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Sample records for mucosal bacterial microflora

  1. Can the oral microflora affect oral ulcerative mucositis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, A.M.G.A.; de Soet, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review: Oral mucositis is one of the most prevalent toxicities after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Mucositis is initiated by the chemotherapy or radiotherapy preceding the transplantation. It is commonly accepted that microorganisms play a role in the process of oral mucositis.

  2. The Bacterial Microflora of Fish, Revised

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    B. Austin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of numerous studies indicate that fish possess bacterial populations on or in their skin, gills, digestive tract, and light-emitting organs. In addition, the internal organs (kidney, liver, and spleen of healthy fish may contain bacteria, but there is debate about whether or not muscle is actually sterile. Using traditional culture-dependent techniques, the numbers and taxonomic composition of the bacterial populations generally reflect those of the surrounding water. More modern culture-independent approaches have permitted the recognition of previously uncultured bacteria. The role of the organisms includes the ability to degrade complex molecules (therefore exercising a potential benefit in nutrition, to produce vitamins and polymers, and to be responsible for the emission of light by the light-emitting organs of deep-sea fish. Taxa, including Pseudomonas, may contribute to spoilage by the production of histamines in fish tissue.

  3. Changes in microflora in dental plaque from cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and the relationship of these changes with mucositis: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozza, Iole; Caldarazzo, Vito; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2015-05-01

    To assess changes in oral microflora in dental plaque from cancer patients within 7 days of the first course of chemotherapy, and the relationship of the changes with mucositis. Thirty cancer patients, divided into a test group undergoing chemotherapy and a control group no undergoing chemotherapy, were enrolled in this pilot study. Oral microflora were cultured from three samples of dental plaque at t0 (before chemotherapy), t1 (1 day after chemotherapy) and t2 (7 days after chemotherapy). Single and crossed descriptive analyses were used to establish prevalence, and the χ² test was used to establish the statistical significance of the differences observed in distributions (significance level: Pbacterial flora also had periodontal-pathogenic species. No Porphyromonas gingivalis appeared in the test group. Actinobacillus was the least frequently found bacterium among periodontal pathogens in the test group, while Fusobacterium nucleatum was the most frequently found. No significant differences were found in quantitative bacterial changes between t0, t1 and t2 in either the test or control groups, or between the two groups. According to World Health Organization scores, oral mucositis developed in 10 patients (66.6%) in the test group. The results of this pilot study indicate that there were no changes in microflora in dental plaque in cancer patients within 7 days of the first course of chemotherapy. No correlations between oral mucositis and specific microorganisms were assessed.

  4. Bacterial and fungal microflora in surgically removed lung cancer samples

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    Toloudi Maria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical and experimental data suggest an association between the presence of bacterial and/or fungal infection and the development of different types of cancer, independently of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia. This has also been postulated for the development of lung cancer, however the prevalence and the exact species of the bacteria and fungi implicated, have not yet been described. Aim To determine the presence of bacterial and fungal microflora in surgically extracted samples of patients with lung cancer. Materials and methods In this single-center prospective, observational study, tissue samples were surgically extracted from 32 consecutive patients with lung cancer, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to identify the presence of bacteria and fungi strains. Results The analysis of the electrophoresis data pointed out diversity between the samples and the strains that were identified. Mycoplasma strains were identified in all samples. Strains that appeared more often were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis and Bacillus strains, followed in descending frequency by Chlamydia, Candida, Listeria, and Haemophilus influenza. In individual patients Legionella pneumophila and Candida tropicalis were detected. Conclusions A diversity of pathogens could be identified in surgically extracted tissue samples of patients with lung cancer, with mycoplasma strains being present in all samples. These results point to an etiologic role for chronic infection in lung carcinogenesis. Confirmation of these observations and additional studies are needed to further characterize the etiologic role of inflammation in lung carcinogenesis.

  5. ON THE ROLE OF BACTERIAL MICROFLORA IN ETIOLOGY OF CHRONIC ADENOIDITIS IN CHILDREN

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    D. A. Tulupov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the results of clinical studies on the role of pathogenic bacterial microflora in etiology of chronic adenoiditis in children is shown in this article. According to the literature data the main cause of the development of chronic diseases of the nasopharynx in children is viral infection. The role of the bacterial microflora is secondary, but nevertheless significant. The main bacterial pathogens isolated from the nasopharynx of children with chronic adenoiditis are Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumonia. However there is significant dissociation in the prevalence of these bacterial agents according to the data of different scientists. Ability of the bacteria to produce biomembranes plays significant role in formation of persistence of the above-mentioned pathogens in the nasopharynx in chronic adenoiditis. Bacterial biomembranes as well as the revealing of the large amounts of bacteria within the tissues of adenoids determines discussions on possibilities of systemic and topical antibacterial treatment. 

  6. The analysis of bacterial culture in radiation mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zunbei; Su Deqing; Liang Yuxue

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate pathogen dose existing or not in patients with radiation mucositis. Methods: From Juanary 2004 to August 2005, from 46 patients with radiation mucositis some pharynx secretion were taken for culture. Then they were treated with antibiotics selected by the cultured results and gargle. Results: 5 patients with grade 0 of radiation mucositis were with no cultured pathogen, and the results of some other patients with radiation mucositis include 8 cases of epiphyte, 1 cases of p. vulgaris and 3 cases of Staphylococcus. the positive rate is 29.2% (12/41); Conclusion: Some patients with radiation mucositis do exist pathogen, and we must slect antibiotics by the bacterial cultured results. (authors)

  7. Findings of bacterial microflora in piglets infected with conventional swine plague

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    Prodanov Jasna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Piglets infected with the conventional swine plague virus as a result of secondary bacterial infections sometimes show an insufficiently clear clinical and pathoanatomical picture, which is why the very procedure of diagnosis is complex and the final diagnosis unreliable. That is why these investigations were aimed at examining the presence of bacterial microflora in diseased and dead pilgets which were found to have the viral antigen for CSP using the fluorescent antibody technique, in cases where the pathomorphological finding was not characteristic for conventional swine plague. Autopsies of dead piglets most often showed changes in the digestive tract and lungs, with resulting technopathy and diseases of infective nature. Such findings on knowledge of a present bacterial microflora are especially important in cases when conventional swine plague is controlled on farms and an announcement that the disease has been contained is in the offing.

  8. Sequential changes in luminal microflora and mucosal cytokine expression during developing of colitis in HLA-B27/beta2-microglobulin transgenic rats.

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    Hata, K; Andoh, A; Sato, H; Araki, Y; Tanaka, M; Tsujikawa, T; Fujiyama, Y; Bamba, T

    2001-11-01

    Transgenic rats expressing HLA-B27 and human beta2-microglobulin (HLA-B27 rats) spontaneously develop chronic colitis resembling human inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated the sequential changes in the luminal bacterial flora and mucosal cytokine mRNA expression in this model. HLA-B27 rats were maintained in a specific pathogen-free environment, and luminal microflora was evaluated by standard bacterial culture technique. The expression of mucosal cytokine mRNA was analysed by RT-PCR methods. Clinical symptoms of colitis appeared at 8 weeks of age. The total number of obligate anaerobes was higher than those of facultative anaerobes during the experimental period. At 6 weeks of age, the colonization of Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. was already detectable at high concentrations, whereas Clostridium spp. and Eubacterium spp. were not detected. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-Ibeta, IL-8 and TNF-alpha) appeared at 8 weeks of age, and these were detectable until 17 weeks. A similar pattern was observed in the expression of Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-gamma). On the other hand, the expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-beta) was weak. IL-4 mRNA expression was weakly detectable only at 6 and 8 weeks of age. The expression of IL-10 and TGF-beta mRNA was scarcely detectable throughout the experimental period. The development of colitis may be mediated by both the predominant expression of Th1 cytokines and the weakness of Th2 cytokine expression in the mucosa. The colonization of anaerobic bacteria, especially Bacteroides spp., may be initiating and promoting these cytokine responses.

  9. Live bacterial delivery systems for development of mucosal vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thole, J.E.R.; Dalen, P.J. van; Havenith, C.E.G.; Pouwels, P.H.; Seegers, J.F.M.L.; Tielen, F.D.; Zee, M.D. van der; Zegers, N.D.; Shaw, M.

    2000-01-01

    By expression of foreign antigens in attenuated strains derived from bacterial pathogens and in non-pathogenic commensal bacteria, recombinant vaccines are being developed that aim to stimulate mucosal immunity. Recent advances in the pathogenesis and molecular biology of these bacteria have allowed

  10. Commensal bacteria (normal microflora), mucosal immunity and chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlaskalová, Helena; Štěpánková, Renata; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Tučková, Ludmila; Cukrowska, B.; Lodinová-Žádníková, R.; Kozáková, Hana; Rossmann, Pavel; Bártová, J.; Sokol, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 93, - (2004), s. 97-108 ISSN 0165-2478 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/01/0933; GA ČR GA310/02/1470; GA AV ČR IAA5020101; GA AV ČR IAA5020205; GA AV ČR IAA5020210; GA AV ČR IBS5020203; GA MZd NK6742; GA MZd NI7525 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : mucosal microbiota * intestina barrier * germ-free animal Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.136, year: 2004

  11. Effects of microflora on the neonatal development of gut mucosal T cells and myeloid cells in the mouse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Williams, A. M.; Probert, Ch. S. J.; Štěpánková, Renata; Tlaskalová, Helena; Philips, A.; Bland, P. W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 119, - (2006), s. 470-478 ISSN 0019-2805 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : germfree * microflora * neonate Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.674, year: 2006

  12. Bacterial microflora of roach (Rutilus rutilus caught in the Driksna river in Latvia

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    Alina Kluga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fish and fish products are a food group with a high nutritional value, however, the fish may contains a variety of microorganisms, which may cause foodborne infection outbreaks in humans after consumption. The aim of the present study was to identify the bacterial microflora of skin, gill and gut of roach caught in river. Altogether, nine roach (Rutilus rutilus samples were collected from fishermen from Driksna river in Latvia. Skin, gills and gut samples were investigated for total bacterial count (TBC, coliforms and Enterobacteriaceae. Pooled skin, muscles and internal organ samples were examined for presence of pathogens – Salmonella spp., Listeria spp. and Yersinia spp. in accordance with ISO standards. Identification of bacterial species was performed with MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper. TBC ranged from 1.96 to 5.16 log10 CFU g-1, coliforms from 0 to 3.66 log10 CFU g-1 and Enterobacteriaceae from 0 to 4.16 log10 CFU g-1 in roach skin, gills and gut samples. The highest counts of TBC, coliforms and Enterobacteriaceae was found in roach gills and gut samples, while there were no significant differences between the TBC in skin, gills and gut (p<0.05. Rahnella spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the dominant bacteria identified in fish skin, gills and gut. These microorganisms promote the development of deterioration processes of fish meat, and also can be associated with human infections. Salmonella spp., Listeria spp. and Yersinia spp. were not detected in fish samples, however, the presence of potential human pathogens - Aeromonas spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in roach samples was observed.

  13. Bacterial microflora isolated from the bark surface of poplars growing in areas where air pollution is very high

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    Krystyna Przybył

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 1976 bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Erwinia and Cellulomonas were isolated from the bark surface of poplars growing in protective belts around several industrial plants. It was found that the qualitative and quantitative composition of the surface bacterial microflora changes in dependence on the degree of resistance of the poplars to the action of the dust emitted by the industrial establishment and containing high amounts of heavy metals.

  14. Bacterial and fungal microflora on the external genitalia of male donkeys (Equus asinus).

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    Carleton, Carla L; Donahue, J Michael; Marteniuk, Judith V; Sells, Stephen F; Timoney, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the bacterial and fungal microflora on the external genitalia of a population of healthy male donkeys in the state of Michigan, USA. The aim was to identify and determine the frequency of occurrence of these microorganisms using seven different isolation media and standard microbiological procedures. The sites (urethral fossa [fossa glandis], dorsal diverticulum of the urethral sinus, distal urethra, and penile surface) in the distal reproductive tract were cultured and each isolated microorganism identified. Ten different genera of gram-positive bacteria, eight different genera of gram-negative bacteria, and two genera of fungi were isolated from the external genitalia of the 43 donkeys in this study. All 43 donkeys yielded gram-positive bacteria (2-8 species) from all four sites sampled. Arcanobacterium spp., Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were the most frequently isolated gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria were cultured from 16 (37.2%) of the 43 donkeys, with Acinetobacterlwoffii (16.3%), Oligella urethralis (11.6%), and Taylorellaasinigenitalis (9.3%), the most frequently isolated. Fungi were cultured from only 5 (11.6%) of the 43 donkeys, with Rhizopus spp. isolated from 3 (7.0%) and Cladosporium spp. from 2 (4.7%) individuals. The testes and epididymides collected from 40 donkeys at time of castration were culture negative. Few differences were found in the bacterial flora between prepubertal and mature intact and castrated donkeys. Of notable interest was the scarcity of known equine pathogens across the population tested and isolation of T. asinigenitalis from normal donkeys, especially prepubertal individuals and previously castrated males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Model systems to analyze the role of miRNAs and commensal microflora in bovine mucosal immune system development.

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    Liang, Guanxiang; Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Guan, Le Luo; Griebel, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Information is rapidly accumulating regarding the role of miRNAs as key regulators of immune system development and function. It is also increasingly evident that miRNAs play an important role in host-pathogen interactions through regulation of both innate and acquired immune responses. Little is known, however, about the specific role of miRNAs in regulating normal development of the mucosal immune system, especially during the neonatal period. Furthermore, there is limited knowledge regarding the possible role the commensal microbiome may play in regulating mucosal miRNAs expression, although evidence is emerging that a variety of enteric pathogens influence miRNA expression. The current review focuses on recent information that miRNAs play an important role in regulating early development of the bovine mucosal immune system. A possible role for the commensal microbiome in regulating mucosal development by altering miRNA expression is also discussed. Finally, we explore the potential advantages of using the newborn calf as a model to determine how interactions between developmental programming, maternal factors in colostrum, and colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by commensal bacteria may alter mucosal miRNA expression and immune development. Identifying the key factors that regulate mucosal miRNA expression is critical for understanding how the balance between protective immunity and inflammation is maintained to ensure optimal gastrointestinal tract function and health of the whole organism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of dietary supplementation with a chlorella by-product on the growth performance, immune response, intestinal microflora and intestinal mucosal morphology in broiler chickens.

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    Kang, H K; Park, S B; Kim, C H

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of different dietary levels of a Chlorella by-product (CBP) on the growth performance, immune response, intestinal microflora and intestinal mucosal morphology of broilers. In total, 480 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments with four replicated pens consisting of 30 chicks. The basal diet was formulated to be adequate in energy and nutrients. Three additional diets were prepared by supplementing 25, 50 or 75 g/kg of CBP to the basal diet. The diets were fed to the broilers ad libitum for 35 days. Result indicated that increasing inclusion level of CBP improved BW gain (linear, p < 0.05). There was no effect of inclusion level of CBP in diets on total cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels during the 35 days. Plasma IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations increased (linear, p < 0.05) with inclusion level of CBP in diets. Supplementation of CBP in the diets increased (linear, p < 0.05) the concentrations of Lactobacillus in the caecal content and decreased (linear, p < 0.05) the concentrations of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in the caecal content. Villus height increased (linear and quadratic, p < 0.05) with inclusion level of CBP in diets. Crypt depth increased (quadratic, p < 0.05) with inclusion level of CBP, and a decreased villus height: crypt depth ratio (quadratic, p < 0.05) was observed as inclusion level of CBP in diets increased. The results of the current experiment indicate that dietary supplementation of CBP improves growth performance of birds. Dietary CBP has improving Lactobacillus spp. concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract, plasma immunoglobulin concentrations and intestinal mucosal morphology. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Assessment of intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation employing nuclear methods in murine mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Rafaela M.; Takenaka, Isabella K.T.M.; Barros, Patricia A.V.; Moura, Livia P.; Contarini, Sara M.L.; Amorim, Juliana M.; Castilho, Raquel O.; Leite, Camila M.A.; Cardoso, Valbert N.; Diniz, Simone Odilia F. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Mg (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Mucositis affects approximately 80% of patients who receive chemotherapy combinations. The lesions are painful, restrict food intake and make patients more susceptible to systemic infections. Some agents and strategies are being studied for controlling mucositis, none of them is used in clinical practice. In Minas Gerais, many studies have addressed the popular use of the plant Arrabidaea chica in the form of tea, to treat intestinal cramps and diarrhea, the main symptoms of mucositis. Objective: To evaluate the potential of Arrabidaea chica extract in the management of the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, using the experimental model of gut mucositis induced by 5-Fluorouracila (5-FU). Methods: The UFMG Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation (CETEA/UFMG) approved this study (nº 411/2015). Male BALB/c mice between 6-8 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups (n=9) as follows: 1. Control (CTL) - oral administration of saline solution (10 days); 2. A. chica (AC) - oral administration of A. chica extract (10 days); 3. Mucositis (MUC) - underwent mucositis (5-FU) (10 days); 4. Mucositis + A. chica (MUC+ AC) - underwent mucositis and received oral administration of A. chica extract (10 days). At the 7{sup th} day, mice in the MUC and MUC + AC groups received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection containing 300 mg/kg 5-FU, whereas the animals of the CTL and AC groups received a saline IP injection. After 72 hours (10{sup th} experimental day), intestinal permeability was determined by measuring the radioactivity diffusion in the blood after oral administration of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) labelled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) and bacterial translocation was determined by measuring the radioactivity diffusion in the blood after oral administration of E. coli labelled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc). After 4 hours, the mice were euthanized and assessed for intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation and

  18. Assessment of intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation employing nuclear methods in murine mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, Rafaela M.; Takenaka, Isabella K.T.M.; Barros, Patricia A.V.; Moura, Livia P.; Contarini, Sara M.L.; Amorim, Juliana M.; Castilho, Raquel O.; Leite, Camila M.A.; Cardoso, Valbert N.; Diniz, Simone Odilia F.

    2017-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Mucositis affects approximately 80% of patients who receive chemotherapy combinations. The lesions are painful, restrict food intake and make patients more susceptible to systemic infections. Some agents and strategies are being studied for controlling mucositis, none of them is used in clinical practice. In Minas Gerais, many studies have addressed the popular use of the plant Arrabidaea chica in the form of tea, to treat intestinal cramps and diarrhea, the main symptoms of mucositis. Objective: To evaluate the potential of Arrabidaea chica extract in the management of the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, using the experimental model of gut mucositis induced by 5-Fluorouracila (5-FU). Methods: The UFMG Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation (CETEA/UFMG) approved this study (nº 411/2015). Male BALB/c mice between 6-8 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups (n=9) as follows: 1. Control (CTL) - oral administration of saline solution (10 days); 2. A. chica (AC) - oral administration of A. chica extract (10 days); 3. Mucositis (MUC) - underwent mucositis (5-FU) (10 days); 4. Mucositis + A. chica (MUC+ AC) - underwent mucositis and received oral administration of A. chica extract (10 days). At the 7 th day, mice in the MUC and MUC + AC groups received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection containing 300 mg/kg 5-FU, whereas the animals of the CTL and AC groups received a saline IP injection. After 72 hours (10 th experimental day), intestinal permeability was determined by measuring the radioactivity diffusion in the blood after oral administration of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) labelled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) and bacterial translocation was determined by measuring the radioactivity diffusion in the blood after oral administration of E. coli labelled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc). After 4 hours, the mice were euthanized and assessed for intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation and intestinal histology

  19. Effects of antibiotic on the bacterial microflora in two commercially important catfish species, Clarias batrachus and Heteropneustes fossilis in Bangladesh

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    Md. Shahdat Hossain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of a widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC on the bacterial microflora in two catfish species under artificial culture conditions in the laboratory. Methods: The experiment was conducted in the Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in six aquaria (size 37 cm×30 cm×60 cm where three aquaria served as replicates of the antibiotic treatment groups and the remaining three aquaria served as an untreated control group. Each aquarium was stocked with 25 fish on an average body weight 15 g. OTC was administered to the fish in the treatment groups at the rate of 2 g/kg in-feed twice daily upto ad libitum, whereas fish in the untreated control groups were given the same feed without antibiotics for 20 d. During the experiment, bacterial loads were estimated as colony forming unit (CFU/g by every alternate day in the aquarium water, gills, skin and intestine of fish. Results: The administration of OTC in feed resulted in gradual decrease of bacterial loads in the gills, intestine and skin of the two catfish species tested. In contrast, the bacterial loads remain unchanged or slightly increased in the control groups not fed with OTC. Water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and total hardness were found to be within suitable range in the test aquaria but not in control aquarium throughout the experimental period. Conclusions: The results of this experiment showed that in-feed antibiotic OTC for a period of 20 d reduced the bacterial loads in the gills, intestines and skin of treated fish.

  20. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury augments intestinal mucosal injury and bacterial translocation in jaundiced rats.

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    Yüksek, Yunus Nadi; Kologlu, Murat; Daglar, Gül; Doganay, Mutlu; Dolapci, Istar; Bilgihan, Ayse; Dolapçi, Mete; Kama, Nuri Aydin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate local effects and degree of bacterial translocation related with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat obstructive jaundice model. Thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were divided into three groups; including Group 1 (jaundice group), Group 2 (jaundice-ischemia group) and Group 3 (ischemia group). All rats had 2 laparotomies. After experimental interventions, tissue samples for translocation; liver and ileum samples for histopathological examination, 25 cm of small intestine for mucosal myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels and blood samples for biochemical analysis were obtained. Jaundiced rats had increased liver enzyme levels and total and direct bilirubin levels (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosal myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels were found to be high in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion groups (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosal damage was more severe in rats with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion after bile duct ligation (p<0.05). Degree of bacterial translocation was also found to be significantly high in these rats (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosa is disturbed more severely in obstructive jaundice with the development of ischemia and reperfusion. Development of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in obstructive jaundice increases bacterial translocation.

  1. Reproducibility of subgingival bacterial samples from patients with peri-implant mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallström, Hadar; Persson, G Rutger; Strömberg, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    collected with paper points and analyzed using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. Whole genomic probes of 74 preselected bacterial species were used. Based on the bacterial scores, Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to calculate the inter-annotator agreement for categorical data......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproducibility of bacterial enumeration from subsequent subgingival samples collected from patients with peri-implant mucositis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Duplicate microbial samples from 222 unique implant sites in 45 adult subjects were....... The percentage agreement was considered as "good" when the two samples showed the same score or differed by 1 to the power of 10. RESULTS: Moderate to fair kappa values were displayed for all bacterial species in the test panel (range 0.21-0.58). There were no significant differences between Gram...

  2. Bacterial microflora in Stichococcus bacillaris culture in nitrogenous-organic wastewaters

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    Bisz-Konarzewska, A.; Przytocka-Jusiak, M.; Rzeczycka, M.; Kowalska, A.

    1985-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative composition of the population of heterotrophic bacteria accompanying Stichococcus bacillaris in culture in non-sterile nitrogenous-organic wastewater was examined. During 5 days of incubation the total number of bacteria did not show any marked changes and averaged 4 X 10(6) cells per ml. Twenty per cent of the isolated bacterial strains were gram-positive. Gram-negative rods were dominated by Enterobacteriaceae (40%) and Pseudomonas (17%).

  3. Bacterial microflora of poultry feed and its control by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Youssef, Y.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; Aziz, N.H.

    1986-01-01

    The common bacteria isolated from the poultry feed samples were classified in the families of Pseudomonadaceae, Micrococcacae, Bacililaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. These species of bacteria were identified as 10 species of Gram-negative and 13 species of Gram-positive. We found that radiation dose required to inhibit completely the natural bacterial flora in tested samples of poultry feed was 20 KGY. The most radioresistant bacterial isolates which resisted a sublethal dose of 15 KGY were identified as bacillus cereus, Bacillus polymxa and Bacillus megaterium. The dose response curves of B, cereus and B, polymxa started by shoulder portion followed by an exponential death, whereas, B, megaterium exhibited straight line relationship directly. The D 10 -value of B. megaterium spores (3.30 KGY) was about 1.5 and 1.7 folds as the D 10 value B. polymxa and B, cereus, respectively. The present work indicated also that the exposure of poultry feed to irradiation dose 10 KGY (1 Mrad) reduced greatly number of bacteria destroyed all spoilage and pathogenic bacteria especially Salmonella, and finally increased the shelf-life during storage periods. Higher radiation dose 15 KGY, failed to show any better reduction of viable bacterial counts. Part of this work presented in (FAO/IAEA) international symposium for food irradiation processing, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. (4-8 March, 1985)

  4. Bacterial microflora characteristics of plant samples from contaminated by radionuclides Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelena, Pavlina; Shevchenko, Julia; Molozhava, Olha; Berezhna, Valentina; Shylina, Julia; Guscha, Mykola

    2015-01-01

    Two serious nuclear accidents during the last quarter century (Chernobyl, 1986 and Fukushima, 2011) contaminated large agricultural areas with radioactivity. In radioactive areas all components of ecosystems, including microorganisms, exposed to ionizing radiation. The aim of this study was isolation and identification of dominant bacteria from plant samples, which were collected from the area of radioactive contamination and to compare it with bacteria isolated from plant collected in a non-radioactive area by their qualitative composition, physiological, biochemical and pathogenic characteristics. Bacteria were isolated from plant samples grown in a radioactive field located 5 km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP). Physiological, biochemical and pathogenic properties were characterized from nine pure bacterial isolates. The common features of bacteria from radionuclide contaminated plant samples were increased synthesis of mucus and capsule creation. It was found that all selected isolates produce catalase, therefore, bacteria were resistant to oxidative stress. The increased pathogenicity of most bacteria isolated from the plant grown in radioactive Chernobyl area compare to the isolates from the plant without radioactive contamination was established from the phytopathogenic tests. Consequently, bacterial isolates from the plants grown in the radioactive environment tends to dominate enterobacteria similar to agents of opportunistic infections. (author)

  5. Modulating bacterial and gut mucosal interactions with engineered biofilm matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraj-Thatte, Anna M; Praveschotinunt, Pichet; Nash, Trevor R; Ward, Frederick R; Joshi, Neel S

    2018-02-22

    Extracellular appendages play a significant role in mediating communication between bacteria and their host. Curli fibers are a class of bacterial fimbria that is highly amenable to engineering. We demonstrate the use of engineered curli fibers to rationally program interactions between bacteria and components of the mucosal epithelium. Commensal E. coli strains were engineered to produce recombinant curli fibers fused to the trefoil family of human cytokines. Biofilms formed from these strains bound more mucins than those producing wild-type curli fibers, and modulated mucin rheology as well. When treated with bacteria producing the curli-trefoil fusions mammalian cells behaved identically in terms of their migration behavior as when they were treated with the corresponding soluble trefoil factors. Overall, this demonstrates the potential utility of curli fibers as a scaffold for the display of bioactive domains and an untapped approach to rationally modulating host-microbe interactions using bacterial matrix proteins.

  6. Immunological evaluation of bacterial derived Cochleate and proteoliposome as mucosal adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, Judith; Lastre, Miriam; Bracho, Gustavo; Rodríguez, Tamara; Gil, Danay; Zayas, Caridad; Taboada, Carlos; Acevedo, Reinaldo; Pérez, Danev Ricardo; Pérez, Oliver

    2006-04-12

    We evaluated the potential of two bacterial derived compounds, Cochleate and Proteoliposome (PL), administrated to mice by nasal or oral routes on induction of antibody and cytokine responses. Anti PL IgG and IgA responses were measured by ELISA in saliva, sera or vaginal fluids of immunized mice. Productions of gammaIFN and IL-5 were determined in spleen cells of immunized mice following a recall in vitro with Cochleate or PL. Intranasal administration elicited a higher anti PL IgA response in both saliva and vaginal fluids as compared with oral route. Mice immunized with Cochleate or PL via intranasal or oral route-induced anti PL IgG and IgG2a antibody responses in their sera and vaginal fluids. Spleen cells from these immunized mice produced gammaIFN, but not IL-5, after a recall in vitro with Cochleate or PL. These results show that Cochleate and PL are capable of inducing both systemic and mucosal antibody responses as well as a Th1 type of immunity as evidenced by high gammaIFN and IgG2a antibody responses.

  7. A molecular analysis of fecal and mucosal bacterial communities in irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Codling, Caroline

    2010-02-01

    The objectives of this study were, firstly, to determine the diversity of the host\\'s gut microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) using a culture-independent method (DGGE of the 16S rRNA gene) and, secondly, to examine mucosal biopsies of IBS patients and compare them to their own fecal microbiota.

  8. Mucosal Immune Regulation in Intestinal Disease. The role of bacterial products, food components and drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol-Schoenmakers, M.

    2009-01-01

    The challenge of the mucosal gut associated immune system is to remain unresponsive to food products and commensal microbiota, while mounting an appropriate immune response towards pathogens. This implicates the necessity of tight immune regulation within the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).

  9. Characterisation of the gill mucosal bacterial communities of four butterflyfish species: a reservoir of bacterial diversity in coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter, Miriam; Sasal, Pierre; Tapissier-Bontemps, N; Lecchini, D; Suzuki, M

    2017-06-01

    While recent studies have suggested that fish mucus microbiota play an important role in homeostasis and prevention of infections, very few studies have investigated the bacterial communities of gill mucus. We characterised the gill mucus bacterial communities of four butterflyfish species and although the bacterial diversity of gill mucus varied significantly between species, Shannon diversities were high (H = 3.7-5.7) in all species. Microbiota composition differed between butterflyfishes, with Chaetodon lunulatus and C. ornatissimus having the most similar bacterial communities, which differed significantly from C. vagabundus and C. reticulatus. The core bacterial community of all species consisted of mainly Proteobacteria followed by Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Chaetodonlunulatus and C. ornatissimus bacterial communities were mostly dominated by Gammaproteobacteria with Vibrio as the most abundant genus. Chaetodonvagabundus and C. reticulatus presented similar abundances of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, which were well represented by Acinetobacter and Paracoccus, respectively. In conclusion, our results indicate that different fish species present specific bacterial assemblages. Finally, as mucus layers are nutrient hotspots for heterotrophic bacteria living in oligotrophic environments, such as coral reef waters, the high bacterial diversity found in butterflyfish gill mucus might indicate external fish mucus surfaces act as a reservoir of coral reef bacterial diversity. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL POULTRY MICROFLORA

    OpenAIRE

    Garda S. A.; S. G. Danilenko; G. S. Litvinov

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics based on normal microflora of the birds using perspective strains become increasingly popular for treatment and prophylaxis of dysbacteriosis in poultry. The purpose of the work is the biotechnological data analysis of the composition and functions of the microflora of different birds’ biotopes. One of biotechnological methods for the study of bacterial flora in the birds is a method of in vivo bacteriological control — analysis of group samples of fresh droppings. To study bir...

  11. A comparison of the bacterial microflora between coastal sites in Qingdao, P. R. China and Loch Fyne, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinnes, J.; Robertson, P. A. W.; Austin, B.

    2002-10-01

    Aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria, recovered from two sites located on the west coast of Scotland, were compared to cultures obtained in a similar way from industrial, aquacultural and clean sites in the vicinity of Qingdao, Shandong, P. R. China. Gram-negative bacterial cultures were examined by BIOLOG-GN, and the data analysed by the simple matching (SSM) and Jaccard coefficients (SJ) and unweighted average linkage clustering using NTSys. The output revealed that 20% of the bacteria, namely, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Aquaspirillum dispar, Pseudomonas spp. (two groups), Sphingobacterium sp., Vibrio, sp., V. campbellii, V. mimicus and V. hollisae, were common between the two geographical locations. However, the study revealed shortcomings with the BIOLOG-GN system for the study of coastal Gram-negative bacteria.

  12. Diversity of the bacterial and fungal microflora from the midgut and cuticle of phlebotomine sand flies collected in North-Western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akhoundi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are the vectors of the leishmaniases, parasitic diseases caused by Leishmania spp. Little is known about the prevalence and diversity of sand fly microflora colonizing the midgut or the cuticle. Particularly, there is little information on the fungal diversity. This information is important for development of vector control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: FIVE SAND FLY SPECIES: Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti, P. kandelakii, P. perfiliewi and P. halepensis were caught in Bileh Savar and Kaleybar in North-Western Iran that are located in endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis. A total of 35 specimens were processed. Bacterial and fungal strains were identified by routine microbiological methods. We characterized 39 fungal isolates from the cuticle and/or the midgut. They belong to six different genera including Penicillium (17 isolates, Aspergillus (14, Acremonium (5, Fusarium (1, Geotrichum (1 and Candida (1. We identified 33 Gram-negative bacteria: Serratia marcescens (9 isolates, Enterobacter cloacae (6, Pseudomonas fluorescens (6, Klebsiella ozaenae (4, Acinetobacter sp. (3, Escherichia coli (3, Asaia sp. (1 and Pantoea sp. (1 as well as Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (5 and Micrococcus luteus (5 in 10 isolates. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides new data on the microbiotic diversity of field-collected sand flies and for the first time, evidence of the presence of Asaia sp. in sand flies. We have also found a link between physiological stages (unfed, fresh fed, semi gravid and gravid of sand flies and number of bacteria that they carry. Interestingly Pantoea sp. and Klebsiella ozaenae have been isolated in Old World sand fly species. The presence of latter species on sand fly cuticle and in the female midgut suggests a role for this arthropod in dissemination of these pathogenic bacteria in endemic areas. Further experiments are required to clearly delineate the vectorial

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane vesicles triggered by human mucosal fluid and lysozyme can prime host tissue surfaces for bacterial adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Maria Emiliano Metruccio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of human morbidity and mortality that often targets epithelial surfaces. Host immunocompromise, or the presence of indwelling medical devices, including contact lenses, can predispose to infection. While medical devices are known to accumulate bacterial biofilms, it is not well understood why resistant epithelial surfaces become susceptible to P. aeruginosa. Many bacteria, including P. aeruginosa, release Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs in response to stress that can fuse with host cells to alter their function. Here, we tested the hypothesis that mucosal fluid can trigger OMV release to compromise an epithelial barrier. This was tested using tear fluid and corneal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. After 1 h both human tear fluid, and the tear component lysozyme, greatly enhanced OMV release from P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 compared to PBS controls (~100 fold. TEM and SDS-PAGE showed tear fluid and lysozyme-induced OMVs were similar in size and protein composition, but differed from biofilm-harvested OMVs, the latter smaller with fewer proteins. Lysozyme-induced OMVs were cytotoxic to human corneal epithelial cells in vitro and murine corneal epithelium in vivo. OMV exposure in vivo enhanced Ly6G/C expression at the corneal surface, suggesting myeloid cell recruitment, and primed the cornea for bacterial adhesion (~4-fold, P < 0.01. Sonication disrupted OMVs retained cytotoxic activity, but did not promote adhesion, suggesting the latter required OMV-mediated events beyond cell killing. These data suggest that mucosal fluid induced P. aeruginosa OMVs could contribute to loss of epithelial barrier function during medical device-related infections.

  14. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL POULTRY MICROFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garda S. A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics based on normal microflora of the birds using perspective strains become increasingly popular for treatment and prophylaxis of dysbacteriosis in poultry. The purpose of the work is the biotechnological data analysis of the composition and functions of the microflora of different birds’ biotopes. One of biotechnological methods for the study of bacterial flora in the birds is a method of in vivo bacteriological control — analysis of group samples of fresh droppings. To study bird bacterial microflora the method based on vital bacteriological control (group sample study of fresh brood is the most effective. Only 60–70% of microorganisms are identified during the analysis of bowels bird microflora. It is shown that the normal microflora of the birds has a protective function because it is colonized on epithelial intestinal area and competes for power sources, has a wider set of enzymes, and also produces a wide range of exometabolites that determine their antagonistic action on pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic transient microorganisms. To improve modern technologies concerning cultivation of various breeds of birds with high genetic potential it needs full understanding of endogenous microflora role in a bird body. We found that as a source of probiotic strains it is better to use gastrointestinal tract laying hens and/or to make a selection of group tests of their fresh litter. Thus the best probiotic properties are characterized by microorganisms genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. The results could be used for selection of promising strains to create a acomplex probiotic.

  15. TARGET MICROFLORA OF A TOMATO C ROPPED SOIL.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of benomyl on the microflora of a tomato cropped soil was investigated. ... both in culture and soil treatments. ... pseudomonads to benomyl in culture .... bacterial pathogens of tomato solanucearum. Indian Pin to 11:01. in vitro.

  16. Aerobic bacterial microflora of Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris oral cavity and cloaca, originating from Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, Paraíba, Brazil Microflora bacteriana aeróbica da cavidade oral e cloaca de jacaré-de-papo-amarelo (Caiman latirostris procedentes do Zoológico de João Pessoa, PB, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.A. Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca's samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris, born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%, Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%, Escherichia coli (13.68% and Shigella sp. (11.58%, and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05% and Salmonella sp. (1.05%.This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms' participation in infectious processes (sepsis and injuries caused by crocodilians.O presente estudo teve como objetivo isolar e identificar a microflora bacteriana aeróbica presente na mucosa da cavidade oral e da cloaca de exemplares de jacarés-de-papo-amarelo (Caiman latirostris nascidos e criados em cativeiro no Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, localizado na cidade de João Pessoa - PB. As bactérias mais freqüentes foram Staphylococcus sp. (14,74%, Corynebacterium sp.(13,68%, Escherichia coli (13,68% e Shigella sp. (11,58%, e as menos prevalentes foram Citrobacter sp.(1,05%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (1,05% e Salmonella sp. (1,05%. Ressalta-se a importância da participação desses microrganismos em processos infecciosos (septicemias e em feridas provocadas por crocodilianos.

  17. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G titer correlates with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density, and levels of serum biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huakang; Sun, Liping; Dong, Xiao; Gong, Yuehua; Xu, Qian; Jing, Jingjing; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Clinical implications of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer were unclear. This study investigated the associations of serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and levels of serum biomarkers, including pepsinogen (PG) I, PGII, PGI/II ratio and gastrin-17. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Study participants were from a screening program in northern China. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG measurements were available for 5922 patients with superficial gastritis. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer and serum biomarkers were measured using ELISA, and gastric biopsies were evaluated using standardized criteria. RESULTS. In patients with mild, moderate or severe superficial gastritis, the mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG titers were 17.3, 33.4 and 54.4 EIU (p for trend histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and concentrations of serum PGI, PGII and gastrin-17, and negatively with PGI/II ratio.

  18. Salivary microflora and mode of delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boustedt, Katarina; Roswall, Josefine; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested that the mode of delivery can influence the composition of oral microflora. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the salivary colonization in vaginally delivered children with children delivered by Caesarian section (C...... months. A saliva sample from the mothers was obtained 6 months after delivery. The parents were asked to complete a questionnaire on socioeconomic factors, lifestyle, and hygiene at baseline and throughout the study period. All samples were analyzed with 13 pre-determined bacterial probes using...

  19. INTESTINAL VIROME AND NORMAL MICROFLORA OF HUMAN: FEATURES OF INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobyr V.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Intestinal bacteria defend the host organism and narrow pathogenic bacterial colonization. However, the microbiome effect to enteric viruses is unexplored largely as well as role of microbiota in the pathogenesis of viral infections in general. This review focuses on precisely these issues. Keywords: microbiome, virome, normal microflora, enteric viruses, contagiousness. In this review article, facts about viral persistence in the human gut are summarized. It is described the role of viral populations during health and diseases. After analyzing of the literary facts it was concluded that the gastrointestinal tract is an environment for one from the most complex microbial ecosystems, which requires of more deeper study of its composition, role in physiological processes, as well as the dynamics of changes under influence of the environment. Normal microflora performs a different important functions providing the physiological homeostasis of the human body, including, in particular, an important role in the human metabolic processes, supporting of homeostasis, limiting of colonization by infectious bacteria. The multifactorial significance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora can be divided into immunological, structural and metabolic functions. At the same time, interaction between intestinal microflora and enteric viruses has not been studied largely. In recent years, much attention is paid to study of viruses-bacteria associations, and it is possible, obtained results should change our understanding of microbiota role in the systematic pathogenesis of the diseases with viral etiology. In contrast to the well-known benefits of normal microflora to the host, the viruses can use intestinal microflora as a trigger for replication at the optimal region. Recent studies give a reason for assumption that depletion of normal microflora with antibiotics can determining the antiviral effect. Thus, the role of commensal bacteria in viral

  20. EPIGLOTTIS MICROFLORA OF ADULT PATIENTS WITH ACUTE EPIGLOTTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovko NA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays acute infectious-inflammatory processes of upper respiratory tract, including acute epiglottitis retain a high proportion among human pathology. In the literature acute epiglottitis is allocated into an independent nosology as severe acute phlegmonous bacterial inflammation of the epiglottis and hypopharynx. There are currently no clear guidelines on how to classify an acute epiglottitis, as well as protocols for patients at various stages of the pathological process. According to common belief, Haemophilus influenzae type -B (Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib is the most common cause of epiglottitis. At present, the main etiological role in the genesis of acute epiglottitis in children belongs to haemophilus influenzae. In adults the causes of the disease are beta hemolytic streptococci groups A, B, pneumococcus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus, herpes simplex virus (type 1 and parainfluenza, and others.The aim of this work is to study: the mucosal microflora of the epiglottis in adult patients with acute epiglottitis and to study sensitivity of certain isolates to antimicrobial agents. Material & methods. 86 adult patients with acute epiglottitis were observed: 36 with abscess form of epiglottitis and 50 - with infiltrative. Microbiological analysis of mucosal swab samples taken from hypopharynx were conducted by the conventional technology: for seeding solid or liquid nutrient medium, followed by allocation of isolith and its microscopic, biochemical and serological identification. Microorganisms were classified according to schemes of Bergy. Antimicrobial susceptibility of each strain was determined in accordance with the guidelines. We used discs with antibacterial drugs. The availability of sensitive and resistant strains of microorganisms to antibiotics was assessed. A mucous membrane of the epiglottis was analyzed through microbiological investigation in 86 patients with acute epiglottitis. As a

  1. Bacterial-derived uracil as a modulator of mucosal immunity and gut-microbe homeostasis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Sung-Hee; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Ha, Eun-Mi; You, Hyejin; Kim, Boram; Kim, Min-Ji; Kwon, Youngjoo; Ryu, Ji-Hwan; Lee, Won-Jae

    2013-05-09

    All metazoan guts are subjected to immunologically unique conditions in which an efficient antimicrobial system operates to eliminate pathogens while tolerating symbiotic commensal microbiota. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling this process are only partially understood. Here, we show that bacterial-derived uracil acts as a ligand for dual oxidase (DUOX)-dependent reactive oxygen species generation in Drosophila gut and that the uracil production in bacteria causes inflammation in the gut. The acute and controlled uracil-induced immune response is required for efficient elimination of bacteria, intestinal cell repair, and host survival during infection of nonresident species. Among resident gut microbiota, uracil production is absent in symbionts, allowing harmonious colonization without DUOX activation, whereas uracil release from opportunistic pathobionts provokes chronic inflammation. These results reveal that bacteria with distinct abilities to activate uracil-induced gut inflammation, in terms of intensity and duration, act as critical factors that determine homeostasis or pathogenesis in gut-microbe interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Atrofia mucosa/translocação bacteriana na sepse experimental em ratos Wistar Mucosal atrophy/bacterial translocation in experimental sepsis in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando José d'Acampora

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avalizar a relação entre lesão mucosa e translocação bacteriana. MÉTODO: Utilizou-se 50 ratos distribuídos em 5 grupos: 1.Controle: injeção de inóculo padrão de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2.Dreno: injeção do inóculo padrão e drenagem da cavidade abdominal, após 6 horas, 3.Lavado: injeção do inóculo padrão e lavagem da cavidade abdominal, após 6 horas, 4.Lavado + dreno: injeção do inóculo padrão e após 6 horas, drenagem e lavagem da cavidade, 5.Normal: avaliação histológica da parede intestinal normal. Após o óbito, realizou-se hemocultura e cultura peritoneal. Realizou-se medida da espessura total da parede do jejuno e da camada mucosa em vilosidades seccionadas de forma longitudinal. RESULTADOS: Na hemocultura, houve crescimento de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli em 90% e 52,5% dos animais. Na cultura peritoneal, houve crescimento de P. aeruginosa, E. coli e Klebsiella sp em 87,5%, 85% e 5% dos animais. Quanto a altura da camada mucosa e da parede intestinal, não houve alteração estatisticamente significativa entre os 5 grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A sepse aguda não causou alteração na camada mucosa do intestino delgado e a translocação ocorrida não pode ser considerada como decorrente de uma lesão da mucosa intestinal.PURPOSE: Observe the relation between small intestine's mucosal injury and bacterial translocation. METHODS: 50 adult female rats were distributed in 5 groups: 1. Control: intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2. Drainage: intraperitoneal injection of P. aeruginosa and drainage of the abdominal cavity, after 6 hours, 3. Washed: intraperitoneal injection of P. aeruginosa and washing of the abdominal cavity, after 6 hours, 4. Washed + drainage: intraperitoneal injection of P. aeruginosa plus drainage and washing of the cavity, after 6 hours, 5. Normal: evaluation of the normal intestinal wall. After death, blood and peritoneal cultures were performed. Fragments of

  3. Lactobacillus for Vaginal Microflora Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Saduakhasova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the significant progress made in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, there is still a high rate of vaginal dysbiosis in Kazakh women. The use of antibiotics in the treatment of vaginal dysbiosis contributes to the elimination of pathogens as well as microflora, which can lead to a decrease in local immunity and more favorable conditions for infection spread. The most physiologically safe and promising method for the restoration of vaginal biocenosis is the use of probiotics administered by a vaginal route.Methods. We have allocated 64 of cultures of Lactobacillus from the vaginal epithelium of healthy women of reproductive age and women with diagnosed bacterial vaginosis (BV. Identification of cultures was performed by PCR analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA.  Evaluation of biological significance was determined by the following criteria: high antagonistic activity against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella ozaenae, and Staphylococcus aureus; and production of hydrogen peroxide, resistance to antibiotics, adhesive activity. We studied the symbiotic relationship of selected biologically active of cultures to each other and received options for consortiums with  properties of  probiotics through co-cultivation.Results. Results of genotyping  showed that the isolated lactobacilli belong to the seven species: L. fermentum, L. salivarius, L. gasseri, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, L. plantarum, and L. delbrueskii. L. fermentum, L. salivarius, L. gasseri, and L. jensenii occur in women with suspected BV. The highest percentage of occurrence in the vagina of healthy women was L. fermentum (28%. Most strains of lactobacilli possess high inhibitory activity for all test-strains, except Candida albicans (37.5%. 56% of studied cultures revealed high adhesion to human erythrocytes. All lactobacillus strains were resistant to metronidazole, 80% to kanamycin, 57%  to vancomycin, and

  4. The vaginal microflora in relation to gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Gingivitis has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with APO. We assessed if bacterial counts in BV is associated with gingivitis suggesting a systemic infectious susceptibilty. Methods Vaginal samples were collected from 180 women (mean age 29.4 years, SD ± 6.8, range: 18 to 46), and at least six months after delivery, and assessed by semi-quantitative DNA-DNA checkerboard hybridization assay (74 bacterial species). BV was defined by Gram stain (Nugent criteria). Gingivitis was defined as bleeding on probing at ≥ 20% of tooth sites. Results A Nugent score of 0–3 (normal vaginal microflora) was found in 83 women (46.1%), and a score of > 7 (BV) in 49 women (27.2%). Gingivitis was diagnosed in 114 women (63.3%). Women with a diagnosis of BV were more likely to have gingivitis (p = 0.01). Independent of gingival conditions, vaginal bacterial counts were higher (p gingivitis had higher counts of Prevotella bivia (p 1.0 × 104 cells) and a diagnosis of gingivitis was 3.9 for P. bivia (95% CI 1.5–5.7, p gingivitis in comparison to women with BV but not gingivitis. P. bivia and P. disiens may be of specific significance in a relationship between vaginal and gingival infections. PMID:19161595

  5. Investigations into rhizosphere microflora. IV. Fungal association in different root regions of some rainy-season crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-rhizosphere, rhizosphere and rhizoplane microflora of the crown and distal regions of Echinochloa crusgalli (L. Beauv. and Paspalum scrobiculatum L. were studied from seedling stage to the harvest. The variation in bacterial and fungal flora in relation to host species, stage of development and żonę of the rhizosphere were studied. The differences between fungal and bacterial flora are described. The relation between rhizosphere microflora and roots exudates is described.

  6. Fermentative hydrogen production by diverse microflora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghchehsaraee, B.; Nakhla, G.; Karamanev, D.; Margaritis, A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': In this study of hydrogen production with activated sludge, a diverse bacterial source has been investigated and compared to microflora from anaerobic digester sludge, which is less diverse. Batch experiments were conducted at mesophilic (37 o C) and thermophilic (55 o C) temperatures. The hydrogen production yields with activated sludge at 37 o C and 55 o C were 0.25 and 0.93 mol H 2 /mol glucose, respectively. The maximum hydrogen production rates with activated sludge in both temperatures were 4.2 mL/h. Anaerobic digester sludge showed higher hydrogen production yields and rates at both mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The results of repeated batch experiments with activated sludge showed an increase in the hydrogen production during the consecutive batches. However, hydrogen production was not stable along the repeated batches. The observed instability was due to the formation of lactic acid and ethanol. (author)

  7. Diversity of insect intestinal microflora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Kott, T.; Kopečný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 229-233 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0974 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : insect intestinal microflora Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  8. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice.

  9. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body γ irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice

  10. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Takayuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Matsuki, Takahiro [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan); Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Inada, Kenichi [First Department of Pathology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan); Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Akimoto, Shigeru [Department of Microbiology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ichinose, Masao, E-mail: ichinose@wakayama-med.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan)

    2009-04-17

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  11. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Takayuki; Matsuki, Takahiro; Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Inada, Kenichi; Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki; Akimoto, Shigeru; Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2009-01-01

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  12. Study of females genital tract microflora diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Vertelytė, Justina

    2016-01-01

    Study of females genital tract microflora diversity SUMMARY Study of female genital tract microflora diversity Authors of Master’s degree scientific research work: Justina Vertelytė Head of Master’s degree scientific research work: dr Silvija Kiverytė Vilnius, 2016 The aim of research work was to investigate and analyze the composition of the microflora of the female genital tract using the methods of microbiological smear, vaginal wet mount and PCR. The objectives of the work were to evaluat...

  13. Characterisation of the vaginal microflora of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactobacilli predominate normal vaginal microflora and are important in maintenance of vaginal health. The current study set out to identify and compare culture isolates of vaginal microflora of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) women at different phases during menstrual cycle ...

  14. Characterisation of the vaginal microflora of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teresa kiama

    2014-02-26

    Feb 26, 2014 ... Lactobacilli predominate normal vaginal microflora and are important in maintenance of vaginal health. The current study set out to identify and compare culture isolates of vaginal microflora of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) women at different phases during.

  15. Effects of treatment with antimicrobial agents on the human colonic microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Rafii, John B Sutherland, Carl E CernigliaDivision of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR, USAAbstract: Antimicrobial agents are the most valuable means available for treating bacterial infections. However, the administration of therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents to patients is a leading cause of disturbance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora. This disturbance results in diminishing the natural defense mechanisms provided by the colonic microbial ecosystem, making the host vulnerable to infection by commensal microorganisms or nosocomial pathogens. In this minireview, the impacts of antimicrobials, individually and in combinations, on the human colonic microflora are discussed.Keywords: antibiotics, intestinal bacteria

  16. Microbial DNA fingerprinting of human fingerprints: dynamic colonization of fingertip microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, Sebastian; van Wamel, Willem; Endtz, Hubert P; van Belkum, Alex; Kayser, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    Human fingertip microflora is transferred to touched objects and may provide forensically relevant information on individual hosts, such as on geographic origins, if endogenous microbial skin species/strains would be retrievable from physical fingerprints and would carry geographically restricted DNA diversity. We tested the suitability of physical fingerprints for revealing human host information, with geographic inference as example, via microbial DNA fingerprinting. We showed that the transient exogenous fingertip microflora is frequently different from the resident endogenous bacteria of the same individuals. In only 54% of the experiments, the DNA analysis of the transient fingertip microflora allowed the detection of defined, but often not the major, elements of the resident microflora. Although we found microbial persistency in certain individuals, time-wise variation of transient and resident microflora within individuals was also observed when resampling fingerprints after 3 weeks. While microbial species differed considerably in their frequency spectrum between fingerprint samples from volunteers in Europe and southern Asia, there was no clear geographic distinction between Staphylococcus strains in a cluster analysis, although bacterial genotypes did not overlap between both continental regions. Our results, though limited in quantity, clearly demonstrate that the dynamic fingerprint microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes including geographic ones. Overall, our results suggest that human fingerprint microflora is too dynamic to allow for forensic marker developments for retrieving human information.

  17. Environmental biodegradability of diesel oil: composition and performances of degradative micro-floras; Biodegradabilite du gazole dans l'environnement: composition et performances des microflores degradatrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penet, S.

    2004-09-01

    The large use of petroleum products makes them a significant source of pollutants in ground water and soils. Biodegradation studies are therefore relevant either to evaluate possibilities of natural attenuation or define bio-remediation strategies. In this study, the possible relationship between the environmental microflora structures and their capabilities for diesel oil biodegradation was investigated. The degradation capacities, i.e. kinetics and extent of biodegradation, were evaluated in closed batch systems by hydrocarbon consumption and CO{sub 2} production, both determined by gas chromatography. The intrinsic biodegradability of different types of diesel oils and the degradation capacities of microflora from ten polluted and ten unpolluted soils samples were determined. The data showed that: i) diesel oil was biodegradable, ii) n-alkanes were totally degraded by each microflora, the final amount of residual hydrocarbons being variable, iii) polluted-soil samples exhibited a slightly higher degradation rate (80%) that polluted-soil samples (67%) or activated sludge (64%). In order to define the contribution of various bacterial groups to diesel oil degradation, enrichment cultures were performed on hydrocarbons representative from the structural classes of diesel oil: hexadecane for n-alkanes, pristane for iso-alkanes, decalin for cyclo-alkanes, phenanthrene for aromatics. By using a 16S rDNA-sequencing method, the bacterial structures of the adapted microflora were determined and compared to that of the native microflora. A marked effect of the selection pressure was observed on the diversity of the microflora, each microflora harboring a major and specific bacterial group. The degradation capacities of the adapted microflora and the occurrence of genes coding for initial hydrocarbon oxidation (alkB, nahAc, cypP450) were also studied. No clear relationship between microflora genes and degradation performances was noted. This seemed to indicate that

  18. Environmental biodegradability of diesel oil: composition and performances of degradative micro-floras; Biodegradabilite du gazole dans l'environnement: composition et performances des microflores degradatrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penet, S

    2004-09-01

    The large use of petroleum products makes them a significant source of pollutants in ground water and soils. Biodegradation studies are therefore relevant either to evaluate possibilities of natural attenuation or define bio-remediation strategies. In this study, the possible relationship between the environmental microflora structures and their capabilities for diesel oil biodegradation was investigated. The degradation capacities, i.e. kinetics and extent of biodegradation, were evaluated in closed batch systems by hydrocarbon consumption and CO{sub 2} production, both determined by gas chromatography. The intrinsic biodegradability of different types of diesel oils and the degradation capacities of microflora from ten polluted and ten unpolluted soils samples were determined. The data showed that: i) diesel oil was biodegradable, ii) n-alkanes were totally degraded by each microflora, the final amount of residual hydrocarbons being variable, iii) polluted-soil samples exhibited a slightly higher degradation rate (80%) that polluted-soil samples (67%) or activated sludge (64%). In order to define the contribution of various bacterial groups to diesel oil degradation, enrichment cultures were performed on hydrocarbons representative from the structural classes of diesel oil: hexadecane for n-alkanes, pristane for iso-alkanes, decalin for cyclo-alkanes, phenanthrene for aromatics. By using a 16S rDNA-sequencing method, the bacterial structures of the adapted microflora were determined and compared to that of the native microflora. A marked effect of the selection pressure was observed on the diversity of the microflora, each microflora harboring a major and specific bacterial group. The degradation capacities of the adapted microflora and the occurrence of genes coding for initial hydrocarbon oxidation (alkB, nahAc, cypP450) were also studied. No clear relationship between microflora genes and degradation performances was noted. This seemed to indicate that

  19. The etiological structure, biological properties of causative agents of peri-implant mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Faustova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to examine the peri-implant mucositis microflora and sensitivity of dominant pathogens to antibiotics and antiseptics. Materials and methods. The study involved 43 patients with peri-implant mucositis. During the study 162 clinical strains of microorganisms were isolated and identified. Cultivation of clinical isolates was performed by the standard method, final identification was carried out with using bacteriological automatic analyzer Vitec – 2compact bioMérieux (France. Determination of sensitivity to antibiotics of pathogens was carried with disc-diffusion method; the study of sensitivity to antiseptics was carried by means of double serial dilutions method by the standard procedure approved by the Order № 167 of the Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine on “On Approval of Training Guidance “Assessment of the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics”, dated by April, 5, 2007. Results. It is The microflora of peri-implant area of patients with mucositis was revealed to consist of opportunistic species. Representatives of Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were dominating among them, although Kocuria spp., Enterobacter spp. and yeast-like fungi Candida spp. were detected quite common. Investigated clinical strains of microorganisms had different sensitivity to antibiotics. All cultures were sensitive to fluoroquinolones, but very significant number of them showed resistance to penicillins, macrolides and lincosamides. In turn, horosten, dekasan and chlorhexidine had powerful antimicrobial effect on dominant pathogens of periimplant mucositis in patients. Moreover, the effect of decametoxine-based antiseptics on some of them significantly exceeded the activity of chlorhexidine. Conclusions. Microflora from peri-implant area of patients with peri-implant mucositis consists mainly of aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms, belonging to normal oral microflora. Most of pathogens of mucositis obtaine

  20. Microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Steven; Verstraelen, Hans; Gerris, Jan; Monstrey, Stan; Santiago, Guido dos Santos Lopes; Saerens, Bart; De Backer, Ellen; Claeys, Geert; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Verhelst, Rita

    2009-05-20

    The microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina in male-to-female transsexuals is a recently created microbial niche which thus far has been characterized only to a very limited extent. Yet the knowledge of this microflora can be considered as essential to the follow-up of transsexual women. The primary objective of this study was to map the neo-vaginal microflora in a group of 50 transsexual women for whom a neovagina was constructed by means of the inverted penile skin flap technique. Secondary objectives were to describe possible correlations of this microflora with multiple patients' characteristics, such as sexual orientation, the incidence of vaginal irritation and malodorous vaginal discharge. Based on Gram stain the majority of smears revealed a mixed microflora that had some similarity with bacterial vaginosis (BV) microflora and that contained various amounts of cocci, polymorphous Gram-negative and Gram-positive rods, often with fusiform and comma-shaped rods, and sometimes even with spirochetes. Candida cells were not seen in any of the smears. On average 8.6 species were cultured per woman. The species most often found were: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus anginosus group spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Corynebacterium sp., Mobiluncus curtisii and Bacteroides ureolyticus. Lactobacilli were found in only one of 30 women. There was no correlation between dilatation habits, having coitus, rinsing habits and malodorous vaginal discharge on the one hand and the presence of a particular species on the other. There was however a highly significant correlation between the presence of E. faecalis on the one hand and sexual orientation and coitus on the other (p = 0.003 and p = 0.027 respectively). Respectively 82%, 58% and 30% of the samples showed an amplicon after amplification with M. curtisii, Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis primer sets. Our study is the first to describe the microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual

  1. Microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claeys Geert

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina in male-to-female transsexuals is a recently created microbial niche which thus far has been characterized only to a very limited extent. Yet the knowledge of this microflora can be considered as essential to the follow-up of transsexual women. The primary objective of this study was to map the neo-vaginal microflora in a group of 50 transsexual women for whom a neovagina was constructed by means of the inverted penile skin flap technique. Secondary objectives were to describe possible correlations of this microflora with multiple patients' characteristics, such as sexual orientation, the incidence of vaginal irritation and malodorous vaginal discharge. Results Based on Gram stain the majority of smears revealed a mixed microflora that had some similarity with bacterial vaginosis (BV microflora and that contained various amounts of cocci, polymorphous Gram-negative and Gram-positive rods, often with fusiform and comma-shaped rods, and sometimes even with spirochetes. Candida cells were not seen in any of the smears. On average 8.6 species were cultured per woman. The species most often found were: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus anginosus group spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Corynebacterium sp., Mobiluncus curtisii and Bacteroides ureolyticus. Lactobacilli were found in only one of 30 women There was no correlation between dilatation habits, having coitus, rinsing habits and malodorous vaginal discharge on the one hand and the presence of a particular species on the other. There was however a highly significant correlation between the presence of E. faecalis on the one hand and sexual orientation and coitus on the other (p = 0.003 and p = 0.027 respectively. Respectively 82%, 58% and 30% of the samples showed an amplicon after amplification with M. curtisii, Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis primer sets. Conclusion Our study is the first to describe the

  2. Microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina in male-to-female transsexuals is a recently created microbial niche which thus far has been characterized only to a very limited extent. Yet the knowledge of this microflora can be considered as essential to the follow-up of transsexual women. The primary objective of this study was to map the neo-vaginal microflora in a group of 50 transsexual women for whom a neovagina was constructed by means of the inverted penile skin flap technique. Secondary objectives were to describe possible correlations of this microflora with multiple patients' characteristics, such as sexual orientation, the incidence of vaginal irritation and malodorous vaginal discharge. Results Based on Gram stain the majority of smears revealed a mixed microflora that had some similarity with bacterial vaginosis (BV) microflora and that contained various amounts of cocci, polymorphous Gram-negative and Gram-positive rods, often with fusiform and comma-shaped rods, and sometimes even with spirochetes. Candida cells were not seen in any of the smears. On average 8.6 species were cultured per woman. The species most often found were: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus anginosus group spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Corynebacterium sp., Mobiluncus curtisii and Bacteroides ureolyticus. Lactobacilli were found in only one of 30 women There was no correlation between dilatation habits, having coitus, rinsing habits and malodorous vaginal discharge on the one hand and the presence of a particular species on the other. There was however a highly significant correlation between the presence of E. faecalis on the one hand and sexual orientation and coitus on the other (p = 0.003 and p = 0.027 respectively). Respectively 82%, 58% and 30% of the samples showed an amplicon after amplification with M. curtisii, Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis primer sets. Conclusion Our study is the first to describe the microflora of the penile skin

  3. Microflora en semillas de frijol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 B. Membre\\u00F1o

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Microflora en semillas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Se estudió la microflora bacteriana presente en semillas de frijol y su relación con Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp, en 118 genotipos procedentes de VIDAC-98, INTA- Nicaragua, TARS-USDA e Isabela-P.R. Se utilizaron cinco métodos de aislamiento: semilla desinfectada con hipoclorito de sodio, semilla en caldo nutritivo refrigerada por una hora, dispersión de 0,1 ml de suspensión de semillas en medio sólido, siembra líquida de 1 ml de suspensión y semilla en caldo nutritivo, agitado y refrigerado por 24 horas. Se aislaron 104 colonias amarillas de 41 genotipos. Treinta y seis colonias fueron KOH positivo (Gram negativo, 68 negativo (Gram positivo y 34 hidrolizaron almidón. Las colonias de pigmentación amarilla resultaron no patogénicas bajo condiciones de invernadero. Estas se identificaron con el sistema BIOLOG como: Pantoea agglomerans (25, Xanthomonas campestris (2, Enterobacter agglomerans (2, Sphingomonas paucimobilis (2, Pseudomonas fluorescens y Flavimonas oryzihabitans. En adición, los genotipos portaron colonias con pigmentación distinta a la amarilla. En las pruebas de antagonismo se identificaron colonias con actividad de deoxyribonucleasa y de antibiosis a Xcp. De éstas, 15 colonias inhibieron a Xcp significativamente. Se identificaron los hongos Rhizoctonia solani, Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus nigricans y Macrophomina phaseolina en un 52,9 % del total de genotipos evaluados

  4. Mucosal immunization with the Moraxella catarrhalis porin m35 induces enhanced bacterial clearance from the lung: a possible role for opsonophagocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna eEaston

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Moraxella catarrhalis is a significant cause of respiratory tract infection against which a vaccine is sought. Several outer membrane proteins are currently under investigation as potential vaccine antigens, including the porin M35. We have previously shown that the third external loop of M35 was immunodominant over the remainder of the protein for antibody produced in mice against the refolded recombinant protein. However, as this loop is predicted to fold inside the porin channel we also predicted that it would not be accessible to these antibodies when M35 is expressed on the surface of the bacteria in its native conformation. This study investigated the functional activity of antibodies against M35 and those specific for the loop 3 region of M35 in vitro and in vivo. Antisera from mice immunized with M35 or the loop 3-deletion, M35loop3–, recombinant proteins were not bactericidal but did have enhanced opsonic activity, whereas antibodies raised against the loop 3 peptide were not opsonising indicating that the immunodominant loop 3 of M35 was not accessible to antibody as we had previously predicted. Mucosal immunization with M35, M35 that had an antigenically altered loop 3 (M35(ID78 and M35loop3– enhanced the clearance of M. catarrhalis from the lungs of mice challenged with live M. catarrhalis. The in vivo clearance of bacteria in the mice with the M35-derived protein constructs correlated significantly (p<0.001 with the opsonic activity assessed an in vitro opsonophagocytosis assay. This study has demonstrated that the immunodominat B-cell epitope to loop 3 of the M. catarrhalis outer membrane protein M35 is not associated with immune protection and that M35-specific antibodies are not bactericidal but are opsonising. The opsonising activity correlated with in vivo clearance of the bacteria suggesting that opsonising antibody may be a good correlate of immune protection.

  5. Effects of treatment with antimicrobial agents on the human colonic microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Rafii, Fatemeh

    2008-01-01

    Fatemeh Rafii, John B Sutherland, Carl E CernigliaDivision of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR, USAAbstract: Antimicrobial agents are the most valuable means available for treating bacterial infections. However, the administration of therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents to patients is a leading cause of disturbance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora. This disturbance results in diminishing the natural defense mechanisms provided by the c...

  6. Oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Maria; Grindefjord, Margaret; Dahllöf, Göran

    2016-01-01

    hundred seven 3-year-old children were enrolled from a cohort of 3403 preschool children taking part in a community based oral health project. Two hundred sixty-three of them had attended caries-preventive program with semi-annual applications of a fluoride varnish since the age of 1 year (test group......BACKGROUND: To compare the oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program with a reference group receiving a standard oral health program without fluoride varnish applications. A second aim was to relate the microbial composition to the caries prevalence. METHODS: Five......) while 237 had received standard preventive care (reference group). Oral samples were collected with a sterile swab and analysed with checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization using 12 pre-determined bacterial probes. Caries and background data were collected from clinical examinations and questionnaires...

  7. Effects of a skin neuropeptide (substance p on cutaneous microflora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Mijouin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skin is the largest human neuroendocrine organ and hosts the second most numerous microbial population but the interaction of skin neuropeptides with the microflora has never been investigated. We studied the effect of Substance P (SP, a peptide released by nerve endings in the skin on bacterial virulence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bacillus cereus, a member of the skin transient microflora, was used as a model. Exposure to SP strongly stimulated the cytotoxicity of B. cereus (+553±3% with SP 10(-6 M and this effect was rapid (<5 min. Infection of keratinocytes with SP treated B. cereus led to a rise in caspase1 and morphological alterations of the actin cytoskeleton. Secretome analysis revealed that SP stimulated the release of collagenase and superoxide dismutase. Moreover, we also noted a shift in the surface polarity of the bacteria linked to a peel-off of the S-layer and the release of S-layer proteins. Meanwhile, the biofilm formation activity of B. cereus was increased. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor (Ef-Tu was identified as the SP binding site in B. cereus. Other Gram positive skin bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis also reacted to SP by an increase of virulence. Thermal water from Uriage-les-Bains and an artificial polysaccharide (Teflose® were capable to antagonize the effect of SP on bacterial virulence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SP is released in sweat during stress and is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous skin diseases through neurogenic inflammation. Our study suggests that a direct effect of SP on the skin microbiote should be another mechanism.

  8. Analysis of the microflora in the stomach of Mongolian gerbils infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Cynthia; Osaki, Takako; Hanawa, Tomoko; Yonezawa, Hideo; Kurata, Satoshi; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2010-05-01

    Mongolian gerbils are frequently used to study Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis and its consequences. The presence of some gastric flora with a suppressive effect on H. pylori suggests inhibitory microflora against H. pylori infection. The aim of the present study was to analyze the microflora in the stomach of Mongolian gerbils with H. pylori infection. H. pylori ureA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the fecal samples of infected Mongolian gerbils. H. pylori was isolated from the gastric mucosa of the gerbils by microaerophilic cultivation. Gastric microflora were isolated by aerobic and anaerobic culture, and the identification of gastric bacterial species was performed by API20E and API20A. Oral administration of H. pylori TK1402 induced colonization and gastric inflammation of the stomach of the Mongolian gerbils. According to the frequency of detection of H. pylori ureA in fecal samples, the gerbils were divided into three groups (frequently detected, moderately detected and infrequently detected). According to the analysis of the gastric microflora in the frequently and infrequently detected groups, Lactobacillus spp. and Eubacterium limosum were isolated from the former and latter group, respectively. Some gastric flora, such as Lactobacillus spp., may inhibit colonization by H. pylori.

  9. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  10. Combined Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Heat Treatment on Microflora of Spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, I.; Farkas, J. [Central Food Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary)

    1981-09-15

    The radiation sensitivity of the aerobic bacterial flora was similar both in the ground paprika and the whole black pepper (D{sub 10} values calculated from the exponential survival curves were 1.44 and 1.29 kGy, respectively). The survival rates of the microflora of non-irradiated samples were compared with those of the 1.6-4 kGy irradiated samples as a function of the heating time at various temperature levels, applied to aqueous suspensions of spices. The mesophilic aerobic bacterial flora of black pepper proved to be more heat-resistant than that of paprika powder. The heat resistance of the surviving microflora of irradiated spices was significantly decreased. The heat sensitization effect tended to increase as the radiation dose increased. The heat sensitization by irradiation was greater in the case of the more heat resistant microflora of black pepper. The heat sensitization quotient at 90 Degree-Sign C (i.e. the ratio of the 90% destruction time for unirradiated versus irradiated samples) was approximately 4 for paprika and 9 for black pepper at the 4-kGy dose level. (author)

  11. Combined effect of gamma irradiation and heat treatment on microflora of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.; Farkas, J.

    1981-01-01

    The radiation sensitivity of the aerobic bacterial flora was similar both in the ground paprika and the whole black pepper (D 10 values calculated from the exponential survival curves were 1.44 and 1.29 kGy, respectively). The survival rates of the microflora of non-irradiated samples were compared with those of the 1.6-4 kGy irradiated samples as a function of the heating time at various temperature levels, applied to aqueous suspensions of spices. The mesophilic aerobic bacterial flora of black pepper proved to be more heat-resistant than that of paprika powder. The heat resistance of the surviving microflora of irradiated spices was significantly decreased. The heat sensitization effect tended to increase as the radiation dose increased. The heat sensitization by irradiation was greater in the case of the more heat-resistant microflora of black pepper. The heat sensitization quotient at 90 0 C (i.e. the ratio of the 90% destruction time for unirradiated versus irradiated samples) was approximately 4 for paprika and 9 for black pepper at the 4-kGy dose level. (author)

  12. MICROFLORA OF BEET SUGAR PRODUCTION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Sugar beet is one of the strategic crops for food safety of Russia. The lack of specialized warehouse for harvest does not provide storage of roots for a long time. In the case of a thaw roots that have been defrosted unsuitable for processing. Beet and products of its processing is a good object for the development of microorganisms. Permanent microflora of sugar production are: Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and other kinds of microorganisms, leading to a problem processing of beet root and reduced quality of sugar. The most dangerous is the slimy bacteriosis is a bacterial disease beet caused by heterofermentative cocci of Leuconostoc (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, L. dextranicum. Product of the vital activity of microorganisms is dextran, which is synthesized from sucrose as a result of dextrany or mucous fermentation and leads to significant technological problems in processing of infected beet. Improving the efficiency of sugar production is connected with decrease in loss of quality of raw material preparation, storing and processing of sugar beet. At sugar plants use a variety of drugs that suppress the growth of pathogenic microflora, but there comes a rapid adaptation of microorganisms, therefore there is a need to implement new products to prevent damage to roots and improve the quality of produced sugar. To resolve this problem experimentally selected bactericidal drug, defined its rational concentration and conditions for the use in sugar beet production. The use of antibacterial drug in the process of extraction allows to increase the purity of diffusion juice 1.3 %, reduce the protein content in it (12.5 %; with the purity of the pure juice increases by 1.1 %, its color index is reduced by 44.7 %.

  13. Influence of Vladivostok coastal waters pollution on a microflora of mussel Crenomytilus grayanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatyrenko, E. A.; Dunkai, T. I.; Buzoleva, L. S.; Kim, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    Taxonomic structure of bacterial community for mussel Crenomytilus grayanus digestive system from coastal waters of Vladivostok city, which is characterized by considerable anthropogenic impact was studied. Specimens of Micrococcaceae family predominated in the mollusc microscopic flora by the quantity of selected strains (62%). The order of Actinomycetales (namely genera of Actinomyces and Pimelobacter) were large (11%). In addition, there were numerous representatives of Enterobacteriaceae family (9%), Vibrio genus (9%), and Paracoccus genus (9%) selected. There were found such pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, as Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Klebsiella spp in microbial communities of mussels. Even though pathogenic microflora does not predominate in the biotic community, it nevertheless shifts the balance to increase extrinsic microflora within the hydrobiont. Detection of such potentially harmful bacteria indicates the insufficient sanitary and epidemiological state of the water area researched, the bay persistently polluted with municipal domestic drain waters.

  14. Development of Periodontal Microflora on Human Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Ter Steeg, P. F.; Van Der Hoeven, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the ecological niches of members of subgingival microflora. The succession of species during enrichment batch growth of subgingival plaque organisms in serum was monitored. Three phases could be distinguished during growth, firstly carbohydrate consumption by rapidly growing saccharolytic bacteria such as Eubacterium saburreum or Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Streptococcus spp. leading to lactic and formic acid production. Secondly a later phase in whi...

  15. Age-Related Variations in Intestinal Microflora of Free-Range and Caged Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yizhe; Wang, Qiuju; Liu, Shengjun; Sun, Rui; Zhou, Yaqiang; Li, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Free range feeding pattern puts the chicken in a mixture of growth materials and enteric bacteria excreted by nature, while it is typically unique condition materials and enteric bacteria in commercial caged hens production. Thus, the gastrointestinal microflora in two feeding patterns could be various. However, it remains poorly understood how feeding patterns affect development and composition of layer hens' intestinal microflora. In this study, the effect of feeding patterns on the bacteria community in layer hens' gut was investigated using free range and caged feeding form. Samples of whole small intestines and cecal digesta were collected from young hens (8-weeks) and mature laying hens (30-weeks). Based on analysis using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA gene amplicons, the microflora of all intestinal contents were affected by both feeding patterns and age of hens. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the main components. Additionally, uncultured environmental samples were found too. There were large differences between young hens and adult laying hens, the latter had more Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and bacterial community is more abundant in 30-weeks laying hens of all six phyla than 8-weeks young hens of only two phyla. In addition, the differences were also observed between free range and caged hens. Free range hens had richer Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Most of strains found were detected more abundant in small intestines than in cecum. Also the selected Lactic acid bacteria from hens gut were applied in feed and they had beneficial effects on growth performance and jejunal villus growth of young broilers. This study suggested that feeding patterns have an importance effect on the microflora composition of hens, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health.

  16. Reconstitution of the gastrointestinal microflora of lactobacillus-free mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Tannock, G W; Crichton, C; Welling, G W; Koopman, J P; Midtvedt, T

    1988-01-01

    A colony of mice that do not harbor lactobacilli in their digestive tracts but whose intestinal microflora is otherwise functionally similar to that of conventional animals was derived. Methods used to reconstitute the intestinal microflora of the mice included inoculation of the animals with cultures of specific microbes, noncultivable microbes attached to epithelial cells, and cecal contents from conventional mice treated with chloramphenicol. Twenty-six microflora-associated characteristic...

  17. New frontiers in mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Douglas E; Keefe, Dorothy M; Sonis, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Mucositis is among the most debilitating side effects of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted anticancer therapy. Research continues to escalate regarding key issues such as etiopathology, incidence and severity across different mucosae, relationships between mucosal and nonmucosal toxicities, and risk factors. This approach is being translated into enhanced management strategies. Recent technology advances provide an important foundation for this continuum. For example, evolution of applied genomics is fostering development of new algorithms to rapidly screen genomewide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for patient-associated risk prediction. This modeling will permit individual tailoring of the most effective, least toxic treatment in the future. The evolution of novel cancer therapeutics is changing the mucositis toxicity profile. These agents can be associated with unique mechanisms of mucosal damage. Additional research is needed to optimally manage toxicity caused by agents such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, without reducing antitumor effect. There has similarly been heightened attention across the health professions regarding clinical practice guidelines for mucositis management in the years following the first published guidelines in 2004. New opportunities exist to more effectively interface this collective guideline portfolio by capitalizing upon novel technologies such as an Internet-based Wiki platform. Substantive progress thus continues across many domains associated with mucosal injury in oncology patients. In addition to enhancing oncology patient care, these advances are being integrated into high-impact educational and scientific venues including the National Cancer Institute Physician Data Query (PDQ) portfolio as well as a new Gordon Research Conference on mucosal health and disease scheduled for June 2013.

  18. Flavanol monomer-induced changes to the human faecal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzounis, Xenofon; Vulevic, Jelena; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; George, Trevor; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Gibson, Glenn R; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2008-04-01

    We have investigated the bacterial-dependent metabolism of ( - )-epicatechin and (+)-catechin using a pH-controlled, stirred, batch-culture fermentation system reflective of the distal region of the human large intestine. Incubation of ( - )-epicatechin or (+)-catechin (150 mg/l or 1000 mg/l) with faecal bacteria, led to the generation of 5-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone, 5-phenyl-gamma-valerolactone and phenylpropionic acid. However, the formation of these metabolites from (+)-catechin required its initial conversion to (+)-epicatechin. The metabolism of both flavanols occurred in the presence of favourable carbon sources, notably sucrose and the prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides, indicating that bacterial utilisation of flavanols also occurs when preferential energy sources are available. (+)-Catechin incubation affected the growth of select microflora, resulting in a statistically significant increase in the growth of the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group, Bifidobacterium spp. and Escherichia coli, as well as a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of the C. histolyticum group. In contrast, the effect of ( - )-epicatechin was less profound, only significantly increasing the growth of the C. coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group. These potential prebiotic effects for both (+)-catechin and ( - )-epicatechin were most notable at the lower concentration of 150 mg/l. As both ( - )-epicatechin and (+)-catechin were converted to the same metabolites, the more dramatic change in the growth of distinct microfloral populations produced by (+)-catechin incubation may be linked to the bacterial conversion of (+)-catechin to (+)-epicatechin. Together these data suggest that the consumption of flavanol-rich foods may support gut health through their ability to exert prebiotic actions.

  19. Characterization of the Cultivable Gut Microflora in Wild-Caught 
Mediterranean Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammal, Ahmad; Bariche, Michel; Zu Dohna, Heinrich; Kambris, Zakaria

    2017-05-01

    Microflora of the gastrointestinal tract plays important roles in food digestion, nutrient absorption and in host defense against ingested pathogens. Several studies have focused on the microflora of farmed fishes, but the gut flora of wild fishes remains poorly characterized. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of the bacteria colonizing the gut of wild-caught fishes and to determine whether some bacterial species can be pathogenic. We isolated cultivable bacteria from fifteen wild-caught Mediterranean fish species corresponding to different habitat, diet and origin. Bacterial species identity was determined by 16s rRNA gene sequencing for the 61 isolates. The potential pathogenicity of isolated bacteria was investigated using fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) as model organisms. Two bacterial strains (Serratia sp. and Aeromonas salmonicida) were lethal when microinjected to Drosophila, while zebrafish did not develop any disease when exposed to any of 34 isolated bacterial strains. However, it was interesting to note that two bacterial strains (Shewanella and Arthrobacter) isolated from marine fishes were able to colonize the guts of freshwater zebrafish. The results of this study give an overview of the bacterial species found in the guts of wild fishes living off Beirut seashore. It shows that some parameters believed to be limiting factors to host-gut colonization by bacteria can be overcome by some species. This pilot study could be extended by sampling a larger number of fish species with several specimens per fish species, and by identifying uncultivable bacteria that reside in the fish guts. Our results may have implications for the utilization of certain bacterial species in fish farming or their use as bio-indicators for water and/or food quality.

  20. Pyrosequencinq analysis of the oral microflora of healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, B.J.F.; Zaura, E.; Huse, S.M.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der; Schuren, F.H.J.; Montijn, R.C.; Gate, J.M. ten; Crielaard, W.

    2008-01-01

    A good definition of commensal microflora and an understanding of its relation to health are essential in preventing and combating disease. We hypothesized that the species richness of human oral microflora is underestimated. Saliva and supragingival plaque were sampled from 71 and 98 healthy

  1. Pyrosequencing analysis of the oral microflora of healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, B.J.F.; Zaura, E.; Huse, S.M.; van der Vossen, J.M.B.M.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Montijn, R.C.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2008-01-01

    A good definition of commensal microflora and an understanding of its relation to health are essential in preventing and combating disease. We hypothesized that the species richness of human oral microflora is underestimated. Saliva and supragingival plaque were sampled from 71 and 98 healthy

  2. Balance between beneficial microflora and Staphylococcus aureus colonisation: in vivo evaluation in patients with atopic dermatitis during hydrotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrain, Muriel; Ribet, Virginie; Calvez, Audrey; Lebaron, Philippe; Schmitt, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The role of the balance between Staphylococcus aureus and commensal flora in the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) lesions is not well understood. To determine the structure of skin microbiome in patients with AD and its changes during an 18-day course of hydrotherapy and to assess the association between S. aureus and micro-organism colonisation, local skin condition and AD severity. Three skin areas (xerotic, inflammatory and healthy) were identified in 25 moderate to severe AD patients for sampling before treatment, just after (day 1), and at day 10 and day 18. The structure of the bacterial community in the samples was assessed using a molecular biology approach based on 16S rRNA gene profiling. At each visit, AD severity was measured globally by the SCORAD index and at the lesional and healthy sampling sites. Clustering analysis of 296 samples showed two different bacterial community profiles: one with 2 peaks corresponding to S. aureus, the other displayed multiple peaks, identified as diversified microflora. At baseline, xerotic areas seemed to be less colonised by S. aureus than inflammatory areas. After 18 days of hydrotherapy, the number of lesional sites colonised by S. aureus (p<0.05) and the SCORAD index (p<0.00001) were significantly reduced, mainly in inflammatory and moist areas, promoting the emergence of a diversified microflora. We identified two bacterial community profiles corresponding to S. aureus and diversified microflora. The competitive balance between both profiles appears to be a key element associated with the severity of AD lesions.

  3. Oral microflora in children with hematologic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Vecherkovskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal was a comprehensive study of oral microflora in healthy children and those with hematologic malignancies, based on the analysis of mixed microbial biofilms composition, isolation and identification of new previously unknown microorganisms. The material was obtained in children with hematological diseases in remission, 2–10 years aged, and for the control group from St. Petersburg schoolchildren and in kindergartens. We used microbiological, biochemical and molecular genetic methods, including electron microscopy, proteomic analysis, sequencing and complete genome annotation. Microorganisms of 23 genera isolated as pure cultures and identified by biochemical activity from mixed microbial biofilm derived from saliva of healthy and sick children. In microflora of children with hematologic malignancies a previously unknown type of streptococci with a large number of antibiotic resistance genes was revealed. Differences in oral microbiota composition of healthy children and children with hematological diseases in remission were revealed. The microbiota of children with hematologic malignancies contains more genes controlling antibiotic resistance. Also, it was observed previously unknown bacterium of the genus Streptococcus.

  4. Oral microflora in children with hematologic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Vecherkovskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal was a comprehensive study of oral microflora in healthy children and those with hematologic malignancies, based on the analysis of mixed microbial biofilms composition, isolation and identification of new previously unknown microorganisms. The material was obtained in children with hematological diseases in remission, 2–10 years aged, and for the control group from St. Petersburg schoolchildren and in kindergartens. We used microbiological, biochemical and molecular genetic methods, including electron microscopy, proteomic analysis, sequencing and complete genome annotation. Microorganisms of 23 genera isolated as pure cultures and identified by biochemical activity from mixed microbial biofilm derived from saliva of healthy and sick children. In microflora of children with hematologic malignancies a previously unknown type of streptococci with a large number of antibiotic resistance genes was revealed. Differences in oral microbiota composition of healthy children and children with hematological diseases in remission were revealed. The microbiota of children with hematologic malignancies contains more genes controlling antibiotic resistance. Also, it was observed previously unknown bacterium of the genus Streptococcus.

  5. Evolution of bacterial communities in the Gironde Estuary (France) according to a salinity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, D.; Troussellier, M.; Romana, A.; Chamroux, S.; Mevel, G.; Baleux, B.

    1987-01-01

    Three surveys were performed in the Gironde Estuary (France) in August 1981, March 1982 and July 1982. For each campaign, seventy samples were taken by helicopter, in order to follow the tide along the estuary. Of the parameters that were studied, salinity appeared to be the most important and which controls the bacterial communities along the estuary. This paper deals with the evolution of bacterial communities along a salinity gradient. The information obtained from various bacteriological parameters (total bacterial counts, viable counts on salted and unsalted media, functional evenness) were convergent. The bacterial community is dominated by an halotolerant microflora. In the estuary, a continental microflora is followed by a marine microflora. The succession zone between these two microflora is located between 5 and 10‰ areas of salinity.

  6. Effects of synbiotics on intestinal mucosal barrier in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xue

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Probiotics can improve the concentration of colonic probiotics, while synbiotics can improve probiotics concentration and mucosa thickness in colon, decrease L/M ratio and bacterial translocation. Synbiotics shows more protective effects on intestinal mucosal barrier in rats after cecectomy and gastrostomy and the intervention of specific antibiotics.

  7. Neonatal mucosal immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torow, N; Marsland, B J; Hornef, M W; Gollwitzer, E S

    2017-01-01

    Although largely deprived from exogenous stimuli in utero, the mucosal barriers of the neonate after birth are bombarded by environmental, nutritional, and microbial exposures. The microbiome is established concurrently with the developing immune system. The nature and timing of discrete interactions between these two factors underpins the long-term immune characteristics of these organs, and can set an individual on a trajectory towards or away from disease. Microbial exposures in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are some of the key determinants of the overall immune tone at these mucosal barriers and represent a leading target for future intervention strategies. In this review, we discuss immune maturation in the gut and lung and how microbes have a central role in this process.

  8. Characterization of microflora in Latin-style cheeses by next-generation sequencing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusk Tina S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cheese contamination can occur at numerous stages in the manufacturing process including the use of improperly pasteurized or raw milk. Of concern is the potential contamination by Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic bacteria that find the high moisture levels and moderate pH of popular Latin-style cheeses like queso fresco a hospitable environment. In the investigation of a foodborne outbreak, samples typically undergo enrichment in broth for 24 hours followed by selective agar plating to isolate bacterial colonies for confirmatory testing. The broth enrichment step may also enable background microflora to proliferate, which can confound subsequent analysis if not inhibited by effective broth or agar additives. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to provide a preliminary survey of bacterial species associated with three brands of Latin-style cheeses after 24-hour broth enrichment. Results Brand A showed a greater diversity than the other two cheese brands (Brands B and C at nearly every taxonomic level except phylum. Brand B showed the least diversity and was dominated by a single bacterial taxon, Exiguobacterium, not previously reported in cheese. This genus was also found in Brand C, although Lactococcus was prominent, an expected finding since this bacteria belongs to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB commonly found in fermented foods. Conclusions The contrasting diversity observed in Latin-style cheese was surprising, demonstrating that despite similarity of cheese type, raw materials and cheese making conditions appear to play a critical role in the microflora composition of the final product. The high bacterial diversity associated with Brand A suggests it may have been prepared with raw materials of high bacterial diversity or influenced by the ecology of the processing environment. Additionally, the presence of Exiguobacterium in high proportions (96% in Brand B and, to a lesser extent, Brand C (46%, may

  9. occurrence, distribution and diversity of microflora in the intertidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    2009. Samples were analysed within six hours of collection. Identification of microflora was based on standard identification guides ... of marsh grasses or seagrasses (Lalli & Parsons, 1993). ..... W. M. C. Brown Company Publishers. Lowa.

  10. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Influence Microflora in Ileal Digesta and Correlate Well with Blood Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs are used widely in consumer and industrial products, however, their influence on gut microbiota and metabolism and their mutual interactions are not fully understood. In this study, the effects of ZnO NPs on ileal bacterial communities, plasma metabolites, and correlations between them were investigated. Hens were fed with different concentrations of ZnO NPs [based on Zn; 0 mg/kg (control, 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg] for 9 weeks. Subsequently, ileal digesta and blood plasma were collected for analysis of microflora and metabolites, respectively. The V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of ileal digesta microbiota was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. The predominant bacterial community in the ileum belongs to the phylum Firmicutes. The richness of the bacterial community was negatively correlated with increasing amounts of ZnO NPs (r = -0.636, P < 0.01; when ZnO NP levels were at 100 mg/kg, microbiota diversity was significantly decreased (P < 0.05. The community structure determined by LEfSe analysis indicated that Bacilli, Fusobacteria, and Proteobacteria were changed, and Lactobacillus was reduced by ZnO NPs. Moreover, metabolism as analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR indicated that glucose, some amino acids, and other metabolites were changed by ZnO NPs. Choline, lactate, and methionine were positively correlated with bacterial richness. In summary, ZnO NPs could influence the levels of microflora in ileal digesta, particularly Lactobacillus. Furthermore, the richness of the microbiota was related to changes in choline, lactate, and methionine metabolism.

  11. Impact of salinomycin on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Charlotte; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Pedersen, Karl

    2007-01-01

    jejuni infection and on the composition of the caecal microflora in broiler chickens. Methods: An experimental infection study was carried out in isolators and the intestinal microflora was analyzed using quantitative cultivation, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning and sequencing...... treated chickens compared to un-treated controls. Conclusion: Termination of the use of ionophore coccidiostats will not affect food safety related to campylobacter, but will increase the risk of necrotic enteritis in the broilers....

  12. New Pathways for Alimentary Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M. Bowen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alimentary mucositis is a major dose-limiting toxicity associated with anticancer treatment. It is responsible for reducing patient quality of life and represents a significant economic burden in oncology. The pathobiology of alimentary mucositis is extremely complex, and an increased understanding of mechanisms and pathway interactions is required to rationally design improved therapies. This review describes the latest advances in defining mechanisms of alimentary mucositis pathobiology in the context of pathway activation. It focuses particularly on the recent genome-wide analyses of regimen-related mucosal injury and the identification of specific regulatory pathways implicated in mucositis development. This review also discusses the currently known alimentary mucositis risk factors and the development of novel treatments. Suggestions for future research directions have been raised.

  13. Mucosal biofilm detection in chronic otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Marcus; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Eickhardt-Sørensen, Steffen Robert

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine middle ear biopsies from Greenlandic patients with chronic otitis media (COM) for the presence of mucosal biofilms and the bacteria within the biofilms. Thirty-five middle ear biopsies were obtained from 32 Greenlandic COM patients admitted to ear...... of the patients served as controls. PNA-FISH showed morphological signs of biofilms in 15 out of 35 (43 %) middle ear biopsies. In the control skin biopsies, there were signs of biofilms in eight out of 23 biopsies (30 %), probably representing skin flora. PCR and 16s sequencing detected bacteria in seven out...... of 20 (35 %) usable middle ear biopsies, and in two out of ten (20 %) usable control samples. There was no association between biofilm findings and PCR and 16s sequencing. Staphylococci were the most common bacteria in bacterial culture. We found evidence of bacterial biofilms in 43 % of middle ear...

  14. Mucosal melanosis associated with chemoembolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alkan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal lesions due to underlying disease or drug toxicity, are important part of oncology practice. Patient with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was treated with chemoembolisation. She presented with new onset of mucosal hyperpigmented lesion all through her oral cavity. Biopsy was consistent with mucosal melanosis, which was associated with the chemotherapeutics used in the chemoembolisation procedure. Lesion progressively improved without any treatment. Here we present an mucosal melanosis experience after chemoembolisation. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (2: 189-191

  15. Mucosal immunity to poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, Pearay L; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Sutter, Roland W

    2011-10-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) currently based on use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has identified suboptimal immunogenicity of this vaccine as a major impediment to eradication, with a failure to induce protection against paralytic poliomyelitis in certain population segments in some parts of the world. The Mucosal Immunity and Poliovirus Vaccines: Impact on Wild Poliovirus Infection, Transmission and Vaccine Failure conference was organized to obtain a better understanding of the current status of global control of poliomyelitis and identify approaches to improve the immune responsiveness and effectiveness of the orally administered poliovirus vaccines in order to accelerate the global eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis.

  16. Mucosal immunology and virology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyring, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    .... A third chapter focuses on the proximal end of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e. the oral cavity). The mucosal immunology and virology of the distal end of the gastrointestinal tract is covered in the chapter on the anogenital mucosa. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) plays a role in protection against all viral (and other) infections except those that enter the body via a bite (e.g. yellow fever or dengue from a mosquito or rabies from a dog) or an injection or transfusion (e.g. HIV, Hepatitis B). ...

  17. Microflora and structural stability of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckert, A.; Chone, Therese; Jacquin, F.; Institut National Polytechnique, 54 - Nancy; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy

    1975-01-01

    Water stable aggregates produced during the incubation of a loamy soil amended with glucose 14 C show a quite differing evolution of their physical properties and their organic matter according to the time of incubation after which they have been isolated from the soil by water sieving. The aggregates, built up during the first week of incubation, therefore during the maximal activity stage of the microflora of the soil, present the highest stability against biodegradation induced by a second incubation process, even if this one has reached six weeks. This evolution of the physical properties of the aggregates, is essentially in relationship with the microbially synthetized organic matter and especially the polysaccharides preferentially incorporated into the humine fraction. This relatively labile microbial humine has a high aggregating effect, the polysaccharide chains forming several bonds between the neighbouring clay surfaces and building up stable structural units. The mechanical strength of these aggregates is related to the stabilization of the humine produced previously and whose evolution towards a relatively stable form seems to be the result of two mechanisms: a secundary biodegradation parallel to a higher humification process of the organic matter and a increase of the bonds between polysaccharides and clay surfaces favoured by the alternation of wetting and drying [fr

  18. Kocuria rosea, kocuria kristinae, leuconostoc mesenteroides as caries-causing representatives of oral microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananieva, Maiia M; Faustova, Mariia O; Basarab, Iaroslav O; Loban', Galina A

    2017-01-01

    Recently, opportunistic microflora are increasingly known to be involved in the development of pathological processes in various systems and organs. This situation promotes interest in their detailed study as causative agents of bacterial infections. To study the microbial species residing in carious cavities in acute profound caries. The study involved 14 people with a diagnosis of acute profound caries. Microbiological methods included determining species of microorganisms' cultures from carious cavities in acute profound caries. Final identification was carried out by automatic bacteriological analyzer Vitec-2compact bioMérieux. Among the bacteria isolated, Kocuria rosae, Kocuria kristinae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides are the focus of the authors' attention due to their identification rate in the patients. These microbial species are little studied due to the lack of data on their cariogenic associations.The meticulous study of the microorganisms, isolated from carious cavities in patients with acute profound caries by automatic bacteriological analyzer Vitec-2 Systems bioMérieux, and findings on their biochemical properties allow us to conclude that Kocuria rosae, Kocuria kristinae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides are among the microorganisms making up the microflora of carious cavities under acute profound caries and are involved in the development of the caries process.

  19. Blood Parameters, Digestive Organ Size and Intestinal Microflora of Broiler Chicks Fed Sorghum as Partial Substitute of Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca GHEORGHE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary white sorghum (WS, as partial substitute of corn on blood parameters, digestive organ size and intestinal microflora of broilers at 35 d. Cobb 500 broilers (n=400, assigned to 2 groups, were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous corn-soybean meal control diets (C or corn-WS-soybean meal diets (WS, where corn was partially replaced (50% with WS. At 35 d, sixteen broilers per group were selected for blood sampling, gastrointestinal (GIT measurements, digesta pH and ileum microflora analysis. There was no effect (P>0.05 of the dietary WS inclusion on blood biochemistry parameters, GIT development and digesta pH of broilers. In our study, dietary WS significantly reduced the ileal population of Enterobacteriaceae (-1.38%; P<0.0001 and E. coli (-1.16%; P=0.020, and increased the Lactobacillus spp. (+1.07%; P=0.014 compared with the C diet. In conclusion, feeding white sorghum, as partial substitute of corn in broiler diets, did not affect blood parameters, digestive organ size and digesta pH, that support the obtained performance. In addition, sorghum had a positive effect of the ileal microflora increasing the beneficial bacterial Lactobacillus spp.

  20. Regulation of DMBT1 via NOD2 and TLR4 in intestinal epithelial cells modulates bacterial recognition and invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstiel, Philip; Sina, Christian; End, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Mucosal epithelial cell layers are constantly exposed to a complex resident microflora. Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) belongs to the group of secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich proteins and is considered to be involved in host defense by pathogen binding. This report describe...

  1. Screening for abnormal vaginal microflora by self-assessed vaginal pH does not enable detection of sexually transmitted infections in Ugandan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Donders, Francesca; Bellen, Gert; Depuydt, Christophe; Eggermont, Natalie; Michiels, Thirsa; Lule, John; Byamughisa, Jacobat

    2016-06-01

    Is self-assessed vaginal pH measurement to detect abnormal vaginal bacterial microflora (AVF) an adequate prescreening method for detection of genital sexually transmitted infections (STIs)? A total of 360 Ugandan women tested themselves with a gloved finger and a pH color strip. PCR for bacterial vaginosis (BV)-associated bacteria was tested by PCR for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and/or Atopobium vaginae, while the STIs were diagnosed by positive PCR for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, and/or Trichomonas vaginalis. A strong correlation was found between self-assessed pH values and BV-associated bacteria (Pvaginal pH correlated well with markers of high-risk microflora types such as BV or aerobic vaginitis, but not with STIs. Hence, in a screening program addressing AVF in low-resource countries, extra specific tests are required to exclude STIs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring of antibiotic-induced alterations in the human intestinal microflora and detection of probiotic strains by use of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernberg, Cecilia; Sullivan, Asa; Edlund, Charlotta; Jansson, Janet K

    2005-01-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) was investigated as a tool for monitoring the human intestinal microflora during antibiotic treatment and during ingestion of a probiotic product. Fecal samples from eight healthy volunteers were taken before, during, and after administration of clindamycin. During treatment, four subjects were given a probiotic, and four subjects were given a placebo. Changes in the microbial intestinal community composition and relative abundance of specific microbial populations in each subject were monitored by using viable counts and T-RFLP fingerprints. T-RFLP was also used to monitor specific bacterial populations that were either positively or negatively affected by clindamycin. Some dominant bacterial groups, such as Eubacterium spp., were easily monitored by T-RFLP, while they were hard to recover by cultivation. Furthermore, the two probiotic Lactobacillus strains were easily tracked by T-RFLP and were shown to be the dominant Lactobacillus community members in the intestinal microflora of subjects who received the probiotic.

  3. Investigations of the surviving microflora in irradiated black pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing effect of irradiation on the microflora of ground black pepper was studied with respect to heat, reduced pH-value, salt and nitrite, and the possible relationship between the sensitizing effects of irradiation and the water activity of the spice. The change of the sensitizing effect of irradiation after irradiation during storage of the black pepper was also studied at different storage temperatures and under various conditions of humidity. The effectivity of irradiation depends to a much lesser extent on the conditions of humidity than that of ethylene-oxide treatment. Following decontamination, the remaining microflora of irradiated black pepper would be more sensitive to antimicrobial influences predominating during its use in the food industry than that of ethylene-oxide treated black pepper. The increased sensitivity of the remaining microflora of the irradiated black pepper remains unchanged for at least 6 months. (author)

  4. Influence of a single gamma radiation on rat microflora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucanicova, V.; Benova, K.; Sesztakova, E.; Sehnalkova, H.; Molokacova, M.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in leukocyte count and in the gut microflora of laboratory rats irradiated with a single whole-body dose of gamma rays (5.0 Gy) were determined. The number of leukocytes was lower especially 1 and 2 weeks after irradiation. A significant decrease in lymphocytes was observed 1 week and in monocytes 1 and 2 weeks after irradiation. In parallel with these changes, an increase in common microflora was observed, some microorganisms, witch normally are not present in duodenum, liver and mouth cavity, were detected in these organs. (authors)

  5. MIKROFLORA PADA TEMPOYAK The Microflora of Tempoyak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanuddin Hasanuddin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tempoyak is a traditional Bengkulu fermented food prepared from spontaneous fermentation of durian (Durio zibethi- nus by wild microorganisms. Tempoyak is found not only in Bengkulu but also as long as Sumatera island with differ- ent names, and also in Malaysia. Tempoyak is a Melayu term meaning fermented durian. The research was conducted to identify microflora in tempoyak, and to select the species of microorganisms which were able to ferment durian ef- fectivelly. The data in this study were laboratory analysis. Samples were collected weekly in a month from productions centre of tempoyak and traditional markets, and analyzed microbiologically to determine and identify the bacteria, yeasts and molds in tempoyak. There were four specieses of lactic acid bacteria found in fermented durian namely Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus plantarum Lactobacillus curvatus and Leuconostoc mesentroides. While two specieses which were not lactic acid bacteria namely Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Micrococcus varians. One species of yeast was Kluyveromyces marxianus. The molds were identified as Rhizopus oryzae, Monilia sitophila, Mucor roxii, Aspergillus repens and Penicillium sp. Among these specieses three specieses were produced lactic acid namelly Rhizopus oryzae, Monilia sitophila,and Mucor roxii. While Aspergillus ripens and Penicillium sp did not pro- duce lactic acid so these specieses might not function in fermentation process. ABSTRAK Tempoyak adalah makanan khas Bengkulu, yang dibuat dari fermentasi spontan daging buah durian (Durio zibet- hinus oleh mikroorganisme liar. Tempoyak juga bisa dijumpai di berbagai daerah Indonesia di sepanjang pulau Sumatera dengan nama yang berbeda, bahkan sampai ke Malaysia. Istilah tempoyak berasal dari terminolgi Melayu yang artinya adalah durian fermentasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi mikroorganisme yang terdapat pada tempoyak. Data dari penelitian ini adalah data primer dari analisa

  6. Mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2013-01-01

    . With the introduction of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors for the treatment of UC, it has become increasingly evident that the disease course is influenced by whether or not the patient achieves mucosal healing. Thus, patients with mucosal healing have fewer flare-ups, a decreased risk of colectomy......, and a lower probability of developing colorectal cancer. Understanding the mechanisms of mucosal wound formation and wound healing in UC, and how they are affected therapeutically is therefore of importance for obtaining efficient treatment strategies holding the potential of changing the disease course of UC....... This review is focused on the pathophysiological mechanism of mucosal wound formation in UC as well as the known mechanisms of intestinal wound healing. Regarding the latter topic, pathways of both wound healing intrinsic to epithelial cells and the wound-healing mechanisms involving interaction between...

  7. Cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddappa K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes are characterized by pain, burning sensation, numbness or paraesthesia of a particular part of the skin or mucosal surface without any visible signs. They are usually sensory disorders, sometimes with a great deal of psychologic overlay. In this article various conditions have been listed and are described. The possible causative mechanisms are discussed when they are applicable and the outline of their management is described.

  8. Irradiation mucositis and oral flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    1989-01-01

    This study, which is motivated by the substantial morbidity of local signs of mucositis and generalized symptoms that result from mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation, has the following objectives: To investigate if it is possible to prevent irradiation mucositis via oral flora elimination, and, if it is true that flora plays a role in irradiation mucositis, what fraction of the oral flora may be involved; to evaluate oral Gram-negative bacillary carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate Gram-negative bacilli from the oral cavity; to evaluate oral yeast carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate yeasts stomatitis and the 'selectivity' of elimination of flora. Two methods are described for monitoring alterations of mucositis of the oral cavity and changes in oral flora. Chlorhexidine has been tested as the commonly used prophylaxis. The effect of chlorhexidine 0.1% rinses on oral flora and mucositis has been studied in a prospective placebo controlled double blind randomized programme. The results of the influence of saliva on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and the results of selective elimination of oral flora in irradiated patients who have head and neck cancer are reported. Salivary inactivation of the topical antimicrobials used for selective elimination of oral flora has been studied and the results are reported. Finally, the objectives that have been achieved (or not) are delineated. The significance of the results of the study are discussed in terms of published information and further lines of research are suggested. (author). 559 refs.; 29 figs.; 20 tabs

  9. Mucosal immunity to pathogenic intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Behnsen, Judith; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    The intestinal mucosa is a particularly dynamic environment in which the host constantly interacts with trillions of commensal microorganisms, known as the microbiota, and periodically interacts with pathogens of diverse nature. In this Review, we discuss how mucosal immunity is controlled in response to enteric bacterial pathogens, with a focus on the species that cause morbidity and mortality in humans. We explain how the microbiota can shape the immune response to pathogenic bacteria, and we detail innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that drive protective immunity against these pathogens. The vast diversity of the microbiota, pathogens and immune responses encountered in the intestines precludes discussion of all of the relevant players in this Review. Instead, we aim to provide a representative overview of how the intestinal immune system responds to pathogenic bacteria.

  10. MORPHOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF GUT MICROFLORA IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, M.H.F.; Meijer, B.C

    1991-01-01

    The morphology of faecal microflora of nine healthy human volunteers was studied by digital image analysis of microscopic slides. Weekly specimens were collected during an 8-week period. Seven morphometrical parameters were derived: the means and medians of components 1, 2 and 3, and morphometrical

  11. The intestinal microflora of childhood patients with indicated celiac disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopečný, Jan; Mrázek, Jakub; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Frühauf, P.; Tučková, Ludmila

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 214-216 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/0414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : celiac disease * intestinal microflora Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  12. Laboratory screening of some saprophytic coffee surface microflora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saprophytic microflora were isolated from coffee berry surfaces. Eight isolates were selected for antagonistic tests against Colletotrichum kahawae. Six isolates (Bacillus macerans [two isolates], Epicoccum nigrum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum and Pestalotiopsis sp) were selected for having inhibition zones against ...

  13. In Silico Modelling of the Human Intestinal Microflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerman, Derk Jan; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2002-01-01

    The ecology of the human intestinal microflora and its interaction with the host are poorly understood. Though more and more data are being acquired, in part using modern molecular methods, development of a quantitative theory has not kept pace with this development. This is in part due to the

  14. Hormone therapy alters the composition of the vaginal microflora in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezirtzoglou, E; Voidarou, Ch; Papadaki, A; Tsiotsias, A; Kotsovolou, O; Konstandi, M

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the alterations that may take place in the bacterial genital tract flora in the absence of ovarian hormones. The role of hormone replacement therapy was also assessed. For this purpose, various bacteria were identified from the vaginal flora of ovariectomized and sham operated female rats, following the Bergey's manual criteria. The data of this study showed that substantial differences exist in the vaginal bacterial microflora between ovariectomized and normal cyclic rats. Ovariectomy was associated with a lower total bacterial load that may be due mainly to the absence of Lactobacillus. Anaerobic bacteria were also absent. Streptococcus and Enterococcus were also not favored in an environment lacking the ovarian hormones. In contrast, C. perfringens, Bacteroides, S. epidermidis, and S. aureus were detected in high numbers in ovariectomized rats. In terms of the impact of hormone replacement therapy on vaginal flora, only estradiol (EE2) restored Lactobacillus levels in ovariectomized rats, whereas all hormonal schemes used brought Streptococcus, Clostridium lec (-), and C. perfringens, the spore and vegetative forms, close to those detected in normal cyclic female rats. In conclusion, ovarian hormones appeared to be regulatory factors that favor the presence of a broad variety of bacteria, which are members of the normal genital tract flora. On the other hand, ovariectomy modifies the vaginal microbial profile, and hormone replacement therapy based mainly on schemes containing EE2 could alleviate this disturbance.

  15. The identification of plant lectins with mucosal adjuvant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, E C; Grant, G; Pusztai, A; Pfüller, U; O'hagan, D T

    2001-01-01

    To date, the most potent mucosal vaccine adjuvants to be identified have been bacterial toxins. The present data demonstrate that the type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (type 2 RIP), mistletoe lectin I (ML-I) is a strong mucosal adjuvant of plant origin. A number of plant lectins were investigated as intranasal (i.n.) coadjuvants for a bystander protein, ovalbumin (OVA). As a positive control, a potent mucosal adjuvant, cholera toxin (CT), was used. Co-administration of ML-I or CT with OVA stimulated high titres of OVA-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) in addition to OVA-specific IgA in mucosal secretions. CT and ML-I were also strongly immunogenic, inducing high titres of specific serum IgG and specific IgA at mucosal sites. None of the other plant lectins investigated significantly boosted the response to co-administered OVA. Immunization with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) plus OVA elicited a lectin-specific response but did not stimulate an enhanced response to OVA compared with the antigen alone. Intranasal delivery of tomato lectin (LEA) elicited a strong lectin-specific systemic and mucosal antibody response but only weakly potentiated the response to co-delivered OVA. In contrast, administration of wheatgerm agglutinin (WGA) or Ulex europaeus lectin 1 (UEA-I) with OVA stimulated a serum IgG response to OVA while the lectin-specific responses (particularly for WGA) were relatively low. Thus, there was not a direct correlation between immunogenicity and adjuvanticity although the strongest adjuvants (CT, ML-I) were also highly immunogenic. PMID:11168640

  16. A Prospective Comparative Study of the Bacterial Flora of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative comparative study of the bacterial flora of the vagina and cervix of 90 non-pregnant women of childbearing age (18-35 years) in Calabar was undertaken. The study revealed that both aerobic and microaerophilic organisms as well as the strictly anaerobic bacteria constituted the microflora of the lower genital of ...

  17. NATURAL MICROFLORA OF WINE GRAPE BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of yeasts and bacterial species on grapes has been investigated in vineyards worldwide. For winemaking are very important three groups of microorganisms. First two includes acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria; they live and grow normally on grape surface. The third group includes more than 20 detectable genera of yeasts. There are three principal genera found on grapes Hanseniaspora uvarum (Kloeckera apiculata, Metschnikowia pulcherrima (Candida pulcherrima, and Candida stellata or new descripted Candida zemplinina. Aim of this study was investigate of number of three major groups of microorganisms which are important for grapes and winemaking. The number of bacteria on Acetobacter agar (AA ranged from 1.76 log CFU/mL to 2.80 log CFU/mL. Lactic acid bacteria were counted on MRS agar and the number of detectable colonies ranged from 0.48 log CFU/mL to 2.06 log CFU/mL. Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA was used for cultivation of yeast and the number of yeasts ranged from 2.47 log CFU/mL to 2.76 log CFU/mL. For identification of yeast species were used different types of agar media with acid base indicator bromocresol green. Identified 10 yeasts species includes to genus: Candida, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Kluyveromyces, Hanseniaspora, Hansenula, Candida, Debaromyces, Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces. We identified only few bacterial species includes to genus Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Gluconobacter and Acetobacter.

  18. Clinical significance of dental root canal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B P; Lilley, J D; Drucker, D B

    1996-01-01

    Previous work by this group has shown that a significant association exists between pain and the presence of either Prevotella or Peptostreptococcus spp. in dental root canals. The aim of this study was to examine a more extensive series of canals microbiologically, to determine whether any other particular endodontic symptoms or clinical signs showed specific associations with individual bacterial species. Seventy root canals were examined microbiologically and clinical data collected to investigate in detail such associations. Of the canals studied, 37 were associated with pain, 49 with tenderness to percussion, 23 with swelling, six with purulent exudate and 57 presented with wet root canals. Anaerobes were isolated from 70.3% of painful canals and from 29.7% of pain-free canals. Significant associations were found between (a) pain and either Prevotella spp. or peptostreptococci, both with P spp. (P Eubacterium spp. (P spp. or Pstr. micros, both with P spp. (each P Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella or Propionibacterium (each P < 0.05). It was concluded that several different endodontic clinical signs and symptoms are significantly associated with specific bacterial species.

  19. Lactobacillus salivarius REN counteracted unfavorable 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced changes in colonic microflora of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Qiao, Xuewei; Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Lu; Ren, Fazheng

    2011-12-01

    Probiotics and carcinogens both have a significant effect on the microfloral composition of the human intestine. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of an important carcinogen, 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide on colonic microflora and the efficacy of the probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius REN as an agent of counteracting these effects. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) combined with redundancy analysis, we demonstrated that both 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide and L. salivarius REN significantly altered the bacterial communities of rat colons. A total of 27 bacterial strains were identified as being affected by treatment with 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide or L. salivarius REN using a t-value biplot combined with band sequencing. 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide treatment increased the abundance of two potential pathogens (one Helicobacter strain and one Desulfovibrio strain), as well as reducing the abundance of two potentially beneficial strains (one Ruminococcaceae strain and one Rumen bacteria). The Helicobacter strain was initally detected in carcinogen-treated rat intestinal microflora, but L. salivarius REN treatment effectively suppressed the growth of the Helicobacter strain. These results suggested that L. salivarius REN may be a potential probiotic, efficiently acting against the initial infection with, and the growth of pathogenic bacteria.

  20. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  1. Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis and associated infections in a novel organotypic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, T; Bertolini, M; Thompson, A; Peterson, D E; Diaz, P I; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2018-06-01

    Oral mucositis is a common side effect of cancer chemotherapy, with significant adverse impact on the delivery of anti-neoplastic treatment. There is a lack of consensus regarding the role of oral commensal microorganisms in the initiation or progression of mucositis because relevant experimental models are non-existent. The goal of this study was to develop an in vitro mucosal injury model that mimics chemotherapy-induced mucositis, where the effect of oral commensals can be studied. A novel organotypic model of chemotherapy-induced mucositis was developed based on a human oral epithelial cell line and a fibroblast-embedded collagen matrix. Treatment of organotypic constructs with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) reproduced major histopathologic characteristics of oral mucositis, such as DNA synthesis inhibition, apoptosis and cytoplasmic vacuolation, without compromising the three-dimensional structure of the multilayer organotypic mucosa. Although structural integrity of the model was preserved, 5-FU treatment resulted in a widening of epithelial intercellular spaces, characterized by E-cadherin dissolution from adherens junctions. In a neutrophil transmigration assay we discovered that this treatment facilitated transport of neutrophils through epithelial layers. Moreover, 5-FU treatment stimulated key proinflammatory cytokines that are associated with the pathogenesis of oral mucositis. 5-FU treatment of mucosal constructs did not significantly affect fungal or bacterial biofilm growth under the conditions tested in this study; however, it exacerbated the inflammatory response to certain bacterial and fungal commensals. These findings suggest that commensals may play a role in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis by amplifying the proinflammatory signals to mucosa that is injured by cytotoxic chemotherapy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Investigation of the situation of vaginal microflora in healthy women population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fang; Zhang, Ning; Di, Wen; Liao, Qin-ping; Wang, Wen; Zhao, Xiao-ming; Sun, Yun; Liu, Zhao-hui

    2009-01-01

    To assess the distribution of vaginal microflora in healthy women and investigate their cognition of lower reproductive tract infection-related knowledge as well as personal hygiene habits and character of behavior in seeking medical treatment. Total of 1660 healthy women who had physical check-ups at the Medical Center of Renji Hospital were selected and received gynecologic examination, as well as routine examination, pH examination and bacterial culture of the vaginal discharge. In addition, 860 of them were randomly selected for questionnaire survey, in which reproductive tract infection -related knowledge and personal hygiene habits as well as behavior in seeking medical treatment were involved. Among the 1660 censused women, vaginal average pH was 4. 16 +/- 0.21. The positive rate of Candida in vaginal discharge routine examination was 3.86% (64/1660), which was lower than that in aerobes culture 7.71% (128/1660). Candida albicans was the most populous species 78.9% (101/128), followed by 7.8% (10/128) and 7.0% (9/128) for the Candida glabrata and Candida krusei respectively. The most populous species of vaginal microflora were hemolytic streptococcus A (63.80%, 1059/1660), Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.28%, 237/1660), and Enterococcus faecalis (D) group (11.44%, 190/1660). The questionnaire survey showed that 88.4% (760/860) of 860 women took active treatment when feeling unwell, 92.1% (792/860) of them had good hygiene practices, and only 21.2% (182/860) had the habit of vaginal douching. In addition, 50.0% (430/860) of them had the desire to obtain reproductive health knowledge through out-patient consultation. Vulvovaginal Candida disease ranks the first in all types of vaginitis, among which, Candida albicans is the most populous species followed by the Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. Hemolytic streptococcus A and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most common species of vaginal microflora in healthy women. The censused women have high awareness of

  3. Cystic fibrosis: a mucosal immunodeficiency syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taylor Sitarik; Prince, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functions as a channel that regulates the transport of ions and the movement of water across the epithelial barrier. Mutations in CFTR, which form the basis for the clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis, affect the epithelial innate immune function in the lung, resulting in exaggerated and ineffective airway inflammation that fails to eradicate pulmonary pathogens. Compounding the effects of excessive neutrophil recruitment, the mutant CFTR channel does not transport antioxidants to counteract neutrophil-associated oxidative stress. Whereas mutant CFTR expression in leukocytes outside of the lung does not markedly impair their function, the expected regulation of inflammation in the airways is clearly deficient in cystic fibrosis. The resulting bacterial infections, which are caused by organisms that have substantial genetic and metabolic flexibility, can resist multiple classes of antibiotics and evade phagocytic clearance. The development of animal models that approximate the human pulmonary phenotypes—airway inflammation and spontaneous infection—may provide the much-needed tools to establish how CFTR regulates mucosal immunity and to test directly the effect of pharmacologic potentiation and correction of mutant CFTR function on bacterial clearance. PMID:22481418

  4. Subgingival microflora and treatment in prepubertal periodontitis associated with chronic idiopathic neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamma, J J; Lygidakis, N A; Nakou, M

    1998-09-01

    Prepubertal periodontitis affects both primary and permanent dentition. The purpose of this study was to examine the composition of subgingival microflora of the permanent dentition in an 11-year-old Caucasian female, who had premature exfoliation of her deciduous teeth on her 5th year of age, and the response of this condition to the antibiotic therapy and supportive periodontal care. Gingival tissues were highly inflamed and alveolar bone loss was detected radiographically. The girl had experienced frequent upper respiratory tract infections, tonsilitis and recurrent otitis media. Her mother had history of early onset periodontitis associated with chronic idiopathic neutropenia. Blood chemistry tests and immunological examinations were also performed. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from the proximal sites of permanent molars, incisors, canines and maxillary premolars. 27 different microbial species were isolated from the subgingival microflora. Among the predominant species were Porphyromonas gingivalis (17.6%-7.3%), Prevotella intermedia (12.4%-4.7%), Capnocytophaga sputigena (14.4%-10.4%), Capnocytophaga ochracea (13.2%-6.9%) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (9.3%-5.5%). Periodontal treatment consisted of scaling, root planing in conjunction with antibiotic administration of Augmentin 312.5 mg and Flagyl 200 mg, each t.i.d. for 10 days. 3 weeks after the antibiotic therapy, bacterial samples were collected from the same sites. All the periodontal pathogens were recovered in lower levels and A.actinomycetemcomitans was almost eliminated in the 3-week period. The evaluation of clinical indices at 3, 6 and 12 months showed that periodontal treatment in conjunction with antibiotics was effective and rapidly followed by marked clinical improvement. The microbiological monitoring at 3, 6 and 12 months after antibiotic treatment and each time prior to supportive periodontal care, revealed that the periodontal pathogens fluctuated in low levels even

  5. Mucosal IgA Responses: Damaged in Established HIV Infection—Yet, Effective Weapon against HIV Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Kulkarni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection not only destroys CD4+ T cells but also inflicts serious damage to the B-cell compartment, such as lymphadenopathy, destruction of normal B-cell follicle architecture, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, increased apoptosis of B cells, and irreversible loss of memory B-cell responses with advanced HIV disease. Subepithelial B cells and plasma cells are also affected, which results in loss of mucosal IgG and IgA antibodies. This leaves the mucosal barrier vulnerable to bacterial translocation. The ensuing immune activation in mucosal tissues adds fuel to the fire of local HIV replication. We postulate that compromised mucosal antibody defenses also facilitate superinfection of HIV-positive individuals with new HIV strains. This in turn sets the stage for the generation of circulating recombinant forms of HIV. What can the mucosal B-cell compartment contribute to protect a healthy, uninfected host against mucosal HIV transmission? Here, we discuss proof-of-principle studies we have performed using passive mucosal immunization, i.e., topical administration of preformed anti-HIV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs as IgG1, dimeric IgA1 (dIgA1, and dIgA2 isotypes, alone or in combination. Our data indicate that mucosally applied anti-HIV envelope mAbs can provide potent protection against mucosal transmission of simian-human immunodeficiency virus. Our review also discusses the induction of mucosal antibody defenses by active vaccination and potential strategies to interrupt the vicious cycle of bacterial translocation, immune activation, and stimulation of HIV replication in individuals with damaged mucosal barriers.

  6. Distribution and diversity of airborne microflora under mangrove forest at sandspit area karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazim, K.; Khan, M.U.; Ali, Q.M.; Ahmed, M.; Shaukat, S.S.; Sherwani, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Fungi and bacteria are heterotrophic decomposers that grow on organic matter and occupy various habitats in mangrove forests. This paper deals with the distribution and diversity of air-borne microbiota (fungi and bacteria) under a mangrove forest at Sandspit, Pakistan. A permanent stand was set up at Sandspit to observe the qualitative and quantitative variations throughout the year, using petri plate techniques. During the study, a total of 16 fungal species, viz., Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. sulphureus, A. terreus, A. wentii, A. flavus, Alternaria alternata, A. maritima, A. porri, Alternaria sp., Rhizopus varians, Mucormucedo, Penicillium sp., P. notatum, Dreshellera biseptata, Exosporiella fungorum, Cladosporium oxysporum and 14420 +- 267 bacterial colonies were recorded from the selected site. The study revealed that the fungi were the major component of airborne microflora in mangrove environment. It was observed that both fungal species and number of bacterial colonies were higher in summer than in winter. It is anticipated that the temperature and salinity of sea-water directly affect the diversity of fungi and bacteria in mangroves environment. The maximum diversity H' (1.906) was recorded in August whereas the minimum H' (1.053) was recorded in March. It is hoped that this research will add to our knowledge pertaining to the distribution and diversity of the airborne microbiota (bacteria and fungi) in mangrove ecosystem. (author)

  7. Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

  8. Mucosal Ecological Network of Epithelium and Immune Cells for Gut Homeostasis and Tissue Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashima, Yosuke; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2017-04-26

    The intestinal epithelial barrier includes columnar epithelial, Paneth, goblet, enteroendocrine, and tuft cells as well as other cell populations, all of which contribute properties essential for gastrointestinal homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa is covered by mucin, which contains antimicrobial peptides and secretory IgA and prevents luminal bacteria, fungi, and viruses from stimulating intestinal immune responses. Conversely, the transport of luminal microorganisms-mediated by M, dendritic, and goblet cells-into intestinal tissues facilitates the harmonization of active and quiescent mucosal immune responses. The bacterial population within gut-associated lymphoid tissues creates the intratissue cohabitations for harmonized mucosal immunity. Intermolecular and intercellular communication among epithelial, immune, and mesenchymal cells creates an environment conducive for epithelial regeneration and mucosal healing. This review summarizes the so-called intestinal mucosal ecological network-the complex but vital molecular and cellular interactions of epithelial mesenchymal cells, immune cells, and commensal microbiota that achieve intestinal homeostasis, regeneration, and healing.

  9. Treatment modalities of oral mucositis after radiation of head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapeyre, M.; Charra-Brunaud, C.; Kaminsky, M.C.; Geoffrois, L.; Dolivet, G.; Pourel, N.; Marchal, C.; Bey, P.; Maire, F.; Simon, M.; Toussaint, B.

    2001-01-01

    Acute mucositis is common after radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. During the past 3 decades, there was a gradual evolution in the treatment modalities for locally advanced carcinomas (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy). These new strategies are accompanied by an increase in early mucosal reactions. At the present time, there is no widely accepted prophylaxis or effective treatment. Many traditional remedies or new agents seem ineffective (Sucralfate, Chlorhexidine, GM-CSF, Silver nitrate, Prostaglandin, anti-oxidants, Benzydamine hydrochloride), while others seem promising (Povidone-iodine, nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges and anti-fungal, local GM-CSF, Glutamide, Low-energy laser, corticosteroids). Radioprotectors are controversial and should be only used in experimental protocols and not in routine practice. However, some recommendations can be proposed: general prevention and global care before cancer therapy should be systematic (oral hygiene, dental and periodontal treatment, advice to avoid the use of tobacco and alcohol); frequent oral rinsing with a bland mouthwash (Povidone-iodine or others) should be used at the start of treatment because there are significant modifications of the oral microflora increased by a disturbed salivary flow; these mouthwashes could be associated with nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges or anti-fungal topical (bicarbonates, Amphotericine B); Systematic percutaneous fluoroscopic gastrostomy should be decided before any aggressive treatments (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy); pain should be controlled; finally, the radiation technique should be optimized (mucosal sparing block, conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy). (authors)

  10. Host specificity of the ruminal bacterial community in the dairy cow followng near-total exchange of ruminal contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stability and host specificity of a cow’s ruminal bacterial community following massive challenge with the ruminal microflora from another cow. In each of two experiments, one pair of cows was selected on the basis of differences in ruminal bacterial comm...

  11. A novel microscopic method for analyzing Gram-stained vaginal smears in the diagnosis of disorders of vaginal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Dane B; Pavlović, Miloš D; Motrenko, Tatjana

    2015-08-01

    The Nugent's score is still the gold standard in the great majority of studies dealing with the assessment of vaginal flora and the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). The aim of this study was to show that the analysis of Gram-stained vaginal samples under microscope at the magnification of x200 (a novel microscopic method--NMM), as a fast and simple tool, easily applicable in everyday practice, better reflects complexity of vaginal microflora than the Nugent's methodology (x1000). Gram-stained vaginal smears from 394 asymptomatic pregnant women (24-28 week of pregnancy) were classified according to the Nugent's microscopic criteria (immersion, magnification x1000). The smears were then reexamined under immersion but at magnification x200. All samples were classified into 6 groups according to semiquanititative assessment of numbers (cellularity) and the ratio of rod (length < 1.5 microm) and small bacterial (< 1.5 microm) forms: hypercellular (normal full--NF), moderately cellular (normal mid-NM), hypocellular (normal empty--NE), bacterial vaginosis full (BVF), bacterial vaginosis mid (BVM), and bacterial vaginosis empty (BVE). Also yeasts, coccae, bifido and lepto bacterial forms as well polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes were identified. According to the Nugent's scoring, BV was found in 78, intermediate findings in 63, and yeasts in 48 patients. By our criteria BV was confirmed in 88 patients (37 BVF, 24 BVM, and 27 BVN). Generally, both tools proved to be highly concordant for the diagnosis of BV (Lin's concordance correlation coefficient = 0.9852). In 40% of the women mixed flora was found: yeasts in 126 (32%), coccae in 145 (37%), bifido forms in 32 (8%) and lepto forms in 20 (5%). Almost a half of BV patients had also yeasts (39/88). Elevated PMN numbers were found in 102 (33%) patients with normal and in 36 (41%) women with BV. The newly described methodology is simpler to apply and much better reflects diversity of vaginal microflora. In this way it

  12. The Mucosal Immune System of Teleost Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Salinas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess an adaptive immune system associated with each of their mucosal body surfaces. Evidence obtained from mucosal vaccination and mucosal infection studies reveal that adaptive immune responses take place at the different mucosal surfaces of teleost. The main mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT of teleosts are the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT, the gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT and the recently discovered nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT. Teleost MALT includes diffuse B cells and T cells with specific phenotypes different from their systemic counterparts that have co-evolved to defend the microbe-rich mucosal environment. Both B and T cells respond to mucosal infection or vaccination. Specific antibody responses can be measured in the gills, gut and skin mucosal secretions of teleost fish following mucosal infection or vaccination. Rainbow trout studies have shown that IgT antibodies and IgT+ B cells are the predominant B cell subset in all MALT and respond in a compartmentalized manner to mucosal infection. Our current knowledge on adaptive immunity in teleosts is limited compared to the mammalian literature. New research tools and in vivo models are currently being developed in order to help reveal the great intricacy of teleost mucosal adaptive immunity and help improve mucosal vaccination protocols for use in aquaculture.

  13. The State of Pancreatobiliary System and Intestinal Microflora in Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Zavgorodnya

    2016-11-01

    steatosis. Intestinal pathology (irritable bowel syndrome and excessive bacterial growth was significantly more common in the group of children with liver steatosis. Changes in the state of microflora of the small intestine were detected in 27.6 % of patients. The syndrome of excessive bacterial growth was observed significantly more in the group of patients with hepatic steatosis.

  14. Gastric Mucosal Erosions - Radiologic evaluation -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup

    1985-01-01

    70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions were diagnosed by double contrast upper gastrointestinal examinations and endoscopic findings. Analyzing the radiologic findings of these 70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions, the following results were obtained. 1. Among the total 70 cases, 65 cases were typical varioliform erosions showing central depressions and surrounding mucosal elevations. Remaining 5 cases were erosions of acute phase having multiple irregular depressions without surrounding elevations. 2. The gastric antrum was involved alone or in part in all cases. Duodenal bulb was involved with gastric antrum in 4 cases. 3. The majority of the cases had multiple erosions. There were only 2 cases of single erosion. 4. In 65 cases of varioliform erosions; 1) The diameter of the surrounding elevations varied from 3 to 20 mm with the majority (47 cases) between 6 and 10 mm. 2) In general, the surrounding elevations with sharp margin on double contrast films were also clearly demonstrated on compression films but those with faint margin were not. 3) The size of the central barium collections varied from pinpoint to 10 mm with the majority under 5 mm. The shape of the central barium collections in majority of the cases were round with a few cases of linear, triangular or star-shape. 5. In 5 cases of acute phase erosions; 1) All the 5 cases were females. 2) On double contrast radiography, all the cases showed multiple irregular depressed lesions without surrounding elevations. 3) 1 case had the history of hematemesis. 4) In 1 case, there was marked radiological improvement on follow-up study of 2 months interval. 6. In 23 cases, there were coexistent diseases with gastric mucosal erosions. These were 13 cases of duodenal bulb ulcers,7 cases of benign gastric ulcers and 3 others

  15. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M Hughes

    Full Text Available Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible.To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension.Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  16. Intestinal microflora as potential modifiers of sensitizer activity in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, P.W.; Clarke, C.; Dawson, K.B.; Simpson, W.; Simmons, D.J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of mice (some bearing Lewis lung tumors), with penicillin (PEN) at 500 mg/l drinking water for one week prior to treatment with misonidazole (MIS), resulted in: the elimination of their anaerobic cecal flora; a decrease in MIS-induced neurotoxicity; an increase in pharmacological exposure to MIS; a decrease in MIS chemopotentiation; a probable increase in MIS radiosensitization; an increase in MIS induced hypothermia. Assuming no chemical interaction between PEN and MIS, these observations indicate that the intestinal microflora can influence the activity of MIS in vivo. The observed reduction in the neurotoxic but not the radiosensitizing potential of MIS following PEN treatment indicates a therapeutic benefit

  17. [Microflora of gastrointestinal tract in patients with chronic cholecystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaĭlova, E S; Chervinets, V M; Chervinets, Iu V; Barashkov, A P; Sekareva, E V

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of gastrointestinal microflora in patients with chronic cholecystitis. Bacteriological analysis of biopsy samples of esophageal and gastric mucosae as well as stool samples was performed in 10 healthy volunteers and 28 patients with chronic cholecystitis. Opportunistic microorganisms are acquiring greater significance in formation of gastrointestinal microbiocenosis. Significant increase of both isolation rate and density of gastrointestinal tract colonization by staphylococci, enterobacteriae and anaerobic microorganisms was revealed. Obtained results showed abnormalities of microbiocenosis of esophageal and gastric mucosae and presence of intestinal disbacteriosis of different degrees of intensity.

  18. Vaccination against Salmonella Infection: the Mucosal Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, Rémi; Bioley, Gilles; Rochereau, Nicolas; Paul, Stéphane; Corthésy, Blaise

    2017-09-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica includes several serovars infecting both humans and other animals and leading to typhoid fever or gastroenteritis. The high prevalence of associated morbidity and mortality, together with an increased emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, is a current global health issue that has prompted the development of vaccination strategies that confer protection against most serovars. Currently available systemic vaccine approaches have major limitations, including a reduced effectiveness in young children and a lack of cross-protection among different strains. Having studied host-pathogen interactions, microbiologists and immunologists argue in favor of topical gastrointestinal administration for improvement in vaccine efficacy. Here, recent advances in this field are summarized, including mechanisms of bacterial uptake at the intestinal epithelium, the assessment of protective host immunity, and improved animal models that closely mimic infection in humans. The pros and cons of existing vaccines are presented, along with recent progress made with novel formulations. Finally, new candidate antigens and their relevance in the refined design of anti- Salmonella vaccines are discussed, along with antigen vectorization strategies such as nanoparticles or secretory immunoglobulins, with a focus on potentiating mucosal vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. The microflora of rainbow trout intestine : a comparison of traditional and molecular identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanggaard, Bettina; Huber, I.; Nielsen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The culturability of the intestinal microflora of 48 rainbow trout was detected by comparing direct microscopic counts (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, DAPI) with plate counts (tryptone soya agar, TSA). In general, a high percentage (average 50%) of the microflora could be cultured. The counts...

  20. Comparison of sodium hypochlorite-based foam and peroxyacetic acid-based fog sanitizing procedures in a salmon smokehouse: Survival of the general microflora and Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Dorthe; Gardshodn, K.; Gram, Lone

    2003-01-01

    The effects of fog sanitization with peroxyacetic acid (hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and acetic acid in combination) on general hygiene (aerobic plate count) and on Listeria monocytogenes were assessed in a slicing area at a salmon smokehouse and compared with the effects of foam sanitization...... sample, and a total of 288 bacterial strains were randomly isolated and tentatively identified to genus level by physiological and biochemical tests. The microflora was dominated by Neisseriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and lactic acid bacteria during production. Foam sanitization caused a change...

  1. Maternal vaginal microflora during pregnancy and the risk of asthma hospitalization and use of antiasthma medication in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Thorsen, Poul; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

    2002-01-01

    the establishment of the infant flora and, as a consequence, the development of wheezing and allergic diseases. OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the associations between the composition of the maternal vaginal microflora and the development of wheezing and asthma in childhood. METHODS: We performed a population......-based cohort study in Denmark. Vaginal samples for bacterial analysis were obtained during pregnancy. A total of 2927 women (80% of the invited women) completed the study and had 3003 live infants. Infant wheezing was assessed as one or more hospitalizations for asthma between 0 and 3 years of age. Asthma...... was assessed as use of 3 or more packages of antiasthma medication between 4 and 5 years of age. RESULTS: Maternal vaginal colonization with Ureaplasma urealyticum during pregnancy was associated with infant wheezing (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.6), but not with asthma, during the fifth year of life...

  2. The effect of gamma radiation on the microflora and essential oil of Ashanti pepper (Piper guineense) berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyenekwe, P.C.; Ogbadu, G.H.; Hashimoto, S.

    1997-01-01

    The optimal gamma radiation dose capable of eliminating the natural microflora of Ashanti pepper without adversely affecting the flavour qualities was investigated. The prevalent micro-organisms were Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Fusarium species. Both ground and whole forms of Ashanti pepper were subjected to 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy doses of gamma rays from a 60 Co source. The 2.5-kGy doses reduced the fungal and bacterial load by 2 log cycles and 7.5 kGy eliminated the fungal population. A dose of 10 kGy was required to decontaminate the samples irrespective of sample form, although grinding and not irradiation affected the essential oil composition of the spice. (author)

  3. A characterization of anaerobic colonization and associated mucosal adaptations in the undiseased ileal pouch.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, F M

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: The resolution of pouchitis with metronidazole points to an anaerobic aetiology. Pouchitis is mainly seen in patients with ulcerative colitis pouches (UCP). We have recently found that sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), a species of strict anaerobe, colonize UCP exclusively. Herein, we aimed to correlate levels of different bacterial species (including SRB) with mucosal inflammation and morphology. METHODS: Following ethical approval, fresh faecal samples and mucosal biopsies were taken from 9 patients with UCP and 5 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis pouches (FAPP). For the purposes of comparison, faecal samples and mucosal biopsies were also taken from the stomas of 7 of the 9 patients with UC (UCS). Colonization by four types of strict anaerobes (SRB, Clostridium perfringens, Bifidobacteria and Bacteroides) as well as by three types of facultative anaerobes (Enterococci, Coliforms and Lactobacilli) was evaluated. Inflammatory scores and mucosal morphology were assessed histologically in a blinded fashion by a pathologist. RESULTS: In general, strict anaerobes predominated over facultative in the UCP (P = 0.041). SRB were present in UCP exclusively. Even after exclusion of SRB from total bacterial counts, strict anaerobes still predominated. In the UCS, facultative anaerobes predominated. Strict and facultative anaerobes were present at similar levels in the FAPP. Enterococci were present at significantly reduced levels in the UCP when compared with the UCS (P = 0.031). When levels of SRB and other anaerobic species were individually correlated with mucosal inflammation and morphology, no trends were observed. CONCLUSION: We have previously identified that SRB exclusively colonize UCP. In addition we have now identified a novel increase in the strict\\/facultative anaerobic ratio within the UCP compared to UCS. These stark differences in bacterial colonization, however, appear to have limited impact on mucosal inflammation or morphology.

  4. A Strong Impact of Genetic Background on Gut Microflora in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steven Esworthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic background affects susceptibility to ileocolitis in mice deficient in two intracellular glutathione peroxidases, GPx1 and GPx2. The C57BL/6 (B6 GPx1/2 double-knockout (DKO mice have mild ileocolitis, and 129S1/Sv (129 DKO mice have severe inflammation. We used diet to modulate ileocolitis; a casein-based defined diet with AIN76A micronutrients (AIN attenuates inflammation compared to conventional LabDiets. Because luminal microbiota induce DKO ileocolitis, we assessed bacterial composition with automated ribosomal intergenic-spacer analysis (ARISA on cecal DNA. We found that mouse strain had the strongest impact on the composition of microbiota than diet and GPx genotypes. In comparing AIN and LabDiet, DKO mice were more resistant to change than the non-DKO or WT mice. However, supplementing yeast and inulin to AIN diet greatly altered microflora profiles in the DKO mice. From 129 DKO strictly, we found overgrowth of Escherichia coli. We conclude that genetic background predisposes mice to colonization of potentially pathogenic E. coli.

  5. Development of a simple bio-hydrogen production system through dark fermentation by using unique microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Akihiro; Bando, Yukiko; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Suzuki, Masaharu [Department of Fermentation Science, Faculty of Applied Bio-Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1 Sakuragaoka 1-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    In order to ensure efficient functioning of hydrogen fermentation systems that use Clostridium as the dominant hydrogen producer, energy-intensive process such as heat pretreatment of inoculum and/or substrate, continuous injection, and control of anaerobic conditions are required. Here, we describe a simple hydrogen fermentation system designed using microflora from leaf-litter cattle-waste compost. Hydrogen and volatile fatty acid production was measured at various hydraulic retention times, and bacterial genera were determined by PCR amplification and sequencing. Although hydrogen fermentation yield was approximately one-third of values reported in previous studies, this system requires no additional treatment and thus may be advantageous in terms of cost and operational control. Interestingly, Clostridium was absent from this system. Instead, Megasphaera elsdenii was the dominant hydrogen-producing bacterium, and lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) were prevalent. This study is the first to characterize M. elsdenii as a useful hydrogen producer in hydrogen fermentation systems. These results demonstrate that pretreatment is not necessary for stable hydrogen fermentation using food waste. (author)

  6. Application of rice rhizosphere microflora for hydrogen production from apple pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Tetsuya [Institute for Sustainable Agro-ecosystem Services (ISAS), Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Nishitokyo, Tokyo 188-0002 (Japan); Nishihara Environment Technology Inc., Tokyo 108-0023 (Japan); Matsumoto, Hisami [Nishihara Environment Technology Inc., Tokyo 108-0023 (Japan); Abe, Jun [AE-Bio, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Morita, Shigenori [Institute for Sustainable Agro-ecosystem Services (ISAS), Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Nishitokyo, Tokyo 188-0002 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    The combination of substrate materials and bacteria is an important factor affecting conversion technology for biological hydrogen production. We performed anaerobic hydrogen fermentation of apple pomace wastes using rhizosphere bacterial microflora of rice as the parent inoculum. In the vial test, the optimal condition for hydrogen fermentation was initial pH 6.0, 35 C, and 73.4 g pomace per liter of medium (equivalent to 10 g-hexose/L). In the batch experiment (pH 6.0, temperature 35 C) the hydrogen yield reached 2.3 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-hexose. The time course of biogas production and PCR-DGGE analysis suggest that Clostridium spp. decomposed degradable carbohydrates rapidly and a part of the refractory carbohydrate (e.g. pectin) gradually in the apple pomace slurry. In addition to hydrogen, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced in the anaerobic fermentation of apple pomace, which can be a substrate for methane fermentation. The rice rhizosphere can be a promising source of inoculum bacteria for hydrogen fermentation in combination with plant material waste like apple pomace. (author)

  7. The role of intestinal microflora and probiotic bacteria in prophylactic and development of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wasilewska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota comprises a large and diverse range of microorganisms whose activities have a significant impact on health. It interacts with its host at both the local and systemic level, resulting in a broad range of beneficial or detrimental outcomes for nutrition, infections, xenobiotic metabolism, and cancer. The current paper reviews research on the role of intestinal microflora in colorectal cancer development. Especially a protective effect of beneficial bacteria and probiotics on the risk of cancer development is highly discussed. There is substantial experimental evidence that the beneficial gut bacteria and their metabolism have the potential to inhibit the development and progression of neoplasia in the large intestine. Most of the data derive, however, from experimental and animal trials. Over a dozen well-documented animal studies have been published, wherein it has been clearly revealed that some lactic acid bacteria, especially lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, inhibit initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. Studies on cancer suppression in humans as a result of the consumption of probiotics are still sparse. Nevertheless, some epidemiological and interventional studies seem to confirm the bacterial anticancerogenic activity also in human gut. The mechanism by which probiotics may inhibit cancer development is unknown. Probiotics increase the amount of beneficial bacteria and decrease the pathogen level in the gut, consequently altering metabolic, enzymatic and carcinogenic activity in the intestine, decreasing inflammation and enhancing immune function, which may contribute to cancer defense.

  8. Voice disorders in mucosal leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Nunes Ruas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. RESULTS: 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81% were male and five (19% female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years. The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%, followed by dysphonia (38.5%, odynophagia (30.8% and dysphagia (26.9%. 23 patients (84.6% presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. CONCLUSION: We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some

  9. The colonic microflora and probiotic therapy in health and disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2011-01-01

    Host-microbe dialogue is involved not only in maintenance of mucosal homeostasis but also in the pathogenesis of several infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders of the gut. This has led to a resurgence of interest in the colonic microbiota in health and disease. Recent landmark findings are addressed here.

  10. Role of Lactobacilli and Lactoferrin in the Mucosal Cervicovaginal Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Valenti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The innate defense system of the female mucosal genital tract involves a close and complex interaction among the healthy vaginal microbiota, different cells, and various proteins that protect the host from pathogens. Vaginal lactobacilli and lactoferrin represent two essential actors in the vaginal environment. Lactobacilli represent the dominant bacterial species able to prevent facultative and obligate anaerobes outnumber in vaginal microbiota maintaining healthy microbial homeostasis. Several mechanisms underlie the protection exerted by lactobacilli: competition for nutrients and tissue adherence, reduction of the vaginal pH, modulation of immunity, and production of bioactive compounds. Among bioactive factors of cervicovaginal mucosa, lactoferrin, an iron-binding cationic glycoprotein, is a multifunctional glycoprotein with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic activities, recently emerging as an important modulator of inflammation. Lactobacilli and lactoferrin are largely under the influence of female hormones and of paracrine production of various cytokines. Lactoferrin is strongly increased in lower genital tract mucosal fluid of women affected by Neisseria gonorrheae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections promoting both innate and adaptive immune responses. In vaginal dysbiosis characterized by low amounts of vaginal lactobacilli and increased levels of endogenous anaerobic bacteria, the increase in lactoferrin could act as an immune modulator assuming the role normally played by the healthy microbiota in vaginal mucosa. Then lactoferrin and lactobacilli may be considered as biomarkers of altered microbial homeostasis at vaginal level. Considering the shortage of effective treatments to counteract recurrent and/or antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, the intravaginal administration of lactobacilli and lactoferrin could be a novel efficient therapeutic strategy and a valuable tool to restore

  11. Response of soil microflora to impact of heavy metals in zones of influence of railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bobryk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring research on the areas intensively and continuously affected by technogenic loading has remained topical until nowadays. The soil as a basic component of many ecosystems, including the structure of its microbial cenoses, remains an informative index of a system’s overall stability. The areas affected by railway transport have been scarcely studied. Due to the above, the aim of this work has been to establish the transformation regularities of soil microbial cenoses of territories close to railways and to establish the groups of microorganisms that are a sensitive criterion of technogenic vehicular influence. For the purpose of microbiological research, soil samples were taken at different distances from the railway track (0, 25, 50, 100 and250 m within five monitoring sections of the Tchop – Uzhhorod – Sambor railway (in the territory of Zakarpatska oblast. The number of ecological trophic groups was identified by means of inoculation on nutrient media using the method of serial dilution of soil suspensions. The research showed that in all types of soils that were adjacent to railway tracks, the number of ammonifiers and spore microbiota was high due to the high content of heavy metals (beyond the background levels. Besides, the bacterial microflora on beef-extract agar was characterized by homogeneity with domination of enteric bacteria and spore bacteria. Simultaneously, the numbers of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, micromycetes, oligonitrophils, amylolytic and pedotrophic microflorae were shown to be low compared to the control. Farther from the railway track, pigmental species of bacteria appeared in the soil samples, attesting to the activity of self-purification processes. Correlation analysis of the data showed that the soil microbiota of the railway-side areas was undergoing changes as affected by heightened contents of heavy metals. Existence of medium and close connections was established between the number of

  12. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease. Inhibits pathogenic enteric bacteria. Decrease luminal pH; Secrete bacteriocidal proteins; Colonization resistance; Block epithelial binding – induce MUC2. Improves epithelial and mucosal barrier integrity. Produce ...

  13. Eosinophils in mucosal immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, J; Rothenberg, M E

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils, multifunctional cells that contribute to both innate and adaptive immunity, are involved in the initiation, propagation and resolution of immune responses, including tissue repair. They achieve this multifunctionality by expression of a diverse set of activation receptors, including those that directly recognize pathogens and opsonized targets, and by their ability to store and release preformed cytotoxic mediators that participate in host defense, to produce a variety of de novo pleotropic mediators and cytokines and to interact directly and indirectly with diverse cell types, including adaptive and innate immunocytes and structural cells. Herein, we review the basic biology of eosinophils and then focus on new emerging concepts about their role in mucosal immune homeostasis, particularly maintenance of intestinal IgA. We review emerging data about their development and regulation and describe new concepts concerning mucosal eosinophilic diseases. We describe recently developed therapeutic strategies to modify eosinophil levels and function and provide collective insight about the beneficial and detrimental functions of these enigmatic cells. PMID:25807184

  14. Bacterial Flora of the Vagina and Cervix in Non-pregnant Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative comparative study of the bacterial flora of the vagina and cervix of 90 non-pregnant women of reproductive age (18 35 years) Calabar was undertaken. The study revealed that both aerobic and microaerophili organism as well as the strictly anaerobic bacteria constitute the microflora of the lower genital of this ...

  15. NASAL MUCOUS MEMBRANE MICROFLORA IN PATIENTS WITH POLYPOUS RHINOSINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kolenchukova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal mucous membrane microbiocenosis Research amongst patients with polypous rhinosinusitis is conducted. Patients with polypous rhinosinusitis (PRS, n = 58 aged from 18 till 64 years and group of control (n = 156. For an microflora assessment of nasal mucous membrane during an exacerbation of a disease carried out crops of microorga nisms on nutrient differential and diagnostic agars. When studying the microflora received from nasal mucous membrane 407 cultures of microorganisms at PRS were revealed. In control group of 174 microorganisms cultures are revealed. Among isolates were established 6 genera of 9 species of bacteria at PRS against 6 genera and 8 species in group of control. Microflora quantitative structure research of nasal mucous membrane at PRS of rather control group considerable prevalence of the microorganisms belonging to the sorts Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, and also to Enterobacteriaceae was revealed. It is also revealed increase S. pneumoniae. When determining specific accessory of the microorganisms relating to the Staphylococcus genera in PRS group concerning control the increase in total number of the strains of S. aureus relating to coagulase-positive and S. haemolyticus, S. epidermidis relating to coagulase-negative staphylococcus was established. A big variety the coagulase-negative of Staphylococcus is also revealed: S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. cohnii, S. capitis, S. hyicius and S. xylosus. In control group of such types as S. capitis and S. hyicius it isn’t revealed. Thus at a polypous rhinosinusitis nasal mucous membrane the expressed dysbacteriosis takes place. The analysis of frequency of occurrence of the microorganisms belonging to different childbirth showed that in PRS group bacteria of the sort Streptococcus and this Nesseria, and also S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes were most often allocated concerning control. The frequency prevalence analysis of the gene ra Staphylococcus related

  16. Mucosal vaccines: a paradigm shift in the development of mucosal adjuvants and delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Atul; Gowda, Devegowda Vishakante; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V; Shinde, Chetan G; Iyer, Meenakshi

    2015-04-01

    Mucosal immune responses are the first-line defensive mechanisms against a variety of infections. Therefore, immunizations of mucosal surfaces from which majority of infectious agents make their entry, helps to protect the body against infections. Hence, vaccinization of mucosal surfaces by using mucosal vaccines provides the basis for generating protective immunity both in the mucosal and systemic immune compartments. Mucosal vaccines offer several advantages over parenteral immunization. For example, (i) ease of administration; (ii) non-invasiveness; (iii) high-patient compliance; and (iv) suitability for mass vaccination. Despite these benefits, to date, only very few mucosal vaccines have been developed using whole microorganisms and approved for use in humans. This is due to various challenges associated with the development of an effective mucosal vaccine that can work against a variety of infections, and various problems concerned with the safe delivery of developed vaccine. For instance, protein antigen alone is not just sufficient enough for the optimal delivery of antigen(s) mucosally. Hence, efforts have been made to develop better prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for improved mucosal Th1 and Th2 immune responses using an efficient and safe immunostimulatory molecule and novel delivery carriers. Therefore, in this review, we have made an attempt to cover the recent advancements in the development of adjuvants and delivery carriers for safe and effective mucosal vaccine production. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. BISPHOSPHONATE - RELATED MUCOSITIS (BRM: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Stanimirov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates (BPs are the most widely used and effective antiresorptive agents for the treatment of diseases in which there is an increase in osteoclastic resorption, including post-menopausal osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, and tumor-associated osteolysis. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are well aware of the side effects of bisphosphonates and mainly with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ. Less known are the mucosal lesions associated with the use of these agents. In the scientific literature, there are only few reports of mucosal lesions due to the direct contact of the oral form of BPs with the mucosa (bisphosphonate-related mucositis. They are mostly related to improper use of bisphosphonate tablets that are chewed, sucked or allowed to melt in the mouth before swallowing. Lesions are atypical and need to be differentiated from other mucosal erosions. We present a case of bisphosphonate-related mucositis due to the improper use of alendronate.

  18. Effects of intensity-modulated radiotherapy on human oral microflora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Ziyang; Tang Zisheng; Jiang Yuntao; Ma Rui; Liu Zheng; Huang Zhengwei; Yan Chao

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in the biodiversity of the oral microflora of patients with head and neck cancer treated with postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Pooled dental plaque samples were collected during the radiation treatment from patients receiving IMRT (n=13) and CRT (n=12). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to analyze the temporal variation of these plaque samples. The stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rates were also compared between IMRT and CRT patients. Reductions in the severity of hyposalivation were observed in IMRT patients compared with CRT patients. We also observed that the temporal stability of the oral ecosystem was significantly higher in the IMRT group (69.96±7.82%) than in the CRT group (51.98±10.45%) (P<0.05). The findings of the present study suggest that IMRT is more conducive to maintaining the relative stability of the oral ecosystem than CRT. (author)

  19. Radiation sensitivity of fungal microflora isolated from some pharmaceutical ingredients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, S.A. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Botany Dept.); El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Abdel All, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    The total number of fungal microflora of D-glucose, NaCl, KCl and their solutions was determined. The fungal isolates were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. Aspergillus niger; Spicaria divaricate and Spicaria silvatica and their response to ..gamma..-radiation was determined, the most predominant isolate Asp. fumigatus was also the most irradiation resistant. The Dio and the lethal dose were determined for each isolate in a pure spore suspension as well as in the presence of the other isolates. The higher lethal dose values obtained for pure spore suspension as compared to that obtained for the natural fungal flora a D-glucose are discussed in terms of spore clumping. The activity of amylase, protease and L-asparaginase of Asp. fumigatus was examined prior to and after exposure to different doses of ..gamma..-radiation. Though all were inhibited at high doses, the effect was not as drastic as it was on cell viability.

  20. Impact of probiotics on colonic microflora in patients with colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, B. S.; Ahmed, J.; Macfie, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Probiotics colonise the gut and may exert beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to assess if probiotics change the spectrum of colonic microflora in patients with colitis when taken daily for a period of one month Methods: This is a prospective double blind randomised crossover...... study. Patients randomised to Group A received placebo for one month followed by probiotics for another month. Patients randomised to Group B received Probiotics during the first month followed by placebo in the next month. Stool samples were collected at the start, end of first and second month...... band that consistently reduced in concentration during treatment with probiotics but not placebo. The difference was not statistically significant due to small numbers of patients in the study. Conclusion: Use of Probiotics is associated with a reduction in prevalence of Bacteroides fragilis...

  1. Analysis of changes in intestinal microflora of irradiated mice. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mal' tsev, V.N.; Pinegin, B.V.; Korshunov, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    In experiments on 3 groups of CBA mice exposed to doses of 900, 600 and 300 R ..gamma..-rays, it was demonstrated that the integral severity of post-radiation microflora in the intestine can be determined by means of information index h, which takes into consideration all changes occurring in different representatives of the intestinal microflora. Differential analysis of the mechanisms of radioinduced changes in microflora indicates that it is based on a decrease in lactobacilli and increase in enterococcus, proteus, colibacillus and yeast in the small intestine, with increase in colibacillus, clostridia, proteus and enterococcus in the large intestine.

  2. The oral microflora in obesity and type-2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Shillitoe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is prevalent in people with obesity. It has been proposed that these conditions are related to specific features of the microflora of the mouth and lower gastrointestinal (GI tract. Hyperglycemia often resolves quickly after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB but the role of the GI microflora cannot be examined easily because of reduced intestinal mobility. We propose that the study of microorganisms present in the mouth of patients undergoing RYGB will contribute to our understanding of the role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Objective: To conduct a feasibility study to examine differences in oral microbes in obese patients with and without T2DM and to determine whether it is feasible to measure changes after gastric bypass surgery. Methods: Individuals with morbid obesity (n=29, of whom 13 had T2DM, were studied. Oral rinses, stool samples, and blood samples were obtained before RYGB, and oral rinses and blood samples were obtained at 2 and 12 weeks postsurgery. Results: Prior to surgery, participants with T2DM had slightly higher total levels of oral bacteria than those without diabetes. Those with HbA1c > 6.5% had rather lower levels of Bifidobacteria in the mouth and stool. At 2 weeks post-RYGB, patients with T2DM were able to reduce or discontinue their hypoglycemic medications. Stool samples could not be obtained but oral rinses were readily available. The levels of oral Bifidobacteria had increased tenfold and levels of circulating endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha had decreased. Conclusions: The study of oral bacteria before and after RYGB is feasible and should be tested in larger patient populations to increase our understanding of the role of microorganisms in the pathogenesis of obesity and T2DM.

  3. Effects of jasmonic acid, ethylene, and salicylic acid signaling on the rhizosphere bacterial community of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornbos, Rogier F; Geraats, Bart P J; Kuramae, Eiko E; Van Loon, L C; Bakker, Peter A H M

    2011-04-01

    Systemically induced resistance is a promising strategy to control plant diseases, as it affects numerous pathogens. However, since induced resistance reduces one or both growth and activity of plant pathogens, the indigenous microflora may also be affected by an enhanced defensive state of the plant. The aim of this study was to elucidate how much the bacterial rhizosphere microflora of Arabidopsis is affected by induced systemic resistance (ISR) or systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Therefore, the bacterial microflora of wild-type plants and plants affected in their defense signaling was compared. Additionally, ISR was induced by application of methyl jasmonate and SAR by treatment with salicylic acid or benzothiadiazole. As a comparative model, we also used wild type and ethylene-insensitive tobacco. Some of the Arabidopsis genotypes affected in defense signaling showed altered numbers of culturable bacteria in their rhizospheres; however, effects were dependent on soil type. Effects of plant genotype on rhizosphere bacterial community structure could not be related to plant defense because chemical activation of ISR or SAR had no significant effects on density and structure of the rhizosphere bacterial community. These findings support the notion that control of plant diseases by elicitation of systemic resistance will not significantly affect the resident soil bacterial microflora.

  4. Role of ABO secretor status in mucosal innate immunity and H. pylori infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lindén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The fucosylated ABH antigens, which constitute the molecular basis for the ABO blood group system, are also expressed in salivary secretions and gastrointestinal epithelia in individuals of positive secretor status; however, the biological function of the ABO blood group system is unknown. Gastric mucosa biopsies of 41 Rhesus monkeys originating from Southern Asia were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. A majority of these animals were found to be of blood group B and weak-secretor phenotype (i.e., expressing both Lewis a and Lewis b antigens, which are also common in South Asian human populations. A selected group of ten monkeys was inoculated with Helicobacter pylori and studied for changes in gastric mucosal glycosylation during a 10-month period. We observed a loss in mucosal fucosylation and concurrent induction and time-dependent dynamics in gastric mucosal sialylation (carbohydrate marker of inflammation, which affect H. pylori adhesion targets and thus modulate host-bacterial interactions. Of particular relevance, gastric mucosal density of H. pylori, gastritis, and sialylation were all higher in secretor individuals compared to weak-secretors, the latter being apparently "protected." These results demonstrate that the secretor status plays an intrinsic role in resistance to H. pylori infection and suggest that the fucosylated secretor ABH antigens constitute interactive members of the human and primate mucosal innate immune system.

  5. A metaproteomic approach to study human-microbial ecosystems at the mucosal luminal interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Li

    Full Text Available Aberrant interactions between the host and the intestinal bacteria are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of many digestive diseases. However, studying the complex ecosystem at the human mucosal-luminal interface (MLI is challenging and requires an integrative systems biology approach. Therefore, we developed a novel method integrating lavage sampling of the human mucosal surface, high-throughput proteomics, and a unique suite of bioinformatic and statistical analyses. Shotgun proteomic analysis of secreted proteins recovered from the MLI confirmed the presence of both human and bacterial components. To profile the MLI metaproteome, we collected 205 mucosal lavage samples from 38 healthy subjects, and subjected them to high-throughput proteomics. The spectral data were subjected to a rigorous data processing pipeline to optimize suitability for quantitation and analysis, and then were evaluated using a set of biostatistical tools. Compared to the mucosal transcriptome, the MLI metaproteome was enriched for extracellular proteins involved in response to stimulus and immune system processes. Analysis of the metaproteome revealed significant individual-related as well as anatomic region-related (biogeographic features. Quantitative shotgun proteomics established the identity and confirmed the biogeographic association of 49 proteins (including 3 functional protein networks demarcating the proximal and distal colon. This robust and integrated proteomic approach is thus effective for identifying functional features of the human mucosal ecosystem, and a fresh understanding of the basic biology and disease processes at the MLI.

  6. Role of intestinal mucosal barrier in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yuanyuan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been increasing year by year in China. Intestinal mucosa is the largest organ for bacterial storage, and intestinal mucosal barrier includes biological barrier, mechanical barrier, immunological barrier, and chemical barrier. This article investigates the important role of intestinal mucosal barrier function in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. As for the intestinal biological barrier, abnormalities in gut microbiota occur earlier than obesity and other metabolic disorders; small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may affect energy metabolism, promote insulin resistance, and get involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD; regulation of gut microbiota has a certain clinical effect in the treatment of NAFLD. Intestinal mechanical barrier impairment increases the mucosal permeability and is associated with intestinal dysbacteriosis. The changes in intestinal immunological barrier may be associated with obesity, metabolic disorders, and liver inflammation. The changes in intestinal chemical barrier can inhibit the synthesis and secretion of very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein in hepatocytes and may result in triglyceride deposition in the liver. It is pointed out that the research on intestinal mucosal barrier function provides promising prospects for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.

  7. Bacterial vaginosis and vaginal yeast, but not vaginal cleansing, increase HIV-1 acquisition in African women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Morrison, Charles S.; Cornelisse, Peter G. A.; Munjoma, Marshall; Moncada, Jeanne; Awio, Peter; Wang, Jing; van der Pol, Barbara; Chipato, Tsungai; Salata, Robert A.; Padian, Nancy S.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate interrelationships between bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal yeast, vaginal practices (cleansing and drying/tightening), mucosal inflammation, and HIV acquisition. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study was conducted, enrolling 4531 HIV-negative women

  8. Comparative analysis of fecal microflora of healthy full-term Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... In this study fecal microflora of human infants born through vaginal delivery (VB) and through ... their study they have investigated the development of the gut .... from both libraries were deposited to NCBI GenBank with.

  9. [Treatment of disbacteriosis of gastroduodenal mucous microflora in mucosa inflammation, ulcer and erosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, V V; Chernivets, V M; Bondarenko, V M; Bazlov, S N

    2011-01-01

    To propose pharmacotherapy of disbacteriosis of gastroduodenal mucous microflora in gastroduodenal inflammation, erosion and ulcer. The study enrolled 30 healthy volunteers, 130 ulcer patients and 36 patients with chronic gastritis (27% of the latter had chronic duodenitis). In addition to general clinical examination, fibrogastroduodenoscopy, we made histological and microbiological examinations of biopsy specimens of the mucosa from different parts of the stomach and duodenum, determined sensitivity of the microflora to antibacterial drugs. We found that recurrent ulcer, chronic gastritis and duodenitis are accompanied with overgrowth of pathogenic microflora in gastric and duodenal mucosa. We developed an effective method of the treatment of gastroduodenal mucosa microflora disbacteriosis in gastroduodenal inflammation, erosion and ulcer including antibacterial, antifungal drugs and probiotics.

  10. Profiling of composition and metabolic activities of the colonic microflora of growing pigs fed diets supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Balaskas, Christos; Fava, Fransesca; Tuohy, Kieran M; Gibson, Glenn R; Fegeros, K

    2006-08-01

    It is evident that quantitative information on different microbial groups and their contribution in terms of activity in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and animals is required in order to formulate functional diets targeting improved gut function and host health. In this work, quantitative information on levels and spatial distributions of Bacteroides spp, Eubacterium spp, Clostridium spp, Escherichia coli, Bifidobacterium spp and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp. along the porcine large intestine was investigated using 16S rRNA targeted probes and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). Caecum, ascending colon (AC) and rectum luminal digesta from three groups of individually housed growing pigs fed either a corn-soybean basal diet (CON diet) or a prebiotic diet containing 10 g/kg oligofructose (FOS diet) or trans-galactooligosaccharides (TOS diet) at the expense of cornstarch were analysed. DAPI staining was used to enumerate total number of cells in the samples. Populations of total cells, Bacteroides, Eubacterium, Clostridium and Bifidobacterium declined significantly (P Eubacterium that was higher in the AC digesta. FISH analysis showed that the sum of all bacterial groups made up a small percentage of the total cells, which was 12.4%, 21.8% and 10.3% in caecum, AC and rectum, respectively. This supports the view that in swine, the diversity of GI microflora might be higher compared to other species. In terms of microflora metabolic activity, the substantially higher numerical trends seen in FOS and TOS treatments regarding total volatile fatty acid, acetate concentrations and glycolytic activities, it could be postulated that FOS and TOS promoted saccharolytic activities in the porcine colon.

  11. Peculiarities of the colon microflora condition in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Vasylivna Rynzhuk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigation deals with studying of species content and population level of the colon microflora in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria in comparison with practically healthy pregnant women. A significant disorder of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the colon microflora content has been found to occur in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria, which in combination with physiological factors associated with pregnancy may result in the development of asymptomatic bacteriuria.

  12. A potential role for endogenous microflora in dormancy release, cytokinin metabolism and the response to fluridone in Lolium rigidum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, Danica E; Emery, R J Neil; Kurepin, Leonid V; Powles, Stephen B

    2015-02-01

    Dormancy in Lolium rigidum (annual ryegrass) seeds can be alleviated by warm stratification in the dark or by application of fluridone, an inhibitor of plant abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis via phytoene desaturase. However, germination and absolute ABA concentration are not particularly strongly correlated. The aim of this study was to determine if cytokinins of both plant and bacterial origin are involved in mediating dormancy status and in the response to fluridone. Seeds with normal or greatly decreased (by dry heat pre-treatment) bacterial populations were stratified in the light or dark and in the presence or absence of fluridone in order to modify their dormancy status. Germination was assessed and seed cytokinin concentration and composition were measured in embryo-containing or embryo-free seed portions. Seeds lacking bacteria were no longer able to lose dormancy in the dark unless supplied with exogenous gibberellin or fluridone. Although these seeds showed a dramatic switch from active cytokinin free bases to O-glucosylated storage forms, the concentrations of individual cytokinin species were only weakly correlated to dormancy status. However, cytokinins of apparently bacterial origin were affected by fluridone and light treatment of the seeds. It is probable that resident microflora contribute to dormancy status in L. rigidum seeds via a complex interaction between hormones of both plant and bacterial origin. This interaction needs to be taken into account in studies on endogenous seed hormones or the response of seeds to plant growth regulators. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Oral microflora and their relation to risk factors in HIV+ patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, A; Khosravi, A R; Shokri, H; Asadi Jamnani, F; Hajiabdolbaghi, M; Ashrafi Tamami, I

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral microflora and association of oral candidiasis and multiple risk factors in HIV(+) patients. The present study included 100 HIV-infected patients participated in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran for Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) and HIV. We assessed the presence or absence of OPC, and samples were obtained from the oral cavity and direct microscopic examination, gram staining and culture on standard microbiological media were performed in all patients. CD4(+) cell count/CD4(+) percentage were also calculated. The demographic characteristics showed that the patients had a mean age of 32.3 years old, 78% male and 22% female. Patients belonging to 'O(+)' blood group (27%) were more prone to develop OPC. A total of 460 bacterial colonies were obtained and Streptococcus mutans (15.4%) was the most frequently isolated species in the HIV(+) patients, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.8%) and Corynebacterium (8.7%). In addition, 254 yeasts (from four different genera) were isolated from the patient under study. Candida species (94.4%) were the most frequently obtained genera, followed by Saccharomyces (2.4%), Kluyveromyces and Cryptococcus (1.6% for both) species. Candida albicans (37.2%) was the most common species isolated from HIV(+) patients with OPC and its frequency was significantly higher than that of other Candida species (Poral cavity of HIV(+) patients and there was no significant difference of the variables CD4(+) cell count and yeast counts. The findings of this study would be helpful in any further study, which, if done prospectively on a large cohort, can be confirmatory. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  14. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa

  15. A regenerative approach towards mucosal fenestration closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandi, Padma; Anumala, Naveen; Reddy, Amarender; Viswa Chandra, Rampalli

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal fenestration is an opening or an interstice through the oral mucosa. A lesion which occurs with greater frequency than generally realised, its occurrence is attributed to a myriad of causes. Mucogingival procedures including connective tissue grafts, free gingival grafts and lateral pedicle grafts are generally considered to be the treatment of choice in the closure of a mucosal fenestration. More often, these procedures are performed in conjunction with other procedures such as periradicular surgery and with bone grafts. However, the concomitant use of gingival grafts and bone grafts in mucosal fenestrations secondary to infections in sites exhibiting severe bone loss is highly debatable. In this article, we report two cases of mucosal fenestrations secondary to trauma and their management by regenerative periodontal surgery with the placement of guided tissue regeneration membrane and bone graft. The final outcome was a complete closure of the fenestration in both the cases. PMID:23749826

  16. Transgenic Killer Commensal Bacteria as Mucosal Protectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Polonelli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As first line of defense against the majority of infections and primary site for their transmission, mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity and genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts represent the most suitable sites to deliver protective agents for the prevention of infectious diseases. Mucosal protection is important not only for life threatening diseases but also for opportunistic infections which currently represent a serious burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost of cures. Candida albicans is among the most prevalent causes of mucosal infections not only in immuno- compromised patients, such as HIV-infected subjects who are frequently affected by oral and esophageal candidiasis, but also in otherwise healthy individuals, as in the case of acute vaginitis. Unfortunately, current strategies for mucosal protection against candidiasis are severely limited by the lack of effective vaccines and the relative paucity and toxicity of commercially available antifungal drugs. An additional option has been reported in a recent

  17. Microneedle and mucosal delivery of influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Moo; Song, Jae-Min; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2017-01-01

    In recent years with the threat of pandemic influenza and other public health needs, alternative vaccination methods other than intramuscular immunization have received great attention. The skin and mucosal surfaces are attractive sites probably because of both non-invasive access to the vaccine delivery and unique immunological responses. Intradermal vaccines using a microinjection system (BD Soluvia) and intranasal vaccines (FluMist) are licensed. As a new vaccination method, solid microneedles have been developed using a simple device that may be suitable for self-administration. Because coated micorneedle influenza vaccines are administered in the solid state, developing formulations maintaining the stability of influenza vaccines is an important issue to be considered. Marketable microneedle devices and clinical trials remain to be developed. Other alternative mucosal routes such as oral and intranasal delivery systems are also attractive for inducing cross protective mucosal immunity but effective non-live mucosal vaccines remain to be developed. PMID:22697052

  18. Gut microbiota utilize immunoglobulin A for mucosal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, G P; Ladinsky, M S; Yu, K B; Sanders, J G; Yoo, B B; Chou, W-C; Conner, M E; Earl, A M; Knight, R; Bjorkman, P J; Mazmanian, S K

    2018-05-18

    The immune system responds vigorously to microbial infection while permitting lifelong colonization by the microbiome. Mechanisms that facilitate the establishment and stability of the gut microbiota remain poorly described. We found that a regulatory system in the prominent human commensal Bacteroides fragilis modulates its surface architecture to invite binding of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in mice. Specific immune recognition facilitated bacterial adherence to cultured intestinal epithelial cells and intimate association with the gut mucosal surface in vivo. The IgA response was required for B. fragilis (and other commensal species) to occupy a defined mucosal niche that mediates stable colonization of the gut through exclusion of exogenous competitors. Therefore, in addition to its role in pathogen clearance, we propose that IgA responses can be co-opted by the microbiome to engender robust host-microbial symbiosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated disruption of mucosal barriers and its role in HIV transmission and pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugizov, Sharof

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oral, intestinal and genital mucosal epithelia have a barrier function to prevent paracellular penetration by viral, bacterial and other pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV can overcome these barriers by disrupting the tight and adherens junctions of mucosal epithelia. HIV-associated disruption of epithelial junctions may also facilitate paracellular penetration and dissemination of other viral pathogens. This review focuses on possible molecular mechanisms of HIV-associated disruption of mucosal epithelial junctions and its role in HIV transmission and pathogenesis of HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:27583187

  20. Bioconversion of corncob to hydrogen using anaerobic mixed microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Chunmei [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Daxue Road, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Biotechnology Department, Zhengzhou College of Animal Husbandry Engineering, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Zhang, Shufang; Fan, Yaoting; Hou, Hongwei [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Daxue Road, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Biohydrogen production from corncob using natural anaerobic microflora was reported for the first time. The optimum pretreatment condition for the corncob was determined to be 100 C, 30 min, and 1% HCl (w/w). The maximum hydrogen yield of 107.9 ml/g-TVS and hydrogen production rate of 4.20 ml/g-TVS h{sup -1} was obtained under the condition of 10 g/l substrate concentration and initial pH 8.0. Butyrate and acetate were the dominant metabolic by-products of hydrogen fermentation. Chemical composition analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study the mechanism of degrading corncob for hydrogen production. The amorphous domains of cellulose and hemicellulose were hydrolyzed into fermentable saccharides through acid pretreatment and the microorganisms had a devastating effect on the crystallinity of the cellulose. The hydrogen yield from pretreated corncob was much higher than from raw corncob. Therefore, the acid pretreatment played a crucial role on hydrogen production from corncob. (author)

  1. Methanogenesis at low temperatures by microflora of tundra wetland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsyurbenko, O R; Nozhevnikova, A N; Soloviova, T I; Zavarzin, G A

    1996-01-01

    Active methanogenesis from organic matter contained in soil samples from tundra wetland occurred even at 6 degrees C. Methane was the only end product in balanced microbial community with H2/CO2 as a substrate, besides acetate was produced as an intermediate at temperatures below 10 degrees C. The activity of different microbial groups of methanogenic community in the temperature range of 6-28 degrees C was investigated using 5% of tundra soil as inoculum. Anaerobic microflora of tundra wetland fermented different organic compounds with formation of hydrogen, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and alcohols. Methane was produced at the second step. Homoacetogenic and methanogenic bacteria competed for such substrates as hydrogen, formate, carbon monoxide and methanol. Acetogens out competed methanogens in an excess of substrate and low density of microbial population. Kinetic analysis of the results confirmed the prevalence of hydrogen acetogenesis on methanogenesis. Pure culture of acetogenic bacteria was isolated at 6 degrees C. Dilution of tundra soil and supply with the excess of substrate disbalanced the methanoigenic microbial community. It resulted in accumulation of acetate and other VFA. In balanced microbial community obviously autotrophic methanogens keep hydrogen concentration below a threshold for syntrophic degradation of VFA. Accumulation of acetate- and H2/CO2-utilising methanogens should be very important in methanogenic microbial community operating at low temperatures.

  2. Seasonal variations in the microflora from mangrove swamps in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mathani, S.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Seasonal variations in bacterial and fungal counts from the water and sediment samples of mangrove ecosystem of Goa (India) show that this ecosystem supports a very high population of fungi and bacteria...

  3. Alpha-Toxin Promotes Mucosal Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele J Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes numerous diseases in humans ranging from the mild skin infections to serious, life-threatening, superantigen-mediated Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS. S. aureus may also be asymptomatically carried in the anterior nares, vagina or on the skin, which serve as reservoirs for infection. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clonal type USA200 is the most widely disseminated colonizer and a major cause of TSS. Our prior studies indicated that α-toxin was a major epithelial proinflammatory exotoxin produced by TSS S. aureus USA200 isolates. It also facilitated the penetration of TSS Toxin-1 (TSST-1 across vaginal mucosa. However, the majority of menstrual TSS isolates produce low α-toxin due to a nonsense point mutation at codon 113, designated hly, suggesting mucosal adaptation. The aim of this study was to characterize the differences between TSS USA200 strains [high (hla+ and low (hly+ α-toxin producers] in their abilities to infect and disrupt vaginal mucosal tissue. A mucosal model was developed using ex vivo porcine vaginal mucosa, LIVE/DEAD® staining and confocal microscropy to characterize biofilm formation and tissue viability of TSS USA 200 isolates CDC587 and MN8, which contain the α-toxin pseudogene (hly, MNPE (hla+ and MNPE isogenic hla knockout (hlaKO. All TSS strains grew to similar bacterial densities (1-5 x 108 CFU on the mucosa and were proinflammatory over 3 days. However, MNPE formed biofilms with significant reductions in the mucosal viability whereas neither CDC587, MN8 (hly+, or MNPE hlaKO, formed biofilms and were less cytotoxic. The addition of exogenous, purified α-toxin to MNPE hlaKO restored the biofilm phenotype. Our studies suggest α-toxin affects S. aureus phenotypic growth on vaginal mucosa, by promoting tissue disruption and biofilm formation; and α–toxin mutants (hly are not benign colonizers, but rather form a different type of infection, which we have termed high density pathogenic

  4. Inside the mucosal immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry R McGhee

    Full Text Available An intricate network of innate and immune cells and their derived mediators function in unison to protect us from toxic elements and infectious microbial diseases that are encountered in our environment. This vast network operates efficiently by use of a single cell epithelium in, for example, the gastrointestinal (GI and upper respiratory (UR tracts, fortified by adjoining cells and lymphoid tissues that protect its integrity. Perturbations certainly occur, sometimes resulting in inflammatory diseases or infections that can be debilitating and life threatening. For example, allergies in the eyes, skin, nose, and the UR or digestive tracts are common. Likewise, genetic background and environmental microbial encounters can lead to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs. This mucosal immune system (MIS in both health and disease is currently under intense investigation worldwide by scientists with diverse expertise and interests. Despite this activity, there are numerous questions remaining that will require detailed answers in order to use the MIS to our advantage. In this issue of PLOS Biology, a research article describes a multi-scale in vivo systems approach to determine precisely how the gut epithelium responds to an inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, given by the intravenous route. This article reveals a previously unknown pathway in which several cell types and their secreted mediators work in unison to prevent epithelial cell death in the mouse small intestine. The results of this interesting study illustrate how in vivo systems biology approaches can be used to unravel the complex mechanisms used to protect the host from its environment.

  5. Mucosal immunogenicity of plant lectins in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, E C; Grant, G; Pusztai, A; Pfüller, U; O’Hagan, D T

    2000-01-01

    The mucosal immunogenicity of a number of plant lectins with different sugar specificities was investigated in mice. Following intranasal (i.n.) or oral administration, the systemic and mucosal antibody responses elicited were compared with those induced by a potent mucosal immunogen (cholera toxin; CT) and a poorly immunogenic protein (ovalbumin; OVA). After three oral or i.n. doses of CT, high levels of specific serum antibodies were measured and specific IgA was detected in the serum, saliva, vaginal wash, nasal wash and gut wash of mice. Immunization with OVA elicited low titres of serum IgG but specific IgA was not detected in mucosal secretions. Both oral and i.n. delivery of all five plant lectins investigated [Viscum album (mistletoe lectin 1; ML‐1), Lycospersicum esculentum (tomato lectin; LEA), Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA), Triticum vulgaris (wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus I (UEA‐1)] stimulated the production of specific serum IgG and IgA antibody after three i.n. or oral doses. Immunization with ML‐1 induced high titres of serum IgG and IgA in addition to specific IgA in mucosal secretions. The response to orally delivered ML‐1 was comparable to that induced by CT, although a 10‐fold higher dose was administered. Immunization with LEA also induced high titres of serum IgG, particularly after i.n. delivery. Low specific IgA titres were also detected to LEA in mucosal secretions. Responses to PHA, WGA and UEA‐1 were measured at a relatively low level in the serum, and little or no specific mucosal IgA was detected. PMID:10651938

  6. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  7. Effects of the oral administration of the products derived from milk fermentation by kefir microflora on immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinderola, Gabriel; Perdigón, Gabriela; Duarte, Jairo; Farnworth, Edward; Matar, Chantal

    2006-11-01

    Nutritional status has a major impact on the immune system. Probiotic effects ascribed to fermented dairy products arise not only from whole microorganisms but also from metabolites (peptides, exopolysaccharides) produced during the fermentation. We recently demonstrated the immunomodulating capacity of kefir in a murine model. We now aimed at studying the immunomodulating capacity in vivo of the products derived from milk fermentation by kefir microflora (PMFKM) on the gut. BALB/c mice received the PMFKM for 2, 5 or 7 consecutive days. IgA+ and IgG+ cells were determined on histological slices of the small and large intestine. IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFNgamma and TNFalpha were determined in the gut, intestinal fluid and blood serum. IL-6 was also determined in the supernatant of a primary culture of small intestine epithelial cells challenged with PMFKM. PMFKM up-regulated IL-6 secretion, necessary for B-cell terminal differentiation to IgA secreting cells in the gut lamina propria. There was an increase in the number of IgA+ cells in the small and large intestine. The increase in the number of IgA+ cells was accompanied by an increase in the number of IL-4+, IL-10+ and IL-6+ cells in the small intestine. Effects of PMFKM in the large intestine were less widely apparent than the ones observed at the small intestine lamina propria. All cytokines that increased in the small intestine lamina propria, also did so in blood serum, reflecting here the immunostimulation achieved in the gut mucosa. We observed that the PMFKM induced a mucosal response and it was able to up and down regulate it for protective immunity, maintaining the intestinal homeostasis, enhancing the IgA production at both the small and large intestine level. The opportunity exists then to manipulate the constituents of the lumen of the intestine through dietary means, thereby enhancing the health status of the host.

  8. Helicobacter pylori coinfection is a confounder, modulating mucosal inflammation in oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral cavity has been considered a potential reservoir for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori , from where the organism causes recurrent gastric infections. Aim: With this case-control study we tried to evaluate the role of H pylori in the etiology of mucosal inflammation, a condition that compounds the morbid state associated with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF. Materials and Methods : Subjects ( n = 150 were selected following institutional regulations on sample collection and grouped into test cases and positive and negative controls based on the presence of mucosal fibrosis and inflammation. The negative controls had none of the clinical signs. All patients underwent an oral examination as well as tests to assess oral hygiene/periodontal disease status; a rapid urease test (RUT of plaque samples was also done to estimate the H pylori bacterial load. We used univariate and mutivariate logistic regression for statistical analysis of the data and calculated the odds ratios to assess the risk posed by the different variables. Results : The RUT results differed significantly between the groups, reflecting the variations in the bacterial loads in each category. The test was positive in 52% in the positive controls (where nonspecific inflammation of oral mucosa was seen unassociated with fibrosis, in 46% of the test cases, and in 18% of the negative controls (healthy volunteers (χ2 = 13.887; P < 0.01. A positive correlation was seen between the oral hygiene/periodontal disease indices and RUT reactivity in all the three groups. Conclusions: The contribution of the H pylori in dental plaque to mucosal inflammation and periodontal disease was significant. Logistic regression analysis showed gastrointestinal disease and poor oral hygiene as being the greatest risk factors for bacterial colonization, irrespective of the subject groups. A positive correlation exists between RUT reactivity and the frequency of mucosal inflammation.

  9. Biogeographical note on Antarctic microflorae: Endemism and cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Azeem Jadoon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the biogeography of Antarctic microflora (Antarctica acts as best model to study microbial biogeography such as cyanobacteria and selected halophiles with special emphasis on Halomonas variabilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Halophiles are known to be resistant not only to salt stress, but also to extreme temperature, pressure, and aridity and they are capable of surviving in harsh environments such as polar regions, deep-sea habitats, and deserts. Many microbes are known to be resistant to hostile environmental conditions, and are capable of surviving in harsh environments. Our group has isolated 444 strains belonging to 28 genera of halophiles from various environments around the world. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that many of the isolated strains from geographically distant habitats having different environmental conditions, were closely related to each other, with some strains possessing 100% identical sequences. Organisms possessing survival mechanism such as spore formation are usually ubiquitous. The genus Halomonas is represented by potentially endemic strains and the ubiquitous H. variabilis, while spore-forming B. licheniformis showed cosmopolitan distribution. One potentially endemic (moderate endemicity that is regional and/or continental distribution strain was reported from Syowa station, East Antarctica, and Mario Zucchelli station, West Antarctica, which are geographically separated by 3000 km. Moreover, 15 strains having 100% similarity with B. licheniformis were considered cosmopolitans. The results of this work provide support for the middle-ground model that some microbes have moderate endemicity and others have cosmopolitan distribution. These results will contribute to a greater understanding of microbial biogeography with special emphasis on Antarctica.

  10. The Effects of Hormones and Vaginal Microflora on the Glycome of the Female Genital Tract: Cervical-Vaginal Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncla, Bernard J; Chappell, Catherine A; Debo, Brian M; Meyn, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the glycome of cervical-vaginal fluid, collected with a Catamenial cup. We quantified: glycosidase levels; sialic acid and high mannose specific lectin binding; mucins, MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC7; and albumin in the samples collected. These data were analyzed in the context of hormonal status (day of menstrual cycle, hormonal contraception use) and role, if any, of the type of the vaginal microflora present. When the Nugent score was used to stratify the subjects by microflora as normal, intermediate, or bacterial vaginosis, several important differences were observed. The activities of four of six glycosidases in the samples from women with bacterial vaginosis were significantly increased when compared to normal or intermediate women: sialidase, P = <0.001; α-galactosidase, P = 0.006; β-galactosidase, P = 0.005; α-glucosidase, P = 0.056. Sialic acid binding sites as measured by two lectins, Maackia amurensis and Sambucus nigra binding, were significantly lower in women with BV compared to women with normal and intermediate scores (P = <0.0001 and 0.008 respectively). High mannose binding sites, a measure of innate immunity were also significantly lower in women with BV (P = <0.001). Additionally, we observed significant increases in MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC7 concentrations in women with BV (P = <0.001, 0.001, <0.001, 0.02 respectively). Among normal women we found that the membrane bound mucin MUC4 and the secreted MUC5AC were decreased in postmenopausal women (P = 0.02 and 0.07 respectively), while MUC7 (secreted) was decreased in women using levonorgestrel-containing IUDs (P = 0.02). The number of sialic acid binding sites was lower in the postmenopausal group (P = 0.04), but the number of high mannose binding sites, measured with Griffithsin, was not significantly different among the 6 hormonal groups. The glycosidase levels in the cervical-vaginal mucus were rather low in the groups, with exception of α-glucosidase activity

  11. The Effects of Hormones and Vaginal Microflora on the Glycome of the Female Genital Tract: Cervical-Vaginal Fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J Moncla

    Full Text Available In this study, we characterized the glycome of cervical-vaginal fluid, collected with a Catamenial cup. We quantified: glycosidase levels; sialic acid and high mannose specific lectin binding; mucins, MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC7; and albumin in the samples collected. These data were analyzed in the context of hormonal status (day of menstrual cycle, hormonal contraception use and role, if any, of the type of the vaginal microflora present. When the Nugent score was used to stratify the subjects by microflora as normal, intermediate, or bacterial vaginosis, several important differences were observed. The activities of four of six glycosidases in the samples from women with bacterial vaginosis were significantly increased when compared to normal or intermediate women: sialidase, P = <0.001; α-galactosidase, P = 0.006; β-galactosidase, P = 0.005; α-glucosidase, P = 0.056. Sialic acid binding sites as measured by two lectins, Maackia amurensis and Sambucus nigra binding, were significantly lower in women with BV compared to women with normal and intermediate scores (P = <0.0001 and 0.008 respectively. High mannose binding sites, a measure of innate immunity were also significantly lower in women with BV (P = <0.001. Additionally, we observed significant increases in MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC7 concentrations in women with BV (P = <0.001, 0.001, <0.001, 0.02 respectively. Among normal women we found that the membrane bound mucin MUC4 and the secreted MUC5AC were decreased in postmenopausal women (P = 0.02 and 0.07 respectively, while MUC7 (secreted was decreased in women using levonorgestrel-containing IUDs (P = 0.02. The number of sialic acid binding sites was lower in the postmenopausal group (P = 0.04, but the number of high mannose binding sites, measured with Griffithsin, was not significantly different among the 6 hormonal groups. The glycosidase levels in the cervical-vaginal mucus were rather low in the groups, with exception of

  12. Biotransformation of Dioscorea nipponica by Rat Intestinal Microflora and Cardioprotective Effects of Diosgenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Fu Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the biotransformation of natural products by intestinal microflora is an important approach to understanding how and why some medicines—particularly natural medicines—work. In many cases, the active components are generated by metabolic activation. This is critical for drug research and development. As a means to explore the therapeutic mechanism of Dioscorea nipponica (DN, a medicinal plant used to treat myocardial ischemia (MI, metabolites generated by intestinal microflora from DN were identified, and the cardioprotective efficacy of these metabolites was evaluated. Our results demonstrate that diosgenin is the main metabolite produced by rat intestinal microflora from DN. Further, our results show that diosgenin protects the myocardium against ischemic insult through increasing enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels in vivo and by decreasing oxidative stress damage. These mechanisms explain the clinical efficacy of DN as an anti-MI drug.

  13. Characterisation of biodegradation capacities of environmental microflorae for diesel oil by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Sophie; Vendeuvre, Colombe; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Marchal, Rémy; Monot, Frédéric

    2006-12-01

    In contaminated soils, efficiency of natural attenuation or engineered bioremediation largely depends on biodegradation capacities of the local microflorae. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of various microflorae towards diesel oil were determined in laboratory conditions. Microflorae were collected from 9 contaminated and 10 uncontaminated soil samples and were compared to urban wastewater activated sludge. The recalcitrance of hydrocarbons in tests was characterised using both gas chromatography (GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC). The microflorae from contaminated soils were found to exhibit higher degradation capacities than those from uncontaminated soil and activated sludge. In cultures inoculated by contaminated-soil microflorae, 80% of diesel oil on an average was consumed over 4-week incubation compared to only 64% in uncontaminated soil and 60% in activated sludge cultures. As shown by GC, n-alkanes of diesel oil were totally utilised by each microflora but differentiated degradation extents were observed for cyclic and branched hydrocarbons. The enhanced degradation capacities of impacted-soil microflorae resulted probably from an adaptation to the hydrocarbon contaminants but a similar adaptation was noted in uncontaminated soils when conifer trees might have released natural hydrocarbons. GCxGC showed that a contaminated-soil microflora removed all aromatics and all branched alkanes containing less than C(15). The most recalcitrant compounds were the branched and cyclic alkanes with 15-23 atoms of carbon.

  14. Microflora of conjunctiva in children and its sensitivity and resistance to antibacterial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Vorontsova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Investigation of microflora of conjunctiva and its resistance to antibacterial drugs in healthy children and patients with various inflammatory eye diseases.Methods: We examined 402 children (421 eyes in the age from 1 month till 17 years: 62 healthy children (70 eyes and 340 pa- tients with different inflammatory diseases of anterior segment of eye (351 eyes. the smear was done in all children for plating and definition of sensitivity of microflora to antibacterial drugs by method of diffusion to agar.Results: the plating was positive even in 72.9% of healthy children who entered the hospital for the planned surgery. Most often we revealed Staphylococcus epidermidis (44.3%, Staphylococcus aureus (12.8%, Streptococcus faecalis (5.7% and Enterobacter (2.9%. In children with inflammatory diseases Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus (62.6% were found fre- quently. the analysis of data showed high level of resistance of all microflora to aminoglycosides (neomycin 37.8% and tobramycin 32.7% and chloramphenicol — 37.1%. the lowest resistance of all microflora was registered to levofloxacin (11.1% and ciprofloxacin (10.5%. In gram-negative microflora we revealed the maximal sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, in gram-positive — to levofloxacin.We detected the maximal resistance of microflora to ampicillin (66.1%, and minimal — to cephalosporines (4.5% among the antibiotics of systemic application.Conclusion: the findings allow us to recommend drops containing levofloxacin (Signicef for clinical practice in pediatric ophthalmology. 

  15. Microflora of conjunctiva in children and its sensitivity and resistance to antibacterial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Vorontsova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Investigation of microflora of conjunctiva and its resistance to antibacterial drugs in healthy children and patients with various inflammatory eye diseases.Methods: We examined 402 children (421 eyes in the age from 1 month till 17 years: 62 healthy children (70 eyes and 340 pa- tients with different inflammatory diseases of anterior segment of eye (351 eyes. the smear was done in all children for plating and definition of sensitivity of microflora to antibacterial drugs by method of diffusion to agar.Results: the plating was positive even in 72.9% of healthy children who entered the hospital for the planned surgery. Most often we revealed Staphylococcus epidermidis (44.3%, Staphylococcus aureus (12.8%, Streptococcus faecalis (5.7% and Enterobacter (2.9%. In children with inflammatory diseases Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus (62.6% were found fre- quently. the analysis of data showed high level of resistance of all microflora to aminoglycosides (neomycin 37.8% and tobramycin 32.7% and chloramphenicol — 37.1%. the lowest resistance of all microflora was registered to levofloxacin (11.1% and ciprofloxacin (10.5%. In gram-negative microflora we revealed the maximal sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, in gram-positive — to levofloxacin.We detected the maximal resistance of microflora to ampicillin (66.1%, and minimal — to cephalosporines (4.5% among the antibiotics of systemic application.Conclusion: the findings allow us to recommend drops containing levofloxacin (Signicef for clinical practice in pediatric ophthalmology. 

  16. Microflora diversity on the phyloplane of wild Okra ( Corchorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial genera isolated included; Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Serratia and Proteus. Rhodotorula, Mucor, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Helminthosporium were the genera of fungi isolated. Further studies could help to elucidate major players in wild okra phylloplane ecology. Keywords: Wild Okra ...

  17. The Middle Jurassic microflora from El Maghara N° 4 borehole, Northern Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Sayed Abdel

    The coal bearing formation in El Maghara area, northern Sinai, yielded abundant, diverse and generally well preserved spores, pollen and marine microflora. The palynological analysis of the fine clastic sediments in this formation yielded (71) species related to (44) genera. Three different palynological assemblage zones can be distinguished. The sediments which contain lower and the upper assemblage zones bearing the coal seems, were deposited in non-marine (swamp) environment. In the middle assemblage zone few marine microflora can be identified, indicating a coastal near shore marine environment. Compared with other palynologic data obtained from Egypt and other countries, the three described assemblage zones belong to Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) age.

  18. Influence of hydrocolloidal silver nanoparticles on gastrointestinal microflora and morphology of enterocytes of quails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Binek, Marian; Grodzik, Marta

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of hydrocolloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-nano) on microbial profile of caecum and morphology of enterocytes in duodenum of Japanese quail, as a model animal for poultry. Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) (10 d old) were randomly...... killed and samples of duodenum and caeca microflora were collected. This initial investigation demonstrated that silver nanoparticles did not influence emphatically microflora of quail caecum; however, water containing 25 mg/kg of Ag-nano significantly increased the population of lactic acid bacteria...

  19. Postirradiational changes in hematologic parameters and in intestinal microflora in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, K.; Striskova, K.; Dvorak, P.

    2007-01-01

    A decrease in the defense capacity of the body combined with penetration of intestinal microorganisms through the intestinal wall causes severe, often lethal complications of the acute radiation disease. We followed the clinical symptoms, the changes of hematological parameters and the changes of the composition of intestinal microflora in laboratory rats irradiated by a single, whole-body dose of 15 Gy gamma-rays. An increase of the common microflora in duodenum, liver and in oral cave and leucopenia in peripheral blood have been observe in all time intervals followed. The changes in red blood cells were characterized by anemia, manifesting clinically in hemorrhages and bloody diarrhea. (authors)

  20. Effects of a Campylobacter jejuni infection on the development of the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, C H; Bjerrum, L; Finster, K; Pedersen, K

    2006-04-01

    The effect of a Campylobacter jejuni colonization on the development of the microflora of the cecum and the ileum of broiler chickens was studied using molecular methods. The infection did affect the development and complexity of the microbial communities of the ceca, but we found no permanent effect of a C. jejuni infection on the ileal microflora of the broilers. In addition, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles generated from cecal and ileal contents revealed several DGGE bands that were present in the control chickens, but not in the chickens colonized with C. jejuni. Some of these DGGE bands could be affiliated with Lactobacillus reuteri, Clostridium perfringens, and the genus Klebsiella.

  1. Functional Comparison for Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal and Fecal Microflora Enzyme Activities between Low Molecular Weight Chitosan and Chitosan Oligosaccharide in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chen-Yuan; Feng, Shih-An; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2017-07-24

    The present study investigated and compared the regulatory effects on the lipid-related metabolism and intestinal disaccharidase/fecal bacterial enzyme activities between low molecular weight chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharide in high-fat-diet-fed rats. Diet supplementation of low molecular weight chitosan showed greater efficiency than chitosan oligosaccharide in suppressing the increased weights in body and in liver and adipose tissues of high-fat-diet-fed rats. Supplementation of low molecular weight chitosan also showed a greater improvement than chitosan oligosaccharide in imbalance of plasma, hepatic, and fecal lipid profiles, and intestinal disaccharidase activities in high-fat-diet-fed rats. Moreover, both low molecular weight chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharide significantly decreased the fecal microflora mucinase and β-glucuronidase activities in high-fat-diet-fed rats. These results suggest that low molecular weight chitosan exerts a greater positive improvement than chitosan oligosaccharide in lipid metabolism and intestinal disaccharidase activity in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats.

  2. Mucosal vaccines: recent progress in understanding the natural barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Olga; Lebre, Filipa; Bento, Dulce; Borchard, Gerrit; Junginger, Hans E

    2010-02-01

    It has long been known that protection against pathogens invading the organism via mucosal surfaces correlates better with the presence of specific antibodies in local secretions than with serum antibodies. The most effective way to induce mucosal immunity is to administer antigens directly to the mucosal surface. The development of vaccines for mucosal application requires antigen delivery systems and immunopotentiators that efficiently facilitate the presentation of the antigen to the mucosal immune system. This review provides an overview of the events within mucosal tissues that lead to protective mucosal immune responses. The understanding of those biological mechanisms, together with knowledge of the technology of vaccines and adjuvants, provides guidance on important technical aspects of mucosal vaccine design. Not being exhaustive, this review also provides information related to modern adjuvants, including polymeric delivery systems and immunopotentiators.

  3. Microflora inside closed modules with plant growth facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyablova, Natalya V.; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Shanturin, Nikolai; Deshevaya, Elena; Smolyanina, Svetlana O.

    Currently, plant growth facility (PGF) is included in the LSS in many scenarios of Martian expedition. A number of investigators assume growing of crops can accelerate microflora re-production in closed ecological system. To estimate experimentally the change of density of microbiological community in the isolated module, Chinese cabbage Brassica hinensis L., cv. Vesnyanka, has been grown in the closed climatic chambers in volume 0.07 m3, 3 m3 and 250 m3 under continuous illumination in the range of values of temperature and relative humidity of air 23 -270 and 30 -60%, respectively. There were no differences in growth and develop-ment of plants grown during 30 days on the test-beds in the laboratory room (control) and in the closed chamber by 0.07 m3 volume (test). The microbiological analysis of root zone has revealed the presence of exclusively saprophytic species -the typical representatives of the soil microbiota. Then the plants were growing during 45 days in the prototype of the conveyor space PGF "Phytocycle LED" placed inside the chamber of 3 m3 volume. Every 3 days 50 -60 cm3 of liquid imitator of air condensate (IAC) from inhabited module had been injected to the chamber to simulate air pollution. The content of colony-forming units of the micromycetes in the air of the chamber, on the inner surfaces of the climate chamber, internal and external surfaces of the PGF and the leaves did not exceed the permissible values. When the PGF has been installed during 14 days inside the inhabited module with volume of 250 m3, the representatives of saprophytic and conditioned-pathogenic species of micromycetes (Trichethe-cium rozeum, Trichoderma sp., Fuzarrium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp.) have been found out exclusively on the open surfaces of artificial soil and water-saturated porous passage. The obtained data shows that PGF inside closed modules can assure microbiological safety when all wet surfaces are isolated from the gas environment.

  4. Immunology and probiotic impact of the newborn and young children intestinal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Stavropoulou, Elisabeth

    2011-12-01

    Human body has developed a holistic defence system, which mission is either to recognize and destroy the aggressive invaders or to evolve mechanisms permitting to minimize or restore the consequences of harmful actions. The host immune system keeps the capital role to preserve the microbial intestinal balance via the barrier effect. Specifically, pathogenic invaders such as, bacteria, parasites, viruses and other xenobiotic invaders are rejected out of the body via barriers formed by the skin, mucosa and intestinal flora. In case physical barriers are breached, the immune system with its many components comes into action in order to fence infection. The intestine itself is considered as an "active organ" due to its abundant bacterial flora and to its large metabolic activity. The variation among different species or even among different strains within a species reflects the complexity of the genetic polymorphism which regulates the immune system functions. Additionally factors such as, gender, particular habits, smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, religion, age, gender, precedent infections and vaccinations must be involved. Hormonal profile and stress seems to be associated to the integrity microbiota and inducing immune system alterations. Which bacterial species are needed for inducing a proper barrier effect is not known, but it is generally accepted that this barrier function can be strongly supported by providing benefic alimentary supplements called functional foods. In this vein it is stressed the fact that early intestinal colonization with organisms such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria and possibly subsequent protection from many different types of diseases. Moreover, this benefic microflora dominated but Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli support the concept of their ability to modify the gut microbiota by reducing the risk of cancer following their capacity to decrease β-glucoronidase and carcinogen levels. Because of their beneficial roles in the

  5. Diversity and effectiveness of tropical mangrove soil microflora on the degradation of polythene carry bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shristi Kumar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and load of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi associated with the mangrove soil from Suva, Fiji Islands, was determined by using the plate count method. The ability of the bacterial isolates to produce various hydrolytic enzymes such as amylase, gelatinase and lipase were determined using the plate assay. The heterotrophic bacterial load was considerably higher than the fungal load. There was a predominance of the gram positive genus, Bacillus. Other genera encountered included Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Listeria and Vibrio. Their effectiveness on the degradation of commercial polythene carry bags made of high density polyethylene (HDPE and low density polyethylene (LDPE was studied over a period of eight weeks in the laboratory. Biodegradation was measured in terms of mean weight loss, which was nearly 5 % after a period of eight weeks. There was a significant increase in the bacterial load of the soil attached to class 2 (HDPE polythene. After eight weeks of submergence in mangrove soil, soil attached to class 1 and class 3 polythene mostly had Bacillus (Staphylococcus predominated in class 2 polythene. While most of the isolates were capable of producing hydrolytic enzymes such as amylase and gelatinase, lipolytic activity was low. Class 2 HDPE suffered the greatest biodegradation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (3-4: 777-786. Epub 2007 December, 28.Se determinó la diversidad y la carga de bacterias heterotróficas, así como los hongos asociados al suelo del manglar de Suva, Islas Fiji, utilizando el método de conteo de placas, usado también para medir la capacidad de bacterias aisladas para producir enzimas hidrolíticas como amilasa, gelatinasa y lipasa. La carga bacteriana heterotrófica resultó ser considerablemente más alta que la carga funguicida. Hubo predominancia de bacterias "Gram-positivas" del género de Bacillus. Otros géneros encontrados fueron Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Listeria y Vibrio. La eficacia de esta

  6. Effectiveness of two-sided UV-C treatments in inhibiting natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, Ana; McEvoy, James L; Luo, Yaguang; Artes, Francisco; Wang, Chien Y

    2006-05-01

    The use of UV-C radiation treatments to inhibit the microbial growth and extend the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce was investigated. Initially, UV-C resistance of 20 bacterial strains from different genera often associated with fresh produce (Enterobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Leuconostoc, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnela, Salmonella, Serratia and Yersinia) were tested in vitro. Most of the bacterial strains were inhibited with the minimum dose (30 J m(-2)). Erwinia carotovora, Leuconostoc carnosum, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia aldovae were the most resistant strains requiring a UV-C dose of 85 J m(-2) to completely inhibit growth. An in vivo study consisted of treating minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce (Lactuca sativa) with UV-C at three radiation doses (1.18, 2.37 and 7.11 kJ m(-2)) on each side of the leaves and storing the product under passive MAP conditions at 5 degrees C for up to 10 days. The gas composition inside packages varied significantly among the treatments, with CO2 concentrations positively and O2 concentrations negatively correlating with the radiation dose. All the radiation doses were effective in reducing the natural microflora of the product, although the highest doses showed the greatest microbial inhibitions. Taking into account the microbial limit set by Spanish legislation [Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE), 2001. Normas de higiene para la elaboración, distribución y comercio de comidas preparadas, Madrid, Spain, Real Decreto 3484/2000, pp. 1435-1441], all UV-C treatments extended the shelf-life of the product. However, the 7.11 kJ m(-2) dose induced tissue softening and browning after 7 days of storage at 5 degrees C. Therefore, the use of two sided UV-C radiation, at the proper dose, is effective in reducing the natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce.

  7. The mucosal firewalls against commensal intestinal microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Andrew J; Slack, Emma; Geuking, Markus B; McCoy, Kathy D

    2009-07-01

    Mammals coexist with an extremely dense microbiota in the lower intestine. Despite the constant challenge of small numbers of microbes penetrating the intestinal surface epithelium, it is very unusual for these organisms to cause disease. In this review article, we present the different mucosal firewalls that contain and allow mutualism with the intestinal microbiota.

  8. Management of mucositis in oral irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feber, T. [Cookridge Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    Mucositis significantly affects quality of life and tolerance of treatment in oral irradiation. Effective management of this complication is therefore very important. However, there is a scarcity of up-to-date oral care protocols, with most centres using ritualized regimens. The literature on oral rinses in radiation mucositis is at best inconclusive and at worst confusing. In this study, patients undergoing radical radiotherapy treatment (55-60 Gy in 4 weeks) to more than 50% of the oral cavity and oropharynx were randomized to a research based oral care protocol with either saline 0.9% or hydrogen peroxide 3.5 volumes (HP) as rinses. The results of this study show that, on average, the group receiving saline rinses appeared to do better on some outcomes than the group receiving HP. This suggests that frequent mechanical cleansing of the mouth may be more important than the antiseptic properties of a mouthwash. Antiseptic mouthwashes may be contra-indicated in radiation mucositis. In order to determine best practice in mucositis management, multicentre, multidisciplinary trials should be conducted. (Author).

  9. Management of mucositis in oral irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feber, T.

    1996-01-01

    Mucositis significantly affects quality of life and tolerance of treatment in oral irradiation. Effective management of this complication is therefore very important. However, there is a scarcity of up-to-date oral care protocols, with most centres using ritualized regimens. The literature on oral rinses in radiation mucositis is at best inconclusive and at worst confusing. In this study, patients undergoing radical radiotherapy treatment (55-60 Gy in 4 weeks) to more than 50% of the oral cavity and oropharynx were randomized to a research based oral care protocol with either saline 0.9% or hydrogen peroxide 3.5 volumes (HP) as rinses. The results of this study show that, on average, the group receiving saline rinses appeared to do better on some outcomes than the group receiving HP. This suggests that frequent mechanical cleansing of the mouth may be more important than the antiseptic properties of a mouthwash. Antiseptic mouthwashes may be contra-indicated in radiation mucositis. In order to determine best practice in mucositis management, multicentre, multidisciplinary trials should be conducted. (Author)

  10. Nutrition and Gut Mucositis in Pediatric Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Peter Erik Lotko

    Childhood malignancies are the second most common cause of death in children. A major limitation of current therapies is the high toxicity. Alimentary tract toxicity (mucositis) is associated with increased risk of complication such as infections that may lead to death. In relation to HSCT, mucos...

  11. Helicobacter bilis Infection Alters Mucosal Bacteria and Modulates Colitis Development in Defined Microbiota Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherly, Todd; Mosher, Curtis; Wang, Chong; Hostetter, Jesse; Proctor, Alexandra; Brand, Meghan W; Phillips, Gregory J; Wannemuehler, Michael; Jergens, Albert E

    2016-11-01

    Helicobacter bilis infection of C3H/HeN mice harboring the altered Schaedler flora (ASF) triggers progressive immune responsiveness and the development of colitis. We sought to investigate temporal alterations in community structure of a defined (ASF-colonized) microbiota in normal and inflamed murine intestines and to correlate microbiota changes to histopathologic lesions. The colonic mucosal microbiota of healthy mice and ASF mice colonized with H. bilis for 3, 6, or 12 weeks were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA genes of total bacteria, group-specific organisms, and individual ASF bacterial species. Microbial profiling of ASF and H. bilis abundance was performed on cecal contents. Helicobacter bilis-colonized mice developed colitis associated with temporal changes in composition and spatial distribution of the mucosal microbiota. The number of total bacteria, ASF519, and helicobacter-positive bacteria were increased (P attachment, or by invasion, and this interaction is differentially expressed over time.

  12. Oral mucosal lesions, microbial changes, and taste disturbances induced by adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Mouridsen, Henning T.; Bergmann, Olav Jonas

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine oral mucosal lesions, microbial changes, and taste disturbances induced by adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) in breast cancer patients during and 1 year after treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-five consecutive breast cancer patients, eligible for adjuvant CT...... with cyclophosphamide, epirubicin or methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil were followed before, during, 6 months and 1 year after CT and were compared to a control group of 31 breast cancer patients not receiving adjuvant CT. RESULTS: During CT, oral mucosal lesions developed including erythema (n = 10, 22%) and ulceration...... (n = 7, 16%). Five patients (11%) were diagnosed with oral candidosis. Scores of dental bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation increased during CT and the oral microbial composition changed towards a more acidophilic flora. Taste disturbances were experienced by 84% (n = 38) of the patients...

  13. Environmental and mucosal microbiota and their role in childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birzele, L T; Depner, M; Ege, M J; Engel, M; Kublik, S; Bernau, C; Loss, G J; Genuneit, J; Horak, E; Schloter, M; Braun-Fahrländer, C; Danielewicz, H; Heederik, D; von Mutius, E; Legatzki, A

    2017-01-01

    High microbial diversity in the environment has been associated with lower asthma risk, particularly in children exposed to farming. It remains unclear whether this effect operates through an altered microbiome of the mucosal surfaces of the airways. DNA from mattress dust and nasal samples of 86 school age children was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. Based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs), bacterial diversity and composition were related to farm exposure and asthma status. Farm exposure was positively associated with bacterial diversity in mattress dust samples as determined by richness (P = 8.1 × 10 -6 ) and Shannon index (P = 1.3 × 10 -5 ). Despite considerable agreement of richness between mattress and nasal samples, the association of richness with farming in nasal samples was restricted to a high gradient of farm exposure, that is, exposure to cows and straw vs no exposure at all. In mattress dust, the genera Clostridium, Facklamia, an unclassified genus within the family of Ruminococcaceae, and six OTUs were positively associated with farming. Asthma was inversely associated with richness [aOR = 0.48 (0.22-1.02)] and Shannon index [aOR = 0.41 (0.21-0.83)] in mattress dust and to a lower extent in nasal samples [richness aOR 0.63 = (0.38-1.06), Shannon index aOR = 0.66 (0.39-1.12)]. The stronger inverse association of asthma with bacterial diversity in mattress dust as compared to nasal samples suggests microbial involvement beyond mere colonization of the upper airways. Whether inhalation of metabolites of environmental bacteria contributes to this phenomenon should be the focus of future research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The postnatal development of the mucosal immune system and mucosal tolerance in domestic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey , Mick; Haverson , Karin

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The mucosal immune system is exposed to a range of antigens associated with pathogens, to which it must mount active immune responses. However, it is also exposed to a large number of harmless antigens associated with food and with commensal microbial flora, to which expression of active, inflammatory immune responses to these antigens is undesirable. The mucosal immune system must contain machinery capable of evaluating the antigens to which it is exposed and mounting...

  15. External Microflora of a Marine Wood-Boring Isopod

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, Paul J.; Mitchell, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    Bacteria associated with the marine wood-boring isopod Limnoria lignorum were enumerated by acridine orange epifluorescence microscopy and by plate counts on several media; the plate-viable bacteria were isolated and identified. Similar procedures were followed to enumerate and identify bacteria associated with the wood substrate from which the isopods were collected and with the surrounding water from the isopod habitat. Approximately 1.4 × 107 bacterial cells were associated with each indiv...

  16. Composting oily sludges: Characterizing microflora using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, A.; Quednau, M.; Ahrne, S.

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory-scale composts in which oily sludge was composted under mesophilic conditions with amendments such as peat, bark, and fresh or decomposed horse manure, were studied with respect to basic parameters such as oil degradation, respirometry, and bacterial numbers. Further, an attempt was made to characterize a part of the bacterial flora using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The compost based on decomposed horse manure showed the greatest reduction of oil (85%). Comparison with a killed control indicated that microbial degradation actually had occurred. However, a substantial part of the oil was stabilized rather than totally broken down. Volatiles, on the contrary, accounted for a rather small percentage (5%) of the observed reduction. RAPD indicated that a selection had taken place and that the dominating microbial flora during the active degradation of oil were not the same as the ones dominating the different basic materials. The stabilized compost, on the other hand, had bacterial flora with similarities to the ones found in peat and bark

  17. Systems Modeling of Interactions between Mucosal Immunity and the Gut Microbiome during Clostridium difficile Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Leber

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infections are associated with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and result in an exuberant inflammatory response, leading to nosocomial diarrhea, colitis and even death. To better understand the dynamics of mucosal immunity during C. difficile infection from initiation through expansion to resolution, we built a computational model of the mucosal immune response to the bacterium. The model was calibrated using data from a mouse model of C. difficile infection. The model demonstrates a crucial role of T helper 17 (Th17 effector responses in the colonic lamina propria and luminal commensal bacteria populations in the clearance of C. difficile and colonic pathology, whereas regulatory T (Treg cells responses are associated with the recovery phase. In addition, the production of anti-microbial peptides by inflamed epithelial cells and activated neutrophils in response to C. difficile infection inhibit the re-growth of beneficial commensal bacterial species. Computational simulations suggest that the removal of neutrophil and epithelial cell derived anti-microbial inhibitions, separately and together, on commensal bacterial regrowth promote recovery and minimize colonic inflammatory pathology. Simulation results predict a decrease in colonic inflammatory markers, such as neutrophilic influx and Th17 cells in the colonic lamina propria, and length of infection with accelerated commensal bacteria re-growth through altered anti-microbial inhibition. Computational modeling provides novel insights on the therapeutic value of repopulating the colonic microbiome and inducing regulatory mucosal immune responses during C. difficile infection. Thus, modeling mucosal immunity-gut microbiota interactions has the potential to guide the development of targeted fecal transplantation therapies in the context of precision medicine interventions.

  18. The Assessment of Oral Microflora Exposed to 3% Ethanolic Extract of Brazilian Green Propolis Preparation Used for Hygiene Maintenance following Minor Oral Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Morawiec

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a topically administered hygienic preparation containing a 3% ethanolic extract of Brazilian green propolis (EEP-B on oral microflora spectrum changes in a group of patients who underwent common oral surgery procedures. Two gel samples were compared: the tested gel containing an active ingredient, that is, a 3% EEP-B (gel GA, and a placebo as the negative control (gel GC. The collection of microbiological material included 14 patients requiring surgical extraction of wisdom molars and short endosseous implant installation. Clinical examinations were carried out as follow-up, that is, baseline and after 5-6 weeks’ time. During the first and subsequent assessment, swabs were taken from the mucosal surface. The number of microorganism species was found to have increased following the application of GC gel over the period of 5-6 weeks. This mainly affected Gram-positive rods and bacilli as well as Gram-negative rods. Application of the GA gel enriched with 3% EEP-B caused a profound reduction in the amount of Neisseria spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. strains. Elimination of seven species of microorganisms was observed: Streptococcus acidominimus, Streptococcus oralis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Veillonella parvula, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

  19. Treatment modalities of oral mucositis after radiation of head and neck cancers; Prise en charge des mucites apres radiotherapie des cancers des voies aerodigestives superieures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapeyre, M.; Charra-Brunaud, C.; Kaminsky, M.C.; Geoffrois, L.; Dolivet, G.; Pourel, N.; Marchal, C.; Bey, P.; Maire, F.; Simon, M. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Toussaint, B. [Hopital Central, Service de Chirurgie ORL, 54 - Nancy (France)

    2001-11-01

    Acute mucositis is common after radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. During the past 3 decades, there was a gradual evolution in the treatment modalities for locally advanced carcinomas (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy). These new strategies are accompanied by an increase in early mucosal reactions. At the present time, there is no widely accepted prophylaxis or effective treatment. Many traditional remedies or new agents seem ineffective (Sucralfate, Chlorhexidine, GM-CSF, Silver nitrate, Prostaglandin, anti-oxidants, Benzydamine hydrochloride), while others seem promising (Povidone-iodine, nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges and anti-fungal, local GM-CSF, Glutamide, Low-energy laser, corticosteroids). Radioprotectors are controversial and should be only used in experimental protocols and not in routine practice. However, some recommendations can be proposed: general prevention and global care before cancer therapy should be systematic (oral hygiene, dental and periodontal treatment, advice to avoid the use of tobacco and alcohol); frequent oral rinsing with a bland mouthwash (Povidone-iodine or others) should be used at the start of treatment because there are significant modifications of the oral microflora increased by a disturbed salivary flow; these mouthwashes could be associated with nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges or anti-fungal topical (bicarbonates, Amphotericine B); Systematic percutaneous fluoroscopic gastrostomy should be decided before any aggressive treatments (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy); pain should be controlled; finally, the radiation technique should be optimized (mucosal sparing block, conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy). (authors)

  20. Comparison of subcutaneous versus intranasal immunization of male koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) for induction of mucosal and systemic immunity against Chlamydia pecorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney A; Timms, Peter; Andrew, Dean; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2015-02-11

    Chlamydia pecorum infections are debilitating in the koala, contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality, with current antibiotic treatments having minimal success and adversely affecting gut microflora. This, combined with the sometimes-asymptomatic nature of the infection, suggests that an efficacious anti-chlamydial vaccine is required to control chlamydial infections in the koala. To date vaccination studies have focused primarily on female koalas, however, given the physiological differences between male and female reproductive tracts, we tested the efficacy of a vaccine in 12 captive male koalas. We evaluated the potential of both subcutaneous and intranasal vaccine delivery to elicit mucosal immunity in male koalas. Our results showed that both intranasal and subcutaneous delivery of a vaccine consisting of C. pecorum major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and the adjuvant immunostimulating complex (ISC) induced significant immune responses in male koalas. Subcutaneous immunization elicited stronger cell-mediated responses in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), and greater plasma antibody levels whereas the intranasal immunization elicited stronger humoral responses in urogenital tract (UGT) secretions. This is the first time a Chlamydia vaccine has been tested in the male koala and the first assessment of a mucosal vaccination route in this species. Our results suggest that vaccination of male koalas can elicit mucosal immunity and could contribute to the long-term survivability of wild populations of the koala. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Suppression of Listeria monocytogenes by the Native Micro-Flora in Teewurst Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michline Brice

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern consumers are interested in the use of non-chemical methods to control pathogens when heat sterilization is not an option. Such is the case with teewurst sausage, a raw spreadable sausage and a popular German commodity. Although Listeria was not found in teewurst, the optimal microbial growing conditions of teewurst coupled with the ubiquity of L. monocytogenes in nature, makes the possibility of contamination of products very possible. This pilot study was conducted to examine teewurst’s native micro-flora’s ability to suppress the outgrowth of L. monocytogenes at 10 °C using standard plate counts and PCR-DGGE. Traditional plating methods showed L. monocytogenes growth significantly decreased when in competition with the teewurst’s native micro-flora (p < 0.05. The native micro-flora of the teewurst suppressed the overall growth of L. monocytogenes by an average of two logs, under these conditions. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE amplicons with unique banding patterns were extracted from DGGE gel for identification. Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactobacillus curvatus were identified as a part of the teewurst’s native micro-flora. Although the native micro-flora did not decrease L. monocytogenes to below limits of detection, it was enough of a decrease to warrant further investigation.

  2. Changes in oral microflora after full-mouth tooth extraction : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Yvonne C M; Winkel, Edwin G; Raangs, Gerwin C; van der Vusse, Marleen L; Rossen, John W A; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of full-mouth tooth extraction on the oral microflora, with emphasis on the presence and load of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult patients (n = 30), with moderate to advanced

  3. Suppression of Listeria monocytogenes by the Native Micro-Flora in Teewurst Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin-Watson, Clytrice; Grant, Ar'Quette; Brice, Michline

    2013-10-21

    Modern consumers are interested in the use of non-chemical methods to control pathogens when heat sterilization is not an option. Such is the case with teewurst sausage, a raw spreadable sausage and a popular German commodity. Although Listeria was not found in teewurst, the optimal microbial growing conditions of teewurst coupled with the ubiquity of L. monocytogenes in nature, makes the possibility of contamination of products very possible. This pilot study was conducted to examine teewurst's native micro-flora's ability to suppress the outgrowth of L. monocytogenes at 10 °C using standard plate counts and PCR-DGGE. Traditional plating methods showed L. monocytogenes growth significantly decreased when in competition with the teewurst's native micro-flora ( p flora of the teewurst suppressed the overall growth of L. monocytogenes by an average of two logs, under these conditions. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) amplicons with unique banding patterns were extracted from DGGE gel for identification. Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactobacillus curvatus were identified as a part of the teewurst's native micro-flora. Although the native micro-flora did not decrease L. monocytogenes to below limits of detection, it was enough of a decrease to warrant further investigation.

  4. Benzene bioremediation using cow dung microflora in two phase partitioning bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dipty [Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai-400 098 (India); Fulekar, M.H., E-mail: mhfulekar@yahoo.com [Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai-400 098 (India)

    2010-03-15

    Bioremediation of benzene has been carried out using cow dung microflora in a bioreactor. The bioremediation of benzene under the influence of cow dung microflora was found to be 100% and 67.5%, at initial concentrations of 100 mg/l and 250 mg/l within 72 h and 168 h respectively; where as at higher concentration (500 mg/l), benzene was found to be inhibitory. Hence the two phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) has been designed and developed to carryout biodegradation at higher concentration. In TPPB 5000 mg/l benzene was biodegraded up to 50.17% over a period of 168 h. Further the Pseudomonas putida MHF 7109 was isolated from cow dung microflora as potential benzene degrader and its ability to degrade benzene at various concentrations was evaluated. The data indicates 100%, 81% and 65% degradation at the concentrations of 50 mg/l, 100 mg/l, 250 mg/l within the time period of 24 h, 96 h and 168 h respectively. The GC-MS data also shows the presence of catechol and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, which confirms the established pathway of benzene biodegradation. The present research proves the potential of cow dung microflora as a source of biomass for benzene biodegradation in TPPB.

  5. Effect of low-dose (1 kGy) gamma radiation and selected phosphates on the microflora of vacuum-packaged ground pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehioba, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of low-dose (1 kGy) gamma radiation and selected phosphates on the microbiology of refrigerated, vacuum-packaged ground pork were studied. Low-dose gamma radiation reduced the numbers of naturally occurring mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and anaerobes. The effect of low-dose radiation on the populations of lactic acid bacteria was minimal. On storage of the irradiated vacuum-packaged ground pork at 5 0 C, there was a partial bacterial recovery, suggesting sublethal bacterial injury due to irradiation. When 10 7 CFU/g of meat is taken to be the level beyond which the meat would be considered spoiled, uninoculated, vacuum-packaged ground pork treated with 1 kGy (100 krad) of gamma radiation had 3.5 more days of shelf-life in terms of psychrotrophic total counts. In relation to anaerobic bacterial numbers, meat shelf-life was extended 2.5 days, while the shelf-life of meat was extended 1 day in terms of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Irradiation prolonged shelf-life in inoculated (10 5 CFU/g) meat for 1.0-1.5 days. Addition of 0.4% sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) contributed 2 additional days to inoculated, irradiated vacuum-packaged ground pork shelf-life. However, SAPP had no added effect on naturally occurring microflora. Irradiation greatly decreased the numbers of gram-negative microorganisms, resulting in predominance of the gram-positive, nonsporeforming Lactobacillus and coryneform bacteria

  6. Bacterial Colonization of Cod (Gadus morhua L.) and Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) Eggs in Marine Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Geir Høvik; Olafsen, Jan A.

    1989-01-01

    Aquaculture has brought about increased interest in mass production of marine fish larvae. Problems such as poor egg quality and mass mortality of fish larvae have been prevalent. The intensive incubation techniques that often result in bacterial overgrowth on fish eggs could affect the commensal relationship between the indigenous microflora and opportunistic pathogens and subsequently hamper egg development, hatching, larval health, and ongrowth. Little information about the adherent microf...

  7. Bacterial prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bradley C; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2016-02-01

    The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.

  8. Influence of Biopreparations on the Bacterial Community of Oily Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biktasheva, L. R.; Galitskaya, P. Yu; Selivanovskaya, S. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Oil pollution is reported to be one the most serious environmental problems nowadays. Therefore, methods of remediation of oily polluted soils and oily wastes are of great importance. Bioremediation being a perspective method of sanitation of oil pollutions, includes biostimulation of the polluted sites’ indigenous microflora, and in some cases additional introduction of active strains able to decompose hydrocarbon. The efficacy of introducing such biopreparations depends on the interactions between the introduced microbes and the indigenous ones. In this study, the influence of bacterial consortium (Rhodococcus jialingiae, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila and Pseudomonas gessardii) introduction on the bioremediation of an oily waste sampled from a refinery situated in the Mari El region (Russia) was estimated. Single and multiple inoculations of the consortium in addition to moistening and aeration were compared with a control sample, which included only aeration and moistening of the waste. It was shown, that two of the three introduced strains (Rh. jialingiae and Ps.gessardii) gene copy numbers were higher in the inoculated variants than in the control sample and with their initial counts, which meant that these strains survived and included into the bacterial community of the wastes. At the same time, bacterial counts were significantly lower, and the physiological profile of waste microflora slightly altered in the inoculated remediation variants as compared with the control sample. Interestingly, no difference in the degradation rates of hydrocarbons was revealed in the inoculated remediation variants and the control sample.

  9. Microflora of hydrobionts digestive tract in Kaunas water storage reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyvokiene, J.; Mickiene, L.; Mileriene, E.

    1996-01-01

    Microbiological and ichthiological investigations carried out in 1990 and 1992 showed the variability of bacterial cenoses in the digestive tract of hydrobionts before and after setting in motion Kruonis hydro pumped storage. The studies also showed that microorganisms of the digestive tract of the hydrobionts investigated were involved in the degradation of nutritional substrates and could serve as indicators of an anthropogenic effect. Before setting in motion the hydro pumped storage hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (HDB) were detected in the digestive tract of the freshwater shrimps, opossum shrimps, sticklebacks, zebra mussels and roaches. The greatest number of HDB was found in the digestive tract of the roach while in perches they were not detected. However after setting in motion the hydro pumped storage , high numbers of HDB were determined in the digestive tracts of all the hydrobionts investigated. It has been shown that the function of bacterial digestion is conditioned not only by the nutrition specificity of the macroorganism, but on its environment as well. With the aid of enzymes secreted by microorganisms organic compounds difficult to assimilate are transformed into valuable nutrients. Besides, the functional activity of microorganisms of the digestive tract of the hydrobionts indicate the intensity of the digestive process and physiological state of their organism. Therefore, when investigating fish stocks in hydrosystems one must evaluate inner resources of their organism, i.e. functional activities and the activity of digestive tract microorganisms, their quantitative and qualitative composition, relationship with the macroorganism, its growth rate and environment. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  10. Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Selected Bacterial Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszak, Dorota; Gałęcka, Mirosława; Cichy, Wojciech; Szachta, Patrycja

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was evaluation of qualitative and quantitative changes in bacterial ecosystem in 109 children with inflammatory bowel diseases. Stools obtained from patients were analysed for selected bacteria and concentration of faecal inflammatory markers (calprotectin, lactoferrin, M2-PK). The number of selected microorganisms depends on the level of clinical activity of disease and is correlated with faecal concentration of inflammatory markers. Differences in microflora disturbance, observed in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, may suggest different causes of development of both pathologies.

  11. Dermoscopic appearance of an amelanotic mucosal melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Andreas; Beck-Zoul, Ulrike; Held, Laura; Haase, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypomelanotic or amelanotic melanomas are challenging to identify, especially at mucosal sites. The dermoscopic clues to the diagnosis of mucosal melanomas have been reported to be structureless zones with the presence of blue, gray, or white colors. Case A female in her seventies noted a new lesion on the inside of her right labia that first appeared two months prior. Her past medical history was significant for rheumatoid arthritis requiring ongoing treatment with methotrexate for 20 years and adalimumab for 10 years. After no response to two weeks of local treatment for suspected herpes simplex infection, her gynecologist performed a skin biopsy. Based on the histopathological diagnosis of an amelanotic melanoma (Breslow thickness of 1.3 mm) the patient was referred to dermatology for further assessment. Polarized dermoscopy revealed a distinct asymmetric, sharply demarcated homogenous white papule (4 × 5 mm) as well as polymorphous vessels. Conclusion Dermoscopy may aid in the diagnosis of amelanotic mucosal melanomas. Our case revealed a structureless white area and polymorphous vessels. Additional clues to the diagnosis were the advanced age of the patient and the clinical presentation of a new lesion. PMID:27867742

  12. Bladder Mucosal Graft Vaginoplasty: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Cinzia; Vestri, Elettra; Tripi, Flavia; Giannone, Antonino Giulio; Cimador, Marcello; Cataliotti, Ferdinando

    2018-06-18

    Female vaginoplasty reconstruction, by choice, is usually performed with adjacent tissue. However in some clinical conditions such as high urogenital confluence sinus, cloacal malformation with extreme vaginal hypoplasia, local tissue may not be available. When vaginal replacement is performed in pediatric patients intestinal segments is preferred to non-operative procedures that require continuative dilations. However mucus production, malignant transformation risk and diversion colitis are important side effects. We present a nouvel technique for vaginoplasty in a female child presenting with an isolated urogenital sinus malformation without virilization. The patient at 20 months underwent vaginoplasty using tubularized bladder mucosal graft. Surgical procedure was devoid of complications. Pubertal development occurred at age of 15. She underwent regular follow up until 18 years of age. At this age we performed clinical evaluation: absence of vaginal introitus stenosis and good cosmetic results were observed. Then she underwent vaginoscopy with multiple biopsies. Pathology examination of the bladder mucosal graft evidenced a normal structure of the mucosa, with a stratified squamous epithelium. Different techniques are taken into account for vaginal reconstruction according to the severity and to the type of malformation. We describe the use of bladder mucosal graft with favorable results after long term follow-up. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Brain-gut axis and mucosal immunity: a perspective on mucosal psychoneuroimmunology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    The role of the brain-gut axis has traditionally been investigated in relation to intestinal motility, secretion, and vascularity. More recently, the concept of brain-gut dialogue has extended to the relationship between the nervous system and mucosal immune function. There is compelling evidence for a reciprocal or bi-directional communication between the immune system and the neuroendocrine system. This is mediated, in part, by shared ligands (chemical messengers) and receptors that are common to the immune and nervous systems. Although the concept of psychoneuroimmunology and neuroimmune cross-talk has been studied primarily in the context of the systemic immune system, it is likely to have special significance in the gut. The mucosal immune system is anatomically, functionally, and operationally distinct from the systemic immune system and is subject to independent regulatory signals. Furthermore, the intestinal mucosal immune system operates in a local milieu that depends on a dense innervation for its integrity, with juxtaposition of neuroendocrine cells and mucosal immune cells. An overview of evidence for the biologic plausibility of a brain-gut-immune axis is presented and its potential relevance to mucosal inflammatory disorders is discussed.

  14. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  15. Rectal mucosal electrosensitivity - what is being tested?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, A P; Kennedy, M L; Lubowski, D Z

    1996-01-01

    The results of rectal mucosal electrosensitivity (RME) testing have been used to support theories regarding the aetiology of both idiopathic constipation and bowel dysfunction following rectopexy. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of tests of RME. Sixty-eight patients, comprising three groups (group 1: 50 patients undergoing assessment in the Anorectal Physiology Unit, group 2: 10 patients with coloanal or ileoanal anastomosis, group 3: 8 patients with a stoma) underwent mucosal electrosensitivity testing, with the threshold stimulus required to elicit sensation being recorded. In addition the RME was measured in groups 1 and 2 when placing the electrode, mounted on a catheter with a central wire, against the anterior, posterior, right and left rectal or neorectal walls. To asses the influence on this test of loss of mucosal contact due to faeces, a further 8 cases with a normal rectum had RME performed with and without a layer of water soaked gauze around the electrode to stimulate faeces and prevent the electrode from making contact with the rectal mucosa. There was marked variance in the sensitivity of the different regions of rectal wall tested (P < 0.001). In group 1 patients the mean sensitivities were: central 36.6 mA, anterior 27.4 mA, posterior 37.9 mA, right 22.3 mA and left 25.6 mA. This circumferential variation suggests that the pelvic floor rather than rectal mucosa was being stimulated. All patients in group 2 had recordable sensitivities, and the mean sensitivity threshold was significantly higher than group 1 patients in the central (P = 0.03), right (P = 0.03) and left (P = 0.007) positions. In group 3 the sensitivity was greater within the stoma at the level of the abdominal wall muscle than intra-abdominally or subcutaneously, again suggesting an extra-colonic origin of the sensation. The sensitivity threshold was significantly greater with the electrode wrapped in gauze (P < 0.01), and loss of mucosal contact was not detected by

  16. Investigation of the early intestinal microflora in premature infants with/without necrotizing enterocolitis using two different methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Birgitte; Bodé, Susan; Skov, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The pathophysiology of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is multifactorial, and gastrointestinal bacteria are thought to play an important role. In this study, the role of microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of neonates with NEC was assessed by comparing cases with controls....

  17. Influencing mucosal homeostasis and immune responsiveness: the impact of nutrition and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van't Land, Belinda; Schijf, Marcel A; Martin, Rocio; Garssen, Johan; van Bleek, Grada M

    2011-09-01

    Both nutrition and orally ingested drugs pass the gastrointestinal mucosa and may affect the balance between the mucosal immune system and microbial community herein, i.e. affecting composition of the microbial community as well as the status of local immune system that controls microbial composition and maintains mucosal integrity. Numerous ways are known by which the microbial community stimulates mammalian host's immune system and vice versa. The communication between microbiota and immune system is principally mediated by interaction of bacterial components with pattern recognition receptors expressed by intestinal epithelium and various local antigen-presenting cells, resulting in activation or modulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Current review describes some of the factors influencing development and maintenance of a proper mucosal/immune balance, with special attention to Toll like receptor signaling and regulatory T cell development. It further describes examples (antibiotic use, HIV and asthma will be discussed) showing that disruption of the balance can be linked to immune function failure. The therapeutic potential of nutritional pharmacology herein is the main focus of discussion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A mouse model of otitis media identifies HB-EGF as a mediator of inflammation-induced mucosal proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keigo Suzukawa

    Full Text Available Otitis media is one of the most common pediatric infections. While it is usually treated without difficulty, up to 20% of children may progress to long-term complications that include hearing loss, impaired speech and language development, academic underachievement, and irreversible disease. Hyperplasia of middle ear mucosa contributes to the sequelae of acute otitis media and is of important clinical significance. Understanding the role of growth factors in the mediation of mucosal hyperplasia could lead to the development of new therapeutic interventions for this disease and its sequelae.From a whole genome gene array analysis of mRNA expression during acute otitis media, we identified growth factors with expression kinetics temporally related to hyperplasia. We then tested these factors for their ability to stimulate mucosal epithelial growth in vitro, and determined protein levels and histological distribution in vivo for active factors.From the gene array, we identified seven candidate growth factors with upregulation of mRNA expression kinetics related to mucosal hyperplasia. Of the seven, only HB-EGF (heparin-binding-epidermal growth factor induced significant mucosal epithelial hyperplasia in vitro. Subsequent quantification of HB-EGF protein expression in vivo via Western blot analysis confirmed that the protein is highly expressed from 6 hours to 24 hours after bacterial inoculation, while immunohistochemistry revealed production by middle ear epithelial cells and infiltrating lymphocytes.Our data suggest an active role for HB-EGF in the hyperplasia of the middle ear mucosal epithelium during otitis media. These results imply that therapies targeting HB-EGF could ameliorate mucosal growth during otitis media, and thereby reduce detrimental sequelae of this childhood disease.

  19. The influence of air pollution on the phyllosphere microflora composition of Tillandsia leaves (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Brighigna

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of air pollution on total phyllospheric microflora from two species of the epiphytic neotropical genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae was studied by comparing unpolluted plants living in a forest (Escazú, San José with polluted ones from an urban site of Costa Rica (San José city. Dilutions of homogenized leaf samples were plated on media suitable for each microbial group. For each microorganism group, total counts were performed and purified strains of randomly chosen colonies were identified. There was a global reduction in the number of living microorganisms due to pollution effects, especially yeasts and bacteria, while nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and fungi were less affected. Our results showed that the phyllosphere microflora of Tillandsia plants living in a tropical urban environment changes in terms of number and species composition of yeasts and bacteria with respect to plants living in unpolluted environment.

  20. The influence of air pollution on the phyllosphere microflora composition of Tillandsia leaves (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighigna, L; Gori, A; Gonnelli, S; Favilli, F

    2000-01-01

    The effect of air pollution on total phyllospheric microflora from two species of the epiphytic neotropical genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) was studied by comparing unpolluted plants living in a forest (Escazú, San José) with polluted ones from an urban site of Costa Rica (San José city). Dilutions of homogenized leaf samples were plated on media suitable for each microbial group. For each microorganism group, total counts were performed and purified strains of randomly chosen colonies were identified. There was a global reduction in the number of living microorganisms due to pollution effects, especially yeasts and bacteria, while nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and fungi were less affected. Our results showed that the phyllosphere microflora of Tillandsia plants living in a tropical urban environment changes in terms of number and species composition of yeasts and bacteria with respect to plants living in unpolluted environment.

  1. Radiation studies on the microflora in a High-level radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahiera, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation sensitivities of microflora in the air environment of the irradiation room of the 60 CO industrial irradiation facility of NCRRT was studied. The isolated microflora was identified to be the Gram positive micrococci, and the gram positive bacilli: coagulans and laterosporous. The study of the dose-survival counts dependence of the colonies showed the existance of the combination of at least two groups of micro-organisms with different sensitivities to radiation. The value of the radiation resistant group was found to be 2.2 10kGy. A method is presented to estimate the amount of each group in the initial culture. A study of the dependence of radiation lethality on the dose rate of radiation on the aerobic dry microbes showed no significant effect in the dose-rate range from 330 down to 44 Gy.min

  2. Evidence for a common mucosal immune system in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Heather L; Obradovic, Milan R

    2015-07-01

    The majority of lymphocytes activated at mucosal sites receive instructions to home back to the local mucosa, but a portion also seed distal mucosa sites. By seeding distal sites with antigen-specific effector or memory lymphocytes, the foundation is laid for the animal's mucosal immune system to respond with a secondary response should to this antigen be encountered at this site in the future. The common mucosal immune system has been studied quite extensively in rodent models but less so in large animal models such as the pig. Reasons for this paucity of reported induction of the common mucosal immune system in this species may be that distal mucosal sites were examined but no induction was observed and therefore it was not reported. However, we suspect that the majority of investigators simply did not sample distal mucosal sites and therefore there is little evidence of immune response induction in the literature. It is our hope that more pig immunologists and infectious disease experts who perform mucosal immunizations or inoculations on pigs will sample distal mucosal sites and report their findings, whether results are positive or negative. In this review, we highlight papers that show that immunization/inoculation using one route triggers mucosal immune system induction locally, systemically, and within at least one distal mucosal site. Only by understanding whether immunizations at one site triggers immunity throughout the common mucosal immune system can we rationally develop vaccines for the pig, and through these works we can gather evidence about the mucosal immune system that may be extrapolated to other livestock species or humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Probiotic supplements and debridement of peri-implant mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallström, Hadar; Lindgren, Susann; Widén, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplements in adjunct to conventional management of peri-implant mucositis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine adult patients with peri-implant mucositis were consecutively recruited...... debridement and oral hygiene reinforcement resulted in clinical improvement of peri-implant mucositis and a reduction in cytokine levels. Probiotic supplements did not provide added benefit to placebo....

  4. Chitosan-Based Nanoparticles for Mucosal Delivery of RNAi Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martirosyan, Alina; Olesen, Morten Jarlstad; Howard, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    of the polysaccharide chitosan have been used to facilitate delivery of siRNA across mucosal surfaces following local administration. This chapter describes the mucosal barriers that need to be addressed in order to design an effective mucosal delivery strategy and the utilization of the mucoadhesive properties...... of chitosan. Focus is given to preparation methods and the preclinical application of chitosan nanoparticles for respiratory and oral delivery of siRNA....

  5. Research within the coordinated progamme on bacterial leaching of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjanovic, D.

    1978-01-01

    Effect of magnetic field on the growth rate of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria was studied at intensities of 30, 100, 2400, and 4000 Oe. Low intensity magnetic field was found to stimulate the bacteria growth rate and the rate of ferrosulphate oxidation with optimum values at 30 to 300 Oe (maximum at 300 Oe). Magnetic field of high intensity (2400, 3200, 4000 Oe) inhibits the growth of bacteria and processes of bacterial oxidation. The possibility was also studied of using biocides for inhibiting bacterial processes in uranium-bearing waste dumps. The use of biocides resulted in a decrease of uranium-bearing waste dump autochthonous microflora density

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE AND CHRONIC LARYNGITIS DEPENDING ON RESULTS OF BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF LARYNX MICROFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Chuikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes study of larynx microflora in patients with acute laryngtis and exacerbations of chronic laryngitis. Therapeutic algorithm based on bacteriologic examination data was developed reduce. New algorithm helps reduce sickness terms and to decrease prevalence of desease.123 patients of age from 18 to 60 were under observation: 43 patients with acute laryngitis and 80 patients with exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. 22 patients with acute laryngitis and 58 patients with exacerbation of chronic laryngitis underwent etiotropic treatment with antibiotics. The group of comparison with acute laryngitis (21 patients and chronic laryngitis (22 patients received treatment according to the conventional scheme.Bacteriologic examination of larynx mucous, clinical study and functional voice test (time of maximum vowels phonation before and after treatment were carried out.As a result of the research it was established that the most common causative agent of acute and chronic inflammatory larynx diseases is S. aureus as a mono culture or combined with other bacterial associations (S. аnhemolyticus, Str. viridans etc..After the end of antibacterial therapy we found symptoms as hoarseness, irritation, dry laryngopharynx, hyperemia and swelling of larynx mucous reduced eather in new treatment group than controlled group. Time of maximum vowels phonation (in seconds also increased significantly.Sickness terms after prescription of new treatment was shorter than in comparison groups: (10.9 ± 7.9 days for acute laryngitis and (12.6 ± 7.3 days for chronic laryngitis respectively. Health index was 20.8 and 19.5% respectively.

  7. Physico-chemical properties and the microflora of Moroccan black table olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asehraou, A.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Eleven samples of Moroccan black table olives were analyzed for their microflora and the physico-chemical factors. A survey of the most frequent microorganisms including standard plate count (SPC, counts of the indicator microorganisms (total and fecal coliforms and enterococci, staphylococci. Salmonella, sporeforming bacteria (Clostridium and Bacillus and yeasts and molds was determined. The physico-chemical factors grouped pH, aw, NaCl concentration and the ADV (Acid degree value of the fatty matter. Results reported hereby showed a low microbial load except for the yeasts and molds. The values found for the physico-chemical factors (low for the pH and the aw and high for the ADV and salt content would suggest an inhibitory effect on the initial microflora charge of the black table olives.

    Se estudiaron la microflora y las propiedades físico-químicas de aceitunas negras de mesa en 11 muestras. Los microorganismos más abundantes contados incluyeron: flora mesofila total, indicadores de contaminación fecal (Coliformes totales y fecales, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, esporulados (Bacillus y Clostridium y levaduras y mohos. Los análisis físico-químicos incluyeron: aw (actividad de agua, pH, índice de acidez de la materia grasa y concentración de NaCl. Los resultados nos demuestran perfiles microbianos bajos para todos los microorganismos excepto levaduras y mohos. Los valores bajos de pH y de aw, y otros elevados del índice de acidez y del contenido en sal, nos sugiere una Inhibición de estos factores sobre e! crecimiento y/o la supervivencia de la microflora de las aceitunas negras de mesa.

  8. STUDY OF UROGENITAL TRACT MICROFLORA OF DNEPROPETROVSK FEMALES BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honcharova S.Y.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We isolated and identified the pathogens from the urogenital tract in 100 women of 26-55 years in Diagnostic Center of Dnepropetrovsk Medical Academy by polymerase chain reaction. It was found that all investigated microflora was represented by HPV of high and low cancer risk - HSV type 1+2, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Candida yeast species. The most abundant pathogens from the urogenital tract were HPV, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Chlamydia trachomatis.

  9. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  10. Scoring irradiation mucositis in head and neck cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Panders, A.K. (Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands)); Saene, H.K.F. van (Medical Microbiology, University of Liverpool (UK)); Vermey, A. (Department of Surgery Oncology Division, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands)); Mehta, D.M. (Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands))

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation mucositis is defined as an inflammatory-like process of the oropharyngeal mucosa following therapeutic irradiation of patients who have head and neck cancer. Clinically, it is a serious side effect because severe mucositis can cause generalized problems (weight loss, nasogastic tube feedings) and interferes with the well-being of the patient seriously. Grading mucositis is important for the evaluation of preventive and therapeutic measures. The object of this study was to develop a scoring method based on local mucositis signs only. Four clinical local signs of mucositis were used in this score: white discoloration, erythema, pseudomembranes and ulceration. Mucositis of the oral cavity was calcualted during conventional irradiation protocol for 8 distinguishable areas using the 4 signs and their extent. A prospective evaluation of this method in 15 irradiated head and neck cancer patients displayed an S-curve reflecting a symptomless first irradiation week, followed by a rapid and steady increase of white discoloration, erythema and pseudomembranes during the second and third week. Oral candidiasis, generalized symptoms such as weight loss and the highest mucositis scores were seen after 3 weeks irradiation. The novel mucositis scoring method may be of value in studying the effect of hygiene programs, topical application of disinfectans or antibiotics on oral mucositis. (author).

  11. Scoring irradiation mucositis in head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Panders, A.K.; Saene, H.K.F. van; Vermey, A.; Mehta, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation mucositis is defined as an inflammatory-like process of the oropharyngeal mucosa following therapeutic irradiation of patients who have head and neck cancer. Clinically, it is a serious side effect because severe mucositis can cause generalized problems (weight loss, nasogastic tube feedings) and interferes with the well-being of the patient seriously. Grading mucositis is important for the evaluation of preventive and therapeutic measures. The object of this study was to develop a scoring method based on local mucositis signs only. Four clinical local signs of mucositis were used in this score: white discoloration, erythema, pseudomembranes and ulceration. Mucositis of the oral cavity was calcualted during conventional irradiation protocol for 8 distinguishable areas using the 4 signs and their extent. A prospective evaluation of this method in 15 irradiated head and neck cancer patients displayed an S-curve reflecting a symptomless first irradiation week, followed by a rapid and steady increase of white discoloration, erythema and pseudomembranes during the second and third week. Oral candidiasis, generalized symptoms such as weight loss and the highest mucositis scores were seen after 3 weeks irradiation. The novel mucositis scoring method may be of value in studying the effect of hygiene programs, topical application of disinfectans or antibiotics on oral mucositis. (author)

  12. Multiscale modeling of mucosal immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling techniques are playing increasingly important roles in advancing a systems-level mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Computer simulations guide and underpin experimental and clinical efforts. This study presents ENteric Immune Simulator (ENISI), a multiscale modeling tool for modeling the mucosal immune responses. ENISI's modeling environment can simulate in silico experiments from molecular signaling pathways to tissue level events such as tissue lesion formation. ENISI's architecture integrates multiple modeling technologies including ABM (agent-based modeling), ODE (ordinary differential equations), SDE (stochastic modeling equations), and PDE (partial differential equations). This paper focuses on the implementation and developmental challenges of ENISI. A multiscale model of mucosal immune responses during colonic inflammation, including CD4+ T cell differentiation and tissue level cell-cell interactions was developed to illustrate the capabilities, power and scope of ENISI MSM. Background Computational techniques are becoming increasingly powerful and modeling tools for biological systems are of greater needs. Biological systems are inherently multiscale, from molecules to tissues and from nano-seconds to a lifespan of several years or decades. ENISI MSM integrates multiple modeling technologies to understand immunological processes from signaling pathways within cells to lesion formation at the tissue level. This paper examines and summarizes the technical details of ENISI, from its initial version to its latest cutting-edge implementation. Implementation Object-oriented programming approach is adopted to develop a suite of tools based on ENISI. Multiple modeling technologies are integrated to visualize tissues, cells as well as proteins; furthermore, performance matching between the scales is addressed. Conclusion We used ENISI MSM for developing predictive multiscale models of the mucosal immune system during gut

  13. Multiscale modeling of mucosal immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yongguo; Abedi, Vida; Carbo, Adria; Zhang, Xiaoying; Lu, Pinyi; Philipson, Casandra; Hontecillas, Raquel; Hoops, Stefan; Liles, Nathan; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Computational techniques are becoming increasingly powerful and modeling tools for biological systems are of greater needs. Biological systems are inherently multiscale, from molecules to tissues and from nano-seconds to a lifespan of several years or decades. ENISI MSM integrates multiple modeling technologies to understand immunological processes from signaling pathways within cells to lesion formation at the tissue level. This paper examines and summarizes the technical details of ENISI, from its initial version to its latest cutting-edge implementation. Object-oriented programming approach is adopted to develop a suite of tools based on ENISI. Multiple modeling technologies are integrated to visualize tissues, cells as well as proteins; furthermore, performance matching between the scales is addressed. We used ENISI MSM for developing predictive multiscale models of the mucosal immune system during gut inflammation. Our modeling predictions dissect the mechanisms by which effector CD4+ T cell responses contribute to tissue damage in the gut mucosa following immune dysregulation.Computational modeling techniques are playing increasingly important roles in advancing a systems-level mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Computer simulations guide and underpin experimental and clinical efforts. This study presents ENteric Immune Simulator (ENISI), a multiscale modeling tool for modeling the mucosal immune responses. ENISI's modeling environment can simulate in silico experiments from molecular signaling pathways to tissue level events such as tissue lesion formation. ENISI's architecture integrates multiple modeling technologies including ABM (agent-based modeling), ODE (ordinary differential equations), SDE (stochastic modeling equations), and PDE (partial differential equations). This paper focuses on the implementation and developmental challenges of ENISI. A multiscale model of mucosal immune responses during colonic inflammation, including CD4+ T

  14. Umbilical Microflora, Antiseptic Skin Preparation, and Surgical Site Infection in Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeff, Jörg; Erkan, Mert; Jäger, Carsten; Menacher, Maximilian; Gebhardt, Friedemann; Hartel, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) following abdominal surgery are frequent and a major cause of postoperative morbidity and prolonged hospital stay. Besides antibiotic prophylaxis, antiseptic skin preparation is an important measure to prevent SSI. Here we prospectively analyzed the effectiveness of antiseptic skin preparation in a cohort of 93 patients undergoing laparotomy, with special emphasis on the umbilical region. The microflora of the umbilicus contained a large number of resident (mostly staphylococci species and corynebacteria) and transient germs (including enterococci species). Following antiseptic skin preparation, bacteria could still be cultured from 24.7% of the patients' umbilici. In case of postoperative SSI, only one of seven SSI was caused by the microorganism that was present in the umbilicus before and after skin preparation. Antiseptic skin preparation fails to completely eradicate the microflora of the umbilical region in one quarter of the patients. However, at least in abdominal surgery, the vast majority of SSI are caused by intra-abdominal contamination rather than the skin microflora.

  15. Recovery and Identification of Bovine Colostrum Microflora Using Traditional and Molecular Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmo Neviani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Colostrum is the first milk produced by the mammary gland during the early postpartum period. In addition to nutrients, antimicrobial and growth factors, bovine colostrum contains valuable microflora, including members of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which have been used widely in probiotic food. The aim of this work is to identify and quantify the microflora of colostrum samples from two Holstein dairy cows on the first three postpartum days through culture-dependent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR techniques, using an adapted method to extract the total DNA. Twenty-nine strains isolated in synthetic media were identified by their 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealing two potential probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum. Colostrum samples were subjected to LH-PCR analysis to obtain fingerprint profiles of the microflora. Lactobacillus casei was the main species present in the samples. The probiotic potential of these bacteria for use in fermented and functional foods remains to be evaluated.

  16. Study of microflora status of radiation-induced peripheral blood T cell and its subgroup changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Hao; Wang Shengzi; Wang Shuyi; Lu Shenbin; Guo Ming; Tian Jie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the differences of the radiation-induced peripheral blood T cell and its subgroup changes between SPF and CV rats after nasopharyngeal radiation with gradient doses and explore the microflora factors in the pathogenesis of abnormal radiation-induced immunity status. Methods: 8 from each SPF and CV rats were chosen for oropharyngeal bacteria cultivation and determination and the spleen organ coefficients. The rest were irradiated with 6MX linear accelerator in the nasopharyngeal fields at dose of 0, 10, 20, 30 Gy, 5 in each group. 24 ∼ 36 h later, blood T lymphocytes and their subgroups were detected by FCM. Results: The bacteria of CV rats were pathogen mostly and the one from SPF rats was Proteus mirabilis uniquely. Spleen organ coefficients between two groups showed no statistical difference. CD + 3 , CD + 4 lymphocytes and the ratio of CD + 4 / CD + 8 of CV rats decreased dramatically after radiation is in close relation with radiation doses while The CD + 8 lymphocyte increased a bit. The CD + 3 , CD + 4 , CD + 8 lymphocytes and the ratio of CD + 4 / CD + 8 of SPF rats remained in a stable level. Conclusions: There exists the difference of radiation-induced injuries of immune system in relation with different microflora status. Micro-flora plays an important role in the radiation-induced immune system abnormity. (authors)

  17. The effect of an acidic cleanser versus soap on the skin pH and micro-flora of adult patients: a non-randomised two group crossover study in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Christine N; Riley, Thomas V; Carson, Kerry C; Budgeon, Charley A; Siffleet, Joanne

    2013-10-01

    To test the effects of two different cleansing regimens on skin surface pH and micro-flora, in adult patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Forty-three patients were recruited from a 23-bed tertiary medical/surgical ICU. The nineteen patients in Group One were washed using soap for daily hygiene care over a four week period. In Group 2, 24 patients were washing daily using an acidic liquid cleanser (pH 5.5) over a second four week period. Skin pH measurements and bacterial swabs were sampled daily from each for a maximum of ten days or until discharged from the ICU. Skin surface pH and quantitative skin cultures (colony forming units). Skin pH measurements were lower in patients washed with pH 5.5 cleanser than those washed with soap. This was statistically significant for both the forearm (p = 0.0068) and leg (p = 0.0015). The bacterial count was not statistically significantly different between the two groups. Both groups demonstrated that bacterial counts were significantly affected by the length of stay in ICU (p = 0.0032). This study demonstrated that the product used in routine skin care significantly affects the skin pH of ICU patients, but not the bacterial colonisation. Bacterial colonisation of the skin increases with length of stay. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    , which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters...

  19. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  20. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  1. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  2. Oral mucosal lesions in denture wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainkittivong, Aree; Aneksuk, Vilaiwan; Langlais, Robert P

    2010-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) and denture-related mucosal lesions (DMLs) in denture wearers and to co-relate the prevalence with age, gender, type of denture and any systemic conditions. Dental records of 380 denture wearers were retrospectively reviewed for OMLs and DMLs. We found 45% of the denture wearers had DMLs and 60.8% had OMLs not related to denture wearing. Although the prevalence of DMLs was higher in complete denture wearers than in partial denture wearers (49% vs. 42.2%), this difference was not significant. The most common DMLs were traumatic ulcer (19.5%) and denture-induced stomatitis (18.1%). When analysed by type, traumatic ulcer, denture hyperplasia, frictional keratosis and candidiasis were more common in complete denture wearers, whereas denture-induced stomatitis was more common in partial denture wearers. Frictional keratosis was more common in men than in women. The prevalence of OMLs not related to denture wearing was higher in complete denture wearers than in partial denture wearers, and the most common OML was fissured tongue (27.6%). No association between DMLs and systemic conditions or xerostomic drugs was noted. No differences in the prevalence of DMLs in association with denture type were found. The prevalence of OMLs not related to denture wearing was higher in complete denture wearers than in partial denture wearers. This difference was affected by age, and the data were similar to the findings observed in the elderly.

  3. Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Victor H; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia P A; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Candidais an opportunistic pathogen that causes mucosal and deep systemic candidiasis. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of currently available antifungals have restricted their use as long-term prophylactic agents for candidal infections. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as a useful alternative for the management of candidiasis. We analyzed the available data on the efficacy of probiotics in candidal colonization of host surfaces. A number of well-controlled studies indicate that probiotics, particularly lactobacilli, suppressCandidagrowth and biofilm development in vitro.A few clinical trials have also shown the beneficial effects of probiotics in reducing oral, vaginal, and enteric colonization byCandida; alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms; and, in some cases, reducing the incidence of invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. Probiotics may serve in the future as a worthy ally in the battle against chronic mucosal candidal infections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. AN INFLUENCE OF SPONTANEOUS MICROFLORA OF FERMENTED HORSEMEAT PRODUCTS ON THE FORMATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PEPTIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Chernukha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, different methods are used to accumulate functional peptides in meat raw materials, including the use of spontaneous microflora during autolysis, the use of the microbial enzymes (the application of starter cultures and the use of the non-microbial enzymes (enzymes of animals and plant origin. Each method has its own specific characteristics of an impact on raw materials, which requires their detail study. This paper examines an effect of spontaneous microflora of fermented meat products from horsemeat on formation of biologically active peptides. Using the T-RFLP analysis, it was established that in air dried and uncooked smoked sausages produced with the use of the muscle tissue of horsemeat as a raw material, a significant proportion of microflora was presented by lactic acid microorganisms. The highest content of lactic acid microflora was observed in sample 1 (52.45 %, and the least in sample 3 (29.62 %. Sample 2 had the medium percent content of microflora compared to samples 1 and 3 — 38.82 %. It is necessary to note that about 25 % of microflora was unculturable; i.e., it had metabolic processes but did not grow on culture media. In the samples, the representatives of Actinobacteria and Pseudomonadales were found. Pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora was not detected. Not only quantitative but also qualitative changes were observed in the studied samples. For example, in samples 1 and 2, the fractions of amilo-1,6-glucosidase, fast-type muscle myosin-binding-protein C; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; fast skeletal muscle troponin I, phosphoglycerate kinase, pyruvate kinase and skeletal muscle actin were found, which were absent or reduced in sample 3. Therefore, in the studied product, good preservation of the main spectra of muscle proteins was observed, and the identified fractions, apparently, can be sources of new functional peptides. Not only quantitative but also qualitative changes were observed in the

  5. Determination of lactic microflora of kefir grains and kefir beverage by using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesmen, Zülal; Kacmaz, Nazife

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the bacterial compositions of kefir grains and kefir beverages collected from different regions of Turkey by using culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. In the culture-independent detection, 10 different species of bacteria were detected in total by using the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region. Among these species, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was the most dominant one in the kefir grains, while Lactococcus lactis was found to be significantly prevalent in the kefir beverages. In the culture-dependent detection, the primary differentiation and grouping of the isolates from kefir beverages and kefir grains were performed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting, and the results were validated by 16S rDNA full-length sequencing. According to the results of culture-dependent methods, the most frequently isolated species were L. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Lactobacillus kefiri, respectively. Only 3 species, which are L. lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus, were detected with both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. This study showed that the combination of both methods is necessary for a detailed and reliable investigation of microbial communities in kefir grains and kefir beverages. Due to their artisan- and region-dependent microflora, kefir products can be a source of interesting lactic acid bacteria, either new taxa or strains with specific functional properties, which might be used for the development of new starter cultures and innovative food products. Therefore, an increasing demand exists for new strains that show desirable effects on the product characteristics Artisan dairy products are a candidate source of such microorganisms. For this reason, in this study, the bacterial compositions of kefir grains and kefir beverages obtained from

  6. Estudo do raspado de conjuntiva e margem palpebral de pacientes tratados de retinoblastoma: etapa I - Microflora aeróbica Study of the conjunctival scrape and eyelid margin smears in patients treated for retinoblastoma: phase I - Aerobic microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Menezes Santos

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: A queixa de secreção ocular é muito freqüente entre os pacientes tratados de retinoblastoma submetidos à enucleação e radioterapia. A falta de dados sobre a microflora em pacientes nessas condições foi o que motivou este estudo. Métodos: Foram examinadas 114 órbitas de 58 pacientes. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados das culturas para bactérias aeróbicas e fungos, de conjuntiva e margem palpebral em 4 condições, com e sem enucleação, com e sem radioterapia. Procedeu-se à identificação dos microrganismos de acordo com o Protocolo do National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards e os esfregaços para citologia foram submetidos às colorações de Gram e Leishman. Resultados: A presença de microrganismos foi mais freqüente nas cavidades anoftálmicas irradiadas, tanto na conjuntiva (54,5% quanto na margem palpebral (63,6%, porém sem diferença estatisticamente significante. Além disso, em órbitas com bulbo ocular, a radiação, na fase tardia, representou um fator limitante da presença de microrganismos na conjuntiva e na margem palpebral, mas sem diferença estatisticamente significante. O Staphylococcus coagulase negativa foi o microrganismo mais freqüente na conjuntiva e margem palpebral de todos os grupos. Houve crescimento de fungo, Candida tropicalis, em apenas um caso. Conclusões: Sugere-se o uso de colírios antibióticos em pacientes tratados de retinoblastoma, portadores de cavidade anoftálmica, irradiada ou não.Purpose: Conjunctival discharge is a common complaint among patients treated for retinoblastoma who underwent enucleation and radiotherapy. Lack of data about the microflora in those patients motivated this study. Methods: One hundred and fourteen orbits of 58 patients were examined. The authors present the results of aerobic bacterial and fungal culture of conjunctival and eyelid margin smears, as well as conjunctival cytology, in 4 different conditions: with and without

  7. Mucosal Immune Regulation in Early Infancy: Monitoring and Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hol (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe mucosal immune system of infants is dependent on the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Homeostasis results from the interaction between the mucosa and exogenous factors such as dietar and microbial agents. Induction and maintenance of homeostasis is a highly regluated system that

  8. Chemotherapy induced intestinal mucositis; from bench to bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.E. Koning, de (Barbara)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 focuses primarily on the pathophysiology of mucositis, in order to gain more insight different experimental mouse models were used. Chapter 2 describes mucositis induced by high dose doxorubicin (DOX)- treatment. DOX is a frequently used cytostatic drug in childhood cancer,

  9. Gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities using videocapsule endoscopy in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I; Antonietti, M; Houivet, E; Hachulla, E; Maunoury, V; Bienvenu, B; Viennot, S; Smail, A; Duhaut, P; Dupas, J-L; Dominique, S; Hatron, P-Y; Levesque, H; Benichou, J; Ducrotté, P

    2014-07-01

    To date, there are no large studies on videocapsule endoscopy in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Consequently, the prevalence and features of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities in SSc have not been determined. To determine both prevalence and characteristics of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities in unselected patients with SSc, using videocapsule endoscopy. To predict which SSc patients are at risk of developing potentially bleeding gastrointestinal vascular mucosal abnormalities. Videocapsule endoscopy was performed on 50 patients with SSc. Prevalence of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities was 52%. Potentially bleeding vascular mucosal lesions were predominant, including: watermelon stomach (34.6%), gastric and/or small intestinal telangiectasia (26.9%) and gastric and/or small intestinal angiodysplasia (38.5%). SSc patients with gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions more often exhibited: limited cutaneous SSc (P = 0.06), digital ulcers (P = 0.05), higher score of nailfold videocapillaroscopy (P = 0.0009), anaemia (P = 0.02), lower levels of ferritin (P correlation between gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions and presence of severe extra-digestive vasculopathy (digital ulcers and higher nailfold videocapillaroscopy scores). This latter supports the theory that SSc-related diffuse vasculopathy is responsible for both cutaneous and digestive vascular lesions. Therefore, we suggest that nailfold videocapillaroscopy may be a helpful test for managing SSc patients. In fact, nailfold videocapillaroscopy score should be calculated routinely, as it may result in identification of SSc patients at higher risk of developing potentially bleeding gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of gene time on acute radiation mucositis and dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Suyan; Gao Li; Yin Weibo; Xu Guozhen; Xiao Guangli

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (Gene Time) on acute mucositis and dermatitis induced by radiation. Methods: 120 head and neck cancer patients were randomized into 3 groups: 1. Mucositis prophylactic application (MPA) group with control, 2. Mucositis therapeutic application (MTA) group with control and 3. Dermatitis therapeutic application (DTA) group with control. Prophylactic application of drug consisted of spraying the Gene Time preparation on the irradiated skin or mucous membrane as radiotherapy was being carried out. This was compared with control patients who received routine conventional skin care. Therapeutic application was started as grade I radiation mucositis or dermatitis appeared. The evaluation of acute radiation mucositis and dermatitis was done according to the systems proposed by RTOG or EORTC. Results: The results showed that in the MPA group, the rate of radiation mucositis at ≤10 Gy was 20% (4/20) as compared to the 70% (14/20) of the control (P = 0.004). During the course of radiation, the incidences of grade III, IV acute radiation mucositis and dermatitis were always lower than the control. In therapeutic application of Gene Time, the response rate of acute radiation mucositis was also better than the control (90% vs 50%) (P = 0.016) and that of acute dermatitis was similar (95% vs 50%) (P = 0.005). Moreover, the ≤3 d rate of healing of grade III dermatitis in the application group was 3/7 as compared to the 0/14 of the control. Conclusion: Prophylactic application of recombinant human epidermal growth factor is able to postpone the development of radiation mucositis. This preparation is also able to lower the incidence of grade III, IV mucositis and dermatitis both by therapeutic and prophylactic application in addition to the hastened healing of grade III dermatitis

  12. Growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham under refrigerated and temperature abuse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and a native microflora, consisting of Brochothrix spp., isolated from cooked meat were inoculated alone (monocultured) or co-inoculated (co-cultured) onto cooked ham slices. The growth characteristics, lag phase duration (LPD, h), growth rate (GR, log(10) cfu/h), and maximum population density (MPD, log(10) cfu/g), of L. monocytogenes and the native microflora in vacuum-packed ham slices stored at 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 °C for up to 5 weeks were determined. At 4-12 °C, the LPDs of co-cultured L. monocytogenes were not significantly different from those of monocultured L. monocytogenes in ham, indicating the LPDs of L. monocytogenes at 4-12 °C were not influenced by the presence of the native microflora. At 4-8 °C, the GRs of co-cultured L. monocytogenes (0.0114-0.0130 log(10) cfu/h) were statistically but marginally lower than those of monocultured L. monocytogenes (0.0132-0.0145 log(10) cfu/h), indicating the GRs of L. monocytogenes at 4-8 °C were reduced by the presence of the native microflora. The GRs of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 8-7% with the presence of the native microflora at 4-8 °C, whereas there was less influence of the native microflora on the GRs of L. monocytogenes at 10 and 12 °C. The MPDs of L. monocytogenes at 4-8 °C were also reduced by the presence of the native microflora. Data from this study provide additional information regarding the growth suppression of L. monocytogenes by the native microflora for assessing the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Systematic review of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, Deborah P.; Epstein, Joel B.; Elad, Sharon; Allemano, Justin; Bossi, Paolo; van de Wetering, Marianne D.; Rao, Nikhil G.; Potting, Carin; Cheng, Karis K.; Freidank, Annette; Brennan, Michael T.; Bowen, Joanne; Dennis, Kristopher; Lalla, Rajesh V.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to develop clinical practice guidelines on the use of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the prevention and management of oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients. A systematic review of the available literature was conducted. The body

  14. Systematic review of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, D.P.; Epstein, J.B.; Elad, S.; Allemano, J.; Bossi, P.; Wetering, M.D. van de; Rao, N.G.; Potting, C.M.J.; Cheng, K.K.; Freidank, A.; Brennan, M.T.; Bowen, J.; Dennis, K.; Lalla, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this project was to develop clinical practice guidelines on the use of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the prevention and management of oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature was

  15. Metabolism of sinigrin (2-propenyl glucosinolate) by the human colonic microflora in a dynamic in vitro large-intestinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krul, Cyrille; Humblot, Christèle; Philippe, Catherine; Vermeulen, Martijn; van Nuenen, Marleen; Havenaar, Robert; Rabot, Sylvie

    2002-06-01

    Cruciferous vegetables, such as Brassica, which contain substantial quantities of glucosinolates, have been suggested to possess anticarcinogenic activity. Cutting and chewing of cruciferous vegetables releases the thioglucosidase enzyme myrosinase, which degrades glucosinolates to isothiocyanates and other minor metabolites. Cooking of cruciferous vegetables inactivates the myrosinase enzyme, allowing intact glucosinolates to reach the large intestine, where they can be degraded by the indigenous microflora into isothiocyanates. This local release of isothiocyanates may explain the protective effect of cruciferous vegetables on the colon epithelium. However, little is known about the amounts and identities of glucosinolate metabolites produced by the human microflora. The production of allyl isothiocyanate from sinigrin was investigated in a dynamic in vitro large-intestinal model, after inoculation with a complex microflora of human origin. Sinigrin and allyl isothiocyanate concentrations were analysed in the lumen and dialysis fluid of the model. Peak levels of allyl isothiocyanate were observed between 9 and 12 h after the addition of sinigrin. The model was first set up with a pooled and cultured human microflora, in which 1 and 4% of, respectively, 1 and 15 mM sinigrin, was converted into AITC. However, the conversion rate was remarkably higher if different individual human microflora were used. Between 10% and 30% (mean 19%) of the sinigrin was converted into allyl isothiocyanate. The results of this study suggest that allyl isothiocyanate is converted further into other, yet unknown, metabolites.

  16. High temperature effect on microflora of radish root-inhabited zone and nutrient solutions for radish growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodina, E. V.; Tirranen, L. S.

    The effect of high temperatures (35 and 45 °C) on microflora of the root zone of radish plants grown in phytotron was evaluated by the response of microorganisms from 9 indicator groups. Phytotron air temperature elevated to 35 °C for 20 hours caused no significant changes in qualitative and quantitative composition of the root microflora in experimental plants. By the end of the experiment, the species diversity of microflora had changed. The amount of phytopathogenic microorganisms decreased which can be interpreted as more stable co-existence of microflora with plants. The numbers of microbes from other indicator groups was in dynamic equilibrium. The plants' condition did not deteriorate either. Exposure to the temperature of 45 °C for 7 hours have been found to change the numbers and species diversity in the radish root zone microflora. The microorganisms were observed to increase their total numbers at the expense of certain indicator groups. Bacteria increased spore forms at the stage of spores. Colon bacillus bacteria of increased their numbers by the end of experiment by an order. By the end of experiment the roots of experiment plants had microscopic fungi from Mucor, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Cladosporium genera. The observed changes in the microbial complex seem to be associated with the changes of root emissions and general deterioration of the plants' condition. It is suggested that the response of the microorganisms can be indicative of the condition of plants under investigation.

  17. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina N. Fichorova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over-the-counter (OTC feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods: A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil, personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9 known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU. Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion: Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested

  18. Circular mucosal anopexy: Experience and technical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo Grau, Luis Antonio; Ruiz Edo, Neus; Llorca Cardeñosa, Sara; Heredia Budó, Adolfo; Estrada Ferrer, Óscar; Del Bas Rubia, Marta; García Torralbo, Eva María; Suñol Sala, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    Circular mucosal anopexy (CMA) achieves a more comfortable postoperative period than resective techniques. But complications and recurrences are not infrequent. This study aims to evaluate of the efficacy of CMA in the treatment of hemorrhoids and rectal mucosal prolapse (RMP). From 1999 to 2011, 613 patients underwent surgery for either hemorrhoids or RMP in our hospital. CMA was performed in 327 patients. Gender distribution was 196 male and 131 female. Hemorrhoidal grades were distributed as follows: 28 patients had RMP, 46 2nd grade, 146 3rd grade and 107 4th grade. Major ambulatory surgery (MAS) was performed in 79.9%. Recurrence of hemorrhoids was studied and groups of recurrence and no-recurrence were compared. Postoperative pain was evaluated by Visual Analogical Scale (VAS) as well as early complications. A total of 31 patients needed reoperation (5 RMP, 2 with 2nd grade, 17 with 3rd grade,/with 4th grade). No statistically significant differences were found between the non-recurrent group and the recurrent group with regards to gender, surgical time or hemorrhoidal grade, but there were differences related to age. In the VAS, 81.3% of patients expressed a postoperative pain ≤ 2 at the first week. Five patients needed reoperation for early postoperative bleeding. Six patients needed admission for postoperative pain. Recurrence rate is higher in CMA than in resective techniques. CMA is a useful technique for the treatment of hemorrhoids in MAS. Pain and the rate of complications are both low. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex hormones and mucosal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Christopher G; Sabzehei, Bahareh; Marucha, Phillip T

    2009-07-01

    Wound healing studies, which have chiefly examined dermal tissues, have reported a female advantage in healing rates. In contrast, our laboratory recently demonstrated women heal mucosal wounds more slowly than men. We hypothesized sex hormones influence wound healing rates, possibly through their modulating effects on inflammation. This study involved 329 younger subjects aged 18-43 (165 women, 164 men) and 93 older subjects aged 50-88 (60 women, 33 men). A 3.5mm diameter wound was created on the hard oral palate and videographed daily to assess wound closure. Blood collected at the time of wounding was used to assess circulating testosterone, progesterone and estradiol levels, and in vitro cytokine production in response to LPS. No strong associations were observed between healing times and estradiol or progesterone levels. However, in younger subjects, lower testosterone levels related to faster wound closure. Conversely, in older women higher testosterone levels related to (1) lower inflammatory responses; and (2) faster healing times. No such relationships were seen in older men, or in women taking oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy [HRT]. Older women (50-54 years) not yet experiencing menopause healed similarly to younger women and dissimilarly from age-matched post-menopausal women. This suggests that the deleterious effects of aging on wound healing occur secondary to the effects of menopause. Supporting this, there was evidence in post-menopausal women that HRT augmented wound closure. Overall, this study suggests that human mucosal healing rates are modulated by testosterone levels. Based upon when between-group differences were observed, testosterone may impact upon the proliferative phase of healing which involves immune processes such as re-epithelialization and angiogenesis.

  20. Preliminary Data on the In Vitro Effect of Copper-Based Compounds on Aerobic Bacterial Microflora Isolated from Sheep Footrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore CHIRILĂ

    2018-05-01

    The results demonstrated that 7 of the samples (58.33 % are sensitive to the product I, 6 samples (50% to the product III, 4 samples (33.33 % to the product 2 and the 0.5% Copper sulphate solution only has a bacteriostatic effect. In comparison to the two antibiotics, 9 samples (75 % are sensitive to enrofloxacin and only 5 samples (41.66 % to oxytetracycline. Regarding the associations of microorganisms in the samples with resistance, we have found that these are represented by the most common germs of genus Bacillus, Corynebacterium and Gram negative bacteria, and rarer associations with Micrococcus and Staphylococcus.

  1. Oral Bacterial and Fungal Microbiome Impacts Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Klara Klimesova; Zuzana Jiraskova Zakostelska; Helena Tlaskalova-Hogenova

    2018-01-01

    Host’s physiology is significantly influenced by microbiota colonizing the epithelial surfaces. Complex microbial communities contribute to proper mucosal barrier function, immune response, and prevention of pathogen invasion and have many other crucial functions. The oral cavity and large intestine are distant parts of the digestive tract, both heavily colonized by commensal microbiota. Nevertheless, they feature different proportions of major bacterial and fungal phyla, mostly due to distin...

  2. Changes in subgingival microflora after placement and removal of fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković-Sandić Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The placement of fixed orthodontic appliances may lead to increased plaque accumulation and changes in subgingival microflora. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in frequency of subgingival microflora that occur after placement and removal of fixed orthodontic appliance using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Methods. This study included 33 orthodontic patients, who were divided into two groups. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from the right upper incisor (U1 and right upper first molar (U6. In group A, the samples were taken three times: before placement appliance (T1, after one month (T2, and after 3 months (T3. In group B the samples were also taken three times: before appliance removal (T1, after one month (T2, and after three months (T3. PCR method was used to determine the presence of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia. Results. In group A the frequency of P. gingivalis showed statistically significant decrease at U1 (p=0.049 and U6 (p=0.008, from T1 to T2, and at U1 (p=0.048 from T1 to T3. In group B only the frequency of T. forsythia showed a statistically significant decrease, at U6 (T1 vs. T2, p=0.004; T1 vs. T3, p=0.0003. Regarding other analyzed bacteria, changes in the presence were noticed but no statistical significance was found. Conclusion. Placement of fixed appliances may have an impact on subgingival microflora, but in the first months after the placement and removal of the appliance changes were not significant, probably due to good oral hygiene. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175075

  3. [Species and quantitative characteristics of pharyngeal mucosa microflora in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshcheriakova, A K; Kostinov, M P; Magarshak, O O; Zaĭtseva, E V

    2014-01-01

    Species and quantitative characteristics of upper respiratory tract (URT) mucosa microflora in women at gestation period. The results of a bacteriological study of 68 samples of mucus from posterior pharyngeal wall in women at gestation period (from 14 weeks), 52 of those--from pregnant women with acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms and 16--from women without signs of disease, are presented. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora was studied by a generally accepted bacteriological method. During primary bacteriological study 111 microorganism cultures were isolated. 88 (79.3%) of strains belonged to Gram-positive flora, 20 (18.0%)--to Gram-negative, and Candida genus fungi constituted 3 (2.7%) isolates. Streptococcus pyogenes and Moraxella catarrhalis were isolated from pregnant women with ARI signs at 23.1% and 5.8% frequency of occurrence, respectively. A higher detectability of Staphylococcus aureus--in 31.3% and Candida spp.--in 6.3% of women who did not complain as opposed to patients with URT lesions (in 21.2 and 3.9%, respectively) was determined. In patients without ARI signs the amount of bacteria did not exceed 10(5)--10(6) CFU/ml, in pregnant women with ARI diagnosis in 8 of 52 cases semination of pharyngeal mucuswas observed--10(7)--10(8) CFU/ml. Prevalence of S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans in composition of pharyngeal mucus microflora of pregnant women both with URT lesion signs and without them was shown, however the degree of semination by pathogens in the groups was different that determined the severity of disease manifestations.

  4. Gastrointestinal tract and the elderly: functional foods, gut microflora and healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, K; Doré, J

    2002-09-01

    Advances in science and medicine as well as improved living standards have led to a steady increase in life expectancy. Yet ageing is associated with increased susceptibility to degenerative or infectious diseases, which may be exacerbated by a poor nutritional status. The intestinal microflora will mediate crucial events towards the protection or degradation of health. It is hence essential and timely that strategies of preventive nutrition aimed at maintaining or improving the quality of life of the ageing population be developed. "CROWNALIFE" is a newly funded EuropeanUnion project, so called because of its emphasis on the preservation of the period of independence of the elderly, recognised as the "crown of life". The project aims at assessing age-related alterations and exploring strategies to restore and maintain a balanced healthy intestinal environment. Current knowledge on the composition and function of the human intestinal microflora is still improving with the use of better methodologies and yet their evolution with ageing has not been investigated in detail. There have been a few reports that putatively protective lactic acid bacteria, in general, and bifidobacteria, in particular, seem less represented in the elderly faecal flora. We have also observed an increase in species diversity of the dominant faecal microflora with ageing. This certainly warrants confirmation and is being addressed by the investigation of age-related changes in the structure and function of the intestinal flora of the elderly in countries across Europe. Ensuing results will constitute a baseline for functional-food based strategies aimed at providing health benefits for the elderly.

  5. Radiation sensitivity of the microflora in the plant producing radiosterilized disposable medical supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldesi, Maria; Gazso, Lajos; Molnar, Andor

    1983-01-01

    480 microbal strains were isolated from the plant's atmosphere and surfaces, the workers' hands and clothes. Sampling was continued for one year to determine seasonal variations. After a survival selection dose of 1 kGy, D 10 values for 53 strains were determined. No outstandingly high radioresistive microorganisms were isolated, the highest D 10 value was 1.83 kGy. The most essential sources of contamination were the surfaces of the production area and the workers' clothes. Regarding seasonal variability, spring and winter were considered as prominent seasons for careful attention to control the plant's microflora. (author)

  6. Impact of probiotic drugs, based on Enterobacter faecium autostrains, on human intestinal microflora in confined habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Batov, Alexey; Usanova, Nonna

    The aim of research: Investigation of influence of probiotic drugs based on autostrains of Enter-obacter faecium, selected from the crew in long term isolation experiment in confined habitat. It is known that during long-term presence in confined habitat the risk of infectious diseases increases. One of the main infectious risk occurs during first 20 days of isolation as a result of exchange of strains and stress-mediated disbacterioses. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate activities of probiotics to avoid this risk. Furthermore, in case of super long term autonomous flight there should be possibilities of application of autochthonous microflora strains as pro-biotics to strengthen colonial resistance of crews. Materials and methods: In the experiment there were used probiotic drugs based on autostrains of E. faecium, selected from the crew before the experiment. Probiotic drugs were consumed during 30 days since the beginning of the experiment with the break of consumption between 10th to 19th day. Results: Comparing the state of intestinal microflora of the crew on the baseline and 14th day of experiment re-vealed remarkable changes of microflora: the increasing of concentration of bifidobacteria and E. faecium (approximately 10 times), elimination of hemolytic streptococcus, yeasts, reduction of the rate of S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative non-fermenting rods, lactobacilli and normal E.coli. On the 45th day of isolation, 15 days after finishing of auto-strains administration, there fere signs of restoration of disbacteriosis: the quantitative decreasing lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and normal E.coli, increasing of the rate of S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative nonfermentive rods. Conclusion: Thus we managed to avoid risk of pathogenicity potential growth in first 2 decades of isolation. Application of probiotic, based on the autostrains of E. faecium leads to insignificant changes of concentration of lactobacteries, bifidobacteries, normal E. coli and to

  7. Indice de la microflora marina de Venezuela: diatomeas, dinoflagelados y cocolitofóridos

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Ramos, José Rafael

    2000-01-01

    Los estudios sobre el fitoplancton marino de Venezuela han sido realizados de manera regular desde mediados del siglo XX. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no se ha realizado un compendio de las especies encontradas que sirva como marco de referencia a los trabajos taxonómicos. En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez un índice de la microflora marina de Venezuela. El índice incluye sólo las diatomeas (89 especies céntricas y 186 especies pennadas), los dinoflagelados (ocho especies atecadas y 154 ...

  8. Microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of Chernobyl she-minks of different age and immunological state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudenko, V.I.; Podgorskij, V.S.; Ryasenko, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    The quantitative and species characteristics of bacteria and yeast isolated from the food and gastrointestinal tract of she-minks of different age groups and different immunological state have been established. The species composition of bacteria forming the basic and accompanying microflora of small and large intestine of minks is determined. An increase in the quantity of anaerobic (bifidobacteria), microaerophilic (lactic acid bacilli, enterococci) and aerobic (intestinal bacilli) bacteria in the content of the large intestine of minks has been established in comparison with the stomach and small intestine in all examined groups of animals of various age and immunological state

  9. Depressive disorders development in connection with gut microflora and dietary factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuldyakov А.А.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The morbidity of depressive disorders and their role in the formation of different human pathologies emphasize the actuality of searching for new approaches in the prophylaxis and treatment of depressions. The modification of gut microbiota may be a perspective direction of clinical investigation. Development in this area is based on the review of trials which confirm the significance of gut microflora composition in regulation of mental functions in particular mood and behavior as well as the role of diet in the development of depressions. The hypothesis of the role of gut microbiota in the development of depressive conditions was discussed.

  10. Effect of low dose irradiation of pork loins on the microflora, sensory characteristics and fat stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattison, M.L.; Kraft, A.A.; Olson, D.G.; Walker, H.W.; Rust, R.E.; James, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of low dose (100 krad) irradiation on microflora, sensory characteristics, and development of oxidative rancidity of vacuum packaged pork loins was investigated after irradiation and during low temperature (4 0 C) storage up to 21 days. Irradiation reduced numbers of mesophiles, psychrotrophs, anaerobic bacteria (P<0.01), and staphylococci (P<0.05), with the effect on mesophiles and psychrotrophic spoilage organisms the greatest. Effect of irradiation on sensory characteristics of pork loin was minimal with no detectable differences between irradiated and nonirradiated pork after 14 days of storage. Irradiation of pork did not affect cooking loss or thiobarbituric acid values

  11. Frequency of vaginal conditional-pathogenic microflora dependency from age in conditions of normocenosis and disbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gruzevsky, A. A.; Zyablitsev, S. V.; Chernobrivtsev, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Gruzevsky A. A., Zyablitsev S. V., Chernobrivtsev P. A. Frequency of vaginal conditional-pathogenic microflora dependency from age in conditions of normocenosis and disbiosis. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(2):509-522. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.399315 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4360 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (...

  12. Allopurinol gel mitigates radiation-induced mucositis and dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Junichi; Nasu, Masanori; Okumura, Hayato; Matsumoto, Shigeji; Shibata, Akihiko; Makino, Kimiko; Terada, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    It has not been verified whether allopurinol application is beneficial in decreasing the severity of radiation-induced oral mucositis and dermatitis. Rats were divided into 4 groups and received 15 Gy irradiation on the left whisker pad. Group 1 received only irradiation. Group 2 was maintained by applying allopurinol/carrageenan-mixed gel (allopurinol gel) continuously from 2 days before to 20 days after irradiation. Group 3 had allopurinol gel applied for 20 days after radiation. Group 4 was maintained by applying carrageenan gel continuously from 2 days before to 20 days after irradiation. The intra oral mucosal and acute skin reactions were assessed daily using mucositis and skin score systems. The escape thresholds for mechanical stimulation to the left whisker pad were measured daily. In addition, the irradiated tissues at the endpoint of this study were compared with naive tissue. Escape threshold in group 2 was significantly higher than that in group 1, and mucositis and skin scores were much improved compared with those of group 1. Concerning escape threshold, mucositis and skin scores in group 3 began to improve 10 days after irradiation. Group 4 showed severe symptoms of mucositis and dermatitis to the same extent as that observed in group 1. In the histopathological study, the tissues of group 1 showed severe inflammatory reactions, compared with those of group 2. These results suggest that allopurinol gel application can mitigate inflammation reactions associated with radiation-induced oral mucositis and dermatitis. (author)

  13. Sucralfate for the treatment of radiation induced mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belka, C.; Hoffmann, W.; Paulsen, F.; Bamberg, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy, a cornerstone in the management of head and neck cancer, pelvic cancer, and esophageal cancer is associated with a marked mucosal toxicity. Pain, malnutrition and diarrhea are the most prevalent clinical symptoms of radiation induced mucosal damage. Because there is no known way to obviate radiation mucositis all efforts to prevent aggravation and accelerate healing of mucosal changes are of great importance. Numerous agents including antimicrobials, local and systemic analgesics, antiinflammatory drugs, antidiarrheal drugs, in combination with intensive dietetic care are used to relieve symptoms. Recently coating agents like the polyaluminum-sucrose complex sucralfate were suggested for the prevention and treatment of mucosal reactions. Since sucralfate protects ulcerated epithelium by coating, liberates protective prostaglandins and increases the local availability of protective factors this drug might directly interact with the pathogenesis of mucositis. Patients and Method: The results of available studies are analysed and discussed. Results: The results of several studies indicate that sucralfate treatment especially during radiotherapy for pelvic cancer leads to a significant amelioration of clinical symptoms and morphological changes. An application of sucralfate during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer reveals only limited benefits in most studies performed. Conclusion: Nevertheless sucralfate is a save, cheap and active drug for the prevention and treatment of radiation mucositis especially in patients with pelvic irradiation. (orig.) [de

  14. Roles of Mucosal Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB, is one of the world's leading infectious causes of morbidity and mortality. As a mucosal-transmitted pathogen, Mtb infects humans and animals mainly through the mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract. Apart from providing a physical barrier against the invasion of pathogen, the major function of the respiratory mucosa may be to serve as the inductive sites to initiate mucosal immune responses and sequentially provide the first line of defense for the host to defend against this pathogen. A large body of studies in the animals and humans have demonstrated that the mucosal immune system, rather than the systemic immune system, plays fundamental roles in the host’s defense against Mtb infection. Therefore, the development of new vaccines and novel delivery routes capable of directly inducing respiratory mucosal immunity is emphasized for achieving enhanced protection from Mtb infection. In this paper, we outline the current state of knowledge regarding the mucosal immunity against Mtb infection, including the development of TB vaccines, and respiratory delivery routes to enhance mucosal immunity are discussed.

  15. Surgical outcome in headache due to mucosal contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Fumiyuki; Yabe, Haruna; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    Headaches is classified as primary and secondary, with secondary originating in head and neck conditions, the most important etiology being acute sinusitis. Headache due to mucosal contact, rarely encountered by otorhinolaryngologists, is an important secondary headache, whose criteria are defined by the International Classification of Headache Disorders to include intermittent pain localized in the periorbital and medial canthal or temporozygomatic regions, evidence that pain is attributable to mucosal contact and the presence of mucosal contact in the absence of acute rhinosinusitis, obtained using clinical examinations, nasal endoscopy, and/or computed tomography (CT). After mucosal contact is surgically corrected pain usually disappears permanently within 7 days. We reviewed mucosal contact headaches in 63 subjects undergoing nasal or paranasal surgery from April 2007 to March 2008. Of those 7 were diagnosed with headaches due to contact points in nasal mucosa, ranging from canthal to the temporozygomatic. The most common contact, between the middle turbinate and nasal septum, was seen in 6 of the 7. Surgery eliminated symptoms in 4 and ameliorated them in 3 indicating effective headache management. Subjects with severe headaches or localized periorbital and medial canthal pain regions, mucosal contact involvement is ruled out when CT allows no lesions. When mucosal contact headache is suspected, however surgery should be considered as a last resort. (author)

  16. Comparison of urine and bladder or urethral mucosal biopsy culture obtained by transurethral cystoscopy in dogs with chronic lower urinary tract disease: 41 cases (2002 to 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sycamore, K F; Poorbaugh, V R; Pullin, S S; Ward, C R

    2014-07-01

    To compare aerobic bacterial culture of urine to cystoscopically obtained mucosal biopsies of the lower urinary tract in dogs. Retrospective review of case records from dogs that had transurethral cystoscopy at a veterinary teaching hospital between 2002 and 2011. Dogs that had culture results from cystocentesis obtained urine and transurethral cystoscopically obtained mucosal samples were included in the study. Pathogens identified were compared between sampling methods. Forty dogs underwent transurethral cystoscopy for lower urinary tract disease on 41 occasions. There was significant (P = 0 · 0003) agreement between urine and mucosal biopsy cultures. Both cultures were negative in 66% and positive in 17% of dogs. There was a 17% disagreement between the sampling methods. Although not statistically significant, more mucosal samples than urine cultures were positive for Escherichia coli. There was a good agreement between pathogen identification from urine and lower urinary tract mucosal cultures. These results do not support the utilisation of transurethral cystoscopy to obtain biopsy samples for culture in dogs with urinary tract infection and positive urine culture. Individual cases with possible chronic urinary tract infection and negative urine culture may benefit from transurethral cystoscopy to obtain biopsies for culture. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  17. Bacterial mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas; Dam, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system...... act together to generate the force required for plasmid movement during segregation. ParR protein binds cooperatively to the centromeric parC DNA region, thereby forming a complex that interacts with the filament-forming actin-like ParM protein in an ATP-dependent manner, suggesting that plasmid...

  18. Prior mucosal exposure to heterologous cells alters the pathogenesis of cell-associated mucosal feline immunodeficiency virus challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavell Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several lines of research suggest that exposure to cellular material can alter the susceptibility to infection by HIV-1. Because sexual contact often includes exposure to cellular material, we hypothesized that repeated mucosal exposure to heterologous cells would induce an immune response that would alter the susceptibility to mucosal infection. Using the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV model of HIV-1 mucosal transmission, the cervicovaginal mucosa was exposed once weekly for 12 weeks to 5,000 heterologous cells or media (control and then cats were vaginally challenged with cell-associated or cell-free FIV. Results Exposure to heterologous cells decreased the percentage of lymphocytes in the mucosal and systemic lymph nodes (LN expressing L-selectin as well as the percentage of CD4+ CD25+ T cells. These shifts were associated with enhanced ex-vivo proliferative responses to heterologous cells. Following mucosal challenge with cell-associated, but not cell-free, FIV, proviral burden was reduced by 64% in cats previously exposed to heterologous cells as compared to media exposed controls. Conclusions The pathogenesis and/or the threshold for mucosal infection by infected cells (but not cell-free virus can be modulated by mucosal exposure to uninfected heterologous cells.

  19. Effect of Probiotic Bacillus megaterium PTB 1.4 on the Population of Intestinal Microflora, Digestive Enzyme Activity and the Growth of Catfish (Clarias sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Afrilasari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of Bacillus megaterium PTB 1.4 on the population of intestinal microflora, digestive enzyme activity, and the growth of catfish. Gnotobiotic and normal fish were used. Treatment using gnotobiotic was divided into gnoto (with feed and 100 μg/mL rifampicin and gnotoplus (with feed, 100 μg/mL rifampicin, and 1% probiotic; whereas treatment using normal fish was divided into normalplus (with feed and 1% probiotic and normal (only feed. The amount of bacteria on gastrointestinal tract was measured 30 days after treatments using the total plate count method. The results indicated no significant difference in bacterial growth between gnotobiotic and normal fish. The total amount of probiotic bacteria with normalplus treatment was significantly different with gnotoplus. The activity of protease and amylase enzymes, and specific growth rate in normalplus treatment were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than other treatments. Bacillus megaterium PTB 1.4 increased the activity of digestive enzymes and the growth of catfish.

  20. In vitro fermentation behaviors of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from Pearsonothuria graeffei by human gut microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao-Yang; Liao, Ning-Bo; Zhang, Yu; Ye, Xing-Qian; Li, Shan; Hu, Ya-Qin; Liu, Dong-Hong; Linhardt, Robert J; Wang, Xin; Chen, Shi-Guo

    2017-09-01

    A fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS-pg) with highly repeated structure from Pearsonothuria graeffei was subjected to a in vitro fermentation model to investigate its fermentability and effects on human gut microflora. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement found FCS-pg can be fermented to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by gut microflora from partial human fecal samples. 16S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiling and real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that FCS-pg mainly increased the proportions of Clostridium cluster XI, Bacteriodes prevotella group, Bifidobacterium genus, Clostridium cluster I and Clostridium cluster XIVab, whereas the numbers of the Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus decreased. These results indicated that FCS-pg was mainly fermented by Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium and Clostridium. It increased the content of probiotics bacteria in achieving health-enhancing effect, was slightly different than most sulfated polysaccharides from marine animals. The current study provides useful new information on the mechanism of absorption and functional activity on FCS-pg within the gastrointestinal tract of the human body. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. A study of relations between physicochemical properties of crude oils and microbiological characteristics of reservoir microflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, I. G.; Polishchuk, Yu. M.; Peremitina, T. O.

    2015-10-01

    The dependence of the population and activity of reservoir microflora upon the chemical composition and viscosity of crude oils has been investigated, since it allows the problem of improvement in the technologies and enhancement of oil recovery as applied to production of difficult types of oils with anomalous properties (viscous, heavy, waxy, high resin) to be solved. The effect of the chemical composition of the oil on the number, distribution, and activity of reservoir microflora has been studied using data on the microbiological properties of reservoir water of 16 different fields in oil and gas basins of Russia, Mongolia, China, and Vietnam. Information on the physicochemical properties of crude oils of these fields has been obtained from the database created at the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch on the physicochemical properties of oils throughout the world. It has been found that formation water in viscous oil reservoirs is char acterized by a large population of heterotrophic and sulfate reducing bacteria and the water of oil fields with a high paraffin content, by population of denitrifying bacteria.

  2. FEATURES OF THE LARGE INTESTINE MICROFLORA OF CHILDREN – DONOR LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Gabrielyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study microecology of the large intestine of children with cirrhosis before transplantation of the share liver. Materials and methods. Studied the flora of the colon 157 children of 1 to 17 years admitted to hospital for liver transplantation fragment from a related donor. Identification was carried out using microbial panels BD Crystal and databases BBL Crystal MIND. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci were determined by their sensiti- vity to oxacillin and cefoxitin. Beta-lactamase activity was tested using discs with ceftazidime and ceftazidime/ clavulanic acid. Results. Microecological revealed deep irregularities in the large intestine transplantation in children up lobe of the liver on a spectrum and composition of the microflora. Among the resident microflora decreased levels of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and coliform bacteria, especially in children under one year. A sig- nificant portion of the children surveyed (over 60–70% had an increase of frequency of finding stateally bacteria, especially Klebsiella and enterobacteria in third children – non-fermenting bacteria – Pseudomonas and Acine- tobacter spp. Revealed the spread of strains of gram-negative bacteria with extended-spectrum betalaktamaz.Conclusion. Expressed microecological violations in the large intestine in children with higher levels of bac- teria are conditionally risk factor reeks of infectious complications in the postoperative period and require are complex tools to assist in eliminatsii.s given antibiotic resistance of bacteria. 

  3. Pyrosequencing of Plaque Microflora In Twin Children with Discordant Caries Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    Full Text Available Despite recent successes in the control of dental caries, the mechanism of caries development remains unclear. To investigate the causes of dental decay, especially in early childhood caries, the supragingival microflora composition of 20 twins with discordant caries phenotypes were analyzed using high-throughput pyrosequencing. In addition, the parents completed a lifestyle questionnaire. A total of 228,789 sequencing reads revealed 10 phyla, 84 genera, and 155 species of microflora, the relative abundances of these strains varied dramatically among the children, Comparative analysis between groups revealed that Veillonella, Corynebacterium and Actinomyces were presumed to be caries-related genera, Fusobacterium, Kingella and Leptotrichia were presumed to be healthy-related genus, yet this six genera were not statistically significant (P>0.05. Moreover, a cluster analysis revealed that the microbial composition of samples in the same group was often dissimilar but that the microbial composition observed in twins was usually similar. Although the genetic and environmental factors that strongly influence the microbial composition of dental caries remains unknown, we speculate that genetic factors primarily influence the individual's susceptibility to dental caries and that environmental factors primarily regulate the microbial composition of the dental plaque and the progression to caries. By using improved twins models and increased sample sizes, our study can be extended to analyze the specific genetic and environmental factors that affect the development of caries.

  4. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example......, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity...... biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life....

  5. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  6. Bacterial Actins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izoré, Thierry; van den Ent, Fusinita

    2017-01-01

    A diverse set of protein polymers, structurally related to actin filaments contributes to the organization of bacterial cells as cytomotive or cytoskeletal filaments. This chapter describes actin homologs encoded by bacterial chromosomes. MamK filaments, unique to magnetotactic bacteria, help establishing magnetic biological compasses by interacting with magnetosomes. Magnetosomes are intracellular membrane invaginations containing biomineralized crystals of iron oxide that are positioned by MamK along the long-axis of the cell. FtsA is widespread across bacteria and it is one of the earliest components of the divisome to arrive at midcell, where it anchors the cell division machinery to the membrane. FtsA binds directly to FtsZ filaments and to the membrane through its C-terminus. FtsA shows altered domain architecture when compared to the canonical actin fold. FtsA's subdomain 1C replaces subdomain 1B of other members of the actin family and is located on the opposite side of the molecule. Nevertheless, when FtsA assembles into protofilaments, the protofilament structure is preserved, as subdomain 1C replaces subdomain IB of the following subunit in a canonical actin filament. MreB has an essential role in shape-maintenance of most rod-shaped bacteria. Unusually, MreB filaments assemble from two protofilaments in a flat and antiparallel arrangement. This non-polar architecture implies that both MreB filament ends are structurally identical. MreB filaments bind directly to membranes where they interact with both cytosolic and membrane proteins, thereby forming a key component of the elongasome. MreB filaments in cells are short and dynamic, moving around the long axis of rod-shaped cells, sensing curvature of the membrane and being implicated in peptidoglycan synthesis.

  7. Mucosal effects of tenofovir 1% gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Florian; Burgener, Adam; Ballweber, Lamar; Gottardo, Raphael; Vojtech, Lucia; Fourati, Slim; Dai, James Y; Cameron, Mark J; Strobl, Johanna; Hughes, Sean M; Hoesley, Craig; Andrew, Philip; Johnson, Sherri; Piper, Jeanna; Friend, David R; Ball, T Blake; Cranston, Ross D; Mayer, Kenneth H; McElrath, M Juliana; McGowan, Ian

    2015-02-03

    Tenofovir gel is being evaluated for vaginal and rectal pre-exposure prophylaxis against HIV transmission. Because this is a new prevention strategy, we broadly assessed its effects on the mucosa. In MTN-007, a phase-1, randomized, double-blinded rectal microbicide trial, we used systems genomics/proteomics to determine the effect of tenofovir 1% gel, nonoxynol-9 2% gel, placebo gel or no treatment on rectal biopsies (15 subjects/arm). We also treated primary vaginal epithelial cells from four healthy women with tenofovir in vitro. After seven days of administration, tenofovir 1% gel had broad-ranging effects on the rectal mucosa, which were more pronounced than, but different from, those of the detergent nonoxynol-9. Tenofovir suppressed anti-inflammatory mediators, increased T cell densities, caused mitochondrial dysfunction, altered regulatory pathways of cell differentiation and survival, and stimulated epithelial cell proliferation. The breadth of mucosal changes induced by tenofovir indicates that its safety over longer-term topical use should be carefully monitored.

  8. [Recurrent pulmonary infection and oral mucosal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Fei-Mei; Tang, Lan-Lan; Zhang, Hui; Xie, Min; Yang, Ming-Hua; Yang, Liang-Chun; Yu, Yan; Cao, Li-Zhi

    2017-04-01

    An 8-year-old girl who had experienced intermittent cough and fever over a 3 year period, was admitted after experiencing a recurrence for one month. One year ago the patient experienced a recurrent oral mucosal ulcer. Physical examination showed vitiligo in the skin of the upper right back. Routine blood tests and immune function tests performed in other hospitals had shown normal results. Multiple lung CT scans showed pulmonary infection. The patient had recurrent fever and cough and persistent presence of some lesions after anti-infective therapy. The antitubercular therapy was ineffective. Routine blood tests after admission showed agranulocytosis. Gene detection was performed and she was diagnosed with dyskeratosis congenita caused by homozygous mutation in RTEL1. Patients with dyskeratosis congenita with RTEL1 gene mutation tend to develop pulmonary complications. Since RTEL1 gene sequence is highly variable with many mutation sites and patterns and can be inherited via autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance, this disease often has various clinical manifestations, which may lead to missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. For children with unexplained recurrent pulmonary infection, examinations of the oral cavity, skin, and nails and toes should be taken and routine blood tests should be performed to exclude dyskeratosis congenita. There are no specific therapies for dyskeratosis congenita at present, and when bone marrow failure and pulmonary failure occur, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and lung transplantation are the only therapies. Androgen and its derivatives are effective in some patients. Drugs targeting the telomere may be promising for patients with dyskeratosis congenita.

  9. Role of helminths in regulating mucosal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Joel V; Summers, Robert W; Elliott, David E

    2005-09-01

    The rapid rise in prevalence of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) in highly developed countries suggests that environmental change engenders risk for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Eradication of parasitic worms (helminths) through increased hygiene may be one such change that has led to increased prevalence of these diseases. Helminths alter host mucosal and systemic immunity, inhibiting dysregulated inflammatory responses. Animals exposed to helminths are protected from experimental colitis, encephalitis, and diabetes. Patients with CD or UC improve when exposed to whipworm. Lamina propria (LP) mononuclear cells from helminth-colonized mice make less interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and IFN-gamma, but more IL-4, IL-13, IL-10, TGF-beta, and PGE(2) compared to LP mononuclear cells from naive mice. Systemic immune responses show similar skewing toward Th2 and regulatory cytokine production in worm-colonized animal models and humans. Recent reports suggest that helminths induce regulatory T cell activity. These effects by once ubiquitous organisms may have protected individuals from many of the emerging immune-mediated illnesses like IBD, multiple sclerosis, type I diabetes, and asthma.

  10. Mucosal T cells in gut homeostasis and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    van Wijk, Femke; Cheroutre, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    The antigen-rich environment of the gut interacts with a highly integrated and specialized mucosal immune system that has the challenging task of preventing invasion and the systemic spread of microbes, while avoiding excessive or unnecessary immune responses to innocuous antigens. Disruption of the mucosal barrier and/or defects in gut immune regulatory networks may lead to chronic intestinal inflammation as seen in inflammatory bowel disease. The T-cell populations of the intestine play a c...

  11. Mucosal Immune Regulation in Early Infancy: Monitoring and Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Hol, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe mucosal immune system of infants is dependent on the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Homeostasis results from the interaction between the mucosa and exogenous factors such as dietar and microbial agents. Induction and maintenance of homeostasis is a highly regluated system that involves different cell types. If homeostasis is lost this may lead to disease, including allergy and chronic intestinal inflammation. In this thesis we observed whether loss of homeostasis leading ...

  12. Radiation-induced mucositis pain in laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Atsuhito; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Iki, Takehiro; Mizuta, Masanobu; Matsubara, Mami

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy in those with head and neck malignancies often triggers painful mucositis poorly controlled by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). To better understand how radiation-induced pain develops over time, we studied the numerical rating scale (NRS 0-5) pain scores from 32 persons undergoing radiation therapy of 60-72 Gy for newly diagnosed laryngeal cancer. The degree of mucositis was evaluated using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version3.0 (CTCAE v3.0). We divided the 32 into a conventional fractionation (CF) group of 14 and a hyperfractionation (HF) group of 18, and further divided laryngeal cancer into a small-field group of 23 and a large-field group of 9. The mucositis pain course was similar in CF and HF, but mucositis pain was severer in the HF group, which also required more NSAIDs. Those in the large-field group had severer pain and mucositis and required more NSAIDs than those in the small-field group. We therefore concluded that small/large-field radiation therapy, rather fractionation type, was related to the incidence of radiation-induced mucositis pain. (author)

  13. Differential Apoptosis in Mucosal and Dermal Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ariel; Francis, Marybeth; DiPietro, Luisa Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Dermal and mucosal healing are mechanistically similar. However, scarring and closure rates are dramatically improved in mucosal healing, possibly due to differences in apoptosis. Apoptosis, nature's preprogrammed form of cell death, occurs via two major pathways, extrinsic and intrinsic, which intersect at caspase3 (Casp3) cleavage and activation. The purpose of this experiment was to identify the predominant pathways of apoptosis in mucosal and dermal wound healing. Approach: Wounds (1 mm biopsy punch) were made in the dorsal skin (n=3) or tongue (n=3) of female Balb/C mice aged 6 weeks. Wounds were harvested at 6 h, 24 h, day 3 (D3), D5, D7, and D10. RNA was isolated and analyzed using real time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Expression levels for genes in the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were compared in dermal and mucosal wounds. Results: Compared to mucosal healing, dermal wounds exhibited significantly higher expression of Casp3 (at D5; phealing compared to skin. Conclusion: Expression patterns of key regulators of apoptosis in wound healing indicate that apoptosis occurs predominantly through the intrinsic pathway in the healing mucosa, but predominantly through the extrinsic pathway in the healing skin. The identification of differences in the apoptotic pathways in skin and mucosal wounds may allow the development of therapeutics to improve skin healing. PMID:25493209

  14. Differences in Bacterial Population in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbum Fry after Transfer from Incubator to Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kapetanović

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The microflora of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum fry from a commercial freshwater hatchery, along with important water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH, was analysed. Samples for bacteriological analysis were taken from gill, heart and kidney, from the third to the eighth week after hatching. Pure bacterial colonies were examined macroscopically, with Gram staining and biochemical tests. For final identification, the APILAB Plus programme (bioMérieux, France was used. The bacterial populations of rainbow trout fry changed depending on age. Most of the bacterial colonies were cultured from the gills (64.4 %, rather than the heart (21.8 % and kidney (13.8 %. The bacterial community of fry gills from an incubator was composed mostly of Gram-positive bacteria such as Renibacterium salmoninarum, Lactobacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Corynebacterium aquaticum. After the transfer of fry from incubator into the pools the Gram-negative bacteria increased in number and became the dominant microflora of rainbow trout fry and comprised more than 95 % of its bacterial flora. Flavibacterium, Acinetobacter and Yersinia were the predominant Gram-negative genera in fry in the incubator, whereas Aeromonas and Pseudomonas were the main isolates from rainbow trout fry until the end of the experiment.

  15. Use of pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the effects of probiotics and essential oil blends on digestive microflora in broilers under mixed Eimeria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Michael E; Barbosa, Nei A; Dowd, Scot E; Sakomura, Nilva K; Nalian, Armen G; Martynova-Van Kley, Alexandra; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O

    2011-11-01

    A protective digestive microflora helps prevent and reduce broiler infection and colonization by enteropathogens. In the current experiment, broilers fed diets supplemented with probiotics and essential oil (EO) blends were infected with a standard mixed Eimeria spp. to determine effects of performance enhancers on ileal and cecal microbial communities (MCs). Eight treatment groups included four controls (uninfected-unmedicated [UU], unmedicated-infected, the antibiotic BMD plus the ionophore Coban as positive control, and the ionophore as negative control), and four treatments (probiotics BC-30 and Calsporin; and EO, Crina Poultry Plus, and Crina PoultryAF). Day-old broilers were raised to 14 days in floor pens on used litter and then were moved to Petersime batteries and inoculated at 15 days with mixed Eimeria spp. Ileal and cecal samples were collected at 14 days and 7 days postinfection. Digesta DNA was subjected to pyrosequencing for sequencing of individual cecal bacteria and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for determination of changes in ileal and cecal MC according to percentage similarity coefficient (%SC). Pyrosequencing is very sensitive detecting shifts in individual bacterial sequences, whereas DGGE is able to detect gross shifts in entire MC. These combined techniques offer versatility toward identifying feed additive and mild Eimeria infection modulation of broiler MC. Pyrosequencing detected 147 bacterial species sequences. Additionally, pyrosequencing revealed the presence of relatively low levels of the potential human enteropathogens Campylobacter sp. and four Shigella spp. as well as the potential poultry pathogen Clostridiun perfringens. Pre- and postinfection changes in ileal (56%SC) and cecal (78.5%SC) DGGE profiles resulted from the coccidia infection and with increased broiler age. Probiotics and EO changed MC from those seen in UU ilea and ceca. Results potentially reflect the performance enhancement above expectations in

  16. Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells: New Insights into Antigen Recognition and Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells, a novel subpopulation of innate-like T cells that express an invariant T cell receptor (TCRα chain and a diverse TCRβ chain, can recognize a distinct set of small molecules, vitamin B metabolites, derived from some bacteria, fungi but not viruses, in the context of an evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility complex-related molecule 1 (MR1. This implies that MAIT cells may play unique and important roles in host immunity. Although viral antigens are not recognized by this limited TCR repertoire, MAIT cells are known to be activated in a TCR-independent mechanism during some viral infections, such as hepatitis C virus and influenza virus. In this article, we will review recent works in MAIT cell antigen recognition, activation and the role MAIT cells may play in the process of bacterial and viral infections and pathogenesis of non-infectious diseases.

  17. A High Grain Diet Dynamically Shifted the Composition of Mucosa-Associated Microbiota and Induced Mucosal Injuries in the Colon of Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the dynamic shifts in mucosa-associated microbiota composition and mucosal morphology in the colon of sheep fed a high grain (HG diet. A total of 20 male sheep were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 5 for each. The sheep in first group received hay diet. The animals in other 3 groups were fed an HG diet for 7 (HG7, 14 (HG14, or 28 (HG28 days, respectively. Colonic digesta samples were collected to determine the pH and the concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA and lactate. The colonic mucosa was sampled to characterize the bacterial communities using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and to determine mRNA expression levels of cytokines and tight junction protein genes using quantitative real-time PCR. As time advanced, results revealed that colonic pH linearly decreased (P = 0.007, and the concentrations of total VFA linearly increased (P < 0.001. Microbial analysis showed that an HG diet linearly reduced (P < 0.050 the diversity and richness of the colonic microbiota. The principal coordinate analysis results showed that the colonic mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the four groups significantly shifted with number of days fed an HG diet. At the genus level, HG feeding significantly increased the relative abundance of some taxa including Prevotella, Coprococcus, Roseburia, and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, and decreased the proportion of Treponema, and the percentage of these taxa was not affected by days fed an HG diet. The microscopic examination showed that HG feeding caused the mucosal epithelial injury. The RT-PCR results showed that the mRNA expression of claudin-1 (P = 0.038, IL-1β (P = 0.045, IL-6 (P = 0.050, and TNF-α (P = 0.020 increased linearly with number of days fed an HG diet. The correlation analysis revealed significant correlation between the colonic mucosal mRNA expression of cytokines and mucosal bacterial composition. Generally, HG feeding increased colonic fermentation and altered colonic

  18. Mucosal immunization using proteoliposome and cochleate structures from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B induce mucosal and systemic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Judith Del; Zayas, Caridad; Romeu, Belkis; Acevedo, Reinaldo; González, Elizabeth; Bracho, Gustavo; Cuello, Maribel; Cabrera, Osmir; Balboa, Julio; Lastre, Miriam

    2009-12-01

    Most pathogens either invade the body or establish infection in mucosal tissues and represent an enormous challenge for vaccine development by the absence of good mucosal adjuvants. A proteoliposome-derived adjuvant from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (AFPL1, Adjuvant Finlay Proteoliposome 1) and its derived cochleate form (Co, AFCo1) contain multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns as immunopotentiators, and can also serve as delivery systems to elicit a Th1-type immune response. The present studies demonstrate the ability of AFPL1and AFCo1 to induce mucosal and systemic immune responses by different mucosal immunizations routes and significant adjuvant activity for antibody responses of both structures: a microparticle and a nanoparticle with a heterologous antigen. Therefore, we used female mice immunized by intragastric, intravaginal, intranasal or intramuscular routes with both structures alone or incorporated with ovalbumin (OVA). High levels of specific IgG antibody were detected in all sera and in vaginal washes, but specific IgA antibody in external secretions was only detected in mucosally immunized mice. Furthermore, antigen specific IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes were all induced. AFPL1 and AFCo1 are capable of inducing IFN-gamma responses, and chemokine secretions, like MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta. However, AFCo1 is a better alternative to induce immune responses at mucosal level. Even when we use a heterologous antigen, the AFCo1 response was better than with AFPL1 in inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. These results support the use of AFCo1 as a potent Th1 inducing adjuvant particularly suitable for mucosal immunization.

  19. Deep, subsurface microflora after excavation respiration and biomass and its potential role in degradation of fossil organic matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Kříbek, B.; Schaeffer, P.; Bartuška, Martin; Galertová, R.; Rojík, P.; Krištůfek, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 5 (2011), s. 389-396 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : microflora * biomass * fossil organic matter Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.677, year: 2011

  20. Comparison of the fecal microflora of Seventh-Day Adventists with individuals consuming a general diet. Implications concerning colonic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, M J; Smith, J W; Nichols, R L

    1977-07-01

    Qualitative and quantitative fecal microflora was studied in a double blind fashion in 28 subjects. Fourteen were Seventh-Day Adventists, who were strict vegetarians, while the remaining 14 subjects were individuals consuming a general western diet. No statistically significant differences were identified in the fecal microflora of the two groups. The bacteriologic analysis included total aerobes and total anaerobes as well as each of the major fecal aerobes and anaerobes. This study seems to indicate that the dietary intake of animal fat and protein does not significantly alter the fecal microflora, a possibility which has previously been suggested as being part of the explanation for the higher incidence of colonic carcinoma in those who consume meat compared with vegetarians. It does not, however, invalidate the concept that dietary animal fat does increase bile acid degradation within the gastrointestinal tract, a factor which has been related to colon cancer. Future studies should be directed at identifying the factors that may be present in the gastrointestinal tracts of vegetarians which modify the ability of their colonic microflora to degrade bile acids, an essential step in the production of intraluminal carcinogens or co-carcinogens.

  1. Microbial DNA fingerprinting of human fingerprints: dynamic colonization of fingertip microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tims (Sebastian); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); H.P. Endtz (Hubert); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHuman fingertip microflora is transferred to touched objects and may provide forensically relevant information on individual hosts, such as on geographic origins, if endogenous microbial skin species/strains would be retrievable from physical fingerprints and would carry geographically

  2. Feasibility study on the application of rhizosphere microflora of rice for the biohydrogen production from wasted bread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Tetsuya [Field Production Science Center, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Nishitokyo, Tokyo 188-0002 (Japan); Nishihara Environment Technology Inc., Tokyo 108-0023 (Japan); Matsumoto, Hisami [Nishihara Environment Technology Inc., Tokyo 108-0023 (Japan); Abe, Jun [AE-Bio, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Morita, Shigenori [Field Production Science Center, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Nishitokyo, Tokyo 188-0002 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    We performed an experiment of continuous anaerobic hydrogen fermentation as a pilot-plant-scale test, in which waste from a bread factory was fermented by microflora of rice rhizosphere origin. The community structure of microflora during anaerobic hydrogen fermentation was analyzed using PCR-DGGE, FISH, and quinone profiles. The relation of those results to hydrogen generation was discussed. Results show that a suitable condition was a reactor temperature of 35 C, with HRT 12-36 h, volume load of 30-70 kg-COD{sub Cr}/m{sup 3} day, and maximum hydrogen production rate of 1.30 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-hexose. Regarding characteristics of microflora during fermentation, PCR-DGGE results show specific 16S rDNA band patterns; Megasphaera elsdenii and Clostridium sp. of the hydrogen-producing bacteria were identified. M. elsdenii was detected throughout the fermentation period, while Clostridium sp. of hydrogen-producing bacteria was detected on the 46th day. Furthermore, FISH revealed large amounts of Clostridium spp. in the sample. The quinone profile showed that the dominant molecular species of quinone is MK-7. Because Clostridium spp. belong to MK-7, results suggest that the quinone profile result agrees with the results of PCR-DGGE and FISH. Microflora in the rhizosphere of rice plants can be a possible resource for effective bacteria of biohydrogen production. (author)

  3. Protein energy malnutrition alters mucosal IgA responses and reduces mucosal vaccine efficacy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Semi; Kim, Heejoo; Shim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Seung Young; Kim, Min Jung; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho; Han, Byung Woo; Song, Man Ki; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Kim, Jae-Ouk

    2017-10-01

    Oral vaccine responsiveness is often lower in children from less developed countries. Childhood malnutrition may be associated with poor immune response to oral vaccines. The present study was designed to investigate whether protein energy malnutrition (PEM) impairs B cell immunity and ultimately reduces oral vaccine efficacy in a mouse model. Purified isocaloric diets containing low protein (1/10 the protein of the control diet) were used to determine the effect of PEM. PEM increased both nonspecific total IgA and oral antigen-specific IgA in serum without alteration of gut permeability. However, PEM decreased oral antigen-specific IgA in feces, which is consistent with decreased expression of polymeric Immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) in the small intestine. Of note, polymeric IgA was predominant in serum under PEM. In addition, PEM altered B cell development status in the bone marrow and increased the frequency of IgA-secreting B cells, as well as IgA secretion by long-lived plasma cells in the small intestinal lamina propria. Moreover, PEM reduced the protective efficacy of the mucosally administered cholera vaccine and recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine in a mouse model. Our results suggest that PEM can impair mucosal immunity where IgA plays an important role in host protection and may partly explain the reduced efficacy of oral vaccines in malnourished subjects. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. MICROBIAL LANDSCAPE OF MICROFLORA OF A PHARYNX AT PATIENTS WITH TONSILLIT’S PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Borisova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial landscape of microflora of a pharynx at patients with tonsillit’s pathology were studied. Materials and methods. 79 patients from GBUZ “Research Institute of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology” (78.5% patients with various forms of chronic tonsillitis and 21.5% of patients without chronic tonsillitis (control group. Among patients of the main group with chronic tonsillitis, at 60 (96.8% patients there was a diagnosis chronic tonsillitis a toxical-allergic form of 1 degree (TAF I, at 1 (1.6% the patient — chronic tonsillitis a toxical-allergic form II of degree (TAF II and at 1 (1.6% the patient — chronic tonsillitis. Identification of microorganisms carried out on cultural-morphological and biochemical properties. Specific identification of the hardly cultivated microorganisms and Corynebacterium was carried out by MALDI-TOFF MS of BioMerieux VITEK MS MALDI-TOF (“bioMerieux”, France. Identification of the allocated Corynebacterium was carried out by amplification of a gene rpoB and the subsequent direct sequencing. Results. The majority (98.7% of the allocated microorganisms, treated 27 types and were Gram-positive. It is revealed 159 strains of 29 species of microorganisms, from them 41.4% of strains belonged to the Streptococcus, 19.7% — Staphylococcus, 36.9% — Corynebacterium. Among Streptococcus — 55.4% of S. viridans, 38.4% — S. pyogenes and 3.1% — of S. pneumoniae и S. oralis; Staphylococcus — 64.5% of S. aureus, 32.2% of S. epidermidis and 3.3% of S. hominis. 18 types of Corynebacterium — С. tuberculostearicum (17.2% strains, C. рseudodiphtheriticum (15.5% strains and C. aurimucosum (18.9% strains are revealed. At 44.3% of the surveyed patients the microflora is presented by a monoculture and at 55.7% associations are revealed. Conclusion. The microflora at patients with tonsillit’s pathology is characterized. At the expressed pathological process in a microbiota of a pharynx the monoculture while

  5. Underwater colorectal EMR: remodeling endoscopic mucosal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Gabriele; Granata, Antonino; Ligresti, Dario; Tarantino, Ilaria; Barresi, Luca; Liotta, Rosa; Traina, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Underwater EMR (UEMR) has been reported as a new technique for the removal of large sessile colorectal polyps without need for submucosal injection. To evaluate (1) outcomes of UEMR, (2) whether UEMR can be easily performed by an endoscopist skilled in traditional EMR without specific dedicated training in UEMR, and (3) whether EUS is required before UEMR. Prospective, observational study. Single, tertiary-care referral center. Underwater EMR. Complete resection and adverse events. A total of 72 consecutive patients underwent UEMR of 81 sessile colorectal polyps. EUS was performed before UEMR in 9 cases (11.1%) with a suspicious mucosal/vascular pattern. The mean polyp size was 18.7 mm (range 10-50 mm); the mean UEMR time was 11.8 minutes. Fifty-five polyps (68%) were removed en bloc, and 26 (32%) were removed with a piecemeal technique. Histopathology consisted of tubular adenomas (25.9%), tubulovillous adenomas (5%), adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (42%), serrated polyps (4.9%), carcinoma in situ (13.6%), and hyperplastic polyps (8.6%). Surveillance colonoscopy was scheduled at 3 months. Complete resection was successful in all patients. No adverse events or recurrence was recorded in any of the patients. Limited follow-up; single-center, uncontrolled study. Interventional endoscopists skilled in conventional EMR performed UEMR without specific dedicated training. EUS may not be required for lesions with no invasive features on high-definition narrow-band imaging. UEMR appears to be an effective and safe alternative to traditional EMR and could eventually improve the way in which we can effectively and safely treat colorectal lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clotrimazole nanoparticle gel for mucosal administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Elisabetta, E-mail: ese@unife.it [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Ravani, Laura [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Contado, Catia [Department of Chemistry, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Costenaro, Andrea [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Drechsler, Markus [Macromolecular Chemistry II, University of Bayreuth (Germany); Rossi, Damiano [Department of Biology and Evolution, LT Terra and Acqua Tech UR7, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Menegatti, Enea [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Grandini, Alessandro [Department of Biology and Evolution, LT Terra and Acqua Tech UR7, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Cortesi, Rita [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2013-01-01

    In this study a formulation suitable to be applied on oral and/or vaginal mucosa has been developed for the treatment of fungal infections. The aim of the research is a comparison between clotrimazole (CLO) containing semisolid formulations based on monoolein aqueous dispersion (MAD) or nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). MAD and NLC have been characterized in terms of morphology and dimensional distribution by cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM) and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). CLO was encapsulated with high entrapment efficiency both in MAD and in NLC, according to Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF) combined with HPLC. CLO recovery in MAD and NLC has been investigated by time. In order to obtain formulations with suitable viscosity for mucosal application, MAD was diluted with a carbomer gel, while NLC was directly viscosized by the addition of poloxamer 407 in the dispersion. The rheological properties of MAD and NLC after viscosizing have been investigated. Franz cell has been employed to study CLO diffusion from the different vehicles, evidencing diffusion rates from MAD and NLC superimposable to that obtained using Canesten{sup Registered-Sign }. An anticandidal activity study demonstrated that both CLO-MAD and CLO-NLC were more active against Candida albicans with respect to the pure drug. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between monoolein aqueous dispersion (MAD) and nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clotrimazole (CLO) encapsulated with high entrapment efficiency both in MAD and in NLC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solid matrix of NLC controls CLO degradation better than MAD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CLO containing MAD and NLC exhibits a higher anticandidal activity than the free drug. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple production of CLO-NLC based poloxamer gel, suitable for industry scaling up.

  7. Clotrimazole nanoparticle gel for mucosal administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Ravani, Laura; Contado, Catia; Costenaro, Andrea; Drechsler, Markus; Rossi, Damiano; Menegatti, Enea; Grandini, Alessandro; Cortesi, Rita

    2013-01-01

    In this study a formulation suitable to be applied on oral and/or vaginal mucosa has been developed for the treatment of fungal infections. The aim of the research is a comparison between clotrimazole (CLO) containing semisolid formulations based on monoolein aqueous dispersion (MAD) or nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). MAD and NLC have been characterized in terms of morphology and dimensional distribution by cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM) and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). CLO was encapsulated with high entrapment efficiency both in MAD and in NLC, according to Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF) combined with HPLC. CLO recovery in MAD and NLC has been investigated by time. In order to obtain formulations with suitable viscosity for mucosal application, MAD was diluted with a carbomer gel, while NLC was directly viscosized by the addition of poloxamer 407 in the dispersion. The rheological properties of MAD and NLC after viscosizing have been investigated. Franz cell has been employed to study CLO diffusion from the different vehicles, evidencing diffusion rates from MAD and NLC superimposable to that obtained using Canesten ® . An anticandidal activity study demonstrated that both CLO-MAD and CLO-NLC were more active against Candida albicans with respect to the pure drug. Highlights: ► Comparison between monoolein aqueous dispersion (MAD) and nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). ► Clotrimazole (CLO) encapsulated with high entrapment efficiency both in MAD and in NLC. ► The solid matrix of NLC controls CLO degradation better than MAD. ► CLO containing MAD and NLC exhibits a higher anticandidal activity than the free drug. ► Simple production of CLO-NLC based poloxamer gel, suitable for industry scaling up

  8. Host imprints on bacterial genomes--rapid, divergent evolution in individual patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Zdziarski

    Full Text Available Bacteria lose or gain genetic material and through selection, new variants become fixed in the population. Here we provide the first, genome-wide example of a single bacterial strain's evolution in different deliberately colonized patients and the surprising insight that hosts appear to personalize their microflora. By first obtaining the complete genome sequence of the prototype asymptomatic bacteriuria strain E. coli 83972 and then resequencing its descendants after therapeutic bladder colonization of different patients, we identified 34 mutations, which affected metabolic and virulence-related genes. Further transcriptome and proteome analysis proved that these genome changes altered bacterial gene expression resulting in unique adaptation patterns in each patient. Our results provide evidence that, in addition to stochastic events, adaptive bacterial evolution is driven by individual host environments. Ongoing loss of gene function supports the hypothesis that evolution towards commensalism rather than virulence is favored during asymptomatic bladder colonization.

  9. Evaluation of the bacterial diversity of pressure ulcers using bTEFAP pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Drake M; Snow, David E; Rees, Eric; Zischkau, Ann M; Hanson, J Delton; Wolcott, Randall D; Sun, Yan; White, Jennifer; Kumar, Shashi; Dowd, Scot E

    2010-09-21

    Decubitus ulcers, also known as bedsores or pressure ulcers, affect millions of hospitalized patients each year. The microflora of chronic wounds such as ulcers most commonly exist in the biofilm phenotype and have been known to significantly impair normal healing trajectories. Bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP), a universal bacterial identification method, was used to identify bacterial populations in 49 decubitus ulcers. Diversity estimators were utilized and wound community compositions analyzed in relation to metadata such as Age, race, gender, and comorbidities. Decubitus ulcers are shown to be polymicrobial in nature with no single bacterium exclusively colonizing the wounds. The microbial community among such ulcers is highly variable. While there are between 3 and 10 primary populations in each wound there can be hundreds of different species present many of which are in trace amounts. There is no clearly significant differences in the microbial ecology of decubitus ulcer in relation to metadata except when considering diabetes. The microbial populations and composition in the decubitus ulcers of diabetics may be significantly different from the communities in non-diabetics. Based upon the continued elucidation of chronic wound bioburdens as polymicrobial infections, it is recommended that, in addition to traditional biofilm-based wound care strategies, an antimicrobial/antibiofilm treatment program can be tailored to each patient's respective wound microflora.

  10. Evaluation of the bacterial diversity of Pressure ulcers using bTEFAP pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolcott Randall D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decubitus ulcers, also known as bedsores or pressure ulcers, affect millions of hospitalized patients each year. The microflora of chronic wounds such as ulcers most commonly exist in the biofilm phenotype and have been known to significantly impair normal healing trajectories. Methods Bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP, a universal bacterial identification method, was used to identify bacterial populations in 49 decubitus ulcers. Diversity estimators were utilized and wound community compositions analyzed in relation to metadata such as Age, race, gender, and comorbidities. Results Decubitus ulcers are shown to be polymicrobial in nature with no single bacterium exclusively colonizing the wounds. The microbial community among such ulcers is highly variable. While there are between 3 and 10 primary populations in each wound there can be hundreds of different species present many of which are in trace amounts. There is no clearly significant differences in the microbial ecology of decubitus ulcer in relation to metadata except when considering diabetes. The microbial populations and composition in the decubitus ulcers of diabetics may be significantly different from the communities in non-diabetics. Conclusions Based upon the continued elucidation of chronic wound bioburdens as polymicrobial infections, it is recommended that, in addition to traditional biofilm-based wound care strategies, an antimicrobial/antibiofilm treatment program can be tailored to each patient's respective wound microflora.

  11. Effect of operating conditions on the development of microflora in the fermentation of beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzburskaya, F M; Zaprudnova, E P

    1955-01-01

    The process of beet-molasses fermentation for making industrial alcohol is influenced by a series of conditions among which are: the quality of the wort, the temperature of fermentation, the amount of the products formed by the activity of the yeast, and the microflora of the mass. The scope of the present work covers the influence of the following: (a) the concentation and the acidity of the wort; (b the alcohol content of the fermenting material; (c) the amount of starting yeast added; (d) the temperature maintained. Results are shown condensed in 23 plots. They are summarized by the authors as optimum conditions for fermentation: high concentrations of wort, a high concentration of alcohol in the early stages of fermentation,and high amounts of starting yeast.

  12. Microbiological parameters indicators of the effect of diuron on soil microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Rosana Faria

    1999-01-01

    A biomassa microbiana (Cmic), a respiração básica (RB), as razões Cmic:Corg e o qCO2 foram usados para avaliar o efeito do herbicida diuron, nas dosagens de 0, 2 e 20 mig g-1 , na microflora do solo. O estudo foi conduzido em dois solos com texturas diferentes, e as avaliações, realizadas aos 0, 3, 10, 20 e 33 dias após a aplicação do pesticida. No solo mais argiloso, o Cmic e a razão Cmic:Corg forneceram resultados semelhantes quanto ao efeito prejudicial do diuron. A RB não foi afetada pelo...

  13. CURRENCY OF THE MICROFLORA CORRECTION WHEN BEGINNING FEEDING WITH ADDITIONAL FOOD AND ARTIFICIAL MILK FORMULAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Toptchiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children feeding with breast milk have significantly lower risk of gastrointestinal infectious diseases development, than children feeding with artificial milk formulas. At the beginning of feeding with additional food influence of allogenic antigens on child’s organism is increasing, which can lead to disturbances in microbiocoenosis of the gastro-intestinal tract. This causes stool disorders, intestinal colic, dyspepsia, dermatitis, allergic reactions, immunodeficiency with recurrent relapses of infections and development of non-infectious disease and their transition into chronic condition. Forming of the malabsorption syndrome at the background of such conditions leads to growth and mental development retardation of children. Numerous clinical trials proved the beneficial effects of the probiotic Hylak Forte on intestinal microflora in disbiosis.

  14. NORMAL NASOPHARYNGEAL MICROFLORA AS A RESERVOIR OF MULTIRESISTANT STRAINS OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minukhin V.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharinheal carriage of bacteria may play a central role in the development and spread of respiratory infections. In addition, so-called "healthy" carriage is often transformed under the influence of various factors into an active infection.It is necessary to take into account not only the range of possible pathogens, but also trends in the development of antibiotic resistance of leading etiologic agents while choosing tactics of antimicrobial therapy. The investigation was designed to study the role of normal microflora of the nasopharynx as a reservoir of resistant strains of respiratory infections. Materials and Methods. Fifty three healthy individuals and 168 patients with acute upper respiratory tract infections who had been treated in CEHC "Kharkiv Municipal Clinical Hospital № 30" were examined. Microbiological study included isolation and identification of pathogens in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Health Care № 535 from 22.04.1985., determination of the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics by diffusion method according to the Order of the Ministry of Health Care of Ukraine № 167 from 05.04.2007. Results and discussion. Bacteriological study of nasal swabs of healthy people showed that the composition of the microflora of the nasopharynx contained potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Among the isolated microorganisms essential place was occupied by S. epidermidis and S. aureus, both in monoculture and association. Epidermal staphylococcus was isolated in 36 % and Staphylococcus aureus in 27% of cases. Pneumococcus and hemolytic streptococcus of group A were isolated in 23 and 14% of cases, respectively. One hundred and eighty strains of opportunistic microorganisms were isolated in the study of nasopharyngeal microflora of patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection. The leading role belonged to S. pyogenes (40.5% and S.epidermidis (33,3%. S. aureus (12,8% and S.pneumoniae (10,6% were next

  15. The Effects of GH Transgenic Goats on the Microflora of the Intestine, Feces and Surrounding Soil.

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    Zekun Bao

    Full Text Available The development of genetically engineered animals has brought with it increasing concerns about biosafety issues. We therefore evaluated the risks of growth hormone from transgenic goats, including the probability of horizontal gene transfer and the impact on the microbial community of the goats' gastrointestinal tracts, feces and the surrounding soil. The results showed that neither the GH nor the neoR gene could be detected in the samples. Moreover, there was no significant change in the microbial community of the gastrointestinal tracts, feces and soil, as tested with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rDNA sequencing. Finally, phylogenetic analysis showed that the intestinal content, feces and soil samples all contained the same dominant group of bacteria. These results demonstrated that expression of goat growth hormone in the mammary of GH transgenic goat does not influence the microflora of the intestine, feces and surrounding soil.

  16. Indice de la microflora marina de Venezuela: diatomeas, dinoflagelados y cocolitofóridos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Díaz-Ramos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre el fitoplancton marino de Venezuela han sido realizados de manera regular desde mediados del siglo XX. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no se ha realizado un compendio de las especies encontradas que sirva como marco de referencia a los trabajos taxonómicos. En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez un índice de la microflora marina de Venezuela. El índice incluye sólo las diatomeas (89 especies céntricas y 186 especies pennadas, los dinoflagelados (ocho especies atecadas y 154 especies tecadas y los cocolitóforidos (24 especies a los cuales se les realizado una diagnosis formal e ilustraciones (dibujos y/o fotografias y que han sido reportados en la literatura científica (revistas y/o tesis de licenciatura o maestría. Esta ordenado según la clase, orden, familia y especie. Además, en el se cita al autor (es de cada taxón.ha.The marine phytoplankton of Venezuela has been studied on a regular basis since the mid 20th century. However, a species checklist that can be used as a framework for taxonomic studies is lacking. In this paper, an index of the marine microflora of Venezuela is presented for the first time. The index includes only those diatoms (89 centric and 186 pennate species, dinoflagellates (eight naked and 154 thecate species and coccolithophores (24 especies for which formal diagnosis and illustrations (drawings and/or photographs have been reported in the scientific literature (journals and/or first degree or master's theses. It is ordered alphabetically according to class, order, family, and species. It includes the author (s of the taxa.

  17. Effects of isobutyrate supplementation on ruminal microflora, rumen enzyme activities and methane emissions in Simmental steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Liu, Q; Zhang, Y L; Pei, C X; Zhang, S L; Wang, Y X; Yang, W Z; Bai, Y S; Shi, Z G; Liu, X N

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of isobutyrate supplementation on rumen microflora, enzyme activities and methane emissions in Simmental steers consuming a corn stover-based diet. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. The treatments were control (without isobutyrate), low isobutyrate (LIB), moderate isobutyrate (MIB) and high isobutyrate (HIB) with 8.4, 16.8 and 25.2 g isobutyrate per steer per day respectively. Isobutyrate was hand-mixed into the concentrate portion. Diet consisted of 60% corn stover and 40% concentrate [dry matter (DM) basis]. Dry matter intake (averaged 9 kg/day) was restricted to a maximum of 90% of ad libitum intake. Population of total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and anaerobic fungi were linearly increased, whereas that of protozoa and total methanogens was linearly reduced with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Real-time PCR quantification of population of Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Fibrobacter succinogenes was linearly increased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase and β-glucosidase were linearly increased, whereas that of protease was linearly reduced. Methane production was linearly decreased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Effective degradabilities of cellulose and hemicellulose of corn stover were linearly increased, whereas that of crude protein in diet was linearly decreased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. The present results indicate that isobutyrate supplemented improved microflora, rumen enzyme activities and methane emissions in steers. It was suggested that the isobutyrate stimulated the digestive micro-organisms or enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. In the experimental conditions of this trial, the optimum isobutyrate dose was approximately 16.8 g isobutyrate per steer per day. Journal of Animal

  18. Effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide on digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora and morphology of male broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z R; Hu, C H; Xia, M S; Zhan, X A; Wang, M Q

    2003-06-01

    Two hundred forty male Avian Farms broiler chicks, 1 d of age, were randomly allocated to four treatments, each of which had five pens of 12 chicks per pen. The chicks were used to investigate the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on digestive enzyme activities and intestinal microflora and morphology. The chicks received the same basal diet based on corn-soybean meal, and FOS was added to the basal diet at 0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 g/kg diet at the expense of corn. Addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS to the basal diet significantly increased average daily gain of broilers. The feed-to-gain ratios were significantly decreased for the birds fed diets with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg FOS versus the control. Addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, but inhibited Escherichia coli in the small intestinal and cecal digesta. Supplementation of 2.0 or 4.0 g/kg FOS to chicks significantly improved the activities of amylase compared to the control (12.80 or 14.75 vs. 8.42 Somogyi units). A significant increase in the activities of total protease was observed in 4.0 g/kg FOS-treated birds versus controls (83.91 vs. 65.97 units). Morphology data for the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum showed no significant differences for villus height, crypt depth, or microvillus height at the duodenum. By contrast, addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS significantly increased ileal villus height, jejunal and ileal microvillus height, and villus-height-to-crypt-depth ratios at the jejunum and ileum and decreased crypt depth at the jejunum and ileum. However, addition of 8.0 g/kg FOS had no significant effect on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora, or morphology.

  19. A randomised clinical trial of misoprostol for radiation mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faroudi, F.; Timms, I.; Sathiyuaseelan, Y.; Cakir, B.; Tiver, K.W.; Gebski, V.; Veness, M.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation mucositis is a major acute toxicity of radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies. We tested whether Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E 1 analogue given prophylactically decreased intensity of radiation mucositis. A double blind randomized trial was conducted. The intervention consisted of swishing dissolved drug or placebo as a mouthwash, and then swallowing two hours prior to radiation treatment. Patients were stratified based on concurrent chemotherapy, altered fractionation, smoking, extent of oral mucosa in radiation field, and institution. The main end point was the extent of RTOG grade III mucositis, taking into account both time and duration of mucositis. 42 patients were randomized to active drug, and 41 patients to placebo. The trial was designed to have 70 patients in each arm. The trial closed due to poor accrual. In the Misoprostol group 18/42 (43%) had grade III/IV mucositis, and in the placebo group 17/40 (42%). The mean difference between the areas under the curve was 0.38 (p-value: 0.38). For grade II mucositis the corresponding figures were 18 (42%) and 19 (47%). The time from commencement of radiation therapy to the development of peak mucositis was 49 days in the misoprostol patients and 51 days in the placebo group. The duration of grade III mucositis 12.5 days in the Misoprostol patients and 7 days in the placebo patients. In the Misoprostol arm 4 patients had an interruption to their Radiation Therapy, in the Placebo arm 5 had interruptions. Patients average weight loss was 8.1 and 8.2kg. Average self-assessment was via a 10cm LASA scale for soreness of throat and overall well-being. Misoprostol showed a worse QoL on soreness of mouth (mean difference: 0.84 units (p-value .03), but overall well-being was similar on both treatment arms 1 patient withdrew in the Misoprostol arm and 2 in the placebo arm. Misoprostol given prophylactically does not reduce the incidence of Grade III/IV mucositis, is associated with a shorter

  20. Molecular methods to evaluate effects of feed additives and nutrients in poultry gut microflora Metodologias moleculares para avaliar efeitos de aditivos e nutrientes na microflora intestinal das aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Intestines of each animal are the niche of a complex and dynamic ecosystem with important effects to the host. The members or final products of this ecosystem influence nutrient digestion, absorption, mucosa metabolism, general physiology, and local and systemic immunological responses of avian hosts. Better understanding of the avian gut microbial ecosystem may lead to improvements on poultry productivity, health, welfare, and reduction of food borne pathogens and the environmental impact of poultry production for a more sustainable industry. Molecular methods of microbial ecology are key tools to gain this knowledge. The objective of this presentation is to outline the basic concepts, applications, advantages, limitations, and evolution of these molecular methods used to study intestinal microbial ecology. The final goal is to stimulate their application in poultry applied research and development of new feed additives. Some practical examples in poultry research will be described to illustrate their relevance to advance in control methods for pathogens, avoid or manage disbiosis or subclinical intestinal diseases, reduce environmental impact, elucidate effects of nutrients in gut mucosa, microflora, and in general to improve poultry performance.O intestino de cada animal é o nicho de um ecossistema complexo e dinâmico com efeitos importantes para o hospedeiro. As comunidades microbianas componentes deste ecossistema e/ou os produtos finais do metabolismo influenciam a digestão e absorção de nutrientes, o metabolismo das mucosas, a fisiologia geral e as respostas imunitárias locais e gerais da ave hospedeira. A melhor compreensão do ecossistema microbiano do intestino das aves pode levar a melhorias na produtividade, saúde, bem estar, e redução de agente patogênicos dos alimentos e do impacto ambiental da produção avícola para uma indústria mais sustentável. Os métodos moleculares da ecologia microbiana são ferramentas chaves

  1. A Review of Clinical Radioprotection and Chemoprotection for Oral Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Oronsky

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The first tenet of medicine, “primum non nocere” or “first, do no harm”, is not always compatible with oncological interventions e.g., chemotherapy, targeted therapy and radiation, since they commonly result in significant toxicities. One of the more frequent and serious treatment-induced toxicities is mucositis and particularly oral mucositis (OM described as inflammation, atrophy and breakdown of the mucosa or lining of the oral cavity. The sequelae of oral mucositis (OM, which include pain, odynodysphagia, dysgeusia, decreased oral intake and systemic infection, frequently require treatment delays, interruptions and discontinuations that not only negatively impact quality of life but also tumor control and survivorship. One potential strategy to reduce or prevent the development of mucositis, for which no effective therapies exist only best supportive empirical care measures, is the administration of agents referred to as radioprotectors and/or chemoprotectors, which are intended to differentially protect normal but not malignant tissue from cytotoxicity. This limited-scope review briefly summarizes the incidence, pathogenesis, symptoms and impact on patients of OM as well as the background and mechanisms of four clinical stage radioprotectors/chemoprotectors, amifostine, palifermin, GC4419 and RRx-001, with the proven or theoretical potential to minimize the development of mucositis particularly in the treatment of head and neck cancers.

  2. Bovine milk osteopontin - Targeting bacterial adhesion for biofilm control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mathilde Frost; Meyer, Rikke Louise; Schlafer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Self-performed mechanical tooth cleaning does usually not result in complete biofilm removal, due to the complex oral anatomy and the strong adhesion of the biofilm to the tooth. Therefore, different supportive measures are employed, most of which aim at the chemical eradication of bacteria...... in dental biofilms. As their bactericidal action impacts the entire oral microflora, agents that inhibit biofilm formation without killing bacteria, such as the bovine milk protein osteopontin, have gained increasing attention. Here, we investigate the adhesion of 8 bacterial species associated with dental...... subsp. paracasei, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis with 74.0%, 62.4%, 90.0%, 89.6% and 81.5%, respectively, compared to protein-free saliva. All reductions were statistically significant (p

  3. Role of viability of probiotic strains in their persistence in the gut and in mucosal immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdeano, C Maldonado; Perdigón, G

    2004-01-01

    To determine how probiotic bacteria contact with intestinal epithelial and immune cells and the conditions to induce a good mucosal immune stimulation. Lactobacillus casei was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine its interaction with the gut. We compared the influence of viable and nonviable lactic acid bacteria on the intestinal mucosal immune system (IMIS) and their persistence in the gut of mice. TEM showed whole Lact. casei adhered to the villi; the bacterial antigen was found in the cytoplasm of the enterocytes. Viable bacteria stimulated the IMIS to a greater extent than nonviable bacteria with the exception of Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. For all the strains assayed at 72 h no antigenic particles were found in the intestine. Antigenic particles but not the whole bacteria can enter to epithelial cells and contact with the immune cells. Bacterial viability is a condition for a better stimulation of the IMIS. We demonstrated that only antigenic particle interact with the immune cells and their fast clearance from the gut agrees with those described for the particulate antigens. The regular consumption of probiotics should not adversely affect the host.

  4. Colonic transit time is related to bacterial metabolism and mucosal turnover in the gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism and its importance for host health, although a firm stool consistency, a proxy for a long colonic transit time, has recently been positively associated with gut microbial richness. Here, we show that colonic transi...... does not per se imply a healthy gut microbial ecosystem and points at colonic transit time as a highly important factor to consider in microbiome and metabolomics studies.......Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism and its importance for host health, although a firm stool consistency, a proxy for a long colonic transit time, has recently been positively associated with gut microbial richness. Here, we show that colonic transit...... time in humans, assessed using radio-opaque markers, is associated with overall gut microbial composition, diversity and metabolism. We find that a long colonic transit time associates with high microbial richness and is accompanied by a shift in colonic metabolism from carbohydrate fermentation...

  5. Colonic transit time is related to bacterial metabolism and mucosal turnover in the human gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Bahl, Martin Iain

    Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism, and its importance for host health, although stool consistency, a proxy for colonic transit time, has recently been negatively associated with gut microbial richness. To address the relationships between colonic t...... imply a healthy gut microbial ecosystem and points at colonic transit time as a highly important factor to consider in microbiome and metabolomics studies.......Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism, and its importance for host health, although stool consistency, a proxy for colonic transit time, has recently been negatively associated with gut microbial richness. To address the relationships between colonic...... transit time and the gut microbial composition and metabolism, we assessed the colonic transit time of 98 subjects using radiopaque markers, and profiled their gut microbiota by16S rRNA gene sequencing and their urine metabolome by ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Based...

  6. Colonic transit time relates to bacterial metabolism and mucosal turnover in the human gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Bahl, Martin Iain

    catabolism as reflected by microbial metabolites in urine. This results in a number of potentially deleterious protein-derived metabolites. Additionally, longer colonic transit time correlates with metabolites likely reflecting reduced renewal of the colonic mucosa. Together, this suggests that a high gut...

  7. Evaluation of bacterial flora during the ripening of Kedong sufu, a typical Chinese traditional bacteria-fermented soybean product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhen; Gao, Wei; Ren, Dan; Chen, Xi; Li, Juan-juan

    2013-04-01

    Kedong sufu is a typical bacteria-fermented sufu in China. Isolation and identification of the autochthonous bacteria involved would allow the design of specific starters for this speciality. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the bacterial flora during the ripening of Kedong sufu using polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and culturing. In terms of bacterial diversity, 22 strains were isolated and identified and 27 strains were detected by DGGE. Regarding bacterial dynamics, the results of culturing and PCR-DGGE exhibited a similar trend towards dominant strains. Throughout the fermentation of sufu, Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus carnosus were the dominant microflora, while the secondary microflora comprised Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus lutetiensis, Kocuria rosea, Kocuria kristinae, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. This study is the first to reveal the bacterial flora during the ripening of Kedong sufu using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. This information will help in the design of autochthonous starter cultures for the production of Kedong sufu with desirable characteristic sensory profiles and shorter ripening times. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Bacterial Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2015-10-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is very common. In healthy women, asymptomatic bacteriuria increases with age, from women age 80 years, but is uncommon in men until after age 50 years. Individuals with underlying genitourinary abnormalities, including indwelling devices, may also have a high frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria, irrespective of age or gender. The prevalence is very high in residents of long-term-care facilities, from 25% to 50% of women and 15% to 40% of men. Escherichia coli is the most frequent organism isolated, but a wide variety of other organisms may occur. Bacteriuria may be transient or persist for a prolonged period. Pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria identified in early pregnancy and who are untreated have a risk of pyelonephritis later in pregnancy of 20% to 30%. Bacteremia is frequent in bacteriuric subjects following mucosal trauma with bleeding, with 5% to 10% of patients developing severe sepsis or septic shock. These two groups with clear evidence of negative outcomes should be screened for bacteriuria and appropriately treated. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in other populations is benign and screening and treatment are not indicated. Antimicrobial treatment has no benefits but is associated with negative outcomes including reinfection with antimicrobial resistant organisms and a short-term increased frequency of symptomatic infection post-treatment. The observation of increased symptomatic infection post-treatment, however, has led to active investigation of bacterial interference as a strategy to prevent symptomatic episodes in selected high risk patients.

  9. Dual oxidase in mucosal immunity and host-microbe homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yun Soo; Choi, Myoung Kwon; Lee, Won-Jae

    2010-07-01

    Mucosal epithelia are in direct contact with microbes, which range from beneficial symbionts to pathogens. Accordingly, hosts must have a conflicting strategy to combat pathogens efficiently while tolerating symbionts. Recent progress has revealed that dual oxidase (DUOX) plays a key role in mucosal immunity in organisms that range from flies to humans. Information from the genetic model of Drosophila has advanced our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of DUOX and its role in mucosal immunity. Further investigations of DUOX regulation in response to symbiotic or non-symbiotic bacteria and the in vivo consequences in host physiology will give a novel insight into the microbe-controlling system of the mucosa. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Peptic ulcer pathophysiology: acid, bicarbonate, and mucosal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Mertz Nielsen, A; Rune, S J

    1996-01-01

    The previously accepted role of gastric acid hypersecretion in peptic ulcer disease has been modified by studies showing no correlation between acid output and clinical outcome of ulcer disease, or between ulcer recurrence rate after vagotomy and preoperative acid secretion. At the same time......, studies have been unable to demonstrate increased acidity in the duodenal bulb in patients with duodenal ulcer, and consequently more emphasis has been given to the mucosal protecting mechanisms. The existence of an active gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion creates a pH gradient from...... cell removal and repair regulated by epidermal growth factor. Sufficient mucosal blood flow, including a normal acid/base balance, is important for subepithelial protection. In today's model of ulcer pathogenesis, gastric acid and H. pylori work in concert as aggressive factors, with the open question...

  11. Endomicroscopy for assessing mucosal healing in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Cristian; Cotruta, Bogdan; Iacob, Razvan; Becheanu, Gabriel; Dumbrava, Mona; Gheorghe, Liana

    2011-12-01

    The assessment of tissue healing has emerged as an important treatment goal in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), mucosal healing may represent the ultimate therapeutic goal due to the fact that the inflammation is limited to the mucosal layer. Mucosal and histological healing may indicate a subset of UC patients in long-term clinical, endoscopic and histological remission in whom immunomodulators, biologics, and even aminosalicylates may be withdrawn. Confocal laser endomicroscopy allows the assessment of residual cellular inflammation, crypt and vessel architecture distortion during ongoing endoscopy, and therefore permits a real-time evaluation of histological healing in patients with ulcerative proctitis. Images of conventional optical microscopy and confocal laser endomicroscopy in patients with ulcerative proctitis in remission are presented.

  12. Oral mucositis: recent perspectives on prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio da Silva Santos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is a result of toxicity and one of the most common side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in cancer treatment and in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clinically these changes are characterized by epithelial atrophy, edema, erythema and the appearance of ulcerations that can affect the entire oral mucosa, causing pain and discomfort, impairing speech, and swallowing food. In addition to the major symptoms, the ulcers increase the risk of local and systemic infection, compromising function and interfering with oral antineoplastic treatment and may lead to it being discontinued. The diagnosis, prevention and therapeutic strategies in providing support in cases of oral mucositis are the dentist’s responsibility. Through critical analysis of literature, the aim of this article is to present oral mucositis, its pathogenesis, clinical features and treatments offered today to address or control the condition, highlighting the importance of dentists’ role in its management.

  13. Enhanced mucosal reactions in AIDS patients receiving oropharyngeal irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, E.B.; Findlay, P.; Gelmann, E.; Lane, H.C.; Zabell, A.

    1987-09-01

    The oropharynx and hypopharynx are common sites of involvement in AIDS patients with mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. The radiotherapist is often asked to intervene with these patients due to problems with pain, difficulty in swallowing, or impending airway obstruction. We have noted an unexpected decrease in normal tissue tolerance of the oropharyngeal mucosa to irradiation in AIDS patients treated in our department. Data on 12 patients with AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma receiving oropharyngeal irradiation are presented here. Doses ranged from 1000 cGy to 1800 cGy delivered in 150-300 cGy fractions. Seven of eight patients receiving doses of 1200 cGy or more developed some degree of mucositis, four of these developed mucositis severe enough to require termination of treatment. All patients in this study received some form of systemic therapy during the course of their disease, but no influence on mucosal response to irradiation was noted. Four patients received total body skin electron treatments, but no effect on degree of mucositis was seen. Presence or absence of oral candidiasis was not an obvious factor in the radiation response of the oral mucosa in these patients. T4 counts were done on 9 of the 12 patients. Although the timing of the T4 counts was quite variable, no correlation with immune status and degree of mucositis was found. The degree of mucositis seen in these patients occurred at doses much lower than expected based on normal tissue tolerances seen in other patient populations receiving head and neck irradiations. We believe that the ability of the oral mucosa to repair radiation damage is somehow altered in patients with AIDS.

  14. Enhanced mucosal reactions in AIDS patients receiving oropharyngeal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, E.B.; Findlay, P.; Gelmann, E.; Lane, H.C.; Zabell, A.

    1987-01-01

    The oropharynx and hypopharynx are common sites of involvement in AIDS patients with mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. The radiotherapist is often asked to intervene with these patients due to problems with pain, difficulty in swallowing, or impending airway obstruction. We have noted an unexpected decrease in normal tissue tolerance of the oropharyngeal mucosa to irradiation in AIDS patients treated in our department. Data on 12 patients with AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma receiving oropharyngeal irradiation are presented here. Doses ranged from 1000 cGy to 1800 cGy delivered in 150-300 cGy fractions. Seven of eight patients receiving doses of 1200 cGy or more developed some degree of mucositis, four of these developed mucositis severe enough to require termination of treatment. All patients in this study received some form of systemic therapy during the course of their disease, but no influence on mucosal response to irradiation was noted. Four patients received total body skin electron treatments, but no effect on degree of mucositis was seen. Presence or absence of oral candidiasis was not an obvious factor in the radiation response of the oral mucosa in these patients. T4 counts were done on 9 of the 12 patients. Although the timing of the T4 counts was quite variable, no correlation with immune status and degree of mucositis was found. The degree of mucositis seen in these patients occurred at doses much lower than expected based on normal tissue tolerances seen in other patient populations receiving head and neck irradiations. We believe that the ability of the oral mucosa to repair radiation damage is somehow altered in patients with AIDS

  15. Oral cryotherapy reduced oral mucositis in patients having cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivakovsky, Sylvia

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment compared to usual care, no treatment or other interventions to prevent mucositis. The primary outcome was incidence of mucositis and its severity.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers carried out study assessment and data extraction independently. Treatment effect for continuous data was calculated using mean values and standard deviations and expressed as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval. Risk ratio (RR) was calculated for dichotomous data. Meta-analysis was performed.ResultsFourteen studies with 1280 participants were included. Subgroup analysis was undertaken according to the main cancer treatment type. Cryotherapy reduced the risk of developing mucositis by 39% (RR = 0.61; 95%CI, 0.52 to 0.72) on patients treated with fluorouracil (5FU). For melphalan-based treatment the risk of developing mucositis was reduced by 41% (RR =0.59; 95%CI, 0.35 to 1.01). Oral cryotherapy was shown to be safe, with very low rates of minor adverse effects, such as headaches, chills, numbness/taste disturbance and tooth pain. This appears to contribute to the high rates of compliance seen in the included studies.ConclusionsThere is confidence that oral cryotherapy leads to a large reduction in oral mucositis in adults treated with 5FU. Although there is less certainty on the size of the reduction on patients treated with melphalan, it is certain there is reduction of severe mucositis.

  16. Investigation of how to prevent mucositis induced by chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosaka, Chihiro; Tajima, Hakuju; Inoue, Tadao

    2011-01-01

    Chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe oral mucositis; an adverse, painful event. Oral mucositis also causes nutritional deficiency by making oral feeding difficult. This may lead to prolongation of hospitalization due to complications caused by malnutrition. However, an effective way to prevent oral mucositis completely, remains to be found. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence of oral mucositis, and nutritional conditions such as hypoalbuminemia, reduction of body weight, and length of hospital stay (days) when the mouth was rinsed using rebamipide solution (R solution), or Poraprezinc-alginate sodium solution (P-A solution) (both considered to be effective for oral mucositis). A mouth rinsed with sodium azulene sulfonate (S solution) was used as a control. The mouth was rinsed out six times per day continuously during chemoradiotherapy. In the study, 31 patients were assigned to rinse their mouths using R solution, 11 patients using P-A solution, and 15 patients using S solution (reduction rate of body weight in 14 patients). For the evaluation, the criteria for adverse drug reactions CTCAE (v3.0) were used. Grade 1 and over, oral mucositis occurred in 48% of the R solution group, 36% of the P-A solution group, and 80% of the S solution group, indicating that the P-A solution group significantly prevented the occurrence of oral mucositis as opposed to the S solution group. A reduction in body weight was observed in 81% of the R solution group, 82% of the P-A solution group, and 79% of the S solution group, indicating a similar weight reduction rate among individual solution groups. Hypoalbuminemia equal to grade 2 or higher occurred in 3% of the R solution group, 18% of the P-A solution group, and 29% of the S solution group, indicating that the R group significantly prevented the occurrence of hypoalbuminemia compared to the S solution group. In addition, the length of hospital stays were 44±8.0 days for

  17. Experiences with Pontal syrup in mucositis caused by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Shoji; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Kunieda, Etsuo; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1983-01-01

    Pontal syrup was administered at daily dose of 30 ml t. i. d. to 17 patients of mucositis developed due to radiotherapy against malignant tumor. Results were: Remarkably effective-5 cases, effective-8 cases, slightly effective-3 cases, and non-effective-1 case. Certain effects were observed in 16 cases out of 17 cases/94.1%, excluding only one non-effective case. No side-effects were observed in all cases. It is considered that Pontal syrup is a drug useful for mucositis caused by radiotherapy because of its easiness of administration and also of its characteristic of non-stimulant. (author)

  18. Intestinal dendritic cells in the regulation of mucosal immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekiaris, Vasileios; Persson, Emma K.; Agace, William Winston

    2014-01-01

    immune cells within the mucosa must suitably respond to maintain intestinal integrity, while also providing the ability to mount effective immune responses to potential pathogens. Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinel immune cells that play a central role in the initiation and differentiation of adaptive....... The recognition that dietary nutrients and microbial communities in the intestine influence both mucosal and systemic immune cell development and function as well as immune-mediated disease has led to an explosion of literature in mucosal immunology in recent years and a growing interest in the functionality...

  19. Psychological factors in oral mucosal and orofacial pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashdan, Mohammad S; Alkhader, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    The psychological aspects of chronic pain conditions represent a key component of the pain experience, and orofacial pain conditions are not an exception. In this review, we highlight how psychological factors affect some common oral mucosal and orofacial pain conditions (namely, oral lichen planus, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome, and temporomandibular disorders) with emphasis on the significance of supplementing classical biomedical treatment modalities with appropriate psychological counseling to improve treatment outcomes in targeted patients. A literature search restricted to reports with highest relevance to the selected mucosal and orofacial pain conditions was carried out to retrieve data.

  20. Indomethacin decreases gastroduodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduce mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the duodenum, but the evidence for their effect on bicarbonate secretion in the stomach remains controversial. We have, therefore, studied how indomethacin influences gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal...... healthy volunteers. Bicarbonate and PGE2 were measured in the gastroduodenal effluents by back-titration and radioimmunoassay, respectively. RESULTS: Vagal stimulation and duodenal luminal acidification (0.1 M HCl; 20 ml; 5 min) increased gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion (p ... markedly inhibited both basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion, and this reduction was similar to the degree of cyclooxygenase inhibition estimated by the luminal release of PGE2 (p

  1. Evaluation of Mucosal and Systemic Immune Responses Elicited by GPI-0100-Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccine Delivered by Different Immunization Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Heng; Patil, Harshad P.; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery

  2. Regulation of Mucosal Immune Responses – The Missing Link in IBD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles O Elson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD remains unknown, a major working hypothesis is that it represents a dysregulated immune response to common enteric bacterial antigens. Until recently there has been a relative dearth of experimental models to study this hypothesis. However, exciting developments in experimental models of colitis, including spontaneous, transgenic and knockout mice, now allow this and other hypotheses to be tested. The regulation of mucosal immune responses is not well understood in the normal animal, much less in those with chronic intestinal inflammation. Clearly the CD4 Th1 and Th2 pathways are important in the host response to microbial pathogens, and recent data indicate that the intestinal mucosa seems to be a site of preferential Th2 responses toward exogenous antigens. Deletion of certain cytokine genes involved in maintaining this Th1/Th2 balance (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-10 resulted in colitis, although deletion of others (IL-4, interferon-gamma that are also involved did not. Whether these cytokine gene deletions cause a dysregulation of the mucosal immune response has yet to be shown. However, the importance of regulation can be demonstrated in a model in which a normal CD4+ T cell subset (CD45Rbhigh is transferred into syngeneic severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome recipients. This results in a striking colitis over the ensuing weeks with chronic diarrhea and wasting of the animals. If the reciprocal CD4+ subset (CD45Rblow is co-transferred or if whole CD4+ T cells are transferred no colitis ensues. Therefore, T cells capable of causing colitis are present in normal animals but are prevented from doing so by immunoregulatory mechanisms. The antigens that drive the colitis in several of these models (IL-2 knockout mouse, human leukocyte antigen B27/β2M transgenic rat appear to be those of the normal enteric bacterial flora because germ-free animals do not get the disease. Spontaneously

  3. Protective effects of Astragalus-Lilygranules on intestinal mucosal barrier of mice in high altitude hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling LI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the protective effect of Astragalus-Lily Granules on intestinal mucosa and intestinal flora homeostasis in mice under high altitude hypoxia condition. Methods  We put mice into high altitude hypoxia cabin to establish high altitude hypoxia model mice. Sixty Kunming mice were randomly divided into control group, model group, Astragalus-Lily particles (ALP low, medium and high dose groups [1.75, 3.5, 7g/(kg•d] respectively. After three days of routine feeding, the ALP mice received drug by intragastric administration, once a day for continuous 17 days,control group and model group were given double distilled water in same volume. From the 15th day, all the mice but control group were exposed to simulated high altitude hypoxia condition for 3 days in a high altitude hypoxia cabin after they were gavaged for half an hour daily. By the 18th day, the fresh mouse feces were collected and smeared to observe the changes of microflora. The pathological changes of intestinal tissues were observed by HE staining and the expression of HIF-1αprotein in intestines was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results  The enterococci and gram negative bacteria showed a higher proportion (65.2%±2.4% and 56.7%±3.3%, respectively in the model group compared with the control group (24.7%±1.2%, 23.2%±1.5%, respectively, P<0.05. The pathological score of intestinal mucosal necrosis and edema (3.10±0.99, 3.30±0.67 respectively and inflammatory cell count (15.93±3.30, 16.40±3.97/ HP respectively was higher compared with the model group (0.70±0.67, 0.80±0.78; 4.07±2.12, 4.28±2.16/HP respectively; P<0.05. HIF-1αexpression increased significantly compared with the model group (P<0.05. The enterococci (46.7%±2.0%, 32.0%±2.6% respectively and gram negative bacteria rate (34.2%±1.6%, 38.0%±2.8% respectively in the ALP medium and high dose groups were lower compared with the model group (24.7%±1.2%, 23.2%±1.5% respectively, P<0

  4. Efectos del daño de la mosca del olivo y del atroje sobre la microflora en pasta y la acidez del aceite virgen de oliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, J. A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of olive fly damage, olive storage, harvest date, olive grove plot and their interactions on the microflora associated with olive paste and oil acidity were studied. Microflora and oil acidity were significantly affected by the four studied factors and by several interactions between them. Fly damage and olive storage interacted sinergically increasing oil acidity. The relationship between fly damage and oil acidity was lineal although sometimes it was not significant depending on microflora populations. The relationship between microflora populations and oil acidity fitted to a logarithmic model. Major microorganisms in olive paste were bacteria (Xanthomonas, yeasts (mostly Torulopsis and Candida and in a smaller measure moulds (mainly Fusarium and Penicillium. Results overall suggest that a qualitative damage threshold based on the percentage of damaged fruits in order to infer oil acidity may be unfeasible in most instances.Se estudiaron los efectos del daño de mosca, atroje, fecha de recolección, parcela de olivo y de sus interacciones, sobre la microflora asociada a la pasta de aceituna y la acidez del aceite obtenido. Microflora y acidez se vieron significativamente afectados por los cuatro factores estudiados y por varias de sus interacciones. Daño y atroje interactuaron sinérgicamente para incrementar la acidez. La relación entre el daño de mosca y la acidez fue lineal aunque a veces no fue significativa dependiendo de la microflora. La relación entre la microflora y la acidez se ajustó a un modelo logarítmico. Los microorganismos predominantes en la pasta fueron bacterias (Xanthomonas, levaduras (fundamentalmente Torulopsis y Candida y en menor medida otros hongos (principalmente Fusarium y Penicillium. Los resultados sugieren que un umbral de daño cualitativo basado en el porcentaje de frutos picados para inferir la acidez del aceite es de difícil implementación.

  5. Corruption of innate immunity by bacterial proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potempa, Jan; Pike, Robert N

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune system of the human body has developed numerous mechanisms to control endogenous and exogenous bacteria and thus prevent infections by these microorganisms. These mechanisms range from physical barriers such as the skin or mucosal epithelium to a sophisticated array of molecules and cells that function to suppress or prevent bacterial infection. Many bacteria express a variety of proteases, ranging from non-specific and powerful enzymes that degrade many proteins involved in innate immunity to proteases that are extremely precise and specific in their mode of action. Here we have assembled a comprehensive picture of how bacterial proteases affect the host's innate immune system to gain advantage and cause infection. This picture is far from being complete since the numbers of mechanisms utilized are as astonishing as they are diverse, ranging from degradation of molecules vital to innate immune mechanisms to subversion of the mechanisms to allow the bacterium to hide from the system or take advantage of it. It is vital that such mechanisms are elucidated to allow strategies to be developed to aid the innate immune system in controlling bacterial infections.

  6. Protein-coated nanoparticles are internalized by the epithelial cells of the female reproductive tract and induce systemic and mucosal immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savannah E Howe

    Full Text Available The female reproductive tract (FRT includes the oviducts (fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix and vagina. A layer of columnar epithelium separates the endocervix and uterus from the outside environment, while the vagina is lined with stratified squamous epithelium. The mucosa of the FRT is exposed to antigens originating from microflora, and occasionally from infectious microorganisms. Whether epithelial cells (ECs of the FRT take up (sample the lumen antigens is not known. To address this question, we examined the uptake of 20-40 nm nanoparticles (NPs applied vaginally to mice which were not treated with hormones, epithelial disruptors, or adjuvants. We found that 20 and 40 nm NPs are quickly internalized by ECs of the upper FRT and within one hour could be observed in the lymphatic ducts that drain the FRT, as well as in the ileac lymph nodes (ILNs and the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs. Chicken ovalbumin (Ova conjugated to 20 nm NPs (NP-Ova when administered vaginally reaches the internal milieu in an immunologically relevant form; thus vaginal immunization of mice with NP-Ova induces systemic IgG to Ova antigen. Most importantly, vaginal immunization primes the intestinal mucosa for secretion of sIgA. Sub-cutaneous (s.c boosting immunization with Ova in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA further elevates the systemic (IgG1 and IgG2c as well as mucosal (IgG1 and sIgA antibody titers. These findings suggest that the modes of antigen uptake at mucosal surfaces and pathways of antigen transport are more complex than previously appreciated.

  7. The Effect of Topical Ocular Anesthetic Proparacaine on Conjunctival and Nasal Mucosal Flora in Dry Eye Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onerci Celebi, Ozlem; Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk

    2018-04-09

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of topically applied ocular anesthetic proparacaine on conjunctival and nasal bacterial mucosal flora in patients with dry eye disease. A Schirmer test was done with (group 1) and without (group 2) topical anesthetic proparacaine to 40 patients in each group. Conjunctival and nasal cultures were obtained before and 10 min after performing the Schirmer test. The bacterial culture results and the isolated bacteria were recorded in two groups. Patients' mean age was 62 years (70 female, 10 male). Before the application of topical anesthetic, 50 (62.5%) and 62 (77.5%) had positive conjunctival and nasal culture, respectively, with the most commonly isolated organism being coagulase-negative Staphylococcus in each group. In group 1 the conjunctival bacterial culture positivity rate decreased from 26 (65%) to six (15%) eyes ( p 0.05). For the nasal cultures, the bacterial culture positivity rate decreased from 80% to 20% and from 75% to 65% in groups 1 ( p 0.05), respectively. Topical ocular anesthetic proparacaine has antibacterial activity in both conjunctival and nasal flora in patients with dry eye disease.

  8. Effects of a One Year Reusable Contraceptive Vaginal Ring on Vaginal Microflora and the Risk of Vaginal Infection: An Open-Label Prospective Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongmei; Merkatz, Ruth B; Hillier, Sharon L; Roberts, Kevin; Blithe, Diana L; Sitruk-Ware, Régine; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2015-01-01

    A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) containing Nestorone® (NES) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) that is reusable for 1- year (13 cycles) is under development. This study assessed effects of this investigational CVR on the incidence of vaginal infections and change in vaginal microflora. There were 120 women enrolled into a NES/EE CVR Phase III trial and a microbiology sub-study for up to 1- year of cyclic product use. Gynecological examinations were conducted at baseline, the first week of cycle 6 and last week of cycle 13 (or during early discontinuation visits). Vaginal swabs were obtained for wet mount microscopy, Gram stain and culture. The CVR was removed from the vagina at the last study visit and cultured. Semi-quantitative cultures for Lactobacillus, Gardnerella vaginalis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, anaerobic gram negative rods (GNRs), Candida albicans and other yeasts were performed on vaginal and CVR samples. Vaginal infections were documented throughout the study. Over 1- year of use, 3.3% of subjects were clinically diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, 15.0% with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and 0.8% with trichomoniasis. The detection rate of these three infections did not change significantly from baseline to either Cycle 6 or 13. Nugent scores remained stable. H2O2-positive Lactobacillus dominated vaginal flora with a non-significant prevalence increase from 76.7% at baseline to 82.7% at cycle 6 and 90.2% at cycle 13, and a median concentration of 107 colony forming units (cfu) per gram. Although anaerobic GNRs prevalence increased significantly, the median concentration decreased slightly (104 to 103cfu per gram). There were no significant changes in frequency or concentrations of other pathogens. High levels of agreement between vaginal and ring surface microbiota were observed. Sustained use of the NES/EE CVR did not increase the risk of vaginal infection and was not disruptive to the vaginal ecosystem. Clinical

  9. Antibiogram pattern of oral microflora in periodontic children of age group 6 to 12 years: a clinicomicrobiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fysal, N; Jose, Santhosh; Kulshrestha, Reena; Arora, Dimple; Hafiz, Ka Abdul; Vasudevan, Sanjay

    2013-07-01

    The study was carried out to see the diversity of oral microflora and its antibiotic sensitivity test in children of age group 6 to 12 years was carried. Total 50 patients of age group 6 to 12 years were analyzed for their oral microflora and then checked for the antibiotic susceptibility test. The samples that were collected were incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Once dispersed samples were taken and Gram staining was done, also they were spread on to a number of freshly prepared agar plates and incubated to allow cells to form microbial colony. The result showed microflora common in all types, Gram-positive facultative anaerobic rods and cocci. In normal children Gram-positive facultative anaerobic and fermenting cocci were predominant where as in children with caries growth of microbiota that were Gram-negative and positive, capnophilic, motile and anaerobic rods and cocci belonging to members of genera S. mutans and A. actinomycetemcomitans was seen. By the present study it has been concluded that the number of bacteria determined by microscopic counts was twice as high in caries patients as in healthy sites, and also recommended that amoxicillin, ampicillin and amikacin are the most effective antibacterial drugs for the treatment of dental caries.

  10. Non-cultural methods of human microflora evaluation for the benefit of crew medical control in confined habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Lana, Moukhamedieva; Georgy, Osipov; Aleksey, Batov; Zoya, Soloviova; Robert, Mardanov; Yana, Panina; Anna, Gegenava

    2011-05-01

    Current control of human microflora is a great problem not only for the space medicine but also for practical health care. Due to many reasons its realization by classical bacteriological method is difficult in practical application or cannot be done. To evaluate non-cultural methods of microbial control of crews in a confined habitat we evaluated two different methods. The first method is based on digital treatment of microbial visual images, appearing after gram staining of microbial material from natural sample. This way the rate between gram-positive and gram-negative microbe could be gained as well as differentiation of rods and cocci could be attained, which is necessary for primary evaluation of human microbial cenosis in remote confined habitats. The other non-culture method of human microflora evaluation is gas chromatomass spectrometry (gcms) analysis of swabs gathered from different body sites. Gc-ms testing of swabs allows one to validate quantitative and special microflora based on specific lipid markers analysis.

  11. Environmental and mucosal microbiota and their role in childhood asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birzele, L T; Depner, M.; Ege, M.J.; Engel, M; Kublik, S; Bernau, C; Loss, G J; Genuneit, J.; Horak, E.; Schloter, M; Braun-Fahrländer, C.; Danielewicz, H.; Heederik, D; von Mutius, E.; Legatzki, A

    BACKGROUND: High microbial diversity in the environment has been associated with lower asthma risk, particularly in children exposed to farming. It remains unclear whether this effect operates through an altered microbiome of the mucosal surfaces of the airways. METHODS: DNA from mattress dust and

  12. Mucosal malignant melanoma - a clinical, oncological, pathological and genetic survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lauge H; Larsen, Ann-Cathrine; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    cavity (0.2/million/year). Anorectal melanoma occurs slightly more often in females, whereas oral melanoma has a male predilection. Mucosal melanoma most commonly develops in a patient's sixth or seventh decade of life, and no differences between races have been found except for sinonasal melanoma...

  13. The Mucosal Immune System and Its Regulation by Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Agnieszka M; Pott, Johanna; Maloy, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract presents a unique challenge to the mucosal immune system, which has to constantly monitor the vast surface for the presence of pathogens, while at the same time maintaining tolerance to beneficial or innocuous antigens. In the intestinal mucosa, specialized innate and adaptive immune components participate in directing appropriate immune responses toward these diverse challenges. Recent studies provide compelling evidence that the process of autophagy influences several aspects of mucosal immune responses. Initially described as a "self-eating" survival pathway that enables nutrient recycling during starvation, autophagy has now been connected to multiple cellular responses, including several aspects of immunity. Initial links between autophagy and host immunity came from the observations that autophagy can target intracellular bacteria for degradation. However, subsequent studies indicated that autophagy plays a much broader role in immune responses, as it can impact antigen processing, thymic selection, lymphocyte homeostasis, and the regulation of immunoglobulin and cytokine secretion. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of mucosal immune cells and discuss how autophagy influences many aspects of their physiology and function. We focus on cell type-specific roles of autophagy in the gut, with a particular emphasis on the effects of autophagy on the intestinal T cell compartment. We also provide a perspective on how manipulation of autophagy may potentially be used to treat mucosal inflammatory disorders.

  14. Oral mucositis frequency in head and neck chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Hironobu; Ota, Yojiro; Ueno, Takao; Kurihara, Kinue; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Onozawa, Yusuke; Zenda, Sadamoto

    2007-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to determine the frequency and risk factors of oral mucositis in patients receiving radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for head and neck tumors. We classified all patients into three groups according to the radiation dose given in the oral cavity (Group A: 0 Gy; 73 patients, Group B: <40 Gy; 66 patients, Group C: ≥40 Gy; 110 patients). In group C, the odds ratio of oral mucositis (≥Gr.2) was 5.6 times in the concomitant chemotherapy group (62 patients) (odds ratio (OR) of 5.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-14.9) compared with the radiotherapy (RT) only group (48 patients). In the case of concomitant chemotherapy group in Group C, the odds ratio of oral mucositis (≥Gr.2) was 17 times (OR of 17.1; 95% CI: 2.8-106.0) that in the group using 5-fluorouracil (FU) (50 patients) compared with the group that did not use it (12 patients). For patients whose accumulated radiation dose in the oral cavity was more than 40 Gy, 5-FU was found to be a significant risk factor for oral mucositis. (author)

  15. Mucosal vaccination by adenoviruses displaying reovirus sigma 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Eric A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Translational Immunovirology and Biodefense Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Camacho, Zenaido T. [Department of Cell Biology, Department of Natural Sciences, Western New Mexico University, Silver City, NM 88062 (United States); Hillestad, Matthew L. [Nephrology Training Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Crosby, Catherine M.; Turner, Mallory A.; Guenzel, Adam J.; Fadel, Hind J. [Virology and Gene Therapy Graduate Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Mercier, George T. [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Barry, Michael A., E-mail: mab@mayo.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Translational Immunovirology and Biodefense Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Department of Immunology and Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We developed adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors displaying the sigma 1 protein from reovirus as mucosal vaccines. Ad5-sigma retargets to JAM-1 and sialic acid, but has 40-fold reduced gene delivery when compared to Ad5. While weaker at transduction, Ad5-sigma generates stronger T cell responses than Ad5 when used for mucosal immunization. In this work, new Ad5-fiber-sigma vectors were generated by varying the number of fiber β-spiral shaft repeats (R) between the fiber tail and sigma. Increasing chimera length led to decreasing insertion of these proteinsAd5 virions. Ad-R3 and R14 vectors effectively targeted JAM-1 in vitro while R20 did not. When wereused to immunize mice by the intranasal route, Ad5-R3-sigma produced higher serum and vaginal antibody responses than Ad5. These data suggest optimized Ad-sigma vectors may be useful vectors for mucosal vaccination. - Highlights: • Constructed adenoviruses (Ads) displaying different reovirus sigma 1 fusion proteins. • Progressively longer chimeras were more poorly encapsidated onto Ad virions. • Ad5-R3-sigma mediated better systemic and mucosal immune responses than Ad5.

  16. C-kit expression in canine mucosal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S J; Jankovsky, J M; Rohrbach, B W; LeBlanc, A K

    2012-09-01

    The c-kit receptor is responsible for transmission of promigration signals to melanocytes; its downregulation may be involved in malignant progression of human melanocytic neoplasms. Expression of this receptor has not been examined in normal or neoplastic melanocytes from dogs. In this study, 14 benign dermal and 61 malignant mucosal melanocytic tumors were examined for c-kit (KIT) expression. Sites of the mucosal melanomas were gingiva (not further specified; n = 30), buccal gingiva (n = 6), soft palate (n = 4), hard palate (n = 5), tongue (n = 7), lip (n = 6), and conjunctiva (n = 3). Melan A was expressed in all 14 dermal melanocytomas and in 59 of 61 (96.7%) tumors from oral or conjunctival mucosa, confirming melanocytic origin. C-kit receptor expression was strong and diffuse throughout the cytoplasm in all 14 dermal melanocytomas and was identified in basilar mucosal melanocytes over submucosal neoplasms (27 of 61, 44.3%), junctional (neoplastic) melanocytes (17 of 61, 27.9%), and, less commonly, neoplastic melanocytes of the subepithelial tumors (6 of 61, 9.8%). KIT expression anywhere within the resected melanomas correlated with significantly longer survival. These results suggest that c-kit receptor expression may be altered in canine melanomas and may have potential as a prognostic indicator for mucosal melanomas.

  17. Endoscopic mucosal resection for early gastric cancer. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Cristian; Sporea, Ioan; Becheanu, Gabriel; Gheorghe, Liana

    2002-03-01

    European experience in endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for early gastric cancer is still relatively low, since early stomach cancer is diagnosed at a much lower rate in Europe than in Japan and generally operable patients are referred to surgery for radical resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection or mucosectomy was developed as a promising technology to diagnose and treat mucosal lesions in the esophagus, stomach and colon. In contrast to surgical resection, EMR allows "early cancers" to be removed with a minimal cost, morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a patient with hepatic cirrhosis incidentally diagnosed with an elevated-type IIa early gastric cancer. Echoendoscopy was performed in order to assess the depth of invasion into the gastric wall confirming the only mucosal involvement. We performed an EMR using "cup and suction" method. After the procedure, the patient experienced an acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding from the ulcer bed requiring argon plasma coagulation. The histopathological examination confirmed an early cancer, without involvement of muscularis mucosae. The patient has had an uneventful evolution being well at six months after the procedure

  18. Mucosal vaccination by adenoviruses displaying reovirus sigma 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, Eric A.; Camacho, Zenaido T.; Hillestad, Matthew L.; Crosby, Catherine M.; Turner, Mallory A.; Guenzel, Adam J.; Fadel, Hind J.; Mercier, George T.; Barry, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    We developed adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors displaying the sigma 1 protein from reovirus as mucosal vaccines. Ad5-sigma retargets to JAM-1 and sialic acid, but has 40-fold reduced gene delivery when compared to Ad5. While weaker at transduction, Ad5-sigma generates stronger T cell responses than Ad5 when used for mucosal immunization. In this work, new Ad5-fiber-sigma vectors were generated by varying the number of fiber β-spiral shaft repeats (R) between the fiber tail and sigma. Increasing chimera length led to decreasing insertion of these proteinsAd5 virions. Ad-R3 and R14 vectors effectively targeted JAM-1 in vitro while R20 did not. When wereused to immunize mice by the intranasal route, Ad5-R3-sigma produced higher serum and vaginal antibody responses than Ad5. These data suggest optimized Ad-sigma vectors may be useful vectors for mucosal vaccination. - Highlights: • Constructed adenoviruses (Ads) displaying different reovirus sigma 1 fusion proteins. • Progressively longer chimeras were more poorly encapsidated onto Ad virions. • Ad5-R3-sigma mediated better systemic and mucosal immune responses than Ad5

  19. Pharmacological Protection From Radiation ± Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotrim, Ana P.; Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu; Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B.; Baum, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation ± cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, ∼8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses ± cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 × 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

  20. Current practices for management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    Many anticancer therapies induce oral mucositis, diminishing the patient's quality of life. Especially in neutropenic patients, it can lead to life-threatening systemic infection. Moreover, it can become a limiting factor in intensive treatment schedules. Many interventions are aimed at reducing

  1. Cellular and mucosal immune responses in the respiratory tract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the cellular and mucosal responses in the respiratory tract of Nigerian goats vaccinated intranasally with recombinant Mannheimia hemolytica bacterine. Twenty one goats were divided into five groups, five goats each in three vaccinated groups while three goats each ...

  2. Management of chronic mucosal otitis media in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucosal otitis media (COM) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children worldwide. As it causes considerable morbidity and is a major global cause of hearing impairment, establishing its most effective treatment is important. It is generally accepted that antibiotic eardrops

  3. Management of oral mucositis in patients with cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, R.; Fliedner, M.C.; Smiet, A.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a distressing toxic effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It can increase the need for total parenteral nutrition and opioid analgesics, prolong hospital stays, increase the risk of infection, and greatly diminish a patient's quality of life. Nurses play a critical role in

  4. Neonatal Cytokine Profile in the Airway Mucosal Lining Fluid Is Skewed by Maternal Atopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folsgaard, Nilofar V.; Chawes, Bo L.; Rasmussen, Morten A.

    2012-01-01

    on the cytokines and chemokines in the upper airway mucosal lining fluid of healthy neonates. Objectives: To study parental atopic imprinting on the cytokines and chemokines in the upper airway mucosal lining fluid of healthy neonates. Methods: Eighteen cytokines and chemokines were quantified in nasal mucosal...

  5. Oral Cryotherapy for Preventing Oral Mucositis in Patients Receiving Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Philip; McCabe, Martin G; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2016-10-01

    In patients receiving treatment for cancer, does oral cryotherapy prevent oral mucositis? Oral cryotherapy is effective for the prevention of oral mucositis in adults receiving fluorouracil-based chemotherapy for solid cancers, and for the prevention of severe oral mucositis in adults receiving high-dose melphalan-based chemotherapy before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

  6. Oral and intestinal mucositis - causes and possible treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, M; Grant, G

    2003-11-01

    Chemotherapy and radiotherapy, whilst highly effective in the treatment of neoplasia, can also cause damage to healthy tissue. In particular, the alimentary tract may be badly affected. Severe inflammation, lesioning and ulceration can occur. Patients may experience intense pain, nausea and gastro-enteritis. They are also highly susceptible to infection. The disorder (mucositis) is a dose-limiting toxicity of therapy and affects around 500 000 patients world-wide annually. Oral and intestinal mucositis is multi-factorial in nature. The disruption or loss of rapidly dividing epithelial progenitor cells is a trigger for the onset of the disorder. However, the actual dysfunction that manifests and its severity and duration are greatly influenced by changes in other cell populations, immune responses and the effects of oral/gut flora. This complexity has hampered the development of effective palliative or preventative measures. Recent studies have concentrated on the use of bioactive/growth factors, hormones or interleukins to modify epithelial metabolism and reduce the susceptibility of the tract to mucositis. Some of these treatments appear to have considerable potential and are at present under clinical evaluation. This overview deals with the cellular changes and host responses that may lead to the development of mucositis of the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract, and the potential of existing and novel palliative measures to limit or prevent the disorder. Presently available treatments do not prevent mucositis, but can limit its severity if used in combination. Poor oral health and existing epithelial damage predispose patients to mucositis. The elimination of dental problems or the minimization of existing damage to the alimentary tract, prior to the commencement of therapy, lowers their susceptibility. Measures that reduce the flora of the tract, before therapy, can also be helpful. Increased production of free radicals and the induction of inflammation are

  7. Induction of systemic and mucosal immunity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection by a novel nanoemulsion adjuvant vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun HW

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available HongWu Sun,1,* Chao Wei,1,* BaoShuai Liu,1 HaiMing Jing,1 Qiang Feng,2 YaNan Tong,1 Yun Yang,1 LiuYang Yang,1 QianFei Zuo,1 Yi Zhang,1 QuanMing Zou,1 Hao Zeng1 1National Engineering Research Center of Immunological Products, Department of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA, 2Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Education, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The Gram-positive bacterial pathogen methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA can cause infections in the bloodstream, endocardial tissue, respiratory tract, culture-confirmed skin, or soft tissue. There are currently no effective vaccines, and none are expected to become available in the near future. An effective vaccine capable of eliciting both systemic and mucosal immune responses is also urgently needed. Here, we reported a novel oil-in-water nanoemulsion adjuvant vaccine containing an MRSA recombination protein antigen, Cremophor EL-35® as a surfactant, and propylene glycol as a co-surfactant. This nanoemulsion vaccine, whose average diameter was 31.34±0.49 nm, demonstrated good protein structure integrity, protein specificity, and good stability at room temperature for 1 year. The intramuscular systemic and nasal mucosal immune responses demonstrated that this nanoemulsion vaccine could improve the specific immune responses of immunoglobulin (IgG and related subclasses, such as IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b, as well as IgA, in the serum after Balb/c mice intramuscular immunization and C57 mice nasal immunization. Furthermore, this nanoemulsion vaccine also markedly enhanced the interferon-γ and interleukin-17A cytokine cell immune response, improved the survival ratio, and reduced bacterial colonization. Taken together, our results show that this novel nanoemulsion vaccine has great potential and is a

  8. Mucosal healing and deep remission: What does it mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogler, Gerhard; Vavricka, Stephan; Schoepfer, Alain; Lakatos, Peter L

    2013-01-01

    The use of specific terms under different meanings and varying definitions has always been a source of confusion in science. When we point our efforts towards an evidence based medicine for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) the same is true: Terms such as “mucosal healing” or “deep remission” as endpoints in clinical trials or treatment goals in daily patient care may contribute to misconceptions if meanings change over time or definitions are altered. It appears to be useful to first have a look at the development of terms and their definitions, to assess their intrinsic and context-independent problems and then to analyze the different relevance in present-day clinical studies and trials. The purpose of such an attempt would be to gain clearer insights into the true impact of the clinical findings behind the terms. It may also lead to a better defined use of those terms for future studies. The terms “mucosal healing” and “deep remission” have been introduced in recent years as new therapeutic targets in the treatment of IBD patients. Several clinical trials, cohort studies or inception cohorts provided data that the long term disease course is better, when mucosal healing is achieved. However, it is still unclear whether continued or increased therapeutic measures will aid or improve mucosal healing for patients in clinical remission. Clinical trials are under way to answer this question. Attention should be paid to clearly address what levels of IBD activity are looked at. In the present review article authors aim to summarize the current evidence available on mucosal healing and deep remission and try to highlight their value and position in the everyday decision making for gastroenterologists. PMID:24282345

  9. Continuous dark fermentative hydrogen production by mesophilic microflora: Principles and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, Freda R.; Hussy, Ines; Kyazze, Godfrey; Dinsdale, Richard; Hawkes, Dennis L. [School of Applied Sciences, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd RCT CF37 1DL (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    Continuous, dark fermentative hydrogen production technology using mixed microflora at mesophilic temperatures may be suitable for commercial development. Clostridial-based cultures from natural sources have been widely used, but more information on the need for heat treatment of inocula and conditions leading to germination and sporulation are required. The amount of nutrients given in the literature vary widely. Hydrogen production is reported to proceed without methane production in the reactor in the pH range 4.5-6.7, with hydraulic retention times optimally between a few hours and 3 days depending on substrate. Higher substrate concentrations should be more energy-efficient but there are product inhibition limitations, for example from unionised butyric acid. Inhibition by H{sub 2} can be reduced by stirring, sparging or extraction through membranes. Of the reactor types investigated, while granules have the best performance with soluble substrate, for particulate feedstock biofilm reactors or continuous stirred tank reactors may be most successful. A second stage is required to utilise the fermentation end products which, when cost-effective reactors are developed, may be photofermentation or microbial fuel cell technologies. Anaerobic digestion is a currently-available technology and the two-stage process is reported to give greater conversion efficiency than anaerobic digestion alone. (author)

  10. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa of Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Lessa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36 and enterococci (186 strains. Among Gram-negative (GN bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247 mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105, Escherichia coli (50, and Enterobacter spp. (40 and specimens not identified (7. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%. Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%, ampicillin (94% and tetracycline (90%, and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%, clindamycin (83%, and cotrimoxazole (54%. In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%, AMC (66% and AMP (60% and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%, AMP, TOB (98%, GEN, CLO (95%, CFO, CIP (93%. The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated.

  11. Effect of probiotics on the fecal microflora after radiotherapy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Timko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : The development of gastrointestinal symptoms following pelvic radiotherapy depends on morphological and functional modifications of the intestinal epithelium after radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of preventive administration of the preparation ′′5′′ Strain Dophilus and Hylak on the fecal microflora after radiotherapy in patients during radiotherapy. Materials and Methods : Fourteen patients were randomly selected and subdivided into two groups: The first group was administered ′′5′′ Strain Dophilus (L Group and the second group was administered Hylak (H Group. Radiation was delivered by a Cobalt 60 unit by using the four field box technique. The doses were divided into 2 Gy per day over 5 to 7 weeks to give the total cumulative dose of 50 Gy (2 Gy/day. High risk patients (e.g., patients with prostate cancer, received dosage 65 67 Gy (2 Gy/day. Results : Both experimental and clinical studies have shown that probiotics can effectively modulate intestinal inflammation by altering the composition and the metabolic and functional properties of gut indigenous flora. Conclusions : Many bacteria were found to be sensitive to irradiation. It would be necessary to check the possible effects of cytostatics on bacteria in larger studies.

  12. Assessment of Fecal Microflora Changes in Pigs Supplemented with Herbal Residue and Prebiotic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Kumar Samanta

    Full Text Available Antibiotic usage in animals as a growth promoter is considered as public health issue due to its negative impact on consumer health and environment. The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of herbal residue (ginger, Zingiber officinale, dried rhizome powder and prebiotic (inulin as an alternative to antibiotics by comparing fecal microflora composition using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The grower pigs were offered feed containing antibiotic (tetracycline, ginger and inulin separately and un-supplemented group served as control. The study revealed significant changes in the microbial abundance based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs among the groups. Presumptive identification of organisms was established based on the fragment length of OTUs generated with three restriction enzymes (MspI, Sau3AI and BsuRI. The abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Eubacterium oxidoreducens, Selonomonas sp., Methylobacterium sp. and Denitrobacter sp. was found significantly greater in inulin supplemented pigs. Similarly, the abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Selonomonas sp., and Phascolarcobacterium faecium was found significantly greater in ginger supplemented pigs. In contrast, the abundance of OTUs representing pathogenic microorganisms Atopostipes suicloacalis and Bartonella quintana str. Toulouse was significantly reduced in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The OTUs were found to be clustered under two major phylotypes; ginger-inulin and control-tetracycline. Additionally, the abundance of OTUs was similar in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The results suggest the potential of ginger and prebioticsto replace antibiotics in the diet of grower pig.

  13. Microflora and mycotoxin contamination in poultry feed mixtures from western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegielska-Radziejewska, Renata; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Szablewski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of feeds with pathogenic microflora and mycotoxins constitutes a serious threat both for animals and humans. The aim of the study was to determine the degree of risk of the occurrence of microscopic fungi, selected bacteria and mycotoxins from the trichothecene group in poultry feeds in western Poland. In feed mixtures, the concentration of ergosterol (ERG), being a specific quantitative biomarker for the content of microscopic fungi, was determined. Grower and finisher feeds were characterized by a higher count of bacteria and fungi in comparison to starter feeds. A considerable variation was found in the amount of ergosterol in analyzed feeds. Mean ergosterol content in feeds amounted to 19.34 mg/kg. The most common genera of fungi detected in the tested feeds included Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Mucor. Irrespective of the type of feed, the proportion of trichothecenes group B was five times higher than that of trichothecenes group A in relation to the total content of these mycotoxins in samples. In terms of the analyzed mycotoxins, feeds contained the highest concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON). A statistically significant correlation was shown between DON and ERG and between total trichothecenes and ERG. Recorded results indicate that the level of microbiological contamination in feeds for broiler chickens produced in western Poland is within the requirements of the binding standards.

  14. Molecular diversity analysis and bacterial population dynamics of an adapted seawater microbiota during the degradation of Tunisian zarzatine oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrafi-Nouira, Ines; Guermazi, Sonda; Chouari, Rakia; Safi, Nimer M D; Pelletier, Eric; Bakhrouf, Amina; Saidane-Mosbahi, Dalila; Sghir, Abdelghani

    2009-07-01

    The indigenous microbiota of polluted coastal seawater in Tunisia was enriched by increasing the concentration of zarzatine crude oil. The resulting adapted microbiota was incubated with zarzatine crude oil as the only carbon and energy source. Crude oil biodegradation capacity and bacterial population dynamics of the microbiota were evaluated every week for 28 days (day 7, day 14, day 21, and day 28). Results show that the percentage of petroleum degradation was 23.9, 32.1, 65.3, and 77.8%, respectively. At day 28, non-aromatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation rates reached 92.6 and 68.7%, respectively. Bacterial composition of the adapted microflora was analysed by 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing, using total genomic DNA extracted from the adapted microflora at days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Five clone libraries were constructed and a total of 430 sequences were generated and grouped into OTUs using the ARB software package. Phylogenetic analysis of the adapted microbiota shows the presence of four phylogenetic groups: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Diversity indices show a clear decrease in bacterial diversity of the adapted microflora according to the incubation time. The Proteobacteria are the most predominant (>80%) at day 7, day 14 and day 21 but not at day 28 for which the microbiota was reduced to only one OTU affiliated with the genus Kocuria of the Actinobacteria. This study shows that the degradation of zarzatine crude oil components depends on the activity of a specialized and dynamic seawater consortium composed of different phylogenetic taxa depending on the substrate complexity.

  15. Vizantin inhibits bacterial adhesion without affecting bacterial growth and causes Streptococcus mutans biofilm to detach by altering its internal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Shoji; Oda, Masataka; Domon, Hisanori; Ohsumi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Yuki; Ohshima, Hayato; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Terao, Yutaka; Noiri, Yuichiro

    2016-11-11

    An ideal antibiofilm strategy is to control both in the quality and quantity of biofilm while maintaining the benefits derived from resident microflora. Vizantin, a recently developed immunostimulating compound, has also been found to have antibiofilm property. This study evaluated the influence on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in the presence of sulfated vizantin and biofilm development following bacterial adhesion on a hydroxyapatite disc coated with sulfated vizantin. Supplementation with sulfated vizantin up to 50 μM did not affect either bacterial growth or biofilm formation, whereas 50 μM sulfated vizantin caused the biofilm to readily detach from the surface. Sulfated vizantin at the concentration of 50 μM upregulated the expression of the gtfB and gtfC genes, but downregulated the expression of the gtfD gene, suggesting altered architecture in the biofilm. Biofilm development on the surface coated with sulfated vizantin was inhibited depending on the concentration, suggesting prevention from bacterial adhesion. Among eight genes related to bacterial adherence in S. mutans, expression of gtfB and gtfC was significantly upregulated, whereas the expression of gtfD, GbpA and GbpC was downregulated according to the concentration of vizantin, especially with 50 μM vizantin by 0.8-, 0.4-, and 0.4-fold, respectively. These findings suggest that sulfated vizantin may cause structural degradation as a result of changing gene regulation related to bacterial adhesion and glucan production of S. mutans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A survey of the microflora of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Rhizopus oligosporus, Penicillium citrinum, Mucor spp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida krusei, while Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia spp., Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus fermentum represented the bacterial ...

  17. Bacterial Shifts in Nutrient Solutions Flowing Through Biofilters Used in Tomato Soilless Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, David; Déniel, Franck; Vallance, Jessica; Bruez, Emilie; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Rey, Patrice

    2017-11-25

    In soilless culture, slow filtration is used to eliminate plant pathogenic microorganisms from nutrient solutions. The present study focused on the characterization and the potential functions of microbial communities colonizing the nutrient solutions recycled on slow filters during a whole cultivation season of 7 months in a tomato growing system. Bacterial microflora colonizing the solutions before and after they flew through the columns were studied. Two filters were amended with Pseudomonas putida (P-filter) or Bacillus cereus strains (B-filter), and a third filter was a control (C-filter). Biological activation of filter unit through bacterial amendment enhanced very significantly filter efficacy against plant potential pathogens Pythium spp. and Fusarium oxysporum. However, numerous bacteria (10 3 -10 4  CFU/mL) were detected in the effluent solutions. The community-level physiological profiling indicated a temporal shift of bacterial microflora, and the metabolism of nutrient solutions originally oriented towards carbohydrates progressively shifted towards degradation of amino acids and carboxylic acids over the 7-month period of experiment. Single-strand conformation polymorphism fingerprinting profiles showed that a shift between bacterial communities colonizing influent and effluent solutions of slow filters occurred. In comparison with influent, 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that phylotype diversity was low in the effluent of P- and C-filters, but no reduction was observed in the effluent of the B-filter. Suppressive potential of solutions filtered on a natural filter (C-filter), where the proportion of Proteobacteria (α- and β-) increased, whereas the proportion of uncultured candidate phyla rose in P- and B-filters, is discussed.

  18. Transcriptome analysis reveals regional and temporal differences in mucosal immune system development in the small intestine of neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guanxiang; Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Bao, Hua; Stothard, Paul; Griebel, Philip J; Guan, Le Luo

    2016-08-11

    Postnatal development of the mammalian mucosal immune system is crucial for responding to the rapid colonization by commensal bacteria and possible exposure to pathogens. This study analyzed expression patterns for mRNAs and their relationship with microRNAs (miRNAs) in the bovine small intestine during the critical neonatal period (0 to 42 days). This analysis revealed molecular mechanisms regulating the postnatal development of the intestinal mucosal immune system. Small intestine samples (jejunum and ileum) were collected from newborn male, Holstein calves immediately post-partum (n = 3) and at 7 (n = 5), 21 (n = 5), and 42 (n = 5) days of age and the transcriptomes were profiled using RNA-Seq. When analyzing all time points collectively, greater expression of genes encoding the complement functional pathway, as well as lower expression of genes encoding Toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors were observed in the jejunum when compared to the ileum. In addition, significant changes in the expression of immune-related genes were detected within the first week post-partum in both jejunum and ileum. For example, increased expression of genes encoding tight junction proteins (claudin 1, claudin 4 and occludin), an antimicrobial peptide (Regenerating Islet-Derived 3-γ), NOD-like receptors (NACHT, LRR and PYD domain-containing protein 3), regulatory T cell marker (forkhead box P3), and both anti-inflammatory (interleukin 10) and pro-inflammatory (interleukin 8) cytokines was observed throughout the small intestine of 7-day-old calves when compared to newborn calves. Moreover, the expression of mucosal immune-related genes were either positively or negatively correlated with total bacterial population depending on both intestinal region and age. The integrated analysis of miRNAs and mRNAs supported the conclusion that miRNAs may regulate temporal changes in the expression of genes encoding tight junction proteins (miR-335), cytokines (miR-335) and

  19. OK-432 reduces mortality and bacterial translocation in irradiated and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-treated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, Masako; Uzawa, Akiko; Ogyu, Toshiaki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Suzuki, Gen

    2001-06-01

    Acute radiation induces bacterial translocation from the gut, followed by systemic infection and sepsis. In order to reduce the mortality after acute whole body irradiation, it is essential to control bacterial translocation. In this study, we established a bacterial translocation assay as a sensitive method to detect minor mucosal injury by radiation. By utilizing this assay, we evaluated the adverse effects, if any, of hematopoietic reagents on the mucosal integrity in the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts. Bacterial translocation to the liver and spleen occurred after whole-body irradiation if the dose exceeded 6 Gy. The administration of G-CSF unexpectedly increased the bacterial translocation in 8 Gy-irradiated mice. The pharmaceutical preparation of low-virulent Streptococcus pyogenes, OK-432, significantly reduced the endotoxin levels in peripheral blood without any reduction of bacterial translocation. A combined treatment with G-CSF and OK-432 decreased bacterial translocation and prevented death. This result indicates that the early administration of G-CSF has an adverse effect on bacterial translocation, and that a combined treatment of G-CSF and OK-432 attenuates the adverse effect of G-CSF and improves the survival rate after acute irradiation. (author)

  20. Mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity in provoked vestibulodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witzeman K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn Witzeman,1 Ruby HN Nguyen,2 Alisa Eanes,3 Sawsan As-Sanie,4 Denniz Zolnoun51Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, CO, 2Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Pelvic Pain Research Unit, Division of Advanced Laparoscopy and Pelvic Pain, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center for Neurosensory Disorders, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USABackground: An estimated 8.3%–16% of women experience vulvovaginal discomfort during their lifetime. Frequently these patients report provoked pain on contact or with attempted intercourse, commonly referred to as provoked vestibulodynia (PVD. Despite the burden of this condition, little is known about its potential etiologies including pelvic floor muscular dysfunction and mucosal components. This knowledge would be beneficial in developing targeted therapies including physical therapy.Objective: To explore the relative contribution of mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity on pain report from intercourse among women with PVD.Design: In this proof of concept study, 54 women with PVD underwent a structured examination assessing mucosal and pelvic muscle sensitivity.Methods: We examined three mucosal sites in the upper and lower vestibule. Patients were asked to rate their pain on cotton swab palpation of the mucosa using a 10-point visual analog scale. Muscle pain was assessed using transvaginal application of pressure on right and left puborectalis, and the perineal muscle complex. The Gracely pain scale (0–100 was used to assess the severity of pain with intercourse, with women rating the lowest, average, and highest pain levels; a 100 rating the

  1. The efficacy of sucralfate suspension in the prevention of oral mucositis due to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, J.B.; Wong, F.L.W.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of sucralfate suspension in prevention of oral mucositis and for reduction of oral pain in patients who develop mucositis during radiation therapy. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized prospective trial of a sucralfate suspension in the prevention and management of oral mucositis during radiation therapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using a quantitative scale and symptoms were assessed using visual analogue scales. The statistical model was developed to detect a 40% reduction in mucositis. No statistically significant reduction in mucositis was seen. Early during radiation therapy less oral pain was reported in the sucralfate group, but as treatment progressed all patients experienced pain. Patients in the sucralfate group were prescribed topical and systemic analgesics later in the course of radiation therapy. Prophylactic oral rinsing with sucralfate did not prevent oral ulcerative mucositis. Sucralfate may reduce the experience of pain during radiation therapy. 32 refs., 3 tabs

  2. The efficacy of sucralfate suspension in the prevention of oral mucositis due to radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, J.B.; Wong, F.L.W. (British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver (Canada))

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of sucralfate suspension in prevention of oral mucositis and for reduction of oral pain in patients who develop mucositis during radiation therapy. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized prospective trial of a sucralfate suspension in the prevention and management of oral mucositis during radiation therapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using a quantitative scale and symptoms were assessed using visual analogue scales. The statistical model was developed to detect a 40% reduction in mucositis. No statistically significant reduction in mucositis was seen. Early during radiation therapy less oral pain was reported in the sucralfate group, but as treatment progressed all patients experienced pain. Patients in the sucralfate group were prescribed topical and systemic analgesics later in the course of radiation therapy. Prophylactic oral rinsing with sucralfate did not prevent oral ulcerative mucositis. Sucralfate may reduce the experience of pain during radiation therapy. 32 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Oral mucositis in head and neck cancer: risk, biology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonis, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Of the toxicities associated with conventional forms of treatment for head and neck cancers, probably none has such a consistent legacy as oral mucositis.1 Despite the fact that mucosal injury was noted as far back as Marie Curie's first forays into therapeutic radiation, an effective intervention has yet to be developed. In addition to its historic link to radiation, new therapeutic strategies including induction chemotherapy often produce mucositis, and targeted therapies appear to alter mucositis risk and its severity and course.2 The symptomatic effect of oral mucositis is profound. Disabling oral and oropharyngeal pain prevents patients from eating normally, requires opiate analgesics, and in some cases results in alteration or discontinuation of anticancer therapy.3 Furthermore, the health and economic consequences of oral mucositis are far from trivial. The incremental cost of oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer exceeds $17,000 (USD).4.

  4. Topographical Mapping of the Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Microbiome Reveals a Diverse Bacterial Community with Antifungal Properties in the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Liam; Woodhams, Douglas C.; Tacchi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The mucosal surfaces of wild and farmed aquatic vertebrates face the threat of many aquatic pathogens, including fungi. These surfaces are colonized by diverse symbiotic bacterial communities that may contribute to fight infection. Whereas the gut microbiome of teleosts has been extensively studied using pyrosequencing, this tool has rarely been employed to study the compositions of the bacterial communities present on other teleost mucosal surfaces. Here we provide a topographical map of the mucosal microbiome of an aquatic vertebrate, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, we revealed novel bacterial diversity at each of the five body sites sampled and showed that body site is a strong predictor of community composition. The skin exhibited the highest diversity, followed by the olfactory organ, gills, and gut. Flectobacillus was highly represented within skin and gill communities. Principal coordinate analysis and plots revealed clustering of external sites apart from internal sites. A highly diverse community was present within the epithelium, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy and pyrosequencing. Using in vitro assays, we demonstrated that two Arthrobacter sp. skin isolates, a Psychrobacter sp. strain, and a combined skin aerobic bacterial sample inhibit the growth of Saprolegnia australis and Mucor hiemalis, two important aquatic fungal pathogens. These results underscore the importance of symbiotic bacterial communities of fish and their potential role for the control of aquatic fungal diseases. PMID:26209676

  5. Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cell Interactions with Commensal and Pathogenic Bacteria: Potential Role in Antimicrobial Immunity in the Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Ghazarian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells are unconventional CD3+CD161high T lymphocytes that recognize vitamin B2 (riboflavin biosynthesis precursor derivatives presented by the MHC-I related protein, MR1. In humans, their T cell receptor is composed of a Vα7.2-Jα33/20/12 chain, combined with a restricted set of Vβ chains. MAIT cells are very abundant in the liver (up to 40% of resident T cells and in mucosal tissues, such as the lung and gut. In adult peripheral blood, they represent up to 10% of circulating T cells, whereas they are very few in cord blood. This large number of MAIT cells in the adult likely results from their gradual expansion with age following repeated encounters with riboflavin-producing microbes. Upon recognition of MR1 ligands, MAIT cells have the capacity to rapidly eliminate bacterially infected cells through the production of inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα, and IL-17 and cytotoxic effector molecules (perforin and granzyme B. Thus, MAIT cells may play a crucial role in antimicrobial defense, in particular at mucosal sites. In addition, MAIT cells have been implicated in diseases of non-microbial etiology, including autoimmunity and other inflammatory diseases. Although their participation in various clinical settings has received increased attention in adults, data in children are scarce. Due to their innate-like characteristics, MAIT cells might be particularly important to control microbial infections in the young age, when long-term protective adaptive immunity is not fully developed. Herein, we review the data showing how MAIT cells may control microbial infections and how they discriminate pathogens from commensals, with a focus on models relevant for childhood infections.

  6. Perspectives toward oral mucositis prevention from parents and health care professionals in pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, Marie-Chantal; Regier, Dean A; Tomlinson, Deborah; Judd, Peter; Doyle, John; Gassas, Adam; Naqvi, Ahmed; Sung, Lillian

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe parents and health care professionals (HCPs) perceived importance of oral mucositis prevention in children with cancer; (2) To describe utilities and willingness-to-pay (WTP) to prevent mucositis. Respondents included parents of children receiving intensive chemotherapy for leukemia/lymphoma or undergoing stem cell transplantation and HCPs caring for children with cancer. Importance of mild and severe oral mucositis was estimated using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Mucositis-associated utilities were elicited using the time trade-off technique (TTO). WTP to avoid mucositis was obtained using contingent valuation. These techniques quantify how much time or money the participant is willing to relinquish in order to prevent mucositis. Eighty-two parents and 60 HCPs were included. Parents and HCPs believed mild mucositis to be of similar importance (median VAS 2.5 versus 3.6; P = 0.357) while parents considered severe mucositis less important than HCPs (median VAS 8.3 versus 9.0; P parent versus HCP responses were seen with TTO (mild or severe mucositis) and most parents were not willing to trade any survival time to prevent severe mucositis. Parents were willing to pay significantly more than HCPs to prevent mild mucositis (average median WTP $1,371 CAN vs. $684 CAN, P = 0.031). No differences were seen in WTP to prevent severe mucositis. Parents and HCP believe severe mucositis to be important, although it is more important to HCPs. Parents would not be willing to reduce life expectancy to eliminate mucositis.

  7. Novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hairui; Yu, Yuan; Faraji Dana, Sara; Li, Bo; Lee, Chi-Ying; Kang, Lifeng

    2013-08-01

    Technological advances in drug discovery have resulted in increasing number of molecules including proteins and peptides as drug candidates. However, how to deliver drugs with satisfactory therapeutic effect, minimal side effects and increased patient compliance is a question posted before researchers, especially for those drugs with poor solubility, large molecular weight or instability. Microfabrication technology, polymer science and bioconjugate chemistry combine to address these problems and generate a number of novel engineered drug delivery systems. Injection routes usually have poor patient compliance due to their invasive nature and potential safety concerns over needle reuse. The alternative non-invasive routes, such as oral, mucosal (pulmonary, nasal, ocular, buccal, rectal, vaginal), and transdermal drug delivery have thus attracted many attentions. Here, we review the applications of the novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery.

  8. Intestinal stromal cells in mucosal immunity and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, B M J; Simmons, A

    2013-03-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that non-hematopoietic stromal cells of the intestine have multiple roles in immune responses and inflammation at this mucosal site. Despite this, many still consider gut stromal cells as passive structural entities, with past research focused heavily on their roles in fibrosis, tumor progression, and wound healing, rather than their contributions to immune function. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of stromal cells in intestinal immunity, highlighting the many immunological axes in which stromal cells have a functional role. We also consider emerging data that broaden the potential scope of their contribution to immunity in the gut and argue that these so-called "non-immune" cells are reclassified in light of their diverse contributions to intestinal innate immunity and the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis.

  9. Effect of bupivacaine lozenges on oral mucositis pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Kristensen, Claus A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: A nonblinded parallel-group randomized controlled study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of repeated administration of a bupivacaine lozenge (25 mg) as pain management for oral mucositis pain in head and neck cancer patients as add-on to standard systemic pain management...... with bupivacaine lozenges (taken up to every 2 hours) plus standard pain treatment minus topical lidocaine (Lozenge group) or standard pain treatment including topical lidocaine (Control group). The efficacy analysis included 38 patients, as 12 patients were excluded because of changes in study design and missing...... that the bupivacaine lozenge as an add-on to standard pain treatment had a clinically significant pain-relieving effect in patients with oral mucositis. ClinicalTrialsgov: NCT02252926....

  10. Mucosal immunity in the female genital tract, HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Miranda Corrêa, Rosana Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.

  11. Influence of bedding type on mucosal immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Amy N; Clark, Stephanie E; Talham, Gwen; Sidelsky, Michael G; Coffin, Susan E

    2002-10-01

    The mucosal immune system interacts with the external environment. In the study reported here, we found that bedding materials can influence the intestinal immune responses of mice. We observed that mice housed on wood, compared with cotton bedding, had increased numbers of Peyer's patches (PP) visible under a dissecting microscope. In addition, culture of lymphoid organs revealed increased production of total and virus-specific IgA by PP and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes from mice housed on wood, compared with cotton bedding. However, bedding type did not influence serum virus-specific antibody responses. These observations indicate that bedding type influences the intestinal immune system and suggest that this issue should be considered by mucosal immunologists and personnel at animal care facilities.

  12. Microflora de Bromeliáceas do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Tavares de Lyra

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor estudou a microflora de dois gêneros de BROMELIACEAE: Hoenbergia e Portea. As coletas do material foram feitas em seis regiões do Estado de Pernambuco; 1 Região da Mata-Úmida; 2 Região da Mata-Seca; 3 Região do Agreste Central; 4 Região do Agreste Setentrional; 5 Região do Agreste Meridional; 6 Região do Recife. As seguintes diatomáceas indicadoras de águas poluídas (espécies oligossaprobias foram encontradas nas seis regiões estudadas: Gomphonema parvulum (Kutz Grunow., Hantzschia amphioxys Grunow, Pinnularia borealis Ehr., Pinnularia microstauron (Ehr Cleve, gomphonema gracile Ehr., Nitzschia palea Kutz., Melosira roeseana Rabenh., Navicula mutica Kutz., Navicula cryptocephala Kutz., Eunotia pectinalis (Kutz Rabenh. Foram também observadas CHLOROPHYCEAS nas estações chuvosa e seca nas diversas regiões. Algumas são indicadoras de oligossaprobidade: Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turpin brebisson. Chlorococcum sp., Chlorella sp. Os fatores ecológicos e comentários referentes ás diatomáceas foram anotados no texto. A tabela I indica a frequência das diatomáceas nas seis regiões estudadas. Maior número dessas diatomáceas, registramos nas regiões do Agreste. A tabela II mostra a temperatura e pH da água de Hoenbergia e Portea em ambas as estações do ano (inverno e verão. Observamos a ocorrência de larvas de culex em Portea e hoenbergia, entretanto, raramente encontramos larvas de Anopheles. As coletas foram feitas durante as estações chuvosa e seca em Hoenbergia e Portea. Determinamos 35 espécies provenientes de 78 amostras coletadas durante o período de 26 meses.The author studied the microflora from two genera of Bromeliaceae: Hoenbergia and Portea. The material was collected in six natural regions of Pernambuco State: 1 Humid Forest Region; 2 Dry forest region; 3 Central Agreste Region; 4 Setentrional Agreste Region; 5 Meridional Agreste Region; 6 Recife Region. The following diatoms that indicate polluted

  13. ROLE OF THE MICROFLORA IN DISTAL INTESTINAL TRACT BY MAINTAINING OXALATE HOMEOSTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osolodchenko T.P.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal microflora is part of the human body and performs numerous function. Considerable research interest is in the field of probiotics for the prevention of kidney stones, which is one of the most common urological diseases.Urolithiasis is one of the most common urological diseases. This is polyetiological disease congenital and acquired character with complex physical and chemical processes that occur not only in the urinary system, but also the whole body. None of the treatments does not guarantee full recovery of the patient and often leads to relapse. The open methods of removal stones yield news minimally invasive the technologys. Development of stone formation depends on the presence of many factors, metabolic disorders, chronic urinary tract infections, genetic disorders and more. Most have the following metabolic disorders as hypercalciuria, hiperurikuria, hipotsytraturia , hyperoxaluria and hipomahniuria. Among all types of urolithiasis kaltsiyoksalatnyy ranked first in the prevalence rate - about 75.0 - 85.0 % of cases. Dietary restriction by oxalates іs the unreliable method of preventing disease. Although there is evidence for the growth inhibition normobiocenosis representatives, which in turn enhances the absorption of salts of oxalic acid oxalate in the application of sodium , magnesium and cobalt in their intragastric administration. Recently published many papers on the impact on the level of oxalate intestinal microflora. The first publications appeared on the influence of gram-negative obligate anaerobes O. formigenes the concentration of oxalate in the urine. This anaerobic bacteria living in the colon, its prevalence - 46.0 % - 77.0 % of the adult population. O. formigenes reveals the symbiotic interaction with the human body by reducing absorption of oxalate in the intestinal cavity with subsequent decrease in their concentration in plasma and urine. O. formigenes has two key enzymes - oksalyl

  14. Mucosal delivery of liposome-chitosan nanoparticles complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Edison Samir Mascarelhas; Grenha, Ana; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Alonso, Maria José; Seijo, Begoña

    2009-01-01

    Designing adequate drug carriers has long been a major challenge for those working in drug delivery. Since drug delivery strategies have evolved for mucosal delivery as the outstanding alternative to parenteral administration, many new drug delivery systems have been developed which evidence promising properties to address specific issues. Colloidal carriers, such as nanoparticles and liposomes, have been referred to as the most valuable approaches, but still have some limitations that can...

  15. Mucosal defence along the gastrointestinal tract of cats and dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes , Chris; Waly , Nashwa

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Diseases that are associated with infections or allergic reactions in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are major causes of morbidity in both cats and dogs. Future strategies for the control of these conditions require a greater understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the induction and regulation of responses at the mucosal surfaces. Historically, the majority of the fundamental studies have been carried out in rodents or with tissu...

  16. Psittacid herpesviruses associated with mucosal papillomas in neotropical parrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, Darrel K.; Tomaszewski, Elizabeth K.; Jaeger, Laurie A.; Phalen, David N.

    2004-01-01

    Mucosal papillomas are relatively common lesions in several species of captive neotropical parrots. They cause considerable morbidity and in some cases, result in mortality. Previous efforts to identify papillomavirus DNA and proteins in these lesions have been largely unsuccessful. In contrast, increasing evidence suggests that mucosal papillomas may contain psittacid herpesviruses (PsHVs). In this study, 41 papillomas from 30 neotropical parrots were examined by PCR with PsHV-specific primers. All 41 papillomas were found to contain PsHV DNA. This 100% prevalence of PsHV infection in the papilloma population was found to be significantly higher than PsHV infection prevalence observed in other surveys of captive parrots. PsHV genotypes 1, 2, and 3, but not 4 were found in these lesions. Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus DNA and finch papillomavirus DNA were not found in the papillomas. A papilloma from a hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found to contain cells that had immunoreactivity to antiserum made to the common antigenic region of human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 major capsid protein. However, four other mucosal papillomas were negative for this immunoreactivity, and negative control tissues from a parrot embryo showed a similar staining pattern to that seen in the cloaca papilloma of the hyacinth macaw, strongly suggesting that the staining seen in hyacinth macaw papilloma was nonspecific. Based on these findings, it was concluded that specific genotypes of PsHV play a direct role in the development of mucosal papillomas of neotropical parrots and there is no evidence to suggest the concurrent presence of a papillomavirus in these lesions

  17. Effect of dietary honey on intestinal microflora and toxicity of mycotoxins in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegazy Eman M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bee honey is a functional food which has a unique composition, antimicrobial properties and bifidogenic effect. In order to assess whether honey can inhibit the toxic effect of mycotoxins, the present study was undertaken. Methods Production of biomass and toxins by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus ochraceus were followed in media without and with honey. Although aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. were administrated to male Swiss albino mice up to 1 μg and 10 ng/kg body weight/day respectively. The experimental animals were fed diets without our with 10% honey for two months. The changes in colonic probiotic bacteria, determintal colon enzyme glucuronidases, and genotoxicity were followed. Results Addition of 32% in its media increased the biomass of A parasiticus, while the biomass of A. ochraceus decreased and Ochratoxin A. was not produced. When the honey was added at the ratio of 32 and 48% in the medium. No relationship was found between mycelium weight and production of mycotoxins. Oral administration of aflatoxins (mixture of B1, B2, G1 and G2 and Ochratoxin A. induced structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow and germ cells of male mice, whereas, honey treatment reduced the genotoxicity of mycotoxins. Also both toxins induced histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Feeding on diet supplemented with honey improved the histopathological changes in case of aflatoxin group, but not in the case of ochratoxin A. group (except of kidney in two cases. No significant differences were found in the activity of colon β-glucuronidase between group fed diet with or without honey. On the other hand, the colon bifido bacteria and lactobacilli counts were increased markedly in group receiving diet supplemented with honey. Conclusion Substituting sugars with honey in processed food can inhibit the harmful and genotoxic effects of mycotoxins, and improve the gut microflora.

  18. The Microbiological Context of HIV Resistance: Vaginal Microbiota and Mucosal Inflammation at the Viral Point of Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Schellenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune activation is increasingly recognized as a critical element of HIV infection and pathogenesis, causing expansion of virus founder populations at the mucosal port of entry and eventual exhaustion of cellular immune effectors. HIV susceptibility is well known to be influenced by concurrent sexually transmitted infections; however, the role of commensal vaginal microbiota is poorly characterized. Bacterial vaginosis (BV is a risk factor for HIV acquisition in studies worldwide; however, the etiology of BV remains enigmatic, and the mechanisms by which BV increases HIV susceptibility are not fully defined. A model of how vaginal microbiota influences HIV transmission is considered in the context of a well-established cohort of HIV-exposed seronegative (HESN commercial sex workers (CSW in Nairobi, Kenya, many of whom have increased levels of anti-inflammatory factors in vaginal secretions and reduced peripheral immune activation (immune quiescence. Elucidation of the relationship between complex microbial communities and inflammatory mucosal responses underlying HIV infection should be a priority for future prevention-focussed research.

  19. Protective effect of lactobacillus acidophilus and isomaltooligosaccharide on intestinal mucosal barriers in rat models of antibiotic-associated diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Dan; Fang Lichao; Chen Bingbo; Wei Hong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of synbiotics combined lactobacillus acidophilus and iso-malto-oligosaccharide (IMO) on intestinal mucosal barriers in rat models of antibiotic-associated diarrhea(AAD). Methods: Rat models of AAD were prepared with lincomycin gavage for 5 days. The synbiotics was orally administered to the AAD rats daily at three different strengths for 7 days. The intestinal flora and intestinal mucus SIgA levels were determined on d6, d9 and d13. The histopathological changes of ileal mucosa were studied on d13. Results: In the prepared AAD model rats (on d6) there were lower intestinal mucus SIgA levels and intestinal flora disorders were demonstrated. The intestinal floras of the rats administering synbiotics were readjusted to the similar pattern of healthy rats with bacterial translocation corrected on d13 and the levels of SIgA were not significantly different from of the control (P>0.05). The histopathological picture was basically normal in the treated models on d13. Conclusion: The synbiotics combined lactobacillus acidophilus and isomaltooligosaccharide possessed good protective effect on the intestinal mucosal barrier in lincomycin induced rat models of AAD. (authors)

  20. NHE8 plays important roles in gastric mucosal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Li, Jing; Chen, Huacong; Wang, Chunhui

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 8 is an apically expressed membrane protein in the intestinal epithelial cells. It plays important roles in sodium absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine. Although NHE8 mRNA has been detected in the stomach, the precise location and physiological role of NHE8 in the gastric glands remain unclear. In the current study, we successfully detected the expression of NHE8 in the glandular region of the stomach by Western blotting and located NHE8 protein at the apical membrane in the surface mucous cells by a confocal microscopic method. We also identified the expression of downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA) in the surface mucous cells in the stomach. Using NHE8−/− mice, we found that NHE8 plays little or no role in basal gastric acid production, yet NHE8−/− mice have reduced gastric mucosal surface pH and higher incidence of developing gastric ulcer. DRA expression was reduced significantly in the stomach in NHE8−/− mice. The propensity for gastric ulcer, reduced mucosal surface pH, and low DRA expression suggest that NHE8 is indirectly involved in gastric bicarbonate secretion and gastric mucosal protection. PMID:23220221

  1. Collagenous mucosal inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh J

    2005-07-01

    Collagenous mucosal inflammatory diseases involve the columnar-lined gastric and intestinal mucosa and have become recognized increasingly as a significant cause of symptomatic morbidity, particularly in middle-aged and elderly women, especially with watery diarrhea. Still, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this diarrhea remain poorly understood and require further elucidation. The prognosis and long-term outcome of these disorders has been documented only to a limited extent. Recent clinical and pathologic studies have indicated that collagenous mucosal inflammatory disease is a more extensive pathologic process that concomitantly may involve several sites in the gastric and intestinal mucosa. The dominant pathologic lesion is a distinct subepithelial hyaline-like deposit that has histochemical and ultrastructural features of collagen overlying a microscopically defined inflammatory process. An intimate relationship with other autoimmune connective tissue disorders is evident, particularly celiac disease. This is intriguing because these collagenous disorders have not been shown to be gluten dependent. Collagenous mucosal inflammatory disorders may represent a relatively unique but generalized inflammatory response to a multitude of causes, including celiac disease, along with a diverse group of pharmacologic agents. Some recent reports have documented treatment success but histopathologic reversal has been more difficult to substantiate owing to the focal, sometimes extensive nature, of this pathologic process.

  2. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Is Associated With Genital Tract Mucosal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Mohak; McAndrew, Thomas; Carpenter, Colleen; Burk, Robert D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical studies demonstrate increased prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease in HIV-infected individuals and an increased risk of HIV acquisition in HPV-infected individuals. The mechanisms underlying this synergy are not defined. We hypothesize that women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will exhibit changes in soluble mucosal immunity that may promote HPV persistence and facilitate HIV infection. Methods The concentrations of immune mediators and endogenous anti-Escherichia coli activity in genital tract secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage were compared in HIV-negative women with high-risk HPV-positive (HRHPV+) CIN-3 (n = 37), HRHPV+ CIN-1 (n = 12), or PAP-negative control subjects (n = 57). Results Compared with control subjects, women with CIN-3 or CIN-1 displayed significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8 (P < 0.002) and significantly lower levels of anti-inflammatory mediators and antimicrobial peptides, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (P < 0.01), and human β defensins 2 and 3 (P < 0.02). There was no significant difference in endogenous anti-E. coli activity after controlling for age and sample storage time. Conclusion HRHPV+ CIN is characterized by changes in soluble mucosal immunity that could contribute to HPV persistence. The observed mucosal inflammation suggests a mechanism that may also contribute to the epidemiologic link between persistent HPV and HIV. PMID:22801340

  3. The Mucosal Adjuvant Cholera Toxin B Instructs Non-Mucosal Dendritic Cells to Promote IgA Production Via Retinoic Acid and TGF-β

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Gloudemans (Anouk); M. Plantinga (Maud); M. Guilliams (Martin); M.A. Willart (Monique); A. Ozir-Fazalalikhan (Arifa); A. van der Ham (Alwin); L. Boon (Louis); N.L. Harris (Nicola); H. Hammad (Hamida); H.C. Hoogsteden (Henk); M. Yazdanbakhsh (Maria); R.W. Hendriks (Rudi); B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart); H.H. Smits (Hermelijn)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIt is currently unknown how mucosal adjuvants cause induction of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), and how T cell-dependent (TD) or -independent (TI) pathways might be involved. Mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) are the primary antigen presenting cells driving TI IgA synthesis, by producing

  4. Oral and cloacal microflora of wild crocodiles Crocodylus acutus and C. moreletii in the Mexican Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charruau, Pierre; Pérez-Flores, Jonathan; Pérez-Juárez, José G; Cedeño-Vázquez, J Rogelio; Rosas-Carmona, Rebeca

    2012-02-17

    Bacterial cultures and chemical analyses were performed from cloacal and oral swabs taken from 43 American crocodiles Crocodylus acutus and 28 Morelet's crocodiles C. moreletii captured in Quintana Roo State, Mexico. We recovered 47 bacterial species (28 genera and 14 families) from all samples with 51.1% of these belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Fourteen species (29.8%) were detected in both crocodile species and 18 (38.3%) and 15 (31.9%) species were only detected in American and Morelet's crocodiles, respectively. We recovered 35 bacterial species from all oral samples, of which 9 (25.8%) were detected in both crocodile species. From all cloacal samples, we recovered 21 bacterial species, of which 8 (38.1%) were detected in both crocodile species. The most commonly isolated bacteria in cloacal samples were Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli, whereas in oral samples the most common bacteria were A. hydrophila and Arcanobacterium pyogenes. The bacteria isolated represent a potential threat to crocodile health during conditions of stress and a threat to human health through crocodile bites, crocodile meat consumption or carrying out activities in crocodile habitat. We especially warn about the presence of Salmonella arizonae and S. typhi, which cause enteritis and septicemia in crocodiles and salmonellosis and typhoid fever in humans. The risk of bacterial contamination from crocodiles to humans could increase in the future because of the accelerated destruction of crocodile habitat, which could lead to an augmentation of human-crocodile interactions. Information on bacterial diversity reported here could help in the choice of antibacterial products in case of infections that are of crocodile origin.

  5. Mucosal Healing and Risk of Lymphoproliferative Malignancy in Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Granath, Fredrik; Ekbom, Anders; Smedby, Karin Ekström; Murray, Joseph A.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Green, Peter HR; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is associated with an increased risk of lymphoproliferative malignancy (LPM). It is unknown whether this risk is affected by the results of the follow-up intestinal biopsy, performed to document mucosal healing. Objective To examine the association between mucosal healing in CD and later LPM. Design Population-based cohort study Setting We identified patients with CD from all of Sweden’s 28 pathology departments. Patients Individuals with CD who had a follow-up biopsy after initial diagnosis. Measurements We compared the risk of LPM to that of the general population using expected rates; and through Cox regression we compared the rate of LPM in those with persistent villous atrophy to those with mucosal healing. Results Among 7,625 patients with CD and a follow-up biopsy, persistent villous atrophy was present in 3,308 (43%). The overall risk of LPM was increased compared to the general population (Standardized incidence ratio, SIR 2.81; 95%CI 2.10–3.67), but this increase was greater among those with persistent villous atrophy (SIR 3.78; 95%CI 2.71–5.12) as compared to those with mucosal healing (SIR 1.50; 95%CI 0.77–2.62). Persistent villous atrophy compared to mucosal healing was associated with an increased risk of LPM (Hazard ratio, HR 2.26; 95%CI 1.18–4.34). We found an increased risk of T cell lymphoma (HR 3.51; 95%CI 0.75–16.34), but no excess risk of B cell lymphoma (HR 0.97; 95%CI 0.21–4.49). Limitation We had no data on dietary compliance. Conclusions The increased LPM risk in CD is associated with the results of the follow-up biopsy, with a higher risk among those with persistent villous atrophy. Follow-up biopsy may be a means to effectively stratify CD patients regarding subsequent LPM risk. Primary funding source the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, The American Scandinavian Foundation, the Celiac Sprue Association, Örebro University Hospital, Karolinska

  6. Bacterial lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groskin, S.A.; Panicek, D.M.; Ewing, D.K.; Rivera, F.; Math, K.; Teixeira, J.; Heitzman, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective review of patients with bacterial lung abscess was carried out. Demographic, clinical, and radiographical features of this patient group are compared with similar data from patients with empyema and/or cavitated lung carcinoma; differential diagnostic points are stressed. The entity of radiographically occult lung abscess is discussed. Complications associated with bacterial lung abscess are discussed. Current therapeutic options and treatment philosophy for patients with bacterial lung abscess are noted

  7. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  8. Secretory IgA's complex roles in immunity and mucosal homeostasis in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantis, N J; Rol, N; Corthésy, B

    2011-11-01

    Secretory IgA (SIgA) serves as the first line of defense in protecting the intestinal epithelium from enteric toxins and pathogenic microorganisms. Through a process known as immune exclusion, SIgA promotes the clearance of antigens and pathogenic microorganisms from the intestinal lumen by blocking their access to epithelial receptors, entrapping them in mucus, and facilitating their removal by peristaltic and mucociliary activities. In addition, SIgA functions in mucosal immunity and intestinal homeostasis through mechanisms that have only recently been revealed. In just the past several years, SIgA has been identified as having the capacity to directly quench bacterial virulence factors, influence composition of the intestinal microbiota by Fab-dependent and Fab-independent mechanisms, promote retro-transport of antigens across the intestinal epithelium to dendritic cell subsets in gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and, finally, to downregulate proinflammatory responses normally associated with the uptake of highly pathogenic bacteria and potentially allergenic antigens. This review summarizes the intrinsic biological activities now associated with SIgA and their relationships with immunity and intestinal homeostasis.

  9. Enhanced mucosal delivery of antigen with cell wall mutants of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangette, Corinne; Müller-Alouf, Heide; Hols, Pascal; Goudercourt, Denise; Delcour, Jean; Turneer, Mireille; Mercenier, Annick

    2004-05-01

    The potential of recombinant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to deliver heterologous antigens to the immune system and to induce protective immunity has been best demonstrated by using the C subunit of tetanus toxin (TTFC) as a model antigen. Two types of LAB carriers have mainly been used, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis, which differ substantially in their abilities to resist passage through the stomach and to persist in the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Here we analyzed the effect of a deficiency in alanine racemase, an enzyme that participates in cell wall synthesis, in each of these bacterial carriers. Recombinant wild-type and mutant strains of L. plantarum NCIMB8826 and L. lactis MG1363 producing TTFC intracellularly were constructed and used in mouse immunization experiments. Remarkably, we observed that the two cell wall mutant strains were far more immunogenic than their wild-type counterparts when the intragastric route was used. However, intestinal TTFC-specific immunoglobulin A was induced only after immunization with the recombinant L. plantarum mutant strain. Moreover, the alanine racemase mutant of either LAB strain allowed induction of a much stronger serum TTFC-specific immune response after immunization via the vagina, which is a quite different ecosystem than the gastrointestinal tract. The design and use of these mutants thus resulted in a major improvement in the mucosal delivery of antigens exhibiting vaccine properties.

  10. Mucosal Interactions Between Genetics, Diet And Microbiome In Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Basson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous reviews have discussed gut microbiota composition changes during inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, particularly Crohn’s disease (CD. However, most studies address the observed effects by focusing on studying the univariate connection between disease and dietary-induced alterations to gut microbiota composition. The possibility that these effects may reflect a number of other interconnected (i.e. pantropic mechanisms, activated in parallel, particularly concerning various bacterial metabolites, is in the process of been elucidated. Progress seems however hampered by various difficult-to-study factors interacting at the mucosal level. Here we highlight some of such factors that merit consideration, namely; 1 the contribution of host genetics and diet in altering gut microbiome, and in turn, the crosstalk among secondary metabolic pathways; 2 the interdependence between the amount of dietary fat, the fatty acid composition, the effects of timing and route of administration on gut microbiota community, and the impact of microbiota-derived fatty acids; 3 the effect of diet on bile acid composition, and the modulator role of bile acids on the gut microbiota; 4 the impact of endogenous and exogenous intestinal micronutrients and metabolites, and 5 the need to consider food associated toxins and chemicals which can introduce confounding immune modulating elements (e.g., antioxidant and phytochemicals in oils and proteins. These concepts, which are not mutually exclusive, are herein illustrated paying special emphasis on physiologically inter-related processes.

  11. Antagonistic intestinal microflora produces antimicrobial substance inhibitory to pseudomonas species and other spoilage organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Delessa, T.; Zakin, V.; Gollop, N.

    2011-01-01

    Chicken intestine harbors a vast number of bacterial strains. In the present study, antimicrobial substance produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy chicken was detected, characterized, and purified. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, the bacteria were

  12. Bacteria in a woody fungal disease: characterization of bacterial communities in wood tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eBruez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Esca is a grapevine trunk disease (GTD associated with different pathogenic fungi inhabiting the woody tissues. Bacteria can also be found in such tissues and they may interact with these fungal colonizers. Although such types of microbial interaction have been observed for wood diseases in many trees, this has never been studied for grapevine. In this study, the bacterial microflora of different vine status (esca-symptomatic and asymptomatic, different anatomical part (trunk and cordon and different type of tissues (necrotic or not have been studied. Based on Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP analyses, data showed that (i specific complexes of bacterial microflora colonize the wood of both necrotic and non-necrotic tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic vines, and also that (ii depending on the anatomical part of the plant, cordon or trunk, differences could be observed between the bacterial communities. Such differences were also revealed through the Community-Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP with Biolog Ecoplates™. Two hundred seventeen bacterial strains were also isolated from plants samples and then assigned to bacterial species based on the 16S rRNA genes. Although Bacillus spp. and Pantoea agglomerans were the two most commonly isolated species from all kinds of tissues, various other taxa were also isolated. Inoculation of vine cuttings with 14 different bacterial species, and one GTD fungus, Neofusicoccum parvum, showed no impact of these bacteria on the size of the wood necroses caused by N. parvum. This study showed, therefore, that bacterial communities differ according to the anatomical part (trunk or cordon and/or the type of tissue (necrotic or non necrotic of wood of grapevine plants showing external symptoms of esca disease. However, research into bacteria having a role in GTD development needs further studies.

  13. Trophic factors in the treatment and prevention of alimentary tract mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Shen, Rene L; Sangild, Per T

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mucositis is a common adverse effect of cytotoxic anticancer treatment with serious implications for the quality of life, morbidity and mortality of cancers patients. Although, evidence supporting the use of certain treatments exists there is no gold standard for preventing...... clinical trials and uniform reporting of mucositis, are important elements to help establish new standard interventions that can be included into the continuously updated clinical recommendations for treatment of mucositis....

  14. Colonization and effector functions of innate lymphoid cells in mucosal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myunghoo; Kim, Chang H.

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) protect mucosal barrier tissues to fight infection and maintain tissue integrity. ILCs and their progenitors are developmentally programmed to migrate, differentiate and populate various mucosal tissues and associated lymphoid tissues. Functionally mature ILC subsets respond to diverse pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites in subset-specific manners. In this review, we will discuss how ILCs populate mucosal tissues and regulate immune responses to distinct pathogens to protect the host and maintain tissue integrity. PMID:27365193

  15. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    . As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  16. Preventing subclinical necrotic enteritis through Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 by ameliorating lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiaodan; Zeng, Dong; Wang, Hesong; Ni, Xueqin; Liu, Lei; Lai, Jing; Khalique, Abdul; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Increasing studies have focused on the beneficial effects of Lactobacillus johnsonii in certain diseases. Here, we studied the prevention ability of a probiotic strain, L. johnsonii BS15 on subclinical necrotic enteritis (SNE), and its underlying mechanism. 180 male Cobb 500 chicks were randomly allotted into three groups and administrated with BS15 (1 × 10 6 cfu/g) or Man Rogosa Sharpe liquid medium throughout a 28-day experimental period. With the exception of the normal group, SNE infection was treated for the remaining experimental period after the chicks were fed with normal diet 14 days. Results showed that BS15 notably suppressed the SNE-induced loss of average daily gain and liver functional abnormality. Additionally, BS15 facilitated lipid metabolism of SNE boilers when the contents of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ and adipose triglyceride lipase in adipose tissue and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. BS15 also attenuated the hepatic lipid accumulation of stricken chicks by suppressing the genes expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c as well as stimulating the genes expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. Moreover, BS15 enhanced the development of SNE gut by improving the intestinal development and digestion as well as adjusting the gut microflora. Therefore, BS15 may provide a promising natural preventative strategy against SNE, which may be contributed to the amelioration of lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora.

  17. Microflora in the Soft Tissue of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Exposed to the Harmful Microalga Heterosigma akashiwo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Shinkuro; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Kadowaki, Shusaku; Okunishi, Suguru; Maeda, Hiroto

    2017-01-01

     A marine raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo is a causative agent of harmful microalgal blooms, which often cause the massive mortality of aquacultured finfish. In the present study, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was reared with H. akashiwo, and effect of the microalga on filter-feeding behavior and microflora of the gastrointestinal tract was investigated. The intake of the raphidophyte cells inhibited the molluscan filter-feeding activities, suggesting the negative physiological effect of the microalgal cell contents. However, the bivalves ingested the H. akashiwo cells to the same extent as the diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans, a non-harmful indicator to estimate the filtration rate, showing a continuation of their non-selective ingestion of the phytoplankton. Microflora of the oyster soft tissue was dominated by bacteria affiliated with the family Rhodobacteraceae, some of which are associated with microalgae. In addition, the Bacteroidetes species, in which algicidal bacteria are included, were also found in the bivalve individuals exposed to H. akashiwo. These results suggested that the ingested phytoplankton affected the microbial flora in the gastrointestinal tracts, some constituents of which helped the mollusc assimilate the ingested red tide phytoplankton. This study will provide beneficial information to clarify mechanisms by which the oyster evades the ichthyotoxicity of harmful microalgae and the participation of the intestinal microorganisms in these processes.

  18. Diversity of gut microflora is required for the generation of B cell with regulatory properties in a skin graft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhabbab, R; Blair, P; Elgueta, R; Stolarczyk, E; Marks, E; Becker, P D; Ratnasothy, K; Smyth, L; Safinia, N; Sharif-Paghaleh, E; O'Connell, S; Noelle, R J; Lord, G M; Howard, J K; Spencer, J; Lechler, R I; Lombardi, G

    2015-06-25

    B cells have been reported to promote graft rejection through alloantibody production. However, there is growing evidence that B cells can contribute to the maintenance of tolerance. Here, we used a mouse model of MHC-class I mismatched skin transplantation to investigate the contribution of B cells to graft survival. We demonstrate that adoptive transfer of B cells prolongs skin graft survival but only when the B cells were isolated from mice housed in low sterility "conventional" (CV) facilities and not from mice housed in pathogen free facilities (SPF). However, prolongation of skin graft survival was lost when B cells were isolated from IL-10 deficient mice housed in CV facilities. The suppressive function of B cells isolated from mice housed in CV facilities correlated with an anti-inflammatory environment and with the presence of a different gut microflora compared to mice maintained in SPF facilities. Treatment of mice in the CV facility with antibiotics abrogated the regulatory capacity of B cells. Finally, we identified transitional B cells isolated from CV facilities as possessing the regulatory function. These findings demonstrate that B cells, and in particular transitional B cells, can promote prolongation of graft survival, a function dependent on licensing by gut microflora.

  19. The Dietary Effects of Fermented (CBT on Production Performance, Liver Lipids and Intestinal Microflora in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zheng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermented Chlorella vulgaris CBT® was evaluated for its effects on egg production, egg quality, liver lipids and intestinal microflora in laying hens. One hundred and eight Hy-line Brown layers (n = 108, 80 wk of age, were fed a basal diet supplemented with CBT® at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 42 d. Egg production was measured daily and egg quality was measured every two weeks. Five eggs from each replicate were collected randomly to determine egg quality. Egg production increased linearly with increasing levels of CBT® supplementation (p<0.05, although there was no significant effect of treatment on feed intake. Egg yolk color (p<0.001 and Haugh unit (p<0.01 improved linearly with increasing dietary CBT®. Hepatic triacylglycerol level was linearly decreased with increasing dietary CBT® (p<0.05. The supplemental CBT® resulted in linear (p<0.001 and quadratic (p<0.01 response in population of cecal lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, fermented Chlorella vulgaris supplemented to laying hen diets improved egg production, egg yolk color, Haugh unit and positively affected the contents of hepatic triacylglycerol and the profiles of cecal microflora.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological quality of japanese chicken meat and microflora change of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prachasitthisak, Y.; Ito, H.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of gamma irradiation with doses between 0 and 8 kGy on microbiological quality of chicken meat produced in Japan and micro flora change of irradiated chicken meat were studied. Radiation at the dose 2 kGy resulted in 4 log cycles reduction of total aerobic bacteria, 5 - 6 log cycles reduction of lactic acid bacteria and 2 log cycles reduction of fungi and yeasts. For the coliforms, it could be eliminated below detectable level by irradiation dose of 1 kGy. For the chicken flora-analysis, it was found that chicken of each area had their own specific microbial community structure. Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas were found to be dominant organisms in the microflora of Japanese chicken meat. Irradiation with dose 2 kGy resulted in disappearance of Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas. The microorganisms which dominated in irradiated chickens with doses of 2 kGy and higher were Psychrobacter and yeast. These studies support the view that radiation improves the microbiological quality of chicken meat and substantiate that radiation does not present hazard resulting from a change in the microflora of irradiated chicken

  1. Diversity of gut microflora is required for the generation of B cell with regulatory properties in a skin graft model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhabbab, R.; Blair, P.; Elgueta, R.; Stolarczyk, E.; Marks, E.; Becker, P. D.; Ratnasothy, K.; Smyth, L.; Safinia, N.; Sharif-Paghaleh, E.; O’Connell, S.; Noelle, R. J.; Lord, G. M.; Howard, J. K.; Spencer, J.; Lechler, R. I.; Lombardi, G.

    2015-01-01

    B cells have been reported to promote graft rejection through alloantibody production. However, there is growing evidence that B cells can contribute to the maintenance of tolerance. Here, we used a mouse model of MHC-class I mismatched skin transplantation to investigate the contribution of B cells to graft survival. We demonstrate that adoptive transfer of B cells prolongs skin graft survival but only when the B cells were isolated from mice housed in low sterility “conventional” (CV) facilities and not from mice housed in pathogen free facilities (SPF). However, prolongation of skin graft survival was lost when B cells were isolated from IL-10 deficient mice housed in CV facilities. The suppressive function of B cells isolated from mice housed in CV facilities correlated with an anti-inflammatory environment and with the presence of a different gut microflora compared to mice maintained in SPF facilities. Treatment of mice in the CV facility with antibiotics abrogated the regulatory capacity of B cells. Finally, we identified transitional B cells isolated from CV facilities as possessing the regulatory function. These findings demonstrate that B cells, and in particular transitional B cells, can promote prolongation of graft survival, a function dependent on licensing by gut microflora. PMID:26109230

  2. The contribution of autochthonous microflora on free fatty acids release and flavor development in low-salt fermented fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanshun; Li, Lin; Regenstein, Joe Mac; Gao, Pei; Zang, Jinhong; Xia, Wenshui; Jiang, Qixing

    2018-08-01

    To investigate the contribution of autochthonous microflora on free fatty acids (FFA) release and flavor development in low-salt fermented fish, three groups of processed fish, including bacteriostatic-acidification group (BAG), bacteriostatic group (BG), and spontaneous fermented fish (CG) were established. Results showed that addition of NaN 3 reduced microbial load in BAG and BG below 3.5 log CFU/g after 3 weeks of incubation. Activities of lipases and lipoxygenase declined markedly with increasing time, where BG had the highest activities, followed by CG and BAG. There is a 36.3% higher in the total FFA content in CG than that in BAG, indicating both microbial and endogenous lipases contributed to the FFA liberation in fermented fish while endogenous lipases play a major role. However, compared to BAG and BG, largely higher levels of volatile compounds were observed in CG, suggesting that autochthonous microflora dominated the generation of volatile flavor compounds in fermented fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of a One Year Reusable Contraceptive Vaginal Ring on Vaginal Microflora and the Risk of Vaginal Infection: An Open-Label Prospective Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Huang

    Full Text Available A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR containing Nestorone® (NES and ethinyl estradiol (EE that is reusable for 1- year (13 cycles is under development. This study assessed effects of this investigational CVR on the incidence of vaginal infections and change in vaginal microflora.There were 120 women enrolled into a NES/EE CVR Phase III trial and a microbiology sub-study for up to 1- year of cyclic product use. Gynecological examinations were conducted at baseline, the first week of cycle 6 and last week of cycle 13 (or during early discontinuation visits. Vaginal swabs were obtained for wet mount microscopy, Gram stain and culture. The CVR was removed from the vagina at the last study visit and cultured. Semi-quantitative cultures for Lactobacillus, Gardnerella vaginalis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, anaerobic gram negative rods (GNRs, Candida albicans and other yeasts were performed on vaginal and CVR samples. Vaginal infections were documented throughout the study.Over 1- year of use, 3.3% of subjects were clinically diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, 15.0% with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and 0.8% with trichomoniasis. The detection rate of these three infections did not change significantly from baseline to either Cycle 6 or 13. Nugent scores remained stable. H2O2-positive Lactobacillus dominated vaginal flora with a non-significant prevalence increase from 76.7% at baseline to 82.7% at cycle 6 and 90.2% at cycle 13, and a median concentration of 107 colony forming units (cfu per gram. Although anaerobic GNRs prevalence increased significantly, the median concentration decreased slightly (104 to 103cfu per gram. There were no significant changes in frequency or concentrations of other pathogens. High levels of agreement between vaginal and ring surface microbiota were observed.Sustained use of the NES/EE CVR did not increase the risk of vaginal infection and was not disruptive to the vaginal ecosystem

  4. Effects of a One Year Reusable Contraceptive Vaginal Ring on Vaginal Microflora and the Risk of Vaginal Infection: An Open-Label Prospective Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongmei; Merkatz, Ruth B.; Hillier, Sharon L.; Roberts, Kevin; Blithe, Diana L.; Sitruk-Ware, Régine; Creinin, Mitchell D.

    2015-01-01

    Background A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) containing Nestorone® (NES) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) that is reusable for 1- year (13 cycles) is under development. This study assessed effects of this investigational CVR on the incidence of vaginal infections and change in vaginal microflora. Methods There were 120 women enrolled into a NES/EE CVR Phase III trial and a microbiology sub-study for up to 1- year of cyclic product use. Gynecological examinations were conducted at baseline, the first week of cycle 6 and last week of cycle 13 (or during early discontinuation visits). Vaginal swabs were obtained for wet mount microscopy, Gram stain and culture. The CVR was removed from the vagina at the last study visit and cultured. Semi-quantitative cultures for Lactobacillus, Gardnerella vaginalis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, anaerobic gram negative rods (GNRs), Candida albicans and other yeasts were performed on vaginal and CVR samples. Vaginal infections were documented throughout the study. Results Over 1- year of use, 3.3% of subjects were clinically diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, 15.0% with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and 0.8% with trichomoniasis. The detection rate of these three infections did not change significantly from baseline to either Cycle 6 or 13. Nugent scores remained stable. H2O2-positive Lactobacillus dominated vaginal flora with a non-significant prevalence increase from 76.7% at baseline to 82.7% at cycle 6 and 90.2% at cycle 13, and a median concentration of 107 colony forming units (cfu) per gram. Although anaerobic GNRs prevalence increased significantly, the median concentration decreased slightly (104 to 103cfu per gram). There were no significant changes in frequency or concentrations of other pathogens. High levels of agreement between vaginal and ring surface microbiota were observed. Conclusion Sustained use of the NES/EE CVR did not increase the risk of vaginal infection and was not disruptive to

  5. Increased melatonin in oral mucosal tissue of oral lichen planus (OLP) patients: A possible link between melatonin and its role in oral mucosal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengtrakoon, Kirawut; Wannakasemsuk, Worraned; Vichitrananda, Vilasinee; Klanrit, Poramaporn; Hormdee, Doosadee; Noisombut, Rajda; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham

    2017-06-01

    The existence of extra-pineal melatonin has been observed in various tissues. No prior studies of melatonin in human oral mucosal tissue under the condition of chronic inflammation have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin in oral mucosal tissue of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) which was considered as a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disease causing oral mucosal damage and ulcerations. Sections from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded oral mucosal tissue of OLP patients (n=30), and control subjects (n=30) were used in this study. Immunohistochemical staining was performed and the semiquantitative scoring system was used to assess the levels of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT: a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of melatonin), melatonin, and melatonin receptor 1 (MT1) in oral mucosa of OLP patients and normal oral mucosa of control subjects. AANAT, melatonin, and MT1were detected in oral mucosal tissue of OLP patients and control subjects. Immunostaining scores of AANAT, melatonin, and MT1 in oral mucosal tissue of OLP patients were significantly higher than those in control subjects (p=0.002, poral mucosal tissue of OLP patients imply that chronic inflammation may induce the local biosynthesis of melatonin via AANAT, and may enhance the action of melatonin via MT1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human colorectal mucosal microbiota correlates with its host niche physiology revealed by endomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Li, Ming; Li, Chang-Qing; Kou, Guan-Jun; Zuo, Xiu-Li; Li, Yan-Qing

    2016-02-26

    The human gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of health, but how the microbiota interacts with the host at the colorectal mucosa is poorly understood. We proposed that confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) might help to untangle this relationship by providing in vivo physiological information of the mucosa. We used CLE to evaluate the in vivo physiology of human colorectal mucosa, and the mucosal microbiota was quantified using 16 s rDNA pyrosequencing. The human mucosal microbiota agglomerated to three major clusters dominated by Prevotella, Bacteroides and Lactococcus. The mucosal microbiota clusters did not significantly correlate with the disease status or biopsy sites but closely correlated with the mucosal niche physiology, which was non-invasively revealed by CLE. Inflammation tilted two subnetworks within the mucosal microbiota. Infiltration of inflammatory cells significantly correlated with multiple components in the predicted metagenome, such as the VirD2 component of the type IV secretory pathway. Our data suggest that a close correlation exists between the mucosal microbiota and the colorectal mucosal physiology, and CLE is a clinically available tool that can be used to facilitate the study of the in vivo correlation between colorectal mucosal physiology and the mucosal microbiota.

  7. Pretreatment with Saccharomyces boulardii does not prevent the experimental mucositis in Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Tatiani Uceli; de Melo Silva, Brenda; Dias, Michelle Nobre; Paiva, Nivea Carolina; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Fernandes, Simone Odilia; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Dos Santos Martins, Flaviano; de Vasconcelos Generoso, Simone

    2014-04-11

    The antimetabolite chemotherapy 5-Fluorouracil is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical cancer treatment. Although this drug is not specific for cancer cells and also acts on healthy cells, it can cause mucositis, a common collateral effect. Dysbiosis has also been described in 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis and is likely to contribute to the overall development of mucositis. In light of this theory, the use of probiotics could be a helpful strategy to alleviate mucositis. So the aim of this study was evaluate the impact of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in a model of mucositis. After induced of mucositis, mice from the Mucositis groups showed a decrease in food consumption (p Saccharomyces boulardii did not reverse this effect (p > 0.05). Mucositis induced an increase in intestinal permeability and intestinal inflammation (p  0.05) in mice pretreated with S. boulardii. S. boulardii was not able to prevent the effects of experimental mucositis induced by 5- Fluorouracil.

  8. Oral cryotherapy reduces mucositis and opioid use after myeloablative therapy--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, Anncarin; Birgegård, Gunnar; Ohrn, Kerstin

    2007-10-01

    Mucositis is a major complication in myeloablative therapy, which often necessitates advanced pharmacological pain treatment, including i.v. opioids. Attempts to prevent oral mucositis have included oral cryotherapy, which has been shown to reduce mucositis, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning the effect of oral cryotherapy on opioid use by reducing the mucositis for patients treated with myeloablative therapy before bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The aim of the present study was to evaluate if oral cryotherapy could delay or alleviate the development of mucositis and thereby reduce the number of days with i.v. opioids among patients who receive myeloablative therapy before BMT. Eighty patients 18 years and older, scheduled for BMT, were included consecutively and randomised to oral cryotherapy or standard oral care. A stratified randomisation was used with regard to type of transplantation. Intensity of pain, severity of mucositis and use of opioids were recorded using pain visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, mucositis index scores and medical and nursing charts. This study showed that patients receiving oral cryotherapy had less pronounced mucositis and significantly fewer days with i.v. opioids than the control group. In the autologous setting, cryotherapy patients also needed significantly lower total dose of opioids. Oral cryotherapy is an effective and well-tolerated therapy to alleviate mucositis and consequently reduce the number of days with i.v. opioids among patients treated with myeloablative therapy before BMT.

  9. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among chewing tobacco users: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha S Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square and Fisher′s exact tests were used to assess the statistical significance. Results: Of the 901 subjects with CT habits, 55.8% revealed no clinically detectable oral mucosal changes and 44.1% showed mucosal changes of which 63.8% were males and 36.1% were females. The most common finding was chewers mucositis (59.5% followed by submucous fibrosis (22.8%, leukoplakia (8%, lichenoid reaction (6.5%, oral cancer (2.7%, and lichen planus (0.5%. Conclusion: This study provides information about different CT habits and associated mucosal lesions among this population.

  10. Rectal dexmedetomidine in rats: evaluation of sedative and mucosal effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hanci

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the anesthetic and mucosal effects of the rectal application of dexmedetomidine to rats. METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats weighing 250-300 g were divided into four groups: Group S (n = 8 was a sham group that served as a baseline for the normal basal values; Group C (n = 8 consisted of rats that received the rectal application of saline alone; Group IPDex (n = 8 included rats that received the intraperitoneal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1; and Group RecDex (n = 8 included rats that received the rectal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1. For the rectal drug administration, we used 22 G intravenous cannulas with the stylets removed. We administered the drugs by advancing the cannula 1 cm into the rectum, and the rectal administration volume was 1 mL for all the rats. The latency and anesthesia time (min were measured. Two hours after rectal administration, 75 mg kg-1 ketamine was administered for intraperitoneal anesthesia in all the groups, followed by the removal of the rats' rectums to a distal distance of 3 cm via an abdominoperineal surgical procedure. We histopathologically examined and scored the rectums. RESULTS: Anesthesia was achieved in all the rats in the Group RecDex following the administration of dexmedetomidine. The onset of anesthesia in the Group RecDex was significantly later and of a shorter duration than in the Group IPDEx (p < 0.05. In the Group RecDex, the administration of dexmedetomidine induced mild-moderate losses of mucosal architecture in the colon and rectum, 2 h after rectal inoculation. CONCLUSION: Although 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine administered rectally to rats achieved a significantly longer duration of anesthesia compared with the rectal administration of saline, our histopathological evaluations showed that the rectal administration of 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine led to mild-moderate damage to the mucosal structure of the

  11. Histopathological analysis of gastric mucosal biopsies in non ulcer dyspepsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfraz, T.; Hafeez, M.; Tariq, H.; Azhar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out the pattern of gastric mucosal histopathological findings in gastric biopsies of patients with non ulcer dyspepsia. Study Design: Prospective descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Histopathology department Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Kharian Pakistan from Jan to Dec 2015. Material and Methods: One hundred patients presenting at outpatient gastroenterology department with dyspepsia having no endoscopic lesion were included in the study. Two gastric mucosal biopsies from antrum and two from corpus were taken. The specimens were processed and examined histologically to see the changes. Results: Gastric biopsies of 100 patients including 65 males and 35 females presenting with non ulcer dyspepsia were studied. Most of the patients were between the age group of 31-50 years. Histological examination of gastric biopsies revealed 70 percent of patients having histological features of gastritis, while 30 percent having no significant histological finding. Chronic inflammation was seen in 70 cases (70 percent), activity in 15 cases (15 percent), glandular atrophy in 2 cases (2 percent) and intestinal metaplasia in 2 cases (2 percent). H.Pylori were identified in 25 cases (25 percent) based on haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and modified giemsa staining. Conclusion: Most the cases of non ulcer dyspepsia show histological evidence of gastritis, however a significant number of patients showed no gastric mucosal histological abnormality. A significantly low frequency of H. Pylori in gastric biopsies noted in non ulcer dyspepsia cases may be due to more frequent use of antibiotics and acid suppressant drugs used by general practitioners at some stage of disease. (author)

  12. Cyclic GMP-AMP Displays Mucosal Adjuvant Activity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Škrnjug, Ivana; Guzmán, Carlos Alberto; Ruecker, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered mammalian enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase produces cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) after being activated by pathogen-derived cytosolic double stranded DNA. The product can stimulate STING-dependent interferon type I signaling. Here, we explore the efficacy of cGAMP as a mucosal adjuvant in mice. We show that cGAMP can enhance the adaptive immune response to the model antigen ovalbumin. It promotes antigen specific IgG and a balanced Th1/Th2 lymphocyte response in immunized mice....

  13. Inflammation drives dysbiosis and bacterial invasion in murine models of ileal Crohn's disease.

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    Melanie Craven

    Full Text Available Understanding the interplay between genetic susceptibility, the microbiome, the environment and the immune system in Crohn's Disease (CD is essential for developing optimal therapeutic strategies. We sought to examine the dynamics of the relationship between inflammation, the ileal microbiome, and host genetics in murine models of ileitis.We induced ileal inflammation of graded severity in C57BL6 mice by gavage with Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia muris, low dose indomethacin (LDI; 0.1 mg/mouse, or high dose indomethacin (HDI; 1 mg/mouse. The composition and spatial distribution of the mucosal microbiome was evaluated by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mucosal E. coli were enumerated by quantitative PCR, and characterized by phylogroup, genotype and pathotype.Moderate to severe ileitis induced by T. gondii (day 8 and HDI caused a consistent shift from >95% gram + Firmicutes to >95% gram - Proteobacteria. This was accompanied by reduced microbial diversity and mucosal invasion by adherent and invasive E. coli, mirroring the dysbiosis of ileal CD. In contrast, dysbiosis and bacterial invasion did not develop in mice with mild ileitis induced by Giardia muris. Superimposition of genetic susceptibility and T. Gondii infection revealed greatest dysbiosis and bacterial invasion in the CD-susceptible genotype, NOD2(-/-, and reduced dysbiosis in ileitis-resistant CCR2(-/- mice. Abrogating inflammation with the CD therapeutic anti-TNF-α-mAb tempered dysbiosis and bacterial invasion.Acute ileitis induces dysbiosis and proliferation of mucosally invasive E. coli, irrespective of trigger and genotype. The identification of CCR2 as a target for therapeutic intervention, and discovery that host genotype and therapeutic blockade of inflammation impact the threshold and extent of ileal dysbiosis are of high relevance to developing effective therapies for CD.

  14. Inflammation drives dysbiosis and bacterial invasion in murine models of ileal Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Melanie; Egan, Charlotte E; Dowd, Scot E; McDonough, Sean P; Dogan, Belgin; Denkers, Eric Y; Bowman, Dwight; Scherl, Ellen J; Simpson, Kenneth W

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between genetic susceptibility, the microbiome, the environment and the immune system in Crohn's Disease (CD) is essential for developing optimal therapeutic strategies. We sought to examine the dynamics of the relationship between inflammation, the ileal microbiome, and host genetics in murine models of ileitis. We induced ileal inflammation of graded severity in C57BL6 mice by gavage with Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia muris, low dose indomethacin (LDI; 0.1 mg/mouse), or high dose indomethacin (HDI; 1 mg/mouse). The composition and spatial distribution of the mucosal microbiome was evaluated by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mucosal E. coli were enumerated by quantitative PCR, and characterized by phylogroup, genotype and pathotype. Moderate to severe ileitis induced by T. gondii (day 8) and HDI caused a consistent shift from >95% gram + Firmicutes to >95% gram - Proteobacteria. This was accompanied by reduced microbial diversity and mucosal invasion by adherent and invasive E. coli, mirroring the dysbiosis of ileal CD. In contrast, dysbiosis and bacterial invasion did not develop in mice with mild ileitis induced by Giardia muris. Superimposition of genetic susceptibility and T. Gondii infection revealed greatest dysbiosis and bacterial invasion in the CD-susceptible genotype, NOD2(-/-), and reduced dysbiosis in ileitis-resistant CCR2(-/-) mice. Abrogating inflammation with the CD therapeutic anti-TNF-α-mAb tempered dysbiosis and bacterial invasion. Acute ileitis induces dysbiosis and proliferation of mucosally invasive E. coli, irrespective of trigger and genotype. The identification of CCR2 as a target for therapeutic intervention, and discovery that host genotype and therapeutic blockade of inflammation impact the threshold and extent of ileal dysbiosis are of high relevance to developing effective therapies for CD.

  15. Inflammation Drives Dysbiosis and Bacterial Invasion in Murine Models of Ileal Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Melanie; Egan, Charlotte E.; Dowd, Scot E.; McDonough, Sean P.; Dogan, Belgin; Denkers, Eric Y.; Bowman, Dwight; Scherl, Ellen J.; Simpson, Kenneth W.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Understanding the interplay between genetic susceptibility, the microbiome, the environment and the immune system in Crohn’s Disease (CD) is essential for developing optimal therapeutic strategies. We sought to examine the dynamics of the relationship between inflammation, the ileal microbiome, and host genetics in murine models of ileitis. Methods We induced ileal inflammation of graded severity in C57BL6 mice by gavage with Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia muris, low dose indomethacin (LDI;0.1 mg/mouse), or high dose indomethacin (HDI;1 mg/mouse). The composition and spatial distribution of the mucosal microbiome was evaluated by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mucosal E. coli were enumerated by quantitative PCR, and characterized by phylogroup, genotype and pathotype. Results Moderate to severe ileitis induced by T. gondii (day 8) and HDI caused a consistent shift from >95% Gram + Firmicutes to >95% Gram - Proteobacteria. This was accompanied by reduced microbial diversity and mucosal invasion by adherent and invasive E. coli, mirroring the dysbiosis of ileal CD. In contrast, dysbiosis and bacterial invasion did not develop in mice with mild ileitis induced by Giardia muris. Superimposition of genetic susceptibility and T. Gondii infection revealed greatest dysbiosis and bacterial invasion in the CD-susceptible genotype, NOD2−/−, and reduced dysbiosis in ileitis-resistant CCR2−/− mice. Abrogating inflammation with the CD therapeutic anti-TNF-α-mAb tempered dysbiosis and bacterial invasion. Conclusions Acute ileitis induces dysbiosis and proliferation of mucosally invasive E. coli, irrespective of trigger and genotype. The identification of CCR2 as a target for therapeutic intervention, and discovery that host genotype and therapeutic blockade of inflammation impact the threshold and extent of ileal dysbiosis are of high relevance to developing effective therapies for CD. PMID:22848538

  16. Minor Capsid Protein L2 Polytope Induces Broad Protection against Oncogenic and Mucosal Human Papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyanfard, Somayeh; Spagnoli, Gloria; Bulli, Lorenzo; Balz, Kathrin; Yang, Fan; Odenwald, Caroline; Seitz, Hanna; Mariz, Filipe C; Bolchi, Angelo; Ottonello, Simone; Müller, Martin

    2018-02-15

    The amino terminus of the human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid protein L2 contains a major cross-neutralization epitope which provides the basis for the development of a broadly protecting HPV vaccine. A wide range of protection against different HPV types would eliminate one of the major drawbacks of the commercial, L1-based prophylactic vaccines. Previously, we have reported that insertion of the L2 epitope into a scaffold composed of bacterial thioredoxin protein generates a potent antigen inducing comprehensive protection against different animal and human papillomaviruses. We also reported, however, that although protection is broad, some oncogenic HPV types escape the neutralizing antibody response, if L2 epitopes from single HPV types are used as immunogen. We were able to compensate for this by applying a mix of thioredoxin proteins carrying L2 epitopes from HPV16, -31, and -51. As the development of a cost-efficient HPV prophylactic vaccines is one of our objectives, this approach is not feasible as it requires the development of multiple good manufacturing production processes in combination with a complex vaccine formulation. Here, we report the development of a thermostable thioredoxin-based single-peptide vaccine carrying an L2 polytope of up to 11 different HPV types. The L2 polytope antigens have excellent abilities in respect to broadness of protection and robustness of induced immune responses. To further increase immunogenicity, we fused the thioredoxin L2 polytope antigen with a heptamerization domain. In the final vaccine design, we achieve protective responses against all 14 oncogenic HPV types that we have analyzed plus the low-risk HPVs 6 and 11 and a number of cutaneous HPVs. IMPORTANCE Infections by a large number of human papillomaviruses lead to malignant and nonmalignant disease. Current commercial vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLPs) effectively protect against some HPV types but fail to do so for most others. Further, only

  17. Microscopy of bacterial translocation during small bowel obstruction and ischemia in vivo – a new animal model

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    Hafner Mathias

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing animal models provide only indirect information about the pathogenesis of infections caused by indigenous gastrointestinal microflora and the kinetics of bacterial translocation. The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model to assess bacterial translocation and intestinal barrier function in vivo. Methods In anaesthetized male Wistar rats, 0.5 ml of a suspension of green fluorescent protein-transfected E. coli was administered by intraluminal injection in a model of small bowel obstruction. Animals were randomly subjected to non-ischemic or ischemic bowel obstruction. Ischemia was induced by selective clamping of the terminal mesenteric vessels feeding the obstructed bowel loop. Time intervals necessary for translocation of E. coli into the submucosal stroma and the muscularis propria was assessed using intravital microscopy. Results Bacterial translocation into the submucosa and muscularis propria took a mean of 36 ± 8 min and 80 ± 10 min, respectively, in small bowel obstruction. Intestinal ischemia significantly accelerated bacterial translocation into the submucosa (11 ± 5 min, p E. coli were visible in frozen sections of small bowel, mesentery, liver and spleen taken two hours after E. coli administration. Conclusions Intravital microscopy of fluorescent bacteria is a novel approach to study bacterial translocation in vivo. We have applied this technique to define minimal bacterial transit time as a functional parameter of intestinal barrier function.

  18. Studies on the response of soil microflora to the application of the fungicide fenhexamid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Azhari, Najoi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of the fungicide fenhexamid (FEX) on the genetic structure of soil bacterial communities using the Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis molecular technique. Using real-time PCR, we also tried to quantify the pcaH sequences which encode...... the dioxygenases involved in the degradation process of a variety of aromatic compounds. Soil taken from a vineyard in the Etna Park (Sicily, Italy) was treated with FEX in the ratio 2 µg g-1 soil every 7 days, the process being repeated four times. The analyses were carried out before treatment and 7 days after...... each further application of FEX. At the same time, the degradation rate was evaluated. The use of FEX determined a variation in the bacterial component of the soil which could be seen in an increase of some microbial strains and the inhibition of others. The pcaH sequence was already present...

  19. Multiplex immunoassay of lower genital tract mucosal fluid from women attending an urban STD clinic shows broadly increased IL1ß and lactoferrin.

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    Gregory T Spear

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than one million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs occur each day. The immune responses and inflammation induced by STDs and other frequent non-STD microbial colonizations (i.e. Candida and bacterial vaginosis can have serious pathologic consequences in women including adverse pregnancy outcomes, infertility and increased susceptibility to infection by other pathogens. Understanding the types of immune mediators that are elicited in the lower genital tract by these infections/colonizations can give important insights into the innate and adaptive immune pathways that are activated and lead to strategies for preventing pathologic effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 32 immune mediators were measured by multiplexed immunoassays to assess the immune environment of the lower genital tract mucosa in 84 women attending an urban STD clinic. IL-3, IL-1ß, VEGF, angiogenin, IL-8, ß2Defensin and ß3Defensin were detected in all subjects, Interferon-α was detected in none, while the remaining mediators were detected in 40% to 93% of subjects. Angiogenin, VEGF, FGF, IL-9, IL-7, lymphotoxin-α and IL-3 had not been previously reported in genital mucosal fluid from women. Strong correlations were observed between levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6, between chemokines IP-10 and MIG and between myeloperoxidase, IL-8 and G-CSF. Samples from women with any STD/colonization had significantly higher levels of IL-8, IL-3, IL-7, IL-1ß, lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase. IL-1ß and lactoferrin were significantly increased in gonorrhea, Chlamydia, cervicitis, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies show that mucosal fluid in general appears to be an environment that is rich in immune mediators. Importantly, IL-1ß and lactoferrin are biomarkers for STDs/colonizations providing insights into immune responses and pathogenesis at this mucosal site.

  20. Biotechnological potential of the microflora associated with the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Marjolaine; Martin, Renée; Barbeyron, Tristan; Portetelle, Daniel; Michel, Gurvan; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria associated with algae are underexplored despite their huge biodiversity and the fact that they differ markedly from those living freely in seawater. These bacterial communities are known to represent great potential for the production of diverse bioactive compounds, such as specific glycoside hydrolases, as they interact in multiple complex ways with their host. Furthermore, enzymes from marine bacteria have original properties, like cold-adapted, halotolerant and highly stable, whic...

  1. Effects of glyphosate herbicide on the gastrointestinal microflora of Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas) Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Ronald P; McDermid, Karla J; Muehlstein, Lisa; Balazs, George H

    2018-02-01

    In Hawaii, glyphosate-based herbicides frequently sprayed near shorelines may be affecting non-target marine species. Glyphosate inhibits aromatic amino acid biosynthesis (shikimate pathway), and is toxic to beneficial gut bacteria in cattle and chickens. Effects of glyphosate on gut bacteria in marine herbivorous turtles were assessed in vitro. When cultures of mixed bacterial communities from gastrointestinal tracts of freshly euthanized green turtles (Chelonia mydas), were exposed for 24h to six glyphosate concentrations (plus deionized water control), bacterial density was significantly lower at glyphosate concentrations≥2.2×10 -4 gL -1 (absorbance measured at 600nm wavelength). Using a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay, the growth of four bacterial isolates (Pantoea, Proteus, Shigella, and Staphylococcus) was significantly inhibited by glyphosate concentrations≥1.76×10 -3 gL -1 . Reduced growth or lower survival of gut bacteria in green turtles exposed to glyphosate could have adverse effects on turtle digestion and overall health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

  3. Mucosal immunity and B cells in teleosts: effect of vaccination and stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eParra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fish are subjected to several insults from the environment, which may endanger animal survival. Mucosal surfaces are the first line of defense against those threats and they act as a physical barrier to protect the animal but also function as immunologically active tissues. Thus, four mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues have been described in fish, which lead the immune responses in gut, skin, gills and nose. Humoral and cellular immunity, as well as its regulation and the factors that influence the response in these mucosal lymphoid tissues is still not well known in most of fish species. Mucosal B-lymphocytes and immunoglobulins (Igs are one of the key players in the immune response after vaccination. Recent findings about IgT in trout have delimited the compartmentalization of immune response in systemic and mucosal. The existence of IgT as a specialized mucosa Ig gives us the opportunity of measuring mucosal specific responses after vaccination, a fact that was not possible until recently in most of the fish species. Vaccination process is influenced by several factors, being stress one of the main stimuli determining the success of the vaccine. Thus, one of the major goals in a vaccination process is to avoid possible situations of stress, which might interfere with fish immune performance. However, the interaction between immune and neuroendocrine systems at mucosal tissues is still unknown. In this review we will summarized the latest findings about B-lymphocytes and immunoglobulins in mucosal immunity and the effect of stress and vaccines on B cell response at mucosal sites. It is important to point out that a small number of studies have been published regarding mucosal stress and very few about the influence of stress over mucosal B-lymphocytes.

  4. Study of reduction methods for irradiation on oral mucositis. The examination of reduction methods for mucosal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonogi, Morio; Yamane, Genyuki; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Hasegawa, Azusa; Mizoe, Junetsu; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2004-01-01

    Reduction methods for irradiation on oral mucosa examined concerning in acute phase of the carbon ion radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. We enforced a mechanical teeth and gingival cleaning as an Oral hearth care and gargled a polaprezinc with sodium alginate, and azulene- lidocaine with glycerin sodium as a oral linces before radiation. The response of the mucosal failure was reduced compare with no care group. In this Result, we considered that oral hearth care for prevention of infection, and mucosa protection by the drug was important factor. (author)

  5. Postviral Complications: Bacterial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasso, Jason E; Deng, Jane C

    2017-03-01

    Secondary bacterial pneumonia after viral respiratory infection remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Susceptibility is mediated by a variety of viral and bacterial factors, and complex interactions with the host immune system. Prevention and treatment strategies are limited to influenza vaccination and antibiotics/antivirals respectively. Novel approaches to identifying the individuals with influenza who are at increased risk for secondary bacterial pneumonias are urgently needed. Given the threat of further pandemics and the heightened prevalence of these viruses, more research into the immunologic mechanisms of this disease is warranted with the hope of discovering new potential therapies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Mucosal delivery of liposome-chitosan nanoparticle complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edison L S; Grenha, Ana; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Alonso, Maria José; Seijo, Begoña

    2009-01-01

    Designing adequate drug carriers has long been a major challenge for those working in drug delivery. Since drug delivery strategies have evolved for mucosal delivery as the outstanding alternative to parenteral administration, many new drug delivery systems have been developed which evidence promising properties to address specific issues. Colloidal carriers, such as nanoparticles and liposomes, have been referred to as the most valuable approaches, but still have some limitations that can become more inconvenient as a function of the specific characteristics of administration routes. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new drug delivery system that results from the combination of chitosan nanoparticles and liposomes, in an approach of combining their advantages, while avoiding their individual limitations. These lipid/chitosan nanoparticle complexes are, thus, expected to protect the encapsulated drug from harsh environmental conditions, while concomitantly providing its controlled release. To prepare these assemblies, two different strategies have been applied: one focusing on the simple hydration of a previously formed dry lipid film with a suspension of chitosan nanoparticles, and the other relying on the lyophilization of both basic structures (nanoparticles and liposomes) with a subsequent step of hydration with water. The developed systems are able to provide a controlled release of the encapsulated model peptide, insulin, evidencing release profiles that are dependent on their lipid composition. Moreover, satisfactory in vivo results have been obtained, confirming the potential of these newly developed drug delivery systems as drug carriers through distinct mucosal routes.

  7. Therapeutic management of radiation-induced oral mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, W.; Doelling-Jochem, I.; Baumann, M.; Herrmann, T.

    1997-01-01

    Background: Acute reactions of oral mucosa are a frequent side effect of radiotherapy, which often necessitates interruption of the treatment. Marked proliferation of tumor stem cells during treatment interruptions may occur in squamous cell carcinomata, which represent the majority of tumors in the head and neck area. Hence a fatal consequence of treatment breaks may be a significant decrease in tumor cure rates. Furthermore, marked acute responses frequently result in increased late sequelae ('consequential damage'). Therefore, amelioration of the mucosal response aiming at avoiding treatment breaks and at reduction of late reactions coul definitely increase the therapeutic success of radiation treatment. Results: A variety of prophylactic and therapeutic methods have been proposed for the management of acute radiation reactions of the oral mucosa. Frequently, their efficiacy has been established for chemotherapy or in combination with other immunosuppressive treatments. Hence, systemical rather than local effects have to be considered. Conclusions: In general, prophylaxis of oral mucositis is mainly based on dental restoration or edentation, in combination with frequent oral hygienic measures after the meals and with antiseptic mouthwashes. Intensive personal care is recommended. The necessity of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostoma is dependent on the status of the patient and on size and localization of the treatment area, i.e. the impairment of food uptake which is to be expected. Therapeutic intervention is restricted to local or systemic treatment of pain and local application of antimycotics and antibiotics. (orig./VHE) [de

  8. Inlay buccal mucosal graft for reoperative posterior urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Hung Tang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Posterior urethral distraction injury following major pelvic trauma is a surgical challenge. Although rarely seen, cases of failure after formal urethral reconstruction are even more problematic. We adapted the concept of augmented free buccal mucosal grafts, which have been successful in anterior urethroplasty, for repairing the posterior urethra in these rare cases with the aim of reducing the likelihood of penile chordee postoperatively. During 2007–2009, four patients were candidates for the proposed procedure because they had received formal transperineal urethral reconstruction but were unable to urinate through the urethra. The urethra was approached transperineally and opened in the midline, rather than divided. Buccal mucosal grafts of an appropriate size were placed in the created urethral groove from 4- to 8 o’clock in the lithotomy view. After the procedure, the urethral catheter was kept for 3 weeks. All patients voided through the urethra after the procedure. The maximal postoperative urinary flow rates were between 12–15 ml/seconds in all cases for a follow-up period of 18–30 months. The recurrence rate was 50% (2/4. Recurrent strictures were minor, and they showed a web-like stricture ring near the suture line. Restricture within 6 months of surgery responded well to endoscopic internal urethrotomy plus dilatations. In conclusion, without further compromising urethral length, reoperative posterior urethroplasty with the inlay grafting technique can be considered in selective cases.

  9. Cyclic GMP-AMP displays mucosal adjuvant activity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Škrnjug

    Full Text Available The recently discovered mammalian enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase produces cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP after being activated by pathogen-derived cytosolic double stranded DNA. The product can stimulate STING-dependent interferon type I signaling. Here, we explore the efficacy of cGAMP as a mucosal adjuvant in mice. We show that cGAMP can enhance the adaptive immune response to the model antigen ovalbumin. It promotes antigen specific IgG and a balanced Th1/Th2 lymphocyte response in immunized mice. A characteristic of the cGAMP-induced immune response is the slightly reduced induction of interleukin-17 as a hallmark of Th17 activity--a distinct feature that is not observed with other cyclic di-nucleotide adjuvants. We further characterize the innate immune stimulation activity in vitro on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and human dendritic cells. The observed results suggest the consideration of cGAMP as a candidate mucosal adjuvant for human vaccines.

  10. Cyclic GMP-AMP displays mucosal adjuvant activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrnjug, Ivana; Guzmán, Carlos Alberto; Rueckert, Christine; Ruecker, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered mammalian enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase produces cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) after being activated by pathogen-derived cytosolic double stranded DNA. The product can stimulate STING-dependent interferon type I signaling. Here, we explore the efficacy of cGAMP as a mucosal adjuvant in mice. We show that cGAMP can enhance the adaptive immune response to the model antigen ovalbumin. It promotes antigen specific IgG and a balanced Th1/Th2 lymphocyte response in immunized mice. A characteristic of the cGAMP-induced immune response is the slightly reduced induction of interleukin-17 as a hallmark of Th17 activity--a distinct feature that is not observed with other cyclic di-nucleotide adjuvants. We further characterize the innate immune stimulation activity in vitro on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and human dendritic cells. The observed results suggest the consideration of cGAMP as a candidate mucosal adjuvant for human vaccines.

  11. Inlay buccal mucosal graft for reoperative posterior urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shou-Hung; Kao, Chien-Chang; Wu, Seng-Tang; Meng, En; Cha, Tai-Lung

    2012-04-01

    Posterior urethral distraction injury following major pelvic trauma is a surgical challenge. Although rarely seen, cases of failure after formal urethral reconstruction are even more problematic. We adapted the concept of augmented free buccal mucosal grafts, which have been successful in anterior urethroplasty, for repairing the posterior urethra in these rare cases with the aim of reducing the likelihood of penile chordee postoperatively. During 2007-2009, four patients were candidates for the proposed procedure because they had received formal transperineal urethral reconstruction but were unable to urinate through the urethra. The urethra was approached transperineally and opened in the midline, rather than divided. Buccal mucosal grafts of an appropriate size were placed in the created urethral groove from 4- to 8 o'clock in the lithotomy view. After the procedure, the urethral catheter was kept for 3 weeks. All patients voided through the urethra after the procedure. The maximal postoperative urinary flow rates were between 12-15 ml/seconds in all cases for a follow-up period of 18-30 months. The recurrence rate was 50% (2/4). Recurrent strictures were minor, and they showed a web-like stricture ring near the suture line. Restricture within 6 months of surgery responded well to endoscopic internal urethrotomy plus dilatations. In conclusion, without further compromising urethral length, reoperative posterior urethroplasty with the inlay grafting technique can be considered in selective cases. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Pathogenesis of human papillomavirus-associated mucosal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Ian J; Coleman, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a necessary cause of carcinoma of the cervix and other mucosal epithelia. Key events in high-risk HPV (HRHPV)-associated neoplastic progression include persistent infection, deregulated expression of virus early genes in basal epithelial cells and genomic instability causing secondary host genomic imbalances. There are multiple mechanisms by which deregulated virus early gene expression may be achieved. Integration of virus DNA into host chromosomes is observed in the majority of cervical squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), although in ∼15% of cases the virus remains extrachromosomal (episomal). Interestingly, not all integration events provide a growth advantage to basal cervical epithelial cells or lead to increased levels of the virus oncogenes E6 and E7, when compared with episome-containing basal cells. The factors that provide a competitive advantage to some integrants, but not others, are complex and include virus and host contributions. Gene expression from integrated and episomal HRHPV is regulated through host epigenetic mechanisms affecting the virus long control region (LCR), which appear to be of functional importance. New approaches to treating HRHPV-associated mucosal neoplasia include knockout of integrated HRHPV DNA, depletion of virus transcripts and inhibition of virus early gene transcription through targeting or use of epigenetic modifiers. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. [Treatment and prevention of cancer treatment related oral mucositis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Esquide, Gonzalo; Nervi, Bruno; Vargas, Alex; Maíz, Alberto

    2011-03-01

    One of the most common and troublesome complications of modern intensive anticancer treatments is oral mucositis. The purpose of this review is to summarize current evidence and clinical guidelines regarding its prevention and therapy. The use of keratinocyte growth factor-1, supplementary glutamine and other recently developed treatment modalities are discussed. The injury of the oral mucosa caused by antineoplastic agents promotes the local expression of multiple pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic molecules and eventually leads to the development of ulcers. Such lesions predispose patients to several infectious and nutritional complications. Also, they lead to modification of treatment schedules, potentially affecting overall prognosis. Local cryotherapy with ice chips and phototherapy with low energy laser may be useful as preventive measures. Mouthwashes with allopurinol and phototherapy with low energy laser can be used as treatment. In radiotherapy, special radiation administration techniques should be used to minimize mucosal injury. Pain control should always be optimized, with the use of patient controlled analgesia and topical use of morphine. Supplemental glutamine should not be used outside of research protocols. Lastly, thorough attention should be paid to general care and hygiene measures.

  14. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  15. Effects of diet acidification and xylanase supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, duodenal histology and gut microflora of broilers fed wheat based diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esmaeilipour, O.; Moravej, H.; Shivazad, M.; Rezaian, M.; Aminzadeh, S.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2012-01-01

    1. The objective of this experiment was to study the influences of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient digestibility, digesta viscosity, duodenal histology, and gut microflora of broilers fed on a wheat based diet. 2. The experiment was carried out as a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement

  16. beta-lactamase producing bacteria in the subgingival microflora of adult patients with periodontitis. A comparison between Spain and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera, D; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Dellemijn-Kippuw, N; Winkel, EG; Sanz, M

    Background/aims: Countries with a high per capita antibiotic use frequently demonstrate a high level of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and levels of beta-lactamase producing bacteria in the subgingival microflora in adult patients with periodontitis in Spain and

  17. ANTAGONISM OF A. VIRIDANS TO CONDITIONALLY - PATHOGENIC MICROFLORA OF THE NOSE AND OROPHARYNX OF CHILDREN WITH CARDIAC PATOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepansky D.O.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Search for harmless and simultaneously effective probiotics, which could be successfully used for treatment and prevention of infectious deseases, is currently important. A. viridans is of particular interest, as it is representative of the normal microflora of human with broad spectrum of antibacterial action. The use of this microorganism has a number of advantages: the absence of side effects on the body; high adhesive abilities; resistance to lysozyme in saliva; the ability of use in patients, sensitized to antibiotics and chemotherapeutic drugs; stimulation effects on the human immune system. Material and methods. The purpose of the study was to investigate the antagonism of A. viridans № 167 and autostrains of aerococcuses, isolated at patients, to conditionally - pathogenic microflora of the nose and oropharynx of children with cardiac patology. At the first stage of the study the microflora of the of the nose and oropharynx of 2 investigated categories was examined – 40 children 4-14 years with cardiac patology and 40 healthy children 4-5 years old. The second stage of work was to study the effect of A. viridans on the explored strains. Results and discussion. A. viridans manifests the antagonism to all studied strains of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, except C. albisans. A. viridans antagonistic activity to staphylococci (10 + 3 mm and streptococci (10 + 2mm is at the approximately same level. It is interesting to compare the antagonism of aerococcuses to clinical isolates of S. pyogenes and similar strains from carriers (healthy children category. Impact of aerococcuses on P. mirabilis strain appeared at the highest level. Autosimbionts of A. viridans, isolated from healthy children, are more antagonistic to CPM strains, isolated from these children, than autostrains of A. viridans, isolated from children with with cardiac patology, and higher than the museum strain of A. viridans № 167 antagonism

  18. Bacterial vaginosis - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a type of vaginal infection. The vagina normally contains both healthy bacteria and unhealthy bacteria. BV occurs when more unhealthy bacteria grow than healthy bacteria. No one knows ...

  19. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  20. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  1. Diagnosis of bacterial infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    direct or indirect evidence of a compatible bacterial pathogen. Inflammation may be .... cardinal features (fever, confusion, headache and neck stiffness). .... specificity, inappropriate indications or poor sampling technique may diminish this ...

  2. Parâmetros microbiológicos indicadores do efeito do diuron sobre a microflora do solo Microbiological parameters indicators of the effect of diuron on soil microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Faria Vieira

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A biomassa microbiana (Cmic, a respiração básica (RB, as razões Cmic:Corg e o qCO2 foram usados para avaliar o efeito do herbicida diuron, nas dosagens de 0, 2 e 20 mig g-1 , na microflora do solo. O estudo foi conduzido em dois solos com texturas diferentes, e as avaliações, realizadas aos 0, 3, 10, 20 e 33 dias após a aplicação do pesticida. No solo mais argiloso, o Cmic e a razão Cmic:Corg forneceram resultados semelhantes quanto ao efeito prejudicial do diuron. A RB não foi afetada pelo diuron. O qCO2 foi o único parâmetro capaz de demonstrar uma diferenciação no efeito prejudicial entre doses. No solo mais arenoso não se detectou efeito do diuron.Microbial biomass (Cmic, basal respiration (BR, Cmic:Corg ration and the qCO2 were used to evaluate the influence of 0, 2 and 20 mug g-1 of the herbicide diuron on the soil microflora. The study was carried out with two soil types. Evaluations were made at 0, 3, 10, 20 and 33 days after the herbicide application. In the more clayed soil, the Cmic and the ration Cmic:Corg gave similar results in relation to the effect of diuron. The BR was not affected by diuron application. The qCO2 was the only parameter able to demonstrate a differentiation between the doses. In the more sandy soil it was not possible to detect any effect of the herbicide.

  3. Absorption of iron in the aged; investigation of mucosal-uptake, mucosal-transfer and retention of a physiological dose of inorganic iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, J.J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Iron (II) and iron (III) uptake by the mucosal cells, the retention in the body, and the mucosal-transport fraction were studied in 40 healthy people over 65 years old, in 30 young adults and in 20 patients with iron-deficiency. The study was performed with 59 Fe as a tracer and 51 Cr as an inert indicator. The radioactivity was measured with a whole body scanner 24 hours and 24 days after ingestion

  4. Adrenergic influence on gastric mucosal blood flow in gastric fistula dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K; Gottrup, F

    1984-01-01

    micrograms/kg/min) induced an increase in mucosal blood flow and a similar increase in acid secretion. If the dopamine infusion was preceded by alpha-receptor blockade, a pronounced increase in mucosal blood flow was observed without a similar increase in acid secretion. beta-adrenergic stimulation...

  5. Use of inactivated E.Coli enterotoxins to enhance respiratory mucosal adjuvanticity during vaccination in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to augment responses to respiratory vaccines in swine, various adjuvants were intranasally co-administered with an antigen to pigs. Detoxified E. coli enterotoxins LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced mucosal and systemic immunity to the model peptide, exhibiting their efficacy as mucosal adjuvants for...

  6. Oral mucositis in patients treated with chemotherapy for solid tumors: a retrospective analysis of 150 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J. E.; Weijl, N. I.; Abu Saris, M.; de Koning, B.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Osanto, S.

    2000-01-01

    The incidence and the severity of chemotherapy-associated oral mucositis were determined in a retrospective analysis of 150 patients with various solid tumors. In addition, possible risk factors for the development of mucositis were identified. Patients were treated with chemotherapeutic regimens

  7. Host responses to Candida albicans: Th17 cells and mucosal candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Heather R.; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans causes mucosal and disseminated candidiasis, which represent serious problems for the rapidly expanding immunocompromised population. Until recently, Th1-mediated immunity was thought to confer the primary protection, particularly for oral candidiasis. However, emerging data indicate that the newly-defined Th17 compartment appears to play the predominant role in mucosal candidiasis.

  8. The Potential Effect of Oral Microbiota in the Prediction of Mucositis During Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xia Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Interpretation: Oral microbiota changes correlate with the progression and aggravation of radiotherapy-induced mucositis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Microbiota-based strategies can be used for the early prediction and prevention of the incidence of severe mucositis during radiotherapy.

  9. Mucosal immune response in broilers following vaccination with inactivated influenza and recombinant Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal and systemic immunity were observed in broilers vaccinated with mannosylated chitosan adjuvated (MCA) inactivated A/Turkey/Virginia/158512/2002 (H7N2) and administered with and without recombinant Bacillus subtilis to elicit heterologous influenza strain protection. Previously, mucosal immu...

  10. Clinical effects of flurbiprofen tooth patch on radiation-induced oral mucositis. A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, MA; Spijkervet, FKL; Burlage, FR; Roodenburg, JLN

    Background: Mucositis is an oral sequela of radiotherapy. In the development of mucositis several mechanisms play a role, such as inflammation and the effect of radiation on the high proliferation rate of oral basal epithelial cells. Therefore, administration of a drug with antiinflammatory and

  11. MASCC/ISOO clinical practice guidelines for the management of mucositis secondary to cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalla, Rajesh V.; Bowen, Joanne; Barasch, Andrei; Elting, Linda; Epstein, Joel; Keefe, Dorothy M.; McGuire, Deborah B.; Migliorati, Cesar; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Peterson, Douglas E.; Raber-Durlacher, Judith E.; Sonis, Stephen T.; Elad, Sharon; Al-Dasooqi, Noor; Brennan, Michael; Gibson, Rachel; Fulton, Janet; Hewson, Ian; Jensen, Siri B.; Logan, Richard; Öhrn, Kerstin E. O.; Sarri, Triantafyllia; Saunders, Deborah; von Bültzingslöwen, Inger; Yarom, Noam

    2014-01-01

    Mucositis is a highly significant, and sometimes dose-limiting, toxicity of cancer therapy. The goal of this systematic review was to update the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer and International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) Clinical Practice Guidelines for mucositis.

  12. Systematic review of agents for the management of gastrointestinal mucositis in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, Rachel J.; Keefe, Dorothy M. K.; Lalla, Rajesh V.; Bateman, Emma; Blijlevens, Nicole; Fijlstra, Margot; King, Emily E.; Stringer, Andrea M.; van der Velden, Walter J. F. M.; Yazbeck, Roger; Elad, Sharon; Bowen, Joanne M.

    The aim of this study was to review the available literature and define clinical practice guidelines for the use of agents for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal mucositis. A systematic review was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive

  13. Systematic review of agents for the management of gastrointestinal mucositis in cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, R.J.; Keefe, D.M.; Lalla, R.V.; Bateman, E.; Blijlevens, N.M.; Fijlstra, M.; King, E.E.; Stringer, A.M.; Velden, W.J.F.M. van der; Yazbeck, R.; Elad, S.; Bowen, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to review the available literature and define clinical practice guidelines for the use of agents for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal mucositis. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association

  14. Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 as a molecular adjuvant for enhancement of mucosal immunity during DNA vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holechek, Susan A; McAfee, Megan S; Nieves, Lizbeth M; Guzman, Vanessa P; Manhas, Kavita; Fouts, Timothy; Bagley, Kenneth; Blattman, Joseph N

    2016-11-04

    In order for vaccines to induce efficacious immune responses against mucosally transmitted pathogens, such as HIV-1, activated lymphocytes must efficiently migrate to and enter targeted mucosal sites. We have previously shown that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can be used as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance mucosal CD8 + T cell responses during vaccination and improve protection against mucosal viral challenge. However, the ATRA formulation is incompatible with most recombinant vaccines, and the teratogenic potential of ATRA at high doses limits its usage in many clinical settings. We hypothesized that increasing in vivo production of retinoic acid (RA) during vaccination with a DNA vector expressing retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2), the rate-limiting enzyme in RA biosynthesis, could similarly provide enhanced programming of mucosal homing to T cell responses while avoiding teratogenic effects. Administration of a RALDH2- expressing plasmid during immunization with a HIVgag DNA vaccine resulted in increased systemic and mucosal CD8 + T cell numbers with an increase in both effector and central memory T cells. Moreover, mice that received RALDH2 plasmid during DNA vaccination were more resistant to intravaginal challenge with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the same HIVgag antigen (VACVgag). Thus, RALDH2 can be used as an alternative adjuvant to ATRA during DNA vaccination leading to an increase in both systemic and mucosal T cell immunity and better protection from viral infection at mucosal sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection favourably affects gastric mucosal superoxide dismutases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, J. M.; Thio, J. L.; Verspaget, H. W.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Biemond, I.; Lamers, C. B.; Veenendaal, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Excessive production of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) by phagocytic cells is thought to contribute to the mucosal pathology of Helicobacter pylori infection. Previously, H pylori infection was shown to have a differential effect on some gastric mucosal scavenger enzymes of ROMs-namely,

  16. The role of sucralfate oral suspension in prevention of radiation induced mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Emami

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Mucositis is one of the most common complications of radiotherapy in head and neck cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate sucralfate mouthwash in prevention of radiation induced mucositis.
    • METHODS: A clinical randomized trial performed on 52 patients with head and neck cancers in Sayyed-Al-Shohada Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. These patients randomly assigned in 2 groups of 26 patients. Placebo and sucralfate was used for control and experimental patients respectiv ly, from the beginning of radiotherapy. Patients were visited weekly until the end of treatment. Grade of the mucositis was evaluated according to WHO grading scale.
    • RESULTS: Sucralfate significantly reduced the mean grade of mucositis in weeks one to four (with P-values of 0.02, 0.02, 0.001 and 0.004, respectively. Development of grade3 mucositis was also lower in sucralfate group (P-value = 0.0001. But, time interval between radiotherapy and appearance of mucositis was not statistically different in the two groups (P-value = 0.9
    • CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that using oral suspension of sucralfate reduced the grade of radiation-induced mucositis, but did not prevent or delay it.
    • KEYWORDS: Mucositis, radiotherapy, sucralfate, head and neck cancers.

  17. Icing oral mucositis: Oral cryotherapy in multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joey; Seabrook, Jamie; Fulford, Adrienne; Rajakumar, Irina

    2017-03-01

    Background Up to 70% of patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant develop oral mucositis as a side effect of high-dose melphalan conditioning chemotherapy. Oral cryotherapy has been documented to be potentially effective in reducing oral mucositis. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the cryotherapy protocol implemented within the hematopoietic stem cell transplant program. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted of adult multiple myeloma patients who received high-dose melphalan conditioning therapy for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Primary endpoints were incidence and severity of oral mucositis. Secondary endpoints included duration of oral mucositis, duration of hospital stay, parenteral narcotics use and total parenteral nutrition use. Results One hundred and forty patients were included in the study, 70 patients in both no cryotherapy and cryotherapy groups. Both oral mucositis incidence and severity were found to be significantly lower in the cryotherapy group. Fifty (71.4%) experienced mucositis post cryotherapy compared to 67 (95.7%) in the no cryotherapy group (p cryotherapy group (p = 0.03). Oral mucositis duration and use of parenteral narcotics were also significantly reduced. Duration of hospital stay and use of parenteral nutrition were similar between the two groups. Conclusion The cryotherapy protocol resulted in a significantly lower incidence and severity of oral mucositis. These results provide evidence for the continued use of oral cryotherapy, an inexpensive and generally well-tolerated practice.

  18. Oral Candida as an aggravating factor of mucositis Induced by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, Cristiane Araujo; Castro, Jurema Freire Lisboa de; Cazal, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Antineoplastic treatment induces some undesirable consequences in head and neck cancer patients. Often, the emergence of major clinical manifestations, such as oral mucositis, results in temporary interruption of the treatment, decreasing the patients' quality of life, and increasing hospital costs. Radio-induced or chemo-induced oral mucositis is possibly aggravated by opportunist fungal infections, which turn the mucositis more resistant to the conventional treatments. Objective: this study aims to identify the presence of Candida sp. as a possible aggravating factor of oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer under antineoplastic treatment. Method: all patients with radio- or chemo-induced oral mucositis from the Cancer Hospital of Pernambuco, treated between October 2008 and April 2009, were selected for the study. The prevalence of Candida sp was measured through the cytological analysis of oral mucosa in patients with oral mucositis. The fungal presence was correlated with the mucositis severity. Results: the results showed a positive association between fungal colonization and more several lesions (degrees III and IV of mucositis). Conclusion: The outcomes shown may contribute to a solution for unconventional mucosites, which do not respond to the usual treatment. (author)

  19. Understanding the Oral Mucosal Absorption and Resulting Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Asenapine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartlett, Jeremy A.; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort

    2012-01-01

    Absorption of drugs from the oral cavity into the mucosal tissues is typically a fast event. Dissolved drugs partition into the mucosal membranes and within minutes will reach equilibrium with drug in solution in the oral cavity. However, this does not always equate to rapid drug appearance in the

  20. Combined Effects of Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid and Glutamine on Bacterial Translocation in Obstructive Jaundiced Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Rahmi Hatipoğlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial Translocation is believed to be an important factor on mortality and morbidity in Obstructive Jaundiced. Aims: We investigated the probable or estimated positive effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid, which has antibacterial and regulatory effects on intestinal flora, together with glutamine on BT in an experimental obstructive jaundiced rat model. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Forty adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study. Animals were randomised and divided into five groups of eight each: sham (Sh; control (common bile duct ligation, CBDL; and supplementation groups administered tauroursodeoxycholic acid (CBDL+T, glutamine (CBDL+G, or tauroursodeoxycholic acid plus glutamine (CBDL+TG. Blood and liver, spleen, MLN, and ileal samples were taken via laparotomy under sterile conditions for investigation of bacterial translocation and intestinal mucosal integrity and hepatic function tests on the tenth postoperative day. Results: There were statistically significant differences in BT rates in all samples except the spleen of the CBDL+TG group compared with the CBDL group (p=0.041, p=0.026, and p=0.041, respectively. Conclusion: It is essential to protect hepatic functions besides maintaining intestinal mucosal integrity in the active struggle against BT occurring in obstructive jaundice. The positive effect on intestinal mucosal integrity can be increased if glutamine is used with tauroursodeoxycholic acid, which also has hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory features.