and local rivers in Zhejiang, Fujian and Taiwan, need to be systematically reviewed. Therefore, various indicators from published literatures for the provenance discrimination in the mud belt have been summarised in this article. The results show that high diversity of clay mineral assemblages in fluvial sediments being supplied into the mud belt, e.g., dominant illite and chlorite in the CJR, absence of smectite in Taiwan rivers, similar amounts of the four clay mineral species in Zhejiang rivers, and dominant kaolinite in Fujian rivers. On heavy mineralogy, the CJR is dominated by dolomite, hornblende, and flaky minerals; and among of them, dolomite is distinctive for the CJR. For geochemical approaches, elemental compositions, combined with strontium and neodymium isotopes, reflect strong provenance control. However, geochemical and mineralogical compositions are found to vary with grain size, and thus extra caution should be taken when using these parameters as provenance indicator to discriminate the marine sediments with variety of grain-size fractions. In addition, pyrrhotite, occurred in fluvial sediments from western Taiwan, has not been found in sediments derived from mainland China, indicating that magnetic parameters could be used to discriminate sediment provenance. The mud belt formed during sea-level highstand, when modern current system in the ECS has been established, resulting in sediments derived from the CJR have been transported southward since 8 ka. In addition, sediment provenances have not been constant since

  3. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  4. IRRIGATION USING SOLAR PUMP

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Nitin P.Choudhary*1 & Ms. Komal Singne2

    2017-01-01

    In this report the described design of a PV and soil moisture sensor based automated irrigation system is introduced. This project aims to provide a human friendly, economical and automated water pumping system which eliminates the problems of over irrigation and helps in irrigation water optimization and manage it in accordance with the availability of water. Our project not only tries to modernize the irrigation practices and ensure the optimum yield by carefully fulfilling the requirements...

  5. Small size ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyranski, R.; Kiliszek, Cz.R.; Marks, J.; Sobolewski, A.; Magielko, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes some designs of the two versions ion pumps and their range operation for various magnetic fields. The first version is made with different cell size in the anode element and titanium cathode operating in magnetic field from 600 to 650 Gs and the second version with the same anode element but differential Ti/Ta cathode working in magnetic field above 1200 Gs

  6. A nonlinear model for the fluidization of marine mud by waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, M.A.; Hunt, J.R.; Chou, Hsien-Ter (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

    1993-04-15

    The authors consider the problem of fluidization of mud deposits in shallow waters due to interactions with water waves. This is of increasing interest because of concerns that water pollutants, including heavy metals, pesticides, etc., are often found near surfaces of mud deposits. The authors look at the question of whether the cohesive properties of mud deposits exhibit nonlinear properties when they experience strains from water wave interactions. It is obvious that with large enough wave interactions the deposits become fluidized, and are not in that case truly nonlinear. In their modeling efforts they try to incorporate these ideas into a cohesive model where the magnitude of the water wave-sediment interaction has an influence on the type of response within the system.

  7. Gas nad mud volcanism formation as a result of geodynamic development of the Black sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrievsky, A.N.; Karakin, A.V.; Kazmin, V.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Fluidodynamic model of moving of gas-mud mixture accompanied by eruptions of mud volcanoes and gas bursts is firstly demonstrated by the example of the Black sea basin. The entire spectrum of gas bursts can be divided into gas and mud-fluid volcanoes. Emanation of hydrocarbon gases during the eruptions accompanied by powerful exploison, bursts of gas, water and fragments of rocks as well as by issue of breccia are typical for the first type of volcanoes. It was suggested that the eastern part of the Black sea forms block or subplate moving to the northeast. This conclusion is important for estimation of seismic and connected geological hazard in the studied region. It was established that deformations and seismicity were mainly confined to the edges of the East Black sea subplate while in its inner part the level of seismic activity is considerably lower.

  8. Topicality and possibilities for complete processing of red mud of aluminous production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Л. Трушко

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the aluminum industry, the largest amount of waste is red mud (RM. that is a solid bauxite residue after hydrochemical processing and extraction of alumina. The topicality of its processing was shown by the ecological catastrophe in Hungary (2010, where the bund wall of the slurry storage was destroyed and the viscous mass of fine red mud fell on thousands of hectares of land.The risks of a recurrence of such a catastrophe increase due to the increased natural disasters: earthquakes, torrential rains and floods, as well as terrorist attacks. Therefore, it is proposed to exclude the storage of red mud in sludge storages and organize its shipment in transportable form to processing complexes.The article presents the results of scientific research and the experience of complex processing of red sludge on an industrial scale with the production of new types of marketable products.

  9. Catalytic hydroliquefaction of biomass with red mud and CoO-MoO sub 3 catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klopries, B.; Hodek, W.; Bandermann, F. (Universitaet-Gesamthochschule Essen, Essen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie)

    1990-04-01

    Rye straw was completely hydroliquefied, using red mud or CoO-MoO{sub 3} as the catalyst. Red mud catalyst exhibited a satisfactory activity only in the presence of sulphur at {approx} 673 K. Depending on reaction conditions, different amounts of gaseous and liquid products were formed. Their product distributions were comparable to those obtained in hydroliquefaction of cellulose and lignin. All results could be described by a model which assumed that: pyrolysis precedes hydrogenation of pyrolysis products; CO and CO{sub 2} are products of pyrolysis reaction; and hydrogen is consumed mainly in hydrodeoxygenation reactions. Therefore, from a practical point of view, red mud, which is known as a coal liquefaction catalyst, can also be recommended as a cheap and powerful catalyst in the hydroliquefaction of biomass. 29 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Taxonomic confirmation of mud crab species (genus Scylla) in Bangladesh by nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarower, Mohammed Golam; Shahriar, Sheik Istiak Md; Nakamura, Hiromasa; Rouf, Muhammad Abdur; Okada, Shigeru

    2017-11-01

    Taxonomy of mud crabs genus Scylla has been misidentified for several years due to their high morphological plasticity. Several reports concerning mud crab have been published with misleading identification in Bangladesh. In this study, partial fragments of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of Scylla species obtained from four locations along the Bangladesh coast were used to resolve taxonomical ambiguity of mud crab species. A single PCR product from the nuclear first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) marker and phylogenetic trees constructed based on 16S rDNA sequences indicated that all Scylla species obtained in this study were S. olivacea. Both molecular data and morphological characters revealed that S. olivacea is the only major species in Bangladesh coastal waters. Further, the 16S rDNA haplotypes significantly differed with known S. serrata by 33%. From this study it is clear that 'S. serrata' commonly reported from Bangladesh should be S. olivacea.

  11. Environmental control of drilling mud discharge through dewatering in cold weather climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtanowicz, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents results of an experimental study into the effect of drilling mud temperature upon the dewatering performance. Three temperature ranges were considered: from flowline temperature to room temperature, from room temperature to freezing point, and the freeze (4 degrees F)/thaw (54 degrees F) cycle. The tested drilling fluids included unweighted and weighted fresh water muds and a weighted salt water mud. a sealed laboratory batch reactor was used in the experiments to prevent rapid vaporization of separated water at temperatures above 140 degrees F. Also, ice or ice-salt baths were utilized for deep freezing. The dewaterability (net water removal) was measured with a bench-top plate press under constant expression pressure 30 psi

  12. Mud Volcanoes in the Martian Lowlands: Potential Windows to Fluid-Rich Samples from Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2009-01-01

    The regional setting of the Chryse-Acidalia area augurs well for a fluid-rich subsurface, accumulation of diverse rock types reflecting the wide catchment area, astrobiological prospectivity, and mud volcanism. This latter provides a mechanism for transporting samples from relatively great depth to the surface. Since mud volcanoes are not associated with extreme heat or shock pressures, materials they transport to the surface are likely to be relatively unaltered; thus such materials could contain interpretable remnants of potential martian life (e.g., organic chemical biomarkers, mineral biosignatures, or structural remains) as well as unmetamorphosed rock samples. None of the previous landings on Mars was located in an area with features identified as potential mud volcanoes (Fig. 3), but some of these features may offer targets for future missions aimed at sampling deep fluid-rich strata with potential habitable zones.

  13. Effect of red mud addition on the corrosion parameters of reinforced concrete evaluated by electrochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Red mud, the main waste generated in aluminum and alumina production from bauxite ore by the Bayer process, is considered "hazardous" due to its high pH. The high pH also provides greater protection of rebars, which is reflected in the low corrosion potential and high electrical resistivity (filler effect of concrete. The corrosion potential was monitored by electrochemical measurements and the electrical resistivity was evaluated using sensors embedded in concrete test specimens. The results showed that the addition of red mud is beneficial to concrete, reducing its corrosion potential and increasing its electrical resistivity. Red mud proved to be a promising additive for concrete to inhibit the corrosion process.

  14. Sedimentology and geochemistry of mud volcanoes in the Anaximander Mountain Region from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talas, Ezgi; Duman, Muhammet; Küçüksezgin, Filiz; Brennan, Michael L; Raineault, Nicole A

    2015-06-15

    Investigations carried out on surface sediments collected from the Anaximander mud volcanoes in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea to determine sedimentary and geochemical properties. The sediment grain size distribution and geochemical contents were determined by grain size analysis, organic carbon, carbonate contents and element analysis. The results of element contents were compared to background levels of Earth's crust. The factors that affect element distribution in sediments were calculated by the nine push core samples taken from the surface of mud volcanoes by the E/V Nautilus. The grain size of the samples varies from sand to sandy silt. Enrichment and Contamination factor analysis showed that these analyses can also be used to evaluate of deep sea environmental and source parameters. It is concluded that the biological and cold seep effects are the main drivers of surface sediment characteristics from the Anaximander mud volcanoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pumping potential wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E. Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, such structures all must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well. Nevertheless, steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which 'pump' ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electro collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density multidipole plasma is considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important.

  16. Pumping potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E.Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, all such structures must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well. Nevertheless, steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which pump ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electron collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density, multidipole plasma are considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two-dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important

  17. Pumping potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E.Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, such structures all must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well, but steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which 'pump' ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electron collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density multidipole plasma are considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important. (author)

  18. Jet operated heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    A jet pump system is shown that utilizes waste heat to provide heating and/or cooling. Waste heat diverted through a boiler causes a refrigerant to evaporate and expand for supersonic discharge through a nozzle thereby creating a vacuum in an evaporator coil. The vacuum draws the refrigerant in a gaseous state into a condensing section of a jet pump along with refrigerant from a reservoir in a subcooled liquid form. This causes condensation of the gas in a condensation section of the jet pump, while moving at constant velocity. The change in momentum of the fluid overcomes the system high side pressure. Some of the condensate is cooled by a subcooler. Refrigerant in a subcooled liquid state from the subcooler is fed back into the evaporator and the condensing section with an adequate supply being insured by the reservoir. The motive portion of the condensate is returned to the boiler sans subcooling. By proper valving start-up is insured, as well as the ability to switch from heating to cooling

  19. Controlling groundwater pumping online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekri, Slim

    2009-08-01

    Groundwater over-pumping is a major problem in several countries around the globe. Since controlling groundwater pumping through water flow meters is hardly feasible, the surrogate is to control electricity usage. This paper presents a framework to restrict groundwater pumping by implementing an annual individual electricity quota without interfering with the electricity pricing policy. The system could be monitored online through prepaid electricity meters. This provides low transaction costs of individual monitoring of users compared to the prohibitive costs of water flow metering and monitoring. The public groundwater managers' intervention is thus required to determine the water and electricity quota and watch the electricity use online. The proposed framework opens the door to the establishment of formal groundwater markets among users at very low transaction costs. A cost-benefit analysis over a 25-year period is used to evaluate the cost of non-action and compare it to the prepaid electricity quota framework in the Batinah coastal area of Oman. Results show that the damage cost to the community, if no active policy is implemented, amounts to (-$288) million. On the other hand, the implementation of a prepaid electricity quota with an online management system would result in a net present benefit of $199 million.

  20. Liquid sodium pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    The pump for use in a nuclear reactor cooling system comprises a booster stage impeller for drawing the liquid through the inlet. A diffuser is affixedly disposed within the pump housing to convert the kinetic pressure imparted to the liquid into increased static pressure. A main stage impeller is rotatively driven by a pump motor at a relatively high speed to impart a relatively high static pressure to the liquid and for discharging the liquid at a relatively high static pressure. A hydraulic coupling is disposed remotely from the liquid path for hydraulically coupling the main stage impeller and the booster stage impeller to rotate the booster stage impeller at a relatively low speed to maintain the low net positive suction pressure applied to the liquid at the inlet greater than the vapor pressure of the liquid and to ensure that the low net positive suction heat, as established by the main stage impeller exceeds the vapor pressure. The coupling comprises a grooved drum which rotates between inner and outer drag coupling members. In a modification the coupling comprises a torque converter. (author)

  1. Electrocentrifugal pumping; Bombeo electrocentrifugo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Perez, Guillermo; Medellin Otero, Hector [Instituto Mexicano del Peroleo (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The exploitation of isolated oil deposits, in losing their own energy, enter a phase of secondary recovery. One of the technologies of new development in Mexico is the one of electrocentrifugal pumping , which consists of introducing the motor-pump as an integral part of the production pipe down to the well bottom and pumping directly up to central complexes, from where it is sent inland. In the present paper is intended to explain what this type of secondary recovery consists of. [Spanish] La explotacion de yacimientos aislados de petroleo, al perder su energia propia, entran en una fase de recuperacion secundaria. Una de las tecnologias de nuevo desarrollo en Mexico es la de bombeo electrocentrifugo, la cual consiste en introducir la motobomba como parte integral de la tuberia de produccion hasta el fondo del pozo y bombearlo directamente hasta los complejos centrales, de donde se envia a tierra. En el presente trabajo se pretende explicar en que consiste este tipo de recuperacion secundaria.

  2. Optically pumped terahertz sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Kai; SHI Wei; XU DeGang; LIU PengXiang; WANG YuYe; MEI JiaLin; YAN Chao; FU ShiJie; YAO JianQuan

    2017-01-01

    High-power terahertz (THz) generation in the frequency range of0.1-10 THz has been a fast-developing research area ever since the beginning of the THz boom two decades ago,enabling new technological breakthroughs in spectroscopy,communication,imaging,etc.By using optical (laser) pumping methods with near-or mid-infrared (IR) lasers,flexible and practical THz sources covering the whole THz range can be realized to overcome the shortage of electronic THz sources and now they are playing important roles in THz science and technology.This paper overviews various optically pumped THz sources,including femtosecond laser based ultrafast broadband THz generation,monochromatic widely tunable THz generation,single-mode on-chip THz source from photomixing,and the traditional powerful THz gas lasers.Full descriptions from basic principles to the latest progress are presented and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed as well.It is expected that this review gives a comprehensive reference to researchers in this area and additionally helps newcomers to quickly gain understanding of optically pumped THz sources.

  3. Engineered covers for mud pit closures Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    Two abandoned drilling mud pits impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons were determined to require closure action at the Central Nevada Test Area. The UC-4 Mud Pit C is approximately 0.12 hectares (0.3 acres) and 1.2 meters (4 feet) in depth. The UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) is approximately 1.54 hectares (3.8 acres) and 2.4 meters (8 feet) in depth. Both mud pits contain bentonite drilling muds with a thin dry crust, low shear strength, low permeability, and high moisture content. The following closure methodologies were evaluated: stabilization by mixing/injection with soil, fly ash, and lime; excavation and disposal; on-site drying; thermal destruction; wick drains; administrative closure (postings and land-use restrictions); and engineered covers. Based upon regulatory closure criteria, implementation, and cost considerations, the selected remedial alternative was the construction of an engineered cover. A multilayered cover with a geo-grid and geo-synthetic clay liner (GCL) was designed and constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit C to evaluate the constructability and applicability of the design for the CMP cover. The geo-grid provided structural strength for equipment and material loads during cover construction, and the GCL was used as a moisture infiltration barrier. The design was determined to be constructable and applicable. To reduce project costs for the CMP cover, a vegetative cover was designed with drainage toward the center of the cover rather than the perimeter. The vegetative cover with the internal drainage design resulted in a fill volume reduction of approximately 63 percent compared to the multilayered cover design with a GCL

  4. Practical application of failure criteria in determining safe mud weight windows in drilling operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gholami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wellbore instability is reported frequently as one of the most significant incidents during drilling operations. Analysis of wellbore instability includes estimation of formation mechanical properties and the state of in situ stresses. In this analysis, the only controllable parameter during drilling operation is the mud weight. If the mud weight is larger than anticipated, the mud will invade into the formation, causing tensile failure of the formation. On the other hand, a lower mud weight can result in shear failures of rock, which is known as borehole breakouts. To predict the potential for failures around the wellbore during drilling, one should use a failure criterion to compare the rock strength against induced tangential stresses around the wellbore at a given mud pressure. The Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion is one of the commonly accepted criteria for estimation of rock strength at a given state of stress. However, the use of other criteria has been debated in the literature. In this paper, Mohr–Coulomb, Hoek–Brown and Mogi–Coulomb failure criteria were used to estimate the potential rock failure around a wellbore located in an onshore field of Iran. The log based analysis was used to estimate rock mechanical properties of formations and state of stresses. The results indicated that amongst different failure criteria, the Mohr–Coulomb criterion underestimates the highest mud pressure required to avoid breakouts around the wellbore. It also predicts a lower fracture gradient pressure. In addition, it was found that the results obtained from Mogi–Coulomb criterion yield a better comparison with breakouts observed from the caliper logs than that of Hoek–Brown criterion. It was concluded that the Mogi–Coulomb criterion is a better failure criterion as it considers the effect of the intermediate principal stress component in the failure analysis.

  5. Quantitative X-ray Diffraction (QXRD) analysis for revealing thermal transformations of red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong; Zeng, Lingmin; Shih, Kaimin

    2015-07-01

    Red mud is a worldwide environmental problem, and many authorities are trying to find an economic solution for its beneficial application or/and safe disposal. Ceramic production is one of the potential waste-to-resource strategies for using red mud as a raw material. Before implementing such a strategy, an unambiguous understanding of the reaction behavior of red mud under thermal conditions is essential. In this study, the phase compositions and transformation processes were revealed for the Pingguo red mud (PRM) heat-treated at different sintering temperatures. Hematite, perovskite, andradite, cancrinite, kaolinite, diaspore, gibbsite and calcite phases were observed in the samples. However, unlike those red mud samples from the other regions, no TiO2 (rutile or anatase) or quartz were observed. Titanium was found to exist mainly in perovskite and andradite while the iron mainly existed in hematite and andradite. A new silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) phase was found in samples treated at temperatures above 1100°C, and two possible formation pathways for SFCA were suggested. This is the first SFCA phase to be reported in thermally treated red mud, and this finding may turn PRM waste into a material resource for the iron-making industry. Titanium was found to be enriched in the perovskite phase after 1200°C thermal treatment, and this observation indicated a potential strategy for the recovery of titanium from PRM. In addition to noting these various resource recovery opportunities, this is also the first study to quantitatively summarize the reaction details of PRM phase transformations at various temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanism of red mud combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jiakuan; Yu, Wenbo; Luo, Sen; Peng, Li; Shen, Xingxing; Shi, Yafei; Zhang, Shinan; Song, Jian; Ye, Nan; Li, Ye; Yang, Changzhu; Liang, Sha

    2014-08-01

    Red mud was evaluated as an alternative skeleton builder combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning. The results show that red mud combined with Fenton's reagent showed good conditioning capability with the pH of the filtrate close to neutrality, indicating that red mud acted as a neutralizer as well as a skeleton builder when jointly used with Fenton's reagent. Through response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal dosages of Fe(2+), H2O2 and red mud were proposed as 31.9, 33.7 and 275.1 mg/g DS (dry solids), respectively. The mechanism of the composite conditioner could be illuminated as follows: (1) extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), including loosely bound EPS and tightly bound EPS, were degraded into dissolved organics, e.g., proteins and polysaccharides; (2) bound water was released and converted into free water due to the degradation of EPS; and (3) morphology of the conditioned sludge exhibited a porous structure in contrast with the compact structure of raw sludge, and the addition of red mud formed new mineral phases and a rigid lattice structure in sludge, allowing the outflow of free water. Thus, sludge dewatering performance was effectively improved. The economic assessment for a wastewater treatment plant of 370,000 equivalent inhabitants confirms that using red mud conditioning, combined with Fenton's reagent, leads to a saving of approximately 411,000 USD/y or 50.8 USD/t DS comparing with using lime and ordinary Portland cement combined with Fenton's reagent, and approximately 612,000 USD/y or 75.5 USD/t DS comparing with the traditional treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of laser textured silicon surface and effect of mud adhesion on hydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B.S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa [ME Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Kfupm box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Ali, H. [ME Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Kfupm box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khaled, M. [CHEM Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Aqeeli, N.; Abu-Dheir, N. [ME Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Kfupm box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Varanasi, K.K. [Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Laser treatment increases surface microhardness and slightly lowers surface fracture toughness. • Residual stress formed is compressive and self-annealing effect of laser tracks lowers residual stress. • Nitride species lowers surface energy and adhesion work required to remove dust. • Mud residues do not have notable effect on fracture toughness and microhardness of treated surface. • Mud residues lower surface hydrophobicity. - Abstract: Laser gas assisted texturing of silicon wafer surface is carried out. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the treated layer are examined using the analytical tools. Microhardness and fracture toughness of the laser treated surface are measured using the indentation technique while residual stress formed is determined from the X-ray diffraction data. The hydrophobicity of the textured surfaces are assessed incorporating the contact angle data and compared with those of as received workpiece surfaces. Environmental dust accumulation and mud formation, due to air humidity, at the laser treated and as received workpiece surfaces are simulated and the effect of the mud residues on the properties of the laser treated surface are studied. The adhesion work due to the presence of the mud on the laser treated surface is also measured. It is found that laser textured surface composes of micro/nano poles and fibers, which in turn improves the surface hydrophobicity significantly. In addition, formation of nitride species contributes to microhardness increase and enhancement of surface hydrophobicity due to their low surface energy. The mud residues do not influence the fracture toughness and microhardness of the laser textured surface; however, they reduced the surface hydrophobicity significantly.

  8. Production and characterization of red mud based on glasses for the immobilization of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Heveline

    2015-01-01

    Glasses based on red mud, a residual material from bauxite processing, were developed and characterized in this work. In order to promote its use, a minimum 60 wt% of red mud was used in the production of the glasses. According to XRD results, materials containing considerable amorphous phases were produced when using red mud as raw material. These amorphous phases were observed even though crystalline phases associated to Fe coming from the red mud itself were present. The material denominated 60L40S, which has a nominal composition of 60 wt% red mud showed the best properties comparing with the others compositions studied. However, these materials presented a high melting temperature. Changes in the composition of this material were made with the objective of lowering this temperature. Results indicated that the changes made to the material were successful in the reduction of the melting temperature. However, a reduction in the chemical properties of the resulting material was observed. Elements usually found in the chemical composition of nuclear wastes were added to the glasses produced. It was done with the objective of determining the effect of these elements on the chemical and physical properties of the red mud based glasses obtained. It was found that it was possible to add up to 15 wt% of these elements to the materials produced. The addition of these simulant materials promoted a reduction in the melting temperature of the resulting material. Above 15 wt%, the added elements precipitate in the structure of the resulting material. Even though the reduction in the chemical durability of the 60L40S material when simulant elements were added, it was observed that this material contained the simulant elements confined in its structure when in contact with water. This is a promising result, since it indicates that the 60L40S has the potential to immobilize elements from nuclear wastes . (author)

  9. Composites based on PET and red mud residues as catalyst for organic removal from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bento, Natálya I.; Santos, Patrícia S.C. [Science and Technology Institute, Federal University of Alfenas, Rodovia José Aurélio Vilela, 11999, BR 267, Km 533, CEP 37715-400 Poços de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Souza, Talita E. de; Oliveira, Luiz C.A. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Castro, Cínthia S., E-mail: cinthia.soares.castro@gmail.com [Science and Technology Institute, Federal University of Alfenas, Rodovia José Aurélio Vilela, 11999, BR 267, Km 533, CEP 37715-400 Poços de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Composite based on carbon/iron oxide from PET and red mud wastes for organic contaminants oxidation. • Composites are mainly composed of hematite and a carbon matrix from PET decomposition. • RM/PET-15 presents the highest methylene blue (MB) removal from water, by combined adsorption and oxidation processes. • The dye oxidation was confirmed by ESI-MS studies. • The RM/PET catalysts can be reused for at least four batch runs. - Abstract: In this study, we obtained a composite based on carbon/iron oxide from red mud and PET (poly(ethylene terephthalate)) wastes by mechanical mixture (10, 15 and 20 wt.% of PET powder/red mud) followed by a controlled thermal treatment at 400 °C under air. XRD analyses revealed that the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the main phase formed from red mud. TPR analyses showed that the iron oxide present in the composites undergoes reduction at lower temperature to form Fe{sup 2+} species present in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, indicating that the iron oxide in the composite can exhibit greater reactivity in the catalytic processes compared to the original red mud. In fact, catalytic tests showed that the composites presented higher capacity to remove methylene blue dye (MB), presenting about 90% of removal after 24 h of reaction. The MB removal was also monitored by mass spectrometer with ionization via electrospray (ESI-MS), which demonstrated the occurrence of the oxidation process, showing the formation of MB oxidation products. The stability of the composites was confirmed after four reuse cycles. The results seem to indicate that PET carbon deposited over the iron oxide from red mud promotes adsorption of the contaminant allowing its contact with the iron atoms and their consequent reaction.

  10. POTENTIAL FOR INVASION OF UNDERGROUND SOURCES OF DRINKING WATER THROUGH MUD-PLUGGED WELLS: AN EXPERIMENTAL APPRAISAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of the feasibility study described here was to test the hypothesis that properly plugged wells are effectively sealed by drilling mud. In The process of testing the hypothesis, evidence about dynamics of building mud cake on the wellbore-face was obtained, as ...

  11. Effects of drilling muds on behavior of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, in water column and substrate exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atema, J; Leavitt, D F; Barshaw, D E; Cuomo, M C

    1982-01-01

    Studies were conducted to explore the effects of drilling muds on various aspects of lobster behavior directly related to survival in the field. Toxicity of different drilling muds varied from immediately lethal to adult lobsters to apparently harmless to postlarval stages, with a variety of intermediate effects. Both the chemical toxicity in the water column and the physical effects of covering the substrate with drilling mud were studied, and both interfered with normal lobster behavior. The studies are mainly concerned with postlarval lobsters (stages IV and V), just after settling on the bottom. They were tested in 36-d chronic exposures (7 mg/L) and in seminatural aquaria with 1-mm layers of drilling mud covering the substrate. Toxicity in the water column manifested itself in feeding and molting delays, severe delays in shelter construction, increased walking and swimming, unprovoked tail flipping, and lethargy. A natural bay mud used as a control caused no such effects. Physical effects of substrate cover were apparent in experiments with 1-, 2-, and 4-mm layers of drilling mud and similar layers of a mixture of bentonite and barite covering a natural mud substrate. In depths of 4mm both kinds of substrate cover caused severe delays in shelter construction and in quality of burrows constructed. Thus, substrates with 4-mm to perhaps as little as 1-mm covering of drilling mud may cause increased exposure of lobsters to predators and currents, resulting in the substrate becoming unsuitable for lobster settling and survival.

  12. Stock of immobilized metals in 'Jose Antonio Alzate' dam mud sediment samples in the State of Mexico, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, S.A.; Avila-Perez, P.

    1997-01-01

    'Jose Antonio Alzate' dam mud sediment samples were collected from six sampling sites. The samples were analyzed by combining multielemental studies with structural details, including heating to very high temperatures. Characterization of mud sediment samples have been shown to have low concentrations of metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb). No systematic trend was observed as a function of the sampling points. (author)

  13. Mud Gas Logging In A Deep Borehole: IODP Site C0002, Nankai Trough Accretionary Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toczko, S.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Maeda, L.

    2014-12-01

    Mud logging, a tool in riser drilling, makes use of the essentially "closed-circuit" drilling mud flow between the drilling platform downhole to the bit and then back to the platform for analyses of gas from the formation in the drilling mud, cuttings from downhole, and a range of safety and operational parameters to monitor downhole drilling conditions. Scientific riser drilling, with coincident control over drilling mud, downhole pressure, and returning drilling mud analyses, has now been in use aboard the scientific riser drilling vessel Chikyu since 2009. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 348, as part of the goal of reaching the plate boundary fault system near ~5000 mbsf, has now extended the deep riser hole (Hole C0002 N & P) to 3058.5 mbsf. The mud gas data discussed here are from two approximately parallel boreholes, one a kick-off from the other; 860-2329 mbsf (Hole C0002N) and 2163-3058 mbsf (Hole C0002P). An approximate overlap of 166 m between the holes allows for some slight depth comparison between the two holes. An additional 55 m overlap at the top of Hole C0002P exists where a 10-5/8-inch hole was cored, and then opened to 12-1/4-inch with logging while drilling (LWD) tools (Fig. 1). There are several fault zones revealed by LWD data, confirmed in one instance by coring. One of the defining formation characteristics of Holes C0002 N/P are the strongly dipping bedding planes, typically exceeding 60º. These fault zones and bedding planes can influence the methane/ethane concentrations found in the returning drilling mud. A focused comparison of free gas in drilling mud between one interval in Hole C0002 P, drilled first with a 10 5/8-inch coring bit and again with an 12 ¼-inch logging while drilling (LWD) bit is shown. Hole C0002N above this was cased all the way from the sea floor to the kick-off section. A fault interval (in pink) was identified from the recovered core section and from LWD resistivity and gamma. The plot of

  14. Active hydrocarbon (methane) seepage at the Alboran Sea mud volcanoes indicated by specific lipid biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; De Lange, G. J.; Martínez-Ruiz, F.; Comas, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) and pockmark fields are known to occur in the Alboran Basin (Westernmost Mediterranean). These MVs occur above a major sedimentary depocenter that includes up to 7 km thick early Miocene to Holocene sequences. MVs located on the top of diapiric structures that originated from undercompacted Miocene clays and olistostromes. Here we provide results from geochemical data-analyses of four gravity cores acquired in the Northern Mud Volcano Field (north of the 36°N): i.e. Perejil, Kalinin and Schneiderś Heart mud expulsion structures. Extruded materials include different types of mud breccias. Specific lipid biomarkers (n-alkanes, hopanes, irregular isoprenoid hydrocarbons and Dialkyl Glycerol Diethers (DGDs) were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Determination of Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers (GDGTs) by high performance liquid chromatography-spectrometry (HPLC-MS), and analysis of biomarker δ13C values were performed in selected samples. Lipid biomarker analysis from the three MVs revealed similar n-alkane distributions in all mud breccia intervals, showing significant hydrocarbon-derived signals and the presence of thermally immature organic-matter admixture. This suggests that similar strata fed these MVs. The hemipelagic drapes reveal comparable n-alkane distributions, suggesting that significant upward diffusion of fluids occurs. Distributions of GDGTs are generally accepted as usefull biomarkers to locate the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments. However, our GDGT profiles only reflect the marine thaumarchaeotal signature. There seems to be no archaea producing specific GDGTs involved in AOM in the recovered interval. Evidence of recent activity (i.e., methane gas-bubbling and chemosynthetic fauna at the Perejil MV) and the presence of specific lipid biomarker related with methanotropic archaea (Irregular Isoprenoids and DGDs), however, suggest the existence of

  15. Complex burrows of the mud shrimp Callianassa truncata and their geochemical impact in the sea bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebis, W.; Forster, S.; Huettel, M.

    1996-01-01

    the overlying water and rapid consumption within the sea bed, Macrofauna organisms living within the sea bed affect the physical structure of the sea floor, its chemical zonations and the exchange processes across the sediment-water interface(3,4). Thalassinidean mud-shrimps are often abundant in tropical......). Here we report the use of a diver observatory within the seabed, along with in situ measurements, to assess the geochemical impact of the mud-shrimp Callianassa truncata Giard and Bonnier (Decapoda, Thalassinidea), a species that commonly inhabits sandy sediments in the Mediterranean sea....

  16. Mariana Forearc Serpentine Mud Volcanoes Harbor Novel Communities of Extremophilic Archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, A. C.; Moyer, C. L.

    2005-12-01

    Since the Eocene (45 Ma) the Pacific Plate has been subducting beneath the Philippine Plate in the western Pacific ocean. This process has given rise to the Mariana Islands. As a direct result of this non-accretionary subduction, the Mariana Island Arc contains a broad forearc zone of serpentinite mud volcanoes located between the island chain and the trench. Forearc faulting, due to high pressure and low temperature build-up, produce slurries of mud and rock that mix with slab derived fluids and rise in conduits. Due to dehydration of the overlying mantle, native rock is converted to serpentinite, which squeezes out at fractures along the sea floor. This results in giant mud volcanoes (~30 km diameter and ~2 km high) that form a chain between 50 and 150 km behind the trench axis. Microbial samples were collected using Jason II from seven mud volcanoes along the length of the forearc and community fingerprinting was applied to genomic DNA using terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP). The resulting data were compared with traditional clone library and sequence analysis from samples obtained from the southernmost mud volcano, South Chamorro, site 1200, holes D and E, sampled during ODP Leg 195. The dominant archaeal phylotypes found clustered into two groups within the Methanobacteria, a class of anaerobic methanogens and methylotrophs. These phylotypes were detected at three of the seven mud volcanoes sampled and comprised 61% of the archaeal clone library from 1200 E. The first group was most closely related to the order Methanobacteriales, however, these novel phylotypes had similarity values of up to 0.90 at best with some resulting at 0.48. The second novel group of phylotypes were most closely related to order Methanosarcinales, with similarity values in the range of 0.50 to 0.22, indicating a relatively weak association with known phylotypes. At 1200 D, phylotypes associated with non-thermophilic Marine Group I Crenarchaeota were detected

  17. Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Jiau; Liu, Yuan; Sha, Zhongli; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Tin-Yam; Liu, Ruiyu; Cui, Zhaoxia

    2012-11-16

    The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea) are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea), Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea). All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major) and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles) share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome sequences and the distinct gene orders provide further

  18. Suspended matter and fluid mud off Alleppey, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Samiksha, S.V.; Vethamony, P.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Babu, M.T.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    ‘Alleppey Mudbank Process Studies (AMPS)’ during April-September 2014. Three stations (M1, M2 and M3; Fig. 1)3 to 3.5 km away from the coastwere selected for systematic time series data collection. Station M1 is located in the non-mud bank region. Station.... It is likely more than one process is involved in the formation of fluid mud. Acknowledgments The ‘Alleppey Mudbank Process Studies (AMPS-2014)’ has resulted from an initiative of the Director, CSIR-NIO. A series of discussions held with several colleagues...

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura A. Pastor

    2005-04-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 357 is comprised of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the NTS (Figure 1-1). The NTS is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 357 consists of 11 CASs that are mud pits located in Areas 7, 8, and 10. The mud pits were associated with drilling activities conducted on the NTS in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing. The remaining three CASs are boxes and pipes associated with Building 1-31.2el, lead bricks, and a waste dump. These CAS are located in Areas 1, 4, and 25, respectively. The following CASs are shown on Figure 1-1: CAS 07-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-01, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-06, Mud Pit, Stains, Material; CAS 01-99-01, Boxes, Pipes; CAS 04-26-03, Lead Bricks; and CAS 25-15-01, Waste Dump. The purpose of the corrective action activities was to obtain analytical data that supports the closure of CAU 357. Environmental samples were collected during the investigation to determine whether contaminants exist and if detected, their extent. The investigation and sampling strategy was designed to target locations and media most likely to be contaminated (biased sampling). A general site conceptual model was developed for each CAS to support and guide the investigation as outlined in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2003b). This CR

  20. Evaluation of the potential of red mud heat treated at 400 deg C in adsorption of reactive yellow 145 dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangueri, T.B.; Souza, K.C. de; Lima, V.F. de; Antunes, M.L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Red mud is the generic name for the industrial waste generated during the Bayer process. Storing this material can cause environmental damage and requires a large area for their disposal. Red mud has properties to be used in treatment of effluents. The red mud was dried and activated at 400°C. This work presents the characterization by pH, conductivity and zero charge potential of the red mud thermally activated. The assessment of adsorption capacity of this material to dye reactive Yellow 145 in pH 4 was done. The percentage of adsorption to concentrations of 500 mg/L of dye reaches 97%. This work presents results of adsorption isotherms, using the Langmuir model, and reaction kinetics. It is concluded that, in an acid medium, the red mud presents excellent potential of adsorption and could be an alternative material to absorb the Yellow 145 dye. (author)

  1. Comparison of authigenic carbonates formation at mud volcanoes and pockmarks in the Portuguese Margin vs. at the Yinazao serpentinite mud volcano in the Marianas forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, V. H.; Freitas, M.; Azevedo, M. R.; Pinheiro, L. M.; Salgueiro, E.; Abrantes, F. F. G.

    2017-12-01

    On the Portuguese passive continental margin, active and past seepage processes form mud volcanoes and pockmarks at the seafloor. Often associated with these structures are extensive methane-derived authigenic carbonates that form from deep-sourced methane-rich fluids that ascend from deep to the upper sedimentary column and often discharge at the seafloor. These carbonates form within the sediments and are either dominated by dolomite and high-Mg calcites, when formed under a restricted seawater circulation environment, anoxic and low sulphate conditions; or by aragonite and calcite when formed close to or at the seafloor in a high sulphate system. The δ13C values (-56.2‰ VPDB) found on the carbonate-cemented material clearly indicates methane as the major carbon source. On the Yinazao serpentinite mud volcano at an active, non-accretionary, convergent margin, sediment samples from IODP Sites U1491 and U1492 (Exp. 366) contain authigenic minerals such as aragonite, calcite, brucite, gypsum among others. Authigenic aragonite occurs predominantly within the top meters of the cores where both oxidation and seawater circulation in the sedimentary column are higher. In this system, initial results indicate that the major carbon source is most probably not methane but seawater related. This work discusses and compares the major carbon sources in both systems: sedimentary mud volcanoes and pockmarks of a passive margin vs. a serpentinite mud volcano of an active, non-accretionary, convergent margin. We acknowledge the support from the PES project - Pockmarks and fluid seepage in the Estremadura Spur: implications for regional geology, biology, and petroleum systems (PTDC/GEOFIQ/5162/2014) financed by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT).

  2. Supercritical waste oxidation pump investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, G.; Garcia, K.

    1993-02-01

    This report investigates the pumping techniques and pumping equipment that would be appropriate for a 5,000 gallon per day supercritical water oxidation waste disposal facility. The pumps must boost water, waste, and additives from atmospheric pressure to approximately 27.6 MPa (4,000 psia). The required flow ranges from 10 gpm to less than 0.1 gpm. For the higher flows, many commercial piston pumps are available. These pumps have packing and check-valves that will require periodic maintenance; probably at 2 to 6 month intervals. Several commercial diaphragm pumps were also discovered that could pump the higher flow rates. Diaphragm pumps have the advantage of not requiring dynamic seals. For the lower flows associated with the waste and additive materials, commercial diaphragm pumps. are available. Difficult to pump materials that are sticky, radioactive, or contain solids, could be injected with an accumulator using an inert gas as the driving mechanism. The information presented in this report serves as a spring board for trade studies and the development of equipment specifications

  3. Experimental Study on Series Operation of Sliding Vane Pump and Centrifugal Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tao; Zhang, Weiming; Jiang, Ming; Li, Zhengyang

    2013-01-01

    A platform for sliding vane pump and centrifugal pump tests is installed to study the series operation of them under different characteristics of pipeline. Firstly, the sliding vane pump and the centrifugal pump work independently, and the performance is recorded. Then, the two types of pumps are combined together, with the sliding vane pump acting as the feeding pump. Comparison is made between the performance of the independently working pump and the performance of series operation pump. Re...

  4. Using Integrated 2D and 3D Resistivity Imaging Methods for Illustrating the Mud-Fluid Conduits of the Wushanting Mud Volcanoes in Southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Yu Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted 2D and 3D looped resistivity surveys in the Wushanting Natural Landscape Preservation Area (WNLPA in order to understand the relationships of the mud-fluid conduits in the mud volcano system. 2D resistivity surveys were conducted along seven networked lines. Two separate C-shape looped electrode arrays surrounding the volcano craters were used in the study. First, the two 3D looped measurements were inverted separately. Yet the inverted 3D images of the mud-volcano system were inconsistent with the landscape features suggesting that artifacts perhaps appeared in the images. The 3D looped data were then combined with the 2D data for creating a global resistivity model of WNLPA. The resulting 3D image is consistent with the observed landscape features. With the resistivity model of WNLPA, we further tried to estimate the distribution of water content. The results suggest that the 3D resistivity image has the potential to resolve the dual porosity structures in the mudstone area. Last, we used a simplified WNLPA model for forward simulation in order to verify the field measurement results. We have concluded that the artifacts in the 3D looped images are in fact shadow effects from conductive objects out of the electrode loops, and that inverted images of combined 2D and 3D data provide detailed regional conductive structures in the WNLPA site.

  5. Analysis of the bacterial community in aged and aging pit mud of Chinese Luzhou-flavour liquor by combined PCR-DGGE and quantitative PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huipeng; Li, Wenfang; Luo, Qingchun; Liu, Chaolan; Wu, Zhengyun; Zhang, Wenxue

    2015-10-01

    The community structure of bacteria in aged and aging pit mud, which was judged according to their sensory and physicochemical characteristics, was analysed using polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Synergistetes and Unclassified Bacteria were detected and the fermentative Firmicutes was predominant in both types of pit mud in the PCR-DGGE analysis. Among Firmicutes, Clostridiales was dominant in aged pit mud while Bacillales and Lactobacillales were dominant in aging pit mud. The diversity of bacterial communities in aged pit mud was higher than that in aging pit mud. In the qPCR analysis the abundance of Clostridium IV in aged pit mud was higher than that in aging pit mud and there were significant differences in the quantity of Clostridium IV between aged and aging pit mud of the same cellar (P mud. The differences in the quantity of Clostridium IV might be involved in the distinction that the aged pit mud has a strong aroma while the aging pit mud does not. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Diode laser pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagerlund, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    A diode laser is pumped or pulsed by a repeated capacitive discharge. A capacitor is periodically charged from a dc voltage source via a transformer, the capacitor being discharged through the diode laser via a controlled switching means after one or more charging periods. During a first interval of each charging period the transformer, while unloaded, stores a specific amount of energy supplied from the dc voltage source. During a subsequent interval of the charging period said specific amount of energy is transmitted from the transformer to the capacitor. The discharging of the capacitor takes place during a first interval of a charging period. (auth)

  7. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topolgies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  8. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topologies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  9. Improvements relating to electromagnetic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.F.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to electromagnetic pumps suitable for use in pumping molten Na, and particularly to annular linear induction pumps that may for example be used to pump molten Na at temperatures up to 650 0 in situations where it is not possible to provide cooling. Previous designs of such pumps have employed disk-shaped coils around the outside of the annulus, the coils being energised from a three-phase power supply to produce a travelling radial field. The pump system described obviates the necessity for joints between the coils. It also allows the use of all types of high temperature insultation, simplified manufacture, and enables the windings to be located on the inside of the annulus. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  10. Fast breeder reactor electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araseki, Hideo; Murakami, Takahiro

    2008-01-01

    Main pumps circulating sodium in the FBR type reactor have been mechanical types, not electromagnetic pumps. Electromagnetic pump of 1-2 m 3 /min has been used as an auxiliary pump. Large sized electromagnetic pumps such as several hundred m 3 /min have not been commercialized due to technical difficulties with electromagnetic instability and pressure pulsations. This article explained electromagnetic and fluid equations and magnetic Reynolds number related with electromagnetic pumps and numerical analysis of instability characteristics and pressure pulsations and then described applications of the results to FBR system. Magnetic Reynolds number must be chosen less than one with appropriate operating frequency and optimum slip of 0.2-0.4. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Mechanical pumping at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perin, J.P.; Claudet, G.; Disdier, F.

    1994-12-31

    This new concept consists of a mechanical pump able to run at low temperature (25 K). Since gas density varies inversely with temperature, the pump could deliver much higher mass flow rate than at room temperature for a given size. Advantages of this concept are reduction of an order of magnitude in size and weight when compared to a conventional pump scaled to perform the same mass flow rate at room temperature. Results obtained at 80 K and 25 K with a Holweck type molecular drag pump of 100 mm diameter and with few stages of a turbomolecular pump running at the same temperatures, are given. This pump would be a solution to allow continuous tritium extraction and minimize the mass inventory for the ITER (International Tokamak Experiment Reactor). 5 figs., 2 tabs., 4 refs.

  12. Centrifugal pumps: fundamentals and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Manuel, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Centrifugal pumps are usually employed to impulse water to elevate it, dose it or give it pressure or speed. They can be used with clean water or loaded with high solid concentration and don't work properly with air or another gas flow. There are another less used pumps, coming from volumetric or ram pumps to magnetic ones for specific uses. Centrifugal ones are rotokinetic pumps, like peripherical or lateral channel pumps. They work in a different way that non rotational kinetic ones and static ones. The work approaches their pre definition, selection, installation, operation and maintenance. It also review their morphology, hidromechanic principles and the basic elements pumps are made of. (Author)

  13. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  14. Centrifugal pumps and allied machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1994-01-01

    This book will be of vital interest to all engineers and designers concerned with centrifugal pumps and turbines. Including statistical information derived from 20000 pumps and 700 turbines with capacities of 5gpm to 5000000gpm, this book offers the widest range and scope of information currently available. Statistical analyses suggest practical methods of increasing pump performance and provide valuable data for new design aspects.

  15. Effect of pump limiter throat on pumping efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, P.; Grosman, A.; Samain, A.; Capes, H.; Morera, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    The necessary control of plasma edge density has led to the development of pump limiters to achieve this task. On Tore Supra, where a large part of the program is devoted to plasma edge studies, two types of such density control apparatus have been implemented, a set of pump limiters and the pumps associated to the ergodic divertor (magnetically assisted pump limiters). Generally two different kinds of pump limiters can be used, those with a throat which drives the plasma from the open edge plasma (SOL) to the neutralizer plate, and those without or with a very short throat. We are interested here in this aspect of the pump limiter concept, i.e. on the throat effect on neutral density build-up in the vicinity of the pumping plates (and hence on pumping efficieny). The underlying idea of this throat effect can be readily understood; indeed while the neutral capture in pump limiters without throats is only a ballistic effect, on expects the plasma to improve the efficiency of pump-limiters via plasma-neutral-sidewall interactions in the throat. This problem has been studied both numerically and analytically. The paper is divided as follows. In section 2, we describe the basic features of pump-limiters which are modelized by the numerical code Cezanne. Section 3 is devoted to the throat length effect considering in particular the neutral density profile in the throat and the neutral density buil-up as a function of the throat lenght. In section 4, we show that the plugging effect occurs for reasonnable values of throat lengths. An analytical value of the plugging length is discussed and compared to the values obtained numerically

  16. Pump cavitation and inducer design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heslenfeld, M.W.; Hes, M. de

    2002-01-01

    Details of past work on sodium pump development and cavitation studies executed mainly for SNR 300 were reported earlier. Among the requirements for large sodium pumps are long life (200000 hours up to 300000 hours) and small size of impeller and pump, fully meeting the process and design criteria. These criteria are the required 'Q, H, r characteristics' in combination with a low NPSH value and the avoidance of cavitation damage to the pump. The pump designer has to develop a sound hydraulic combination consisting of suction arrangement, impeller design and diffuser. On the other hand the designer is free to choose an optimal pump speed. The pump speed in its turn influences the rotor dynamic pump design and the pump drive. The introduction of the inducer as an integral part of the pump design is based on following advantages: no tip cavitation; (possible) cavitation bubbles move to the open centre due to centrifugal forces on the fluid; the head of the inducer improves the inlet conditions of the impeller. The aim of an inducer is the increase in the suction specific speed (SA value) of a pump whereby the inducer functions as a pressure source improving the impeller inlet conditions. With inducer-impeller combinations values up to SA=15000 are realistic. With the use of an inducer the overall pump sizes can be reduced with Ca. 30%. Pumps commonly available have SA values up to a maximum of ca. 10000. A development programme was executed for SNR 300 in order to reach an increase of the suction specific speed of the impeller from SA 8200 to SA 11000. Further studies to optimize pumps design for the follow up line introduced the 'inducer acting as a pre-impeller' development. This programme was executed in the period 1979-1981. At the FDO premises a scale 1 2.8 inducer impeller combination with a suction specific speed SA=15000 was developed, constructed and tested at the water test rig. This water test rig is equipped with a perspex pipe allowing also visualisation

  17. Mechanical pumping at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perin, J.P.; Claudet, G.; Disdier, F.

    1995-01-01

    This novel concept consist of a mechanical pump able to run at low temperature (25K). Since gas density varies inversely with temperature, this pump would deliver much higher mass flow rate than at room temperature for a given size. Advantages of this concept are order of magnitude reduction in size, weight, when compared to a conventional pump scaled to perform the same mass flow rate at room temperature. This pump would be a solution to allow continuously tritium extraction and minimize the mass inventory. (orig.)

  18. Proper Sizing of Circulation Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust, but the r......The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust...

  19. High-vacuum plasma pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorodnov, A.M.; Minajchev, V.E.; Miroshkin, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    The action of an electric-arc high-vacuum pump intended for evacuating the volumes in which the operation processes are followed by a high gas evolution is considered. The operation of the pump is based on the principle of controlling the getter feed according to the gas load and effect of plasma sorbtion pumping. The pump performances are given. The starting pressure is about 5 Pa, the limiting residual pressure is about 5x10 -6 Pa, the pumping out rate of nitrogen in the pressure range 5x10 -5 -5x10 -3 Pa accounts for about 4000 l/s, the power consumption comes to 6 kW. Analyzing the results of the test operation of the pump, it has been concluded that its principal advantages are the high starting pressure, controlled getter feed rate and possibility of pumping out the gases which are usually pumped out with difficulty. The operation reliability of the pump is defined mainly by reliable operation of the ignition system of the vacuum arc [ru

  20. Mono pump equipment evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A mobile pump has been designed, developed, and tested as part of an effort to increase oil spill response time, improve oil/water recovery efficiency and reduce cleanup and reclamation costs. The pump is mounted on an engine powered track carrier, and can be detached from the carrier and skidded into remote spill sites or transported by helicopter. The pump can safely recover highly volatile flammable substances such as condensate and gasoline, as well as heavy crude oil up to 5000 centipoise viscosity. It can pump up to 30 gal/min at zero head, and up to 1000 feet in a vertical direction. 13 figs

  1. The efficacy of balneotherapy and mud-pack therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evcik, Deniz; Kavuncu, Vural; Yeter, Abdurrahman; Yigit, Ilknur

    2007-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic degenerative disorder. There are various treatment modalities. This study was planned to investigate the efficacy of balneotherapy, mud-pack therapy in patients with knee OA. A total of 80 patients with knee OA were included. Their ages ranged between 39-78. The patients were separated in to three groups. Group I (n=25) received balneotherapy, group II (n=29) received mud-pack therapy and group III (n=26) was hot-pack therapy group. The therapies were applied for 20 min duration, once a day, five times per week and a total of 10 session. Patients were assessed according to pain, functional capacity and quality of life parameters. Pain was assessed by using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain scale (0-4 likert scale). Functional capacity was assessed by using WOMAC functional capacity and WOMAC global index. Quality of life was evaluated by Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) self-administered questionnaire. Also physician's global assessment and the maximum distance that patient can walk without pain, were evaluated. The assessment parameters were evaluated before and after three months. There were statistically significant improvement in VAS and WOMAC pain scores in group I (pbalneotherapy and mud-pack therapy groups (p0.05). The maximum distance was improved both in group I and II (pBalneotherapy and mud-pack therapy were effective in treating patients with knee OA.

  2. A Mineralogical Assessment on Residues after Acidic Leaching of Bauxite Residue (Red Mud for Titanium Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Alkan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its alkalinity, red mud produced by the Bayer process may affect both the environment and human health. For this reason, its further utilization instead of disposal is of great importance. Numerous methods have already been studied for hydrometallurgical treatment of red mud, especially for the recovery of various metallic components such as iron, aluminum, titanium or rare earth elements. This study focuses on the extraction of titanium from red mud and in particular the mineralogical changes, induced by leaching. Sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and their combination have been utilized as leaching agents with the same leaching parameters. It has been determined that sulfuric acid is the best candidate for the red mud treatment in terms of titanium leaching efficiency at the end of 2 h with a value of 67.3%. Moreover, samples from intermediate times of reaction revealed that leaching of Ti exhibit various reaction rates at different times of reaction depending on acid type. In order to explain differences, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and QEMSCAN techniques were utilized. Beside titanium oxide (TiO2 with available free surface area, a certain amount of the TiO2 was detected as entrapped in Fe dominating oxide. These associations between Ti and Fe phases were used to explain different leaching reaction rates and a reaction mechanism was proposed to open a process window.

  3. Red mud addition in the raw meal for the production of Portland cement clinker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, P E; Agatzini-Leonardou, S; Oustadakis, P

    2004-12-10

    The aim of the present research work was to investigate the possibility of adding red mud, an alkaline leaching waste, which is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production, in the raw meal for the production of Portland cement clinker. For that reason, two samples of raw meals were prepared: one with ordinary raw materials, as a reference sample ((PC)Ref), and another with 3.5% red mud ((PC)R/M). The effect on the reactivity of the raw mix was evaluated on the basis of the unreacted lime content in samples sintered at 1350, 1400 and 1450 degrees C. Subsequently, the clinkers were produced by sintering the two raw meals at 1450 degrees C. The results of chemical and mineralogical analyses as well as the microscopic examination showed that the use of the red mud did not affect the mineralogical characteristics of the so produced Portland cement clinker. Furthermore, both clinkers were tested by determining the grindability, setting time, compressive strength and expansibility. The hydration products were examined by XRD analysis at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days. The results of the physico-mechanical tests showed that the addition of the red mud did not negatively affect the quality of the produced cement.

  4. Proposal for Implementing Multi-User Database (MUD) Technology in an Academic Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filby, A. M. Iliana

    1996-01-01

    Explores the use of MOO (multi-user object oriented) virtual environments in academic libraries to enhance reference services. Highlights include the development of multi-user database (MUD) technology from gaming to non-recreational settings; programming issues; collaborative MOOs; MOOs as distinguished from other types of virtual reality; audio…

  5. Cholesterol Effect on Survival and Development of Larval Mud Crab Scylla serrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD AGUS SUPRAYUDI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cholesterol on the survival and development of larval mud crab Scylla serrata were examined by feeding larvae with Artemia enriched with different level of cholesterol. Artemia enriched with four stated levels of cholesterol i.e., 0, 5, 10, and 20 ul/l (Chol 0, 5, 10, and 20. All treatments were mixed with DHA70G at 25 ul/l. All the oil was adjusted to 100 ul/l by adding the oleic acid. Survival rate, intermolt period, and carapace width at the fisrt crab stage of mud crab larvae fed Chol 0, 5, and 10 were higher compared to that of Chol 20 (P < 0.05. We suggest that free sterol contained in Artemia at 1.37% was harmful to the growth performance of mud crab larvae. This study suggests that mud crab larvae required at least 0.61% cholesterol for maintaining good survival and development and therefore no need to enrich Artemia by cholesterol for the practical purpose.

  6. Radioactivity of natural medicinal preparations contained extracts from peat mud available in retail trade used externally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska, Maria; Kapała, Jacek; Raciborska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Grzegorz; Milewska, Anna; Mnich, Stanisław

    2017-08-01

    In this work were identified and measured the activity of radioactive isotopes present in medicinal preparations from peat mud and estimated the doses obtained from them during therapy. Radioactivity of 22 preparations from peat mud and 20 water samples from water of the North-East region of Poland was studied. The median of the total activity was 24.8 Bq kg -1 . Total maximal isotope activity was observed in the Iwonicka Cube 146 Bq kg -1 while considerable amounts of isotopes were found in the Kolobrzeska Peat Mud Paste 112 Bq kg -1 . The doses obtained during therapy were within the range of 11 nSv-13 μSv depending on extracts of medicinal preparations from peat mud. The probability that such a small dose would stimulate biological effects is low. However, some clinicians believe that one of the possible therapeutic mechanisms in the treatment of rheumatoid disorders is the induction of immune response by ionising radiation.

  7. Experimental investigation of the influence of nanoparticles on water-based mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Paritosh; Cheng, Yaoze; Zhang, Yin; Patil, Shirish

    2018-03-01

    This study has investigated the influence of nanoparticles including nanoparticle concentration, size, and type on water-based mud (WBM) properties including rheology, filtration, and lubricity through experimental tests, while the influence of temperature and aging on these properties have been investigated. It has been found that adding SiO2 nanoparticles increase the plastic viscosity and decrease the yield points and gel strengths with the increase of nanoparticle concentration. At fixed 0.5 wt%, the plastic viscosity decreases with the increase of TiO2 nanoparticle size, but the influence of TiO2 nanoparticle size on yield points and gel strengths is not monotonous. In general, adding negative charged SiO2 nanoparticles reduce the yield points and gel strengths, while adding positively charged TiO2, Al2O3, and Fe3O4 nanoparticles increase yield points and gel strengths. Adding lower concentrations (mud filtration and lubricity properties, but higher concentrations are adverse to these properties and adding 0.5 wt% TiO2, Al2O3 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles impaired these properties. Besides, it is found that there is no consistent influence of aging on mud properties and adding nanoparticles cannot improve aging resistance of mud. Although adding nanoparticles can significantly affect WBM properties, their influences are not consistency, depending on the integrated impact of the nanoparticle properties, such as surface electrical property, specific surface area, concentration, and size.

  8. Mud volcanoes and gas hydrates in the Anaximander mountains (Eastern Mediterranean Sea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykousis, V.; Alexandri, S.; Woodside, J.M.; de Lange, G.; Dahlmann, A.; Perissoratis, C.; Heeschen, K.; Ioakim, Chr.; Sakellariou, D.; Nomikou, P.; Rousakis, G.; Casas, D.; Ballas, D.; Ercilla, G.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed multibeam, sedimentological, and geophysical surveys provide ample new data to confirm that the Anaximander Mountains (Eastern Mediterranean) are an important area for active mud volcanism and gas hydrate formation. More than 3000 km of multibeam track length was acquired during two recent

  9. Microbial stability of worm castings and sugarcane filter mud compost blended with biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic amendments such as worm castings and filter mud compost can provide nutrient rich substrates for enhanced plant growth. Physico-chemical and microbial stability of these substrates might be enhanced with the addition of biochar. A series of experiments was carried out to determine the stab...

  10. THE PROPOSED ALUMINA INDUSTRY AND HOW TO MITIGATE AGAINST THE RED MUD FOOTPRINT IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Y. Gawu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite tailings, also known as red mud, are often generated in vast quantities by extracting alumina from bauxites. The relatively complex composition of the red mud, an insoluble residue from bauxite processing, coupled with its fine particle size distribution, high pH, poor settling properties and some toxic rare metal associations, make its disposal problematic. Two locations are being considered for the sitting of a bauxite refinery in Ghana. Since large quantities of tailings is expected to be produced at a selected site efforts need to be geared towards its management to ensure that the red mud footprint is not repeated in Ghana as happened elsewhere. This paper considers the two proposed sites and applies a site ranking criteria to identify the most suitable site, as well as an environmentally suitable disposal technology based on the selected site conditions and the general red mud characteristics. This study could serve as a sustainable development approach in site selection and the choice of disposal technologies.

  11. Sublethal Toxic effects of spent Oil Based Drilling Mud and Cuttings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sublethal toxic effects of spent oil based drilling mud collected from an abandoned oil drilling site in Mpanak, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria were assessed in the earthworm Aporrectodea longa. The test annelid was exposed to sub-lethal Concentration of 0ppm SPP; 62,500ppm SPP; 125, 000ppm SPP; 250,000ppm SPP and ...

  12. Tracking hydrothermal feature changes in response to seismicity and deformation at Mud Volcano thermal area, Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, A. K.; Hurwitz, S.; Murphy, F.; Evans, W.

    2013-12-01

    The Mud Volcano thermal area in Yellowstone National Park comprises many hydrothermal features including fumaroles, mudpots, springs, and thermal pools. Observations of hydrothermal changes have been made for decades in the Mud Volcano thermal area, and include reports of significant changes (the appearance of new features, increased water levels in pools, vigor of activity, and tree mortality) following an earthquake swarm in 1978 that took place beneath the area. However, no quantitative method to map and measure surface feature changes through time has been applied. We present an analysis of aerial photographs from 1954 to present to track temporal changes in the boundaries between vegetated and thermally barren areas, as well as location, extent, color, clarity, and runoff patterns of hydrothermal features within the Mud Volcano thermal area. This study attempts to provide a detailed, long-term (>50 year) inventory of hydrothermal features and change detection at Mud Volcano thermal area that can be used to identify changes in hydrothermal activity in response to seismicity, uplift and subsidence episodes of the adjacent Sour Creek resurgent dome, or other potential causes.

  13. Effects of Temperature on the Density of Water Based Drilling Mud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    geothermal wells and for drilling deep wells. A systematic examination of rheological properties. (viscosity, Fluid loss, mud density, gel strength, pH, and yield ... gradient at the edge of the rider nearest to the fulcrum was read. The instrument is then clean and replaced. This process was repeated for a maximum temperature ...

  14. Viscous damping of solitary waves in the mud banks of Kerala, West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Murty, C.S.

    Analysis of wave damping in mud bank region following the process of transfer of wave energy to the interior of fluid column through the boundary layer and the energy loss computations owing to viscous shear beneath the solitary wave over a smooth...

  15. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon mud volcano (Nile deep-sea fan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felden, J.; Lichtschlag, A.; Wenzhöfer, F.; de Beer, D.; Feseker, T.; Pop Ristova, P.; de Lange, G.; Boetius, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Amon mud volcano (MV), located at 1250m water depth on the Nile deep-sea fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the

  16. Geology of mud volcanos in the Eastern Mediterranean from combined sidescan and submersible surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitter, T.A.C.; Huguen, C.; Woodside, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Submersible observations and seafloor mapping over areas of mud volcanism in the eastern Mediterranean Sea reveal an abundance of methane-rich fluid emissions, as well as specific seep-associated fauna (e.g. tubeworms, bivalves and chemosynthetic bacteria) and diagenetic deposits (i.e. carbonates

  17. Natural radioactivity in Egyptian and industrially used australian bauxites and its tailing red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahirm, N.; Abd el Maksoud, T.; El Ezaby, B.; Nada, A.; Abu Zeid, H.

    1999-01-01

    Red mud is produced in considerable masses as a waste product in the production of aluminum from bauxite. It may be used for industrial or agricultural purposes. According to it's genesis by weathering and sedimentation bauxites contain high concentrations of uranium and thorium. Three Egyptian bauxites, Australian industry used bauxite and its red mud tailing were analyzed by a high resolution gamma spectrometer, with a hyper pure germanium detector. The three Egyptian bauxites show high concentrations in uranium series, and around 120 Bq kg -1 for uranium -235. K-40 concentrations for these samples ranged from 289 to 575 Bq kg -1 . Thorium series concentrations show lower values. The industrially used bauxite shows very low concentrations for all radioactive nuclides. Its tailing red mud as a low level radioactive waste LLRW, shows low concentrations for uranium - series, thorium - series and also 40 K, so it is recommended to be used in industrial and agricultural purposes, which is not permissible for the normal red mud. (author)

  18. Toxicity of invert drilling muds composted with wood/bark chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessie, K. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Since the early to mid 1990s, many companies have composted invert (diesel) drilling muds with wood chips/bark chips in the green (forestry) zone as a method of drilling mud treatment. This presentation addressed the toxicity of invert drilling muds composted with wood/bark chips and provided some background on composted invert drilling mud (CIDM). EBA Engineering monitored 22 third-party sites in 2002, some of which were biopiles, and others land treatment areas (LTAs). Active treatment started between 1995 and 1999 and some LTAs were seeded with varying degrees of success. Composted materials had hydrocarbon odour and staining and were very moist. Materials exceeded Alberta Environment guidelines for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and sometimes barium. Most sites were within areas that had forestry production/wildlife as end land use. Receptors included plants, soil invertebrates by soil contact, and wildlife by ingestion. Stakeholder meetings were held for their input and an ecotoxicity study was developed. Material tested, tests and species used as well as results of the ecotoxicity study were presented. A comparison of results to other EBA composting studies was also given. It was concluded that CIDM affects the reproduction of earthworms and springtails, and plant growth; wood/barks chips themselves can be ecotoxic; and, other compost studies with finely ground sawdust and no bark chips had less ecotoxicity. tabs., figs.

  19. Observations of suspended sediment from ADCP and OBS measurements in a mud-dominated environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Hoekstra, P.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of a 1.2-MHz Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to measure suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and particle size variation in a mud-dominated environment has been investigated. Experiments were conducted in the Bay of Banten, Indonesia, where clays and silts in the range of 3-55

  20. Environmental aspect of oil and water-based drilling muds and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-03-19

    Mar 19, 2010 ... both oil based and water-based drilling wastes collected from the same depth were analyzed for metals. (iron, copper ... include well cuttings, drilling muds, formation water, cement slurry ..... in the drill wastes (2.38 mg/kg) (Figure 3d). The water .... Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF MUD/DIRT CARRYOUT ONTO PAVED ROADS FROM CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION ACTIVITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report characterizes fugitive dust generated by vehicular traffic on paved streets and highways resulting from mud/dirt carryout from unpaved areas as a primary source of PM-10 (particles = or < 10 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter), and evaluates three technologies for eff...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FUGITIVE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM CONSTRUCTION MUD/DIRT CARRYOUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a research program which directly determined mud/dirt carryout emission factors for both particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters of 10 micrometers or less (PM10) and PM with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5). The research was ...

  3. The use of cold shock in inducing triploidy in African mud catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study was conducted to induce triploidy in African mud catfish Clarias gariepinus using cold shock. The fertilized eggs were exposed at one temperature regime of 0°C with varied shock treatments of 0, 15, 25 and 30 min. Some 3 min after fertilization, the success of triploidy was determined by the presence or absence of ...

  4. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  5. Geochemistry and microbiology at gas hydrate and mud volcano sites in the black sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M.; Schmaljohann, R.; Wallmann, K.

    2003-04-01

    We present geochemical and microbiological results which were obtained from sediments at gas hydrate and mud volcano sites in the Sorokin Trough (northern Black Sea, south east of the Crimean peninsula) at water depths of about 1800 to 2100 m during the METEOR cruise 52-1. The surface near sub-bottom accumulations of gas hydrates (occuring at depths of several meters or less beneath the sea floor) in the Black Sea are associated with numerous mud volcanos. At stations we investigated gas hydrates occurred below 10 cm to 100 cm with a significant influence on the sediment biochemistry. Analyses revealed high methane concentrations, anoxic and sulfidic conditions, a steep sulfate gradient, carbonate precipitation, and high anaerobic methane oxidation rates. In proximity of the so called Odessa mud volcano one investigated sampling station showed maximum methane oxidation rates in the depth horizon of a firm 2 cm thick carbonate crust layer, adhered to by a bacterial mat. This observation is taken to indicate that the bacteria are causing or mediating the crust formation by their anaerobic methane oxidation metabolism. The station was further characterised by two layers of gas hydrate fragments and lenses below 1 m depth. A 2 to 4 cm thick carbonate crust with attached bacterial mat from a Yalta mud vulcano sample (2124 m water depth) was investigated under the scanning electron microscope. The stiff gelatinous mat showed a dense and morphologically uniform population of rod shaped bacteria with only a few nests of coccoid cells. Purified mat material exhibited anaerobic methane oxidation activity. These mats resemble the type previously found in the shallow NW methane seep area of the Black Sea, where it covers carbonate chimneys. Samples from two sites atop the summit of the active but flat-topped Dvurechenskii mud volcano were characterised by very high methane oxidation rates (up to 563 nmol/cm3/d) at the sediment surface. Strong pore water gradients of chloride

  6. Electricity generation from the mud by using microbial fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Sitinoor Adeib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs is a bio-electrochemical device that harnesses the power of respiring microbes to convert organic substrates directly into electrical energy. This is achieved when bacteria transfer electrons to an electrode rather than directly to an electron acceptor. Their technical feasibility has recently been proven and there is great enthusiasm in the scientific community that MFCs could provide a source of “green electricity”. Microbial fuel cells work by allowing bacteria to do what they do best, oxidize and reduce organic molecules. Bacterial respiration is basically one big redox reaction in which electrons are being moved around. The objective is to generate electricity throughout the biochemical process using chemical waste basically sludge, via microbial fuel cells. The methodology includes collecting sludge from different locations, set up microbial fuel cells with the aid of salt bridge and observing the results in voltage measurement. The microbial fuel cells consist of two chambers, iron electrodes, copper wire, air pump (to increase the efficiency of electron transfer, water, sludge and salt bridge. After several observations, it is seen that this MFC can achieve up until 202 milivolts (0.202volts with the presence of air pump. It is proven through the experiments that sludge from different locations gives different results in term of the voltage measurement. This is basically because in different locations of sludge contain different type and amount of nutrients to provide the growth of bacteria. Apart from that, salt bridge also play an important role in order to transport the proton from cathode to anode. A longer salt bridge will give a higher voltage compared to a short salt bridge. On the other hand, the limitations that this experiment facing is the voltage that being produced did not last long as the bacteria activity slows down gradually and the voltage produced are not really great in amount. Lastly to

  7. Survey of pumps for tritium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, T.M.

    1983-05-01

    This report considers many different types of pumps for their possible use in pumping tritium gas in the low, intermediate and high vacuum ranges. No one type of pump is suitable for use over the wide range of pumping pressure required in a typical pumping system. The favoured components for such a system are: bellows pump (low vacuum); orbiting scroll pump (intermediate vacuum); magnetically suspended turbomolecular pump (high vacuum); cryopump (high vacuum). Other pumps which should be considered for possible future development are: mound modified vane pump; SRTI wobble pump; roots pump with canned motor. It is proposed that a study be made of a future tritium pumping system in a Canadian tritium facility, e.g. a tritium laboratory

  8. LMR [liquid metal reactor] centrifugal pump coastdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.; Malloy, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    A centrifugal pump model which describes the interrelationships of the pump discharge flowrate, pump speed, shaft torque and dynamic head has been implemented based upon existing models. Specifically, the pump model is based upon the dimensionless-homologous pump theory of Wylie and Streeter. Given data from a representative pump, homologous theory allows one to predict the transient characteristics of similarly sized pumps. This homologous pump model has been implemented into both the one-dimensional SASSYS-1 systems analysis code and the three-dimensional COMMIX-1A code. Comparisons have been made both against other pump models (CRBR) and actual pump coastdown data (EBR-II and FFTF). Agreement with this homologous pump model has been excellent. Additionally, these comparisons indicate the validity of applying the medium size pump data of Wylie and Streeter to a range of typical LMR centrifugal pumps

  9. Work plan, AP-102 mixer pump removal and pump replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work plan is to plan the steps and estimate the costs required to remove the failed AP-102 mixer pump, and to plan and estimate the cost of the necessary design and specification work required to order a new, but modified, mixer pump including the pump and pump pit energy absorbing design. The main hardware required for the removal of the mixer is as follows: a flexible receiver and blast shield; a metal container for the pulled mixer pump; and a trailer and strongback to haul and manipulate the container. Additionally: a gamma scanning device will be needed to detect the radioactivity emanating from the mixer as it is pulled from the tank; a water spray system will be required to remove tank waste from the surface of the mixer as it is pulled from the AP-102 tank; and a lifting yoke to lift the mixer from the pump pit (the SY-101 Mixer Lifting Yoke will be used). A ''green house'' will have to be erected over the AP-102 pump pit and an experienced Hoisting and Rigging crew must be assembled and trained in mixer pump removal methods before the actual removal is undertaken

  10. Diode-pumped laser with improved pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jim J.

    2004-03-09

    A laser wherein pump radiation from laser diodes is delivered to a pump chamber and into the lasing medium by quasi-three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator light channels. The light channels have reflective side walls with a curved surface and reflective end walls with a curved surface. A flow tube between the lasing medium and the light channel has a roughened surface.

  11. An active dealkalization of red mud with roasting and water leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaobo, E-mail: zhuxiaobo0119@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan 454000 (China); Henan Key Discipline Open Laboratory of Mining Engineering Materials, Henan 454000 (China); Li, Wang; Guan, Xuemao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan 454000 (China); Henan Key Discipline Open Laboratory of Mining Engineering Materials, Henan 454000 (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • The dealkalization of active roasting and water leaching from red mud was put forward. • The main factors on dealkalization during active roasting and water leaching were investigated. • The mechanism of dealkalization from red mud was in-depth studied in the process. - Abstract: The research has focused on the dealkalization of red mud after active roasting and water leaching, which is obtained from bauxite during alumina production. The main factors such as roasting temperature, roasting time, water leaching stage, leaching temperature, leaching reaction time and liquid to solid ratio were investigated. The mechanism of dealkalization was in-depth studied by using ICP–AES, XRD, TG-DSC, SEM–EDS and leaching kinetic. The results show that the dealkalization rate reached 82% under the condition of roasting temperature of 700 °C, roasting time of 30 min, four stage water leaching, liquid to solid ratio of 7 mL/g, leaching temperature of 90 °C and reaction time of 60 min. The diffraction peak of Na{sub 6}CaAl{sub 6}Si{sub 6}(CO{sub 3})O{sub 24}·2H{sub 2}O in red mud was decreased during the active roasting process, whereas the mineral phases of NaOH·H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}Ca(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} were appeared. The content of alkali obviously decreased and the grade of other elements increased during the process of active roasting and water leaching, which was in favor of next application process of red mud. The water leaching was controlled by internal diffusion of SCM and the apparent activation energy was 22.63 kJ/mol.

  12. Preparation and mechanism of the sintered bricks produced from Yellow River silt and red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Hongtao; Yue, Qinyan; Su, Yuan; Gao, Baoyu; Gao, Yue; Wang, Jingzhou; Yu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The best condition was red mud content of 40% and sintering at 1050 °C for 2 h. ► Bricks’ weight loss was caused by the removal of absorbed water and crystal water. ► Bricks’ sintering shrinkage depended on the sodium and iron compounds of red mud. ► Sintering can strengthen bricks and decrease leaching concentration of toxic metal. - Abstract: The preparation, characteristics and mechanisms of sintered bricks manufactured by Yellow River silt and red mud were studied. The sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, water absorption and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition. Sintering mechanisms were discussed through linear regression analysis. Crystalline components of raw materials and bricks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Leaching toxicity of raw materials and bricks were measured according to sulphuric acid and nitric acid method. Radiation safety of the sintered bricks was characterized by calculating internal exposure index and external exposure index. The results showed that at the chosen best parameters (red mud content of 40%, sintering temperature of 1050 °C and sintering time of 2 h), the best characteristics of sintered bricks could be obtained. The weight loss on ignition of sintered bricks was principally caused by the removal of absorbed water and crystal water. The sintering shrinkage of sintered bricks mainly depended on sodium compounds and iron compounds of red mud. The sintering process made some components of raw materials transform into other crystals having better thermostability. Besides, the leaching toxicity and radioactivity index of sintered bricks produced under the optimum condition were all below standards.

  13. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Mud Lake area, eastern Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater with elevated dissolved-solids concentrations—containing large concentrations of chloride, sodium, sulfate, and calcium—is present in the Mud Lake area of Eastern Idaho. The source of these solutes is unknown; however, an understanding of the geochemical sources and processes controlling their presence in groundwater in the Mud Lake area is needed to better understand the geochemical sources and processes controlling the water quality of groundwater at the Idaho National Laboratory. The geochemical sources and processes controlling the water quality of groundwater in the Mud Lake area were determined by investigating the geology, hydrology, land use, and groundwater geochemistry in the Mud Lake area, proposing sources for solutes, and testing the proposed sources through geochemical modeling with PHREEQC. Modeling indicated that sources of water to the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer were groundwater from the Beaverhead Mountains and the Camas Creek drainage basin; surface water from Medicine Lodge and Camas Creeks, Mud Lake, and irrigation water; and upward flow of geothermal water from beneath the aquifer. Mixing of groundwater with surface water or other groundwater occurred throughout the aquifer. Carbonate reactions, silicate weathering, and dissolution of evaporite minerals and fertilizer explain most of the changes in chemistry in the aquifer. Redox reactions, cation exchange, and evaporation were locally important. The source of large concentrations of chloride, sodium, sulfate, and calcium was evaporite deposits in the unsaturated zone associated with Pleistocene Lake Terreton. Large amounts of chloride, sodium, sulfate, and calcium are added to groundwater from irrigation water infiltrating through lake bed sediments containing evaporite deposits and the resultant dissolution of gypsum, halite, sylvite, and bischofite.

  14. An active dealkalization of red mud with roasting and water leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Li, Wang; Guan, Xuemao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The dealkalization of active roasting and water leaching from red mud was put forward. • The main factors on dealkalization during active roasting and water leaching were investigated. • The mechanism of dealkalization from red mud was in-depth studied in the process. - Abstract: The research has focused on the dealkalization of red mud after active roasting and water leaching, which is obtained from bauxite during alumina production. The main factors such as roasting temperature, roasting time, water leaching stage, leaching temperature, leaching reaction time and liquid to solid ratio were investigated. The mechanism of dealkalization was in-depth studied by using ICP–AES, XRD, TG-DSC, SEM–EDS and leaching kinetic. The results show that the dealkalization rate reached 82% under the condition of roasting temperature of 700 °C, roasting time of 30 min, four stage water leaching, liquid to solid ratio of 7 mL/g, leaching temperature of 90 °C and reaction time of 60 min. The diffraction peak of Na 6 CaAl 6 Si 6 (CO 3 )O 24 ·2H 2 O in red mud was decreased during the active roasting process, whereas the mineral phases of NaOH·H 2 O and Na 2 Ca(CO 3 ) 2 were appeared. The content of alkali obviously decreased and the grade of other elements increased during the process of active roasting and water leaching, which was in favor of next application process of red mud. The water leaching was controlled by internal diffusion of SCM and the apparent activation energy was 22.63 kJ/mol

  15. Pumps in wearable ultrafiltration devices: pumps in wuf devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armignacco, Paolo; Garzotto, Francesco; Bellini, Corrado; Neri, Mauro; Lorenzin, Anna; Sartori, Marco; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The wearable artificial kidney (WAK) is a device that is supposed to operate like a real kidney, which permits prolonged, frequent, and continuous dialysis treatments for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Its functioning is mainly related to its pumping system, as well as to its dialysate-generating and alarm/shutoff ones. A pump is defined as a device that moves fluids by mechanical action. In such a context, blood pumps pull blood from the access side of the dialysis catheter and return the blood at the same rate of flow. The main aim of this paper is to review the current literature on blood pumps, describing the way they have been functioning thus far and how they are being engineered, giving details about the most important parameters that define their quality, thus allowing the production of a radar comparative graph, and listing ideal pumps' features. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  17. 46 CFR 119.520 - Bilge pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps. 119.520 Section 119.520 Shipping COAST... Ballast Systems § 119.520 Bilge pumps. (a) Each vessel must be provided with bilge pumps in accordance... have a portable hand bilge pump that must be: (1) Capable of pumping water, but not necessarily...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1135 - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps. 154.1135 Section 154.1135 Shipping COAST GUARD... Pumps. (a) Water to the water spray system must be supplied by: (1) A pump that is only for the use of the system; (2) A fire pump; or (3) A pump specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522). (b...

  19. 33 CFR 157.126 - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pumps. 157.126 Section 157.126... Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.126 Pumps. (a) Crude oil must be supplied to the COW machines by COW system pumps or cargo pumps. (b) The pumps under paragraph...

  20. Field evaluation of in situ remediation of a heavy metal contaminated soil using lime and red-mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C.W.; Dunham, S.J.; Dennis, P.G.; Zhao, F.J.; McGrath, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of lime and red mud (by-product of aluminium manufacturing) to reduce metal availability to Festuca rubra and to allow re-vegetation on a highly contaminated brown-field site. Application of both lime and red mud (at 3 or 5%) increased soil pH and decreased metal availability. Festuca rubra failed to establish in the control plots, but grew to a near complete vegetative cover on the amended plots. The most effective treatment in decreasing grass metal concentrations in the first year was 5% red mud, but by year two all amendments were equally effective. In an additional pot experiment, P application in combination with red mud or lime decreased the Pb concentration, but not total uptake of Pb in Festuca rubra compared to red mud alone. The results show that both red mud and lime can be used to remediate a heavily contaminated acid soil to allow re-vegetation. - Red mud was effective in immobilising heavy metals in soil