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Sample records for mucosa antigen oppose

  1. ABO blood group antigens in oral mucosa. What is new?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    2002-01-01

    which represent secondary gene products. They are synthesized in a stepwise fashion from a precursor by the action of different glycosyltransferases. In non-keratinized oral mucosa, a sequential elongation of the carbohydrates is associated with differentiation of epithelial cells, resulting...... in expression of precursors on basal cells and A/B antigens on spinous cells. Reduction or complete deletion of A/B antigen expression in oral carcinomas has been reported, a phenotypic change that is correlated with invasive and metastatic potential of the tumours and with the mortality rates of the patients....... Disappearance of the antigens is ascribed to the absence of A or B transferase gene expression. Several studies have shown that loss of A and B antigen expression is associated with increased cell motility, invasion in matrigel, and tumourigenecity in syngenic animals. In vivo studies of human oral wound...

  2. Programmed Cell Death, Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen and p53 Expression in Mouse Colon Mucosa during Diet-Induced Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Risio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Western‐style diets (WDs trigger and sustain the early phases of tumorigenesis in mouse colon, and when continued throughout the life span lead to the development of dysplastic crypts. In order to evaluate the roles both of cell proliferation and programmed cell death (PCD in WD‐induced tumorigenesis, immunohistochemical detection of proliferating nuclear antigen (PCNA, in situ end labeling (TUNEL of DNA breaks, and p53 protein were carried out in mouse colonic mucosa during prolonged feeding of two WDs. PCNA Labeling Index of colonic crypts was significantly higher in WD‐treated animals than in controls only at the beginning of the nutritional study, the gap rapidly bridged by increased cell proliferation spontaneously occurring in the colonic mucosa during aging. A transient early homeostatic activation of PCD at the base of the crypt also was observed in WD groups. No changes in PCD were seen in the upper third of the crypt or in surface epithelium throughout the study, indicating that PCD in that colonic crypt segment produces a constant flux of cell loss, uninfluenced by homeostatic fluctuations. A major finding was an irreversible, progressive, age‐related decline of PCD at the crypt base in both control and treated animals that occurred during the second half of the rodents  life span. p53 protein was not immunohistochemically detected, suggesting that neither overexpression of wild‐type nor mutated forms of the protein are involved in the above mentioned changes.

  3. Sensitization to epithelial antigens in chronic mucosal inflammatory disease. Characterization of human intestinal mucosa-derived mononuclear cells reactive with purified epithelial cell-associated components in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, J K; Fiocchi, C; Youngman, K

    1985-01-01

    To explore the auto-reactive potential of cells infiltrating the gut mucosa in idiopathic chronic inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) were isolated, characterized morphologically and phenotypically, and evaluated for antigen-specific reactivity. The last was assessed by quantitating LPMC cytotoxic capabilities against purified, aqueous-soluble, organ-specific epithelial cell-associated components (ECAC) characterized previously. Enzyme-isolated infla...

  4. The content of mucin MUC-2, -3 and -4 antigens in the bronchial mucosa membrane of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients during acute exacerbation - initial report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Svetlana; Dorofieiev, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Changes in mucin production and dyscrinia are common features of inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Immunohistochemical assessment of MUC-2, MUC-3, MUC-4 expression in the integumentary epithelium, goblet cells, the epithelium of mucous glands and stroma fusiform cells of the bronchial mucosa of COPD patients during an infectious and noninfectious exacerbation was performed. 30 patients with stage III COPD were enrolled to the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group A - 14 patients with non-infectious acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) and group B - 16 patients with infectious AECOPD. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FBS) and in vivo bronchial biopsy of bronchial mucosa were implemented to determine the extent and nature of bronchial inflammation. The optical density of specific color in bronchial structures was assessed using immunohistochemical staining to MUC-2, -3 and -4 antigens by means of primary monoclonal antibodies to these proteins, and visualization system Dako EnVision + System, Peroxidase (AEC). We detected that in different types of bronchial mucosa epithelial cells, during acute infectious exacerbation, a decrease of antigens MUC-2 and MUC-3 expression of a various degree may occur. This phenomenon in the stroma fusiform cells in AECOPD may be a sign of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, that may play a role in the development of an inflammatory process and progression of fibrosis in COPD.

  5. Associative link of clinical manifestations of the secondary syphilis of skin and mucosa with histocompatibility antigens Class I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Koshkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty patients with different clinical symptoms of secondary syphilis (ulcer chancres, pustular syphilis, hypertrophic papules, widespread leukoderma and alopecia were examined in order to study the distribution pattern of histocompatibility antigens of the first class in patients with secondary syphilis of the skin and mucous membranes. As a result of the study, the presence of an associative relationship between the distribution pattern of histocompatibility antigens of the first class and various clinical manifestations in patients with secondary syphilis was established.

  6. Histology and cell kinetics of rectal mucosa of A/HeJ mice administered syngeneic rectal antigen and its effects on radiation induced rectal cancer, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Yoritaka

    1980-01-01

    1. Four-week-old A/HeJ mice were immunized by rectal antigen and at the age of 6 weeks the pelvic region was exposed to 2,000 rad of X-ray for two times. They were observed for a maximum period of 84 weeks. The first rectal cancer detected 36 days after irradiation was histologically found to be mucous-secreting-adenocarinoma. Within 32 weeks after irradiation, rectal cancer was observed in 21 (61.76%) of the 34 autopsied mice. During the entire period of observation, rectal cancer was observed in 25 (55.56%) of the 45 mice. 2. On the other hand, among the mice whose pelvic region was exposed to 2,000 rad for two times, the first cancer was observed 56 days after irradiation. Within 32 weeks after irradiation, rectal cancer was observed in 4 (18.18%) of the 22 autopsied mice. During the entire period of observation, rectal cancer was observed in 12 (33.33%) of the 36 mice. 3. In the group of 51 non-irradiated mice, no rectal cancer was observed. 4. The stainability of HID-AB stain of the histologically normal mucosa near irradiated site was compared between cancer induced cases and normal cases. In 22 (84.62%) mice among 26 with induced cancer and in 9 (45%) among 20 mice without cancer, rectal crypt with AB positive goblet cells could be observed. (author)

  7. Contato com antígenos paternos pela mucosa vaginal e oral e o aborto de repetição Contact with paternal antigens in oral and vaginal mucosa and recurrent abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane Mattar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar se a prática do sexo oral e vaginal, com ou sem exposição ao ejaculado, diminui a ocorrência de abortamento recorrente. MÉTODO: estudo caso-controle desenvolvido entre maio de 2000 e abril de 2003. Foi aplicado questionário no qual foram assinaladas algumas características de antecedentes clínicos, obstétricos e sexuais da mulher. Foram constituídos dois grupos de estudo: grupo caso, com 116 mulheres com antecedente obstétrico de dois ou mais abortamentos espontâneos, sem a ocorrência prévia de gestação acima de 22 semanas, e grupo controle, com 241 mulheres cujo antecedente obstétrico mostrasse uma ou mais gestações a termo com filho vivo e sem a presença de abortamentos. As variáveis analisadas relacionaram-se ao número de parceiros com os quais a mulher manteve relações sexuais, uso rotineiro de preservativo masculino, prática de sexo oral e exposição da mucosa oral feminina ao material ejaculado. RESULTADOS: relataram somente um parceiro 38,8% das mulheres do grupo caso e 35,7% das do grupo controle. Em ambos os grupos cerca de 75% das mulheres relataram que seus parceiros não usavam rotineiramente preservativo. Aproximadamente 55% das mulheres de ambos os grupos referiram que praticavam sexo oral, sendo que 13,8% das com aborto de repetição e 20,3% das com história de sucesso gestacional o faziam com exposição da mucosa oral ao ejaculado. Não houve diferença entre as pacientes com aborto de repetição e as com sucesso gestacional quanto ao número de parceiros, uso de preservativo, prática de sexo oral e exposição da mucosa oral ao ejaculado pelo parceiro. CONCLUSÃO: nossos resultados não confirmam a hipótese de que o comportamento sexual tenha influência sobre a ocorrência do aborto espontâneo de repetição.PURPOSE: to evaluate whether oral and vaginal sex practice, with or without exposure to semen, decrease the occurrence of recurrent spontaneous abortion. METHOD: this

  8. Immunodetection of Helicobacter sp. and the associated expression of ABO blood group antigens in the gastric mucosa of captive and free-living New World primates in the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Délia Cristina Figueira Aguiar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The histo-blood group ABH antigens were first described in humans. These antigens are only present on erythrocytes from great apes and humans, while in more primitive animals they are found in tissues and body fluids. The ABH antigens are mainly distributed in tissues exposed to the external environment and potentially serve as ligands for pathogens or inhibitors of tissue connections. The objective of this paper was two-fold: (i to determine the presence of Helicobacter sp. in the gastric mucosa of 16 captive and 24 free-living New World monkeys and (ii to evaluate the presence of histopathological alterations related to bacterial infection and the associated expression of ABH antigens in the tissue. Stomach tissues from 13 species of monkey were assessed using haematoxylin-eosin and modified Gram staining (Hucker methods. An immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue revealed the presence of infectious bacteria that were characteristic of the genus Helicobacter sp. The results demonstrate that various species of monkey might be naturally infected with the Helicobacter sp. and that there is an increased susceptibility to infection. This study serves as a comparative analysis of infection between human and non-human primates and indicates the presence of a new species of Helicobacter.

  9. Estudo da mucosa nasal de contatos de hanseníase, com positividade para o antígeno glicolipídio fenólico 1 Nasal mucosa study of leprosy contacts with positive serology for the phenolic glycolipid 1 antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina da Costa Martins

    2010-10-01

    reaction of the nasal cavity mucosa on household and peridomiciliary contacts with positive serology for the phenolic glycolipid 1 antigen. METHODOLOGY: Between 2003 at 2006 there was a prospective cross-sectional clinical study with 31 contacts with patients with leprosy with positive serology against PGL-1, 05 negative controls and 01 positive control. RESULTS: Between seropositive contacts, real-time PCR was positive for M. leprae DNA in 06 (19.35% of them and the higher number of genome copies were found in contacts who became sick. CONCLUSION: Nasal mucosa tests alone did not enable the early diagnosis of Leprosy. However, through the combination of various methods, tests on the contacts can help identify subclinical infection and monitor the contacts that could be responsible for spreading the disease.

  10. Opposing incentives for collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil F.; Wien, Charlotte; Larsen, Asger Væring

    , and gives a bonus for publications done through inter-institutionary collaboration. Credits given to universities are fractionalized between the participating universities. So far credits are not assigned to the individual authors but only to their institutions. However, it turns out that research...... collaboration is associated with a higher number of citations than single authorship which may present the author with two opposing incentives for research collaboration....

  11. Penatalaksanaan Repair Palatoplasty dengan Teknik Furlow Double Opposing Z Plasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingky Krisna Arindra

    2015-06-01

    metode Furlow double opposing z plasty dengan kombinasi insisi lateral, dan didapatkan hasil menutupnya celah di palatum mole sampai dengan uvula. Telah dilakukan operasi repair palatoplasi dengan metode Furlow double opposing z plasty. Teknik ini dilakukan untuk menghindari insisi yang terlalu luas dikarenakan terdapatnya jaringan fibrous yang tebal pada mukosa palatum pasca operasi sebelumnya. Tujuan studi kasus adalah untuk mengetahui kemampuan teknik Furlow Double Opposing Z Plasty sebagai prosedur repair palatoplasty.   Repair Palatoplasty Management with Furlow Double Opposing Z Plasty Technique. Cases of cleft lip and palate are one of the deformity disorders that often occur. There are variety of clinical appearance ranging from incomplete to complete cases. Clinical appearance with different width requires proper surgical technique. Patients with cleft lip and palate had undergone surgical intervention, so that they needed surgical correction to repair the result or failure of the previous surgery. A Four year old boy complain there was cleft on the soft palate. The patient was diagnosed with labiognatopalatoscisis. The patient had undergone two stages of cleft lip surgery and twice of cleft palate surgery with pushback method and repair with z plasty, however the result was unsatisfactory. Further, the patient underwent repair palatoplasty surgery with Furlow double opposing z plasty method combined with lateral relaxing insicion. The result in the post surgery was the closure of cleft soft palate up to uvula. Repair palataplasty surgery has been done with Furlow double opposing z plasty method. This technique could avoid extended incision due to thick fibrous tissue on the palatum mucosa as the result of serial previous surgery. The aim of this case case study is to determine the technical capabilities of Furlow Double Opposing Z Plasty as palatoplasty repair procedure.

  12. Interracial America. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumski, Bonnie, Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The varied opinions in each book examine different aspects of a single issue. The topics covered in this volume explore the racial and ethnic tensions that concern many Americans today. The racial divide…

  13. Religious coalition opposes gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1995-05-19

    The biotechnology industry is concerned about a coalition of mainstream religious leaders, working with Jeremy Rifkin of the Foundation of Economic Trends, who oppose the patenting of human and animal life forms, body parts, and genes. The coalition called a press conference on May 18 to ask the government to prohibit the current patenting practices for genetic engineering. The biotechnology industry argues that patents indicate that a company's research tool has significant value, and encourages capitalists to invest their dollars in the development of new treatments for diseases. They also argue that the 29 biotech drugs that are on the market have been developed as a result of patents on genes. Although most business leaders are united in opposing restrictions, many scientists are divided, citing both religious and scientific reasons.

  14. Opposed slant tube diabatic sorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Donald C.

    2004-01-20

    A sorber comprised of at least three concentric coils of tubing contained in a shell with a flow path for liquid sorbent in one direction, a flow path for heat transfer fluid which is in counter-current heat exchange relationship with sorbent flow, a sorbate vapor port in communication with at least one of sorbent inlet or exit ports, wherein each coil is coiled in opposite direction to those coils adjoining it, whereby the opposed slant tube configuration is achieved, with structure for flow modification in the core space inside the innermost coil.

  15. Antibiotic concentrations in intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmborg, A S

    1985-01-01

    The concentrations in the intestinal mucosa after the initial dose of cefoxitin, piperacillin and clindamycin have been studied. The antibiotics were given at the induction of anesthesia as prophylaxis to patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. The concentrations of the antibiotics in serum and intestinal mucosa taken during the operation were determined by the microbiological agar diffusion method. Therapeutic concentrations in intestinal mucosa were maintained during the major part of the operation period. The mean mucosa/serum concentration ratios were for cefoxitin 0.4, for piperacillin 0.5 and for clindamycin 1.2.

  16. GUCY2C-directed CAR-T cells oppose colorectal cancer metastases without autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Michael S; Kraft, Crystal L; Abraham, Tara S; Baybutt, Trevor R; Marszalowicz, Glen P; Li, Peng; Waldman, Scott A; Snook, Adam E

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy (ACT) is an emerging paradigm in which T cells are genetically modified to target cancer-associated antigens and eradicate tumors. However, challenges treating epithelial cancers with ACT reflect antigen targets that are not tumor-specific, permitting immune damage to normal tissues, and preclinical testing in artificial xenogeneic models, preventing prediction of toxicities in patients. In that context, mucosa-restricted antigens expressed by cancers exploit anatomical compartmentalization which shields mucosae from systemic antitumor immunity. This shielding may be amplified with ACT platforms employing antibody-based chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), which mediate MHC-independent recog-nition of antigens. GUCY2C is a cancer mucosa antigen expressed on the luminal surfaces of the intestinal mucosa in mice and humans, and universally overexpressed by colorectal tumors, suggesting its unique utility as an ACT target. T cells expressing CARs directed by a GUCY2C-specific antibody fragment recognized GUCY2C, quantified by expression of activation markers and cytokines. Further, GUCY2C CAR-T cells lysed GUCY2C-expressing, but not GUCY2C-deficient, mouse colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, GUCY2C CAR-T cells reduced tumor number and morbidity and improved survival in mice harboring GUCY2C-expressing colorectal cancer metastases. GUCY2C-directed T cell efficacy reflected CAR affinity and surface expression and was achieved without immune-mediated damage to normal tissues in syngeneic mice. These observations highlight the potential for therapeutic translation of GUCY2C-directed CAR-T cells to treat metastatic tumors, without collateral autoimmunity, in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

  17. Interaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with human respiratory mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, A M; Chadwick, M V; Nicholson, A G; Dewar, A; Groger, R K; Brown, E J; Ratliff, T L; Wilson, R

    2002-01-01

    Endobronchial infection is associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in the majority of cases. We have investigated the adherence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the human respiratory mucosa. Organ cultures constructed with human tissue were infected with M. tuberculosis in the presence or absence of mycobacterial fibronectin attachment cell surface proteins and examined by scanning electron microscopy. M. tuberculosis adhered mainly to extracellular matrix (ECM) in areas of mucosal damage, but not to ciliated mucosa, intact extruded cells, basement membrane or collagen fibres. Bacteria also adhered to fibrous but not globular mucus and occasionally to healthy unciliated mucosa, open tight junctions and to extruded cells that had degenerated, exposing their contents. There was a significant reduction (pprotein (FAP) and M. bovis antigen 85B protein, in a concentration dependent manner. The combined effect of FAP and antigen 85B protein was significantly greater than either protein alone. Bacterial adherence to fibrous mucus was not influenced by fibronectin. We conclude that M. tuberculosis adheres to ECM in areas of mucosal damage at least in part via FAP and antigen 85B protein.

  18. Antimicrobial compounds of porcine mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenkova, E. A.; Lukinova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate porcine oral cavity mucosa (OCM), nasal cavity mucosa (NCM), rectal mucosa (RM) and tongue mucosa (TM) as sources of antimicrobial compounds. Ultrafiltrates with MW >30 kDa, MW 5-30 kDa and MW 30 kDa, the zone of microbial growth inhibition was 7.5 mm, for the MW<5 kDa fraction, it was 7 mm, and for MW 5-30 kDa fraction, it was 4.5 mm. No significant differences were found in high molecular weight proteomic profile, while qualitative and quantitative differences were observed in the medium and low molecular weight areas, especially in OCM and NCM. HPLC showed 221 tissue-specific peptides in OCM, 156 in NCM, 225 in RM, but only 5 in TM. The results observed confirmed porcine mucous tissues as a good source of antimicrobial compounds, which could be an actual alternative for reduction of microbial spoilage of foods.

  19. Wind wave source functions in opposing seas

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique

    2015-08-26

    The Red Sea is a challenge for wave modeling because of its unique two opposed wave systems, forced by opposite winds and converging at its center. We investigate the different physical aspects of wave evolution and propagation in the convergence zone. The two opposing wave systems have similar amplitude and frequency, each driven by the action of its own wind. Wave patterns at the centre of the Red Sea, as derived from extensive tests and intercomparison between model and measured data, suggest that the currently available wave model source functions may not properly represent the evolution of the local fields that appear to be characterized by a less effective wind input and an enhanced white-capping. We propose and test a possible simple solution to improve the wave-model simulation under opposing winds and waves condition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Drug Reactions in Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Derviş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Both immunologic and nonimmunologic drug reactions can be seen in oral mucosa. Since considerable number of these reactions heals spontaneously without being noticed by the patients, exact frequency of the lesions is unknown. Most common lesions are xerostomia, taste disorders, mucosal ulcerations and edema. In this article, oral lesions resulting from drug intake similar to those from oral lesions of local and systemic diseases, and diagnostic problems caused by these similarities, have been reviewed.

  1. [Redo urethroplasty with buccal mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, C M; Ernst, L; Engel, O; Dahlem, R; Fisch, M; Kluth, L A

    2017-10-01

    Urethral strictures can occur on the basis of trauma, infections, iatrogenic-induced or idiopathic and have a great influence on the patient's quality of life. The current prevalence rate of male urethral strictures is 0.6% in industrialized western countries. The favored form of treatment has experienced a transition from less invasive interventions, such as urethrotomy or urethral dilatation, to more complex open surgical reconstruction. Excision and primary end-to-end anastomosis and buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty are the most frequently applied interventions with success rates of more than 80%. Risk factors for stricture recurrence after urethroplasty are penile stricture location, the length of the stricture (>4 cm) and prior repeated endoscopic therapy attempts. Radiation-induced urethral strictures also have a worse outcome. There are various therapy options in the case of stricture recurrence after a failed urethroplasty. In the case of short stricture recurrences, direct vision urethrotomy shows success rates of approximately 60%. In cases of longer or more complex stricture recurrences, redo urethroplasty should be the therapy of choice. Success rates are higher than after urethrotomy and almost comparable to those of primary urethroplasty. Patient satisfaction after redo urethroplasty is high. Primary buccal mucosa grafting involves a certain rate of oral morbidity. In cases of a redo urethroplasty with repeated buccal mucosa grafting, oral complications are only slightly higher.

  2. Consecutive opposed interactions of light waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V V; Chirkin, Anatolii S

    1999-01-01

    The conditions were determined for the occurrence of the opposed interaction of waves having multiple frequencies in two consecutive three-frequency processes in periodically inhomogeneous nonlinear optical crystals. The necessary nonlinear susceptibility modulation period was calculated for an MgO:LiNbO 3 crystal. The characteristic features of the energy exchange between counterpropagating waves with parametric amplification in a low-frequency pump field were investigated. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  3. A comparison of Helicobacter pylori and non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter spp. Binding to canine gastric mucosa with defined gastric glycophenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Irina; Freitas, Daniela P; Magalhães, Ana; Faria, Fátima; Lopes, Célia; Faustino, Augusto M; Smet, Annemieke; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Reis, Celso A; Gärtner, Fátima

    2014-08-01

    The gastric mucosa of dogs is often colonized by non-Helicobacter pylori helicobacters (NHPH), while H. pylori is the predominant gastric Helicobacter species in humans. The colonization of the human gastric mucosa by H. pylori is highly dependent on the recognition of host glycan receptors. Our goal was to define the canine gastric mucosa glycophenotype and to evaluate the capacity of different gastric Helicobacter species to adhere to the canine gastric mucosa. The glycosylation profile in body and antral compartments of the canine gastric mucosa, with focus on the expression of histo-blood group antigens was evaluated. The in vitro binding capacity of FITC-labeled H. pylori and NHPH to the canine gastric mucosa was assessed in cases representative of the canine glycosylation pattern. The canine gastric mucosa lacks expression of type 1 Lewis antigens and presents a broad expression of type 2 structures and A antigen, both in the surface and glandular epithelium. Regarding the canine antral mucosa, H. heilmannii s.s. presented the highest adhesion score whereas in the body region the SabA-positive H. pylori strain was the strain that adhered more. The canine gastric mucosa showed a glycosylation profile different from the human gastric mucosa suggesting that alternative glycan receptors may be involved in Helicobacter spp. binding. Helicobacter pylori and NHPH strains differ in their ability to adhere to canine gastric mucosa. Among the NHPH, H. heilmannii s.s. presented the highest adhesion capacity in agreement with its reported colonization of the canine stomach. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Localization of ectopic gastric mucosa by scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alonzo, W.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    When gastric mucosal tissue occurs outside of the confines of the stomach, it is termed ectopic or heterotopic. Ectopic gastric mucosa may be found within Meckel's diverticulum, duplications of the alimentary tract, and Barrett's esophagus. In addition, a surgeon may inadvertently leave behind antral gastric mucosa while performing a partial gastrectomy for peptic ulcer disease (i.e., retained gastric antrum). It is important to detect the presence and location of ectopic mucosa because acid and pepsin secretion may cause ulceration in the adjacent tissue resulting in serious complications. The only currently available specific diagnostic technique for detecting ectopic gastric mucosa is pertechnetate Tc 99m (TcO 4- ) scintigraphy. This chapter reviews the functional anatomy of gastric mucosa, the mechanism of TcO 4 - localization, the various entities containing ectopic gastric mucosa, and the methods and results of TcO 4 - scanning for these disorders

  5. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger; Pauna, Henrique Furlan; Hazboun, Igor Moreira; Dal Rio, Ana Cristina; Correa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; Nicola, Ester Maria Danielli

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive procedures such as injection of prosthetic materials in lips and cheeks may lead to unusual forms of inflammatory granulomas. Objectives Describe an unusual presentation of a foreign body reaction in the buccal mucosa due to previous injection of cosmetic agent. Resumed Report A 74-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery to investigate the presence of multiple painless, bilateral nodules in the buccal mucosa, with progressive growth observed during the previous 2 months. The histologic results showed a foreign body inflammatory reaction. Conclusion Oral granulomatosis lesions represent a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and a biopsy may be necessary. Patients may feel ashamed to report previous aesthetic procedures, and the clinicians must have a proactive approach.

  6. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive procedures such as injection of prosthetic materials in lips and cheeks may lead to unusual forms of inflammatory granulomas. Objectives Describe an unusual presentation of a foreign body reaction in the buccal mucosa due to previous injection of cosmetic agent. Resumed Report A 74-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery to investigate the presence of multiple painless, bilateral nodules in the buccal mucosa, with progressive growth observed during the previous 2 months. The histologic results showed a foreign body inflammatory reaction. Conclusion Oral granulomatosis lesions represent a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and a biopsy may be necessary. Patients may feel ashamed to report previous aesthetic procedures, and the clinicians must have a proactive approach.

  7. The costly benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Andrew

    2010-11-30

    Rigorous application of a simple definition of what constitutes opposition to agricultural biotechnology readily encompasses a wide array of key players in national and international systems of food production, distribution and governance. Even though the sum of political and financial benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology appears vastly to outweigh the benefits which accrue to providers of agricultural biotechnology, technology providers actually benefit from this opposition. If these barriers to biotechnology were removed, subsistence farmers still would not represent a lucrative market for improved seed. The sum of all interests involved ensures that subsistence farmers are systematically denied access to agricultural biotechnology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Delivery of bioactive peptides and proteins across oral (buccal) mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, S; Kremer, M; Nagy, K; Squier, C

    2001-06-01

    The identification of an increasing array of highly potent, endogenous peptide and protein factors termed cytokines, that can be efficiently synthesized using recombinant DNA technology, offers exciting new approaches for drug therapy. However, the physico-chemical and biological properties of these agents impose limitations in formulation and development of optimum drug delivery systems as well as on the routes of delivery. Oral mucosa, including the lining of the cheek (buccal mucosa), floor of mouth and underside of tongue (sublingual mucosa) and gingival mucosa, has received much attention in the last decade because it offers excellent accessibility, is not easily traumatized and avoids degradation of proteins and peptides that occurs as a result of oral administration, gastrointestinal absorption and first-pass hepatic metabolism. Peptide absorption occurs across oral mucosa by passive diffusion and it is unlikely that there is a carrier-mediated transport mechanism. The principal pathway is probably via the intercellular route where the major permeability barrier is represented by organized array of neutral lipids in the superficial layers of the epithelium. The relative role of aqueous as opposed to the lipid pathway in drug transport is still under investigation; penetration is not necessarily enhanced by simply increasing lipophilicity, for other effects, such as charge and molecular size, also play an important role in absorption of peptide and protein drugs. Depending on the pharmacodynamics of the peptides, various oral mucosal delivery systems can be designed. Delivery of peptide/protein drugs by conventional means such as solutions has some limitations. The possibility of excluding a major part of drug from absorption by involuntary swallowing and the continuous dilution due to salivary flow limits a controlled release. However these limitations can be overcome by adhesive dosage forms such as gels, films, tablets, and patches. They can localize the

  9. Endoscopic appearance of irradiated gastric mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sagher, L I; Van den Heule, B; Van Houtte, P; Engelholm, L; Balikdjan, D; Bleiberg, H

    1979-09-01

    Irradiation of the epigastric area for gastric cancer may induce actinic lesions of the stomach characterized on endoscopic examination by ulcerations, haemorrhagic gastritis, fragility of the mucosa, thickening and congestion of the gastric folds.

  10. Oral mucosa grafts for urethral reconstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reports reveal that split and full thickness skin grafts from the scrotum, penis, extragenital sites (ureter, saphenous .... Table 1: Summary of the history of oral mucosa grafts for urethroplasty .... advised that care should be taken when suturing the.

  11. Safe and successful birth following pelvic radiotherapy for rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Yoshiomi; Aoki, Masahiko; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hirose, Katsumi; Sato, Mariko; Akimoto, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Mitsuki; Fujioka, Ichitaro; Ono, Shuichi; Takai, Yoshihiro

    2017-02-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas can occur in various parts of the body, and half of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas occur in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is the most common lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract and primary rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is very rare. Because of the high radiosensitivity of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, this condition can be controlled with radiotherapy of approximately 30 Gy alone. However, ovarian dysfunction as an adverse event of radiotherapy for pelvic lesions can become a problem in girls and women. We report a case of a 28-year-old woman with rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma who safely gave birth to a baby following 30.6 Gy radiotherapy to her whole rectum. A 28-year-old Japanese woman became aware of bloody stools and was diagnosed as having Lugano I rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. She was referred to our institute and initiated on radiotherapy. However, she expressed a desire to bear children. We used horizontally opposed pair fields for radiotherapy to minimize the irradiation to her endometrium and ovary. A total dose of 30.6 Gy was given in 17 fractions of 1.8 Gy by 10-Megavolt X-ray linear accelerator. As a result, one-third of her uterus and half of her ovary were outside the irradiation field. After approximately 1 year of treatment, positive pregnancy was confirmed and finally she safely gave birth to a baby girl without congenital abnormalities. This report provides hope for girls and women who have undergone irradiation for pelvic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and who desire to bear children.

  12. Function and importance of p63 in normal oral mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurfjell, Niklas; Coates, Philip J; Boldrup, Linda

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is the 6th most common malignancy worldwide with a 5-year survival that has not improved over the last 20-25 years. Factors of prognostic significance for this tumour type include the presence of regional lymph node metastasis...... and amplification of chromosome 3q21-29, where the p63 gene is located. This gene encodes 6 proteins and is crucial for formation of the oral mucosa, teeth, salivary glands and skin. Each of the 6 different p63 proteins has different characteristics and functions, where some resemble the tumour suppressor protein p......53, whilst others have functions that oppose p53. METHODS: To understand the function and importance of p63 in oral mucosa and tumour development we have studied protein as well as mRNA expression in normal oral mucosa and tumours. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: Expression of p63 proteins differs between...

  13. Antibody tumor penetration: transport opposed by systemic and antigen-mediated clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M; Schmidt, Michael M; Wittrup, K Dane

    2008-09-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue.

  14. Immunity to tumour antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Ali, Selman A; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Mian, Shahid; Ahmad, Murrium; Miles, Amanda; Rees, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, a large number of human tumour antigens have been identified. These antigens are classified as tumour-specific shared antigens, tissue-specific differentiation antigens, overexpressed antigens, tumour antigens resulting from mutations, viral antigens and fusion proteins. Antigens recognised by effectors of immune system are potential targets for antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy. However, most tumour antigens are self-proteins and are generally of low immunogenicity and the immune response elicited towards these tumour antigens is not always effective. Strategies to induce and enhance the tumour antigen-specific response are needed. This review will summarise the approaches to discovery of tumour antigens, the current status of tumour antigens, and their potential application to cancer treatment.

  15. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ORAL MUCOSA LEUKOPLAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. KOLENKO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, substantial changes have occurred in the structure of oral mucosa diseases, in particular an increased ratio of precancerous diseases, so that an effective non-invasive detection of any sign of malignancy appears as an urgent and most actual task of dentistry. Aim: To study the proliferative activity of epithelial cells in Ki-67 antigenin patients with leukoplakia of the oral mucosa. Materials and method: A complex clinical and laboratory examination was performed on 155 patients with oral leukoplakia, who addressed the Operative Dentistry Department of the “A.A.Bogomolets” National Medical University of Kiev between 2010 and 2014. All patients have been subjected to a careful clinical examination, which included: dental anamnesis, visual inspection, oral examination and digital palpation of oral mucosa and tongue mucosa, biopsy of leukoplakia lesions for cytological and histological examination. Results: Histological evaluation of the material has been performed according to the WHO (2005 classification of leukoplakia. 10 (14% sites of unaltered mucosa, 10 (14% samples of hyperkeratosis without atypia, 14 (19% biopsy specimens of hyperkeratosis SIN1, 15 (21% – hyperkeratosis SIN2, 10 (14% - SIN3 and 13 (18% cases of squamous cell carcinoma were evidenced. Immunohistochemical investigation evidenced the presence of protein Ki-67 in the nuclei of epithelial cells. In the unmodified epithelium of the oral mucosa, all epithelial cells with stained nuclei are virtually located in the basal layer. Conclusion: Against the general increase of the proliferative activity of epithelial cells with increasing SIN, a characteristic distribution of proliferating cells in the thickness of the epithelium was revealed for each studied group, as follows: in the control group and in leukoplakia without atypia, immunopositive cells are located in the basal layer, in leukoplakia (SIN1, SIN2 and SIN3 – in parabasal position while, in squamous

  16. Mycobacterium leprae is identified in the oral mucosa from paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado de Abreu, M A M; Roselino, A M; Enokihara, M; Nonogaki, S; Prestes-Carneiro, L E; Weckx, L L M; Alchorne, M M A

    2014-01-01

    In leprosy, the nasal mucosa is considered as the principal route of transmission for the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. The objective of this study was to identify M. leprae in the oral mucosa of 50 untreated leprosy patients, including 21 paucibacillary (PB) and 29 multibacillary (MB) patients, using immunohistochemistry (IHC), with antibodies against bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and phenolic glycolipid antigen-1 (PGL-1), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with MntH-specific primers for M. leprae, and to compare the results. The material was represented by 163 paraffin blocks containing biopsy samples obtained from clinically normal sites (including the tongue, buccal mucosa and soft palate) and visible lesions anywhere in the oral mucosa. All patients and 158 available samples were included for IHC study. Among the 161 available samples for PCR, 110 had viable DNA. There was viable DNA in at least one area of the oral mucosa for 47 patients. M. leprae was detected in 70% and 78% of patients using IHC and PCR, respectively, and in 94% of the patients by at least one of the two diagnostic methods. There were no differences in detection of M. leprae between MB and PB patients. Similar results were obtained using anti-BCG and anti-PGL-1 antibodies, and immunoreactivity occurred predominantly on free-living bacteria on the epithelial surface, with a predilection for the tongue. Conversely, there was no area of predilection according to the PCR results. M. leprae is present in the oral mucosa at a high frequency, implicating this site as a potential means of leprosy transmission. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  17. [Nasal mucosa in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.

  18. Radiation tolerance of the vaginal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintz, b.L.; Kagan, A.R.; Chan, P.; Gilbert, H.A.; Nussbaum, H.; Rao, A.R.; Wollin, M.

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen patients with cancer of the vagina that were controlled locally for a minimum of eighteen months after teletherpay (T) or brachytherapy (B) or both (T and B), were analyzed for radiation tolerance of the vaginal mucosa. The site of vaginal necrosis did not always coincide with the site of the tumor. The posterior wall appeared more vulnerable than the anterior or lateral walls. For the distal vaginal mucosa, necrosis requiring surgical intervention occurred following combined T and B, if summated rad exceeded9800. The upper vagina tolerated higher dosages. No patient surgery for upper vaginal necrosis even though summated (T and B) dosage up to 14,000 rad was applied. Placing radioactive needles on the surface of the vaginal cylinder with or without interstitial perincal needles should be avoided. Further accumulation of data is needed to define these vaginal mucosa tolerance limits more closely

  19. [Effect of nasogastric tube on esophageal mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barinagarrementeria, R; Blancas Valencia, J M; Teramoto Matsubara, O; de la Garza González, S

    1991-01-01

    We studied 30 patients. 20 were males and 10 females. Mean age was 48 year old. Esophageal disease was not present neither gastro-esophageal reflux. Biopsy was taken between 24 hours and 25 days after nasogastric tube (NG) was put into place. Endoscopic findings were: hyperemic mucosa, submucosal hemorrhage, clots, erosions and ulcers near Esophago-gastric junction. Intraepithelial edema, vessel congestion, polymorphonuclear infiltration, fibrin thrombosis of submucosal vessels, ischemia, epithelial regeneration and ulcer were common histologic findings. All endoscopic and histologic alterations were related to the length of time of NG tube contact with the esophageal mucosa. We concluded that NG tube damages the esophageal mucosa by two mechanisms: a) Local irritation that favors b) gastric reflux by decreasing lower esophageal sphincter pressure.

  20. Carcinoma-associated antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartorelli, A.; Accinni, R.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to novel antigens associated with breast carcinoma, anti-sera specific to said antigens, 125 I-labeled forms of said antigens and methods of detecting said antigens in serum or plasma. The invention also relates to a diagnostic kit containing standardised antigens or antisera or marked forms thereof for the detection of said antigens in human blood, serum or plasma. (author)

  1. Overeruption of teeth opposing removable partial dentures: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Miyashita, Yuji; Ikebe, Kazunori; Enoki, Kaori; Kurushima, Yuko; Mihara, Yusuke; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    One of the purposes of prosthodontic treatment is to prevent overeruption of opposing teeth, but there is currently minimal literature describing the efficacy of removable partial dentures (RPDs) in performing this function. This study investigated overeruption following RPD treatment. The study participants were 33 patients treated with RPDs, and overeruption was evaluated by comparing the surface computeraided design data of dental casts made at two different time points-before and after RPD treatment. Overeruption was observed in 38.1% of teeth opposed by the RPD, which was much less than the proportion of teeth that overerupted when not opposed by the RPD.

  2. Proteome Analysis of Rheumatoid Arthritis Gut Mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Ellingsen, Torkell; Glerup, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory joint disease leading to cartilage damage and ultimately impaired joint function. To gain new insight into the systemic immune manifestations of RA, we characterized the colon mucosa proteome from 11 RA-patients and 10 healthy controls. The biopsies were...

  3. Ectopic gastric mucosa in the duodenal bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, H.; Oehler, G.; Schulz, A.; Rau, W.S.; Giessen Univ.; Giessen Univ.

    1989-01-01

    The radiological and clinical findings of 12 patients with ectopic gastric mucosa in the duodenal bulb are presented. This is a defined disease with characteristic radiological features: multiple small nodular defects of the contrast medium of 1-3 mm diameter. Histology shows complete heterotopia. Pathogenesis and clinical significance are discussed with reference to the literature on this subject. (orig.) [de

  4. Esophageal heterotopic gastric mucosa in esophageal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan J.R. Harrison

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM is occasionally found at endoscopy in the proximal esophagus of adults and children, when it manifests as an asymptomatic small island of reddish pink mucosa just below the upper esophageal sphincter. There are few reports of esophageal HGM detected by endoscopy after repair of esophageal atresia (EA with tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF. We report a child with multiple patches of HGM in the proximal and distal esophagus seen at endoscopy after EA/TEF repair. No obvious symptoms were related to the HGM and she remains under endoscopic surveillance. The incidence of esophageal HGM may be increased in patients with EA and its distribution can be more extensive than a simple “inlet patch”. There is evidence to suggest that esophageal HGM increases the risk of developing Barrett's esophagus and has a malignant potential. Heterotopic gastric mucosa extends the spectrum of potential pathologies affecting the esophagus in patients with EA/TEF and supports current international guidelines for endoscopic surveillance of these patients. Keywords: Tracheo-esophageal fistula, Ectopic mucosa, Esophageal malignancy

  5. Vaginal type-II mucosa is an inductive site for primary CD8+ T-cell mucosal immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yichuan; Sui, Yongjun; Kato, Shingo; Hogg, Alison E.; Steel, Jason C.; Morris, John C.; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2014-01-01

    The structured lymphoid tissues are considered the only inductive sites where primary T cell immune responses occur. The naïve T cells in structured lymphoid tissues, once being primed by antigen -bearing dendritic cells, differentiate into memory T cells and traffic back to the mucosal sites through the bloodstream. Contrary to this belief, here we show that the vaginal type-II mucosa itself, despite lack of structured lymphoid tissues, can act as an inductive site during primary CD8+ T cell immune responses. We provide evidence that the vaginal mucosa supports both the local immune priming of naïve CD8+ T cells and the local expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, thereby demonstrating a different paradigm for primary mucosal T cell immune induction. PMID:25600442

  6. Efficacy of radiotherapy of oral mucosa cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, Yu.I.; Garbuzov, M.I.; Sarantseva, I.P.; Popov, N.V.; Pereslegin, O.I.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of 10-year experience of a radiological department (962 patients) indicated late admission of oral mucosa cancer patients for specialized treatment: 75-85% of the patients were admitted with Stage 2-4 disease. The assessment of the efficacy of radiotherapy according to the 3 ad 5-year survival rates showed that better results were obtained for buccal mucosa cancer and the worst for mouth fundus cancer. Regional metastates are a poor prognostic sign, particularly fixed metastases in patients with tongue and mouth fundus cancer. Combined therapy turned out be the most effective in tongue cancer. In different variants of dose delivery in time the most favorable results were obtained with small fractionation (a conventional course). However it should be noted that a split course was usually applied to weak elderly patients with advanced stages of disease

  7. Leishmaniasis mucosa y otras lesiones destructivas centrofaciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rodríguez

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Varias enfermedades producen lesiones del área centrofacial. Una de las más frecuentes en nuestro medio es la leishmaniasis destructivas mucosa. Como el INS es un centro de estudio de leishmaniasis, se atendieron pacientes o sus biopsias con afecciones del macizo centrofacial, primariamente remitidas con el diagnóstico clínico de leihsmaniasis mucosa. En un período de 7 años (1987-1993, se estudiaron 134 biopsias de estos pacientes. El diagnóstico de leishmaniasis mucosa fue definitivo en 26 casos, por demostración del amastigote con la coloración de hematoxilina eosina y el mismo diagnóstico se estableció por patrón histopatológico solamente, en 27 casos. Una técnica inmunoenzimática para demostrar los amastigotes no fue satisfactoria. La perforación banal del tabique nasal (52 biopsias es la entidad que el clínico y el patólogo confunden con mayor frecuencia con la leishmaniasis mucosa. Otras entidades demostradas fueron la paracoccidioidomicosis (3, histoplasmosis (2, rinosporidiosis (2. esporotricosis (l, tuberculosis bucal (3, lepra leprornatosa (l, escleroma nasal (2, granulomatosis de Wegener (2, linfomas angiocéntricos (4, aspiración crónica de cocaína (l, y carcinoma escamocelular palatino (1. La biopsia, luego de la historia clínica, es el pilar esencial para identificar y manejar adecuadamente estas lesiones, que pueden originar destrucción facial grave, a veces letal, si no se dispone del diagnóstico preciso y del tratamiento oportuno.

  8. Oral Neurothekeoma of the Right Buccal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. Tham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral neurothekeoma or nerve sheath myxoma is a rare benign oral tumour of nerve sheath origin. Historically, this tumour has been subclassified as myxoid (classic, mixed, or the cellular type, depending on the amount of myxoid stroma and cellularity. We present a case of oral neurothekeoma (mixed type of the buccal mucosa. The tumour was completely excised. No recurrence was detected in the last 3 years after local excision.

  9. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using 3 H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of 3 H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures

  10. Consumers and Makers: Exploring Opposing Paradigms of Millennial College Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The political and technological circumstances of the past two decades have culminated in opposing epistemic paradigms of college readiness, where millennial students' conceptual understanding of "learning" is both narrowed to meet the demands of school systems bound to accountability and amplified by a rapidly evolving digital world. The…

  11. Opposing Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Connectivity during Emotion Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Wolf, Daniel H.; Pinkham, Amy E.; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Overton, Eve; Seubert, Janina; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Loughead, James

    2011-01-01

    Lesion and electrophysiological studies in animals provide evidence of opposing functions for subcortical nuclei such as the amygdala and ventral striatum, but the implications of these findings for emotion identification in humans remain poorly described. Here we report a high-resolution fMRI study in a sample of 39 healthy subjects who performed…

  12. Premalignant alterations of the gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frager, D.; Mitsudo, S.; Kozecky, O.; Frager, J.; Wolf, E.; Beneventano, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Atrophic gastritus or intestinal metaplasia is the precursor to many gastric carcinomas that arise in a dysplatic epithelium. The authors retrospectively reviewed the radiographic features of the gastric mucosa in 30 patients with the pathologic diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (27) or atrophic gastritus (3). In 12 patients (40%) the area gastricae were enlarged to 5 mm or greater. In these 12 patients and in an additional 11 (total of 23, or 76%), a polypoid-nodular gastric mucosal pattern was seen. These findings and patterns are illustrated, and the differential diagnosis and clinical implications are discussed

  13. CYTOKINE REGULATION OF ULCEROGENESIS IN GASTRODUODENAL MUCOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Matveeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerogenesis in gastroduodenal mucosa area is a complex multistep process. Its, phases arecontrolled by interaction and activation of pro­ and antiinflammatory cytokine cascade. Present review article summarizes scientific data on impact of cytokines upon ulcerative and reparatory processes, a variety of their diagnostic and therapeutic options is defined. Evaluation of cytokine status, or, in some cases, cytokine genotyping in patients with stomach and duodenal ulcers, may predict clinical course of the disease, as well as efficiency of basic and eradication therapy, correction of the treatment.

  14. Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ostadrahimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is acomplex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumorproperties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates therisk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisiverole in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship betweenconsumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa.Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred totwo hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire(FFQ and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve tofind the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis.Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024.Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honeyamount - 0.533(honey amount2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount7.Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis ingastric mucosa.

  15. Infecciones virales en piel y mucosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Martínez G., Dra.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Diversos virus pueden infectar la piel y las mucosas de los seres humanos, manifestándose en diferentes patologías, de acuerdo a la edad, género y estado inmunológico. Un grupo importante de éstos tiene capacidad de replicar en células epiteliales, originando cuadros clínicos en los cuales se evidencia la destrucción celular o bien la hiperplasia del tejido infectado. Gran parte de estos virus persisten en células infectadas por años y tienen la capacidad de reactivarse y de manifestar nuevamente enfermedades cutáneas o mucosas. En algunos casos, ésta sólo se expresa de manera subclínica en una excreción del virus por secreciones que son fuente de infección. En los últimos años, los avances en técnicas moleculares han permitido contar con metodologías diagnósticas cada vez más sensibles, específicas y rápidas. Así como también el progreso en el área de vacunas y antivirales nos entrega mayores herramientas profilácticas y terapéuticas.

  16. Cholesterol esterase activity of human intestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponz de Leon, M.; Carubbi, F.; Di Donato, P.; Carulli, N.

    1985-01-01

    It has been suggested that cholesterol absorption in humans is dependent on bile acid pool composition and that expansion of the cholic acid pool size is followed by an increase of the absorption values. Similar observations were reported in rats. In the present study, therefore, the authors investigated some general properties of human intestinal cholesterol esterase, with particular emphasis on the effect of bile acids on this enzymatic activity. Twenty-nine segments of small intestine were taken during operations; the enzymatic activity was studied by using mucosal homogenate as a source of enzyme and oleic acid, cholesterol, and 14 C-labeled cholesterol as substrates. The time-activity relationship was linear within the first two hours; optimal pH for esterification ranged between 5 and 6.2. There was little difference between the esterifying activity of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Esterification of cholesterol was observed with all the investigated fatty acids but was maximal with oleic acid. Bile acids did not affect cholesterol esterase activity when present in the incubation mixture at 0.1 and 1.0 mM; the enzymatic activity, however, was significantly inhibited when bile acids were added at 20 mM. In conclusion, this study has shown that the human intestinal mucosa possesses a cholesterol esterase activity; at variance with the rat, however, the human enzyme does not seem to be stimulated by trihydroxy bile acids

  17. Evaluation of pemphigus cases involving oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Gizem; Bektaş-Kayhan, Kivanç; Ünür, Meral

    2014-09-01

    Pemphigus, defines a group of disorders in autoimmune etiology which could be life-threatening and clinical manifestations are mainly epithelial blistering affecting cutaneous and/or mucosal surfaces including oral mucosa. The aim of our study is to evaluate the clinical appearance of pemphigus with oral involvement by reported 15 pemphigus cases. This retrospective study of 15 cases of pemphigus obtained over a period of 7 years from 2006 to 2013 in Istanbul University, Dentistry Faculty, Oral Medicine and Surgery Department was designed. Age distribution of pemphigus was from 15 to 59 years with an average age of 41.3 years. Of the 15 patients, the male:female ratio was 1:2.75 (4 male, 11 female). The most common clinical various of pemphigus was pemphigus vulgaris, diagnosed in all patients. The buccal mucosa (34.3%) was the most commonly affected site followed by tongue (20%), gingiva (17.1%), palate (11.4%), lips (11.4%) and floor of mouth (5.7%). Our explanation of this conclusion, while speculative, is that socioeconomic situation related stress in males and hormonal changes like pregnancy and menostasis in females; systemic disease and using drugs; dental trauma and bruxism could be responsible for flare up in the disease.

  18. INFLAMMATORY INFILTRATION IN THE GASTRIC MUCOSA OF PATIENTS WITH EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS-ASSOCIATED GASTRIC DYSPLASIA AND CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. V. Vusik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of inflammatory infiltrate in the gastric mucosa of patients with gastric dysplasia (n=56 and gastric cancer (n=50 with different levels of humoral immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and EBV viral load were studied. In patients with dysplasia of the gastric mucosa, the increase in antibody titers to VCA IgG leaded to a significant decrease in the level of lymphocytes, neutrophils and macrophages and an increase in the number of eosinophils and plasma cells. When the levels of IgA to viral capsid antigen (VCA and IgG to EBV early antigens (EA were increased, the number of neutrophils in the composition of the cellular infiltrate was significantly decreased. In gastric cancer patients with different levels of humoral immune response to EBV, the number of plasma cells and eosinophils in the inflammatory infiltrate of the tumor was decreased when increasing the titers of IgG to VCA and IgA to VCA. When VCA/IgA titer was high, the number of neutrophils in a tumor was decreased and the proportion of macrophages was slightly increased. The data obtained can serve as additional criteria for indentifying markers for viral infection of the gastric mucosa.

  19. Numerical and experimental study of two turbulent opposed plane jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besbes, Sonia; Mhiri, Hatem [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Route de Ouardanine, Monastir (Tunisia); Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, UNIMECA, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, 60 rue Joliot-Curie, 13453 Marseille (France)

    2003-09-01

    The turbulent interaction between two opposed plane jets separated by a distance H is experimentally studied by using a PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method and numerically investigated by means of a finite volume code. Two turbulence models have been tested: the standard k-{epsilon} model and a second-order model. The validation of the numerical study was performed by comparing the results with experimental data obtained for the case of two interacting opposed jets at ambient temperature (isothermal case). The effect of the angle of inclination of the jets is studied. Conclusions of the validation are then used to study the interaction between two jets, one being maintained at ambient temperature whereas the other is heated. Results show that the stagnation point moves towards the heated jet. It is shown that the heating induces a stabilizing effect on the flow. (orig.)

  20. Opposing flow in square porous annulus: Influence of Dufour effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athani, Abdulgaphur; Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A.; Khaleed, H. M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer in porous medium is very important area of research which is also termed as double diffusive convection or thermo-solutal convection. The buoyancy ratio which is the ratio of thermal to concentration buoyancy can have negative values thus leading to opposing flow. This article is aimed to study the influence of Dufour effect on the opposing flow in a square porous annulus. The partial differential equations that govern the heat and mass transfer behavior inside porous medium are solved using finite element method. A three node triangular element is used to divide the porous domain into smaller elements. Results are presented with respect to geometric and physical parameters such as duct diameter ratio, Rayleigh number, radiation parameter etc. It is found that the heat transfer increase with increase in Rayleigh number and radiation parameter. It is observed that Dufour coefficient has more influence on velocity profile.

  1. Opposing flow in square porous annulus: Influence of Dufour effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athani, Abdulgaphur, E-mail: abbu.bec@gmail.com [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Anjuman Institute of Technology & Management, Bhatkal (India); Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A., E-mail: aa.alrashed@paaet.edu.kw [Dept. of Automotive and Marine Engineering Technology, College of Technological Studies, The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (Kuwait); Khaleed, H. M. T., E-mail: khalid-tan@yahoo.com [Dept of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic University, Madinah Munawwarra (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-21

    Heat and mass transfer in porous medium is very important area of research which is also termed as double diffusive convection or thermo-solutal convection. The buoyancy ratio which is the ratio of thermal to concentration buoyancy can have negative values thus leading to opposing flow. This article is aimed to study the influence of Dufour effect on the opposing flow in a square porous annulus. The partial differential equations that govern the heat and mass transfer behavior inside porous medium are solved using finite element method. A three node triangular element is used to divide the porous domain into smaller elements. Results are presented with respect to geometric and physical parameters such as duct diameter ratio, Rayleigh number, radiation parameter etc. It is found that the heat transfer increase with increase in Rayleigh number and radiation parameter. It is observed that Dufour coefficient has more influence on velocity profile.

  2. Two Opposing Effects (Yin and Yang) Determine Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shujun; Kurubanjerdjit, Nilubon; Xu, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we introduce a new vision of cancer describing opposing effects that control progression. Cancer is a paradigm of opposing of "Yin" and "Yang," with Yin being the effect to promote cancer and Yang that to maintain the normal state. This Yin Yang hypothesis has been used to select Yin and Yang genes to develop multigene signatures for determining prognosis in lung and breast cancer. Most of the Yin genes are involved in cell survival, growth, and proliferation, whereas most Yang genes are involved in cell apoptosis. Furthermore, Yin and Yang pathways have been identified in breast cancer and compounds that can inhibit the Yin pathways or activate the Yang pathways have been examined, suggesting a new promising targeting therapy for cancer. We are building a Yin Yang model to represent the dynamic change of Yin and Yang genes and pathways.

  3. Transport synthetic acceleration with opposing reflecting boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zika, M R; Adams, M L

    2000-02-01

    The transport synthetic acceleration (TSA) scheme is extended to problems with opposing reflecting boundary conditions. This synthetic method employs a simplified transport operator as its low-order approximation. A procedure is developed that allows the use of the conjugate gradient (CG) method to solve the resulting low-order system of equations. Several well-known transport iteration algorithms are cast in a linear algebraic form to show their equivalence to standard iterative techniques. Source iteration in the presence of opposing reflecting boundary conditions is shown to be equivalent to a (poorly) preconditioned stationary Richardson iteration, with the preconditioner defined by the method of iterating on the incident fluxes on the reflecting boundaries. The TSA method (and any synthetic method) amounts to a further preconditioning of the Richardson iteration. The presence of opposing reflecting boundary conditions requires special consideration when developing a procedure to realize the CG method for the proposed system of equations. The CG iteration may be applied only to symmetric positive definite matrices; this condition requires the algebraic elimination of the boundary angular corrections from the low-order equations. As a consequence of this elimination, evaluating the action of the resulting matrix on an arbitrary vector involves two transport sweeps and a transmission iteration. Results of applying the acceleration scheme to a simple test problem are presented.

  4. Lichenoid reaction to carbamazepine in the oral mucosa: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Gabriela; Bruno, Ingrid S; Seo, Juliana; Hirota, Silvio K; Acay, Renata; Migliari, Dante A

    2011-01-01

    Lichenoid drug reactions are more common in skin, but they may also occur in the oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose these lesions due to their clinical similarity to the idiopathic oral lichen planus lesions. The present article reports a case of lichenoid reaction in oral mucosa associated to the use of carbamazepine, emphasizing the diagnostic process.

  5. Effects Aerosol of Industrial Bleach and Detergent Mixture on Mucosa Layer and Lamina Mucosa Conjunctiva in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Vaezi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today bleach and detergents are being frequently used and some people use their mixture for more cleaning. Because of chemical interaction of bleach and detergent, chlorine gas was released and thereby it could be dangerous for human health. This study examined the effects of exposed toxic mixture of bleach and detergent on the Mucosa layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva in the mice. In this study, 42 adult male mice NMRI race weighing 35-40 gr and from age 8 to 10 weeks were divided into 6 experimental groups and one control group. Experimental groups 1-2-3 with the use of chamber, the exposed 20 minutes were exposed to spray the amount 1 cc of mixture of bleach and detergent by nebulizer. Experimental groups 4-5-6 were for 35 minutes to inhale the same amount of material. Mice killed at 24-48-72 hours after exposed and the Mucosa Layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva tissue was studied pathology. In the study of microscopic sections prepared of mouse mucosa layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva tissue experimental group comparison with the control group, significant decrease was observed in mucosa layer the have (p ≤ 0.001  and significant decrease was observed in the Lamina mucosa have(p ≤ 0. 01,  p ≤ 0.001. As a result, increasing the exposed time of mixing bleach and detergent, as time passed, increasing the tissue damage and changes.

  6. Histamine and chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan released by cultured human colonic mucosa: indication for possible presence of E mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliakim, R.; Gilead, L.; Ligumsky, M; Okon, E.; Rachmilewitz, D.; Razin, E.

    1986-01-01

    An association between the release of histamine and chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan (PG) was demonstrates in human colonic mucosa (HCM). Colonic biopsy samples incorporated [ 35 S]sulfate into PG, which was partially released into the culture medium during the incubation period. Ascending thin-layer chromatography of the released 35 S-labeled PG after its digestion by chondroitin ABC lyase (chondroitinase, EC 4.2.2.4) followed by autoradiography yielded three products that migrated in the position of monosulfated disaccharides of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate and N-acetylgalactosoamine 6-sulfate and of an oversulfated disaccharide possessing N-acetylgalatosamine 4,6-disulfate. Cultured colonic mucosa released 23.6 +/- 3.7ng of histamine per mg of wet tissue without any special trigger. Comparison by linear regression analysis of the release of histamine and chondroitin [ 35 S]sulfate E PG revealed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.7. Histological examination of the colonic biopsies revealed the presence of many mast cells in various degrees of degranulation in the mucosa and submucosa. The above correlation, the observation that most of the mast cells showed various degrees of degranulation, and the lack of heparin synthesis as opposed to the synthesis and immunological release of chondroitin sulfate E strongly suggest that the E mast cell exists in the human colon

  7. The oral mucosa in leprosy: a clinical and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado; Michalany, Nilceo Schwery; Weckx, Luc Louis Maurice; Neto Pimentel, Dalva Regina; Hirata, Cleonice Hitomi Watashi; de Avelar Alchorne, Maurício Mota

    2006-01-01

    Multibacillary leprosy may involve the oral mucosa, with or without apparent lesions. There are few studies that deal with this issue in the era of multidrug therapy. To assess the frequency of oral mucosa involvement in multibacillary leprosy patients. A transversal study with twenty non-treated multibacillary leprosy patients. The patients were treated in Dracena, São Paulo, between 2000 and 2002. Clinical examination of the oral mucosa was carried out. All patients were submitted to jugal mucosa, soft palate and tongue biopsies, in altered or in pre-established sites. The cross-sections were stained by techniques of hematoxilin-eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen. Granuloma and alcohol-acid-resistant bacilli findings determined the specific histopathological involvement. The study involved 19 patients with an average of 2.5 years of disease progression. Specific histopathological involvement occurred in the tongue and soft palate of one lepromatous patient with an apparently normal oral mucosa. (1) Clinical alterations in the oral mucosa does not imply disease involvement, it is necessary to have histopathological confirmation. (2) Apparent specific clinical alterations are rare. (3) The clinically normal oral mucosa can show specific histopathological involvement.

  8. Cleft Palate Repair Using a Double Opposing Z-Plasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Craig; Shah, Ajul; Steinbacher, Derek M

    2016-07-01

    Cleft palate is a common congenital defect with several described surgical repairs. The most successful treatment modality remains a controversy. The goals of repair focus on achievement of normal speech and optimizing velopharyngeal function while minimizing both fistula formation and facial growth restriction. In this video, the authors demonstrate use of the double opposing Z-plasty technique in the repair of a Veau II type cleft palate. The video demonstrates the marking, incisions, dissection, and repair of the cleft. It also examines the use of von Langenbeck-type relaxing incisions and demonstrates a specific approach to the repair of this particular cleft. The authors believe that the Furlow double opposing Z-plasty with the von Langenbeck relaxing incision can provide the best postoperative outcome by combining the benefits of each individual operation. The Z-plasty technique works to correct the aberrant muscle of the soft palate while increasing the length of the palate. The authors believe that this results in better velopharyngeal function.

  9. Disentangling opposing effects of motivational states on pain perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuter, Stephan; Cunningham, Jonathan T.; Wager, Tor D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Although the motivation to avoid injury and pain is central to human and animal behavior, this goal compete priority with other homeostatic goals. Animal studies have shown that competing motivational states, such as thirst, reduce pain. However, such states may also induce negative mood, which in humans has been found to increase pain. These opposing effects complicate study of the effects of motivational states in humans. Objectives: To evaluate concurrent effects of motivational state competition and mood on pain ratings. Methods: We compared a thirst challenge against a control group and measured thirst and mood as potential mediators. Pain induced through contact heat stimulation on the left forearm and was tested at 3 time points: before group randomization, after thirst induction, and after rehydration. Results: Overall, the thirst group reported more pain when thirsty compared with baseline and controls. Mediation analyses showed evidence for two opposing effects. First, the thirst challenge increased negative mood and thirstiness, which was related to increased pain. Second, the thirst challenge produced a direct, pain-reducing effect. Conclusion: Competing motivational states reduce pain but also induce concurrent mood changes that can mask motivational state-related effects. PMID:27747310

  10. Immunology of the Uterine and Vaginal Mucosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jordan Z; Way, Sing Sing; Chen, Kang

    2018-04-01

    Along with the maintenance of symbiotic mutualism with commensal microbes and protection against invasive infections common to all mucosal barrier tissues, female reproductive tissues have additional, unique tasks that include dynamic cyclic cellular turnover in menstruation and immunological tolerance to genetically foreign fetal antigens in pregnancy. Here we review current knowledge on distinct features of the immune cells in female reproductive tissue with regard to antimicrobial host defense and adaptations to accommodate the fetus during pregnancy. Outstanding areas for future research to obtain new functional insights on this enigmatic mucosal barrier are also highlighted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N. R.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Zheng, L. Q.; Jiang, X. S.

    2011-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

  12. NKT Cell Subsets Can Exert Opposing Effects in Autoimmunity, Tumor Surveillance and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viale, Rachael; Ware, Randle; Maricic, Igor; Chaturvedi, Varun; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-01-01

    The innate-like natural killer T (NKT) cells are essential regulators of immunity. These cells comprise at least two distinct subsets and recognize different lipid antigens presented by the MHC class I like molecules CD1d. The CD1d-dependent recognition pathway of NKT cells is highly conserved from mouse to humans. While most type I NKT cells can recognize αGalCer and express a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR), a major population of type II NKT cells reactive to sulfatide utilizes an oligoclonal TCR. Furthermore TCR recognition features of NKT subsets are also distinctive with almost parallel as opposed to perpendicular footprints on the CD1d molecules for the type I and type II NKT cells respectively. Here we present a view based upon the recent studies in different clinical and experimental settings that while type I NKT cells are more often pathogenic, they may also be regulatory. On the other hand, sulfatide-reactive type II NKT cells mostly play an inhibitory role in the control of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Since the activity and cytokine secretion profiles of NKT cell subsets can be modulated differently by lipid ligands or their analogs, novel immunotherapeutic strategies are being developed for their differential activation for potential intervention in inflammatory diseases. PMID:25288922

  13. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, K.H.; Cox, P.H.; Hamer, C.J.A. v.d.; Berends, W.; Delhez, H.

    1977-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a complex of antigen determinants and also the carrier of these determinants. Chemically it is a glycoprotein. Its occurrence in blood serum or urine is correlated with malignant disease. Several radioimmunoassays (RIA) have been developed, one by Hoffmann-Laroche and one by the Rotterdam Radiotherapeutic Institute. Both methods and the Hoffmann assay kit are tested. Specifications are given for isolation of the antigen, preparation of the antiserum, and the execution of the RIA. Biochemical and clinical aspects are discussed

  14. Dorsal onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G. Barbagli

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... promote the transformation of the urethral mucosa plate into a tube, according to ... Allen stirrups and sequential inflatable compression sleeves. Figure 2 .... the ventral, dorsal or lateral surface of the urethra, we investigated if.

  15. Reconstruction of highly contracted socket after irradiation with antral mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Yosihiko; Masaki, Michiyosi; Kato, Hisakazu

    1999-01-01

    We have repaired 3 cases of the highly contracted socket after irradiation by lining it using antral mucosa and obtained excellent results. Although this procedure requires rhinological skill to obtain the mucosa, it has an advantage leaving no visible scar at the donor site. Usually it is not difficult to obtain a sufficient quantity of the mucous membrane to line a whole socket from one antrum. Besides, it is also easy to line its surface since the shape of antral mucosa is originally in a sac form. All we have to do is making 20 mm long incision to the mucosa, putting a silicone conformer into it, and inlaying it into the graft bed. Thus, having once obtained the mucous membrane, the surgical procedure itself is a quite simple one. (author)

  16. Serotonin Immunoreactive Cells and Nerve Fibers in the Mucosa of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hydroxytryptamine) immunoreactivity in the pyloric mucosa of the rat stomach. The immunoreactive elements included the endocrine cells, mast cells and mucosal nerve fibers in the lamina propria. The immunopositive endocrine cells were oval in ...

  17. Roseomonas mucosa Isolated from Bloodstream of Pediatric Patient ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, J. Dien; Deville, J. G.; Summanen, P. H.; Lewinski, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of catheter-related bacteremia associated with Roseomonas mucosa isolated from an immunocompromised pediatric patient with a history of multiple episodes of urinary tract infection and bacteremia. PMID:20534804

  18. Nonword repetition in lexical decision: support for two opposing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Zeelenberg, René; Steyvers, Mark; Shiffrin, Richard; Raaijmakers, Jeroen

    2004-10-01

    We tested and confirmed the hypothesis that the prior presentation of nonwords in lexical decision is the net result of two opposing processes: (1) a relatively fast inhibitory process based on global familiarity; and (2) a relatively slow facilitatory process based on the retrieval of specific episodic information. In three studies, we manipulated speed-stress to influence the balance between the two processes. Experiment 1 showed item-specific improvement for repeated nonwords in a standard "respond-when-ready" lexical decision task. Experiment 2 used a 400-ms deadline procedure and showed performance for nonwords to be unaffected by up to four prior presentations. In Experiment 3 we used a signal-to-respond procedure with variable time intervals and found negative repetition priming for repeated nonwords. These results can be accounted for by dual-process models of lexical decision.

  19. Neural Circuit to Integrate Opposing Motions in the Visual Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauss, Alex S; Pankova, Katarina; Arenz, Alexander; Nern, Aljoscha; Rubin, Gerald M; Borst, Alexander

    2015-07-16

    When navigating in their environment, animals use visual motion cues as feedback signals that are elicited by their own motion. Such signals are provided by wide-field neurons sampling motion directions at multiple image points as the animal maneuvers. Each one of these neurons responds selectively to a specific optic flow-field representing the spatial distribution of motion vectors on the retina. Here, we describe the discovery of a group of local, inhibitory interneurons in the fruit fly Drosophila key for filtering these cues. Using anatomy, molecular characterization, activity manipulation, and physiological recordings, we demonstrate that these interneurons convey direction-selective inhibition to wide-field neurons with opposite preferred direction and provide evidence for how their connectivity enables the computation required for integrating opposing motions. Our results indicate that, rather than sharpening directional selectivity per se, these circuit elements reduce noise by eliminating non-specific responses to complex visual information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Islam, Islamophobia and the West: Opposing Views and Social Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adila Pavelić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Through reviewing different and often opposing views on the relationship between Islam and the West, the paper aims to offer a better understanding of this relationship, and of Islamophobia as an old, yet increasingly actual and in many respects relevant social problem. A short historical overview of the understanding of the relationship between Islam and the West, and various definitions of Islamophobia, are followed by examination of some recent works that from different perspectives deal with the issue. Firstly, is given insight into the works written by Western theorists who describe the relationship between Islam and the West within the framework of the idea of the clash of civilizations while, at the same time, labeling Islam often as a non-modern religion and culture whose members reject Western values such as democracy, freedom and gender equality. In contrast to them are introduced the authors whose argumentation opposes stereotypical views of Islam; among them are also those that critically address Islamophobia in today’s Western society, either by presenting results of their research on Islamophobia or by documenting the dominant media image of Islam, which has been perpetuating stereotypes, especially in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on New York in 2001. Lastly, it is concluded that, regardless of the origin of works dealing with the relationship between Islam and the West or of the type of their arguments, they more often than not interpret Islam and the West primarily as two separate, self-contained and in itself incompatible worlds. In doing so, the authors here argue, they employ an essentialist and reductionist approach not only to Islam – as it might be assumed – but also to the West, while the relationship between Islam and the West is simplified and schematized.

  1. Strength training and testosterone treatment have opposing effects on migration inhibitor factor levels in ageing men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Christensen, L. L.; Kvorning, T.

    2013-01-01

    Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men......Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men...

  2. Habitual biting of oral mucosa: A conservative treatment approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot Kaur Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic biting of oral mucosa is an innocuous self inflicted injury, commonly seen in children suffering from developmental and psychological problems and has rarely been reported in normal unaffected individuals. The management strategies vary from counseling, prescription of sedatives to different prosthetic shields. The paper highlights the efficacy of a simple approach using soft mouth guard in the management of self inflicted lesions due to habitual biting of oral mucosa in two normal healthy children.

  3. Studies on nerve terminations in human mucosa and skin

    OpenAIRE

    Hilliges, Marita

    1997-01-01

    - In spite of their accessibility and important sensory function,the nervous tissue components of human oral and vaginal mucosa and skin have beensubject to very few, if any, systematic investigations. Studies on the innervationof oral tissues have mainly focused on the dental pulp, the periodontium and thegingiva, probably because of specific clinical interest, thus largely neglectingthe mucosa. Genital studies comprise only in a few cases the vagina and when thevagina is i...

  4. Antigen injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  5. Effects of radiation on nasal mucosa of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Mang; Hu Sunhong; Liu Yuehui

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study histopathological changes in nasal mucosa of guinea pigs following a series of irradiation. Methods: A total of 60 healthy guinea pigs were divided into two groups randomly: the irradiation group (n=30) and the control group (n=30). The animals of the irradiation group were exposed nasally to linear accelerator X-rays at 5.0 Gy once a week for three weeks. At 1 d, 1 w, 2 w, 4 w, 10 w and half year after X-irradiation five animals per one group were sacrificed randomly, at each time point. Their middle nasal turbinate mucosa was observed under optical microscope and electron microscope, and were analysed by image analysis for histopathological transformation. Results: In the irradiation group, the early histopathological transformation was acute inflammatory reaction, at the fourth week the mucosa began to repair, which ended at the sixth month. But after repaired, some parts of the repaired mucosa were lined with squamous epithelium instead of the normal nasal mucosa. The rate of the cilia-covered area was only 52.9% at the sixth month. Conclusion: The nasal mucosa injury and the squamous metaplasia could form a pathological basis of dysfunction after irradiation

  6. GlmS and NagB regulate amino sugar metabolism in opposing directions and affect Streptococcus mutans virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Kawada-Matsuo

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is a cariogenic pathogen that produces an extracellular polysaccharide (glucan from dietary sugars, which allows it to establish a reproductive niche and secrete acids that degrade tooth enamel. While two enzymes (GlmS and NagB are known to be key factors affecting the entrance of amino sugars into glycolysis and cell wall synthesis in several other bacteria, their roles in S. mutans remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the roles of GlmS and NagB in S. mutans sugar metabolism and determined whether they have an effect on virulence. NagB expression increased in the presence of GlcNAc while GlmS expression decreased, suggesting that the regulation of these enzymes, which functionally oppose one another, is dependent on the concentration of environmental GlcNAc. A glmS-inactivated mutant could not grow in the absence of GlcNAc, while nagB-inactivated mutant growth was decreased in the presence of GlcNAc. Also, nagB inactivation was found to decrease the expression of virulence factors, including cell-surface protein antigen and glucosyltransferase, and to decrease biofilm formation and saliva-induced S. mutans aggregation, while glmS inactivation had the opposite effects on virulence factor expression and bacterial aggregation. Our results suggest that GlmS and NagB function in sugar metabolism in opposing directions, increasing and decreasing S. mutans virulence, respectively.

  7. Leptin promotes wound healing in the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, Hirochika; Tokuyama, Reiko; Ide, Shinji; Okubo, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Susumu; Tezuka, Mitsuki; Tatehara, Seiko; Satomura, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    Leptin, a 16 kDa circulating anti-obesity hormone, exhibits many physiological properties. Recently, leptin was isolated from saliva; however, its function in the oral cavity is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the physiological role of leptin in the oral cavity by focusing on its effect on wound healing in the oral mucosa. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to examine the expression of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) in human/rabbit oral mucosa. To investigate the effect of leptin on wound healing in the oral mucosa, chemical wounds were created in rabbit oral mucosa, and leptin was topically administered to the wound. The process of wound repair was histologically observed and quantitatively analyzed by measuring the area of ulceration and the duration required for complete healing. The effect of leptin on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of human oral mucosal epithelial cells (RT7 cells) was investigated using crystal violet staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a wound healing assay, respectively. Ob-R was expressed in spinous/granular cells in the epithelial tissue and vascular endothelial cells in the subepithelial connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Topical administration of leptin significantly promoted wound healing and shortened the duration required for complete healing. Histological analysis of gingival tissue beneath the ulceration showed a denser distribution of blood vessels in the leptin-treated group. Although the proliferation and differentiation of RT7 cells were not affected by leptin, the migration of these cells was accelerated in the presence of leptin. Topically administered leptin was shown to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa by accelerating epithelial cell migration and enhancing angiogenesis around the wounded area. These results strongly suggest that topical administration of leptin may be useful as a treatment to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa.

  8. A study of complexity of oral mucosa using fractal geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Shenoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oral mucosa lining the oral cavity is composed of epithelium supported by connective tissue. The shape of the epithelial-connective tissue interface has traditionally been used to describe physiological and pathological changes in the oral mucosa. Aim: The aim is to evaluate the morphometric complexity in normal, dysplastic, well-differentiated, and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral mucosa using fractal geometry. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 periodic acid–Schiff stained histological images of four groups: normal mucosa, dysplasia, well-differentiated SCC, and moderately differentiated SCC were verified by the gold standard. These images were then subjected to fractal analysis. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA and post hoc test: Bonferroni was applied. Results: Fractal dimension (FD increases as the complexity increases from normal to dysplasia and then to SCC. Normal buccal mucosa was found to be significantly different from dysplasia and the two grades of SCC (P < 0.05. ANOVA of fractal scores of four morphometrically different groups of buccal mucosa was significantly different with F (3,76 = 23.720 and P< 0.01. However, FD of dysplasia was not significantly different from well-differentiated and moderately differentiated SCC (P = 1.000 and P = 0.382, respectively. Conclusion: This study establishes FD as a newer tool in differentiating normal tissue from dysplastic and neoplastic tissue. Fractal geometry is useful in the study of both physiological and pathological changes in the oral mucosa. A new grading system based on FD may emerge as an adjuvant aid in cancer diagnosis.

  9. Úlcera eosinófila de la mucosa oral Eosinophilic ulcer of oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Bencini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La Úlcera Eosinófila de la Mucosa Oral, es una entidad poco frecuente, pobremente descrita en la literatura mundial. Se define como una lesión benigna autolimitada que si bien puede presentarse en distintas áreas de la cavidad bucal, presenta una marcada predilección por la mucosa ventral de la lengua. Clínicamente, se presenta como una lesión ulcerada de bordes indurados y sobreelevados. Los hallazgos histopatológicos son característicos y consisten en un infiltrado mixto rico en eosinófilos, acompañado de una población de grandes células mononucleadas. Recientes artículos basados en estudios inmunohistoquimicos, permiten afirmar la presencia de grandes linfocitos atípicos CD30+ y por lo tanto, incluir esta lesión en el espectro de las entidades simuladoras de desordenes linfoproliferativos. A pesar de esto, el mecanismo etiopatogenico permanece oscuro y el trauma local juega un rol todavía no dilucidado; aunque se halla presente en la mayoría de las publicaciones, explicando el fenómeno como un mecanismo reactivo. La importancia de esta lesión, radica en su diagnostico diferencial por su semejanza clínica al carcinoma espinocelular, histoplasmosis, chancro sifilítico, Úlcera tuberculosa, carcinoma epidermoide y otras. En nuestro trabajo se revisa la literatura y se discuten la características clínicas, histopatológicas y alternativas terapéuticas, a partir del artículo de un caso clínico en una paciente joven, que luego de la biopsia escisión como método para el diagnostico de certeza, se produce una recidiva de la lesión; lo que orientó el tratamiento hacia la cirugía combinada con corticoterapia local intralesional, logrando su remisión.Eosinophilic Ulcer of the Oral Mucosa, an entity, poorly deciphers in world-wide literature. It is defined as a self-limited, benign injury that although it can appear in different areas of the buccal cavity it presents a noticeable predilection via the ventral mucosa of the

  10. Natural ventilation of buildings: opposing wind and buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Paul; Hunt, Gary

    1998-11-01

    The use of natural ventilation in buildings is an attractive way to reduce energy usage thereby reducing costs and CO2 emissions. Generally, it is necessary to remove excess heat from a building and the designer can use the buoyancy forces associated with the above ambient temperatures within the building to drive a flow - 'stack' ventilation. The most efficient mode is displacement ventilation where warm air accumulates near the top of the building and flows out through upper level vents and cooler air flows in at lower levels. Ventilation will also be driven between these lower and upper openings by the wind. We report on laboratory modeling and theory which investigates the effects of an opposing wind on stack ventilation driven by a constant source of heat within a space under displacement ventilation. We show that there is a critical wind speed, expressed in dimensionless terms as a critical Froude number, above which displacement ventilation is replaced by (less efficient) mixing ventilation with reversed flow. Below this critical speed, displacement ventilation, in which the interior has a two-layer stratification, is maintained. The criterion for the change in ventilation mode is derived from general considerations of mixing efficiencies in stratified flows. We conclude that even when wind effects might appear to be dominant, the inhibition of mixing by the stable stratification within the space ensures that stack ventilation can operate over a wide range of apparently adverse conditions.

  11. Opposing effects of humidity on rhodochrosite surface oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Chongzheng; Tang, Yuanzhi; Wang, Haitao; Martin, Scot T

    2015-03-03

    Rhodochrosite (MnCO3) is a model mineral representing carbonate aerosol particles containing redox-active elements that can influence particle surface reconstruction in humid air, thereby affecting the heterogeneous transformation of important atmospheric constituents such as nitric oxides, sulfur dioxides, and organic acids. Using in situ atomic force microscopy, we show that the surface reconstruction of rhodochrosite in humid oxygen leads to the formation and growth of oxide nanostructures. The oxidative reconstruction consists of two consecutive processes with distinctive time scales, including a long waiting period corresponding to slow nucleation and a rapid expansion phase corresponding to fast growth. By varying the relative humidity from 55 to 78%, we further show that increasing humidity has opposing effects on the two processes, accelerating nucleation from 2.8(±0.2) × 10(-3) to 3.0(±0.2) × 10(-2) h(-1) but decelerating growth from 7.5(±0.3) × 10(-3) to 3.1(±0.1) × 10(-3) μm(2) h(-1). Through quantitative analysis, we propose that nanostructure nucleation is controlled by rhodochrosite surface dissolution, similar to the dissolution-precipitation mechanism proposed for carbonate mineral surface reconstruction in aqueous solution. To explain nanostructure growth in humid oxygen, a new Cabrera-Mott mechanism involving electron tunneling and solid-state diffusion is proposed.

  12. Bidirectional transport of organelles: unity and struggle of opposing motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryantseva, Sofiya A; Zhapparova, Olga N

    2012-01-01

    Bidirectional transport along microtubules is ensured by opposing motor proteins: cytoplasmic dynein that drives cargo to the minus-ends and various kinesins that generally move to the plus-ends of microtubules. Regulation of motor proteins that are simultaneously bound to the same organelle is required to maintain directional transport and prevent pausing of cargo pulled away by motors of opposite polarity. Debates of the recent decade have been focused on two possible mechanisms of such regulation: (i) coordination, which implies that only one type of motors is active at a given time, and (ii) tug-of-war, which assumes that both motors are active at the same time and that direction of transport depends on the outcome of motor's confrontation. The initial idea of coordination has been challenged by observations of simultaneous activity of plus- and minus-end-directed motors applied to the same cargo. Analysis of the available data indicates that coordination and tug-of-war theories rather complement than contradict each other: cargo interacts with two teams of active motors, the resulting direction and the winner team are determined by coordination complexes, but the activity of the loser team is never completely inhibited and remains at some background level. Such persisting activity might enhance the overall efficiency of transport by increasing processivity or helping to overcome the obstacles on microtubule track. © The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2012 Portland Press Limited

  13. ST6GalNAc-I controls expression of sialyl-Tn antigen in gastrointestinal tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcos, Nuno T; Bennett, Eric Paul; Gomes, Joana

    2011-01-01

    -Tn biosynthesis. We developed novel monoclonal antibodies specific for ST6GalNAc-I and evaluated its expression in gastrointestinal tissues. ST6GalNAc-I was detected in normal colon mucosa co-localized with O-acetylated sialyl-Tn. Expression was largely unaltered in colorectal adenocarcinomas. In contrast, we......NAc-I as the major enzyme controlling the expression of cancer-associated sialyl-Tn antigen in gastrointestinal tissues....

  14. Subcomponents of psychopathy have opposing correlations with punishment judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaich Borg, Jana; Kahn, Rachel E; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Kurzban, Robert; Robinson, Paul H; Kiehl, Kent A

    2013-10-01

    Psychopathy research is plagued by an enigma: Psychopaths reliably act immorally, but they also accurately report whether an action is morally wrong. The current study revealed that cooperative suppressor effects and conflicting subsets of personality traits within the construct of psychopathy might help explain this conundrum. Among a sample of adult male offenders (N = 100) who ranked deserved punishment of crimes, Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) total scores were not linearly correlated with deserved punishment task performance. However, these null results masked significant opposing associations between task performance and factors of psychopathy: the PCL-R Interpersonal/Affective (i.e., manipulative and callous) factor was positively associated with task performance, while the PCL-R Social Deviance (i.e., impulsive and antisocial) factor was simultaneously negatively associated with task performance. These relationships were qualified by a significant interaction where the Interpersonal/Affective traits were positively associated with task performance when Social Deviance traits were high, but Social Deviance traits were negatively associated with task performance when Interpersonal/Affective traits were low. This interaction helped reveal a significant nonlinear relationship between PCL-R total scores and task performance such that individuals with very low or very high PCL-R total scores performed better than those with middle-range PCL-R total scores. These results may explain the enigma of why individuals with very high psychopathic traits, but not other groups of antisocial individuals, usually have normal moral judgment in laboratory settings, but still behave immorally, especially in contexts where social deviance traits have strong influence.

  15. [Oral mucosa reaction in patients adapting to removable dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanishvili, A K; Soldatova, L N; Pihur, O L; Mihajlova, E S; Peremyshlenko, A S; Soldatov, V S

    Oral mucosa reaction of prosthetic bed to the removable acrylic dentures was evaluated in 43 patients (12 male and 31 female) aged 56-69 years with partial and full teeth loss in one or both jaws. Patients of the first (control) group (17 patients) were not using additional tools improving fixation of the removable dentures during adaptation period, while patients of the second (main) group (26 patients) used Corega cream for dentures fixation for 30 days follow-up. Oral mucosa assessment was carried out on 3-4 and 28-30 day of dentures use by 3 end points: pain syndrome, moisture level, inflammation of a prosthetic bed. The results proved Corega cream to improve prosthetic bed mucosa condition reducing inflammatory response to polymeric materials of removable dentures basis.

  16. Speech and swallowing outcomes in buccal mucosa carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunila John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms among all oral cancers in India. Understanding the role of speech language pathologists (SLPs in the domains of evaluation and management strategies of this condition is limited, especially in the Indian context. This is a case report of a young adult with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with no deleterious habits usually associated with buccal mucosa carcinoma. Following composite resection, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction, he developed severe oral dysphagia and demonstrated unintelligible speech. This case report focuses on the issues of swallowing and speech deficits in buccal mucosa carcinoma that need to be addressed by SLPs, and the outcomes of speech and swallowing rehabilitation and prognostic issues.

  17. Harvesting oral mucosa for one-stage anterior urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Balwant Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucosa has been the most popular substitute material for urethral reconstructive surgery because it is easy to harvest, is easy to access, has a concealed donor site scar, and obviates most of the problems associated with other grafts. However, the success of using oral mucosa for urethral surgery is mainly attributed to the biological properties of this tissue. Herein, the surgical steps of harvesting oral mucosa from the inner cheek are presented with an emphasis on tips and tricks to render the process easier and more reproducible and to prevent intra and post-operative complications. The following steps are emphasized: Nasal intubation, ovoid shape graft, delicate harvesting leaving the muscle intact, donor site closure and removal of submucosal tissue.

  18. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y C; Yang, H Q; Zhuo, S M [Institute of Laser and Optoelectronics Technology, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Chen, G; Chen, J X [Department of Pathology, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou, 350014 (China); Yan, J, E-mail: chenjianxin@fjnu.edu.cn, E-mail: ynjun@yahoo.com [Department of Surgery, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou, 350014 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength {lambda}{sub ex} = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  19. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength λex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  20. [Oral mucosa graft urethroplasty for complicated urethral strictures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Akio; Sumitomo, Makoto; Kanbara, Taiki; Tsujita, Yujiro; Yoshii, Takahiko; Yoshii, Hidehiko; Satoh, Akinori; Asakuma, Junichi; Ito, Keiichi; Hayakawa, Masamichi; Asano, Tomohiko

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and outcome of one-stage oral mucosa graft urethroplasty, which is currently the procedure of choice for treating lengthy and complicated urethral strictures not amenable to excision and primary end-to-end anastomosis. Seven patients 33 to 74 years old (mean age = 53.7) underwent one-stage oral mucosa graft urethroplasty for a stricture in either the bulbar urethra (four patients), penile urethra (two patients), or pan-anterior urethra (one patient). Three of the strictures were due to trauma, one was due to inflammation, and one was due to a failed hypospadia repair. The other two were iatrogenic. All patients had previously undergone either internal urethrotomy or repeated urethral dilation. Three patients received a tube graft, three received a ventral onlay, and one received a dorsal onlay. A free graft of oral mucosa was harvested from the inside of each patient's left cheek, and if necessary to obtain a sufficient length, the harvest was extended to include mucosa from the lower lip and the right cheek. The graft lengths ranged from 2.5 to 12 cm (mean = 4.6 cm). A urethral catheter was left in place for 3 weeks postoperatively. While no severe complications at the donor site were observed during follow-up periods ranging from 3 to 55 months (mean = 14 months), two patients who had received a tube graft developed distal anastomotic ring strictures that were managed by internal urethrotomy. The other five required no postoperative urological procedure even though one who had received a ventral onlay developed a penoscrotal fistula. Oral mucosa is an ideal urethral graft, and oral mucosa graft urethroplasty is an effective procedure for repairing complicated urethral strictures involving long portions of the urethra.

  1. [Microcirculation of the nasal mucosa during use of balloon tamponade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, M; Siegert, R

    1997-03-01

    Nasal packings are commonly accepted in the treatment of severe epistaxis. Cuffed catheters are known to cause damage to the nasal mucosa most likely by interfering with tissue perfusion. In this study the effect of different pressure levels on local perfusion of septal mucosa is investigated. In 15 healthy subjects the blood flow in septal mucosa was measured by laser doppler flowmetry by positioning a cuffed epistaxis catheter into the nasal cavity with a laser probe attached to it. Increasing pressure was administered by injecting saline solution while continuously recording intraluminal pressure, perfusion, and filling volume. The local pressure affecting the septal mucosa at the moment of stalling perfusion was determined by subtracting the extranasal cuff pressure from the current intranasal cuff pressure at same inflation volumes. Microcirculation of the septal mucosa stopped when the local pressure exceeded a value of Pmean = 42 mmHg. Individual variations (n = 15) were small (s = 9 mmHg). The intraluminal cuff pressure was measured to be about ten times higher due to the retraction force of the cuff. Spontaneous oscillations of the blood flow were reduced with increasing pressure to the blood vessels. Filling volumes up to 3.2 ml were sufficient to stop perfusion. Cuffed nasal packings stop the blood flow in nasal mucosa even at low local pressures. Depending on the material characteristics of different cuffs the pressure to dilate the cuff may, however, be several times higher than the actual local pressure. This effect may cause problems in the proper use of cuffed catheters. Laser doppler flowmetry proved to be helpful in determining reproducible perfusion values.

  2. X-radiation effect on soluble proteins of gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhomlinov, B.F.; Chajka, Ya.P.; Fedorovich, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    Using the method of electrophoresis in agar gel soluble proteins of gastric mucosa of rats were separated into 11 fractions. Proteins posessing a proteolytic (pH 1.8) and lipase (pH 7.4) activity were localized within the second and third prealbumin fractions. Soluble proteins of gastric mucosa contain glyco- and lipoproteid complexes. Exposure of rats to 1000 R of X-rays induces quantitative redistribution within the electrophoretic spectrum of soluble proteins and a considerable disturbance of the proteolytic activity of total soluble proteins throughout the entire period of observation (from 10 min to 72h)

  3. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to the Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Clyne

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many enteric diseases. Helicobacter pylori is a duodenal pathogen that adheres to the gastric epithelium and causes gastritis and peptic ulceration. The mechanism by which H pylori causes disease has not yet been elucidated but adherence to the gastric mucosa is thought to be an important virulence determinant of the organism. What is known about adherence of H pylori to the gastric mucosa is summarized. Topics discussed are the mechanism of H pylori adherence; in vitro and in vivo models of H pylori infection; and adherence and potential adhesins and receptors for H pylori.

  4. Estudio de la mucosa oral en pacientes que emplean colutorios

    OpenAIRE

    Marzal Gamarra, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN 1. Recuerdo histológico de la mucosa oral La cavidad bucal, como toda cavidad orgánica que se comunica con el exterior, esta tapizada por una membrana mucosa de superficie húmeda. La humedad, que es aportada por las glándulas salivales mayores y menores, es necesaria para el mantenimiento de la estructura normal de los tejidos. 2. Colutorios y su utilización en Odontología Los colutorios son preparaciones líquidas destinadas a ser aplicadas sobre los dientes, las...

  5. Alphamimetic effects at the nasal mucosa in the MR tomogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benammar-Englmaier, M.; Hallermeier, J.K.; Englmaier, B.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of xylometazolin spray (OTRIVEN) on the nasal mucosa was tested on persons with and without clinical signs of rhinitis and sinusitis. MRI is an excellent means to show the decongestive effect. The reaction is chiefly seen at the inferior and middle nasal concha and becomes manifest in a few minutes. No significant effect is noticeable at the maxillary sinus mucosa and infiltrated ethmoidal sinus. Generally, it is possible to show and examine the pharmacological effects that change the size and the liquid consistency of organs. (orig.) [de

  6. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antigen detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  8. Isocyanate test antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, M.H.; Alarie, Y.C.

    1980-01-01

    A test antigen for detecting antibodies to a diisocyanate comprises the reaction product of a protein and a monoisocyanate derived from the same radical as the diisocyanate. The diisocyanates most usually encountered and therefore calling for antibody detection are those of toluene, hexamethylene, methylene, isophorone and naphthylene. The preferred protein is human serum albumin. (author)

  9. β-endorphin antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of antigens comprising β-endorphin, βsub(h)-endorphin, or βsub(c)-endorphin, in covalent conjugation with human gammaglobulin as immunogenic carrier material, and an antibody having the property of specifically binding β-endorphin or fragments thereof, containing the (6-15) residue sequence. (U.K.)

  10. Mature IgM-expressing plasma cells sense antigen and develop competence for cytokine production upon antigenic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Pascal; Moro-Sibilot, Ludovic; Barthly, Lucas; Jagot, Ferdinand; This, Sébastien; de Bernard, Simon; Buffat, Laurent; Dussurgey, Sébastien; Colisson, Renaud; Hobeika, Elias; Fest, Thierry; Taillardet, Morgan; Thaunat, Olivier; Sicard, Antoine; Mondière, Paul; Genestier, Laurent; Nutt, Stephen L.; Defrance, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Dogma holds that plasma cells, as opposed to B cells, cannot bind antigen because they have switched from expression of membrane-bound immunoglobulins (Ig) that constitute the B-cell receptor (BCR) to production of the secreted form of immunoglobulins. Here we compare the phenotypical and functional attributes of plasma cells generated by the T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent forms of the hapten NP. We show that the nature of the secreted Ig isotype, rather than the chemical structure of the immunizing antigen, defines two functionally distinct populations of plasma cells. Fully mature IgM-expressing plasma cells resident in the bone marrow retain expression of a functional BCR, whereas their IgG+ counterparts do not. Antigen boost modifies the gene expression profile of IgM+ plasma cells and initiates a cytokine production program, characterized by upregulation of CCL5 and IL-10. Our results demonstrate that IgM-expressing plasma cells can sense antigen and acquire competence for cytokine production upon antigenic challenge. PMID:27924814

  11. Detection of Helicobacter pylori urease antigen in saliva in patients with different gastric H. pylori status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khadir, Mounia; Alaoui Boukhris, Samia; Benajah, Dafr-Allah; El Rhazi, Karima; Ibrahimi, Sidi Adil; El Abkari, Mohamed; Harmouch, Taoufiq; Nejjari, Chakib; Mahmoud, Mustapha; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Bennani, Bahia

    2016-07-01

    Finding a simple, accurate, and noninvasive diagnosis method is a substantial challenge for the detection of Helicobacter pylori. The aim of the present study was to compare the presence of H. pylori urease antigen in saliva with the presence of this bacterium in gastric mucosa. Saliva samples and gastric biopsies were taken from 153 consenting Moroccan patients. Saliva samples were analyzed using an immunochromatographic test for urease antigen H. pylori detection. Thereafter, the gastric biopsies were analyzed by histology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect this bacterium. From a total of 153 recruited Moroccan patients, H. pylori was detected in 28 (18.30%), 87 (57.24%), and 69 (45.10%) cases by saliva test, histology, and PCR, respectively. A significant association was observed between the presence of H. pylori antigen in saliva and age. However, no association was found with sex, H. pylori virulence factors, gastric disease outcome, and density of the bacterium on the gastric mucosa. Considering that only 90 patients presented concordant results on H. pylori diagnosis (positive or negative) by both histology and PCR, the immunochromatographic test showed very low sensitivity (29.79%) and high specificity (90.70%). Of these two tests, the positive and negative predictive values were 77.78% and 54.17%, respectively. The accuracy of the test for salivary detection of urease antigen H. pylori was 58.89%. This study demonstrated a low detection rate of H. pylori antigens in saliva compared with the presence of this bacterium in gastric mucosa, suggesting that saliva cannot be used as a suitable sample for the diagnosis of H. pylori in our study population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  12. Uropathogenic E. coli Exploit CEA to Promote Colonization of the Urogenital Tract Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenzner, Petra; Kengmo Tchoupa, Arnaud; Klauser, Benedikt; Brunner, Thomas; Putze, Johannes; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Hauck, Christof R.

    2016-01-01

    Attachment to the host mucosa is a key step in bacterial pathogenesis. On the apical surface of epithelial cells, members of the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family are abundant glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion and modulation of cell signaling. Interestingly, several gram-negative bacterial pathogens target these receptors by specialized adhesins. The prototype of a CEACAM-binding pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, utilizes colony opacity associated (Opa) proteins to engage CEA, as well as the CEA-related cell adhesion molecules CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 on human epithelial cells. By heterologous expression of neisserial Opa proteins in non-pathogenic E. coli we find that the Opa protein-CEA interaction is sufficient to alter gene expression, to increase integrin activity and to promote matrix adhesion of infected cervical carcinoma cells and immortalized vaginal epithelial cells in vitro. These CEA-triggered events translate in suppression of exfoliation and improved colonization of the urogenital tract by Opa protein-expressing E. coli in CEA-transgenic compared to wildtype mice. Interestingly, uropathogenic E. coli expressing an unrelated CEACAM-binding protein of the Afa/Dr adhesin family recapitulate the in vitro and in vivo phenotype. In contrast, an isogenic strain lacking the CEACAM-binding adhesin shows reduced colonization and does not suppress epithelial exfoliation. These results demonstrate that engagement of human CEACAMs by distinct bacterial adhesins is sufficient to blunt exfoliation and to promote host infection. Our findings provide novel insight into mucosal colonization by a common UPEC pathotype and help to explain why human CEACAMs are a preferred epithelial target structure for diverse gram-negative bacteria to establish a foothold on the human mucosa. PMID:27171273

  13. In vivo adaptation and persistence of Neisseria meningitidis within the nasopharyngeal mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay O Johswich

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis (Nme asymptomatically colonizes the human nasopharynx, yet can initiate rapidly-progressing sepsis and meningitis in rare instances. Understanding the meningococcal lifestyle within the nasopharyngeal mucosa, a phase of infection that is prerequisite for disease, has been hampered by the lack of animal models. Herein, we compare mice expressing the four different human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs that can bind the neisserial Opa protein adhesins, and find that expression of human CEACAM1 is necessary and sufficient to establish intranasal colonization. During infection, in vivo selection for phase variants expressing CEACAM1-specific Opa proteins occurs, allowing mucosal attachment and entry into the subepithelial space. Consistent with an essential role for Opa proteins in this process, Opa-deficient meningococci were unable to colonize the CEACAM1-humanized mice. While simple Opa-mediated attachment triggered an innate response regardless of meningococcal viability within the inoculum, persistence of viable Opa-expressing bacteria within the CEACAM1-humanized mice was required for a protective memory response to be achieved. Parenteral immunization with a capsule-based conjugate vaccine led to the accumulation of protective levels of Nme-specific IgG within the nasal mucus, yet the sterilizing immunity afforded by natural colonization was instead conferred by Nme-specific IgA without detectable IgG. Considered together, this study establishes that the availability of CEACAM1 helps define the exquisite host specificity of this human-restricted pathogen, displays a striking example of in vivo selection for the expression of desirable Opa variants, and provides a novel model in which to consider meningococcal infection and immunity within the nasopharyngeal mucosa.

  14. Review: Non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa. S Bugeja, S Ivaz, AV Frost, DE Andrich, AR Mundy. Abstract. Augmentation urethroplasty using oral mucosal graft has become the standard surgical treatment of long bulbar strictures. In very tight strictures the urethral plate is narrowed to the extent that an ...

  15. Laser-induced fluorescence of oral mucosa cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaliashvili, Z. V.; Medoidze, T. D.; Melikishvili, Z. G.; Gogilashvili, K. T.

    2017-10-01

    The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra have been measured for cancer-infused and control mice mucosa tissues. It was established that there is quite a difference between their LIF spectral shapes. These spectral shapes are used to express the diagnostic of different states of tissues: from normal to cancer.

  16. Helicobacter pylori and histopathological changes of gastric mucosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori and histopathological changes of gastric mucosa in Uganda population with varying prevalence of stomach cancer. ... Results: The severity of gastritis correlated with the presence of H. pylori in Ganda and Nyarwanda but not in Nkole. Intestinal metaplasia (IM) was observed in Nyarwanda and Nkole and ...

  17. Histomorphometric evaluation of small intestinal mucosa of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histomorphometry of the small intestinal mucosa of the red jungle fowl (RJF) and commercial broiler breed (CBC) from day one to four months post-hatch were investigated. For the sake of comparison between these two breeds, the following parameters were included: the number of villi, villus surface area and the intestinal ...

  18. Taste buds in the palatal mucosa of snakes | Berkhoudt | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An examination of the oral mucosa of Crotalus and several Scolecophidia revealed the presence of taste buds. The taste buds in these two divergent groups of snakes are similar in appearance, and correspond to previous descriptions of gustatory organs in other reptiles. Few taste buds were present in any specimen, and ...

  19. An overview of oral mucosa condition of shisha smoker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Amtha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shisha is a water pipe that tobacco extract and fruit scented burnt using coal. It produces the smoke through the vessel and inhaled using a hose with good taste. The culture of shisha smoking is popular in Midle East country that curently has been also entering Indonesia. The side effect of shisha smoking habit is still very rare reported. Aim of this study is to describe the oral mucosa condition of shisha user. A preliminary observasional study was conducted at several sisha cafe at South Jakarta. Under informed consent, subject with habit of tobacco and shisha smoker were included. Sociodemographic data (age, gender, duration, frequency of smoking, salivary flow rate and oral mucosa changes were documented. Eighteen subjects were recruited into this study. Most of shisha smoker was also tobacco smoker. Shisha was more practiced by male at  age (15-24 years old. The oral mucosa changes such as keratosis, melanosis, leukoedema, coated tongue, gingivitis and xerostomia were found on subject with habit of tobacco smoking habit only or both shisha and tobacco smoking. In conclusion apparently the shisha smoking habit may casue oral mucosa changes almost the same with tobacco smoking habit

  20. reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-02

    Feb 2, 2009 ... cases(0.9%) were those of denture irritation hyperplasia. The age ... reported to have recurred and all of them were gingival lesions. ... grade chronic irritations to the oral mucosa such as ..... J. Periodontal.1980; 51: 55-61. 7.

  1. Activated human nasal epithelial cells modulate specific antibody response against bacterial or viral antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou-Yueh Yeh

    Full Text Available Nasal mucosa is an immune responsive organ evidenced by eliciting both specific local secretory IgA and systemic IgG antibody responses with intra-nasal administration of antigens. Nevertheless, the role of nasal epithelial cells in modulating such responses is unclear. Human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs obtained from sinus mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were cultured in vitro and firstly were stimulated by Lactococcus lactis bacterium-like particles (BLPs in order to examine their role on antibody production. Secondly, both antigens of immunodominant protein IDG60 from oral Streptococcus mutans and hemagglutinin (HA from influenza virus were tested to evaluate the specific antibody response. Stimulated hNECs by BLPs exhibited a significant increase in the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP. Conditioned medium of stimulated hNECs has effects on enhancing the proliferation of CD4+ T cells together with interferon-γ and IL-5 production, increasing the costimulatory molecules on dendritic cells and augmenting the production of IDG60 specific IgA, HA specific IgG, IgA by human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Such production of antigen specific IgG and IgA is significantly counteracted in the presence of IL-6 and TSLP neutralizing antibodies. In conclusion, properly stimulated hNECs may impart immuno-modulatory effects on the antigen-specific antibody response at least through the production of IL-6 and TSLP.

  2. Validation of methylation biomarkers that distinguish normal colon mucosa from cancer patients from normal colon mucosa of patients without cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaroni, Matteo; Powell, Jasmine; Sapienza, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    We have validated differences in DNA methylation levels of candidate genes previously reported to discriminate between normal colon mucosa of colon cancer patients and normal colon mucosa of individuals without cancer. Here, we report that CpG sites in 16 of the 30 candidate genes selected show significant differences in mean methylation level in normal colon mucosa of 24 cancer patients and 24 controls. A support vector machine trained on these data and data for an additional 66 CpGs yielded an 18-gene signature, composed of 10 of the validated candidate genes plus eight additional candidates. This model exhibited 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity in a 40-sample training set and classified all eight samples in the test set correctly. Moreover, we found a moderate-strong correlation (Pearson coefficients r=0.253-0.722) between methylation levels in colon mucosa and methylation levels in peripheral blood for seven of the 18 genes in the support vector model. These seven genes, alone, classified 44 of the 48 patients in the validation set correctly and five CpGs selected from only two of the seven genes classified 41 of the 48 patients in the discovery set correctly. These results suggest that methylation biomarkers may be developed that will, at minimum, serve as useful objective and quantitative diagnostic complements to colonoscopy as a cancer-screening tool. These data also suggest that it may be possible to monitor biomarker methylation levels in tissues collected much less invasively than by colonoscopy. PMID:24806665

  3. The edentulous mandible opposing maxillary natural teeth: treatment considerations utilizing implant overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, S; Monasky, G E

    1993-01-01

    The restoration of the edentulous mandible opposing all or part of the maxillary natural dentition with implant overdentures is described. There are many situations in which the maxillary teeth opposing an edentulous mandible can and should be retained. Mandibular implant overdentures can be utilized as long as health considerations, morphologic features of the resorbed mandible, and maxillomandibular jaw relationships are satisfactory.

  4. Deteksi Antigen pada Kriptokokosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiatul Adawiyah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKriptokokosis merupakan infeksi sistemik yang disebabkan Cryptococcus sp. Predileksi jamur tersebut adalah susunan saraf pusat dan selaput otak. Terdapat 5 spesies Cryptococcus sp. yang menyebabkan penyakit pada manusia; yang paling banyak adalah Cr. neoformans dan Cr. gattii. Diagnosis kriptokokosis ditegakkan berdasarkan gejala klinis, pemeriksaan laboratoris serta radiologis. Pemeriksaan laboratoris dilakukan dengan identifikasi morfologi, serologi danPCR. Pemeriksaan secara morfologi dengan tinta India positif  bila jumlah sel jamur 10  sel/ml spesimen. Kultur dilakukan di media sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA dan niger sheed agar (NSA, jamur tumbuh setelah 5-7 hari. Deteksi antigen dan antibodi dilakukan pada cairan tubuh dan tidak membutuhkan waktu lama. Deteksi antibodi Cr.neoformans memiliki kelemahan yaitu tidak menunjukkan hasil positif pada infeksi akut, IgA masih positif setelah 1-2 tahun fase penyembuhan, IgG dapat persisten, pada individu imunokompromis menunjukkan hasil yang sangat kompleks dan dalam menentukan diagnosis sering tidak konsisten. Polisakarida adalah komponen paling berperan dalam virulensi Cr. neoformans. Komponen polisakarida terutama glucuronoxylomannan merupakan petanda penting dalam diagnosis kriptokokosis secara serologis. Deteksi antigen Cr. neoformans memiliki kelebihan yaitu menunjukkan hasil positif pada infeksi akut/kronis, sensitivitas dan spesifisitas tinggi, dapat mendeteksi polisakarida hingga 10 ng/ml sehingga dengan kadarantigen yang minimal tetap dapat mendiagnosis kriptokokosis.Kata kunci: Cr. neoformans, glucuronoxylomannan, antigenAbstractCryptococcosis is systemic infection that caused by Cryptococcus sp. Predilection of this fungi is the central nervous system and brain membrane. There are 5 species of Cryptococcus sp. that cause cryptococcosis in human; but the majority are caused by Cr. neoformans and Cr. gattii. The diagnosis of cryptococcosis is made based on clinical symptoms

  5. MZC Gel Inhibits SHIV-RT and HSV-2 in Macaque Vaginal Mucosa and SHIV-RT in Rectal Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calenda, Giulia; Villegas, Guillermo; Barnable, Patrick; Litterst, Claudia; Levendosky, Keith; Gettie, Agegnehu; Cooney, Michael L; Blanchard, James; Fernández-Romero, José A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Teleshova, Natalia

    2017-03-01

    The Population Council's microbicide gel MZC (also known as PC-1005) containing MIV-150 and zinc acetate dihydrate (ZA) in carrageenan (CG) has shown promise as a broad-spectrum microbicide against HIV, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and human papillomavirus. Previous data show antiviral activity against these viruses in cell-based assays, prevention of vaginal and rectal simian-human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) infection, and reduction of vaginal HSV shedding in rhesus macaques and also excellent antiviral activity against HSV and human papillomavirus in murine models. Recently, we demonstrated that MZC is safe and effective against SHIV-RT in macaque vaginal explants. Here we established models of ex vivo SHIV-RT/HSV-2 coinfection of vaginal mucosa and SHIV-RT infection of rectal mucosa in macaques (challenge of rectal mucosa with HSV-2 did not result in reproducible tissue infection), evaluated antiviral activity of MZC, and compared quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay readouts for monitoring SHIV-RT infection. MZC (at nontoxic dilutions) significantly inhibited SHIV-RT in vaginal and rectal mucosas and HSV-2 in vaginal mucosa when present during viral challenge. Analysis of SHIV-RT infection and MZC activity by 1-step simian immunodeficiency virus gag quantitative RT-PCR and p27 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated similar virus growth dynamics and MZC activity by both methods and higher sensitivity of quantitative RT-PCR. Our data provide more evidence that MZC is a promising dual compartment multipurpose prevention technology candidate.

  6. Serous otitis media and immunological reactions in the middle ear mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Baan, S.; Seldenrijk, C. A.; Henzen-Logmans, S. C.; Drexhage, H. A.

    1988-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study was performed on the middle ear mucosa of 21 children with chronic serous otitis media (SOM). In 86% of the patients a highly organized lymphatic tissue was found in the middle ear mucosa which can be regarded as part of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).

  7. Broad MICA/B Expression in the Small Bowel Mucosa: A Link between Cellular Stress and Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretti, Yessica L.; Bondar, Constanza; Guzman, Luciana; Cueto Rua, Eduardo; Chopita, Nestor; Fuertes, Mercedes; Zwirner, Norberto W.; Chirdo, Fernando G.

    2013-01-01

    The MICA/B genes (MHC class I chain related genes A and B) encode for non conventional class I HLA molecules which have no role in antigen presentation. MICA/B are up-regulated by different stress conditions such as heat-shock, oxidative stress, neoplasic transformation and viral infection. Particularly, MICA/B are expressed in enterocytes where they can mediate enterocyte apoptosis when recognised by the activating NKG2D receptor present on intraepithelial lymphocytes. This mechanism was suggested to play a major pathogenic role in active celiac disease (CD). Due to the importance of MICA/B in CD pathogenesis we studied their expression in duodenal tissue from CD patients. By immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and flow cytometry we established that MICA/B was mainly intracellularly located in enterocytes. In addition, we identified MICA/B+ T cells in both the intraepithelial and lamina propria compartments. We also found MICA/B+ B cells, plasma cells and some macrophages in the lamina propria. The pattern of MICA/B staining in mucosal tissue in severe enteropathy was similar to that found in in vitro models of cellular stress. In such models, MICA/B were located in stress granules that are associated to the oxidative and ER stress response observed in active CD enteropathy. Our results suggest that expression of MICA/B in the intestinal mucosa of CD patients is linked to disregulation of mucosa homeostasis in which the stress response plays an active role. PMID:24058482

  8. Carcino-Embryonic Antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akute, O.

    1999-02-01

    Tumour marker analysis has increased our understanding of the presence of tumours in the body. Carcino-embryonic antigen, CEA, is one of the best studied tumour markers and has proved an ideal diagnostic adjuvant. It has helped in quantifying the amount of disease present in a patient and thence to make accurate prognosis on the various diagnosed ailments. At UCH, it is observed that there is an increase in cancer related ailments and therefore the need for early diagnosis is more compelling in our environment to mitigate future cost of managing advanced manifestation

  9. Verruca vulgaris of the buccal mucosa: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aastha Mattoo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral verruca vulgaris is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Verruca vulgaris most frequently occurs on the fingers, toes, soles, and dorsal surfaces of hands and is mostly asymptomatic. Varieties of verrucous and papillary lesions affect the skin as well as oral mucosa which may be either benign or reactive. Common wart is one of the most commonly observed skin growths and a lesion of childhood. Intraoral warts can occur at any age with equal incidence in both genders but are most commonly seen in the third to fifth decade. It is found commonly on the palate followed by lip, tongue, buccal mucosa, and rarely seen on gingiva. Surgical excision with adequate margins is the treatment of choice.

  10. Two Cases of Bacteremia Due to Roseomonas mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Kyung; Moon, Jung Suk; Song, Kyung Eun; Lee, Won Kil

    2016-07-01

    Roseomonas is a genus of pink-pigmented nonfermentative bacilli. These slow-growing, gram-negative cocobacilli form pink-colored colonies on sheep blood agar. They differ from other pink-pigmented nonfermenters, including Methylobacterium, in morphology, biochemical characteristics, and DNA sequence. Roseomonas strains are rarely isolated in clinical laboratories; therefore, we report two cases in order to improve our ability to identify these pathogens. We isolated two strains of Roseomonas mucosa from the venous blood cultures of two patients, an 84-yr-old woman with common bile duct obstruction and a 17-yr-old male with acute myeloid leukemia who had an indwelling central-venous catheter for chemotherapy. The isolated strains were confirmed as R. mucosa by 16S rRNA sequencing.

  11. Discriminating between Interstitial and Circulating Leukocytes in Tissues of the Murine Oral Mucosa Avoiding Nasal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner-Eddy, Peter D; Fischer, Lori A; Tu, Andy A; Allman, Daniel A; Costalonga, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory response to a microbial biofilm that destroys bone and soft tissues supporting the teeth. Murine models of periodontitis based on Porphyromonas gingivalis ( Pg ) colonization have shown that extravasation of leukocytes into oral tissue is critical to driving alveolar bone destruction. Identifying interstitial leukocytes is key to understanding the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis. Here, we describe a robust flow cytometry assay based on intravenous FITC-conjugated anti-mouse CD45 mAb that distinguishes interstitial leukocytes in the oral mucosa of mice from those circulating within the vasculature or in post-dissection contaminating blood. Unaccounted circulating leukocytes skewed the relative frequency of B cells and granulocytes and inflated the numbers of all leukocyte cell types. We also describe a dissection technique that avoids contamination of oral mucosal tissues with nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT), a B cell rich organ that can inflate leukocyte numbers at least 10-fold and skew the assessment of interstitial CD4 T cell phenotypes. Unlike circulating CD4 T cells, interstitial CD4 T cells were almost exclusively antigen-experienced cells (CD44 hi ). We report for the first time the presence of antigen-experienced Pg -specific CD4 T cells in NALT following oral feeding of mice with Pg . This new combined flow cytometry and dissection approach allows identification of leukocytes infiltrating the connective tissues of the murine oral mucosa and avoids confounding analyses of leukocytes not recruited to inflamed oral mucosal tissues in disease conditions like periodontitis, candidiasis, or sialadenitis.

  12. Educating Normal Breast Mucosa to Prevent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    immune system to maintain epithelial integrity. In this study our goal was to study the immune subsets associated with breast mucosa and develop the...into the mammary gland. Specific Aim 3: Determine an optimal oral vaccine approach able to minimize hyperplasia . 5 287 288 289 290 291 292...colonization, but also regulating homeostasis of the epithelial layer. As a part of the mucosal immune system, the mammary gland may have characteristic

  13. Histopathological findings in the oral mucosa of celiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bardellini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease (CD is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible subjects. Although the small intestinal mucosa is the main site of the gut's involvement in CD, other mucosal surfaces belonging to the gastrointestinal tract and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue are known to be affected. Aim: Assuming that the oral mucosa could reflect the histopathological inflammatory alterations of the intestine in CD patients, this study wishes to assess the pattern of T-cell subsets in the oral mucosa of young adults with CD. Methods: A group of 37 patients (age range 20-38 years; female: male ratio 28:9 with CD were enrolled. Out of 37 patients, 19 patients (group A followed a gluten free diet (GFD -2 patients from less than one year; 6 patients between 1 and 5 years; 11 patients more than 5 years- while 18 patients (group B were still untreated. Fifteen healthy volunteers (age range 18-35 years, female: Male ratio 11:4 served as controls for the CD patients. Ethical approval for the research was granted by the Ethics Committee. Biopsy specimens were taken from normal looking oral mucosa. The immunohistochemical investigation was performed with monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD4, CD8, and γδ-chains T cell receptor (TCR. Results: The T-lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate was significantly (p < 0.0001 increased in group B (both compared with group A and with the control group. Conclusion: This study confirms the oral cavity to be a site of involvement of CD and its possible diagnostic potentiality in this disease.

  14. Abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in the colon mucosa in diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linninge, Caroline; Roth, Bodil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Molin, Göran; Toth, Ervin; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2018-02-15

    To compare gut bacterial diversity and amount of Enterobacteriaceae in colonic mucosa between patients with and without diverticular disease (DD). Patients in a stable clinical condition with planned elective colonoscopy were included. Blood samples and colon mucosa biopsies were collected at the colonoscopy. Study questionnaires including questions about gastrointestinal symptoms were completed by the patients and physicians. DNA from mucosa samples was isolated and the amount of Enterobacteriaceae was estimated using PCR assay. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism was applied to assess microbial diversity. Diversity was estimated by calculations of richness (number of terminal restriction fragments) and Shannon-Wiener and Simpson's indices. A total of 51 patients were included, 16 patients with DD [68 (62-76) years] and 35 controls [62 (40-74) years] without any diverticula. Patients with DD had significantly higher levels of Enterobacteriaceae than those without DD ( P = 0.043), and there was an inverse relationship between the amount of Enterobacteriaceae and the Simpson's index (rs = -0.361, P = 0.033) and the Shannon-Wiener index (rs = -0.299, P = 0.081). The Simpson's index ( P = 0.383), Shannon-Wiener index ( P = 0.401) or number of restrictions fragments ( P = 0.776) did not differ between DD and controls. The majority of patients experienced gastrointestinal symptoms, and 22 patients (43.1%) fulfilled the criteria for irritable bowel syndrome, with no difference between the groups ( P = 0.212). Demography, socioeconomic status, lifestyle habits, inflammatory biomarkers, or symptoms were not related to the amount of Enterobacteriaceae or bacterial diversity. Patients with DD had higher amount of Enterobacteriaceae in the colon mucosa compared to patients without diverticula.

  15. Oral mucosa tissue response to titanium cover screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Daniel G; Paparella, María L; Spielberg, Martín; Brandizzi, Daniel; Guglielmotti, María B; Cabrini, Rómulo L

    2012-08-01

    Titanium is the most widely used metal in dental implantology. The release of particles from metal structures into the biologic milieu may be the result of electrochemical processes (corrosion) and/or mechanical disruption during insertion, abutment connection, or removal of failing implants. The aim of the present study is to evaluate tissue response of human oral mucosa adjacent to titanium cover screws. One hundred fifty-three biopsies of the supra-implant oral mucosa adjacent to the cover screw of submerged dental implants were analyzed. Histologic studies were performed to analyze epithelial and connective tissue as well as the presence of metal particles, which were identified using microchemical analysis. Langerhans cells, macrophages, and T lymphocytes were studied using immunohistochemical techniques. The surface of the cover screws was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Forty-one percent of mucosa biopsies exhibited metal particles in different layers of the section thickness. Particle number and size varied greatly among specimens. Immunohistochemical study confirmed the presence of macrophages and T lymphocytes associated with the metal particles. Microchemical analysis revealed the presence of titanium in the particles. On SEM analysis, the surface of the screws exhibited depressions and irregularities. The biologic effects seen in the mucosa in contact with the cover screws might be associated with the presence of titanium or other elements, such as aluminum or vanadium. The potential long-term biologic effects of particles on soft tissues adjacent to metallic devices should be further investigated because these effects might affect the clinical outcome of the implant.

  16. Untersuchungen zur Regeneration des Hinterendes bei Anaitides mucosa (Polychaeta, Phyllodocidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrkasten, A.

    1983-06-01

    Caudal regeneration was investigated in decerebrate Anaitides mucosa and in brain-intact individuals. Both groups show an identical capacity to regenerate lost caudal segments. Furthermore there is no difference in males and females. Low temperature (5 °C) inhibits the regeneration of caudal segments, but it is necessary for normal oogenesis. Under conditions of high temperature (15 °C), caudal regeneration is very extensive. At the same time degeneration of most oocytes occurs.

  17. Paraneoplastic disorders of hair, nails, oral mucosa and pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kavak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this section, paraneoplastic entites of hair, nail, oral mucosa and pigmentation changes have been discussed. Some skin findings are “strong” indicator of a malignancy whereas others are not. Readers will encounter some “coincidental” or “common” entities as well as more “severe” changes for a paraneoplastic sign. In addition, it is crucial that some paraneoplastic lesions may predict for a recurrence of malignancy.

  18. Keratocyst of the buccal mucosa: is it odontogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Fumio; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Yuji; Mishima, Kenji; Saito, Ichiro; Kusama, Kaoru

    2010-11-01

    Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) of the buccal mucosa, the diagnosis of which is based on subjective histologic evaluation, is a controversial entity of questionable existence. This report describes 2 rare cases of parakeratinized cyst arising from the buccal mucosa. Case 1 was a 60-year-old man with a 3-cm cyst and case 2 was a 16-year-old boy with a microcyst incidentally discovered on histology. Both lesions were essentially identical in histologic appearance and immunophenotype to intraosseous and gingival OKC, but they were clearly different from orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts and buccal mucosal epidermoid cysts. Step sections failed to reveal any kind of odontogenic tissue or skin adnexa in the cyst wall. These microscopic characteristics reflexively lead to the diagnosis of OKC, if the extragingival occurrence in the buccal mucosa cannot be considered. An alternative nonodontogenic origin includes a keratocyst of the skin, ie, an unusual mucosal presentation of cutaneous keratocyst. Because its true nature, either odontogenic or epidermal, cannot be conclusively proven at this time, we propose a more descriptive and noncommittal term, "mucosal keratocyst," for a particular cyst in a buccal location that is morphologically indistinguishable from OKC. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Carcinoma-specific Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I binding glycoproteins of human colorectal carcinoma and its relation to carcinoembryonic antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Y; Yonezawa, S; Nakamura, T; Shimizu, S; Ozawa, M; Muramatsu, T; Sato, E

    1985-08-01

    Glycoproteins binding to Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) lectin, which recognizes the terminal alpha-L-fucose residue, were analyzed in 18 cases of human colorectal carcinoma by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by the Western blotting method. In the distal large bowel (descending and sigmoid colon and rectum), high-molecular-weight glycoproteins binding to UEA-I existed in carcinoma tissue but not in normal mucosa. In the proximal large bowel (ascending and transverse colon), high-molecular-weight glycoproteins binding to UEA-I were found both in normal mucosa and in carcinoma tissue, whereas those from the carcinoma tissue had an apparently lower molecular weight as compared to the weight of those from the normal mucosa. Thus there is a biochemical difference in UEA-I binding glycoproteins between the normal mucosa and the carcinoma tissue, although in our previous histochemical study no difference was observed in UEA-I binding glycoproteins of the proximal large bowel between the carcinoma tissue and the normal mucosa. Furthermore, carcinoembryonic antigen from the carcinoma tissue was found to have the same electrophoretical mobility as the UEA-I binding glycoproteins.

  20. Validation of methylation biomarkers that distinguish normal colon mucosa of cancer patients from normal colon mucosa of patients without cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaroni, Matteo; Powell, Jasmine; Sapienza, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    We have validated differences in DNA methylation levels of candidate genes previously reported to discriminate between normal colon mucosa of patients with colon cancer and normal colon mucosa of individuals without cancer. Here, we report that CpG sites in 16 of the 30 candidate genes selected show significant differences in mean methylation level in normal colon mucosa of 24 patients with cancer and 24 controls. A support vector machine trained on these data and data for an additional 66 CpGs yielded an 18-gene signature, composed of ten of the validated candidate genes plus eight additional candidates. This model exhibited 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity in a 40-sample training set and classified all eight samples in the test set correctly. Moreover, we found a moderate-strong correlation (Pearson coefficients r = 0.253-0.722) between methylation levels in colon mucosa and methylation levels in peripheral blood for seven of the 18 genes in the support vector model. These seven genes, alone, classified 44 of the 48 patients in the validation set correctly and five CpGs selected from only two of the seven genes classified 41 of the 48 patients in the discovery set correctly. These results suggest that methylation biomarkers may be developed that will, at minimum, serve as useful objective and quantitative diagnostic complements to colonoscopy as a cancer-screening tool. These data also suggest that it may be possible to monitor biomarker methylation levels in tissues collected much less invasively than by colonoscopy. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Effect of ochratoxin A on the intestinal mucosa and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solcan, Carmen; Pavel, Geta; Floristean, Viorel Cezar; Chiriac, Ioan Sorin Beschea; Şlencu, Bogdan Gabriel; Solcan, Gheorghe

    2015-03-01

    The immunotoxic effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) on the intestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and its cytotoxic action on the intestinal epithelium were studied in broiler chickens experimentally treated with the toxin. From the 7th day of life, 80 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four groups of 20 birds each. The three experimental groups (E1-3) were treated with OTA for 28 days (E1: 50 μg/kg body weight [bw]/day; E2: 20 μg/kg bw/day; E3: 1 μg/kg bw/day) and the fourth group served as control. Histological examination of the intestinal mucosa and immunohistochemical staining for identification of CD4+, CD8+, TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocytes in the duodenum, jejunum and ileocaecal junction were performed, and CD4+/CD8+ and TCR1/TCR2 ratios were calculated. OTA toxicity resulted in decreased body weight gain, poorer feed conversion ratio, lower leukocyte and lymphocyte count, and altered intestinal mucosa architecture. After 14 days of exposure to OTA, immunohistochemistry showed a significant reduction of the lymphocyte population in the intestinal epithelium and the lamina propria. After 28 days of exposure, an increase in the CD4+ and CD8+ values in both the duodenum and jejunum of chickens in Groups E1 and E2 was observed, but the TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocyte counts showed a significant reduction. No significant changes were observed in Group E3. The results indicate that OTA induced a decrease in leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and was cytotoxic to the intestinal epithelium and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, altering the intestinal barrier and increasing susceptibility to various associated diseases.

  2. Management of anterior urethral strictures with buccal mucosa: Our ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdelwahab Elkassaby

    2016-03-02

    Mar 2, 2016 ... face of the cheeks from the line of contact of the opposing lips anteriorly to the line of ... as catheterization and endoscopic procedures, but it decreases with ... But with detailed history, most of these patients are found to have tolerated ..... central tendon of the perineum, the bulbo-spongiosum muscle and.

  3. Antigen antibody interactions

    CERN Document Server

    DeLisi, Charles

    1976-01-01

    1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition­ 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...

  4. Premalignant and malignant oral lesions are associated with changes in the glycosylation pattern of carbohydrates related to ABH blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Clausen, H; Holmstrup, P

    1988-01-01

    of expression of these antigens in the benign lesions was similar to that of normal oral mucosa, i.e. expression of: N-acetyllactosamine on basal cells, H antigen on parabasal cells, and Lex and Ley on spinous cells. However, lesions with epithelial dysplasia showed H antigen on all spinous cells, and often......The distribution of carbohydrate structures related to the ABO(H) blood group antigen system was studied in biopsies from eight squamous cell carcinomas, and eight erythroplakias with epithelial dysplasia. Twenty oral lesions without histological evidence of malignancy (13 lichen planus lesions...... also on basal cells, with expression of Lex and Ley restricted to the most superficial part of the epithelium above the H-positive cell layers. In carcinomas most cells were negative for H antigen but were positive for Ley and Lex in 5 out of 8 cases....

  5. [Species and quantitative characteristics of pharyngeal mucosa microflora in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshcheriakova, A K; Kostinov, M P; Magarshak, O O; Zaĭtseva, E V

    2014-01-01

    Species and quantitative characteristics of upper respiratory tract (URT) mucosa microflora in women at gestation period. The results of a bacteriological study of 68 samples of mucus from posterior pharyngeal wall in women at gestation period (from 14 weeks), 52 of those--from pregnant women with acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms and 16--from women without signs of disease, are presented. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora was studied by a generally accepted bacteriological method. During primary bacteriological study 111 microorganism cultures were isolated. 88 (79.3%) of strains belonged to Gram-positive flora, 20 (18.0%)--to Gram-negative, and Candida genus fungi constituted 3 (2.7%) isolates. Streptococcus pyogenes and Moraxella catarrhalis were isolated from pregnant women with ARI signs at 23.1% and 5.8% frequency of occurrence, respectively. A higher detectability of Staphylococcus aureus--in 31.3% and Candida spp.--in 6.3% of women who did not complain as opposed to patients with URT lesions (in 21.2 and 3.9%, respectively) was determined. In patients without ARI signs the amount of bacteria did not exceed 10(5)--10(6) CFU/ml, in pregnant women with ARI diagnosis in 8 of 52 cases semination of pharyngeal mucuswas observed--10(7)--10(8) CFU/ml. Prevalence of S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans in composition of pharyngeal mucus microflora of pregnant women both with URT lesion signs and without them was shown, however the degree of semination by pathogens in the groups was different that determined the severity of disease manifestations.

  6. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurath, A.R.; Strick, N.; Baker, L.; Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid-phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bound adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure

  7. Seguimiento multidisciplinario en el control del penfigoide de membranas mucosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Jeremias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El término penfigoide de membranas mucosas designa un grupo de enfermedades vesículo-bulosas autoinmunes crónicas, que afectan predominantemente mucosas. El presente artículo describe dos casos clínicos de penfigoide de membranas mucosas con compromiso gingival y tuvo como objetivo resaltar la importancia de un correcto diagnóstico de la lesión y discutir la conducta terapéutica. Fueron realizados diversos exámenes complementares como, examen de Nikolsky, biopsia incisional, investigación de células LE y de anticuerpos antinucleares, además de la evaluación de médicos especializados en dermatología y oftalmología. Fue fundamental la substitución de dentífricos, la orientación nutricional y psicológica, el cuidado con la higiene, además del uso de corticoides tópicos. Hubo periodos de remisión y exacerbación del cuadro clínico durante el seguimiento, fue necesario el ajuste en la terapéutica y refuerzo en los cuidados con la higiene bucal. Es muy importante la interacción multidisciplinaria en la atención de estos casos para el control del tratamiento y seguimiento, además de reforzar todas las orientaciones y cuidados en lo que se refiere a la salud bucal y cautela en el uso de corticoides.

  8. Opposing roles for RhoH GTPase during T-cell migration and activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Christina M; Comrie, William A; Hyun, Young-Min

    2012-01-01

    T cells spend the majority of their time perusing lymphoid organs in search of cognate antigen presented by antigen presenting cells (APCs) and then quickly recirculate through the bloodstream to another lymph node. Therefore, regulation of a T-cell response is dependent upon the ability of cells...

  9. Multiple mucous retention cysts of the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    1984-12-01

    While mucoceles of the oral mucosa are relatively common, multiple mucous retention cysts have not previously been reported. In this article two such cases, in which numerous minor salivary gland ducts had dilated to the point of cyst formation, are described. The number of individual cysts exceeded 100 in each case. Since it is clear that these cysts formed as a result of dilatation of salivary ducts, it would seem that either the ducts were blocked by altered secretion or there was an acquired or congenital weakness in their structure.

  10. Extensive amalgam tattoo on the alveolar-gingival mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletta, Vivian C; Artico, Gabriela; Dal Vechio, Aluana M C; Lemos, Celso A; Migliari, Dante A

    2011-01-01

    Amalgam tattoos are common exogenous pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa occurring mainly by inadvertent placement of amalgam particles into soft tissues. The diagnosis of amalgam tattoo is simple, usually based on clinical findings associated with presence or history of amalgam fillings removal. Intraoral X-rays may be helpful in detecting amalgam-related radiopacity. In cases where amalgam tattoo cannot be differentiated from other causes of oral pigmentation, a biopsy should be performed. This article deals with an extensive amalgam tattoo lesion which required a biopsy for a definitive diagnosis.

  11. Distribution of some elements in human colon mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drashkovich, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of Co, Zn, Fe, Cr and Sb were determined in human colon mucosa as a function of pathalogical alterations during development of colitis Chronica, Colitis Ulcerosa, Adenoma Tubulare and Adenocarcinoma. The sample (0.00023-0.00087 kg in weight) from 80 patients were taken during rectosigmoidoscopy by teflon coated forceps and were deep frozen (T=244 deg. K) and liophilysed. A thermal neutron fluxes 0.54-1.85x10 17 n/m 2 .s for 3 days and 4096-channel analyser with a Ge(Li) detector

  12. Investigation of phosphatidylcholine enhancing FITC-insulin across buccal mucosa by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Weiqun; Su, Li; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Gao, Qiuhua; Xu, Huibi

    2002-04-01

    The aim was to characterize the transport of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran and insulin with different resoluble compounds for peptides and proteins through buccal mucosa. The penetration rate of insulin molecules through porcine buccal mucosa (a nonkeratinized epithelium, comparable to human buccal mucosa) was investigated by measuring transbuccal fluxes and by analyzing the distribution of the fluorescent probe in the rabbit buccal mucosa epithelium, using confocal laser scanning microscopy for visualizing permeation pathways. The confocal images of the distribution pattern of FITC-dextran and FITC-insulin showed that the paracellular route is the major pathway of FITC-dextran through buccal mucosa epithelium, the intra-cellular route is the major pathway of FITC-insulin through buccal mucosa epithelium. The permeation rate can be increased by co-administration of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC).

  13. Relation between radiotherapy-induced acute injury of mucosa of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and p53 polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changsheng; Xiao Shaowen; Zhang Shanwen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relation between p53 genetic polymorphisms and radiotherapy-induced acute injury of mucosa of oral cavity mucosa. Methods: The total of 56 patients with NPC treated by radiotherapy alone or with chemoradiotherapy synchronically were genotyped for the p53 codon 72 pro-Arg SNP using PCR-RFLP assays, and were ranked according to the acute injury of oral cavity mucosa. Results: There was no difference in acute injury of oral cavity mucosa between the p53 Pro allele carriers and the other carriers (P>0.05); the high single dose (P<0.01) and concomitant chemoradiotherapy (P<0.05) resulted in increase in acute injury of oral cavity mucosa. Conclusion: Those results suggest that p53 SNP may not associate with radiotherapeutic acute injury of oral cavity mucosa. (authors)

  14. A mucosa-mimetic material for the mucoadhesion testing of thermogelling semi-solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jéssica Bassi; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V; Bruschi, Marcos L; Cook, Michael T

    2017-08-07

    Mucosa-mimetic materials are synthetic substrates which aim to replace animal tissue in mucoadhesion experiments. One potential mucosa-mimetic material is a hydrogel comprised of N-acryloyl-d-glucosamine and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, which has been investigated as a surrogate for animal mucosae in the mucoadhesion testing of tablets and solution formulations. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of this mucosa-mimetic material in the testing of thermogelling semi-solid formulations, which transition from solution to gel upon warming. Two methods for assessing mucoadhesion have been used; tensile testing and a flow-through system, which allow for investigation under dramatically different conditions. It was found that the mucosa-mimetic material was a good surrogate for buccal mucosa using both testing methods. This material may be used to replace animal tissue in these experiments, potentially reducing the number of laboratory animals used in studies of this type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. COLONOSCOPY AND CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G SOUSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  16. Phase II Clinical Trial of Intraoral Grafting of Human Tissue Engineered Oral Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    treatment, EVPOME (Group 1), or standard of care, the palatal oral mucosa (POM) graft (Group 2). The study population will include non- smoking adults...nor prevents microbial infection, fluid loss, and foreign material contamination and relapse secondary to wound contracture. Oral mucosa is in... smoking subjects (ages 18 and older) in need of additional keratinized oral mucosa and provided recruitment materials to local dentists. This resulted

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa: An analysis of prognostic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Bobdey; Jignasa Sathwara; Aanchal Jain; Sushma Saoba; Ganesh Balasubramaniam

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Carcinoma of the buccal mucosa is the most common oral cavity cancer in the Indian subcontinent. The aim of this study was to analyze the outcome and evaluate prognostic factors in surgically treated buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma (BMSCC) patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed by reviewing the medical records of 409 pathologically proven buccal mucosa cancer patients, who were diagnosed and surgically treated in Tata Memorial Hospital between...

  18. Antigen-presenting cells represent targets for R5 HIV-1 infection in the first trimester pregnancy uterine mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Marlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the first trimester of pregnancy, HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission is relatively rare despite the permissivity of placental cells to cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection. The placenta interacts directly with maternal uterine cells (decidual cells but the physiological role of the decidua in the control of HIV-1 transmission and whether decidua could be a source of infected cells is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To answer to this question, decidual mononuclear cells were exposed to HIV-1 in vitro. Decidual cells were shown to be more susceptible to infection by an R5 HIV-1, as compared to an X4 HIV-1. Infected cells were identified by flow cytometry analysis. The results showed that CD14(+ cells were the main targets of HIV-1 infection in the decidua. These infected CD14(+ cells expressed DC-SIGN, CD11b, CD11c, the Fc gamma receptor CD16, CD32 and CD64, classical MHC class-I and class-II and maturation and activation molecules CD83, CD80 and CD86. The permissivity of decidual tissue was also evaluated by histoculture. Decidual tissue was not infected by X4 HIV-1 but was permissive to R5 HIV-1. Different profiles of infection were observed depending on tissue localization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of HIV-1 target cells in the decidua in vitro and the low rate of in utero mother-to-child transmission during the first trimester of pregnancy suggest that a natural control occurs in vivo limiting cell-to-cell infection of the placenta and consequently infection of the fetus.

  19. A Dialogic Vaccine to Bridge Opposing Cultural Viewpoints Based on Bakhtin's Views on Dialogue and Estrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Today, we face global conflicts between opposing ideologies that may be described in terms of cultural viewpoints and value judgments. It is difficult for individuals to determine whether ideologies are right or wrong because each ideology has its own worldview and sense of justice. Psychologists have an urgent mission to defuse the likelihood of fatal clashes between opposing cultural perspectives (ideologies), and to propose paradigms for peaceful coexistence. This paper examines the series of papers (Oh, Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 51, 2017; Sakakibara, Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 51, 2017; Watanabe, Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 51, 2017) contributed to this volume that investigate the effects of high school and university educational programs promoting productive dialogue aimed at bridging, or transcending, conflicting perspectives among Japanese, Chinese, and Korean students. Here, I have evaluated the capacity of these educational programs to coordinate opposing cultural ideologies using the framework of Bakhtin's theories of dialogue and estrangement. Bakhtin viewed discourse with others who had opposing viewpoints as an opportunity to learn to overcome the one-sidedness of ideology, which ensues from automatic value judgments made by each speaker according to their culture, and he affirmed the value of flexible attitudes toward opposing viewpoints. In this paper, I review Bakhtin's theories relating to communication in a context of different cultural viewpoints, assess the general values of the educational practices mentioned above, and propose new concepts for applying these methods to other educational fields in the future using Bakhtin's theoretical viewpoints.

  20. Tomographic mapping of the hard palate and overlying mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquezan, Mariana; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Freitas, Amanda Osorio Ayres de; Baratieri, Carolina; Alves Junior, Matheus; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Goncalves; Araujo, Monica Tirre de Souza, E-mail: marianamarquezan@gmail.com [Department of Pedodontics and Orthodontics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    The aim of this study was to measure the thickness of the hard palate and its overlying mucosa using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), for purposes of miniscrew placement. The sample comprised 36 CBCT scans of patients aged 12 to 52 years from a database of the Orthodontics Department of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Paracoronal views of the palatal region were reconstructed at 4, 8, 16 and 24 mm posterior to the incisive foramen. In each reconstruction measurements were taken at the suture, 3 mm and 6 mm bilaterally to it. Wilcoxon's test verified the differences between the selected regions. Total bone height decreased from the anterior to the posterior region. In cross sections 4, 16 and 24, bone height decreased from the suture laterally to the 3 mm region and then increased in the 6 mm region. The cortical thickness does not seem to be a concern because it presented a mean thickness of at least 1 mm at all sites evaluated. The measurements of the mucosa thickness decreased from lateral to median and from anterior to posterior regions. The most suitable areas for miniscrew placement in the palate are located 4 mm posterior to the incisive foramen, in the median or paramedian regions 3 mm adjacent to the suture. (author)

  1. Heterotopic gastric mucosa involving the gallbladder and biliary tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, Carmen; Berrocal, Teresa; Gorospe, Luis; Prieto, Consuelo [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Hospital Infantil ' ' La Paz' ' , Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); Gamez, Manuel [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Hospital Infantil ' ' La Paz' ' , Madrid (Spain)

    2003-02-01

    A case of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the common bile duct, cystic duct and gallbladder is reported in a 3-year-old girl with abdominal pain and jaundice. Abdominal US and CT showed dilatation of the biliary tree and a well-defined mass in the common bile duct that narrowed its lumen. The gallbladder was contracted in both examinations. The common bile duct and the gallbladder were resected and a choledochojejunostomy was performed. Although gastric heterotopy has been described throughout the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract, it is a very uncommon finding in the gallbladder and extremely rare in the biliary tree. A firm diagnosis of gastric heterotopia is based on the presence of fundal mucosa replete with parietal and chief cells. To our knowledge, this is the fifth reported case of heterotopic gastric tissue within the common bile duct, and the first to describe the US and CT findings. A relevant literature review and brief outline of the histological and radiological features are included in the discussion. (orig.)

  2. Heterotopic gastric mucosa involving the gallbladder and biliary tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, Carmen; Berrocal, Teresa; Gorospe, Luis; Prieto, Consuelo; Gamez, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    A case of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the common bile duct, cystic duct and gallbladder is reported in a 3-year-old girl with abdominal pain and jaundice. Abdominal US and CT showed dilatation of the biliary tree and a well-defined mass in the common bile duct that narrowed its lumen. The gallbladder was contracted in both examinations. The common bile duct and the gallbladder were resected and a choledochojejunostomy was performed. Although gastric heterotopy has been described throughout the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract, it is a very uncommon finding in the gallbladder and extremely rare in the biliary tree. A firm diagnosis of gastric heterotopia is based on the presence of fundal mucosa replete with parietal and chief cells. To our knowledge, this is the fifth reported case of heterotopic gastric tissue within the common bile duct, and the first to describe the US and CT findings. A relevant literature review and brief outline of the histological and radiological features are included in the discussion. (orig.)

  3. Morphological evaluation of tongue mucosa in burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardella, Andrea; Gualerzi, Alice; Lodi, Giovanni; Sforza, Chiarella; Carrassi, Antonio; Donetti, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a morphological evaluation by immunofluorescence of biomarkers of keratinocyte intercellular adhesion, and of differentiation in the tongue mucosa of burning mouth syndrome patients (BMS), compared with a control group. A prospective blinded evaluation of tongue mucosal specimens processed for light microscopy was performed. Intercellular adhesion was evaluated by investigating the expression of desmoglein 1, desmoglein 3, and of occludin. Keratin 10 and keratin 14 (markers of epithelial differentiation) were also evaluated, as keratin 16 (marker for activated keratinocytes after epithelial injury). Apoptotic cascade was investigated by p53 and activated caspase-3 expression. The basal membrane integrity was analysed through laminin immunoreactivity. In both groups, a preserved three-dimensional architecture of the tongue was observed. Desmoglein 1 and desmoglein 3 epithelial distributions were similar in the desmosomes of patients and control subjects. Again, keratin 10 immunoreactivity and distribution pattern of keratin 14 in the epithelial compartment was similar in both groups. In control samples, keratin 16 immunoreactivity was scant throughout the epithelium with a punctuate and scattered cytoplasmic labelling. In contrast, in all BMS patients keratinocyte cytoplasm was homogeneously labelled for keratin 16, with a more intense staining than controls. Furthermore, keratin 16 staining progressively decreased proceeding towards the most superficial epithelial layers. The results of this study are consistent with and support the clinically normal features of oral mucosa in BMS, and suggest that keratin 16 may be involved in the cell mechanisms underlying the syndrome occurrence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tomographic mapping of the hard palate and overlying mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquezan, Mariana; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Freitas, Amanda Osorio Ayres de; Baratieri, Carolina; Alves Junior, Matheus; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Goncalves; Araujo, Monica Tirre de Souza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the thickness of the hard palate and its overlying mucosa using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), for purposes of miniscrew placement. The sample comprised 36 CBCT scans of patients aged 12 to 52 years from a database of the Orthodontics Department of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Paracoronal views of the palatal region were reconstructed at 4, 8, 16 and 24 mm posterior to the incisive foramen. In each reconstruction measurements were taken at the suture, 3 mm and 6 mm bilaterally to it. Wilcoxon's test verified the differences between the selected regions. Total bone height decreased from the anterior to the posterior region. In cross sections 4, 16 and 24, bone height decreased from the suture laterally to the 3 mm region and then increased in the 6 mm region. The cortical thickness does not seem to be a concern because it presented a mean thickness of at least 1 mm at all sites evaluated. The measurements of the mucosa thickness decreased from lateral to median and from anterior to posterior regions. The most suitable areas for miniscrew placement in the palate are located 4 mm posterior to the incisive foramen, in the median or paramedian regions 3 mm adjacent to the suture. (author)

  5. Canine oral mucosa evaluation as a potential autograft tissue for the treatment of unresponsive keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Rose L; Smith, Jodi D; Ben-Shlomo, Gil

    2018-01-01

    Labial mucosa transplantation for the treatment of canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) has been reported recently. Postoperative alleviation of clinical signs was noted and assumed to be the result of labial salivary glands providing lubrication to the ocular tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of minor salivary glands (MSG) in the canine oral mucosa. Oral mucosal biopsies were collected from six dogs that died (n = 1) or were euthanized (n = 5) for reasons unrelated to this study. The breeds included were two Doberman Pinschers, one Labrador Retriever, one Portuguese Water Dog, one German Shepherd Dog, and one mixed canine. Three were spayed females, and three were castrated males with the median age of 9 years (range, 6-13 years). Samples were obtained by an 8-mm punch biopsy at the following locations of the canine oral cavity: upper rostral labial mucosa at midline, lower rostral labial mucosa at midline, upper labial mucosa near the commissure, lower labial mucosa near the commissure, and buccal mucosa approximately 1 cm caudal to the commissure. Samples were routinely processed with hematoxylin and eosin, and periodic acid-Schiff stains. Samples were evaluated by light microscopy. At the selected locations, no MSG or other secreting cells were detected. Minor salivary glands are not associated with alleviation of canine KCS symptoms following labial mucosa transplantation. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism leading to the transient improvement of KCS symptoms in canine patients following labial mucosa transplantation. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Antigen-Specific Th17 Cells Are Primed by Distinct and Complementary Dendritic Cell Subsets in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Trautwein-Weidner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. can cause severe and chronic mucocutaneous and systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. Protection from mucocutaneous candidiasis depends on T helper cells, in particular those secreting IL-17. The events regulating T cell activation and differentiation toward effector fates in response to fungal invasion in different tissues are poorly understood. Here we generated a Candida-specific TCR transgenic mouse reactive to a novel endogenous antigen that is conserved in multiple distant species of Candida, including the clinically highly relevant C. albicans and C. glabrata. Using TCR transgenic T cells in combination with an experimental model of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC we investigated antigen presentation and Th17 priming by different subsets of dendritic cells (DCs present in the infected oral mucosa. Candida-derived endogenous antigen accesses the draining lymph nodes and is directly presented by migratory DCs. Tissue-resident Flt3L-dependent DCs and CCR2-dependent monocyte-derived DCs collaborate in antigen presentation and T cell priming during OPC. In contrast, Langerhans cells, which are also present in the oral mucosa and have been shown to prime Th17 cells in the skin, are not required for induction of the Candida-specific T cell response upon oral challenge. This highlights the functional compartmentalization of specific DC subsets in different tissues. These data provide important new insights to our understanding of tissue-specific antifungal immunity.

  7. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  8. A new method of thermal protection by opposing jet for a hypersonic aeroheating strut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiang; Ning, Dongpo; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Junlong; Feng, Shuo; Bao, Wen

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the numerical investigation of thermal protection of scramjet strut by opposing jet in supersonic stream of Mach number 6 with a hydrogen fueled scramjet strut model using CFD software. Simulation results indicate that when a small amount of fuel is injected from the nose of the strut, the bow shock is pushed away from the strut, and the heat flux is reduced in the strut, especially at the leading edge. Opposing jet forms a recirculation region near the nozzle so that the strut is covered with low temperature fuel and separated from free stream. An appropriate total pressure ratio can be used to reduce not only aerodynamic heating but also the drag of strut. It is therefore concluded that thermal protection of scramjet strut by opposing jet is one of the promising ways to protect scramjet strut in high enthalpy stream.

  9. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  10. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  11. Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and Helicobacter pylori infection: A Colombian perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sally Yepes; Maria Mercedes Torres; Carlos Saavedra; Rafael Andrade

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess the significance of chromosome translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21),B-cell lymphoma 10 (BCL-10)protein and Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in Colombia.METHODS:Fifty cases of gastric MALT lymphoma and their respective post-treatment follow-up biopsies were examined to assess the presence of the translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) as identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization; to detect protein expression patterns of BCL10 using immunohistochemistry; and for evaluation of tumor histology to determine the correlation of these factors and resistance to H.pylori eradication.RESULTS:Infection with H.pylori was confirmed in all cases of gastric MALT lymphoma in association with chronic gastritis.Bacterial eradication led to tumor regression in 66% of cases.The translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) was not present in any of these cases,nor was there evidence of tumor transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.Thirty-four percent of the patients showed resistance to tumor regression,and within this group,7 cases,representing 14% of all those analyzed,were considered to be t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive gastric MALT lymphomas.Protein expression of BCL10 in the nucleus was associated with the presence of translocation and treatment resistance.Cases that were considered unresponsive to therapy were histologically characterized by the presence of homogeneous tumor cells and a lack of plasmacytic differentiation.Responder cases exhibited higher cellular heterogeneity and a greater frequency of plasma cells.CONCLUSION:Both t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive MALT lymphoma cases and those with nuclear BCL10 expression are considered resistant to H,pylori eradication.It is suggested that chronic antigenic stimulation is not a dominant event in resistant cases.

  12. Anvendelse af prostataspecifikt antigen. En oversigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Skaarup, P; Roosen, Jens Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Since it was first introduced, measurement of prostate specific antigen has gained increasing interest, and prostate specific antigen is regarded as being the best tumour marker available. The antigen lacks cancer specificity, limiting the usefulness in early diagnosis, The use of prostate specific...... antigen in early diagnosis, staging, and in monitoring patients with prostate cancer is reviewed....

  13. Experimental model of traumatic ulcer in the cheek mucosa of rats Modelo experimental de úlcera traumática em mucosa jugal de ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Galyléia Meneses Cavalcante; Renata Janaína Sousa de Paula; Leonardo Peres de Souza; Fabrício Bitu Sousa; Mário Rogério Lima Mota; Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes Alves

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish an experimental model of traumatic ulcer in rat cheek mucosa for utilization in future alternative therapy studies. METHODS: A total of 60 adult male rats (250 - 300g) were used. Ulceration of the left cheek mucosa was provoked by abrasion using a nº 15 scalpel blade. The animals were observed for 10 days, during which they were weighed and their ulcers were measured. The histological characteristics were analyzed and scored according to the ulcer phase. In the statistic...

  14. In vitro culturing of porcine tracheal mucosa as an ideal model for investigating the influence of drugs on human respiratory mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Stennert, Eberhard; Siefer, Oliver; Zheng, Meihua; Walger, Martin; Mickenhagen, Axel

    2008-01-01

    It has been previously shown that fresh mucosa from different mammals could serve as raw material for in vitro culturing with the differentiation of cilia, which are the most important morphological structures for the function of the mucociliary system. Increasing legal restrictions on the removal of human tissue and changing surgical techniques have led to a lack of fresh human mucosa for culturing. Most of the animals that have been used as donors up to now are genetically not very close to...

  15. Synovial Sarcoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar T. S. Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma (SS is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises most commonly in joint capsules and articular tendons, but its relationship to the synovium is not always obvious. Synovial sarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor representing 5.6% to 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. They are termed SS because of their histologic resemblance to the synovium, but they rarely involve a synovial structure and are thought to arise from pluripotential mesenchymal cells. The tumor usually occurs in close association with tendon sheaths, bursae, and joint capsules, primarily in the para-articular regions of the extremities, with approximately 9% occurring in the head and neck region. Synovial sarcoma has been reported rarely in the oral cavity. We report a very rare case of Synovial sarcoma of the buccal mucosa in a 24-year-old male patient.

  16. Morphology of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in odontocetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda M O; Guimarães, Juliana P; Vergara-Parente, Jociery E; Carvalho, Vitor L; Carolina, Ana; Meirelles, O; Marmontel, Miriam; Oliveira, Bruno S S P; Santos, Silvanise M; Becegato, Estella Z; Evangelista, Janaina S A M; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in odontocetes from the Brazilian coast and freshwater systems. Seven species were evaluated and tissue samples were analyzed by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Laryngeal tonsil was a palpable oval mass located in the larynx, composed of a lymphoepithelial complex. Dense collections of lymphocytes were found in the skin of male fetus and calf. Clusters of lymphoid tissue were found in the uterine cervix of a reproductively active juvenile female and along the pulmonary artery of an adult female. Lymphoid tissues associated with the gastrointestinal tract were characterized by diffusely arranged or organized lymphocytes. The anal tonsil was composed of an aggregate of lymphoid tissue occurring exclusively in the anal canal, being composed of squamous epithelium branches. MALT was present in different tissues and organic systems of cetaceans, providing constant protection against mucosal pathogens present in their environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A dose-surviving fraction curve for mouse colonic mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, S.L.; Thames, H.D. Jr.; Withers, H.R.; Mason, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A dose-surviving fraction curve representing the response of the mouse colonic mucosa to single doses of 137 Cs gamma radiation was obtained from the results of a multifraction in vivo colony assay. Construction of the curve required an estimated of the average number of clonogens initially present per colonic crypt. The estimated clonogen count (88) was determined by a statistical method based on the use of doses per fraction common to different fractionation protocols. Parameters for the LQ and TC models of cell survival were obtained by weighted least-squares fits to the data. A comparison of the survival characteristics of cells from the mouse colonic and jejunal crypts suggested that the epithelium of the colon is less radiosensitive than that of the jejunum. (author)

  18. Langerhans cells and subsets of lymphocytes in the nasal mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellquist-Dahl, B; Olsen, K E; Irander, K

    1991-01-01

    Langerhans cells and different lymphocytes were studied in the nasal mucosa of 39 woodwork teachers and a control group of 14 healthy subjects. Ten of the woodwork teachers were sensitized as determined by skin prick test. A panel of different monoclonal antibodies was applied on the frozen nasal...... mucosal specimens. Intraepithelial CD1-positive dendritic cells were found in all specimens. However, there was no difference between the number of these Langerhans cells found in the study group and the number found in the controls. In every specimen the intraepithelial lymphocyte population...... was dominated by T lymphocytes, and there were relatively few B cells. Similarly the ratio between CD4- and CD8-positive lymphocytes in the study group and the controls was the same. In all specimens there was a dominance of T suppressor/cytotoxic cells compared with T helper/inducer cells. The study confirms...

  19. Merkel Cell Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa and Lower Lip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed N; Chehal, Hardeep; Smith, Molly Housley; Islam, Sarah; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel

    2018-06-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon relatively aggressive neuroendocrine dermal neoplasm first described in 1972 as a tumor of the sun exposed skin. Although most MCC affect the skin of the head and neck, rare primarily oral mucosal cases have been documented. Merkel cells are nondendritic neuroendocrine cells that are found not only in the skin but also the oral mucosa and give rise to MCC. Neuroendocrine cells may be found as aggregates in organs or as diffuse or isolated cells within organs and their epithelial lining. They contain peptide hormones and biogenic amines and occur in two forms: dendritic, which are not associated with nerve fibers and non-dendritic, which are associated with nerve fibers. Merkel cells as well as MCC express simple epithelium-type Cytokeratins (8, 18, 19, 20), neurosecretory substances; chromogranin A, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), adhesion molecules, and villin (intermediate filament). Though weakly, they also express neural markers such as S-100 protein. Cytokeratin 20, and Cluster of differentiation 56, are the two key diagnostic markers for Merkel cells and MCC. Etiology includes UV radiation, the recently described Merkel cell polyomavirus, and long term systemic immunosuppression. The cutaneous and mucosal variants of MCC are considered aggressive tumors with a high risk for local recurrence and metastasis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of head and neck mucosal lesions. We present two cases of primary Merkel cell carcinoma, one on the buccal mucosa and the other on the lower lip, and discuss the salient histologic, immunohistochemical and clinical features.

  20. Intestinal mucosa development in broiler chickens fed natural growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERL Pelicano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of probiotics and prebiotics on the histological and morphological indexes of the intestinal mucosa of broilers at 21 days of age. Thirty-six birds were randomly distributed in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, considering 3 probiotics and prebiotics sources in the diet. There were 9 treatments with 4 repetitions. Diet treatments were: 1 - Control (without growth promoters; 2 - Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic (Pro 1; 3 - Probiotic (Pool based on Lactobacillus acidophilus and casei, Streptococcus lactis and faecium, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Aspergillus oryzae (Pro 2; 4 - Prebiotic based on Phosphorylated Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS and Organic Acidifier (OA (Pre 1; 5 - MOS-based prebiotic (Pre 2; 6 - Pro 1 + Pre 1; 7 - Pro 1 + Pre 2; 8 - Pro 2 + Pre 1; 9 - Pro 2 + Pre 2. Higher villus height (VH (p<0.01 were seen in the duodenum of birds fed diets without prebiotics, whereas birds fed Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic and birds fed prebiotic based on MOS and OA showed higher VH (p<0.01 in jejunum and ileum. Greater crypt depths (CD (p<0.01 were observed in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of birds receiving B. subtilis, and in the duodenum and jejunum of birds fed diets without prebiotics. Significant interaction (p<0.01 between the evaluated factors was seen for both, VH and CD, in the three intestinal portions. Greater VH was obtained in duodenum, jejunum and ileum with the use of probiotics and prebiotics and greater CD with the use of probiotics, in relation to the control group. There was no difference in villus density (VD between birds fed diets without additives or diets containing probiotics and prebiotics. Nevertheless, there was a significant interaction (p<0.05 between the evaluated factors for VD in the duodenum. Concluding, beneficial effects were seen in histological indexes of the intestinal mucosa with the use of probiotics and prebiotics at 21 days of age.

  1. A novel method for delineation of oral mucosa for radiotherapy dose–response studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, Jamie A.; Welsh, Liam C.; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    There is currently no standard method for delineating the oral mucosa and most attempts are oversimplified. A new method to obtain anatomically accurate contours of the oral mucosa surfaces was developed and applied to 11 patients. This is expected to represent an opportunity for improved toxicity modelling of oral mucositis

  2. A novel mechanism for NETosis provides antimicrobial defense at the oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Tirthankar; Sjögren, Jonathan; Kahn, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils are essential for host defense at the oral mucosa and neutropenia or functional neutrophil defects lead to disordered oral homeostasis. We found that neutrophils from the oral mucosa harvested from morning saliva had released neutrophil extracellular traps (undergone NETosis) in vivo...

  3. Effect of soybean-lecithin as an enhancer of buccal mucosa absorption of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Weiqun; Hu, Qiaolin; Xu, Ying; Xu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Transmucosal delivery is a suitable route for insulin non-injection administration. In order to understand how insulin passes through mucosa with soybean-lecithin as an enhancing absorption. The penetration rate of insulin molecular through porcine buccal mucosa was investigated by measuring transbuccal fluxes in the Ussing Chambers. The imaging morphology of rabbits buccal mucosa was analyzed by using non-contact mode atomic force microscopy. The permeation rate can be increased by co-administration of soybean-lecithin. Untreated buccal mucosa showed relatively smooth surface characteristics, with many small crater-like pits and indentations spread over mucosa surfaces. Buccal mucosa that had been treated with 1.0% (w/v) sodium deoxycholic acid (pH 7.4) appeared to much more indentations characteristic, which treated with 2.5% (w/v) soybean-lecithin (pH 7.4) and 2.5% (w/v) Azone or laurocapram (pH 7.4) appeared rather different, the surface mucosa treated with soybean-lecithin emulsion showed a fine, rippling effect whereas those exposed to Azone display a more coarse, undulating surface feature. As a result of that Azone could damage the surface of the buccal mucosa, but soybean-lecithin could not. This study demonstrated that soybean-lecithin is a better and safer enhancer for insulin transmucosal delivery.

  4. Acute mucositis in the stimulated oral mucosa of patients during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciejewski, B.; Zajusz, A.; Pilecki, B.; Swiatnicka, J.; Skladowski, K.; Trott, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    In 16 patients treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity or oropharynx with an accelerated split course regimen, acute mucosal reactions were significantly less in the left buccal mucosa which had been repeatedly painted with 2% silver-nitrate solution for several days before radiotherapy than in the unpainted right buccal mucosa. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Ex Vivo Correlation of the Permeability of Metoprolol Across Human and Porcine Buccal Mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Marxen, Eva; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2014-01-01

    .0. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin and Alcian blue-van Gieson were used as tissue stains to evaluate the histology and the presence of acidic polysaccharides (e.g., mucins), respectively. The permeability of metoprolol was decreased in human buccal mucosa by almost twofold when compared with porcine buccal mucosa...

  6. Inicial nasal mucosa detachment using piezoelectric device in the Le Fort I osteotomy: A technical note

    OpenAIRE

    Shinohara, Elio Hitoshi; Kaba, Shajadi Carlos Pardo; Ruiz, Marcelo Martinson; Horikawa, Fernando Kendi

    2013-01-01

    In maxillary Le Fort I type osteotomy the detachment of the nasal mucosa should be done carefully. Piezoelectric surgery contributed much to increase the safety of osteotomies, despite the initial advantage of minimizing the risk of injury in nervous tissue, mainly in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy; we use the piezoelectric device for the initial detachment of the nasal mucosa in the maxillary osteotomy.

  7. [The current situation of occupational protection against skin/mucosa contamination among obstetrician and gynecologist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujuan; Li, Peng; Wang, Jianmei; Huo, Yan; Yang, Jing

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the occurrence and protection of skin/mucosa contamination among obstetrician and gynecologist. By random, stratified, and clustered sampling, 219 obstetrician and gynecologist were selected. 210 valid questionnaires were collected, efficiency is 95.89%. 110 obstetrician and gynecologist come from tertiary hospitals, 100 come from secondary hospitals. A self-administered questionnaire on skin/mucosa contamination was employed to gauge the implementation of protection, types and working links of skin/mucosa contamination. Of the respondents, only 14.76% (31/210) and 5.24% (11/210) adhered to proper hand washing and wearing protective glasses within nearly 1 year in practical work. Of the respondents, 73.81% (155/210) had experienced the skin/mucosa contamination during their vocation, 50.95% (107/210) occurred sharps injuries, 45.71% (96/210) occurred damaged skin contamination, and 43.33% (91/210) occurred mucosa contamination. Sharps injuries mainly occurred when abdominal operation (45.71%, 96/120), damaged skin contamination mainly occurred when gynecological examination (21.43%, 45/210), and mucosa contamination mainly occurred when midwifery (37.14%, 78/210). The implementation of protective measures is inadequate and incidence of skin/mucosa contamination is higher among obstetrician and gynecologist. Therefore, occupational protection education should focus on different types and working links of skin/mucosa contamination. At the same time, strict supervision and management system should be established.

  8. Histopathologic study of human vocal fold mucosa unphonated over a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kiminori; Umeno, Hirohito; Ono, Takeharu; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2011-12-01

    Mechanotransduction caused by vocal fold vibration could possibly be an important factor in the maintenance of extracellular matrices and layered structure of the human adult vocal fold mucosa as a vibrating tissue after the layered structure has been completed. Vocal fold stellate cells (VFSCs) in the human maculae flavae of the vocal fold mucosa are inferred to be involved in the metabolism of extracellular matrices of the vocal fold mucosa. Maculae flavae are also considered to be an important structure in the growth and development of the human vocal fold mucosa. Tension caused by phonation (vocal fold vibration) is hypothesized to stimulate the VFSCs to accelerate production of extracellular matrices. A human adult vocal fold mucosa unphonated over a decade was investigated histopathologically. Vocal fold mucosa unphonated for 11 years and 2 months of a 64-year-old male with cerebral hemorrhage was investigated by light and electron microscopy. The vocal fold mucosae (including maculae flavae) were atrophic. The vocal fold mucosa did not have a vocal ligament, Reinke's space or a layered structure. The lamina propria appeared as a uniform structure. Morphologically, the VFSCs synthesized fewer extracellular matrices, such as fibrous protein and glycosaminoglycan. Consequently, VFSCs appeared to decrease their level of activity.

  9. Mutually opposing forces during locomotion can eliminate the tradeoff between maneuverability and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Noah; Sefati, Shahin; Neveln, Izaak; Roth, Eatai; Mitchell, Terence; Snyder, James; Maciver, Malcolm; Fortune, Eric

    A surprising feature of animal locomotion is that organisms typically produce substantial forces in directions other than what is necessary to move the animal through its environment, such as perpendicular to, or counter to, the direction of travel. The effect of these forces has been difficult to observe because they are often mutually opposing and therefore cancel out. Using a combination of robotic physical modeling, computational modeling, and biological experiments, we discovered that these forces serve an important role: to simplify and enhance the control of locomotion. Specifically, we examined a well-suited model system, the glass knifefish Eigenmannia virescens, which produces mutually opposing forces during a hovering behavior. By systematically varying the locomotor parameters of our biomimetic robot, and measuring the resulting forces and kinematics, we demonstrated that the production and differential control of mutually opposing forces is a strategy that generates passive stabilization while simultaneously enhancing maneuverability. Mutually opposing forces during locomotion are widespread across animal taxa, and these results indicate that such forces can eliminate the tradeoff between stability and maneuverability, thereby simplifying robotic and neural control.

  10. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION IN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION FLAMES OF ETHANE. (R825412)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThe effect of fuel-side carbon density on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in atmospheric pressure, opposed flow, ethane diffusion flames has been studied using heated micro-probe sampling and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (...

  11. MRI of bone marrow: opposed-phase gradient-echo sequences with long repetition time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiderer, M.; Staebler, A.; Wagner, H.

    1999-01-01

    Signal intensity for opposed-phase gradient-echo (GE) sequences of tissues composed of fat- and water-equivalent cells such as red bone marrow is extremely sensitive to variation of the ratio of both cell populations (fat-to-water ratio Q F/W ). Because most bone marrow pathology results in variation of Q F/W , GE sequences are characterized by high-contrast imaging of pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of TR, TE, FA, Q F/W and histology on signal intensity. Signal intensity of opposed-phase GE sequences as a function of TR, TE, FA, and Q F/W was measured for a fat-water phantom and cadaver specimens of normal bone marrow (red and yellow) and pathological bone marrow (tumors). All specimens were correlated to histology. Opposed-phase GE imaging of red bone marrow pathology results in low-signal-intensity imaging of intact red bone marrow and high-signal-intensity positive contrast imaging of pathology associated with a change in Q F/W . In first-order approximation the signal intensity of pathology is linearly correlated to the change in Q F/W . Opposed-phase GE imaging is a sensitive imaging technique for red bone marrow pathology. Relative contrast of red bone marrow pathology is similar to fat-suppressed imaging techniques. Acquisition time is identical to T1-weighted SE sequences. (orig.)

  12. Attitudes toward hydraulic fracturing: The opposing forces of political conservatism and basic knowledge about fracking

    OpenAIRE

    Choma, BL; Hanoch, Y; Currie, S

    2016-01-01

    publisher: Elsevier articletitle: Attitudes toward hydraulic fracturing: The opposing forces of political conservatism and basic knowledge about fracking journaltitle: Global Environmental Change articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.03.004 content_type: article copyright: © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Targeted Delivery of GP5 Antigen of PRRSV to M Cells Enhances the Antigen-Specific Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luping Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient delivery of antigens through oral immunization is a first and critical step for successful induction of mucosal immunity, which can provide protection against pathogens invading the mucosa. Membranous/microfold cells (M cells within the mucosa can transcytose internalized antigen without degradation and thus play an important role in initiating antigen-specific mucosal immune responses through inducing secretory IgA production. In this research, we modified poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanoparticles (NPs with Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1 and successfully prepared an oral vaccine delivery system, UEA-1/PLGA NPs. PLGA NPs were prepared using a standard double emulsion solvent evaporation technique, which can protect the entrapped PRRSV DNA vaccine [pcDNA3.1-SynORF5 (synthetic ORF5] or subunit vaccine ORF5-encoded glycoprotein (GP5 from exposure to the gastrointestinal (GI tract and release the plasmids in a controlled manner. With UEA-1 modification, the UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be effectively transported by M-cells. We investigated immune response induced by UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5 or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 following inoculation in mice and piglets. Compared with PLGA-SynORF5 or PLGA-GP5 NPs, UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5, or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 NPs stimulated significantly increased serum IgG levels and augmented intestinal IgA levels in mice and piglets (P < 0.05. Our findings indicate UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be applied as a promising and universally robust oral vaccine delivery system.

  14. Targeted Delivery of GP5 Antigen of PRRSV to M Cells Enhances the Antigen-Specific Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Luping; Yu, Zhengyu; Pang, Fengjiao; Xu, Xiangwei; Mao, Aihua; Yuan, Wanzhe; He, Kongwang; Li, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Efficient delivery of antigens through oral immunization is a first and critical step for successful induction of mucosal immunity, which can provide protection against pathogens invading the mucosa. Membranous/microfold cells (M cells) within the mucosa can transcytose internalized antigen without degradation and thus play an important role in initiating antigen-specific mucosal immune responses through inducing secretory IgA production. In this research, we modified poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1) and successfully prepared an oral vaccine delivery system, UEA-1/PLGA NPs. PLGA NPs were prepared using a standard double emulsion solvent evaporation technique, which can protect the entrapped PRRSV DNA vaccine [pcDNA3.1-SynORF5 (synthetic ORF5)] or subunit vaccine ORF5-encoded glycoprotein (GP5) from exposure to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and release the plasmids in a controlled manner. With UEA-1 modification, the UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be effectively transported by M-cells. We investigated immune response induced by UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5 or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 following inoculation in mice and piglets. Compared with PLGA-SynORF5 or PLGA-GP5 NPs, UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5, or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 NPs stimulated significantly increased serum IgG levels and augmented intestinal IgA levels in mice and piglets (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be applied as a promising and universally robust oral vaccine delivery system. PMID:29423381

  15. Added value of antigen ELISA in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in resource poor settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gabriël

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in Taenia solium endemic areas, primarily situated in low-income countries. Diagnosis is largely based upon the "Del Brutto diagnostic criteria" using the definitive/probable/no NCC diagnosis approach. Neuroimaging and specific T. solium cysticercosis antibody detection results are at the mainstay of this diagnosis, while antigen detection in serum has never been included. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of antigen detection as a major diagnostic criterion, especially in areas where neuroimaging is absent. METHODS: The B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of circulating cysticercus antigen was carried out retrospectively on serum samples collected during a hospital-based study from 83 people with epilepsy (PWE in an endemic area. RESULTS: The addition of antigen results as a major criterion allowed the correct diagnosis of definitive NCC in 10 out of 17 patients as opposed to 0/17 without antigen results in the absence of neuroimaging. A sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 84% were determined for the diagnosis of active NCC using antigen ELISA. While the use of a higher cutoff improves the specificity of the test to 96%, it decreases its sensitivity to 83%. CONCLUSIONS: In areas where neuroimaging is absent, NCC diagnosis according to the existing criteria is problematic. Taking into account its limitations for diagnosis of inactive NCC, antigen detection can be of added value for diagnosing NCC in PWE by supporting diagnostic and treatment decisions. Therefore, we recommend a revision of the "Del Brutto diagnostic criteria" for use in resource poor areas and suggest the inclusion of serum antigen detection as a major criterion.

  16. Chemoselective ligation and antigen vectorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Masse, H

    2001-01-01

    The interest in cocktail-lipopeptide vaccines has now been confirmed by phase I clinical trials: highly diversified B-, T-helper or cytotoxic T-cell epitopes can be combined with a lipophilic vector for the induction of B- and T-cell responses of predetermined specificity. With the goal of producing an improved vaccine that should ideally induce a multispecific response in non-selected populations, increasing the diversity of the immunizing mixture represents one of the most obvious strategies.The selective delivery of antigens to professional antigen-presenting cells represents another promising approach for the improvement of vaccine efficacy. In this context, the mannose-receptor represents an attractive entry point for the targeting to dendritic cells of antigens linked to clustered glycosides or glycomimetics. In all cases, highly complex but fully characterized molecules must be produced. To develop a modular and flexible strategy which could be generally applicable to a large set of peptide antigens, we elected to explore the potentialities of chemoselective ligation methods. The hydrazone bond was found particularly reliable and fully compatible with sulphide ligation. Hydrazone/thioether orthogonal ligation systems could be developed to account for the nature of the antigens and the solubility of the vector systems. Copyright 2001 The International Association for Biologicals.

  17. In vitro culturing of porcine tracheal mucosa as an ideal model for investigating the influence of drugs on human respiratory mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stennert, Eberhard; Siefer, Oliver; Zheng, Meihua; Walger, Martin; Mickenhagen, Axel

    2008-09-01

    It has been previously shown that fresh mucosa from different mammals could serve as raw material for in vitro culturing with the differentiation of cilia, which are the most important morphological structures for the function of the mucociliary system. Increasing legal restrictions on the removal of human tissue and changing surgical techniques have led to a lack of fresh human mucosa for culturing. Most of the animals that have been used as donors up to now are genetically not very close to human beings and must all be sacrificed for such studies. We, therefore, established a modified system of culturing mucosa cells from the trachea of pigs, which is available as a regular by-product after slaughtering. With respect to the possibility of developing "beating" cilia, it could be shown that the speed of cell proliferation until adhesion to the coated culture dishes, the formation of conjunctions of cell clusters and the proliferation of cilia were comparable for porcine and human mucosa. Moreover, it could be demonstrated that the porcine cilia beat frequency of 7.57 +/- 1.39 Hz was comparable to the human mucosa cells beat frequency of 7.3 +/- 1.4 Hz and that this beat frequency was absolutely constant over the investigation time of 360 min. In order to prove whether the reaction to different drugs is comparable between the porcine and human cilia, we initially tested benzalkonium chloride, which is known to be toxic for human cells, followed by naphazoline, which we found in previous studies on human mucosa to be non-toxic. The results clearly showed that the functional and morphological reactions of the porcine ciliated cells to these substances were similar to the reaction we found in the in vitro cultured human mucosa.

  18. Comparative evaluation of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma with hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and EMR1 immunohistochemical staining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargahi, Neda; Razavi, Sayyed Mohammad; Deyhimi, Parviz; Homayouni, Solmaz

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant lesion of the oral cavity, and it involves various molecular mechanisms. The development of oral squamous cell carcinoma is influenced by the host immune cells, such as eosinophils. The present study was conducted to compare the presence of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa, and oral squamous cell carcinoma by -hematoxylin- eosin staining, Congo red staining, and epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) module containing a mucin-like hormone receptor1 (EMR1) immunohistochemical marker. In this cross-sectional study, 60 paraffinized samples were selected, consisting of 20 normal mucosae, 20 dysplastic mucosae, and 20 squamous cell carcinoma samples. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the mean number of eosinophils was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and immunohystochemical staining techniques. The data were analyzed by SPSS-10 software using the Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests. The results showed that the number of eosinophils in dysplastic mucosa was significantly higher than the number in normal mucosa, and the number of eosinophils in squamous cell carcinoma was significantly higher than the number in dysplastic mucosa in all staining techniques (p<0.001). Moreover, the comparison of staining techniques showed a significantly higher number of eosinophils in EMR1immunohistochemicalmarker than were observed when Congo red and hematoxylin - eosin (H&E) staining techniques were used (p<0.001). It can be argued that eosinophil contributes to the identification of lesions that have a higher potential of malignant transformation. Moreover, eosinophil can be suggested as an indicator in the differentiation of oral lesions in cases with borderline diagnosis and in targeted molecular therapy.

  19. Evidence that a glycolipid tail anchors antigen 117 to the plasma membrane of Dictyostelium discoideum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, H.; Da Silva, A.M.; Klein, C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe the biochemical features of the putative cell cohesion molecule antigen 117, indicating that it is anchored to the plasma membrane by a glycolipid tail. Antigen 117 can be radiolabeled with [ 3 H]myristate, [ 3 H]palmitate, and [ 14 C]ethanolamine. The fatty acid label is removed by periodate oxidation and nitrous acid deamination, indicating that the fatty acid is attached to the protein by a structure containing carbohydrate and an unsubstituted glucosamine. As cells develop aggregation competence, the antigen is released from the cell surface in a soluble form that can still be radiolabeled with [ 14 C]ethanolamine but not with [ 3 H]myristate of [ 3 H]-palmitate. The molecular weight of the released antigen is similar to that found in the plasma membrane, but it preferentially partitions in Triton X-114 as a hydrophilic, as opposed to a hydrophobic, protein. Plasma membranes contain the enzyme activity responsible for the release of the antigen in a soluble form

  20. Bovine alpha-lactalbumin stimulates mucus metabolism in gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Y; Shimokawa, Y; Toida, T; Matsui, H; Takase, M

    2007-02-01

    Bovine alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA), a major milk protein, exerts strong gastroprotective activity against rat experimental gastric ulcers induced by ethanol or stress. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this activity, the influence of alpha-LA on gastric mucus metabolism was investigated in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro study, RGM1 cells (a rat gastric epithelial cell line) were selected for observation of the direct activity of alpha-LA on gastric mucosal cells and cultured in the presence of either alpha-LA or ovalbumin (OVA), a reference protein showing no gastroprotective activity. Amounts of synthesized and secreted mucin, a major component of mucus, were determined using [3H]glucosamine as a tracer, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in the culture medium were determined by RIA. For the in vivo study, the thickness of the mucus gel layer, a protective barrier for gastric mucosa, was evaluated histochemically in rat gastric mucosa. alpha-Lactalbumin (3 mg/mL) significantly stimulated mucin synthesis and secretion in RGM1 cells and also increased PGE2 levels in the culture medium. In contrast, OVA showed no enhancing effects under identical conditions. Neither indomethacin, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, nor AH23848, a prostaglandin EP4 receptor antagonist, affected alpha-LA-induced enhancement of mucin synthesis and secretion. In vivo, oral administration of alpha-LA (300 mg/kg x 3 times/d x 7 d) increased the thickness of the mucus gel layer in rats. These results indicate that alpha-LA fortifies the mucus gel layer by stimulating mucin production and secretion in gastric mucus-producing cells, and that this enhancing effect is independent of endogenous PGE2. Comparison of the efficacy of alpha-LA with OVA suggests that the activities observed in RGM1 cells are closely related to the gastroprotective effects in rat gastric ulcer models. In conclusion, alpha-LA stimulates mucus metabolism, and this action may be responsible for its gastroprotective

  1. Antigen presentation and MHC class II expression by human esophageal epithelial cells: role in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Daniel J; Pooni, Aman; Mak, Nanette; Hurlbut, David J; Basta, Sameh; Justinich, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a crucial role in initiating immune responses. Under pathological conditions, epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces act as nonprofessional APCs, thereby regulating immune responses at the site of exposure. Epithelial cells in the esophagus may contribute to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) by presenting antigens on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. Our goal was to demonstrate the ability of esophageal epithelial cells to process and present antigens on the MHC class II system and to investigate the contribution of epithelial cell antigen presentation to EoE. Immunohistochemistry detected HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 expression and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detected interferon-γ (IFNγ) in esophageal biopsies. Antigen presentation was studied using the human esophageal epithelial cell line HET-1A by reverse transcriptase-PCR, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. T helper cell lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by flow cytometry and IL-2 secretion. IFNγ and MHC class II were increased in mucosa of patients with EoE. IFNγ increased mRNA of HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR, and CIITA in HET-1A cells. HET-1A engulfed cell debris and processed ovalbumin. HET-1A cells expressed HLA-DR after IFNγ treatment. HET-1A stimulated T helper cell activation. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of esophageal epithelial cells to act as nonprofessional APCs in the presence of IFNγ. Esophageal epithelial cell antigen presentation may contribute to the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Telomere shortening in the colonic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouchi, Y; Hiwatashi, N; Chida, M; Nagashima, F; Takagi, S; Maekawa, H; Toyota, T

    1998-06-01

    Telomere length in human somatic cells gradually decreases with the number of cell divisions and is regarded as a marker of somatic cell turnover. Mucosal cells of the affected colon show rapid turnover in individuals with active ulcerative colitis (UC). Telomere length was determined by Southern blot analysis of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) from the colonic mucosa of 17 patients with UC in remission, two of whom showed dysplasia, and 17 control subjects without colitis. For each individual, mean TRF length was compared between rectal mucosa and unaffected cecal mucosa. The mean TRF length of the rectal mucosa was significantly less than that of cecal mucosa in UC patients (7.87 +/- 0.36kb versus 8.77 +/- 0.21 kb; P = 0.0015, Wilcoxon signed rank test), whereas no significant difference was detected in the control subjects. The extent of telomere shortening was 10.6 +/- 3.35% in UC patients, compared with 0.8 +/- 0.64% in noncolitis controls (P = 0.0024, Mann-Whitney U-test). Four UC patients, two of whom had dysplasia, showed telomere shortening of more than 20% in the rectal mucosa. These observations suggest that telomere shortening in the colonic mucosa of individuals with UC may represent the history of mucosal inflammation during disease of long duration, and that it may contribute to aneuploidy in UC.

  3. Resection and Primary Closure of Edematous Glossoepiglottic Mucosa in a Dog Causing Laryngeal Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabbing, Kevin J; Seaman, Jeffrey A

    An approximately 22 mo old male neutered English bulldog was evaluated for acute onset of dyspnea with suspected brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS). Laryngoscopic exam revealed diffuse, severe edema and static displacement of redundant glossoepiglottic (GE) mucosa causing complete obstruction of the larynx and epiglottic entrapment. Static displacement of the GE mucosa was observed and determined to be the overriding component of dyspnea in this patient with BOAS. Resection and primary closure with two separate, simple continuous sutures of the GE mucosa were performed. Resection and primary closure of the GE mucosa resolved the acute onset of dyspnea in this patient. Surgical correction of the stenotic nares, elongated soft palate, and everted laryngeal saccules were performed under the same anesthetic procedure. Static displacement of the GE mucosa may occur in patients with BOAS. Surgical resection and closure of the GE mucosa resolved this patient's dyspnea and is recommended in airway obstruction. It remains to be determined if primary closure and subsequent tensioning or scar tissue of the GE mucosa results in further complications related to restricted epiglottic movement.

  4. Multiparametric flow cytometry in the diagnosis and characterization of low-grade pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaer, F S; Braylan, R C; Zander, D S; Iturraspe, J A; Almasri, N M

    1998-06-01

    Primary mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are rare neoplasms that seem to have a better prognosis than nodal lymphomas. Morphologic diagnosis of these lesions may be difficult because of features that overlap with those of benign lymphoid infiltrates. In this study, we assessed the contribution of multi-parametric flow cytometry in demonstrating clonality and further characterizing pulmonary MALT lymphomas. Based on a clinical or pathologic suspicion of MALT-lymphoma, 3 transbronchial biopsies, 4 fine needle aspirates, 1 core needle biopsy, and 13 wedge excisions of lung were submitted fresh (unfixed) to our laboratory for evaluation. Among the 13 cases diagnosed as MALT lymphomas, B-cell monoclonality was established by identifying expression of a single immunoglobulin light chain on CD20 or CD19-positive cells in 12 cases. One case lacked expression of both light chains on B-cells. Of 11 lymphoma cases in which CD5 and CD10 surface antigens were assessed, no cases expressed CD10, and 1 case demonstrated weak CD5 expression. Nine of 10 cases studied were diploid and 1 case was hyperdiploid. All of the lymphomas displayed low (< or = 3%) S-phase fractions consistent with low grade processes. In 10 patients with short follow-up, none died of their disease and the majority had no evidence of lymphoma dissemination. In seven of the remaining eight cases, B-cells were polyclonal consistent with reactive processes. In one morphologically reactive case, flow cytometric analysis was unsuccessful because of poor cell viability. The pulmonary MALT lymphomas in this study represent a group of B-cell tumors with distinctive morphologic, immunophenotypic, and cell kinetic characteristics. Multi-parametric flow cytometry is useful for confirming B-cell monoclonality and illustrating an antigenic profile compatible with this diagnosis. Flow cytometry can be particularly helpful when working with small biopsies and cytologic samples with limited diagnostic

  5. Opposing nodal and BMP signals regulate left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jyun Luo

    Full Text Available Nodal and BMP signals are important for establishing left-right (LR asymmetry in vertebrates. In sea urchins, Nodal signaling prevents the formation of the rudiment on the right side. However, the opposing pathway to Nodal signaling during LR axis establishment is not clear. Here, we revealed that BMP signaling is activated in the left coelomic pouch, specifically in the veg2 lineage, but not in the small micromeres. By perturbing BMP activities, we demonstrated that BMP signaling is required for activating the expression of the left-sided genes and the formation of the left-sided structures. On the other hand, Nodal signals on the right side inhibit BMP signaling and control LR asymmetric separation and apoptosis of the small micromeres. Our findings show that BMP signaling is the positive signal for left-sided development in sea urchins, suggesting that the opposing roles of Nodal and BMP signals in establishing LR asymmetry are conserved in deuterostomes.

  6. Repair of closely opposed cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers in UV-sensitive human diploid fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, L.H.; Reynolds, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    An enzyme-sensitive site assay has been used to examine the fate of closely opposed pyrimidine dimers in fibroblasts from individuals afflicted with various genetic disorders that confer increased cellular sensitivity to UV radiation. The disappearance of bifilar enzyme-sensitive sites was found to be normal in cells from individuals with Fanconi's anemia, Cockayne's syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita and the variant form of xeroderma pigmentosum. The rate of bifilar enzyme-sensitive site removal in XP cells assigned to complementation group C was reduced by an amount similar to that observed for the repair of isolated dimers. Our results indicate that the initiation of repair at closely opposed dimers is slow in XP-C cells but normal in all other cells examined. (Auth.)

  7. Five surgical maneuvers on nasal mucosa movement in cleft palate repair: A cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dennis C; Patel, Kamlesh B; Parikh, Rajiv P; Skolnick, Gary B; Woo, Albert S

    2016-06-01

    This biomechanical study aims to characterize the nasal mucosa during palatoplasty, thereby describing the soft tissue attachments at different zones and quantifying movement following their release. Palatal nasal mucosa was exposed and divided in the midline in 10 adult cadaver heads. Five consecutive maneuvers were performed: (1) elevation of nasal mucosa off the maxilla, (2) dissection of nasal mucosa from soft palate musculature, (3) separation of nasal mucosa from palatine aponeurosis, (4) release of mucosa at the pterygopalatine junction, and (5) mobilization of vomer flaps. The mucosal movements across the midline at the midpalate (MP) and posterior nasal spine (PNS) following each maneuver were measured. At the MP, maneuvers 1-4 cumulatively provided 3.8 mm (36.9%), 4.9 mm (47.6%), 6.1 mm (59.2%), and 10.3 mm, respectively. Vomer flap (10.5 mm) elevation led to mobility equivalent to that of maneuvers 1-4 (p = 0.72). At the PNS, cumulative measurements after maneuvers 1-4 were 1.3 mm (10%), 2.4 mm (18.6%), 5.7 mm (44.2%), and 12.9 mm. Here, vomer flaps (6.5 mm) provided less movement (p < 0.001). Maneuver 4 yielded the greatest amount of movement of the lateral nasal mucosa at both MP (4.2 mm, 40.8%) and PNS (7.2 mm, 55.8%). At the MP, complete release of the lateral nasal mucosa achieves as much movement as the vomer flap. At the hard-soft palate junction, the maneuvers progressively add to the movement of the lateral nasal mucosa. The most powerful step is release of attachments along the posterior aspect of the medial pterygoid. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Regeneration of Vocal Fold Mucosa Using Tissue-Engineered Structures with Oral Mucosal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, Mioko; Chitose, Shun-ichi; Sato, Kiminori; Sueyoshi, Shintaro; Kurita, Takashi; Umeno, Hirohito; Monden, Yu; Yamakawa, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Scarred vocal folds result in irregular vibrations during phonation due to stiffness of the vocal fold mucosa. To date, a completely satisfactory corrective procedure has yet to be achieved. We hypothesize that a potential treatment option for this disease is to replace scarred vocal folds with organotypic mucosa. The purpose of this study is to regenerate vocal fold mucosa using a tissue-engineered structure with autologous oral mucosal cells. Study Design Animal experiment using eight beagles (including three controls). Methods A 3 mm by 3 mm specimen of canine oral mucosa was surgically excised and divided into epithelial and subepithelial tissues. Epithelial cells and fibroblasts were isolated and cultured separately. The proliferated epithelial cells were co-cultured on oriented collagen gels containing the proliferated fibroblasts for an additional two weeks. The organotypic cultured tissues were transplanted to the mucosa-deficient vocal folds. Two months after transplantation, vocal fold vibrations and morphological characteristics were observed. Results A tissue-engineered vocal fold mucosa, consisting of stratified epithelium and lamina propria, was successfully fabricated to closely resemble the normal layered vocal fold mucosa. Laryngeal stroboscopy revealed regular but slightly small mucosal waves at the transplanted site. Immunohistochemically, stratified epithelium expressed cytokeratin, and the distributed cells in the lamina propria expressed vimentin. Elastic Van Gieson staining revealed a decreased number of elastic fibers in the lamina propria of the transplanted site. Conclusion The fabricated mucosa with autologous oral mucosal cells successfully restored the vocal fold mucosa. This reconstruction technique could offer substantial clinical advantages for treating intractable diseases such as scarring of the vocal folds. PMID:26730600

  9. The bacteriology of the small intestinal mucosa of free-living reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Sørmo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in close associaton with the intestinal mucosa are thought to protect the mucosa from pathogenic microorganisms. The pH of the small intestinal mucosa and the viable populations of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria associated with the proximal and distal jejunal mucosa, were measured in four free-living reindeer in winter. The anaerobic bacterial populations were characterized. The median pH of the mucosa of the duodenum was 6.6 (n=4 at point 0.2 m from the pyloric sphincter. The mucosal pH increased along the length of the intestine to 8.3 at 14 m and then decreased to 7.9 at 19.8 m from the pyloric sphincter. Examination by transmission electron microscopy and cultivation techniques failed to reveal any bacteria on the mucosa of the proximal jejunum in two of the animals. In two other reindeer the median anaerobic bacterial densities in the proximal jejunum ranged from 25-2500 cells/g mucosa. The median anaerobic bacterial populations in the distal jejunum ranged from 80 to 20000 bacteria/g mucosa (n=4. The anaerobic population of bacteria in the proximal jejunum was dominated by streptococci and unidentified gram positive rods. Bacteroidaceae, streptococci and unidentified gram positive rods were common in the distal jejunum. The low density and the species diversity of bacteria in the small intestine suggests that these microorganisms are inhibited by components in the natural winter diet of reindeer. Bacteria evidently play a minor role in protection of the mucosa of reindeer in winter.

  10. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  11. Development and Experimental Investigation of a Two-Stroke Opposed-Piston Free-Piston Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Stephan; Chiodi, Marco; Friedrich, Horst E.; Bargende, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper deals with the development process and initial measurement results of an opposed-piston combustion engine for application in a Free-Piston Linear Generator (FPLG). The FPLG, which is being developed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), is an innovative internal combustion engine for a fuel based electrical power supply. With its arrangement, the pistons freely oscillate between the compression chamber of the combustion unit and a gas spring with no mechanical coupling like...

  12. Research on the Common Rail Pressure Overshoot of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Lu; Changlu Zhao; Zhe Zuo; Fujun Zhang; Shuanlu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The common rail pressure has a direct influence on the working stability of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke (OP2S) diesel engines, especially on performance indexes such as power, economy and emissions. Meanwhile, the rail pressure overshoot phenomenon occurs frequently due to the operating characteristics of OP2S diesel engines, which could lead to serious consequences. In order to solve the rail pressure overshoot problem of OP2S diesel engines, a nonlinear concerted algorithm adding a speed stat...

  13. Why do older people oppose physician-assisted dying? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpas, Phillipa J; Wilson, Maria K R; Rae, Nicola; Johnson, Malcolm

    2014-04-01

    Physician-assisted dying at the end of life has become a significant issue of public discussion. While legally available in a number of countries and jurisdictions, it remains controversial and illegal in New Zealand. The study aimed to explore the reasons some healthy older New Zealanders oppose physician-assisted dying in order to inform current debate. Recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed by the authors after some edits had been made by respondents. In all, 11 older participants (over 65 years) who responded to advertisements placed in Grey Power magazines and a University of Auckland email list were interviewed for around 1 h and asked a number of open-ended questions. Four central themes opposing physician-assisted dying were identified from the interviews: one's personal experience with health care and dying and death, religious reasoning and beliefs, slippery slope worries and concern about potential abuses if physician-assisted dying were legalised. An important finding of the study suggests that how some older individuals think about physician-assisted dying is strongly influenced by their past experiences of dying and death. While some participants had witnessed good, well-managed dying and death experiences which confirmed for them the view that physician-assisted dying was unnecessary, those who had witnessed poor dying and death experiences opposed physician-assisted dying on the grounds that such practices could come to be abused by others.

  14. High rate reactive sputtering in an opposed cathode closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproul, William D.; Rudnik, Paul J.; Graham, Michael E.; Rohde, Suzanne L.

    1990-01-01

    Attention is given to an opposed cathode sputtering system constructed with the ability to coat parts with a size up to 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length. Initial trials with this system revealed very low substrate bias currents. When the AlNiCo magnets in the two opposed cathodes were arranged in a mirrored configuration, the plasma density at the substrate was low, and the substrate bias current density was less than 1 mA/sq cm. If the magnets were arranged in a closed-field configuration where the field lines from one set of magnets were coupled with the other set, the substrate bias current density was as high as 5.7 mA/sq cm when NdFeB magnets were used. In the closed-field configuration, the substrate bias current density was related to the magnetic field strength between the two cathodes and to the sputtering pressure. Hard well-adhered TiN coatings were reactively sputtered in the opposed cathode system in the closed-field configuration, but the mirrored configuration produced films with poor adhesion because of etching problems and low plasma density at the substrate.

  15. Opposing Cholinergic and Serotonergic Modulation of Layer 6 in Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Sparks

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prefrontal cortex is a hub for attention processing and receives abundant innervation from cholinergic and serotonergic afferents. A growing body of evidence suggests that acetylcholine (ACh and serotonin (5-HT have opposing influences on tasks requiring attention, but the underlying neurophysiology of their opposition is unclear. One candidate target population is medial prefrontal layer 6 pyramidal neurons, which provide feedback modulation of the thalamus, as well as feed-forward excitation of cortical interneurons. Here, we assess the response of these neurons to ACh and 5-HT using whole cell recordings in acute brain slices from mouse cortex. With application of exogenous agonists, we show that individual layer 6 pyramidal neurons are bidirectionally-modulated, with ACh and 5-HT exerting opposite effects on excitability across a number of concentrations. Next, we tested the responses of layer 6 pyramidal neurons to optogenetic release of endogenous ACh or 5-HT. These experiments were performed in brain slices from transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin in either ChAT-expressing cholinergic neurons or Pet1-expressing serotonergic neurons. Light-evoked endogenous neuromodulation recapitulated the effects of exogenous neurotransmitters, showing opposing modulation of layer 6 pyramidal neurons by ACh and 5-HT. Lastly, the addition of 5-HT to either endogenous or exogenous ACh significantly suppressed the excitation of pyramidal neurons in prefrontal layer 6. Taken together, this work suggests that the major corticothalamic layer of prefrontal cortex is a substrate for opposing modulatory influences on neuronal activity that could have implications for regulation of attention.

  16. Opposing Cholinergic and Serotonergic Modulation of Layer 6 in Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Daniel W; Tian, Michael K; Sargin, Derya; Venkatesan, Sridevi; Intson, Katheron; Lambe, Evelyn K

    2017-01-01

    Prefrontal cortex is a hub for attention processing and receives abundant innervation from cholinergic and serotonergic afferents. A growing body of evidence suggests that acetylcholine (ACh) and serotonin (5-HT) have opposing influences on tasks requiring attention, but the underlying neurophysiology of their opposition is unclear. One candidate target population is medial prefrontal layer 6 pyramidal neurons, which provide feedback modulation of the thalamus, as well as feed-forward excitation of cortical interneurons. Here, we assess the response of these neurons to ACh and 5-HT using whole cell recordings in acute brain slices from mouse cortex. With application of exogenous agonists, we show that individual layer 6 pyramidal neurons are bidirectionally-modulated, with ACh and 5-HT exerting opposite effects on excitability across a number of concentrations. Next, we tested the responses of layer 6 pyramidal neurons to optogenetic release of endogenous ACh or 5-HT. These experiments were performed in brain slices from transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin in either ChAT-expressing cholinergic neurons or Pet1-expressing serotonergic neurons. Light-evoked endogenous neuromodulation recapitulated the effects of exogenous neurotransmitters, showing opposing modulation of layer 6 pyramidal neurons by ACh and 5-HT. Lastly, the addition of 5-HT to either endogenous or exogenous ACh significantly suppressed the excitation of pyramidal neurons in prefrontal layer 6. Taken together, this work suggests that the major corticothalamic layer of prefrontal cortex is a substrate for opposing modulatory influences on neuronal activity that could have implications for regulation of attention.

  17. Two different approaches for creating a prescribed opposed-flow velocity field for flame spread experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmignani Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Opposed-flow flame spread over solid fuels is a fundamental area of research in fire science. Typically combustion wind tunnels are used to generate the opposing flow of oxidizer against which a laminar flame spread occurs along the fuel samples. The spreading flame is generally embedded in a laminar boundary layer, which interacts with the strong buoyancy-induced flow to affect the mechanism of flame spread. In this work, two different approaches for creating the opposed-flow are compared. In the first approach, a vertical combustion tunnel is used where a thin fuel sample, thin acrylic or ashless filter paper, is held vertically along the axis of the test-section with the airflow controlled by controlling the duty cycles of four fans. As the sample is ignited, a flame spreads downward in a steady manner along a developing boundary layer. In the second approach, the sample is held in a movable cart placed in an eight-meter tall vertical chamber filled with air. As the sample is ignited, the cart is moved downward (through a remote-controlled mechanism at a prescribed velocity. The results from the two approaches are compared to establish the boundary layer effect on flame spread over thin fuels.

  18. Serelaxin as a novel therapeutic opposing fibrosis and contraction in lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Maggie; Royce, Simon G; Samuel, Chrishan S; Bourke, Jane E

    2018-07-01

    The most common therapies for asthma and other chronic lung diseases are anti-inflammatory agents and bronchodilators. While these drugs oppose disease symptoms, they do not reverse established structural changes in the airways and their therapeutic efficacy is reduced with increasing disease severity. The peptide hormone, relaxin, is a Relaxin Family Peptide Receptor 1 (RXFP1) receptor agonist with unique combined effects in the lung that differentiates it from these existing therapies. Relaxin has previously been reported to have cardioprotective effects in acute heart failure as well anti-fibrotic actions in several organs. This review focuses on recent experimental evidence of the beneficial effects of chronic relaxin treatment in animal models of airways disease demonstrating inhibition of airway hyperresponsiveness and reversal of established fibrosis, consistent with potential therapeutic benefit. Of particular interest, accumulating evidence demonstrates that relaxin can also acutely oppose contraction by reducing the release of mast cell-derived bronchoconstrictors and by directly eliciting bronchodilation. When used in combination, chronic and acute treatment with relaxin has been shown to enhance responsiveness to both glucocorticoids and β 2 -adrenoceptor agonists respectively. While the mechanisms underlying these beneficial actions remain to be fully elucidated, translation of these promising combined preclinical findings is critical in the development of relaxin as a novel alternative or adjunct therapeutic opposing multiple aspects of airway pathology in lung diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Grain sorghum dust increases macromolecular efflux from the in situ nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X P

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of grain sorghum dust increases macromolecular efflux from the nasal mucosa in vivo and, if so, whether this response is mediated, in part, by substance P. Suffusion of grain sorghum dust extract on the in situ nasal mucosa of anesthetized hamsters elicits a significant increase in clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran; mol mass, 70 kDa; P grain sorghum dust elicits neurogenic plasma exudation from the in situ nasal mucosa.

  20. One-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Barbagli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the reader with the detailed description of current techniques of one-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty. The paper provides the reader with the preoperative patient evaluation paying attention to the use of diagnostic tools. The one-stage penile urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft with the application of glue is preliminary showed and discussed. Two-stage penile urethroplasty is then reported. A detailed description of first-stage urethroplasty according Johanson technique is reported. A second-stage urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft and glue is presented. Finally postoperative course and follow-up are addressed.

  1. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase in the colonic mucosa of children with inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Kriszta; Vannay, Ádám; Szebeni, Beáta; Bánki, Nóra Fanni; Sziksz, Erna; Cseh, Áron; Győrffy, Hajnalka; Lakatos, Péter László; Papp, Mária; Arató, András; Veres, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate intestinal alkaline phosphatase (iAP) in the intestinal mucosa of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: Colonic biopsy samples were taken from 15 newly diagnosed IBD patients and from 10 healthy controls. In IBD patients, specimens were obtained both from inflamed and non-inflamed areas. The iAP mRNA and protein expression was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis, respectively. Tissue localization of iAP and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 was investigated by immunofluorescent staining. RESULTS: The iAP protein level in the inflamed mucosa of children with Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) was significantly decreased when compared with controls (both P < 0.05). Similarly, we found a significantly decreased level of iAP protein in the inflamed mucosa in CD compared with non-inflamed mucosa in CD (P < 0.05). In addition, the iAP protein level in inflamed colonic mucosa in patients with UC was decreased compared with non-inflamed mucosa in patients with CD (P < 0.05). iAP protein levels in the non-inflamed mucosa of patients with CD were similar to controls. iAP mRNA expression in inflamed colonic mucosa of children with CD and UC was not significantly different from that in non-inflamed colonic mucosa with CD. Expression of iAP mRNA in patients with non-inflamed mucosa and in controls were similar. Co-localization of iAP with TLR4 showed intense staining with a dotted-like pattern. iAP was present in the inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa of patients with CD, UC, and in control biopsy specimens, irrespective of whether it was present in the terminal ileum or in the colon. However, the fluorescent signal of TLR4 was more pronounced in the colon compared with the terminal ileum in all groups studied. CONCLUSION: Lower than normal iAP protein levels in inflamed mucosa of IBD patients may indicate a role for iAP in inflammatory lesions in IBD. Based on our results

  2. Mejoría mucosa endoscópica en pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Veitia, Guillermo; Pernalete, Beatriz; La Cruz, María Alejandra; Rodríguez, María Josefina; Cachima, Lisbeth; Soto, José; Esquerre, Ivanova; Manuitt, Juan; Pérez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    La curación mucosa endoscópica en enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal se asocia con remisión clínica sostenida, reducción de hospitalizaciones y cirugía, pero lograrlo es difícil, según la literatura. Por ello evaluamos la mejoría mucosa endoscópica en nuestros pacientes. Objetivo: Evaluar la mejoría mucosa endoscópica en pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal. Métodos: estudio multicéntrico, descriptivo, transversal. Incluyó 24 pacientes entre 17 y 73 años. Para evaluar respuesta a ...

  3. Variation in activity of pepsin extracted from buffalo stomach mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdous, S.; Javed, A.; Miraj, S.; Ejaz, N.

    2013-01-01

    Pepsin was extracted from the buffalo's mucosa in an acidic medium by incubating at 40 degree C for 48 h and dried in an air blanket at 50 degree C. Conditions for the maximum yield M pepsin were optimized. Changes in pH, temperature and incubation time affect the yield of pepsin, It has been noted that the time of the year in which extractions were made under optimized conditions was an important factor which affected the yield as well as activity of pepsin. Studies showed that maximum yield 11.5% was in February 2009 and minimum 10.3% in May 2009. It was further studied that the activity of the pepsin extracted in February was higher i.e 110 U/mg as compared to the activity of the enzyme extracted during the month of May which was 102.6 U/mg. The purpose of the study was to consider the conditions of the slaughter houses to attain maximum yield of pepsin with maximum activity. (author)

  4. Acute effect of gamma irradiation on the gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, A.; Dorval, E.D.; Rogers, J.E.; O'Connell, L.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the gastric mucosa has been studied in a primate model by evaluating endoscopically the rate of healing of gastric biopsies. Six male rhesus monkeys were subjected to fiberoptic gastroscopies performed under general anesthesia before and after total body exposure to Cobalt-60 (800 rads). Gastric biopsies were taken 3 hours and 2, 7, and 9 days after irradiation and examined using light microscopy. Gastric biopsies were found to heal in 3 days before irradiation; in contrast, they were still present 7 and 9 days after the biopsies in irradiated animals. Microscopic examination of the biopsies taken outside of the ulcer craters did not demonstrate any significant changes of the gastric surface epithelial cells. These data demonstrate that a gastric ulcer develops at the site of each endoscopic biopsy in irradiated monkeys whereas complete healing is observed in non-irradiated animals. The cause of this observation is unclear but it could be due to radiation induced suppression of the mitotic activity and of the cell renewal of gastric surface epithelial cells

  5. Transcriptional Analyses of Barrett's Metaplasia and Normal Upper GI Mucosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Barrett

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA has increased dramatically in the US and Western Europe. It has been shown that EAs evolve from premalignant Barrett's esophagus (BE tissue by a process of clonal expansion and evolution. However, the molecular phenotype of the premalignant metaplasia, and its relationship to those of the normal upper gastrointestinal (GI mucosae, including gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium of the esophagus, has not been systematically characterized. Therefore, we used oligonucleotide-based microarrays to characterize gene expression profiles in each of these tissues. The similarity of BE to each of the normal tissues was compared using a series of computational approaches. Our analyses included esophageal squamous epithelium, which is present at the same anatomic site and exposed to similar conditions as Barrett's epithelium, duodenum that shares morphologic similarity to Barrett's epithelium, and adjacent gastric epithelium. There was a clear distinction among the expression profiles of gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium whereas the BE profiles showed considerable overlap with normal tissues. Furthermore, we identified clusters of genes that are specific to each of the tissues, to the Barrett's metaplastic epithelia, and a cluster of genes that was distinct between squamous and nonsquamous epithelia.

  6. CT appearances of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessar, P.; Norton, A.; Rohatiner, A.Z.S.; Lister, T.A.; Reznek, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a low-grade lymphoma that differs from high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma both clinically and histologically. The CT appearances of MALT lymphoma are described. Of 40 patients referred with biopsy-proven MALT lymphoma, only seven had not had gastrectomy or chemotherapy prior to CT examination. The CT scans of these seven cases were analysed for the degree and extent of gastric wall thickening, enlargement of abdominal and extra-abdominal lymph nodes, and presence of extranodal disease. In all patients the stomach was distended with oral contrast medium and scans performed at narrow collimation, after intravenous administration of 20 mg hyoscine butylbromide. In six patients focal thickening of the gastric wall was 1 cm or less. One patient had thickening of over 4 cm. There was no enlargement of abdominal or extra-abdominal lymph nodes or extension to adjacent organs. Thus on CT, at presentation, MALT lymphoma results in minimal gastric wall thickening, unlike high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which typically causes bulky gastric disease, nodal enlargement and extension into adjacent organs. CT is therefore of limited value in monitoring response to treatment. With disease greater than minimal thickening, transformation to a higher grade should be considered. (orig.)

  7. CT findings of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weidong; Guan Yubao; Li Chuanxing; Wu Peihong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT findings of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Methods: The CT examinations of 12 patients with pathologically proven pulmonary MALT lymphoma were reviewed retrospectively. Evaluated imaging findings included number, distribution, shape, attenuation and other associated findings of each lesion were evaluated. Results: Thirty-two pulmonary lesions, including consolidations, masses, nodules and lesions with ground glass attenuation, were identified in 12 patients. Multiple lesions were founded in 10 of 12 patients and solitary lesion in 2 patients. Multiple lesions found in one lung in 2 patients, and multiple lesions found in both lungs in 8 patients. Ten cases demonstrated 21 consolidation lesions with air bronchogram, and one of the ten cases demonstrated two lesions with airway dilatation. Three cases demonstrated 5 masses or nodular lesions, 3 of these 5 lesions showed air bronchogram. Two cases demonstrated 6 ground glass attenuation lesions. One case showed mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. Conclusion: Pulmonary MALT lymphoma usually appears as multiple bilateral consolidations, masses, nodules with air bronchogram or lesions with ground- glass attenuation at CT imaging. The imaging findings described above and with an indolent clinical course may suggest the diagnosis of pulmonary MALT lymphoma. (authors)

  8. Long-term alterations of oral mucosa in radiotherapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prott, Franz-Josef; Handschel, Joerg; Micke, Oliver; Sunderkoetter, Cord; Meyer, Ulrich; Piffko, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to describe the alterations in oral mucosa after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Biopsies were taken from patients before irradiation, at 60 Gy, and 6-12 months after radiotherapy. Histomorphological evaluation of the vessels was performed, and endothelial expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin was also evaluated, as well as distribution of LFA-1-, Mac-1-, VLA-4-, RM3/1-, 27E10-, and 25F9-bearing cells in the subepithelial tissue. Results: The expression of ICAM-1 was downregulated after radiotherapy, whereas the percentage of LFA-1- and VLA-4-bearing cells increased. VCAM-1 remained at low levels. The subepithelial infiltration was still dominated by RM3/1-positive macrophages. The number of vessels decreased, while the lumina of the remaining vessels in the deeper connective layer increased. Conclusions: The late effects of radiotherapy are characterized by a decreased number of blood vessels and by significantly different expression patterns of the adhesion molecules studied, and of integrins and macrophage subpopulations compared to the conditions before irradiation and at 60 Gy

  9. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data interpretation through intuitive antigenic map. However, antigenic cartography construction is not trivial due to the challenging features embedded in the immunological data, such as data incompleteness, high noises, and low reactors. To overcome these challenges, we developed a computational method, temporal Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS), by adapting the low rank MC concept from the movie recommendation system in Netflix and the MDS method from geographic cartography construction. The application on H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses demonstrates that temporal MC-MDS is effective and efficient in constructing influenza antigenic cartography. The web sever is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap. PMID:21761589

  10. Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salfeld, J.; Pfaff, E.; Noah, M.; Schaller, H.

    1989-01-01

    The precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus directs the synthesis of two polypeptides, the 21-kilodalton subunit (p21c) forming the viral nucleocapsid (serologically defined as core antigen [HBcAg]) and a secreted processed protein (p17e, serologically defined as HBe antigen [HBeAg]). Although most of their primary amino acid sequences are identical, HBcAg and HBeAg display different antigenic properties that are widely used in hepatitis B virus diagnosis. To locate and to characterize the corresponding determinants, segments of the core gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and probed with a panel of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blots, and competition assays. Three distinct major determinants were characterized. It is postulated that HBcAg and HBeAg share common basic three-dimensional structure exposing the common linear determinant HBe1 but that they differ in the presentation of two conformational determinants that are either introduced (HBc) or masked (HBe2) in the assembled core. The simultaneous presentation of HBe1 and HBc, two distinctly different antigenic determinants with overlapping amino acid sequences, is interpreted to indicate the presence of slightly differently folded, stable conformational states of p21c in the hepatitis virus nucleocapsid

  11. Re: Penetration Behavior of Opposed Rows of Staggered Secondary Air Jets Depending on Jet Penetration Coefficient and Momentum Flux Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdeman, James D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain why the extension of the previously published C = (S/Ho)sqrt(J) scaling for opposed rows of staggered jets wasn't directly successful in the study by Choi et al. (2016). It is not surprising that staggered jets from opposite sides do not pass each other at the expected C value, because Ho/D and sqrt(J) are much larger than the maximum in previous studies. These, and large x/D's, tend to suggest development of 2-dimensional flow. Although there are distinct optima for opposed rows of in-line jets, single-side injection, and opposed rows of staggered jets based on C, opposed rows of staggered jets provide as good or better mixing performance, at any C value, than opposed rows of in-line jets or jets from single-side injection.

  12. Neoadjuvant polychemotherapy in combined treatment for oral cavity mucosa carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protsyk, V.S.; Trembach, A.M.; Korobko, E.V.; Garbar, L.I.

    2007-01-01

    Neoadjuvant polychemotherapy and radiotherapy as a pre surgeon combined treatment was applied to 144 patients with cancer of oral cavity mucosa. That method of treatment permit to obtain maximum destroy of tumoral parenchyma and clinical effect to all patients. (authors)

  13. Heterotopic Gastric Mucosa in the Distal Part of Esophagus in a Teenager: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, Vasile Valeriu; Ignat, Ancuta; Paduraru, Gabriela; Mihaila, Doina; Burlea, Marin; Ciubara, Anamaria

    2015-10-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) of the esophagus is a congenital anomaly consisting of ectopic gastric mucosa. It may be connected with disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, exacerbated by Helicobacter pylori. The diagnosis of HGM is confirmed via endoscopy with biopsy. Histopathology provides the definitive diagnosis by demonstrating gastric mucosa adjacent to normal esophageal mucosa. HGM located in the distal esophagus needs differentiation from Barrett's esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is a well-known premalignant injury for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Malignant progression of HGM occurs in a stepwise pattern, following the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.We present a rare case of a teenage girl with HGM located in the distal esophagus, associated with chronic gastritis and biliary duodenogastric reflux. Endoscopy combined with biopsies is a mandatory method in clinical evaluation of metaplastic and nonmetaplastic changes within HGM of the esophagus.

  14. Blood-group-related carbohydrates are expressed in organotypic cultures of human skin and oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, B; Andersson, A; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1999-01-01

    cultures. The organotypic skin and oral mucosa cultures showed a histological differentiation pattern analogous to that of normal skin and buccal mucosa, and a tissue-specific expression of carbohydrate structures and cytokeratins. However, both types of organotypic cultures also expressed markers which...... are normally seen during wound healing, including Lewis y, cytokeratin 16, and cytokeratin 19. We conclude that the organotypic cultures of oral mucosa and skin are suitable models for future studies of the function of cell-surface carbohydrates, although the expression of wound healing markers has to be taken...... the function of cell-surface carbohydrates, we established organotypic cultures of skin and buccal mucosa. In these cultures, keratinocytes are grown at the air-liquid interface on a supporting matrix consisting of homologous fibroblasts embedded in a collagen type I gel. We examined the expression of blood...

  15. Mechanical Barriers Restrict Invasion of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Human Oral Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, Katharina; Petermann, Philipp; Rahn, Elena; Rothamel, Daniel; Bloch, Wilhelm; Knebel-Mörsdorf, Dagmar

    2017-11-15

    Oral mucosa is one of the main target tissues of the human pathogen herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). How the virus overcomes the protective epithelial barriers and penetrates the tissue to reach its receptors and initiate infection is still unclear. Here, we established an ex vivo infection assay with human oral mucosa that allows viral entry studies in a natural target tissue. The focus was on the susceptibility of keratinocytes in the epithelium and the characterization of cellular receptors that mediate viral entry. Upon ex vivo infection of gingiva or vestibular mucosa, we observed that intact human mucosa samples were protected from viral invasion. In contrast, the basal layer of the oral epithelium was efficiently invaded once the connective tissue and the basement membrane were removed. Later during infection, HSV-1 spread from basal keratinocytes to upper layers, demonstrating the susceptibility of the stratified squamous epithelium to HSV-1. The analysis of potential receptors revealed nectin-1 on most mucosal keratinocytes, whereas herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) was found only on a subpopulation of cells, suggesting that nectin-1 acts as primary receptor for HSV-1 in human oral mucosa. To mimic the supposed entry route of HSV-1 via microlesions in vivo , we mechanically wounded the mucosa prior to infection. While we observed a limited number of infected keratinocytes in some wounded mucosa samples, other samples showed no infected cells. Thus, we conclude that mechanical wounding of mucosa is insufficient for the virus to efficiently overcome epithelial barriers and to make entry-mediating receptors accessible. IMPORTANCE To invade the target tissue of its human host during primary infection, herpes simplex virus (HSV) must overcome the epithelial barriers of mucosa, skin, or cornea. For most viruses, the mechanisms underlying the invasion into the target tissues of their host organism are still open. Here, we established an ex vivo infection model of

  16. Antigen and Memory CD8 T Cells: Were They Both Right?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epelman Slava

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Picture yourself as a researcher in immunology. To begin your project, you ask a question: Do CD8 T cells require antigen to maintain a memory response? This question is of prime importance to numerous medical fields. In chronologic order, you digest the literature, but unfortunately, you hit a major stumbling block in the 1990s. The crux of the problem is that which so often happens in science: two well-recognized, capable groups emerge with diametrically opposed conclusions, leaving you pondering which set of wellcontrolled data to believe. Fortunately, years later, a surprising group of articles sheds light on this mystery and subtly reconciles these two positions.

  17. Fluorescence-based endoscopic imaging of Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen to improve early detection of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Shinji; Yu, James Y H; Quang, Timothy; Hiwatari, Ken-Ichiro; Kumagai, Hironori; Kao, Stephanie; Holt, Alex; Erskind, Jalysa; McClure, Richard; Siuta, Michael; Kitamura, Tokio; Tobita, Etsuo; Koike, Seiji; Wilson, Kevin; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Liu, Eric; Washington, Kay; Omary, Reed; Gore, John C; Pham, Wellington

    2015-03-01

    Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen belongs to the mucin-type tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen. Notably, TF antigen is overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) but is rarely expressed in normal colonic tissue. Increased TF antigen expression is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we sought to validate a novel nanobeacon for imaging TF-associated CRC in a preclinical animal model. We developed and characterized the nanobeacon for use with fluorescence colonoscopy. In vivo imaging was performed on an orthotopic rat model of CRC. Both white light and fluorescence colonoscopy methods were utilized to establish the ratio-imaging index for the probe. The nanobeacon exhibited specificity for TF-associated cancer. Fluorescence colonoscopy using the probe can detect lesions at the stage which is not readily confirmed by conventional visualization methods. Further, the probe can report the dynamic change of TF expression as tumor regresses during chemotherapy. Data from this study suggests that fluorescence colonoscopy can improve early CRC detection. Supplemented by the established ratio-imaging index, the probe can be used not only for early detection, but also for reporting tumor response during chemotherapy. Furthermore, since the data obtained through in vivo imaging confirmed that the probe was not absorbed by the colonic mucosa, no registered toxicity is associated with this nanobeacon. Taken together, these data demonstrate the potential of this novel probe for imaging TF antigen as a biomarker for the early detection and prediction of the progression of CRC at the molecular level. © 2014 UICC.

  18. Buccal Mucosa as A Route for Systemic Drug Delivery: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaval A. Pate; M. R. Pate; K. R. Pate; N. M. Pate

    2012-01-01

    Within the oral mucosal cavity, the buccal region offers an attractive route of administration for systemic drug delivery. The mucosa has a rich blood supply and it is relatively permeable. It is the objective of this article to review buccal drug delivery by discussing the structure and environment of the oral mucosa and the experimental methods used in assessing buccal drug permeation/absorption. Buccal dosage forms will also be reviewed with an emphasis on bioadhesive polymeric based deliv...

  19. Buccal mucosa as a route for systemic drug delivery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, A H

    1998-01-01

    Within the oral mucosal cavity, the buccal region offers an attractive route of administration for systemic drug delivery. The mucosa has a rich blood supply and it is relatively permeable. It is the objective of this article to review buccal drug delivery by discussing the structure and environment of the oral mucosa and the experimental methods used in assessing buccal drug permeation/absorption. Buccal dosage forms will also be reviewed with an emphasis on bioadhesive polymeric based delivery systems

  20. Inicial nasal mucosa detachment using piezoelectric device in the Le Fort I osteotomy: A technical note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Elio Hitoshi; Kaba, Shajadi Carlos Pardo; Ruiz, Marcelo Martinson; Horikawa, Fernando Kendi

    2013-01-01

    In maxillary Le Fort I type osteotomy the detachment of the nasal mucosa should be done carefully. Piezoelectric surgery contributed much to increase the safety of osteotomies, despite the initial advantage of minimizing the risk of injury in nervous tissue, mainly in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy; we use the piezoelectric device for the initial detachment of the nasal mucosa in the maxillary osteotomy. PMID:23853472

  1. Biological effect of low-dose application beta-radiation on the gingival mucosa of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ippolitov, Yu.A.; Kovtun, N.N.; Timofeev, L.V.

    1999-01-01

    Biological effect of low-dose application beta-radiation on the gingival mucosa of dogs is studied. Obtained data illustrate the interactions between tissues in local exposure of live tissue to beta-radiation and determine the threshold total dose as 400 sGy. Higher doses lead to secondary changes in the gingival mucosa after which the tissue barrier does not recover [ru

  2. Inicial nasal mucosa detachment using piezoelectric device in the Le Fort I osteotomy: A technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Hitoshi Shinohara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In maxillary Le Fort I type osteotomy the detachment of the nasal mucosa should be done carefully. Piezoelectric surgery contributed much to increase the safety of osteotomies, despite the initial advantage of minimizing the risk of injury in nervous tissue, mainly in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy; we use the piezoelectric device for the initial detachment of the nasal mucosa in the maxillary osteotomy.

  3. The effect of cola consumption on oral mucosa in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapicloğlu, S; Baki, A H; Tekelioğlu, Y; Araz, K

    2000-01-01

    Drinks that contain phosphoric acid have been shown to have erosive effects and cola drinks are strongly acidic (pH 2.5). Gingivitis may be caused by dietary acids. Therefore, this study analyses the interaction of Coca Cola consumption and oral mucosal damage. Thirty rats were divided into three groups of 10. The animals received saline (pH 7.0) or HCl acid buffered to pH 2.6 or Coca Cola (pH 2.6) per os with 24-h free access to these solutions. A biopsy was taken from the front of the gingiva and the tongue. Histopathological analysis showed no specific lesion and there were no differences among saline, Coca Cola and HCl groups. Flow cytometric analysis was used to assess proliferative activity. In the HCl acid and Coca Cola groups, cell cycle analysis showed that the effects of Coca Cola and HCl acid in inducing oral mucosal damage are similar. In both Coca Cola [G0/G1, 70.38+/-7.9; S, 28.06+/-10.13; G2/M, 1.62+/-2.80; proliferative index (PI), 28.68+/-7.981 and HCI (G0/G1, 67.7+/-18.9; S, 27.8+/-17.5; G2/M, 4.4+/-3.8; PI, 30.9+/-20.98), the rat cell population G0/G1 and G2/M phases were found to be low (p Coca Cola and HCl acid have similar proliferative and regenerative effects on oral mucosa, and it is possible that their regenerative effects are caused as a result of an irritant effect.

  4. Radioprotective activity of shigella antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemparskaya, N.N.; Gorbunova, E.S.; Dobronravova, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using experimental microbe antigenous preparation out of Flexner and Zonne shigellas as a protector and a remedy in the case of gamma irradiation, is investigated. The experiments are carried out on mice of both sexes immunized before or after irradiation by two methods: subcutaneously and enerally. It is found that in most cases investigated, the introduction of the experimental preparation 3, 5, 7 and 10 days before irradiation increases the survivability of animals [ru

  5. Effects of carprofen on the integrity and barrier function of canine colonic mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Catherine A; Hosgood, Giselle; Morgan, Timothy W; Hedlund, Cheryl S; Hicks, Merrin; McConnico, Rebecca S

    2008-02-01

    To measure effects of carprofen on conductance and permeability to mannitol and histologic appearance in canine colonic mucosa. Colonic mucosa from 13 mature mixed-breed dogs. Procedures-Sections of mucosa from the transverse colon and proximal and distal portions of the descending colon were obtained immediately after dogs were euthanized. Sections were mounted in Ussing chambers. Carprofen (400 microg/mL) was added to the bathing solution for treated sections. Conductance was calculated at 15-minute intervals for 240 minutes. Flux of mannitol was calculated for three 1-hour periods. Histologic examination of sections was performed after experiments concluded. Conductance was graphed against time for each chamber, and area under each curve was calculated. Conductance X time, flux of mannitol, and frequency distribution of histologic findings were analyzed for an effect of region and carprofen. Carprofen significantly increased mean conductance X time, compared with values for control (untreated) sections for all regions of colon. Carprofen significantly increased mean flux of mannitol from period 1 to period 2 and from period 2 to period 3 for all regions of colon. Carprofen caused a significant proportion of sections to have severe sloughing of cells and erosions involving >or= 10% of the epithelium, compared with control sections. Carprofen increased in vitro conductance and permeability to mannitol in canine colonic mucosa. Carprofen resulted in sloughing of cells and erosion of the colonic mucosa. These findings suggested that carprofen can compromise the integrity and barrier function of the colonic mucosa of dogs.

  6. Impairment of aminopyrine clearance in aspirin-damaged canine gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.A.; Henagan, J.M.; Loy, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Using an in vivo canine chambered stomach preparation, the clearance of [ 14 C]aminopyrine across mucosa when intravenously infused and the back-diffusion of this substance from gastric lumen to mucosa when topically applied to gastric epithelium were evaluated in aspirin-damaged gastric epithelium. In mucosa damaged by either 20 mM or 40 mM aspirin, the recovery of [ 14 C]aminopyrine, when topically mixed with acid (pH . 1.1) perfusate solution, was not significantly different from nondamaged control mucosa. In addition, the degree of ''trapping'' of this substance from back-diffusion was not different in damaged mucosa from that observed in nondamaged epithelium. In contrast, when [ 14 C]aminopyrine was intravenously infused, its clearance was significantly impaired in aspirin-damaged mucosa when compared with control studies, as evidenced by the increased ''trapping'' of this substance in injured epithelium. These findings indicate that movement of aminopyrine from plasma to gastric lumen is impaired in damaged epithelium, making the aminopyrine clearance technique an unreliable method to accurately measure absolute gastric blood flow in this experimental setting

  7. Detection of survivin mRNA in healthy oral mucosa, oral leucoplakia and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, G; Franchini, R; Bez, C; Sardella, A; Moneghini, L; Pellegrini, C; Bosari, S; Manfredi, M; Vescovi, P; Carrassi, A

    2010-01-01

    Survivin is involved in modulation of cell death and cell division processes. Survivin expression in normal adult tissues has not been fully understood, although it is markedly lower than in cancer, where it is over-expressed. To investigate survivin expression in normal, potentially malignant and cancerous oral mucosa. We measured survivin mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR in specimens of oral mucosa (15 from normal mucosa, 17 from potentially malignant lesions, 17 from neoplasms). Scores were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc according to Conover. Chi-squared test was used for dichotomous data. The median relative levels of survivin mRNA resulted six for normal mucosa, eight for potentially malignant lesions, 13 for cancers: differences among these three groups were statistically significant, as between cancer and potentially malignant lesions. Expression in normal mucosa and potentially lesions group showed no significant difference. Low, but not marginal expression of survivin in normal mucosa is a new finding, and it could be explained with the higher sensibility of our methods. Survivin expression in oral potentially malignant lesions might indicate a progressive deregulation of expression paralleling oncogenesis, particularly during the first stages of process, suggesting a putative predictive role for survivin.

  8. Patient satisfaction with maxillary 3-implant overdentures using different attachment systems opposing mandibular 2-implant overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zubeidi, Mohammed I; Alsabeeha, Nabeel H M; Thomson, W Murray; Payne, Alan G T

    2012-05-01

    Patient-based outcomes with maxillary overdentures on a minimum number of implants, opposing mandibular 2-implant overdentures are not evident in the literature. To evaluate patient's satisfaction with maxillary 3-implant overdentures, opposing mandibular 2-implant overdentures, using two different attachment systems over the first 2 years of service. Forty participants wearing mandibular 2-implant overdentures for 3 years were randomly allocated to one of two similar implant system groups to receive maxillary 3-implant overdentures. Twenty participants were allocated to splinted and unsplinted attachment system treatment groups for each system. Patient satisfaction with pre-treatment complete maxillary dentures, with maxillary 3-implant overdentures at baseline and annually for 2 years, was measured using visual analogue scale questionnaires and the oral health impact profiles. Palatal coverage of the maxillary overdentures was reduced at the first annual recall. Data showed significant improvement in pain reduction, comfort, stability, and function variables of the visual analogue scale after treatment. Analysis by prosthodontic design using visual analogue scale showed no significant difference. The total oral health impact profile-14 scores after treatment for all participants, regardless of prosthodontic design, were significantly lower (more satisfied). The overall oral health impact profile-20E score at baseline was significantly higher (more satisfied) compared with pre-treatment conventional maxillary dentures. No significant changes were observed in the first or second years compared with baseline results. Twenty-two participants (84.6%) preferred reduced palatal coverage, regardless of prosthodontic design, after 1 year. Twenty participants (76.9%) still preferred reduced palatal coverage at the end of the second year. The provision of maxillary 3-implant overdentures to oppose mandibular 2-implant overdentures significantly improve levels of patient

  9. Chlorphenesin: an antigen-associated immunosuppressant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, H Y; Neter, E

    1970-07-01

    Chlorphenesin (3-p-chlorophenoxy-1,2-propanediol), when injected intravenously together with either of two common bacterial antigens, inhibits the antibody response of the rabbit. The antigens studied are those common to Enterobacteriaceae and to gram-positive bacteria. The immunosuppression is contingent upon incubation of chlorphenesin and antigen in vitro prior to administration, since separate injection of antigen and inhibitor or of mixtures without prior incubation yields undiminished antibody response. Chlorphenesin, as shown by hemagglutination-inhibition tests, does not alter the antigenic determinants, because antibody neutralization occurs in the presence or absence of the drug. The immunosuppressive effect is reversible, since precipitation of chlorphenesin at 4 C substantially restores immunogenicity. Animals immunized with antigen-drug mixtures, which fail to respond with significant antibody production, nonetheless are immunologically primed. It is concluded that chlorphenesin represents another example of antigen-associated immunosuppressants.

  10. Presentation of lipid antigens to T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro

    2008-04-15

    T cells specific for lipid antigens participate in regulation of the immune response during infections, tumor immunosurveillance, allergy and autoimmune diseases. T cells recognize lipid antigens as complexes formed with CD1 antigen-presenting molecules, thus resembling recognition of MHC-peptide complexes. The biophysical properties of lipids impose unique mechanisms for their delivery, internalization into antigen-presenting cells, membrane trafficking, processing, and loading of CD1 molecules. Each of these steps is controlled at molecular and celular levels and determines lipid immunogenicity. Lipid antigens may derive from microbes and from the cellular metabolism, thus allowing the immune system to survey a large repertoire of immunogenic molecules. Recognition of lipid antigens facilitates the detection of infectious agents and the initiation of responses involved in immunoregulation and autoimmunity. This review focuses on the presentation mechanisms and specific recognition of self and bacterial lipid antigens and discusses the important open issues.

  11. Charging process analysis of an opposed-piston two-stroke aircraft Diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabowski Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research results on a 1D model of an opposed-piston two-stroke aircraft Diesel engine. The research aimed at creating a model of the engine in question to investigate how engine performance is affected by the compressor gear ratio. The power was constant at all the operating points. The research results are presented as graphs of power consumed by the compressor, compressor efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption. The optimal range of compressor gear ratio in terms of engine efficiency was defined from the research results.

  12. Heat transfer and fluid flow in regular rod arrays with opposing flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The heat transfer and fluid flow problem of opposing flow in the fully developed laminar region has been solved analytically for regular rod arrays. The problem is governed by two parameters: the pitch-to-diameter ratio and the Grashof-to-Reynolds number ratio. The critical Gr/Re ratios for flow separation caused by the upward buoyancy force on the downward flow were evaluated for a large range of P/D ratios of the triangular array. Numerical results reveal that both the heat transfer and pressure loss are reduced by the buoyancy force. Applications to nuclear reactors are discussed

  13. Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of dead children Helicobacter pylori en la mucosa gástrica de cadáveres de niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Duque Alzate

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available 23 children under the age of 12 years who died violently without receiving any treatment, had their gastric mucosa studied by means of he Warthin-Starry stain and immunohistochemistry in search for Helicobacter pylori. It was found that 60.9% (14 cases were positive; of them 64,3% belonged to a low social class and 35,7% to the middle one. Of the positive cases, 9 had acute gastritis, 1 had chronic gastritis and only 4 had normal gastric mucosa. A clear association between Helicobacter pylory and changes in gastritis was observed. En 23 niños menores de 12 años que murieron en forma violenta sin haber recibido tratamiento, se estudiaron para Helicobacter pylori las mucosas gástricas con las coloraciones de hematoxilina eosina, Warthin Starry e inmunohistoquímica. Se encontró que 14 casos (60,9% fueron positivos para esta bacteria, de los cuales 9 (64,3% pertenecían a un estrato social bajo y 5 (35,7% a uno medio. De los casos positivos para H. pylori, 9 tenían gastritis aguda, 1 gastritis crónica y sólo en 4 la mucosa gástrica era normal. Se observó una clara asociación entre H. pylori y cambios de gastritis.

  14. Reação liquenoide à carbamazepina em mucosa bucal: relato de caso Lichenoid reaction to carbamazepine in the oral mucosa: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Artico

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As reações liquenoides por drogas são mais comuns na pele, mas também podem ocorrer na mucosa bucal. Estas lesões são de difícil diagnóstico por causa de sua semelhança clínica com às do líquen plano oral idiopático. O presente artigo relata um caso de reação liquenoide em mucosa bucal, associado ao uso de carbamazepina, no qual o processo de diagnóstico é enfatizadoLichenoid drug reactions are more commom in skin, but they may also occur in the oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose these lesions due to their clinical similarity to the idiopathic oral lichen planus lesions. The present article reports a case of lichenoid reaction in oral mucosa associated to the use of carbamazepine, emphasizing the diagnostic process

  15. Opposing roles for RhoH GTPase during T-cell migration and activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christina M.; Comrie, William A.; Hyun, Young-Min; Chung, Hung-Li; Fedorchuk, Christine A.; Lim, Kihong; Brakebusch, Cord; McGrath, James L.; Waugh, Richard E.; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin; Kim, Minsoo

    2012-01-01

    T cells spend the majority of their time perusing lymphoid organs in search of cognate antigen presented by antigen presenting cells (APCs) and then quickly recirculate through the bloodstream to another lymph node. Therefore, regulation of a T-cell response is dependent upon the ability of cells to arrive in the correct location following chemokine gradients (“go” signal) as well as to receive appropriate T-cell receptor (TCR) activation signals upon cognate antigen recognition (“stop” signal). However, the mechanisms by which T cells regulate these go and stop signals remain unclear. We found that overexpression of the hematopoietic-specific RhoH protein in the presence of chemokine signals resulted in decreased Rap1–GTP and LFA-1 adhesiveness to ICAM-1, thus impairing T-cell chemotaxis; while in the presence of TCR signals, there were enhanced and sustained Rap1–GTP and LFA-1 activation as well as prolonged T:APC conjugates. RT-PCR analyses of activated CD4+ T cells and live images of T-cell migration and immunological synapse (IS) formation revealed that functions of RhoH took place primarily at the levels of transcription and intracellular distribution. Thus, we conclude that RhoH expression provides a key molecular determinant that allows T cells to switch between sensing chemokine-mediated go signals and TCR-dependent stop signals. PMID:22689994

  16. Detection and partial characterization of a midlamina lucida-hemidesmosome-associated antigen (19-DEJ-1) present within human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fine, J D; Horiguchi, Y; Jester, J

    1989-01-01

    , esophagus, cervix, and cornea, and BMs surrounding smooth muscle in medium-sized vessels, placenta, uterus, and esophagus. When 16 human fetal skins (aged 54-142 gestational days) were examined, the antigen was first detected at 81 days. Using immunoperoxidase and immunogold staining techniques, indirect......A murine anti-human monoclonal antibody (19-DEJ-1) has been produced that binds to basement membranes (BMs) of the dermoepidermal junction and arrector pili muscles but not to either dermal glandular or vascular BMs. 19-DEJ-1 also recognizes BMs underneath epithelia of buccal mucosa, tongue......-specific proteoglycan that is present within BMs along the epithelial-connective tissue interface and around smooth muscle in skin and other selected organs. Its unique ultrastructural localization suggests the possibility that 19-DEJ-1 may recognize an antigenic epitope of either anchoring filaments or alternatively...

  17. Coin Tossing Explains the Activity of Opposing Microtubule Motors on Phagosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, Paulomi; D'Souza, Ashwin; Rai, Ashim; Rai, Arpan; Padinhatheeri, Ranjith; Mallik, Roop

    2018-05-07

    How the opposing activity of kinesin and dynein motors generates polarized distribution of organelles inside cells is poorly understood and hotly debated [1, 2]. Possible explanations include stochastic mechanical competition [3, 4], coordinated regulation by motor-associated proteins [5-7], mechanical activation of motors [8], and lipid-induced organization [9]. Here, we address this question by using phagocytosed latex beads to generate early phagosomes (EPs) that move bidirectionally along microtubules (MTs) in an in vitro assay [9]. Dynein/kinesin activity on individual EPs is recorded as real-time force generation of the motors against an optical trap. Activity of one class of motors frequently coincides with, or is rapidly followed by opposite motors. This leads to frequent and rapid reversals of EPs in the trap. Remarkably, the choice between dynein and kinesin can be explained by the tossing of a coin. Opposing motors therefore appear to function stochastically and independently of each other, as also confirmed by observing no effect on kinesin function when dynein is inhibited on the EPs. A simple binomial probability calculation based on the geometry of EP-microtubule contact explains the observed activity of dynein and kinesin on phagosomes. This understanding of intracellular transport in terms of a hypothetical coin, if it holds true for other cargoes, provides a conceptual framework to explain the polarized localization of organelles inside cells. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of RANS and LES Turbulence Modeling for Buoyancy-Aided/Opposed Forced and Mixed Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Corey; Kimber, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Over the last 30 years, an industry-wide shift within the nuclear community has led to increased utilization of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to supplement nuclear reactor safety analyses. One such area that is of particular interest to the nuclear community, specifically to those performing loss-of-flow accident (LOFA) analyses for next-generation very-high temperature reactors (VHTR), is the capacity of current computational models to predict heat transfer across a wide range of buoyancy conditions. In the present investigation, a critical evaluation of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large-eddy simulation (LES) turbulence modeling techniques is conducted based on CFD validation data collected from the Rotatable Buoyancy Tunnel (RoBuT) at Utah State University. Four different experimental flow conditions are investigated: (1) buoyancy-aided forced convection; (2) buoyancy-opposed forced convection; (3) buoyancy-aided mixed convection; (4) buoyancy-opposed mixed convection. Overall, good agreement is found for both forced convection-dominated scenarios, but an overly-diffusive prediction of the normal Reynolds stress is observed for the RANS-based turbulence models. Low-Reynolds number RANS models perform adequately for mixed convection, while higher-order RANS approaches underestimate the influence of buoyancy on the production of turbulence.

  19. Positive and negative affect produce opposing task-irrelevant stimulus preexposure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Josef; Kaplan, Oren; Sternberg, Terri; Lubow, R E

    2012-06-01

    In three experiments, groups were exposed to either positive or negative affect video clips, after which they were presented with a series of task-irrelevant stimuli. In the subsequent test task, subjects were required to learn an association between the previously irrelevant stimulus and a consequence, and between a new stimulus and a consequence. Induced positive affect produced a latent inhibition effect (poorer evidence of learning with the previously irrelevant stimulus than with the novel stimulus). In opposition to this, induced negative affect resulted in better evidence of learning with a previously irrelevant stimulus than with a novel stimulus. In general, the opposing effects also were present in participants scoring high on self-report questionnaires of depression (Experiments 2 and 3). These unique findings were predicted and accounted for on the basis of two principles: (a) positive affect broadens the attentional field and negative affect contracts it; and (b) task-irrelevant stimuli are processed in two successive stages, the first encodes stimulus properties, and the second encodes stimulus relationships. The opposing influences of negative and positive mood on the processing of irrelevant stimuli have implications for the role of emotion in general theories of cognition, and possibly for resolving some of the inconsistent findings in research with schizophrenia patients.

  20. Finite element analysis and clinical complications in mandibular implant-overdentures opposing maxillary dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuder, Tameem; Yunus, Norsiah; Sulaiman, Eshamsul; Dabbagh, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Denture fracture is a common clinical complication caused by improper material selection, design, or fabrication technique. This study aimed to investigate the effect of two attachment systems on fracture risk of the implant-overdentures (IOD) via finite element analysis (FEA), using the force distributions obtained from patients' occlusal analyses and to compare the obtained results with the clinical complications associated with these attachments. A three-dimensional jaw model comprised of the edentulous bones was constructed. Three types of mandibular prostheses including complete denture (CD) (model LCD), IOD with Locator attachment (model LID-L), and IOD with telescopic attachment (model LID-T), as well as a maxillary CD (model UCD) were assembled. The vertical occlusal forces at anterior and posterior quadrants were obtained from the patients wearing mandibular CDs or IODs. The FEA results were further compared with the mechanical failures of different prostheses observed at patient recalls. In overall, the fracture risk of mandibular prostheses was lower than the maxillary compartments. The UCD opposing LCD underwent higher strains than that opposing LID-L and LID-T, which was mostly concentrated at the anterior mid-palatal polished surface. On the other hand, LID-L showed the lowest strain, followed by LID-T, and LCD. The obtained results were consistent with the clinical complications observed in the patient recalls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Wear characteristics of polished and glazed lithium disilicate ceramics opposed to three ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Osamu; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Akazawa, Nobutaka; Kodaira, Akihisa; Okamura, Kentaro; Matsumura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the wear characteristics of a heat-pressed lithium disilicate ceramic material opposed to feldspathic porcelain, a lithium disilicate glass ceramic, and zirconia materials. Ceramic plate specimens were prepared from feldspathic porcelain (EX-3 nA1B), lithium disilicate glass ceramics (e.max CAD MO1/C14), and zirconia (Katana KT 10) and then ground or polished. Rounded rod specimens were fabricated from heat-pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramic (e.max press LT A3) and then glazed or polished. A sliding wear testing apparatus was used for wear testing. Wear of glazed rods was greater than that of polished rods when they were abraded with ground zirconia, ground porcelain, polished porcelain, or polished lithium disilicate ceramics. For both glazed and polished rods, wear was greater when the rods were abraded with ground plates. The findings indicate that application of a polished surface rather than a glazed surface is recommended for single restorations made of heat-pressed lithium disilicate material. In addition, care must be taken when polishing opposing materials, especially those used in occlusal contact areas. (J Oral Sci 58, 117-123, 2016).

  2. Opposing effects of the HLA-DRB1*0301-DQB1*0201 haplotype on the risk for multiple sclerosis in diverse Arab populations in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, G; Paperna, T; Avidan, N; Lejbkowicz, I; Oksenberg, J R; Wang, J; Brautbar, C; Israel, S; Miller, A

    2010-07-01

    Different multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence rates were reported for Muslim and Christian Arabs in Israel. In this study, we evaluated whether associations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes with MS may contribute to this prevalence difference. DNA samples from Israeli Arab MS patients (n=109) and controls (n=132) were typed for HLA class I (HLA-A, -B and -C) and II (HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1) genes. Global comparisons of HLA allele frequencies revealed significant differences between Christians and Muslims; therefore, case-control analyses were stratified by religious affiliation. Disease characteristics of Muslim and Christian Arab MS patients were similar to those reported for European populations. Opposing association signals with MS were observed for alleles composing the DRB1*0301-DQB1*0201 haplotype: positive association of the HLA-DRB1*0301 allele in Muslims (P(Bonferroni)=0.004, odds ratio (OR)=3.07), and negative association in Christian Arabs (P(Bonferroni)=0.01, OR=0.12), with similar results obtained for HLA-DQB1*0201. HLA-B*52 was negatively associated with MS only in Muslims (P(Bonferroni)=0.01, OR=0.03). The study presents for the first time a high-resolution HLA gene analysis in clinically well-characterized Arab populations with MS, and shows the population-specific contribution of the DRB1*0301-DQB1*0201 haplotype to disease susceptibility.

  3. An Experimental Investigation on the Combustion and Heat Release Characteristics of an Opposed-Piston Folded-Cranktrain Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukang Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In opposed-piston folded-cranktrain diesel engines, the relative movement rules of opposed-pistons, combustion chamber components and injector position are different from those of conventional diesel engines. The combustion and heat release characteristics of an opposed-piston folded-cranktrain diesel engine under different operating conditions were investigated. Four phases: ignition delay, premixed combustion, diffusion combustion and after combustion are used to describe the heat release process of the engine. Load changing has a small effect on premixed combustion duration while it influences diffusion combustion duration significantly. The heat release process has more significant isochoric and isobaric combustion which differs from the conventional diesel engine situation, except at high exhaust pressure and temperature, due to its two-stroke and uniflow scavenging characteristics. Meanwhile, a relatively high-quality exhaust heat energy is produced in opposed-piston folded-cranktrain diesel engines.

  4. Post-mortem 3H-thymidine incorporation in human epidermis and oral mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellmann, B.

    1981-01-01

    Using the 3H-thymidine labelling method, the authors studied post-mortem incorporation activity in the epidermis and oral mucosa of corpses which were stored with their clothes on under conditions of normal room temperature (+20 0 ) and of cooling (+4 0 C). Samples were taken in the form of skin punches at 2 h or 4 h intervals, respec.. Using histo-autoradiograms, the incorporation of 3H-thymidine in dependence from the time interval between the points of time of death and sampling were determined in situe and given as the ratio of labelled cells of the germinative layer per 100 μm length of basement membrane. A linear drop of post-mortem thymidine incorporation rates in epidermis and oral mucosa was found in human corpse skin correlating with increasing temporal distance from the point of time of death. Incorporation rates in the oral mucosa were markedly higher (by a factor of 3 to 5) than those of the epidermis which agrees well with in vivo conditions. No labelling of cell nuclei, i.e. no synthetic activity of the germinative layer, could be detected in the epidermis 35-40 h after individual death at the latest (in the oral mucosa after 45-50 h). However, clear incorporation activities could be observed in the germinative layer of epidermis and oral mucosa after more than 4 d in the case of storage at +4 0 C. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Progressive replacement of oral mucosa by conjunctiva in osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorella, Irene; Maurizio, Taloni; Antonio, Ciardi; Giancarlo, Falcinelli

    2006-02-01

    In a Strampelli osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis, a patch of oral mucosa is frequently used to cover the ocular surface after implantation of an osteodental lamina into the eye. In many cases, gross modifications in the eye covering become apparent a few years later. The aim of this study was to investigate the histologic findings in the clinically modified ocular surface. Biopsies were performed in 7 patients at the junction between the osteodental acrylic lamina and surrounding modified oral mucosa, during surgery for local plastic reconstruction or positioning of antiglaucoma silicone tubes. Specimens were examined by light microscopy. Six of the 7 clinically modified specimens corresponded microscopically to conjunctiva. Typical oral mucosa could still be observed overlying the osteodental acrylic lamina. The production of local regulatory factors is a possible explanation for the survival of oral mucosa over the osteodental acrylic lamina, whereas their absence in distant areas may have induced the oral mucosa to transdifferentiate into a conjunctival-type lining. Alternatively, conjunctival regrowth from forniceal stem cells should be taken into consideration.

  6. Characterizing the Molecular Pathology of Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy in Patient Buccal Mucosa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimaki, Angeliki; Protonotarios, Alexandros; James, Cynthia A; Chelko, Stephen P; Tichnell, Crystal; Murray, Brittney; Tsatsopoulou, Adalena; Anastasakis, Aris; te Riele, Anneline; Kléber, André G; Judge, Daniel P; Calkins, Hugh; Saffitz, Jeffrey E

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of myocardium has revealed mechanistic insights into arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy but cardiac samples are difficult to obtain from probands and especially from family members. To identify a potential surrogate tissue, we characterized buccal mucosa cells. Buccal cells from patients, mutation carriers, and controls were immunostained and analyzed in a blinded fashion. In additional studies, buccal cells were grown in vitro and incubated with SB216763. Immunoreactive signals for the desmosomal protein plakoglobin and the major cardiac gap junction protein Cx43 were markedly diminished in buccal mucosa cells from arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy patients with known desmosomal mutations when compared with controls. Plakoglobin and Cx43 signals were also reduced in most family members who carried disease alleles but showed no evidence of heart disease. Signal for the desmosomal protein plakophilin-1 was reduced in buccal mucosa cells in patients with PKP2 mutations but not in those with mutations in other desmosomal genes. Signal for the desmosomal protein desmoplakin was reduced in buccal mucosa cells from patients with mutations in DSP, DSG2, or DSC2 but not in PKP2 or JUP. Abnormal protein distributions were reversed in cultured cells incubated with SB216763, a small molecule that rescues the disease phenotype in cardiac myocytes. Buccal mucosa cells from arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy patients exhibit changes in the distribution of cell junction proteins similar to those seen in the heart. These cells may prove useful in future studies of disease mechanisms and drug screens for effective therapies in arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Cultivated Oral Mucosa Epithelium in Ocular Surface Reconstruction in Aniridia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Dobrowolski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Efficacy of cultivated oral mucosa epithelial transplantation (COMET procedure in corneal epithelium restoration of aniridia patients. Methods. Study subjects were aniridia patients (13 patients; 17 eyes with irregular, vascular conjunctival pannus involving visual axis who underwent autologous transplantation of cultivated epithelium. For the procedure oral mucosa epithelial cells were obtained from buccal mucosa with further enzymatic treatment. Suspension of single cells was seeded on previously prepared denuded amniotic membrane. Cultures were carried on culture dishes inserts in the presence of the inactivated with Mitomycin C monolayer of 3T3 fibroblasts. Cultures were carried for seven days. Stratified oral mucosa epithelium with its amniotic membrane carrier was transplanted on the surgically denuded corneal surface of aniridia patients with total or subtotal limbal stem cell deficiency. Outcome Measures. Corneal surface, epithelial regularity, and visual acuity improvement were evaluated. Results. At the end of the observation period, 76.4% of the eyes had regular transparent epithelium and 23.5% had developed epithelial defects or central corneal haze; in 88.2% of cases visual acuity had increased. VA range was from HM 0.05 before the surgery to HM up to 0.1 after surgery. Conclusion. Application of cultivated oral mucosa epithelium restores regular epithelium on the corneal surface with moderate improvement in quality of vision.

  8. Ablation of capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves impairs defence but not rapid repair of rat gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, M A; Schöninkle, E; Holzer, P

    1993-07-01

    Capsaicin sensitive afferent neurones have previously been reported to play a part in gastric mucosal protection. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these nociceptive neurones strengthen mucosal defence against injury or promote rapid repair of the damaged mucosa, or both. This hypothesis was examined in anaesthetised rats whose stomachs were perfused with ethanol (25 or 50% in saline, wt/wt) for 30 minutes. The gastric mucosa was inspected 0 and 180 minutes after ethanol had been given at the macroscopic, light, and scanning electron microscopic level. Rapid repair of the ethanol injured gastric mucosa (reduction of deep injury, partial re-epithelialisation of the denuded surface) took place in rats anaesthetised with phenobarbital, but not in those anaesthetised with urethane. Afferent nerve ablation as a result of treating rats with a neurotoxic dose of capsaicin before the experiment significantly aggravated ethanol induced damage as shown by an increase in the area and depth of mucosal erosions. Rapid repair of the injured mucosa, however, as seen in rats anesthetised with phenobarbital 180 minutes after ethanol was given, was similar in capsaicin and vehicle pretreated animals. Ablation of capsaicin sensitive afferent neurones was verified by a depletion of calcitonin gene related peptide from the gastric corpus wall. These findings indicate that nociceptive neurones control mechanisms of defence against acute injury but are not required for rapid repair of injured mucosa.

  9. Ex Vivo Produced Oral Mucosa Equivalent by Using the Direct Explant Cell Culture Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamile Öztürk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is the histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalents using keratinocytes cultured by direct explant technique.Material and Methods: Oral mucosa tissue samples were obtained from the keratinized gingival tissues of 14 healthy human subjects. Human oral mucosa keratinocytes from an oral mucosa biopsy specimen were dissociated by the explant technique. Once a sufficient population of keratinocytes was reached, they were seeded onto the type IV collagen coated “AlloDerm” and taken for histological and immunohistochemical examinations at 11 days postseeding of the keratinocytes on the cadaveric human dermal matrix.Results: Histopathologically and immunohistochemically, 12 out of 14 successful ex vivo produced oral mucosa equivalents (EVPOME that consisted of a stratified epidermis on a dermal matrix have been developed with keratinocytes cultured by the explant technique.Conclusion: The technical handling involved in the direct explant method at the beginning of the process has fewer steps than the enzymatic method and use of the direct explant technique protocol for culturing of human oral mucosa keratinocyte may be more adequate for EVPOME production.

  10. Effects of two alfalfa preparations with different particle sizes on the gastric mucosa in weanlings: alfalfa chaff versus alfalfa pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Vondran, Sarah; Venner, Monica; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Feeding alfalfa hay is often recommended for its buffering components, like protein and calcium, to prevent lesions of the gastric mucosa in horses. Until now, there has been no information regarding the influence of alfalfa particle size on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding two alfalfa preparations with different particle sizes (alfalfa chaff vs alfalfa pellets) in comparison with grass hay on the gastric mucosa in weanling horses....

  11. La mucosa nasal como vía y fuente para la medicina regenerativa Nasal mucosa as pathway and source for regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porfirio Hernández-Ramírez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan los pilares fundamentales que sustentan a la medicina regenerativa y se señala que de ellos, sin lugar a dudas, el que más ha avanzado es el representado por las células madre, en particular las adultas, que de manera progresiva se han ido extendiendo en la práctica clínica. Se destaca que recién se ha explorado la mucosa nasal como una vía útil y sencilla para el acceso al organismo de elementos potencialmente útiles en la medicina regenerativa, y también como fuente de células madre con posibilidades de introducción en el área clínica. Se comentan las características fundamentales de la mucosa nasal, se mencionan algunos medicamentos que se han usado a través de la ruta intranasal y se refiere la posibilidad de usar esta vía para la administración de células madre que puedan ejercer sus acciones sobre el sistema nervioso central. Estos datos se complementan con los promisorios resultados que se han obtenido con el trasplante de células procedentes de la mucosa nasal.The fundamental pillars of the regenerative medicine were set forth in this paper. One of the most advanced is undoubtedly the field of stem cells, particularly adult stem cells, which has progressively spread into the clinical practice. It was underlined that the nasal mucosa has been recently explored as a useful simple pathway through which the potentially useful elements of regenerative medicine may have access to the body; and also as a source of stem cells with possibilities of being introduced in the clinical area. Comments were made on the fundamental characteristics of the nasal mucosa; some drugs that have been administered through intranasal route were mentioned together with the possibility of using this pathway for stem cells that might have their impact on the central nervous system. All these data were completed with the promising results of transplantation of stem cells from the nasal mucosa.

  12. Characterization of Leishmania Soluble Exo-Antigen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cui, Liwang

    2003-01-01

    .... Vaccine development is the ultimate solution for this problem. Our previous research indicates that Leishmania parasites secrete, excrete, or shed antigens into the medium during in vitro culture...

  13. Binding of hydrophobic antigens to surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A first aspect of the present invention is a method of detecting antibodies comprising the steps of: i) providing a first group of beads comprising a surface modified with C1-C10 alkyl groups comprising amine, ammonium, ether and/or hydroxyl groups, ii) contacting said first group of beads......-antigen-antibody conjugates, and v) detecting said bead-antigen-antibody conjugates. Further aspects include an antibody detection kit, a bead-antigen conjugate and a composition comprising at least two different groups of bead-antigen-conjugates....

  14. Growth and remodeling play opposing roles during postnatal human heart valve development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Pim J A; Holland, Maria A; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Kuhl, Ellen; Loerakker, Sandra

    2018-01-19

    Tissue growth and remodeling are known to govern mechanical homeostasis in biological tissue, but their relative contributions to homeostasis remain unclear. Here, we use mechanical models, fueled by experimental findings, to demonstrate that growth and remodeling have different effects on heart valve stretch homeostasis during physiological postnatal development. Two developmental stages were considered: early-stage (from infant to adolescent) and late-stage (from adolescent to adult) development. Our models indicated that growth and remodeling play opposing roles in preserving tissue stretch and with time. During early-stage development, excessive tissue stretch was decreased by tissue growth and increased by remodeling. In contrast, during late-stage development tissue stretch was decreased by remodeling and increased by growth. Our findings contribute to an improved understanding of native heart valve adaptation throughout life, and are highly relevant for the development of tissue-engineered heart valves.

  15. Reconsidering examining cannabis subtypes together due to opposing effects on brain, cognition and behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Callesen, Mette Buhl; Ewing, Sarah W. Feeldstein

    Cannabis use represents a major public health issue throughout the globe. Yet, we still lack the most fundamental of knowledge on long-term effects of cannabis on neural, cognitive, and behavioral function. Part of this stems from how cannabis has been measured. To this end, most empirical...... examinations of cannabis have historically consolidated all types of cannabis collectively. However, this approach misses a fundamental fact about how different cannabinoids operate. Here we address the contrasting properties of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and their opposing effects...... on a wide array of health function. In addition, we address the increase in cannabis potency throughout the past two decades and how that impacts generalizability of early data on current public health. We put forth the urgent need for future research to disaggregate examination of THC from CBD, along...

  16. Opposing Subjective Temporal Experiences in Response to Unpredictable and Predictable Fear-Relevant Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that the durations of fear-relevant stimuli were overestimated compared to those of neutral stimuli, even when the fear-relevant stimuli were only anticipated. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of the predictability of fear-relevant stimuli on sub-second temporal estimations. In Experiments 1a and 1b, a randomized design was employed to render the emotional valence of each trial unpredictable. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we incorporated a block design and a cueing paradigm, respectively, to render the emotional stimuli predictable. Compared with the neutral condition, the estimated blank interval was judged as being shorter under the unpredictable fear-relevant condition, while it was judged as being longer under the predictable fear-relevant condition. In other words, the unpredictable and predictable fear-relevant stimuli led to opposing temporal distortions. These results demonstrated that emotions modulate interval perception during different time processing stages.

  17. Competing initiatives: a new tobacco industry strategy to oppose statewide clean indoor air ballot measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Gregory J; Hendlin, Yogi H; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-03-01

    To describe how the tobacco and gaming industries opposed clean indoor air voter initiatives in 2006, we analyzed media records and government and other publicly available documents and conducted interviews with knowledgeable individuals. In an attempt to avoid strict "smoke free" regulations pursued by health groups via voter initiatives in Arizona, Ohio, and Nevada, in 2006, the tobacco and gaming industries sponsored competing voter initiatives for alternative laws. Health groups succeeded in defeating the pro-tobacco competing initiatives because they were able to dispel confusion and create a head-to-head competition by associating each campaign with its respective backer and instructing voters to vote "no" on the pro-tobacco initiative in addition to voting "yes" on the health group initiative.

  18. Levitation Performance of Two Opposed Permanent Magnet Pole-Pair Separated Conical Bearingless Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Peter; Jansen, Ralph; Dever, Timothy; Nagorny, Aleksandr; Loparo, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    In standard motor applications, rotor suspension with traditional mechanical bearings represents the most economical solution. However, in certain high performance applications, rotor suspension without contacting bearings is either required or highly beneficial. Examples include applications requiring very high speed or extreme environment operation, or with limited access for maintenance. This paper expands upon a novel bearingless motor concept, in which two motors with opposing conical air-gaps are used to achieve full five-axis levitation and rotation of the rotor. Force in this motor is created by deliberately leaving the motor s pole-pairs unconnected, which allows the creation of different d-axis flux in each pole pair. This flux imbalance is used to create lateral force. This approach is different than previous bearingless motor designs, which require separate windings for levitation and rotation. This paper examines the predicted and achieved suspension performance of a fully levitated prototype bearingless system.

  19. Large-volume static compression using nano-polycrystalline diamond for opposed anvils in compact cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuchi, T; Sasaki, S; Ohno, Y; Osakabe, T; Odake, S; Kagi, H

    2010-01-01

    In order to extend the pressure regime of intrinsically low-sensitivity methods of measurement, such as neutron scattering and NMR, sample volume to be compressed in compact opposed-anvil cells is desired to be significantly increased. We hereby conducted a series of experiments using two types of compact cells equipped with enforced loading mechanisms. Super-hard nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD) anvils were carefully prepared for large-volume compression in these cells. These anvils are harder, larger and stronger than single crystal diamond anvils, so that they could play an ideal role to accept the larger forces. Supported and unsupported anvil geometries were separately tested to evaluate this expectation. In spite of insufficient support to the anvils, pressures to 14 GPa were generated for the sample volume of > 0.1 mm 3 , without damaging the NPD anvils. These results demonstrate a large future potential of compact cells equipped with NPD anvils and enforced loading mechanism.

  20. Opposing actions of endocannabinoids on cholangiocarcinoma growth is via the differential activation of Notch signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, Gabriel; Coufal, Monique [Department of Internal Medicine, Texas A and M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, TX (United States); Li, Huang [Department of Internal Medicine, Texas A and M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, TX (United States); Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Ramirez, Jonathan [Digestive Disease Research Center, Scott and White Hospital, Temple, TX (United States); DeMorrow, Sharon, E-mail: demorrow@medicine.tamhsc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, Texas A and M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, TX (United States); Digestive Disease Research Center, Scott and White Hospital, Temple, TX (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) have opposing effects on cholangiocarcinoma growth. Implicated in cancer, Notch signaling requires the {gamma}-secretase complex for activation. The aims of this study were to determine if the opposing effects of endocannabinoids depend on the differential activation of the Notch receptors and to demonstrate that the differential activation of these receptors are due to presenilin 1 containing- and presenilin 2 containing-{gamma}-secretase complexes. Mz-ChA-1 cells were treated with AEA or 2-AG. Notch receptor expression, activation, and nuclear translocation were determined. Specific roles for Notch 1 and 2 on cannabinoid-induced effects were determined by transient transfection of Notch 1 or 2 shRNA vectors before stimulation with AEA or 2-AG. Expression of presenilin 1 and 2 was determined after AEA or 2-AG treatment, and the involvement of presenilin 1 and 2 in the cannabinoid-induced effects was demonstrated in cell lines with low presenilin 1 or 2 expression. Antiproliferative effects of AEA required increased Notch 1 mRNA, activation, and nuclear translocation, whereas the growth-promoting effects induced by 2-AG required increased Notch 2 mRNA expression, activation, and nuclear translocation. AEA increased presenilin 1 expression and recruitment into the {gamma}-secretase complex, whereas 2-AG increased expression and recruitment of presenilin 2. The development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the endocannabinoid system or mimicking the mode of action of AEA on Notch signaling pathways would prove beneficial for cholangiocarcinoma management.

  1. Wear resistance of a pressable low-fusing ceramic opposed by dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; de Oliveira, André Almeida; Alves Gomes, Érica; Silveira Rodrigues, Renata Cristina; Faria Ribeiro, Ricardo

    2014-04-01

    Dental alloys have increasingly replaced by dental ceramics in dentistry because of aesthetics. As both dental alloys and ceramics can be present in the oral cavity, the evaluation of the wear resistance of ceramics opposed by dental alloys is important. The aim of the present study was to evaluate wear resistance of a pressable low-fusing ceramic opposed by dental alloys as well as the microhardness of the alloys and the possible correlation of wear and antagonist microhardness. Fifteen stylus tips samples of pressable low-fusing ceramic were obtained, polished and glazed. Samples were divided into three groups according to the disk of alloy/metal to be used as antagonist: Nickel-Chromium (Ni-Cr), Cobalt-Chromium (Co-Cr) and commercially pure titanium (cp Ti). Vickers microhardness of antagonist disks was evaluated before wear tests. Then, antagonist disks were sandblasted until surface roughness was adjusted to 0.75μm. Wear tests were performed at a speed of 60 cycles/min and distance of 10mm, in a total of 300,000 cycles. Before and after wear tests, samples were weighted and had their profile designed in an optical comparator to evaluate weight and height loss, respectively. Ni-Cr and cp Ti caused greater wear than Co-Cr, presenting greater weight (p=.009) and height (p=.002) loss. Cp Ti microhardness was lower than Ni-Cr and Co-Cr (pceramic presents different wear according to the dental alloy used as antagonist and the wear is not affected by antagonist microhardness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Opposing actions of endocannabinoids on cholangiocarcinoma growth is via the differential activation of Notch signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, Gabriel; Coufal, Monique; Li, Huang; Ramirez, Jonathan; DeMorrow, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) have opposing effects on cholangiocarcinoma growth. Implicated in cancer, Notch signaling requires the γ-secretase complex for activation. The aims of this study were to determine if the opposing effects of endocannabinoids depend on the differential activation of the Notch receptors and to demonstrate that the differential activation of these receptors are due to presenilin 1 containing- and presenilin 2 containing-γ-secretase complexes. Mz-ChA-1 cells were treated with AEA or 2-AG. Notch receptor expression, activation, and nuclear translocation were determined. Specific roles for Notch 1 and 2 on cannabinoid-induced effects were determined by transient transfection of Notch 1 or 2 shRNA vectors before stimulation with AEA or 2-AG. Expression of presenilin 1 and 2 was determined after AEA or 2-AG treatment, and the involvement of presenilin 1 and 2 in the cannabinoid-induced effects was demonstrated in cell lines with low presenilin 1 or 2 expression. Antiproliferative effects of AEA required increased Notch 1 mRNA, activation, and nuclear translocation, whereas the growth-promoting effects induced by 2-AG required increased Notch 2 mRNA expression, activation, and nuclear translocation. AEA increased presenilin 1 expression and recruitment into the γ-secretase complex, whereas 2-AG increased expression and recruitment of presenilin 2. The development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the endocannabinoid system or mimicking the mode of action of AEA on Notch signaling pathways would prove beneficial for cholangiocarcinoma management.

  3. Studying the striving and opposing forces in newspaper journalism: the actantial model of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarva, Pauliina; Tampere, Marja Pakarinen

    2006-06-01

    The cultural aspects of health promotion are important in policy development as well as in assessing effectiveness of health promotion activities. The discourses on promoting health and well-being in journalism reflect the health promotion culture in society. This article illustrates how health promotion is portrayed by 147 newspaper items from the two Finnish quality dailies during the period 2002-2004 and introduces a semiotic Actantial Model of Health Promotion (AMHP) for studying health promotion cultures. The most popular news themes on health promotion were physical and social environment, welfare services, nutrition and obesity, and mental well-being. The actants (actors, actions and abstract factor) of health promotion were identified and the AMHP with seven key actants (generator, health-object, public, tool, executor, threat and obstacle) was constructed. The model sheds light on two sides of health promotion discourses in journalism. The dominant culture of health promotion was represented by policy actions, information, education and scientific research, which were defined by health experts, decision-makers and researchers. Representations of the opposite culture--'the otherness' of health promotion included external harmful factors and unhealthy behaviours, mentalities opposed to being health-oriented, rationally uncontrolled living, disorder, disharmony and insecurity. The opposing factors were presented by people and institutions lacking the will, ability or motivation for a health-oriented life. To understand better the values of health promotion, it is necessary to assess the characteristics of the opposite side of health promotion culture, because the current dominant values can be described more clearly by the boundaries--by 'otherness'. The study argues that the AMHP can be used as a semiotic method to identify the value dimensions and the boundaries between the dominant and the opposite discourses of health promotion in various communications

  4. Epidermoid Cyst Arising in the Buccal Mucosa: Case Report and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Wildson Gurgel Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are benign subcutaneous lesions, and the large majority of these cysts affect the floor of the mouth; however, the buccal mucosa is not the usual site of occurrence. To date, only 5 articles have been published with 6 cases of epidermoid cysts arising in the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of a case of an epidermoid cyst located in the buccal mucosa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an oral epidermoid cyst describing an intense foreign body gigantocellular inflammatory reaction against epithelial keratin component. Although the usual diagnosis for epidermoid cysts is based on histopathological findings, this case report addresses novel information regarding the immunohistochemical pattern which may be found in these lesions.

  5. A Foreign Body Granuloma of the Buccal Mucosa Induced by Honeybee Sting

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    Kazuhiko Yamamoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A foreign body granuloma of the buccal mucosa induced by honeybee sting was reported. The patient was an 82-year-old female who presented with a submucous mass at the right buccal mucosa. The mass was 20 mm in diameter, elastically firm, partly mobile without pain or tenderness, and covered with almost normal mucosa. MR image did not delineate the lesion clearly. Under clinical diagnosis of a benign tumor, the lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The excised lesion was 14×11×9 mm in size and solid and yellowish in cut surface. Histologically, the lesion consisted of granulomatous tissue with a few narrow, curved, eosinophilic structures compatible with decomposed fragments of a honeybee sting and was diagnosed as a foreign body granuloma, although the patient did not recall being stung.

  6. [Assesing the effect of Lepidium meyenii "Maca" on the gastric mucosa in patients with functional dyspepsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benites Goñi, Harold Eduardo; Cok García, Jaime; Bussalleu Cavero, Alejandra; Bustamente Robles, Katherine Yelenia; Zegarra Chang, Arturo; Bravo, Eduar; Bussalleu Rivera, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the histological effect of Lepidium meyenii "Maca" on the gastric mucosa in patients with functional dyspepsia. This study consists of a clinical case series, in which the effect of Maca on the gastric histopathology of 29 Peruvian patients diagnosed with functional dyspepsia was examined. The presence of H. pylori, as well as the degree and depth of the gastric mucosa inflammation was evaluated from biopsies obtained before and after the treatment based solely of Maca 3 grams per day for four weeks. Average values of the degree and depth of mucosal inflammation before and after the treatment were compared showing no statistical difference among the samples. Sixteen patients were infected with H. pylori, and they remained infected after the treatment with Maca. A four week long treatment with Maca does not produce significant changes on gastric mucosa of patients with functional dyspepsia, neither on H. pylori eradication.

  7. Expression of core clock genes in colorectal tumour cells compared with normal mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnes, S; Donatsky, A M; Gögenur, I

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Experimental studies have shown that some circadian core clock genes may act as tumour suppressors and have an important role in the response to oncological treatment. This study investigated the evidence regarding modified expression of core clock genes in colorectal cancer and its...... expression of colorectal cancer cells compared with healthy mucosa cells from specimens analysed by real-time or quantitative real-time polymer chain reaction. The expression of the core clock genes Period, Cryptochrome, Bmal1 and Clock in colorectal tumours were compared with healthy mucosa and correlated...... with clinicopathological features and survival. RESULTS: Seventy-four articles were identified and 11 studies were included. Overall, gene expression of Period was significantly decreased in colorectal cancer cells compared with healthy mucosa cells. This tendency was also seen in the gene expression of Clock. Other core...

  8. Outcome of buccal mucosa urethroplasty in the management of urethral strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Basri; Sinanoglu, Orhun; Arda, Ersan

    2017-06-30

    The objective of the study is to report the outcome of buccal mucosal urethroplasty. The follow up data of 15 patients undergoing single stage urethroplasty from September 2010 to September 2015 were retropectively reviewed. They received buccal mucosa graft for urethroplasty. The patients were followed for complications and outcome. Mean age was 53.7 ± 13.6 The stricture length ranged from 3 to 6 cm (mean 4.4 ± 0.8). The success rate for buccal mucosa urethroplasty (BMU) was 67.7% at 12th month. Three patients presenting with voiding difficulty in the 3rd month and one in the next 12 months, had urethral restenosis. One patient had fistula formation at 6th month postoperatively. Five patients underwent retreatment procedures such as internal urethrotomy, urethroplasty and/or internal urethrotomy. The buccal mucosa is easy to obtain and handle, therefore BMU can be safely and effectively managed outside high volume institutions.

  9. Benign Lesions in Mucosa Adjacent to Intestinal-Type Sinonasal Adenocarcinoma

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    Blanca Vivanco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to wood dust is a strong risk factor for the development of intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma (ITAC; however, knowledge on possible precursor lesions or biomarkers is limited. Fifty-one samples of tumor-adjacent mucosa and 19 control samples of mucosa from the unaffected fossa of ITAC patients were evaluated for histological changes and p53 protein expression. Mild dysplasia was observed in 14%, cuboidal metaplasia in 57%, intestinal metaplasia in 8%, squamous metaplasia in 24%, and cylindrocellular hyperplasia in 53% of cases. P53 immunopositivity was generally weak occurring most frequently in squamous metaplasia. Wood dust etiology did not appear of influence on the histological changes, but p53 showed a tendency for higher positivity. Dysplasia adjacent to tumor was indicative of subsequent development of recurrence. In conclusion, precursor lesions do occur in mucosa adjacent to ITAC. This is clinically important, because it may justify the screening of high-risk individuals such as woodworkers.

  10. Primary Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma with a Nodular Opacity: Report of a Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Hirata, Tomomi; Takeuchi, Chie; Usuda, Jitsuo; Hosone, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we describe our experience in treating a case of primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma detected as a nodular opacity. A 79-year-old man was referred to our hospital. Computed tomography showed a nodular opacity measuring 20 mm in diameter with regular margins in segment 5 of the right middle lobe of the lung. Although the bronchoscopic brush cytology result was class III, the patient was tentatively diagnosed with suspected mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. A thoracoscopic right middle lobectomy was performed. The pathological findings showed nodular proliferation of small to medium-sized, mature-appearing atypical lymphoid cells, lymphoepithelial lesions, and vague follicles suggesting follicular colonization in some areas. The patient was diagnosed with low-grade small B-cell lymphoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. He has remained well to date, 23 months after surgery, without evidence of recurrence.

  11. Segmental dilatation of the ileum covered almost entirely by gastric mucosa: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Uchida, Nobuyuki; Shiojima, Masayuki; Sasamoto, Hajime; Shimura, Tatsuo; Takahasi, Atsusi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy was referred to our hospital for investigation of intermittent abdominal colic pain and vomiting. He underwent an emergency laparotomy, which revealed a volvulus and segmental dilatation of the ileum. The dilated intestine was not associated with poor intestinal circulation. Because the dilated ileum did not seem to be the cause of the volvulus, we simply released the volvulus. However, after surgery, the patient still suffered from persistent abdominal pain, further episodes of volvulus, and invagination of the dilated ileum. Thus, we performed a second operation to resect the segmental dilatation of the ileum. Pathological examination revealed that most of the mucosa of the dilated ileum was composed of ectopic gastric mucosa. We postulate that the ectopic gastric mucosa led to the formation of segmental dilatation of the ileum.

  12. [An observation of the effect of sulfur dioxide on rat nasal mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z Q

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of SO2 on rat nasal mucosa. The rats were forced to inhale SO2 and the effect on the nasal mucosa observed. The rats were divided into four groups. The first group inhaled 10ppm SO2; the second group 20ppm; the third group 40 ppm and the fourth group served as control. The observation lasted for 6 months. It was found that the nasal mucosa in the control group remained columnar ciliated. In the experimental groups, during the early stage (groups I, II) of exposure, there was no significant morphological change in epithelium. Then (groups I, II) the epithelium changed into cuboidal with complete disappearance of cilia, only some short and slender microvilli remained. While in the late stage (group III), the epithelium had transformed into squamous stratified and the amount of mucosal glands reduced.

  13. [Treatment of disbacteriosis of gastroduodenal mucous microflora in mucosa inflammation, ulcer and erosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, V V; Chernivets, V M; Bondarenko, V M; Bazlov, S N

    2011-01-01

    To propose pharmacotherapy of disbacteriosis of gastroduodenal mucous microflora in gastroduodenal inflammation, erosion and ulcer. The study enrolled 30 healthy volunteers, 130 ulcer patients and 36 patients with chronic gastritis (27% of the latter had chronic duodenitis). In addition to general clinical examination, fibrogastroduodenoscopy, we made histological and microbiological examinations of biopsy specimens of the mucosa from different parts of the stomach and duodenum, determined sensitivity of the microflora to antibacterial drugs. We found that recurrent ulcer, chronic gastritis and duodenitis are accompanied with overgrowth of pathogenic microflora in gastric and duodenal mucosa. We developed an effective method of the treatment of gastroduodenal mucosa microflora disbacteriosis in gastroduodenal inflammation, erosion and ulcer including antibacterial, antifungal drugs and probiotics.

  14. Surface ultrastuctures of the human laryngeal mucosa - observation by an newly developed technique of SEM cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, M.; Ohno, I.; Fujita, T.; Adachi, K.

    1981-01-01

    With the newly-developed techniques of SEM cinematography, surface ultrastructures of the human normal and pathological laryngeal mucosa were demonstrated. The high specialization of the laryngeal mucosa with its marked regional differences stresses the fact that even the squamous epithelium and nonciliated epithelium may play a role of utmost importance. All specimens were obtained after laryngectomy from 10 patients affected by laryngeal cancer which had been treated with or without preoperative irradiation of Lineac in total doses of 3,500-4,500 rad. Special attention was paid to the occurrence of microvilli and microplicae in the normal and pathological mucosa of the larynx, and their morphological and physiological significances were discussed briefly. (Auth.)

  15. Opposing motor activities of dynein and kinesin determine retention and transport of MHC class II-containing compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubbolts, R.; Fernandez-Borja, M.; Jordens, I.; Reits, E.; Dusseljee, S.; Echeverri, C.; Vallee, R. B.; Neefjes, J.

    1999-01-01

    MHC class II molecules exert their function at the cell surface by presenting to T cells antigenic fragments that are generated in the endosomal pathway. The class II molecules are targetted to early lysosomal structures, termed MIIC, where they interact with antigenic fragments and are subsequently

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages of the small bowel in patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome

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    Sandström Gunnar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune activation have repeatedly been suggested as pathogentic factors in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The driving force for immune activation in IBS remains unknown. The aim of our study was to find out if the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia could be involved in the pathogenesis of IBS. Methods We studied 65 patients (61 females with IBS and 42 (29 females healthy controls in which IBS had been excluded. Full thickness biopsies from the jejunum and mucosa biopsies from the duodenum and the jejunum were stained with a monoclonal antibody to Chlamydia lipopolysaccharide (LPS and species-specific monoclonal antibodies to C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. We used polyclonal antibodies to chromogranin A, CD68, CD11c, and CD117 to identify enteroendocrine cells, macrophages, dendritic, and mast cells, respectively. Results Chlamydia LPS was present in 89% of patients with IBS, but in only 14% of healthy controls (p C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP. Staining for C. pneumoniae was negative in both patients and controls. Chlamydia LPS was detected in enteroendocrine cells of the mucosa in 90% of positive biopsies and in subepithelial macrophages in 69% of biopsies. Biopsies taken at different time points in 19 patients revealed persistence of Chlamydia LPS up to 11 years. The odds ratio for the association of Chlamydia LPS with presence of IBS (43.1; 95% CI: 13.2-140.7 is much higher than any previously described pathogenetic marker in IBS. Conclusions We found C. trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages in the small bowel mucosa of patients with IBS. Further studies are required to clarify if the presence of such antigens has a role in the pathogenesis of IBS.

  17. Duodenal Bulb Mucosa with Hypertrophic Gastric Oxyntic Heterotopia in Patients with Zollinger Ellison Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Emil; Oh, David; Wang, Hank; Hazany, Salar; Ohning, Gordon; Pisegna, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES) results in hypersecretion of gastric acid (via gastrinoma) leading to peptic ulcers, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. We describe the novel discovery of hypertrophic, heterotopic gastric mucosa in the proximal duodenal bulb in patients with ZES, which we hypothesize results in an increased incidence of postbulbar ulcers in patients with ZES (a mechanism previously unreported). We determined the incidence of the novel finding of duodenal gastric oxyntic hypertrophic heterotopia (GOH) in patients with ZES. Methods. Seven patients with ZES were enrolled. The diagnosis of ZES was established by hypergastrinemia, gastric acid hypersecretion, and a positive secretin test or based on biopsy specimens (evaluated via tissue staining). Basal acid output (BAO) and baseline gastrin secretion were determined by established methods. Endoscopic examinations with methylene blue staining and biopsy of the gastric and duodenal mucosa were conducted in all patients every 3–6 months for an average of 5 years. Results. The duodenal mucosa demonstrated hypertrophic GOH in 5 out of 7 patients with ZES and an intact stomach and duodenum. Biopsies from the bowel mucosa demonstrated patchy replacement of surface epithelium by gastric-type epithelium with hypertrophic oxyntic glands in the lamina propria in 5 patients. Two of the patients had no evidence of GOH in the duodenal bulb. Patients with GOH had an average serum gastrin level of 1245 pg/mL and BAO of 2.92 mEq/hr versus 724 pg/mL and 0.8 mEq/hr in patients without GOH. Conclusions. This study demonstrated the presence of duodenal mucosa with GOH in 5 out of 7 patients with ZES and an intact stomach and duodenum. The presence of hypertrophic and heterotopic gastric mucosa is proposed to result from increased gastrin levels and may contribute to the increased incidence of postbulbar ulcers in these patients. PMID:19587828

  18. Duodenal Bulb Mucosa with Hypertrophic Gastric Oxyntic Heterotopia in Patients with Zollinger Ellison Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Kohan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES results in hypersecretion of gastric acid (via gastrinoma leading to peptic ulcers, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. We describe the novel discovery of hypertrophic, heterotopic gastric mucosa in the proximal duodenal bulb in patients with ZES, which we hypothesize results in an increased incidence of postbulbar ulcers in patients with ZES (a mechanism previously unreported. We determined the incidence of the novel finding of duodenal gastric oxyntic hypertrophic heterotopia (GOH in patients with ZES. Methods. Seven patients with ZES were enrolled. The diagnosis of ZES was established by hypergastrinemia, gastric acid hypersecretion, and a positive secretin test or based on biopsy specimens (evaluated via tissue staining. Basal acid output (BAO and baseline gastrin secretion were determined by established methods. Endoscopic examinations with methylene blue staining and biopsy of the gastric and duodenal mucosa were conducted in all patients every 3–6 months for an average of 5 years. Results. The duodenal mucosa demonstrated hypertrophic GOH in 5 out of 7 patients with ZES and an intact stomach and duodenum. Biopsies from the bowel mucosa demonstrated patchy replacement of surface epithelium by gastric-type epithelium with hypertrophic oxyntic glands in the lamina propria in 5 patients. Two of the patients had no evidence of GOH in the duodenal bulb. Patients with GOH had an average serum gastrin level of 1245 pg/mL and BAO of 2.92 mEq/hr versus 724 pg/mL and 0.8 mEq/hr in patients without GOH. Conclusions. This study demonstrated the presence of duodenal mucosa with GOH in 5 out of 7 patients with ZES and an intact stomach and duodenum. The presence of hypertrophic and heterotopic gastric mucosa is proposed to result from increased gastrin levels and may contribute to the increased incidence of postbulbar ulcers in these patients.

  19. Sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa and bladder oversensitivity in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chia Lee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the role of sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa in bladder oversensitivity of rats with metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female Wistar rats were fed a fructose-rich diet (60% or a normal diet for 3 months. Based on cystometry, the fructose-fed rats (FFRs were divided into a group with normal detrusor function or detrusor overactivity (DO. Acidic adenosine triphosphate (ATP solution (5mM, pH 3.3 was used to elicit reflex micturition. Cystometric parameters were evaluated before and after drug administration. Functional proteins of the bladder mucosa were assessed by western blotting. RESULTS: Compared to the controls, intravesical acidic ATP solution instillation induced a significant increase in provoked phasic contractions in both FFR groups and a significant decrease in the mean functional bladder capacity of group DO. Pretreatment with capsaicin for C-fiber desentization, intravesical liposome for mucosal protection, or intravenous pyridoxal 5-phosphate 6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid for antagonized purinergic receptors can interfere with the urodynamic effects of intravesical ATP in FFRs and controls. Over-expression of TRPV1, P2X(3, and iNOS proteins, and down-regulation of eNOS proteins were observed in the bladder mucosa of both fructose-fed groups. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations of sensory receptors and enzymes in the bladder mucosa, including over-expression of TRPV1, P2X(3, and iNOS proteins, can precipitate the emergence of bladder phasic contractions and oversensitivity through the activation of C-afferents during acidic ATP solution stimulation in FFRs. The down-regulation of eNOS protein in the bladder mucosa of FFRs may lead to a failure to suppress bladder oversensitivity and phasic contractions. Sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa and DO causing by metabolic syndrome are easier to elicit bladder oversensitivity to certain urothelium stimuli.

  20. Immunoregulatory actions of epithelial cell PPAR gamma at the colonic mucosa of mice with experimental inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Saroj K; Guri, Amir J; Climent, Montse; Vives, Cristina; Carbo, Adria; Horne, William T; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-04-20

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors highly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and immune cells within the gut mucosa and are implicated in modulating inflammation and immune responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of targeted deletion of PPAR gamma in IEC on progression of experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the first phase, PPAR gamma flfl; Villin Cre- (VC-) and PPAR gamma flfl; Villin Cre+ (VC+) mice in a mixed FVB/C57BL/6 background were challenged with 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 0, 2, or 7 days. VC+ mice express a transgenic recombinase under the control of the Villin-Cre promoter that causes an IEC-specific deletion of PPAR gamma. In the second phase, we generated VC- and VC+ mice in a C57BL/6 background that were challenged with 2.5% DSS. Mice were scored on disease severity both clinically and histopathologically. Flow cytometry was used to phenotypically characterize lymphocyte and macrophage populations in blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Global gene expression analysis was profiled using Affymetrix microarrays. The IEC-specific deficiency of PPAR gamma in mice with a mixed background worsened colonic inflammatory lesions, but had no effect on disease activity (DAI) or weight loss. In contrast, the IEC-specific PPAR gamma null mice in C57BL/6 background exhibited more severe inflammatory lesions, DAI and weight loss in comparison to their littermates expressing PPAR gamma in IEC. Global gene expression profiling revealed significantly down-regulated expression of lysosomal pathway genes and flow cytometry results demonstrated suppressed production of IL-10 by CD4+ T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of IEC-specific PPAR gamma null mice. Our results demonstrate that adequate expression of PPAR gamma in IEC is required for the regulation of mucosal immune responses and prevention of experimental IBD, possibly by modulation of

  1. Gene expression profiling in gastric mucosa from Helicobacter pylori-infected and uninfected patients undergoing chronic superficial gastritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Min Yang

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection reprograms host gene expression and influences various cellular processes, which have been investigated by cDNA microarray using in vitro culture cells and in vivo gastric biopsies from patients of the Chronic Abdominal Complaint. To further explore the effects of H. pylori infection on host gene expression, we have collected the gastric antral mucosa samples from 6 untreated patients with gastroscopic and pathologic confirmation of chronic superficial gastritis. Among them three patients were infected by H. pylori and the other three patients were not. These samples were analyzed by a microarray chip which contains 14,112 cloned cDNAs, and microarray data were analyzed via BRB ArrayTools software and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA website. The results showed 34 genes of 38 differentially expressed genes regulated by H. pylori infection had been annotated. The annotated genes were involved in protein metabolism, inflammatory and immunological reaction, signal transduction, gene transcription, trace element metabolism, and so on. The 82% of these genes (28/34 were categorized in three molecular interaction networks involved in gene expression, cancer progress, antigen presentation and inflammatory response. The expression data of the array hybridization was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR assays. Taken together, these data indicated that H. pylori infection could alter cellular gene expression processes, escape host defense mechanism, increase inflammatory and immune responses, activate NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, disturb metal ion homeostasis, and induce carcinogenesis. All of these might help to explain H. pylori pathogenic mechanism and the gastroduodenal pathogenesis induced by H. pylori infection.

  2. Development of Immune Cells in the Intestinal Mucosa Can Be Affected by Intensive and Extensive Farm Environments, and Antibiotic Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Christoforidou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that exposure to farm environments during childhood can be linked to reductions in the incidence of immune disorders, but generating an appropriate model is difficult. 108 half-sibling piglets were born on either extensive (outdoor or intensive (indoor farms: at 1 day old, a subset of piglets from each litter were transferred to a high-hygiene isolator facility to create differences in rearing environment either during birth/first day or during the subsequent 56 days of life. Interactions between CD14, CD16, MHCIIDR, and capillary endothelium were assessed using four-color quantitative fluorescence immunohistology. Effects of birth and rearing environment on the antigen-presenting microenvironment of the proximal and distal jejunum (professional and stromal were apparent at 5, 28, and 56 days after birth However, effects on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs in the intestinal mucosa were apparent around weaning at 28 days but had disappeared by 56 days. These Tregs were reduced in the isolator piglets compared to their farm-reared siblings, but this effect was less marked in piglets born on the extensive farm and required administration of antibiotics. Our results suggest that there may be at least two windows of opportunity in which different farm environments were influencing immune development: one during the perinatal period (up to the first day of life, and one during later infancy. Furthermore, the differences on Tregs suggest that the effects of early life influences may be particularly critical around weaning.

  3. [Reconstruction of oral mucosa with a micro-vascularized fascia-cutaneous flap from the forearm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgueño García, Miguel; Cebrián Carretero, José Luis; Muñoz Caro, Jesús Manuel; Arias Gallo, Javier

    2002-01-01

    Epidermoid carcinoma of jugal mucosa is an aggressive tumor. Its treatment is based on broad excision and reconstruction in order to avoid fibrosis and restriction of mouth opening. Neck dissection and radiotherapy are indicated in selected cases. We display our experience with microvascularized flaps with the aim of preventing the flaws. We reconsider 8 patients (representing 10 flaps) handle in our Department. Besides we discuss other therapeutic alternatives after the growth's removal. The conclusion reached is that the mucovascularized forearm flaps give a great quantity of thin tissue and therefore so results to be the best option for the reconstruction of the jugal mucosa.

  4. Multiple Mucous Retention Cysts (Mucocele of the Oral Mucosa: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Jahanshahi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, the occurrence of multiple mucoceles is not very common. This case report presents a 62-year-old man with multiple nodules on the upper and lower labial mucosa as well as both buccal mucosae with unknown history. Histopathology evaluation showed minor salivary gland ducts dilated to the point of cyst formation. The cysts seemed to be formed either as a result of dilatation of salivary ducts due to altered secretion or because of an acquired or congenital weakness in the ductal structure. The physiopathology of these findings is discussed.

  5. Oral mucocele of unusual size on the buccal mucosa: clinical presentation and surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana Dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion.

  6. An evaluation of the effects of epidermal growth factor on irradiation lip mucosa damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yan

    1994-01-01

    The effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on lip mucosa damage by irradiation was explored in mice. EGF was administered in doses of 100 μg/kg/day using different schedules. Mucosal damage was assessed. The metaphase arrest method with vinblastine was used to evaluate the diurnal rhythm of mitosis. EGF in regimens employed did not protect the mouse lip epithelial cells from irradiation induced damage, but it has a demonstrable stimulatory effect on cell proliferation in lip mucosa which is dependent on the schedules of administration. The reasons and mechanisms are discussed

  7. Congestion of mastoid mucosa and influence on middle ear pressure - Effect of retroauricular injection of adrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooken Jensen, Pernille Vita; Gaihede, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Micro-CT scanning of temporal bones has revealed numerous retroauricular microchannels, which connect the outer bone surface directly to the underlying mastoid air cells. Their structure and dimensions have suggested a separate vascular supply to the mastoid mucosa, which may play a role in middle ear (ME) pressure regulation. This role may be accomplished by changes in the mucosa congestion resulting in volumetric changes, which ultimately affect the pressure of the enclosed ME gas pocket (Boyle's law). Further, such mucosa congestion may be susceptible to α-adrenergic stimulation similar to the mucosa of the nose. The purpose of our study was to investigate these hypotheses by recording the ME pressure in response to adrenergic stimulation administered by retroauricular injections at the surface of the microchannels. In a group of 20 healthy adults we measured the ME pressure by tympanometry initially in the sitting position, and then in the supine position over a 5 min period with 30 s intervals. In each subject, the study included 1) a control reference experiment with no intervention, 2) a control experiment with subcutaneously retroauricular injection of 1 ml isotonic NaCl solution, and 3) a test experiment with subcutaneously retroauricular injection of 1 ml NaCl-adrenaline solution. In both control experiments the ME pressure displayed an immediate increase in response to changing body position; this pressure increase remained stable for the entire period up to five minutes. In the test experiments the ME pressure also showed an initial pressure increase, but it was followed by a distinct significant pressure decrease with a maximum after 90 s. The test group was injected with both a 5 and 10% adrenaline solution, but the responses appeared similar for the two concentrations. Subcutaneous retroauricular injection of adrenaline caused a significant pressure decrease in ME pressure compared with control ears. This may be explained by the microchannels

  8. Trasplante de mucosa oral en la reconstrucción de las vías lagrimales Oral mucosa transplants in restoration of lacrimal canaliculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Canto Vidal

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron 143 intervenciones de las vías lagrimales, mediante la técnica quirúrgica de trasplante de mucosa oral con 55 injertos libres y 88 tubulares, a partir del año 1995. Para ello se tuvo en cuenta el examen clínico y radiológico y el tipo de afectación. Con la utilización de las técnicas de injerto libre o tubular de la mucosa se puede restablecer la fisiología lagrimal en los pacientes con mutilaciones por traumatismos o presencia de tumores con disminución del riesgo quirúrgico; además se recomienda por novedosa, práctica y por los buenos resultados obtenidos.143 interventions of lacrimal canaliculi were carried out, throgh surgical technique of oral mucosa transplant (55 free grafts and 88 tutular ones since 1995, bearing in min radiological and clinical examination and type of invelvement. Using technique of free or tubular graft, it is possible restore lacrimal physiology in patients with mutilations from trauma or prevence of tumors thus decreasing surgical risk; this tachnique is recommended by its novelty, usefulness . and by good results obtained.

  9. The study of cell homeostasis state of the gastric mucosa of rats on model of rheumatoid arthritis , treatment with ibuprofen and its combination with vinboron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Hladkykh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The use of NSAIDs in clinical practice is known for a significant reduction of side effects risks, among which the largest share of toxic effects on the digestive system. At the same time, the attention of researchers is increasingly payed to a specific syndrome associated with application of this group of drugs – NSAIDs gastropathy, with necrosis of epithelial cells as a possible morphological substrate. However, as the recent studies have shown, necrosis is not the only, but also is not the main cause of cell death. Apoptosis, the programmed cell death, is observed more often than necrosis. Besides, ulcerogenesis problem is closely linked to the ability of the gastric mucosa epithelium to adequate regeneration. This necessitates a search for the ways to correct the effect of non-steroidal antiphlogistics on the processes of apoptosis and proliferous activity of epithelial cells of the gastric mucosa. Materials and methods. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin sections using streptavidin-biotin method (“DAKO”, Denmark; LSAB2 Systems, HRP. Antigen unmasking was performed in citrate buffer pH 6.0. Mice`s and rabbit`s monoclonal antibodies were used as the primary antibodies. The cell nuclei were colored with Mayer’s hematoxylin for 15-60 seconds. Condition gastric epithelial proliferative activity was studied using a mouse monoclonal antibody to nuclear antigen Ki-67 (“DAKO”, MIB-1 clone, Denmark as a sensitive marker of proliferation by T. Scholzen. To characterize the activity of apoptosis the expression of CPP32 (caspase-3 in the gastric mucosa was examined, using semiquantitative rating scale color intensity of 0 (none – no positive reactions in cells, 1 (weak – up to 30% of the cells reacted positively 2 (moderate – 31-60%, and 3 (strong – 60% more stained cells.Results and Discussion. Analysis of the results of immunohistochemical expression

  10. Virosomes for antigen and DNA delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; de Mare, A; Bungener, L; de Jonge, J; Huckriede, A; Wilschut, J

    2005-01-01

    Specific targeting and delivery as well as the display of antigens on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are key issues in the design and development of new-generation vaccines aimed at the induction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Prophylactic vaccination

  11. Radioimmunoassay for a human prostate specific antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, T.; Miki, M.; Ohishi, Y.; Kido, A.; Morikawa, J.; Ogawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    As a marker for prostatic cancer, a prostate-specific antigen was purified from human prostatic tissues. Double antibody radioimmunoassay utilizing immune reaction was developed on the basis of the purified prostatic antigen (PA). Measurement results have revealed that PA radioimmunoassay is much better than prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) radioimmunoassay in the diagnosis of prostatic cancer

  12. Phosphorylation of Large T Antigen Regulates Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Jason; Wang, Xin; Tsang, Sabrina H.; Jiao, Jing; You, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) was recently discovered as a novel human polyomavirus that is associated with ~80% of Merkel Cell Carcinomas. The Large Tumor antigen (LT) is an early viral protein which has a variety of functions, including manipulation of the cell cycle and initiating viral DNA replication. Phosphorylation plays a critical regulatory role for polyomavirus LT proteins, but no investigation of MCPyV LT phosphorylation has been performed to date. In this report mass spectrometry analysis reveals three unique phosphorylation sites: T271, T297 and T299. In vivo replication assays confirm that phosphorylation of T271 does not play a role in viral replication, while modification at T297 and T299 have dramatic and opposing effects on LT’s ability to initiate replication from the viral origin. We test these mutants for their ability to bind, unwind, and act as a functional helicase at the viral origin. These studies provide a framework for understanding how phosphorylation of LT may dynamically regulate viral replication. Although the natural host cell of MCPyV has not yet been established, this work provides a foundation for understanding how LT activity is regulated and provides tools for better exploring this regulation in both natural host cells and Merkel cells

  13. Phosphorylation of Large T Antigen Regulates Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Jason; Wang, Xin; Tsang, Sabrina H. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Jiao, Jing [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); You, Jianxin, E-mail: jianyou@mail.med.upenn.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2014-07-08

    Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) was recently discovered as a novel human polyomavirus that is associated with ~80% of Merkel Cell Carcinomas. The Large Tumor antigen (LT) is an early viral protein which has a variety of functions, including manipulation of the cell cycle and initiating viral DNA replication. Phosphorylation plays a critical regulatory role for polyomavirus LT proteins, but no investigation of MCPyV LT phosphorylation has been performed to date. In this report mass spectrometry analysis reveals three unique phosphorylation sites: T271, T297 and T299. In vivo replication assays confirm that phosphorylation of T271 does not play a role in viral replication, while modification at T297 and T299 have dramatic and opposing effects on LT’s ability to initiate replication from the viral origin. We test these mutants for their ability to bind, unwind, and act as a functional helicase at the viral origin. These studies provide a framework for understanding how phosphorylation of LT may dynamically regulate viral replication. Although the natural host cell of MCPyV has not yet been established, this work provides a foundation for understanding how LT activity is regulated and provides tools for better exploring this regulation in both natural host cells and Merkel cells.

  14. Assessment of p21, p53 expression, and Ki-67 proliferative activities in the gastric mucosa of children with Helicobacter pylori gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saf, Coskun; Gulcan, Enver Mahir; Ozkan, Ferda; Cobanoglu Saf, Seyhan Perihan; Vitrinel, Ayca

    2015-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori that is generally acquired in childhood and infects the gastric mucosa is considered to be responsible for many pathobiological changes that are linked to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. Although the majority of studies on the subject have been carried out in adults, there are a limited number of studies on children that reflect the early period of infection and may be of greater significance. We aimed to determine the role of H. pylori infection and/or gastritis in several histopathological changes, p53, p21, and cell proliferation-associated Ki-67 antigen expression in the gastric mucosa. We studied 60 patients with a mean age of 7.5 ± 4.5 years at referral. On the basis of endoscopic appearance and the evaluation of the gastric antral specimens, the patients were divided into three groups: patients without gastritis, patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis, and patients with H. pylori-negative gastritis. To determine the expression of p53, Ki-67, and p21 in gastric biopsy specimens, immunohistochemical stains were performed. The incidence of neutrophil activity, which was one of our histopathologic parameters, was significantly higher in the H. pylori-positive gastritis group than the other two groups. The presence of lymphoid aggregate was more frequent in H. pylori ± gastritis groups than the nongastritis group. p53 expression was found to be significantly higher in the H. pylori-positive gastritis group than the nongastritis group. Ki-67 and p21 expressions were significantly more frequent in the H. pylori-positive gastritis group than the other two groups. When we evaluated the density of H. pylori, as the density of bacteria increases, we found that the expressions of p53, p21, and Ki-67 increased significantly. Expression of the studied precancerous markers in significant amounts indicates the importance of childhood H. pylori infection in the constitution of gastric cancer in adulthood.

  15. Relevance of variations in the opposing dentition for the functionality of fixed and removable partial dentures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommer, Bernhard; Krainhöfner, Martin; Watzek, Georg; Tepper, Gabor; Dintsios, Charalabos-Markos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the functionality of fixed and removable partial dentures as test interventions in relation to variations in the opposing dentition and their prosthetic restoration. The abstracts identified in the respective databases were screened independently by two investigators. RCTs and uncontrolled studies were considered, provided the patients were included consecutively and the confounding variables were adequately monitored. Seventeen papers were included. The study and publication quality was assessed using a "biometric quality" tool showing an overall poor quality. The reported outcomes, such as survival rates, were in each case obtained from a single study. Two possible trends could be deduced for the endpoint longevity: (a) the first trend in favor of removable partial dentures, compared to fixed partial dentures, with a fully edentulous opposing arch fitted with a removable prosthesis; (b) the second trend in favor of implant-supported partial dentures, compared to conventionally fixed partial dentures, with natural opposing dentition or with a removable partial denture in the opposing arch. No evidence could be generated as to whether, and if so how, variations in the opposing dentition have a bearing on the decision to fit a partially edentulous arch with a fixed or removable partial denture.

  16. Relevance of Variations in the Opposing Dentition for the Functionality of Fixed and Removable Partial Dentures: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Pommer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the functionality of fixed and removable partial dentures as test interventions in relation to variations in the opposing dentition and their prosthetic restoration. The abstracts identified in the respective databases were screened independently by two investigators. RCTs and uncontrolled studies were considered, provided the patients were included consecutively and the confounding variables were adequately monitored. Seventeen papers were included. The study and publication quality was assessed using a “biometric quality” tool showing an overall poor quality. The reported outcomes, such as survival rates, were in each case obtained from a single study. Two possible trends could be deduced for the endpoint longevity: (a the first trend in favor of removable partial dentures, compared to fixed partial dentures, with a fully edentulous opposing arch fitted with a removable prosthesis; (b the second trend in favor of implant-supported partial dentures, compared to conventionally fixed partial dentures, with natural opposing dentition or with a removable partial denture in the opposing arch. No evidence could be generated as to whether, and if so how, variations in the opposing dentition have a bearing on the decision to fit a partially edentulous arch with a fixed or removable partial denture.

  17. Laminar mixed convection heat transfer in a vertical circular tube under buoyancy-assisted and opposed flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Hussein A.

    2008-01-01

    Laminar mixed convection heat transfer for assisted and opposed air flows in the entrance region of a vertical circular tube with the using of a uniform wall heat flux boundary condition has been experimentally investigated. The experimental setup was designed for determining the effect of flow direction and the effect of tube inclination on the surface temperature, local and average Nusselt numbers with Reynolds number ranged from 400 to 1600 and Grashof number from 2.0 x 10 5 to 6.2 x 10 6 . It was found that the circumferential surface temperature along the dimensionless tube length for opposed flow would be higher than that both of assisted flow and horizontal tube [Mohammed HA, Salman YK. Experimental investigation of combined convection heat transfer for thermally developing flow in a horizontal circular cylinder. Appl Therm Eng 2007;27(8-9):1522-33] due to the stronger free convective currents within the cross-section. The Nusselt number values would be lower for opposed flow than that for assisted flow. It was inferred that the behaviour of Nu x for opposed flow to be strongly dependent on the combination of Re and Gr numbers. Empirical equations expressing the average Nusselt numbers in terms of Grashof and Reynolds numbers were proposed for both assisted and opposed flow cases. The average heat transfer results were compared with previous literature and showed similar trend and satisfactory agreement

  18. Experimental model of traumatic ulcer in the cheek mucosa of rats Modelo experimental de úlcera traumática em mucosa jugal de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyléia Meneses Cavalcante

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish an experimental model of traumatic ulcer in rat cheek mucosa for utilization in future alternative therapy studies. METHODS: A total of 60 adult male rats (250 - 300g were used. Ulceration of the left cheek mucosa was provoked by abrasion using a nº 15 scalpel blade. The animals were observed for 10 days, during which they were weighed and their ulcers were measured. The histological characteristics were analyzed and scored according to the ulcer phase. In the statistical analysis, a value of pOBJETIVO: Estabelecer um modelo experimental de úlcera traumática em mucosa jugal de ratos para utilização em futuros testes de terapias alternativas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 60 ratos, adultos, machos, pesando entre 250 a 300g. A ulceração na mucosa jugal esquerda foi provocada por meio da abrasão desta com uma lâmina de bisturi número 15. Os animais foram observados por um período de 10 dias, sendo estes pesados e suas escoriações mensuradas. As características histológicas foram analisadas e descritas adotando escores para comparação dos estágios da fase da úlcera. Na análise estatística um valor de p<0,01 foi considerado uma resposta estatisticamente significante em todos os casos. RESULTADOS: Durante os cinco primeiros dias os animais perderam peso ("t" Student - p<0,01. A área da úlcera regrediu linearmente com o tempo, estando quase que completamente cicatrizada ao final de dez dias (ANOVA, pós-teste de Tendência - p<0,0001. Os grupos do 1º, 2º e 3º dias tiveram comportamento semelhante havendo uma diminuição dos escores a partir do 4º dia. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo de úlcera na mucosa jugal de ratos proposto pode ser considerado eficaz, apresentando reprodutibilidade confiável e baixo custo.

  19. Opposed-Flow Flame Spread in a Narrow Channel Apparatus over Thin PMMA Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornand, G. R.; Olson, Sandra L.; Miller, F. J.; Pepper, J. M.; Wichman, I. S.

    2013-01-01

    Flame spread tests have been conducted over polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) samples in San Diego State University's Narrow Channel Apparatus (SDSU NCA). The Narrow Channel Apparatus (NCA) has the ability to suppress buoyant flow in horizontally spreading flames, and is currently being investigated as a possible replacement or complement to NASA's current material flammability test standard for non-metallic solids, NASA-STD-(I)-6001B Test 1. The buoyant suppression achieved with a NCA allows for tests to be conducted in a simulated microgravity atmosphere-a characteristic that Test 1 lacks since flames present in Test 1 are buoyantly driven. The SDSU NCA allows for flame spread tests to be conducted with varying opposed flow oxidizer velocities, oxygen percent by volume, and total pressure. Also, since the test sample is placed symmetrically between two confining plates so that there is a gap above and below the sample, this gap can be adjusted. This gap height adjustment allows for a compromise between heat loss from the flame to the confining boundaries and buoyancy suppression achieved by those boundaries. This article explores the effect gap height has on the flame spread rate for 75 µm thick PMMA at 1 atm pressure and 21% oxygen concentration by volume in the SDSU NCA. Flame spread results from the SDSU NCA for thin cellulose fuels have previously been compared to results from tests in actual microgravity at various test conditions with the same sample materials and were found to be in good agreement. This article also presents results from the SDSU NCA for PMMA at 1 atm pressure, opposed oxidizer velocity ranging from 3 to 35 cm/s, oxygen concentration by volume at 21%, 30 %, and 50% and fuel thicknesses of 50 and 75 µm. These results are compared to results obtained in actual microgravity for PMMA obtained at the 4.5s drop tower of MGLAB in Gifu, Japan, and the 5.2s drop tower at NASA's Zero-Gravity Research Facility in Cleveland, OH. This comparison confirms

  20. Wear of human enamel opposing monolithic zirconia, glass ceramic, and composite resin: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripetchdanond, Jeerapa; Leevailoj, Chalermpol

    2014-11-01

    Demand is increasing for ceramic and composite resin posterior restorations. However, ceramics are recognized for their high abrasiveness to opposing dental structure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the wear of enamel as opposed to dental ceramics and composite resin. Twenty-four test specimens (antagonists), 6 each of monolithic zirconia, glass ceramic, composite resin, and enamel, were prepared into cylindrical rods. Enamel specimens were prepared from 24 extracted human permanent molar teeth. Enamel specimens were abraded against each type of antagonist with a pin-on-disk wear tester under a constant load of 25 N at 20 rpm for 4800 cycles. The maximum depth of wear (Dmax), mean depth of wear (Da), and mean surface roughness (Ra) of the enamel specimens were measured with a profilometer. All data were statistically analyzed by 1-way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey test (α=.05). A paired t test was used to compare the Ra of enamel at baseline and after testing. The wear of both the enamel and antagonists was evaluated qualitatively with scanning electron microscopic images. No significant differences were found in enamel wear depth (Dmax, Da) between monolithic zirconia (2.17 ±0.80, 1.83 ±0.75 μm) and composite resin (1.70 ±0.92, 1.37 ±0.81 μm) or between glass ceramic (8.54 ±2.31, 7.32 ±2.06 μm) and enamel (10.72 ±6.31, 8.81 ±5.16 μm). Significant differences were found when the enamel wear depth caused by monolithic zirconia and composite resin was compared with that of glass ceramic and enamel (Pglass ceramic, and enamel (Pglass ceramic and enamel. All test materials except composite resin similarly increased the enamel surface roughness after wear testing. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies on antigenic cross-reactivity of Trichuris ovis with host mucosal antigens in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Patra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain whether immunodominant antigens of Trichuris ovis might share and cross react with host molecule. Methods: Two crude protein preparations from anterior and posterior parts of Trichuris ovis were characterized along with host mucosal antigen by double immunodiffusion, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting technique. Conventional scanning electron microscopy was performed as per standard procedure. Results: Sharp and distinct bands of three antigens have been found in double immunodiffusion using hyperimmune serum raised in rabbit indicating the presence of specific antibody against each antigen. All three antigens have shown major and minor bands with molecular weight ranging from 15 to 110 kDa during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Conclusions: The antigenic cross-reactivity was thought to result from shared antigens. The existence of paracloacal papillae found in the anterior part of the male was not a unique feature for species differentiation.

  2. Glutamina e turnover do carbono da mucosa intestinal de leitões desmamados Glutamine and carbon turnover of the intestinal mucosa of weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para verificar a influência da glutamina no turnover do carbono na mucosa intestinal de leitões desmamados. Nove matrizes receberam dietas compostas basicamente de plantas do ciclo fotossintético C4 durante toda a gestação (d‰13C = 17,12 e lactação (d‰13C = -19,26. Os leitões foram desmamados aos 21 dias de idade e 68 deles foram alimentados com ração composta de plantas do ciclo fotossintético C3 (d‰13C = -25,12. Os leitões foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em duas dietas: uma sem suplementação de glutamina; e outra suplementada com 1% de glutamina. Aos 0; 1; 1,5; 2; 2,5; 3; 3,5; 4; 4,5; 5; 5,5; 8; 11; 15, 20; 29 e 46 dias pós-desmame, dois leitões de cada dieta foram abatidos para coleta de amostras da mucosa intestinal, que foram analisadas quanto à composição isotópica de d‰13C e mensurada a velocidade de substituição do carbono no tempo. Os valores da meia-vida do carbono para a mucosa intestinal foram de 6,0 e 3,5 dias para as dietas controle e com glutamina, respectivamente. A glutamina acelerou a velocidade de substituição do carbono na mucosa intestinal, evidenciando sua ação benéfica na recuperação da estrutura do intestino após o desmame.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the influence of glutamine on the carbon turnover in the intestinal mucosa of weaned piglets. Nine matrices received diets predominantly composed by photosintetic cycle C4 plants during the gestation (d‰13C = -17.12 and lactation (d‰13C = -19.26. The piglets were weaned at 21 days of age, and 68 animals were fed rations composed by photosintetic cycle C3 plants (d‰13C = -25.12. The piglets were distributed at random in two treatments: one diet without glutamine supplementation and the other diet supplemented with 1% of glutamine. On days 0; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5; 3; 3.5; 4; 4.5; 5; 5.5; 8; 11; 15, 20; 29 and 46 after weaning, two piglets from each diet were slaughtered for collection of samples

  3. [The methods of modern reflexotherapy in the combined treatment of patients with erosive-ulcerative processes of the oral mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimovskaia, L N; Barashkov, G N; Trestsov, N G

    1991-01-01

    The authors suggest a scheme of multiple-modality treatment of patients with erosive ulcerative processes in the buccal mucosa. This scheme was employed in the treatment of such patients and it was conducive to a sooner epithelialization of erosions and ulcers in the buccal mucosa; its analgesic effect was fairly high.

  4. The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in determining viralactivity in chronic Hepatitis B virus infection. ... ofCHB andalso higher in hepatitis e antigen positive patients compared to hepatitis e antigen negative patients.

  5. The effects of Strongylus vulgaris parasitism on eosinophil distribution and accumulation in equine large intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötting, A K; Freeman, D E; Constable, P D; Moore, R M; Eurell, J C; Wallig, M A; Hubert, J D

    2008-06-01

    Eosinophilic granulocytes have been associated with parasite or immune-mediated diseases, but their functions in other disease processes remain unclear. Cause and timing of eosinophil migration into the equine gastrointestinal mucosa are also unknown. To determine the effects of intestinal parasitism on eosinophils in equine large intestinal mucosa. Large intestinal mucosal samples were collected from horses and ponies (n = 16) from the general veterinary hospital population, ponies (n = 3) raised in a parasite-free environment, ponies experimentally infected with 500 infective Strongylus vulgaris larvae and treated with a proprietary anthelmintic drug (n = 14), and a similar group of ponies (n = 7) that received no anthelmintic treatment. Total eosinophil counts and eosinophil distribution in the mucosa were determined by histological examination. A mixed model analysis was performed and appropriate Bonferroni adjusted P values used for each family of comparisons. Pvulgaris and those raised in a parasite-free environment. Experimental infection with S. vulgaris, with or without subsequent anthelmintic treatment, did not change eosinophil counts, and counts were similar to those for horses from the general population. Migration of eosinophils to the equine large intestinal mucosa appears to be independent of exposure to parasites. Large intestinal mucosal eosinophils may have more functions in addition to their role in defence against parasites.

  6. EFFECT OF POLYMER PROSTHETIC CONSTRUCTION TREATED WITH GLOW-DISCHARGE PLASMA ON ORAL MUCOSA (CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Kudasova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic material should induce minimal pathological reaction when in contact with the oral mucosa, especially during oral rehabilitation of patients with tumors of the oral mucosa. The article presents monitoring of a patient after surgery for cancer of the buccal mucosa at the stage of orthopedic rehabilitation. Treatment plan proposed complex oral rehabilitation. A maxillary complete removable denture was manufactured as well as metalloceramic and partial mandibular dentures. Plasma chemical modification of the removable dentures was planned after correction of the prosthetics and primary adaptation. Removable dentures were applied at the maxilla and mandibula. Per our recommendations, the patient was examined weekly for a month and monthly for 6 months. No new tumors or pathological elements were observed.Conclusions. Changes in critical surface tension of the removable dentures made of acrylic plastic improve their biological characteristics as demonstrated by positive clinical dynamics. Prosthetic constructions with hydrophilic surface are recommended in complex clinical cases when patients with tumors of the oral mucosa require dentures.

  7. PENFIGOIDE DE MEMBRANAS MUCOSAS: A PROPÓSITO DE DOS CASOS CLÍNICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz E Casnati Guberna

    Full Text Available El penfigoide de membranas mucosas representa un heterogéneo grupo de enfermedades ampollares, autoinmunes y crónicas, que afecta las mucosas y /o la piel. Es una patología que origina como secuelas, cicatrices que motivan importantes incapacidades funcionales en las mucosas involucradas, provocando ceguera, dificultades en la masticación, la deglución o en la respiración. Su diagnóstico, tratamiento y control deben ser realizados por un equipo multidisciplinario. Se presentan dos casos clínicos de penfigoide de membranas mucosas de localización oral, por considerarlos de interés, dadas sus manifestaciones clínicas y la diferente evolución en cada uno de ellos. Se describen los métodos de diagnóstico y tratamientos durante 4 años de seguimiento y control, realizados en la Cátedra de Semiología y Patología BMF, Clínica de Estomatología de la Facultad de Odontología. Universidad de la República

  8. Oral mucosa and lung cancer: Are genetic changes in the oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-03

    Feb 3, 2016 ... to lung cancer, although other risk factors (such as genetic tendency) ... analysis of oral mucosa identifying individuals predisposed to lung cancer. ... of the study is that oral epithelial cells of smokers who have lung cancer are ... Stratec Molecular, Berlin, Germany). p53 codon 72 ..... Validity and reliability of.

  9. Histamine stimulates chloride secretion in omeprazole-inhibited frog gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGreevy, J.; Barton, R.; Housinger, T.

    1986-01-01

    Omeprazole (OME) stops hydrogen ion (H) secretion in the histamine (HIST)-stimulated gastric mucosa while the chloride (Cl) which had accompanied the H continues to be pumped into the lumen. This finding suggests that the Cl pump is independent of the H/K ATP-ase driven H pump. To test this hypothesis, 16 Ussing-chambered frog mucosas were exposed to OME prior to HIST stimulation. If the Cl pump is independent, HIST should stimulate Cl secretion in the OME-inhibited mucosa. A 1 hr control (CON) interval preceded exposure to OME (10 -4 M) in the nutrient solution. Potential difference (PD), short-circuit current (Isc), resistance (R), H flux (J/sup H/) and Cl flux (J/sup Cl/ with 36 Cl) were measured every 15 min. After 1 hr of OME exposure, HIST (10 -5 M) was added to the nutrient solution. The findings demonstrate that HIST stimulates Cl secretion in the OME-inhibited bullfrog gastric mucosa

  10. Transparency-enhancing technology allows three-dimensional assessment of gastrointestinal mucosa: A porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Hiroya; Ono, Satoshi; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Kudo, Yotaro; Ikemura, Masako; Kageyama, Natsuko; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Someya, Takao; Fukayama, Masashi; Koike, Kazuhiko; Onodera, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    Although high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of endoscopically resected gastrointestinal specimens can help elucidating morphological features of gastrointestinal mucosa or tumor, there are no established methods to achieve this without breaking specimens apart. We evaluated the utility of transparency-enhancing technology for three-dimensional assessment of gastrointestinal mucosa in porcine models. Esophagus, stomach, and colon mucosa samples obtained from a sacrificed swine were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, and subsequently deparaffinized for analysis. The samples were fluorescently stained, optically cleared using transparency-enhancing technology: ilLUmination of Cleared organs to IDentify target molecules method (LUCID), and visualized using laser scanning microscopy. After observation, all specimens were paraffin-embedded again and evaluated by conventional histopathological assessment to measure the impact of transparency-enhancing procedures. As a result, microscopic observation revealed horizontal section views of mucosa at deeper levels and enabled the three-dimensional image reconstruction of glandular and vascular structures. Besides, paraffin-embedded specimens after transparency-enhancing procedures were all assessed appropriately by conventional histopathological staining. These results suggest that transparency-enhancing technology may be feasible for clinical application and enable the three-dimensional structural analysis of endoscopic resected specimen non-destructively. Although there remain many limitations or problems to be solved, this promising technology might represent a novel histopathological method for evaluating gastrointestinal cancers. © 2018 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in the Gastric Mucosa by Fluorescence In Vivo Hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontenete, Silvia; Leite, Marina; Figueiredo, Céu

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a fluorescence in vivo hybridization (FIVH) protocol, using nucleic acid probes, for the detection of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of an infected C57BL/6 mouse model. This protocol should be easily extended to other microorganisms not only...

  12. Mucosa protectives: sucralfate and colloidal bismuth subcitrate in peptic ulcer disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Nio, C. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Mucosa protective drugs are thought to have an important role in the treatment of both duodenal (DU) and gastric ulcer (GU) disease by means of correcting the disturbed defensive factors. Sucralfate as well as colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) form a layer on the ulcer base and in this way protect

  13. Pathohistologic characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa in liquidators of Chernobyl accident with peptic duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyar'ova, L.V.

    2000-01-01

    Pathomorphological characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa associated with the dose of ionizing radiation at peptic duodenal ulcer in participants of the Chernobyl accident clean-up was determined. Our findings suggest that the doses of external irradiation exceeding 25 cGy (together with the other harmful effects of the Chernobyl accident) represent a danger of helicobacter infection development

  14. Treatment of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma in Sjogren's Syndrome : A Retrospective Clinical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollard, Rodney P. E.; Pijpe, Justin; Bootsma, Hendrika; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Kluin, Philip M.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Vissink, Arjan; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To retrospectively analyze the clinical course of patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma of the parotid gland and associated Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Methods. All consecutive patients with SS and MALT lymphoma (MALT-SS) diagnosed in the University Medical

  15. An endoscopic evaluation of the effects of etodolac and diclofenac on the gastric and duodenal mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eeden, A.; Schotborgh, R. H.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the gastroduodenal mucosa were evaluated by endoscopy and direct photography in 36 healthy men who were randomly assigned to receive 150 mg of diclofenac, 1,200 mg of etodolac, or 600 mg of etodolac daily for seven days. Endoscopy was

  16. Cytological and histological changes of the rectal mucosa cduring radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Toshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    In a study undertaken to investigate acute radiogenic changes in the rectal mucosa occurring during Linac radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix, rectal scrapings and mucosal tissue specimens were obtained under direct vision through a proctoscope and examined cytologically and histologically. The severity of changes in epithelial cells was proportional to the radiation dose. Thus, i) irradiation at a dose of 1000 rads was associated with a slight disorder in the arrangement of epithelial cells as well as enlargement and increased stainability of their nuclei; these changes agreed well with histological findings, ii) at 2000 rads a moderate disorder in the arrangement of epithelial cells, enlargement of nuclei and pyknosis became noticeable; decreased stainability of nuclei and vacuolization were prominent, iii) at 3000 rads disordered arrangement of epithelial cells, enlargement and decreased stainability of nuclei or pyknosis were still more marked and desquamation of epithelial cells, inequality in size and stainability of nuclei and enlargement and increase in the number of nucleoli became prominent. Morphological evidence indicated that the radiosensitivity of the mucosal epithelium of the rectum is lower than that of the small intestine but higher than that of the squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix. After introduction of a central shield there was rapid recovery of the rectal mucosa both cytologically and histologically, thus demonstrating that at dose levels up to 3000 rads no permanent damage occurs in the rectal mucosa. This finding suggests the importance of a central shield in lessening radiation damage to the rectal mucosa. (author)

  17. Survival, Intestinal Mucosa Adhesion, and Immunomodulatory Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarmaki, Valentini; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Kiourtzidis, Mikis; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Tassou, Chrysoula; Tsakalidou, Effie; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Ypsilantis, Petros

    2017-09-01

    Survival during transit through the gastrointestinal track, intestinal mucosa adhesion, and a potential immunomodulatory effect of Lactobacillus plantarum strains 2035 and ACA-DC 2640 were investigated in a rat model. According to microbiological and multiplex PCR analysis, both strains were detected in feces 24 h after either single-dose or daily administration for 7 days. Intestinal mucosa adhesion of L. plantarum 2035 was noted in the large intestine at 24 h after single-dose administration, while it was not detected at 48 h. Daily dosing, prolonged detection of the strain up to 48 h post-administration, and expanded adhesion to the small intestine. Adhesion of L. plantarum ACA-DC 2640 to the intestinal mucosa after single-dose administration was prolonged and more extended compared to L. plantarum 2035. Daily dosing increased both the levels and the rate of positive cultures of the strains compared to those of the single-dose scheme. In addition, both strains increased total IgG while decreased IgM and IgA serum levels. In conclusion, L. plantarum 2035 and L. plantarum ACA-DC 2640 survived transit through the gastrointestinal track, exhibited transient distinct adhesion to the intestinal mucosa and modulated the systemic immune response.

  18. Morphometric study of uninvolved rectal mucosa 10 cm and 20 cm away from the malignant tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despotović, Sanja Z; Milićević, Novica M; Milosević, Dragoslav P; Despotović, Nebojsa; Erceg, Predrag; Bojić, Bozidar; Bojić, Danijela; Svorcan, Petar; Mihajlović, Gordana; Dorđević, Jelena; Lalić, Ivana M; Milićević, Zivana

    2014-02-01

    Recently, many details of the interplay between tumor cells and tumor-associated stromal elements leading to the progression of malignant disease were elucidated. In contrast, little is known about the role of uninvolved stromal tissue in the remote surrounding of the malignant tumor. Therefore, we performed a computer-aided morphometric study of rectal mucosa in samples taken 10 cm and 20 cm away from the malignant tumor during endoscopic examination of 23 patients older than 60 years. The samples of rectal mucosa from 10 healthy persons of corresponding age subjected to diagnostic rectoscopy during active screening for asymptomatic cancer were used as control. All structural elements of the rectal mucosa were studied and the number of nucleated cells in the lamina propria per 0.1 mm² of tissue was assessed. Our study revealed a reduced number of cells in the lamina propria of the rectal mucosa 10 cm and 20 cm away from the tumor lesion in both male and female patients. The decreased mucosal height and increased crypt number were registered in female patients 10 cm away from the tumor. The connective tissue of lamina propria showed a disorderly organization: the collagen fibers were frail, loosely arranged and signs of tissue edema were present. Small blood vessels and capillaries were much more frequently seen than in healthy tissue. Our results demonstrate the complex interactions between the cancer and remote mucosal tissue of the affected organ.

  19. Characterisation of Roseomonas mucosa isolated from the root canal of an infected tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesendorf, Nina; Köhler, Stefanie; Geißdörfer, Walter; Grobecker-Karl, Tanja; Karl, Matthias; Burkovski, Andreas

    2017-06-14

    The genus Roseomonas comprises a group of pink-pigmented, slow-growing, aerobic, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria, which have been isolated from environmental sources such as water and soil, but are also associated with human infections. In the study presented here, Roseomonas mucosa was identified for the first time as part of the endodontic microbiota of an infected root canal and characterised in respect to growth, antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm formation. The isolated R. mucosa strain showed strong slime formation and was resistant to most β-lactam antibiotics, while it was susceptible to aminoglycosides, carbapenemes, fluorochinolones, polymyxines, sulfonamides and tetracyclines. Biofilm formation on artificial surfaces (glass, polystyrene, gutta-percha) and on teeth was tested using colorimetric and fluorescence microscopic assays. While solid biofilms were formed on glass surfaces, on the hydrophobic surface of gutta-percha points, no confluent but localised, spotty biofilms were observed. Furthermore, R. mucosa was able form biofilms on dentin. The data obtained indicate that R. mucosa can support establishment of endodontic biofilms and furthermore, infected root canals might serve as an entrance pathway for blood stream infections by this emerging pathogen.

  20. Ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejima, Yasuo; Sasaki, Ryohei; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Maruta, Tsutomu; Azumi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Demizu, Yusuke; Ota, Yosuke; Soejima, Toshinori; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2006-01-01

    Forty-two patients with stage IE ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma were retrospectively analyzed. Five-year local control and progression-free survival rates were 100 and 77%, respectively. The most common relapsed site was the contralateral orbit. Thirty Gy of local irradiation seemed to be quite effective and safe

  1. Quantification of bacteria adherent to gastrointestinal mucosa by real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsdens, Xander W.; Linskens, Ronald K.; Mak, Mariëtte; Meuwissen, Stephan G. M.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2002-01-01

    The use of real-time quantitative PCR (5' nuclease PCR assay) as a tool to study the gastrointestinal microflora that adheres to the colonic mucosa was evaluated. We developed primers and probes based on the 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequences for the detection of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides

  2. The Effect of Propolis in Healing Injured Nasal Mucosa: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed; Abdelmonem, Said; Abdelsameea, Ahmed A.; AlShawadfy, Mohamed; El-Kashishy, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Mechanical trauma to the nasal mucosa increases the risk of synechia formation, especially after chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal surgeries. Objective  This study was carried to assess the effect of propolis administration in healing injured nasal mucosa in rats. Methods  We randomly divided eighteen rats into three equal experimental groups: (1) non-treated group; (2) gum tragacanth (suspending agent for propolis) treated group; and (3) propolis treated group. The non-treated group received no treatment for 15 days. The second group received gum tragacanth administration (5 ml/kg, orally) once daily for 15 days. The third group received propolis suspension orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily for 15 days. At the beginning of this study, we induced unilateral mechanical nasal trauma on the right nasal mucosa of all rats in the three groups using a brushing technique. A pathologist stained tissue samples using hematoxylin and examined eosin by using a light microscope. Results  The severity of inflammation was milder with the absence of ulcerations in the propolis treated group compared with the non-treated and gum tragacanth groups. Goblet cell and ciliated cell loss was substantially lower in patients treated with propolis compared with groups without treatment and those treated with gum tragacanth. Conclusion  Propolis decreased inflammation and enhanced healing of wounds of the nasal mucosa in rats. PMID:27413403

  3. The Effect of Propolis in Healing Injured Nasal Mucosa: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mechanical trauma to the nasal mucosa increases the risk of synechia formation, especially after chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal surgeries. Objective This study was carried to assess the effect of propolis administration in healing injured nasal mucosa in rats. Methods We randomly divided eighteen rats into three equal experimental groups: (1 non-treated group; (2 gum tragacanth (suspending agent for propolis treated group; and (3 propolis treated group. The non-treated group received no treatment for 15 days. The second group received gum tragacanth administration (5 ml/kg, orally once daily for 15 days. The third group received propolis suspension orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily for 15 days. At the beginning of this study, we induced unilateral mechanical nasal trauma on the right nasal mucosa of all rats in the three groups using a brushing technique. A pathologist stained tissue samples using hematoxylin and examined eosin by using a light microscope. Results The severity of inflammation was milder with the absence of ulcerations in the propolis treated group compared with the non-treated and gum tragacanth groups. Goblet cell and ciliated cell loss was substantially lower in patients treated with propolis compared with groups without treatment and those treated with gum tragacanth. Conclusion Propolis decreased inflammation and enhanced healing of wounds of the nasal mucosa in rats.

  4. Heterotopic gastric mucosa associated with abdominal abscess formation, hypotension, and acute abdominal pain in a puppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobleman, Bridget N; Sinnott, Virginia B

    2014-01-01

    To describe the presence of heterotopic gastric mucosa forming an abscess associated with acute abdominal pain and shock in a puppy. A 7-month-old male intact Shih-Tzu was presented to the emergency service for evaluation of a 12-hour history of vomiting and lethargy progressing to weakness. On presentation, the puppy was obtunded and hypotensive. Radiographs revealed an ill-defined mid-ventral abdominal mass. Ultrasound revealed an echogenic, fluid-filled mass associated with the jejunum. The puppy had an exploratory celiotomy and a 2 × 4 cm oval fluid-filled soft tissue mass was found to be intimately associated, but not communicating with, a section of the mid-jejunum. The mass and associated jejunum were removed via enterectomy. Histopathology of the resected mass revealed heterotopic gastric mucosa; bacterial culture of the fluid contained in the mass revealed heavy growth of Escherichia coli. The puppy recovered from surgery, was discharged from the hospital, and has had no further complications from this episode. Heterotopic gastric mucosa is commonly found incidentally on necropsy. When it has been associated with acute gastrointestinal signs, mechanical intestinal obstruction with or without perforation was noted. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of heterotopic gastric mucosa leading to abscess formation and acute abdominal pain in the dog. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  5. NONINVASIVE NASAL MUCOSA EXPOSURE TO TREAT AND PREVENT RHINITIS AND RHINOSINUSITIS OF VARIOUS GENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Radtsig

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the nasal mucosa in health and in different abnormalities. It describes the possibilities of using drugs of different groups to relieve symptoms in nasal mucosal and paranasal sinus abnormalities of different genesis, as well as the preventive effect of some of these drugs.

  6. Zonulin is not increased in the cardiac and esophageal mucosa of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, Thomas; Mönkemüller, Klaus; Kuester, Doerthe; Fry, Lucia; Kandulski, Arne; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Human Zonulin, related to the Zonula occludens toxin of Vibrio cholerae, regulates intestinal permeability and is induced in inflammatory disorders of the lower GI tract. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with an impairment of epithelial barrier function. Here, we studied expression of zonulin in the gastroesophageal mucosa of 58 patients with typical reflux symptoms and 27 asymptomatic controls. During endoscopy, multiple biopsies from gastroesophageal mucosa were obtained for routine histopathology (Helicobacter pylori-status, inflammation) and gene expression analysis (immunohistochemistry, ELISA). Patients with GERD presented with typical histopathological alterations like elongation of papillae (P=0.015), basal cell hyperplasia (PZonulin was found to be expressed ubiquitously in gastroesophageal mucosa. Mucosal levels in controls ranged between 2.2 and 3.7 ng/microg total protein. Mean values were significantly higher in antrum (3.3+/-1.7 ng/microg) than cardia (2.7+/-1.2n g/microg) and esophagus (2.2+/-1.3 ng/microg) (Pzonulin expression in gastroesophageal mucosa. In conclusion, despite its established role for intestinal permeability, Zonulin seems not to be involved in the regulation of epithelial barrier function in relation to GERD.

  7. Perception of iron deficiency from oral mucosa alterations that show a high prevalence of Candida infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yu Lu

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: The study demonstrates that oral mucosa alterations accompanying oral candidosis are a sensitive indicator of ID. All oral changes can be successfully ameliorated by iron therapy plus antifungals when candidosis exists. Investigating the origin of IDA is necessary, because it may be the first sign of a more serious disease, particularly malignancy.

  8. Insulin and thyroxine effect on /sup 32/P incorporation in the phospholipids of chicken intestinal mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, S; Lazarov, J [Akademiya na Selskostopanskite Nauki, Sofia-Kostinbrod (Bulgaria). Inst. po Zhivotnovydstvo

    1977-01-01

    Trials were conducted with 56-day-old broiler chickens. The effect was followed up of insulin and alloxan as well as of L-thyroxine and 6-methylthiouracil on /sup 32/P incorporation in phospholipids of the duodenal mucosa. A segment of the duodenum was isolated and Na/sub 2/H/sup 32/PO/sub 4/ was introduced therein. The lipids were extracted from duodenal mucosa and the individual phospholipids were separated by means of thin layer chromatography on sillica gel-G. Radioactivity was determined of individual phospholipid fractions. Blood glucose level was studied in insulin and alloxan-treated chickens. The inference was drawn that insulin significantly enhances /sup 32/P incorporation in the phospholipids in broiler chicken duodenal mucosa. The drop in blood glucose in insulin-treated chickens is inversely proportional to /sup 32/ P inclusion in individual phospholipids of duodenal mucosa. L-thyroxine exerts positive effect in chickens concerning /sup 32/P incorporation in lecithin and lysolecithin, this effect being negative with respect to sphingomyelin, cephalin and cardiolipin. Thyroid gland inhibition by 6-methylthiouracil induces negligible decline in /sup 32/P inclusion.

  9. Morphological study of the sensory innervation of the rat labial mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T; Tazaki, M; Sakada, S

    1986-02-01

    The sensory innervation of the rat labial mucosa was investigated by means of methylene blue vital staining and osmic acid staining. Sensory receptors in this region were of three kinds (free nerve endings, encapsulated corpuscles and bush-like nerve endings) which constituted separate sensory units respectively. The encapsulated corpuscles were observed in the deep part of lamina propria, and distributed mainly in the margin of labial mucosa. Almost all (78.8%) of encapsulated corpuscles were of a simple type which had a non-branched axon terminal. No clew-like type corpuscles or glomerular-Meissner corpuscles were observed. The bush-like nerve endings were located in the lamina propria close to the epithelium, and localized in the central part of labial mucosa where the formation of papillae was remarkable. The density of the encapsulated corpuscles in the entire mucosa was 3.5-5.3/mm2, and that of the bush-like nerve endings in the densely distributed area was 38.9-60.6/mm2.

  10. Histopathological evaluation of urethroplasty with dorsal buccal mucosa: an experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanne F. Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Buccal mucosa is a widely accepted tissue for urethroplasty. The exact healing and tissue integration process, mainly the histological characteristics of dorsal buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty when used dorsally to reconstruct the urethral plate has not previously been assessed, and thus we developed an experimental model to address this question. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 New Zealand rabbits (weight 2.5 kg we surgically created a dorsal penile urethral defect. A buccal mucosa graft was sutured to the corpora and tunica albuginea, and the ventral urethra anastomosed to this new urethral plate. The animals were divided in three groups and sacrificed 1, 3 and 6 weeks after surgery (groups 1, 2 and 3. A retrograde urethrogram was obtained at autopsy in the last group and the penis analyzed histologically with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's staining. RESULTS: The urethrograms showed no evidence of fistula or stricture. In group 1 the histopathological analysis showed submucosal lymph-mononuclear inflammatory edema, numerous eosinophils and squamous epithelium integrated into the adjacent urothelium. In group 2 there was no evidence of an inflammatory response but rather complete subepithelial hyaline healing, which was more marked in group 3. CONCLUSION: Healing of buccal mucosa grafts to reconstruct the urethral plate can be achieved by total integration of the squamous epithelium with the urothelium, maintaining the original histological properties of the graft with no fibrosis or retraction.

  11. Chaotic Behaviour Investigation of a Front Opposed-Hemispherical Spiral-Grooved Air Bearing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, spiral-grooved air bearing systems have attracted much attention and are especially useful in precision instruments and machines with spindles that rotate at high speed. Load support can be multidirectional and this type of bearing can also be very rigid. Studies show that some of the design problems encountered are dynamic and include critical speed, nonlinearity, gas film pressure, unbalanced rotors, and even poor design, all of which can result in the generation of chaotic aperiodic motion and instability under certain conditions. Such irregular motion on a large scale can cause severe damage to a machine or instrument. Therefore, understanding the conditions under which aperiodic behaviour and vibration arise is crucial for prevention. In this study, numerical analysis, including the Finite Difference and Differential Transformation Methods, is used to study these effects in detail in a front opposed-hemispherical spiral-grooved air bearing system. It was found that different rotor masses and bearing number could cause undesirable behaviour including periodic, subperiodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motion. The results obtained in this study can be used as a basis for future bearing system design and the prevention of instability.

  12. Type I interferons have opposing effects during the emergence and recovery phases of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Isabella; Hainzl, Eva; Rosebrock, Felix; Heider, Susanne; Schwab, Clarissa; Berry, David; Stoiber, Dagmar; Wagner, Michael; Schleper, Christa; Loy, Alexander; Urich, Tim; Müller, Mathias; Strobl, Birgit; Kenner, Lukas; Decker, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The contribution of the innate immune system to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is under intensive investigation. Research in animal models has demonstrated that type I interferons (IFN-Is) protect from IBD. In contrast, studies of patients with IBD have produced conflicting results concerning the therapeutic potential of IFN-Is. Here, we present data suggesting that IFN-Is play dual roles as regulators of intestinal inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated C57BL/6 mice. Though IFN-Is reduced acute intestinal damage and the abundance of colitis-associated intestinal bacteria caused by treatment with a high dose of DSS, they also inhibited the resolution of inflammation after DSS treatment. IFN-Is played an anti-inflammatory role by suppressing the release of IL-1β from the colon MHC class II(+) cells. Consistently, IL-1 receptor blockade reduced the severity of inflammation in IFN-I receptor-deficient mice and myeloid cell-restricted ablation of the IFN-I receptor was detrimental. The proinflammatory role of IFN-Is during recovery from DSS treatment was caused by IFN-I-dependent cell apoptosis as well as an increase in chemokine production and infiltrating inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils. Thus, IFN-Is play opposing roles in specific phases of intestinal injury and inflammation, which may be important for guiding treatment strategies in patients. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Aspects of extratropical synoptic-scale processes in opposing ENSO phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwierz, C.; Wernli, H.; Hess, D.

    2003-04-01

    Energy and momentum provided by anomalous tropical heating/cooling affect the circulation on the global scale. Pacific Sea surface temperature anomalies strongly force local conditions in the equatorial Pacific, but are also known to change the climate in the extratropics, particularly over the American continent. The impact on more remote areas such as the Atlantic-European region is less clear. There the observed effects in both analyses and model studies show dependence on the resolution of the model/data, as well as on the time scales under consideration (Merkel and Latif, 2002; Compo et al., 2001). Most of the previous studies focus on larger-scale processes and seasonal time scales (or longer). Here we concentrate on the impact of opposing ENSO phases on extratropical synoptic-scale dynamics. The investigation is undertaken for the Niño/Niña events of 1972/3 and 1973/4 respectively, for 5 winter months (NDJFM) using ECMWF ERA40 data with 1o× 1o horizontal resolution and 60 vertical levels. The examination of the resulting differences in terms of standard dynamical fields (temperature, sea level pressure, precipitation, geopotential) is complemented with additional diagnostic fields (e.g. potential vorticity (PV), anti-/cyclone tracks and frequencies, PV streamers/cut-offs, blocking) in an attempt to gain more insight into aspects of extratropical synoptic-scale dynamical processes associated with ENSO SST anomalies.

  14. Evaluation of bone marrow by opposed phase T1-weighted images and enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yasuo; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Miyashita, Tsuguhiro; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Horiuchi, Junichi; Nomura, Takeo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo

    1994-01-01

    We investigated bone marrow in a control group, cases of aplastic anemia and post-irradiation patients by examining T1-weighted (T1W1), short T1 inversion recovery (STIR), opposed phase T1W1 (op-T1W1) and Gd-DTPA enhanced op-T1W1 images obtained by 0.5 T MRI. Bone marrow was classified into four types based on MR findings. Normal marrow showed low intensity on op-T1W1 and STIR images without enhancement (I). Fatty marrow, which showed high intensity on T1W1 and op-T1W1 images was observed in aplastic anemia and post-irradiation patients (II). Hematopoietic marrow (III) showed low intensity on op-T1W1 and enhanced, while active hematopoietic marrow (IV) revealed high intensity on both STIR and op-T1W1 images and was enhanced following Gd-DTPA infusion. Aplastic anemia of moderate grade included types II, III and IV. Enhanced MR was needed to differentiate between types I and III since both types showed low intensity on op-T1W1 images. Furthermore, type IV was considered as hyperplastic compared with type III. Enhanced MR and op-T1W1 images were useful in evaluating hematopoiesis of bone marrow. (author)

  15. Evaluation of bone marrow by opposed phase T1-weighted images and enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Miyashita, Tsuguhiro; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Horiuchi, Junichi; Nomura, Takeo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-09-01

    We investigated bone marrow in a control group, cases of aplastic anemia and post-irradiation patients by examining T1-weighted (T1W1), short T1 inversion recovery (STIR), opposed phase T1W1 (op-T1W1) and Gd-DTPA enhanced op-T1W1 images obtained by 0.5 T MRI. Bone marrow was classified into four types based on MR findings. Normal marrow showed low intensity on op-T1W1 and STIR images without enhancement (I). Fatty marrow, which showed high intensity on T1W1 and op-T1W1 images was observed in aplastic anemia and post-irradiation patients (II). Hematopoietic marrow (III) showed low intensity on op-T1W1 and enhanced, while active hematopoietic marrow (IV) revealed high intensity on both STIR and op-T1W1 images and was enhanced following Gd-DTPA infusion. Aplastic anemia of moderate grade included types II, III and IV. Enhanced MR was needed to differentiate between types I and III since both types showed low intensity on op-T1W1 images. Furthermore, type IV was considered as hyperplastic compared with type III. Enhanced MR and op-T1W1 images were useful in evaluating hematopoiesis of bone marrow. (author).

  16. Opposing roles of STAT4 and Dnmt3a in Th1 gene regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Duy; Yu, Qing; Walline, Crystal C.; Muthukrishnan, Rajarajeswari; Blum, Janice S.; Kaplan, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription factor STAT4 is a critical regulator of Th1 differentiation and inflammatory disease. Yet, how STAT4 regulates gene expression is still unclear. In this report, we define a STAT4-dependent sequence of events including H3K4 methylation, Jmjd3 association with STAT4 target loci, and a Jmjd3-dependent decrease in H3K27 trimethylation and DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) 3a association with STAT4 target loci. Dnmt3a has an obligate role in repressing Th1 gene expression, and in Th1 cultures deficient in both STAT4 and Dnmt3a, there is recovery in the expression of a subset of Th1 genes that is sufficient to increase IFNγ production. Moreover, although STAT4-deficient mice are protected from the development of EAE, mice deficient in STAT4 and conditionally-deficient in Dnmt3a in T cells develop paralysis. Th1 genes that are de-repressed in the absence of Dnmt3a have greater induction following the ectopic expression of the Th1-associated transcription factors T-bet and Hlx1. Together, these data demonstrate that STAT4 and Dnmt3a play opposing roles in regulating Th1 gene expression, and that one mechanism for STAT4-dependent gene programming is in establishing a de-repressed genetic state susceptible to transactivation by additional fate-determining transcription factors. PMID:23772023

  17. Opposed-flow Flame Spread Over Solid Fuels in Microgravity: the Effect of Confined Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangfeng; Hu, Jun; Xiao, Yuan; Ren, Tan; Zhu, Feng

    2015-09-01

    Effects of confined spaces on flame spread over thin solid fuels in a low-speed opposing flow is investigated by combined use of microgravity experiments and computations. The flame behaviors are observed to depend strongly on the height of the flow tunnel. In particular, a non-monotonic trend of flame spread rate versus tunnel height is found, with the fastest flame occurring in the 3 cm high tunnel. The flame length and the total heat release rate from the flame also change with tunnel height, and a faster flame has a larger length and a higher heat release rate. The computation analyses indicate that a confined space modifies the flow around the spreading flame. The confinement restricts the thermal expansion and accelerates the flow in the streamwise direction. Above the flame, the flow deflects back from the tunnel wall. This inward flow pushes the flame towards the fuel surface, and increases oxygen transport into the flame. Such a flow modification explains the variations of flame spread rate and flame length with tunnel height. The present results suggest that the confinement effects on flame behavior in microgravity should be accounted to assess accurately the spacecraft fire hazard.

  18. Opposing actions of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and GMP on temperature in conscious guinea-pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williaes, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the intracerebroventricular administration of dibutyryl cyclic AMP (Db-cAMP) induced hyperthermia in guinea pigs which was not mediated through prostaglandins or norepinephrine since a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor and an alpha-adrenergic receptor blocking agent did not antagonize the hyperthermia. However, the hyperthermic response to Db-cAMP was attenuated by the central administration of a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, which indicates that cAMP may be involved, through beta-adrenergic receptors, in the central regulation of heat production and conservation. The central administration of Db-cGMP produced hypothermia which was not mediated via histamine H1 or H2 receptors and serotonin. The antagonism of hypothermia induced by Db-cGMP and acetylcholine + physostigmine by central administration of a cholinergic muscarine receptor antagonist and not by a cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonist suggests that cholinoceptive neurons and endogenous cGMP may regulate heat loss through cholinergic muscarine receptors. It is concluded that these results indicate a regulatory role in thermoregulation provided by a balance between opposing actions of cAMP and cGMP in guinea pigs.

  19. Aromatic ring formation in opposed-flow diffusive 1,3-butadiene flames

    KAUST Repository

    Moshammer, Kai

    2016-10-17

    This paper is concerned with the formation of one- and two-ring aromatic species in near atmospheric-pressure opposed-flow diffusion flames of 1,3-butadiene (1,3-CH). The chemical structures of two different 1,3-CH/Ar-O/Ar flames were explored using flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry with both electron and single-photon ionization. We provide mole fraction profiles of 47 components as function of distance from the fuel outlet and compare them to chemically detailed modeling results. To this end, the hierarchically developed model described by Seidel et al. [16] has been updated to accurately comprise the chemistry of 1,3-butadiene. Generally a very good agreement is observed between the experimental and modeling data, allowing for a meaningful reaction path analysis. With regard to the formation of aromatic species up to naphthalene, it was essential to improve the fulvene and the C chemistry description in the mechanism. In particular, benzene is found to be formed mainly via fulvene through the reactions of the CH isomers with CH The n-CH radical reacts with CH forming 1,3-pentadiene (CH), which is subsequently oxidized to form the naphthalene precursor cyclopentadienyl (CH). Oxidation of naphthalene is predicted to be a contributor to the formation of phenylacetylene (CH), indicating that consumption reactions can be of similar importance as molecular growth reactions.

  20. Wear Resistance of 3D Printing Resin Material Opposing Zirconia and Metal Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Man Park

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing offers many advantages in dental prosthesis manufacturing. This study evaluated the wear resistance of 3D printing resin material compared with milling and conventional resin materials. Sixty substrate specimens were prepared with three types of resin materials: 3D printed resin, milled resin, and self-cured resin. The 3D printed specimens were printed at a build angle of 0° and 100 μm layer thickness by digital light processing 3D printing. Two kinds of abraders were made of zirconia and CoCr alloy. The specimens were loaded at 5 kg for 30,000 chewing cycles with vertical and horizontal movements under thermocycling condition. The 3D printed resin did not show significant difference in the maximal depth loss or the volume loss of wear compared to the milled and the self-cured resins. No significant difference was revealed depending on the abraders in the maximal depth loss or the volume loss of wear. In SEM views, the 3D printed resin showed cracks and separation of inter-layer bonds when opposing the metal abrader. The results suggest that the 3D printing using resin materials provides adequate wear resistance for dental use.

  1. Wear Resistance of 3D Printing Resin Material Opposing Zirconia and Metal Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Man; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Joo-Hee

    2018-06-20

    3D printing offers many advantages in dental prosthesis manufacturing. This study evaluated the wear resistance of 3D printing resin material compared with milling and conventional resin materials. Sixty substrate specimens were prepared with three types of resin materials: 3D printed resin, milled resin, and self-cured resin. The 3D printed specimens were printed at a build angle of 0° and 100 μm layer thickness by digital light processing 3D printing. Two kinds of abraders were made of zirconia and CoCr alloy. The specimens were loaded at 5 kg for 30,000 chewing cycles with vertical and horizontal movements under thermocycling condition. The 3D printed resin did not show significant difference in the maximal depth loss or the volume loss of wear compared to the milled and the self-cured resins. No significant difference was revealed depending on the abraders in the maximal depth loss or the volume loss of wear. In SEM views, the 3D printed resin showed cracks and separation of inter-layer bonds when opposing the metal abrader. The results suggest that the 3D printing using resin materials provides adequate wear resistance for dental use.

  2. Acoustic tweezing of particles using decaying opposing travelling surface acoustic waves (DOTSAW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jia Wei; Devendran, Citsabehsan; Neild, Adrian

    2017-10-11

    Surface acoustic waves offer a versatile and biocompatible method of manipulating the location of suspended particles or cells within microfluidic systems. The most common approach uses the interference of identical frequency, counter propagating travelling waves to generate a standing surface acoustic wave, in which particles migrate a distance less than half the acoustic wavelength to their nearest pressure node. The result is the formation of a periodic pattern of particles. Subsequent displacement of this pattern, the prerequisite for tweezing, can be achieved by translation of the standing wave, and with it the pressure nodes; this requires changing either the frequency of the pair of waves, or their relative phase. Here, in contrast, we examine the use of two counterpropagating traveling waves of different frequency. The non-linearity of the acoustic forces used to manipulate particles, means that a small frequency difference between the two waves creates a substantially different force field, which offers significant advantages. Firstly, this approach creates a much longer range force field, in which migration takes place across multiple wavelengths, and causes particles to be gathered together in a single trapping site. Secondly, the location of this single trapping site can be controlled by the relative amplitude of the two waves, requiring simply an attenuation of one of the electrical drive signals. Using this approach, we show that by controlling the powers of the opposing incoherent waves, 5 μm particles can be migrated laterally across a fluid flow to defined locations with an accuracy of ±10 μm.

  3. Opposing effects of external gibberellin and Daminozide on Stevia growth and metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Javad; Ahmadi, Ali; Abbasi, Alireza; Pompeiano, Antonio; Tavarini, Silvia; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Angelini, Luciana G

    2015-01-01

    Steviol glycosides (SVglys) and gibberellins are originated from the shared biosynthesis pathway in Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni). In this research, two experiments were conducted to study the opposing effects of external gibberellin (GA3) and Daminozide (a gibberellin inhibitor) on Stevia growth and metabolites. Results showed that GA3 significantly increased the stem length and stem dry weight in Stevia. Total soluble sugar content increased while the SVglys biosynthesis was decreased by external GA3 applying in Stevia leaves. In another experiment, the stem length was reduced by Daminozide spraying on Stevia shoots. The Daminozide did not affect the total SVglys content, while in 30 ppm concentration, significantly increased the soluble sugar production in Stevia leaves. Although the gibberellins biosynthesis pathway has previously invigorated in Stevia leaf, the Stevia response to external gibberellins implying on high precision regulation of gibberellins biosynthesis in Stevia and announces that Stevia is able to kept endogenous gibberellins in a low quantity away from SVglys production. Moreover, the assumption that the internal gibberellins were destroyed by Daminozide, lack of Daminozide effects on SVglys production suggests that gibberellins biosynthesis could not act as a competitive factor for SVglys production in Stevia leaves.

  4. Suicide verdicts as opposed to accidental deaths in substance-related fatalities (UK, 2001-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, Alessandro E; Schifano, Fabrizio; Corkery, John M; Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Girardi, Paolo; Ghodse, Hamid

    2011-07-01

    Substance-related deaths account for a great number of suicides. To investigate levels and characteristics of suicide verdicts, as opposed to accidental deaths, in substance misusers. Psychological autopsy study of cases from the UK National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths (np-SAD) during the period 2001-2007. Between January 2001 and December 2007, 2108 suicides were reported to the np-SAD. Typical suicide victims were White and older than 50 (respectively 95% and 41% of cases). Medications, especially antidepressants (44%), were prescribed to 87% of victims. Significantly fewer suicide victims than controls presented positive blood toxicological results for illicit drugs (namely: cocaine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy-type drugs, cannabis, and GHB/GBL) and alcohol. Suicide prevention programmes should devote specific attention to deaths among substance misusers who are at high risk of fatal intentional self-harm. Specific characteristics distinguish those at risk; caregivers should be better educated as to what these factors are. Limitations of the current study included lack of provision of comprehensive information relating to the victims' psychosocial variables. Furthermore, no differentiation between different classes of antidepressants in terms of involvement in suicide was here provided. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Opposing Roles of Leptin and Ghrelin in the Equine Corpus Luteum Regulation: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Galvão

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic hormones have been associated with reproductive function modulation. Thus, the aim of this study was: (i to characterize the immunolocalization, mRNA and protein levels of leptin (LEP, Ghrelin (GHR and respective receptors LEPR and Ghr-R1A, throughout luteal phase; and (ii to evaluate the role of LEP and GHR on progesterone (P4, prostaglandin (PG E2 and PGF2α, nitric oxide (nitrite, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF; macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF secretion, and on angiogenic activity (BAEC proliferation, in equine corpus luteum (CL from early and mid-luteal stages. LEPR expression was decreased in late CL, while GHR/Ghr-R1A system was increased in the same stage. Regarding secretory activity, GHR decreased P4 in early CL, but increased PGF2α, nitrite and TNF in mid CL. Conversely, LEP increased P4, PGE2, angiogenic activity, MIF, TNF and nitrite during early CL, in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro effect of LEP on secretory activity was reverted by GHR, when both factors acted together. The present results evidence the presence of LEP and GHR systems in the equine CL. Moreover, we suggest that LEP and GHR play opposing roles in equine CL regulation, with LEP supporting luteal establishment and GHR promoting luteal regression. Finally, a dose-dependent luteotrophic effect of LEP was demonstrated.

  6. Dominant, Residual, and Emergent: Opposing Forces Hovering over John Dos Passos’ U.S.A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Ollah Mahtabi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate John Dos Passos’s U.S.A. Trilogy; The 42nd Parallel (1930; 1919 (1932; and The Big Money (1936 in the light of Raymond Williams. Analyzing the trilogy in terms of Williams’ hegemonic forces between dominant and emergent, it is recognized that the trilogy is full of tragic lives of characters living in the capitalist society of America. According to what Williams says, there are clashes between cultures in a society. He believes that the dominant culture constantly changes and it would not let other cultures to become the controlling power in the society. This tragedy is not an individual experience, but is rather like a collective consciousness. Each and every character is doing their best to change their condition into better but is opposed by the dominant. This is exactly in line with the idea of Williams that the dominant is able to project its own ideology and way of seeing the world so that the subordinated ones accept it as something natural and common. Although there are different types of hegemony including economic and cultural ones, hegemony in this trilogy is mostly the affirmation of the relations between economic and super-structural aspects of it.

  7. Manufacturing method for parts opposed to plasmas and manufacturing device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Toshiaki; Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for manufacturing heat insulation parts which are opposed to plasmas, such as parts in the inside of a thermonuclear reactor, which less suffer from defects such as crackings and peelings in the vicinity of the joining portion of the parts. Namely, when an armour and a heat sink are cooled to a room temperature after joining them, the upper surface of the armour and the bottom of the heat sink are pressurized. Then after restricting the convex deformation at the upper surface of the armour and the concave deformation at the bottom of the heat sink, the heat sink bottom are extended at from 600degC to a room temperature or at a room temperature. When a heat resistant material with a small heat expansion coefficient is joined with a cooling material with a large heat expansion coefficient and then cooled, deformation and residual stresses are generated by the difference of the shrinking amount. But deformation and the residual stresses can be reduced by gradually cooling them while restricting them by using a joining device compared with a case of not restricting them. As a result, occurrence of crackings and peelings in the vicinity of the joining portion can be prevented. (I.S.)

  8. Amphetamine Elicits Opposing Actions on Readily Releasable and Reserve Pools for Dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P.; Juliano, Steven A.; Garris, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Amphetamine, a highly addictive drug with therapeutic efficacy, exerts paradoxical effects on the fundamental communication modes employed by dopamine neurons in modulating behavior. While amphetamine elevates tonic dopamine signaling by depleting vesicular stores and driving non-exocytotic release through reverse transport, this psychostimulant also activates phasic dopamine signaling by up-regulating vesicular dopamine release. We hypothesized that these seemingly incongruent effects arise from amphetamine depleting the reserve pool and enhancing the readily releasable pool. This novel hypothesis was tested using in vivo voltammetry and stimulus trains of varying duration to access different vesicular stores. We show that amphetamine actions are stimulus dependent in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, amphetamine up-regulated vesicular dopamine release elicited by a short-duration train, which interrogates the readily releasable pool, but depleted release elicited by a long-duration train, which interrogates the reserve pool. These opposing actions of vesicular dopamine release were associated with concurrent increases in tonic and phasic dopamine responses. A link between vesicular depletion and tonic signaling was supported by results obtained for amphetamine in the ventral striatum and cocaine in both striatal sub-regions, which demonstrated augmented vesicular release and phasic signals only. We submit that amphetamine differentially targeting dopamine stores reconciles the paradoxical activation of tonic and phasic dopamine signaling. Overall, these results further highlight the unique and region-distinct cellular mechanisms of amphetamine and may have important implications for its addictive and therapeutic properties. PMID:23671560

  9. Variable-property effects in laminar aiding and opposing mixed convection of air in vertical tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesreddine, H.; Galanis, N.; Nguyen, C.T.

    1997-01-01

    Mixed convection flow in tubes is encountered in many engineering applications, such as solar collectors, nuclear reactors, and compact heat exchangers. Here, a numerical investigation has been conducted in order to determine the effects of variable properties on the flow pattern and heat transfer performances in laminar developing ascending flow with mixed convection for two cases: in case 1 the fluid is heated, and in case 2 it is cooled. Calculations are performed for air at various Grashof numbers with a fixed entrance Reynolds number of 500 using both the Boussinesq approximation (constant-property model) and a variable-property model. In the latter case, the fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are allowed to vary with absolute temperature according to simple power laws, while the density varies linearly with the temperature, and the heat capacity is assumed to be constant. The comparison between constant- and variable-property models shows a substantial difference in the temperature and velocity fields when the Grashof number |Gr| is increased. The friction factor is seen to be underpredicted by the Boussinesq approximation when the fluid is heated (case 1), while it is overpredicted for the cooling case (case 2). However, the effects on the heat transfer performance remain negligible except for cases with reverse flow. On the whole, the variable-property model predicts flow reversal at lower values of |Gr|, especially for flows with opposing buoyancy forces. The deviation in results is associated to the difference between the fluid bulk and the wall temperature

  10. Aromatic ring formation in opposed-flow diffusive 1,3-butadiene flames

    KAUST Repository

    Moshammer, Kai; Seidel, Lars; Wang, Yu; Selim, Hatem; Sarathy, Mani; Mauss, Fabian; Hansen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the formation of one- and two-ring aromatic species in near atmospheric-pressure opposed-flow diffusion flames of 1,3-butadiene (1,3-CH). The chemical structures of two different 1,3-CH/Ar-O/Ar flames were explored using flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry with both electron and single-photon ionization. We provide mole fraction profiles of 47 components as function of distance from the fuel outlet and compare them to chemically detailed modeling results. To this end, the hierarchically developed model described by Seidel et al. [16] has been updated to accurately comprise the chemistry of 1,3-butadiene. Generally a very good agreement is observed between the experimental and modeling data, allowing for a meaningful reaction path analysis. With regard to the formation of aromatic species up to naphthalene, it was essential to improve the fulvene and the C chemistry description in the mechanism. In particular, benzene is found to be formed mainly via fulvene through the reactions of the CH isomers with CH The n-CH radical reacts with CH forming 1,3-pentadiene (CH), which is subsequently oxidized to form the naphthalene precursor cyclopentadienyl (CH). Oxidation of naphthalene is predicted to be a contributor to the formation of phenylacetylene (CH), indicating that consumption reactions can be of similar importance as molecular growth reactions.

  11. Research on the Common Rail Pressure Overshoot of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The common rail pressure has a direct influence on the working stability of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke (OP2S diesel engines, especially on performance indexes such as power, economy and emissions. Meanwhile, the rail pressure overshoot phenomenon occurs frequently due to the operating characteristics of OP2S diesel engines, which could lead to serious consequences. In order to solve the rail pressure overshoot problem of OP2S diesel engines, a nonlinear concerted algorithm adding a speed state feedback was investigated. First, the nonlinear Linear Parameter Varying (LPV model was utilized to describe the coupling relationship between the engine speed and the rail pressure. The Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR optimal control algorithm was applied to design the controller by the feedback of speed and rail pressure. Second, cooperating with the switching characteristics of injectors, the co-simulation of MATLAB/Simulink and GT-Power was utilized to verify the validity of the control algorithm and analyze workspaces for both normal and special sections. Finally, bench test results showed that the accuracy of the rail pressure control was in the range of ±1 MPa, in the condition of sudden 600 r/min speed increases. In addition, the fuel mass was reduced 76.3% compared with the maximum fuel supply quantity and the rail pressure fluctuation was less than 20 MPa. The algorithm could also be appropriate for other types of common rail system thanks to its universality.

  12. Numerical investigation of CAI Combustion in the Opposed- Piston Engine with Direct and Indirect Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyszczek, R.; Mazuro, P.; Teodorczyk, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is focused on the CAI combustion control in a turbocharged 2-stroke Opposed-Piston (OP) engine. The barrel type OP engine arrangement is of particular interest for the authors because of its robust design, high mechanical efficiency and relatively easy incorporation of a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR). The other advantage of such design is that combustion chamber is formed between two moving pistons - there is no additional cylinder head to be cooled which directly results in an increased thermal efficiency. Furthermore, engine operation in a Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) mode at high compression ratios (CR) raises a possibility of reaching even higher efficiencies and very low emissions. In order to control CAI combustion such measures as VCR and water injection were considered for indirect ignition timing control. Numerical simulations of the scavenging and combustion processes were performed with the 3D CFD multipurpose AVL Fire solver. Numerous cases were calculated with different engine compression ratios and different amounts of directly and indirectly injected water. The influence of the VCR and water injection on the ignition timing and engine performance was determined and their application in the real engine was discussed.

  13. [Comparative study of lymphoid follicles in mucosa of pharynx and mucosal associated lymphoid tissues in paranasal sinuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Weigang; Yao, Min; Chen, Jue

    2013-08-01

    To study the relationship between the lymphoid follicles in mucous membrane of pharynx and mucosal associated lymphoid tissues (MALT). Ten folliculi obtained from 10 patients of follicular pharyngitis and mucosa taken form 10 patients of paranasal sinusitis were fixed in neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections were prepared, stained by H. E and by immunohistochemical method staining with S-100,and observe by light microscopy. We observed the morphology of lymphoid follicles in mucous membrane of pharynx with MALT in mucosa of paranasal sinusitis as the contrast. Lymphoid follicles in mucosa of pharynx compared with MALT in the mucosa of paranasal sinuses, there was no mantle zone, no typical germinal center and no mucosal epithelium, immunological staining with S-100 was week. The lymphoid follicles in mucosa of pharynx does not belong to the MALT.

  14. Dendritic cell-associated immune inflammation of cardiac mucosa: a possible factor in the formation of Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Tran, Dinh; Killingsworth, Murray C; Buckland, Michael; Lord, Reginald V N

    2009-03-01

    The development of Barrett's esophagus is poorly understood, but it has been suggested that cardiac mucosa is a precursor of intestinal type metaplasia and that inflammation of cardiac mucosa may play a role in the formation of Barrett's esophagus. The present study was undertaken to examine the presence and distribution of immune-inflammatory cells in cardiac mucosa, specifically focusing on dendritic cells because of their importance as regulators of immune reactions. Endoscopic biopsy specimens were obtained from 12 patients with cardiac mucosa without Barrett's esophagus or adenocarcinoma and from 21 patients with Barrett's esophagus without dysplasia (intestinal metaplasia). According to histology, in nine of the 21 specimens with Barrett's esophagus, areas of mucosa composed of cardiac type epithelium-lined glands were present as well. Immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy were used to examine immune-inflammatory cells in paraffin-embedded sections. Immune-inflammatory cells, including T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, and mast cells, were present in the connective tissue matrix that surrounded cardiac type epithelium-lined glands in all patients with cardiac mucosa. Clustering of dendritic cells with each other and with lymphocytes and the intrusion of dendritic cells between glandular mucus cells were observed. In the Barrett's esophagus specimens that contained cardiac type glands, computerized CD83 expression quantitation revealed that there were more dendritic cells in cardiac mucosa than in intestinal metaplasia. Immune-inflammatory infiltrates containing dendritic cells are consistently present in cardiac mucosa. The finding of a larger number of dendritic cells in areas of cardiac mucosa in Barrett's esophagus biopsies suggests that the immune inflammation of cardiac mucosa might play a role in modifying the local tissue environment to promote the development of specialized intestinal type metaplasia.

  15. Efecto secuestrador del D-002 sobre radicales hidroxilo en mucosa gástrica Scavenger effect of D-002 on hydroxyl radicals in the gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohani Pérez Guerra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el agente causal de la ulceración gástrica está asociado al desequilibrio entre factores agresivos y defensivos que actúan sobre la mucosa gástrica. El D-002, mezcla de seis alcoholes alifáticos primarios superiores purificada de la cera de abejas, produce efectos gastroprotectores mediados por múltiples mecanismos y reducción de la peroxidación lipídica en la mucosa gástrica. Objetivo: determinar si el D-002 es capaz de capturar el radical hidroxilo añadido in vitro o generado in vivo en ratas con úlcera gástrica inducida por indometacina. Métodos: En la experiencia in vitro el D-002 se añadió a concentraciones entre 0,9 y 1 000 mg/mL. En la experiencia in vivo las ratas se distribuyeron en seis grupos: un control negativo y cinco que recibieron indometacina: un control positivo tratado con el vehículo, tres con D-002 (5, 25, y 100 mg/kg, respectivamente, p.o. y otro con omeprazol (20 mg/kg i.p.. Los tratamientos se administraron una hora (vehículo y D-002 o 30 min (omeprazol, respectivamente, antes de inducir las úlceras. En ambas experiencias se tomaron alícuotas de mucosa gástrica, y se determinó el daño a la 2-desoxirribosa por el radical hidroxilo. Resultados: la administración oral del D-002, no in vitro, protegió a la 2-desoxirribosa del daño oxidativo de modo marcado, significativo y dependiente de la dosis con respecto al control positivo. Conclusiones: los resultados indican que la capacidad del D-002 (25 y 100 mg/kg administrado por vía oral para secuestrar el radical hidroxilo, generado en la mucosa gástrica por la indometacina, pudiera contribuir a sus efectos antioxidantes y gastroprotectores sobre el daño que los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos producen sobre la mucosa gástrica.Introduction: the etiology of the gastric ulceration is associated to the imbalance between aggressive and defensive factors acting upon the gastric mucosa. D-002, a mixture of 6 higher primary alcohols

  16. Leukemia-associated antigens in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G; Capellaro, D; Greaves, M

    1975-12-01

    Rabbit antisera raised against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells were used to distinguish ALL from other leukemias, to identify rare leukemia cells in the bone marrow of patients in remission, and to define human leukemia-associated antigens. Antibody binding was studied with the use of immunofluorescence reagents and the analytic capacity of the Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter-1 (FACS-1). The results indicated that most non-T-cell ALL have three leukemia-associated antigens on their surface which are absent from normal lymphoid cells: 1) an antigen shared with myelocytes, myeloblastic leukemia cells, and fetal liver (hematopoietic) cells; 2) an antigen shared with a subset of intermediate normoblasts in normal bone marrow and fetal liver; and 3) an antigen found thus far only on non-T-cell ALL and in some acute undifferentiated leukemias, which we therefore regard as a strong candidate for a leukemia-specific antigen. These antigens are absent from a subgroup of ALL patients in which the lymphoblasta express T-cell surface markers. Preliminary studies on the bone marrow samples of patients in remission indicated that rare leukemia cells were present in some samples. The implications of these findings with respect to the heterogeneity and cell origin(s) of ALL, its diagnosis, and its potential monitoring during treatment were discussed.

  17. Symptoms and signs in individuals with serology positive for celiac disease but normal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt Lena

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody serology is an important tool in the investigation of celiac disease (CD, but does not always correlate with mucosal appearance in the small intestine. Patients with positive CD serology but normal mucosa (Marsh 0 are at increased risk of future CD. In this study we describe a model for identifying and characterizing individuals with normal mucosa but positive CD serology. Such individuals are sometimes referred to as having latent CD. Methods The records of ten Swedish pathology departments were used to identify individuals with biopsies indicating normal duodenal/jejunal mucosa. Using the national personal identification number, these data were linked with CD serology data (antigliadin, antiendomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies; and we thereby identified 3,736 individuals with normal mucosa but positive CD serology. Two independent reviewers then manually reviewed their biopsy reports to estimate comorbidity. We also randomly selected 112 individuals for validation through patient chart review. Results The majority of the 3,736 individuals were females (62%. Children (0–15 years made up 21.4%. The median number of biopsy specimen was 3. Our review of biopsy reports found that other gastrointestinal comorbidity was rare (inflammatory bowel disease: 0.4%; helicobacter pylori infection: 0.2%. Some 22% individuals selected for patient chart review had a relative with CD. The most common symptoms among these individuals were diarrhea (46% and abdominal pain (45%, while 26% had anemia. Although 27% of the individuals selected for validation had been informed about gluten-free diet, only 13% were adhering to a gluten-free diet at the end of follow-up. Conclusion Individuals with positive CD serology but normal mucosa often have CD-like symptoms and a family history of CD.

  18. Carprofen-induced oxidative stress in mitochondria of the colonic mucosa of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Lynne A; McConnico, Rebecca S; Morgan, Timothy W; Hartmann, Erica; Davidson, Jacqueline R; Hosgood, Giselle

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the conductance and mannitol permeability of canine colonic mucosa in response to carprofen or 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) with or without tempol pretreatment. Ten colonic mucosa sections per dog were mounted in Ussing chambers. Treatments were done in duplicate. Mucosa was exposed to carprofen (200 μg/mL) or DNP (0.25 mM), both with and without tempol (1 mM) pretreatment. Conductance was calculated every 15 min for 240 min. Mannitol flux was calculated over 3 consecutive 60-minute periods. Histology or electron microscopy was done after exposure. Conductance over time, mannitol flux, frequency of histologic categories, and electron microscopic changes were analyzed for treatment effects. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) conductance over time for carprofen or DNP-treated colons was not significantly different from control regardless of tempol pretreatment. Period 3 mannitol fluxes for carprofen and DNP-treated colon were not significantly different, but were greater than control. Period 3 mannitol flux for tempol + carprofen was significantly less than tempol + DNP-treated colon. Sloughing of cells and erosions were seen in the mucosa of carprofen-treated colon. Mitochondrial damage was seen more often in carprofen-treated than DNP-treated or control colon. Tempol pretreatment resulted in more ruptured mitochondria in the carprofen-treated colon; however, other mitochondrial changes were not significantly affected by tempol pretreatment in either carprofen or DNP treated colon. Treatment with carprofen or DNP increased the mannitol flux, but pretreatment with tempol mitigated the carprofen effect. It is apparent that structural mitochondrial damage occurs in the canine colonic mucosa after carprofen and DNP exposure.

  19. Substitution urethroplasty using oral mucosa graft for male anterior urethral stricture disease: Current topics and reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Akio

    2017-07-01

    Male anterior urethral stricture is scarring of the subepithelial tissue of the corpus spongiosum that constricts the urethral lumen, decreasing the urinary stream. Its surgical management is a challenging problem, and has changed dramatically in the past several decades. Open surgical repair using grafts or flaps, called substitution urethroplasty, has become the gold standard procedure for anterior urethral strictures that are not amenable to excision and primary anastomosis. Oral mucosa harvested from the inner cheek (buccal mucosa) is an ideal material, and is most commonly used for substitution urethroplasty, and lingual mucosa harvested from the underside of the tongue has recently emerged as an alternative material with equivalent outcome. Onlay augmentation of oral mucosa graft on the ventral side (ventral onlay) or dorsal side (dorsal onlay, Barbagli procedure) has been widely used for bulbar urethral stricture with comparable success rates. In bulbar urethral strictures containing obliterative or nearly obliterative segments, either a two-sided dorsal plus ventral onlay (Palminteri technique) or a combination of excision and primary anastomosis and onlay augmentation (augmented anastomotic urethroplasty) are the procedures of choice. Most penile urethral strictures can be repaired in a one-stage procedure either by dorsal inlay with ventral sagittal urethrotomy (Asopa technique) or dorsolateral onlay with one-sided urethral dissection (Kulkarni technique); however, staged urethroplasty remains the procedure of choice for complex strictures, including strictures associated with genital lichen sclerosus or failed hypospadias. This article presents an overview of substitution urethroplasty using oral mucosa graft, and reviews current topics. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  20. Inducing effect of clofibric acid on stearoyl-CoA desaturase in intestinal mucosa of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tohru; Kadokura, Makiko; Mutoh, Yuki; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Okazaki, Mari; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Kawashima, Yoichi; Kudo, Naomi

    2014-12-01

    Fibrates have been reported to elevate the hepatic proportion of oleic acid (18:1n-9) through inducing stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). Despite abundant studies on the regulation of SCD in the liver, little is known about this issue in the small intestine. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of clofibric acid on the fatty acid profile, particularly monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and the SCD expression in intestinal mucosa. Treatment of rats with a diet containing 0.5% (w/w) clofibric acid for 7 days changed the MUFA profile of total lipids in intestinal mucosa; the proportion of 18:1n-9 was significantly increased, whereas those of palmitoleic (16:1n-7) and cis-vaccenic (18:1n-7) acids were not changed. Upon the treatment with clofibric acid, SCD was induced and the gene expression of SCD1, SCD2, and fatty acid elongase (Elovl) 6 was up-regulated, but that of Elovl5 was unaffected. Fat-free diet feeding for 28 days increased the proportions of 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-7, but did not effectively change that of 18:1n-9, in intestinal mucosa. Fat-free diet feeding up-regulated the gene expression of SCD1, but not that of SCD2, Elovl6, or Elovl5. These results indicate that intestinal mucosa significantly changes its MUFA profile in response to challenges by clofibric acid and a fat-free diet and suggest that up-regulation of the gene expression of SCD along with Elovl6 is indispensable to elevate the proportion of 18:1n-9 in intestinal mucosa.

  1. Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6 in normal and neoplastic human gastrointestinal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäki Markku

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human gastrointestinal mucosa regenerates vigorously throughout life, but the factors controlling cell fate in mature mucosa are poorly understood. GATA transcription factors direct cell proliferation and differentiation in many organs, and are implicated in tumorigenesis. GATA-4 and GATA-6 are considered crucial for the formation of murine gastrointestinal mucosa, but their role in human gastrointestinal tract remains unexplored. We studied in detail the expression patterns of these two GATA factors and a GATA-6 down-stream target, Indian hedgehog (Ihh, in normal human gastrointestinal mucosa. Since these factors are considered important for proliferation and differentiation, we also explored the possible alterations in their expression in gastrointestinal neoplasias. The expression of the carcinogenesis-related protein Indian hedgehog was also investigated in comparison to GATA factors. Methods Samples of normal and neoplastic gastrointestinal tract from children and adults were subjected to RNA in situ hybridization with 33P labelled probes and immunohistochemistry, using an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase system. The pathological tissues examined included samples of chronic and atrophic gastritis as well as adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the colon and rectum. Results GATA-4 was abundant in the differentiated epithelial cells of the proximal parts of the gastrointestinal tract but was absent from the distal parts. In contrast, GATA-6 was expressed throughout the gastrointestinal epithelium, and in the distal gut its expression was most intense at the bottom of the crypts, i.e. cells with proliferative capacity. Both factors were also present in Barrett's esophagus and metaplasia of the stomach. GATA-6 expression was reduced in colon carcinoma. Ihh expression overlapped with that of GATA-6 especially in benign gastrointestinal neoplasias. Conclusion The results suggest differential but overlapping functions for GATA-4 and

  2. Early remodeling of nasal mucosa in rat model after radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Mang; Tang Jianguo; Luo Baozhen; Zhao Li'na; Shi Guozhi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feature of nasal mucosa remodeling in experimental radiation injury. Methods: Fourty male rats were randomly divided into five groups, as control group and radiation injury groups (radiation dose were 20 Gy, 30 Gy, 40 Gy and 50 Gy). Each group had 8 rats. Two weeks after the last irradiation, the rats were killed and the nasal middle turbinates of the animals were removed. The tissue blocks were embedded in paraffin. The paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), alcian blue- periodic acid-Schif (AB-PAS), and Masson Trichrome (MT). The infiltrating eosinophils in nasal mucosa were examined. AB-PAS positive cells in the surface epithelium in nasal mucosa were counted. The percentage of area in MT stained extracellular matrix in nasal mucosa and damage of epithelium were determined by an image analyzer. Results: The control group only presented a few eosinophils. Significant eosinophil infiltration was observed in the radiation injury groups, especially for the 30 Gy radiation injury group. Compared with the control group, there was no significant epithelial damage in 20 Gy radiation injury group. Significant epithelial damage were observed in the rest of radiation injury groups. The epithelial damage became more severe as the radiation dose increasing. A little but not significant increase in AB-PAS positive cells was observed in the mucos of the 20 Gy radiation injury group and significant increase in the 30 and 40 Gy groups. But in the 50 Gy radiation injury group, the AB-PAS positive cells were decreased compared with control group. The collagen fibrils in the mucosa of nasal middle turbinate in 20 Gy radiation injury group did not significantly increase.. But in the other groups, the increase was significant compared with that of control group. Furthermore, collagen fibrils increased as the radiation dose increased. Conclusions: Epithelial damage, goblet cells hyperplasia and extracellular matrix deposition are the

  3. Effects of alanyl-glutamine supplementation on the small intestinal mucosa barrier in weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Xing

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study was to investigate the effects of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln and glutamine (Gln supplementation on the intestinal mucosa barrier in piglets. Methods A total of 180 barrows with initial weight 10.01±0.03 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments, and each treatment consisted of three pens and twenty pigs per pen. The piglets of three groups were fed with control diet [0.62% alanine (Ala], Ala-Gln diet (0.5% Ala-Gln, Gln diet (0.34% Gln and 0.21% Ala, respectively. Results The results showed that in comparison with control diet, dietary Ala-Gln supplementation increased the height of villi in duodenum and jejunum (p<0.05, Gln supplementation increased the villi height of jejunum (p<0.05, Ala-Gln supplementation up-regulated the mRNA expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in jejunal mucosa (p<0.05, raised the mRNA expressions of Claudin-1, Occludin, zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1 and the protein levels of Occludin, ZO-1 in jejunal mucosa (p<0.05, Ala-Gln supplementation enlarged the number of goblet cells in duodenal and ileal epithelium (p<0.05, Gln increased the number of goblet cells in duodenal epithelium (p<0.05 and Ala-Gln supplementation improved the concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G in the jejunal mucosa (p<0.05. Conclusion These results demonstrated that dietary Ala-Gln supplementation could maintain the integrity of small intestine and promote the functions of intestinal mucosa barriers in piglets.

  4. A preliminary report on the effects of paclitaxel-impregnated stents on sheep nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Brian W; Citardi, Martin J; Vogler, George; Gardner, Laura; Smith, Greg; Javer, Amin R; Burt, Helen M; Jackson, John; Kuhn, Frederick A

    2004-01-01

    Traditional frontal sinus stents serve only as mechanical devices. It has been proposed that stents also may serve as drug-delivery systems for the topical application of drugs that minimize postoperative scarring. Paclitaxel (Taxol), which has recognized antiscarring effects, may be incorporated via a polymeric formulation into standard rubber stents. The impact of topically applied paclitaxel on the morphology of the nasal mucosa is unknown. An adult sheep model was used for this study. A modified rubber T-tube stent (incorporating paclitaxel at varying dosages) was secured to each side of the septum in four animals (eight sides). An unmodified T-tube was placed on each side of one animal, a T-tube with the drug carrier (but no paclitaxel) was placed on each side of the second animal, and T-tubes with varying paclitaxel were placed on each side of the final two animals. After 4 weeks, animals were killed and the nasal mucosa was harvested. The nasal mucosa was sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. A pathologist then assessed the nasal mucosa for vascular congestion, glandular atrophy, chronic inflammation, mucosal metaplasia, and mucosal ulceration. No consistent histopathological differences were noted in the specimens. All specimens showed varying degrees of vascular congestion, glandular atrophy, chronic inflammation, and mucosal metaplasia; the paclitaxel-impregnated stents were not consistently associated with more severe mucosal injury. Finally, mucosal ulceration was noted to be very rare in all specimens. This preliminary report describes the impact of paclitaxel-impregnated stents on sheep nasal mucosa, which tolerated these stents very well. Because paclitaxel minimizes scarring reactions at very low concentrations, paclitaxel-impregnated stents may prove useful in clinical situations in which frontal sinus stenting is deemed necessary. Additional investigations with animal models, as well as clinical trials, may be warranted.

  5. Posttransplant chimeric antigen receptor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melody; Zakrzewski, Johannes; James, Scott; Sadelain, Michel

    2018-03-08

    Therapeutic T-cell engineering is emerging as a powerful approach to treat refractory hematological malignancies. Its most successful embodiment to date is based on the use of second-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19, a cell surface molecule found in most B-cell leukemias and lymphomas. Remarkable complete remissions have been obtained with autologous T cells expressing CD19 CARs in patients with relapsed, chemo-refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Allogeneic CAR T cells may also be harnessed to treat relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, the use of donor T cells poses unique challenges owing to potential alloreactivity. We review different approaches to mitigate the risk of causing or aggravating graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), including CAR therapies based on donor leukocyte infusion, virus-specific T cells, T-cell receptor-deficient T cells, lymphoid progenitor cells, and regulatory T cells. Advances in CAR design, T-cell selection and gene editing are poised to enable the safe use of allogeneic CAR T cells without incurring GVHD. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  6. On the role of radiation and dimensionality in predicting flow opposed flame spread over thin fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chenthil; Kumar, Amit

    2012-06-01

    In this work a flame-spread model is formulated in three dimensions to simulate opposed flow flame spread over thin solid fuels. The flame-spread model is coupled to a three-dimensional gas radiation model. The experiments [1] on downward spread and zero gravity quiescent spread over finite width thin fuel are simulated by flame-spread models in both two and three dimensions to assess the role of radiation and effect of dimensionality on the prediction of the flame-spread phenomena. It is observed that while radiation plays only a minor role in normal gravity downward spread, in zero gravity quiescent spread surface radiation loss holds the key to correct prediction of low oxygen flame spread rate and quenching limit. The present three-dimensional simulations show that even in zero gravity gas radiation affects flame spread rate only moderately (as much as 20% at 100% oxygen) as the heat feedback effect exceeds the radiation loss effect only moderately. However, the two-dimensional model with the gas radiation model badly over-predicts the zero gravity flame spread rate due to under estimation of gas radiation loss to the ambient surrounding. The two-dimensional model was also found to be inadequate for predicting the zero gravity flame attributes, like the flame length and the flame width, correctly. The need for a three-dimensional model was found to be indispensable for consistently describing the zero gravity flame-spread experiments [1] (including flame spread rate and flame size) especially at high oxygen levels (>30%). On the other hand it was observed that for the normal gravity downward flame spread for oxygen levels up to 60%, the two-dimensional model was sufficient to predict flame spread rate and flame size reasonably well. Gas radiation is seen to increase the three-dimensional effect especially at elevated oxygen levels (>30% for zero gravity and >60% for normal gravity flames).

  7. Chlorpyrifos exerts opposing effects on axonal and dendritic growth in primary neuronal cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Angela S.; Bucelli, Robert; Jett, David A.; Bruun, Donald; Yang, Dongren; Lein, Pamela J.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence that children are widely exposed to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and that OPs cause developmental neurotoxicity in animal models raises significant concerns about the risks these compounds pose to the developing human nervous system. Critical to assessing this risk is identifying specific neurodevelopmental events targeted by OPs. Observations that OPs alter brain morphometry in developing rodents and inhibit neurite outgrowth in neural cell lines suggest that OPs perturb neuronal morphogenesis. However, an important question yet to be answered is whether the dysmorphogenic effect of OPs reflects perturbation of axonal or dendritic growth. We addressed this question by quantifying axonal and dendritic growth in primary cultures of embryonic rat sympathetic neurons derived from superior cervical ganglia (SCG) following in vitro exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) or its metabolites CPF-oxon (CPFO) and trichloropyridinol (TCP). Axon outgrowth was significantly inhibited by CPF or CPFO, but not TCP, at concentrations ≥0.001 μM or 0.001 nM, respectively. In contrast, all three compounds enhanced BMP-induced dendritic growth. Acetylcholinesterase was inhibited only by the highest concentrations of CPF (≥1 μM) and CPFO (≥1 nM); TCP had no effect on this parameter. In summary, these compounds perturb neuronal morphogenesis via opposing effects on axonal and dendritic growth, and both effects are independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. These findings have important implications for current risk assessment practices of using acetylcholinesterase inhibition as a biomarker of OP neurotoxicity and suggest that OPs may disrupt normal patterns of neuronal connectivity in the developing nervous system

  8. Opposed Effects of Dityrosine Formation in Soluble and Aggregated α-Synuclein on Fibril Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wördehoff, Michael M; Shaykhalishahi, Hamed; Groß, Luca; Gremer, Lothar; Stoldt, Matthias; Buell, Alexander K; Willbold, Dieter; Hoyer, Wolfgang

    2017-10-13

    Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. It is characterized by aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (α-syn) in Lewy bodies, mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased oxidative stress in the substantia nigra. Oxidative stress leads to several modifications of biomolecules including dityrosine (DiY) crosslinking in proteins, which has recently been detected in α-syn in Lewy bodies from Parkinson's disease patients. Here we report that α-syn is highly susceptible to ultraviolet-induced DiY formation. We investigated DiY formation of α-syn and nine tyrosine-to-alanine mutants and monitored its effect on α-syn fibril formation in vitro. Ultraviolet irradiation of intrinsically disordered α-syn generates DiY-modified monomers and dimers, which inhibit fibril formation of unmodified α-syn by interfering with fibril elongation. The inhibition depends on both the DiY group and its integration into α-syn. When preformed α-syn fibrils are crosslinked by DiY formation, they gain increased resistance to denaturation. DiY-stabilized α-syn fibrils retain their high seeding efficiency even after being exposed to denaturant concentrations that completely depolymerize non-crosslinked seeds. Oxidative stress-associated DiY crosslinking of α-syn therefore entails two opposing effects: (i) inhibition of aggregation by DiY-modified monomers and dimers, and (ii) stabilization of fibrillar aggregates against potential degradation mechanisms, which can lead to promotion of aggregation, especially in the presence of secondary nucleation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Common Ground on Climate Change: Pairing Opposing Viewpoints for Conversations about Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, K. B.; Duggan-Haas, D.; Hayhoe, K.

    2017-12-01

    In American public discourse, people tend to strongly identify with the viewpoints held by their cultural and political tribes. However, entrenched positions do little to advance understanding, or work toward solving problems constructively. Worse yet, it has become commonplace to dismiss or demonize those coming from a different point of view - leading to the vitriolic stalemate that often characterizes social media and comment threads when it comes to climate change. One way to break this pattern is to invite people with opposing opinions to actually talk to one another. This presentation describes the lessons learned during the Common Ground on Climate Change project, in which people with contrasting views about climate change engage in a moderated interview with each other. Prior to the interview, participants complete a set of values-based questions. The goal is to reveal areas of common ground between apparent opposites, such as a sense of stewardship for Earth's resources, or an opinion that solutions to climate change will be more beneficial than harmful. The structure of the interviews is based on the hypothesis that if a conversation begins with an appreciation of common values, it becomes easier to broach areas of disagreement. Participants are matched up in one-on-one moderated interviews where they are encouraged to share their concerns, ideas, and priorities about the validity of climate science, the need for urgent action, and the types of solutions they find most tenable. Emerging themes from this series of interviews include the value of a diversity of outlooks, and the ability for moderated conversations to find surprising areas of agreement. Articles about the interviews also appear on the Yale Climate Connections website, https://www.yaleclimateconnections.org/author/karin/.

  10. Microsphere-Based Scaffolds Carrying Opposing Gradients of Chondroitin Sulfate and Tricalcium Phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet eGupta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix (ECM components such as chondroitin sulfate (CS and tricalcium phosphate (TCP serve as raw materials and thus spatial patterning of these raw materials may be leveraged to mimic the smooth transition of physical, chemical and mechanical properties at the bone-cartilage interface. We hypothesized that encapsulation of opposing gradients of these raw materials in high molecular weight poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA microsphere-based scaffolds would enhance differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs. The raw material encapsulation altered the microstructure of the microspheres and also influenced the cellular morphology that depended on the type of material encapsulated. Moreover, the mechanical properties of the raw material encapsulating microsphere-based scaffolds initially relied on the composition of the scaffolds and later on were primarily governed by the degradation of the polymer phase and newly synthesized extracellular matrix by the seeded cells. Furthermore, raw materials had a mitogenic effect on the seeded cells and led to increased glycosaminoglycan (GAG, collagen, and calcium content. Interestingly, the initial effects of raw material encapsulation on a per-cell basis might have been overshadowed by medium-regulated environment that appeared to favor osteogenesis. However, it is to be noted that in vivo, differentiation of the cells would be governed by the surrounding native environment. Thus, the results of this study demonstrated the potential of the raw materials in facilitating neo-tissue synthesis in microsphere-based scaffolds and perhaps in combination with bioactive signals, these raw materials may be able to achieve intricate cell differentiation profiles required for regenerating the osteochondral interface.

  11. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications--bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous…

  12. Standing in the middle: Insider/outsider positionality while conducting qualitative research with opposing military veteran political groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Flores

    2018-01-01

    This case study describes the process and challenges of conducting qualitative research on two opposing military veteran political groups: Iraq Veterans Against the War and Vets for Freedom. The discussion is based on a dissertation project that compelled me to reflect on my simultaneous "insider" status as a military veteran and "outsider" status...

  13. Only minor additional metabolic health benefits of high as opposed to moderate dose physical exercise in young, moderately overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichkendler, M H; Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Auerbach, P L

    2014-01-01

    % in HIGH (P health assessed by questionnaire increased similarly in MOD (P additional health benefits were found when exercising ∼3,800 as opposed to ∼2,000 kcal/week in young moderately overweight men. This finding may have important...... public health implications....

  14. Maxillary implant-supported overdentures opposed by (partial) natural dentitions : A 5-year prospective case series study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, G. C.; Slot, J. W. A.; Raghoebar, G. M.; Vissink, A.; Meijer, H. J. A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the 5-year treatment outcome of maxillary implant-retained overdentures opposed by natural antagonistic teeth. Fifty consecutive patients received maxillary overdentures supported by six dental implants. Implants were placed in the anterior region, if enough bone

  15. Macrophage-derived Wnt opposes notch signaling to specify hepatic progenitor cell fate in chronic liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulter, L.; Govaere, O.; Bird, T.G.; Radulescu, S.; Ramachandran, P.; Pellicoro, A.; Ridgway, R.; Seo, S.S.; Spee, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830925; van Rooijen, N.; Sansom, O.J.; Iredale, J.P.; Lowell, S.; Roskams, T.A.; Forbes, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nat Med. 2012 Mar 4;18(4):572-9. doi: 10.1038/nm.2667. Macrophage-derived Wnt opposes Notch signaling to specify hepatic progenitor cell fate in chronic liver disease. Boulter L, Govaere O, Bird TG, Radulescu S, Ramachandran P, Pellicoro A, Ridgway RA, Seo SS, Spee B, Van Rooijen N, Sansom OJ,

  16. Screening for skeletal metastases of the spine and pelvis: gradient echo opposed-phase MRI compared with bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, K.; Hosten, N.; Venz, S.

    1995-01-01

    Opposed-phase gradient echo (GRE) MRI at 0.5 T was compared with T1-weighted GRE MRI and bone scintigraphy regarding the detection of malignant bone marrow infiltrates of the spine and pelvis. Seventeen control patients and 41 patients with suspected skeletal metastases were studied with plain and gadolinium-enhanced MRI. In the control group only a vertebral haemangioma showed contrast enhancement, while all metastases (confirmed histologically or by follow-up) were enhancing. Opposed-phase surface coil MRI showed a significantly higher contrast-to-noise ratio of 56 metastases than T1-weighted images. In 28 patients body coil opposed-phase MRI detected more metastatic foci of the spine and pelvis than did bone scintigraphy (84 vs 56). No scintigraphically visualised lesion was missed by MRI. In conclusion, body coil gadolinium-enhanced opposed-phase GRE MRI may be applied as a screening method for skeletal metastases of the spine and pelvis at intermediate field strengths. (orig.)

  17. Screening for skeletal metastases of the spine and pelvis: gradient echo opposed-phase MRI compared with bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, K. [Zentralinstitut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Gesamthochschule Essen (Germany); Hosten, N. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Venz, S. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    Opposed-phase gradient echo (GRE) MRI at 0.5 T was compared with T1-weighted GRE MRI and bone scintigraphy regarding the detection of malignant bone marrow infiltrates of the spine and pelvis. Seventeen control patients and 41 patients with suspected skeletal metastases were studied with plain and gadolinium-enhanced MRI. In the control group only a vertebral haemangioma showed contrast enhancement, while all metastases (confirmed histologically or by follow-up) were enhancing. Opposed-phase surface coil MRI showed a significantly higher contrast-to-noise ratio of 56 metastases than T1-weighted images. In 28 patients body coil opposed-phase MRI detected more metastatic foci of the spine and pelvis than did bone scintigraphy (84 vs 56). No scintigraphically visualised lesion was missed by MRI. In conclusion, body coil gadolinium-enhanced opposed-phase GRE MRI may be applied as a screening method for skeletal metastases of the spine and pelvis at intermediate field strengths. (orig.)

  18. Tumor Associated Antigenic Peptides in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tiwari, Raj

    1999-01-01

    .... We proposed to identify these novel antigens in an experimental rat model using purified preparations of the heat shock protein gp96 and a library of synthetic distinct antibodies that were available...

  19. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test On This Page What is the PSA ... parts of the body before being detected. The PSA test may give false-positive or false-negative ...

  20. Systemic and mucosal immunization with Candida albicans hsp90 elicits hsp90-specific humoral response in vaginal mucosa which is further enhanced during experimental vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raska, Milan; Belakova, Jana; Horynova, Milada; Krupka, Michal; Novotny, Jiri; Sebestova, Martina; Weigl, Evzen

    2008-08-01

    The Candida albicans heat shock protein 90 kDa (hsp90-CA) is an important target for protective antibodies in disseminated candidiasis of experimental mice and humans. Hsp90-CA is present in the cell wall of Candida pseudohyphae or hyphae--typical pathogenic morphotypes in both mucosal and systemic Candida infections. However, the potential protective effects of hsp90-CA-specific antibodies in vaginal candidiasis has not yet been reported. In the present study we used various vaccine formulations (recombinant hsp90-CA protein and hsp90-CA-encoding DNA vaccine) and routes of administration (intradermal, intranasal, and intravenous) to induce both hsp90-CA-specific systemic and vaginal mucosa immune responses in experimental BALB/c mice. The results showed that intradermal recombinant hsp90-CA protein priming, followed by intranasal or intradermal recombinant hsp90-CA protein boosting induced significant increases in both serum and vaginal hsp90-CA-specific IgG and IgA antibodies compared to the control group, as well as enhanced hsp90-CA-specific splenocyte responses in vitro. In the intradermally boosted group, subsequent experimental vaginal Candida infection induced additional increases in the hsp90-CA specific IgG isotype, suggesting that Candida has the ability to induce a local hsp90-specific antibody (IgG) response during vulvovaginal candidiasis. Further work is required to elucidate the importance of immunity to highly conserved antigens during infection of the human female reproductive tract where a balance between immunity to and tolerance for commonly antigens such as hsp90 is necessary for the maintenance of fertility.

  1. Allosensibilisation to erythrocyte antigens (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mineeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article literature review of the causes of allosensibilisation to erythrocyte antigens are presented. It is shown that the ability to produce antierythrocyte antibodies is affected by many factors, principal of whom it is difficult to identify. For the allosensibilisation development requires genetically determined differences in erythrocyte antigens phenotypes of donor and recipient, mother and fetus, which can lead to immune response and antibodies production. The biochemical nature of erythrocyte antigens, antigen dose (the amount of transfused doses, the number of antigens determinants on donor and fetus erythrocytes, the number of pregnancies are important. Individual patient characteristics: age, gender, diseases, the use of immunosuppressive therapy and the presence of inflammatory processes, are also relevant. Note that antibody to one erythrocyte antigens have clinical value, and to the other – have no. The actual data about frequency of clinically significant antibodies contribute to the development of post-transfusion hemolytic complications prophylaxis as well as the improvement of laboratory diagnosis of hemolytic disease of the newborn in the presence of maternal antierythrocyte antibodies.

  2. Immortalized porcine mesenchymal cells derived from nasal mucosa, lungs, lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow retain their stemness properties and trigger the expression of siglec-1 in co-cultured blood monocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garba, Abubakar; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Acar, Delphine D; Devriendt, Bert; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells have been isolated from different sources. They are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into many different cell types, including osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. They possess a therapeutic potential in the management of immune disorders and the repair of damaged tissues. Previous work in our laboratory showed an increase of the percentages of CD172a+, CD14+, CD163+, Siglec-1+, CD4+ and CD8+ hematopoietic cells, when co-cultured with immortalized mesenchymal cells derived from bone marrow. The present work aimed to demonstrate the stemness properties of SV40-immortalized mesenchymal cells derived from nasal mucosa, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes and red bone marrow and their immunomodulatory effect on blood monocytes. Mesenchymal cells from nasal mucosa, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes and red bone marrow were isolated and successfully immortalized using simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40LT) and later, co-cultured with blood monocytes, in order to examine their differentiation stage (expression of Siglec-1). Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the five mesenchymal cell lines were positive for mesenchymal cell markers CD105, CD44, CD90 and CD29, but lacked the expression of myeloid cell markers CD16 and CD11b. Growth analysis of the cells demonstrated that bone marrow derived-mesenchymal cells proliferated faster compared with those derived from the other tissues. All five mesenchymal cell lines co-cultured with blood monocytes for 1, 2 and 7 days triggered the expression of siglec-1 in the monocytes. In contrast, no siglec-1+ cells were observed in monocyte cultures without mesenchymal cell lines. Mesenchymal cells isolated from nasal mucosa, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow were successfully immortalized and these cell lines retained their stemness properties and displayed immunomodulatory effects on blood monocytes.

  3. The relationship of Candida colonization of the oral and vaginal mucosae of mothers and oral mucosae of their newborns at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rusan, Rund M; Darwazeh, Azmi M G; Lataifeh, Isam M

    2017-04-01

    Vaginal Candida colonization is common during pregnancy. Vaginal Candida may transmit vertically to the mouth of newborns during labor. The aim of this study was to assess and compare oral Candida colonization between vaginally born newborns and cesarean-born newborns and to investigate the association of the mother's vaginal and oral Candida colonization and the newborn's oral colonization at the time of delivery. Culture swabs were collected from the oral and vaginal mucosae of 100 pregnant women and from the oral mucosa of their 100 full-term newborns. Fifty (50%) of the mothers gave birth vaginally and the other 50 (50%) by cesarean section. The prevalence of oral and vaginal Candida in pregnant mothers was 49% and 40%, respectively. Oral Candida colonization in newborns was 7%. Oral Candida was isolated from 5 of 50 (10%) in the vaginally born group and from 2 of 50 (4%) in the cesarean-born group (P = .44). In vaginally born group, oral Candida was isolated from 5 of 20 (25%) in those born to mothers with vaginal colonization of Candida, and 0 of 30 (0.0%) in mothers without vaginal colonization of Candida (P = .007). The mother's vaginal Candida may constitute an important source of oral Candida in the newborns, particularly in those delivered vaginally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Opposing Responses of Bird Functional Diversity to Vegetation Structural Diversity in Wet and Dry Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Sitters

    Full Text Available Disturbance regimes are changing worldwide, and the consequences for ecosystem function and resilience are largely unknown. Functional diversity (FD provides a surrogate measure of ecosystem function by capturing the range, abundance and distribution of trait values in a community. Enhanced understanding of the responses of FD to measures of vegetation structure at landscape scales is needed to guide conservation management. To address this knowledge gap, we used a whole-of-landscape sampling approach to examine relationships between bird FD, vegetation diversity and time since fire. We surveyed birds and measured vegetation at 36 landscape sampling units in dry and wet forest in southeast Australia during 2010 and 2011. Four uncorrelated indices of bird FD (richness, evenness, divergence and dispersion were derived from six bird traits, and we investigated responses of these indices and species richness to both vertical and horizontal vegetation diversity using linear mixed models. We also considered the extent to which the mean and diversity of time since fire were related to vegetation diversity. Results showed opposing responses of FD to vegetation diversity in dry and wet forest. In dry forest, where fire is frequent, species richness and two FD indices (richness and dispersion were positively related to vertical vegetation diversity, consistent with theory relating to environmental variation and coexistence. However, in wet forest subject to infrequent fire, the same three response variables were negatively associated with vertical diversity. We suggest that competitive dominance by species results in lower FD as vegetation diversity increases in wet forest. The responses of functional evenness were opposite to those of species richness, functional richness and dispersion in both forest types, highlighting the value of examining multiple FD metrics at management-relevant scales. The mean and diversity of time since fire were uncorrelated

  5. Unsteady Extinction of Opposed Jet Ethylene/Methane HIFiRE Surrogate Fuel Mixtures vs Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaden, Sarah N.; Debes, Rachel L.; Lash, E. Lara; Burk, Rachel S.; Boyd, C. Merritt; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Pellett, Gerald L.

    2009-01-01

    A unique idealized study of the subject fuel vs. air systems was conducted using an Oscillatory-input Opposed Jet Burner (OOJB) system and a newly refined analysis. Extensive dynamic-extinction measurements were obtained on unanchored (free-floating) laminar Counter Flow Diffusion Flames (CFDFs) at 1-atm, stabilized by steady input velocities (e.g., U(sub air)) and perturbed by superimposed in-phase sinusoidal velocity inputs at fuel and air nozzle exits. Ethylene (C2H4) and methane (CH4), and intermediate 64/36 and 15/85 molar percent mixtures were studied. The latter gaseous surrogates were chosen earlier to mimic ignition and respective steady Flame Strengths (FS = U(sub air)) of vaporized and cracked, and un-cracked, JP-7 "like" kerosene for a Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) scramjet. For steady idealized flameholding, the 100% C2H4 flame is respectively approx. 1.3 and approx.2.7 times stronger than a 64/36 mix and CH4; but is still 12.0 times weaker than a 100% H2-air flame. Limited Hot-Wire (HW) measurements of velocity oscillations at convergent-nozzle exits, and more extensive Probe Microphone (PM) measurements of acoustic pressures, were used to normalize Dynamic FSs, which decayed linearly with pk/pk U(sub air) (velocity magnitude, HW), and also pk/pk P (pressure magnitude, PM). Thus Dynamic Flame Weakening (DFW) is defined as % decrease in FS per Pascal of pk/pk P oscillation, namely, DFW = -100 d(U(sub air)/U(sub air),0Hz)/d(pkpk P). Key findings are: (1) Ethylene flames are uniquely strong and resilient to extinction by oscillating inflows below 150 Hz; (2) Methane flames are uniquely weak; (3) Ethylene / methane surrogate flames are disproportionately strong with respect to ethylene content; and (4) Flame weakening is consistent with limited published results on forced unsteady CFDFs. Thus from 0 to approx. 10 Hz and slightly higher, lagging diffusive responses of key species led to progressive phase lags (relative

  6. Steric Pressure among Membrane-Bound Polymers Opposes Lipid Phase Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Zachary I; Kenyon, Laura E; Carrillo, Adelita; Espinoza, Isai; Nagib, Fatema; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2016-04-19

    Lipid rafts are thought to be key organizers of membrane-protein complexes in cells. Many proteins that interact with rafts have bulky polymeric components such as intrinsically disordered protein domains and polysaccharide chains. Therefore, understanding the interaction between membrane domains and membrane-bound polymers provides insights into the roles rafts play in cells. Multiple studies have demonstrated that high concentrations of membrane-bound polymeric domains create significant lateral steric pressure at membrane surfaces. Furthermore, our recent work has shown that lateral steric pressure at membrane surfaces opposes the assembly of membrane domains. Building on these findings, here we report that membrane-bound polymers are potent suppressors of membrane phase separation, which can destabilize lipid domains with substantially greater efficiency than globular domains such as membrane-bound proteins. Specifically, we created giant vesicles with a ternary lipid composition, which separated into coexisting liquid ordered and disordered phases. Lipids with saturated tails and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains conjugated to their head groups were included at increasing molar concentrations. When these lipids were sparse on the membrane surface they partitioned to the liquid ordered phase. However, as they became more concentrated, the fraction of GUVs that were phase-separated decreased dramatically, ultimately yielding a population of homogeneous membrane vesicles. Experiments and physical modeling using compositions of increasing PEG molecular weight and lipid miscibility phase transition temperature demonstrate that longer polymers are the most efficient suppressors of membrane phase separation when the energetic barrier to lipid mixing is low. In contrast, as the miscibility transition temperature increases, longer polymers are more readily driven out of domains by the increased steric pressure. Therefore, the concentration of shorter polymers required

  7. Opposing Responses of Bird Functional Diversity to Vegetation Structural Diversity in Wet and Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitters, Holly; York, Alan; Swan, Matthew; Christie, Fiona; Di Stefano, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance regimes are changing worldwide, and the consequences for ecosystem function and resilience are largely unknown. Functional diversity (FD) provides a surrogate measure of ecosystem function by capturing the range, abundance and distribution of trait values in a community. Enhanced understanding of the responses of FD to measures of vegetation structure at landscape scales is needed to guide conservation management. To address this knowledge gap, we used a whole-of-landscape sampling approach to examine relationships between bird FD, vegetation diversity and time since fire. We surveyed birds and measured vegetation at 36 landscape sampling units in dry and wet forest in southeast Australia during 2010 and 2011. Four uncorrelated indices of bird FD (richness, evenness, divergence and dispersion) were derived from six bird traits, and we investigated responses of these indices and species richness to both vertical and horizontal vegetation diversity using linear mixed models. We also considered the extent to which the mean and diversity of time since fire were related to vegetation diversity. Results showed opposing responses of FD to vegetation diversity in dry and wet forest. In dry forest, where fire is frequent, species richness and two FD indices (richness and dispersion) were positively related to vertical vegetation diversity, consistent with theory relating to environmental variation and coexistence. However, in wet forest subject to infrequent fire, the same three response variables were negatively associated with vertical diversity. We suggest that competitive dominance by species results in lower FD as vegetation diversity increases in wet forest. The responses of functional evenness were opposite to those of species richness, functional richness and dispersion in both forest types, highlighting the value of examining multiple FD metrics at management-relevant scales. The mean and diversity of time since fire were uncorrelated with vegetation

  8. Opposing regulation of cytochrome P450 expression by CAR and PXR in hypothyroid mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Joo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Kyung [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon Kwang [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Moore, David D., E-mail: moore@bcm.edu [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Clinical hypothyroidism affects various metabolic processes including drug metabolism. CYP2B and CYP3A are important cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes that are regulated by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2). We evaluated the regulation of the hepatic expression of CYPs by CAR and PXR in the hypothyroid state induced by a low-iodine diet containing 0.15% propylthiouracil. Expression of Cyp3a11 was suppressed in hypothyroid C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice and a further decrement was observed in hypothyroid CAR{sup −/−} mice, but not in hypothyroid PXR{sup −/−} mice. In contrast, expression of Cyp2b10 was induced in both WT and PXR{sup −/−} hypothyroid mice, and this induction was abolished in CAR{sup −/−} mice and in and CAR{sup −/−} PXR{sup −/−} double knockouts. CAR mRNA expression was increased by hypothyroidism, while PXR expression remained unchanged. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a commonly used antiepileptic that is metabolized by CYP3A isoforms. After CBZ treatment of normal chow fed mice, serum CBZ levels were highest in CAR{sup −/−} mice and lowest in WT and PXR{sup −/−} mice. Hypothyroid WT or PXR{sup −/−} mice survived chronic CBZ treatment, but all hypothyroid CAR{sup −/−} and CAR{sup −/−} PXR{sup −/−} mice died, with CAR{sup −/−}PXR{sup −/−} mice surviving longer than CAR{sup −/−} mice (12.3 ± 3.3 days vs. 6.3 ± 2.1 days, p = 0.04). All these findings suggest that hypothyroid status affects xenobiotic metabolism, with opposing responses of CAR and PXR and their CYP targets that can cancel each other out, decreasing serious metabolic derangement in response to a xenobiotic challenge. -- Highlights: ► Hypothyroid status activates CAR in mice and induces Cyp2b10 expression. ► Hypothyroid status suppresses PXR activity in mice and represses Cyp3a11 expression. ► These responses balance each other out in normal mice.

  9. Opposing regulation of cytochrome P450 expression by CAR and PXR in hypothyroid mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Joo; Lee, Eun Kyung; Lee, Yoon Kwang; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul; Moore, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical hypothyroidism affects various metabolic processes including drug metabolism. CYP2B and CYP3A are important cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes that are regulated by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2). We evaluated the regulation of the hepatic expression of CYPs by CAR and PXR in the hypothyroid state induced by a low-iodine diet containing 0.15% propylthiouracil. Expression of Cyp3a11 was suppressed in hypothyroid C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice and a further decrement was observed in hypothyroid CAR −/− mice, but not in hypothyroid PXR −/− mice. In contrast, expression of Cyp2b10 was induced in both WT and PXR −/− hypothyroid mice, and this induction was abolished in CAR −/− mice and in and CAR −/− PXR −/− double knockouts. CAR mRNA expression was increased by hypothyroidism, while PXR expression remained unchanged. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a commonly used antiepileptic that is metabolized by CYP3A isoforms. After CBZ treatment of normal chow fed mice, serum CBZ levels were highest in CAR −/− mice and lowest in WT and PXR −/− mice. Hypothyroid WT or PXR −/− mice survived chronic CBZ treatment, but all hypothyroid CAR −/− and CAR −/− PXR −/− mice died, with CAR −/− PXR −/− mice surviving longer than CAR −/− mice (12.3 ± 3.3 days vs. 6.3 ± 2.1 days, p = 0.04). All these findings suggest that hypothyroid status affects xenobiotic metabolism, with opposing responses of CAR and PXR and their CYP targets that can cancel each other out, decreasing serious metabolic derangement in response to a xenobiotic challenge. -- Highlights: ► Hypothyroid status activates CAR in mice and induces Cyp2b10 expression. ► Hypothyroid status suppresses PXR activity in mice and represses Cyp3a11 expression. ► These responses balance each other out in normal mice. ► Hypothyroidism sensitizes CAR null mice to toxic effects of carbamazepine.

  10. ADVANTAGES OF SURGICAL TREATMENT OF ACHILLES TENDON RUPTURE BY PERCUTANEOUS SUTURE AS OPPOSED TO NONSURGICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vidić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Achilles tendon is the strongest tendon in the body, and its rupture appears to be the most common injury of the tendomuscular apparatus. This type of injury is more frequent in sportsmen, especially those who play tennis, gymnastics, skiing, handball, football, basketball and athletics. Also, the ruptures are common in people who engage in sports activities for recreation. They appear more often in males, in proportion of 3:1. It appears reciprocally in 25- 30% of the cases. The rupture is easily diagnosed by means of clinical examination (Thompson's test and ultrasonography.The aim of the analysis was to point to the advantages of surgical treatment of a fresh Achilles tendon rupture as opposed to non-surgical treatment by plaster immobilization.The examination was performed on 35 patients, of which 16 (45,71% were treated operatively and 19 (54,29% were treated nonoperatively. The average age of the patients was 38.8 years, that is 37.1 for those treated operatively and 40.2 for those treated nonoperatively. Among the examinees, there were 29(82,86% men and 6 (17,14% women. The operative treatment method consisted of percutaneous suturing, whereas the nonoperative treatment involved the circular above the knee plaster immobilization. All operatively treated patients underwent the surgical treatment in the first 48 hours from the time when the injury had occured. Anesthesia was local and infiltrative.The obtained results showed that there were no unhealed ruptures or re-ruptures. In the group of patients who did not undergo the surgery, there was 1 re-rupture and 1 unhealed rupture, after which the surgical treatment had to be performed in both cases. In the group of operated patients there were no infections, however, 1 thromboembolism occured. Recovery of muscular strenght of the tendon and the realization of the full range of movement required less time in the operated patients. The ultrasonographic findings in the operated patients

  11. Opposing effects of fire severity on climate feedbacks in Siberian larch forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Natali, S.; Kropp, H.; Mack, M. C.; Bunn, A. G.; Davydov, S. P.; Erb, A.; Kholodov, A. L.; Schaaf, C.; Wang, Z.; Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    may lead to opposing climate feedbacks. At effectively large scales these changes constitute positive and negative climate feedbacks, respectively. Accurate predictive understanding of terrestrial Arctic climate feedbacks requires improved knowledge regarding the ecological consequences of changing fire regimes in Siberian boreal forests.

  12. Methadone as an inducer of apoptotic process in cheek mucosae cells in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stępień

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Methadone is an opioid medication which can reduce withdrawal symptoms in people addicted to heroin and other drugs. Methadone is used also as a pain reliever and as part of drug addiction detoxification program. Apoptosis is the physiological process that plays a critical role in development and tissue homeostasis. The progress of apoptosis is regulated by signal cascades. The aim of this study was to asses how methadone induces apoptotic process in cheek mucosae cells in rats. Forty albino rats wares divided into two parts and five subgroups each. The biggest histological changes of cheek mucosae was observed in the groups with methadone. There is no indication of ability to regeneration in short time after treatment.

  13. DETECTION OF Helicobacter pylori IN GASTRIC MUCOSA OF SHEEP: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is an organism widespread in humans and sometimes responsible for serious illnesses. It has been hypothesized the existence of animal reservoirs, and that the infection route by H. pylori involves multiple pathways including food-borne transmission as the microorganism has been detected from sheep, goat and cow milk. This work reports the preliminary results of a survey conducted in order to investigate the presence of H. pylori in gastric mucosa of sheep slaughtered in Apulia region (Italy employing a Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR assay for the detection of the phosphoglucosamine mutase gene (glmM, as screening method followed by conventional bacteriological isolation. Out of the 50 gastric mucosa samples examined, 3 (6% resulted positive for the presence of glmMgene, but at this time no strains were isolated. The results deserve further investigations to asses the role of ruminants as possible reservoirs of H. pylori.

  14. The effect of radon 222 on the oral mucosa of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minta, A.; Minta, P.; Kochanski, W.

    1975-01-01

    In experiments on 52 rabbits the authors investigated the effects of radon 222 administered by inhalation on the oral mucosa. The experimental animals were divided into 3 groups: 1 - controls, 2 - receiving radon inhalations in concentration 1 nCi/1, 3- receiving similar inhalations in a concentration of 5 nCi/l of air. Sections involving the lower lip with the mucosa were obtained for investigations after 10, 20, 30 and 60 days of inhalation. In the group of animals receiving radon in lower concentration its stimulating effect manifested itself as stimulation of mesenchymal cells and vascular endothelium. In group 3 sebaceous glands, atrophy and excessive keratinization of epidermis. Taking into account the analogy of these processes the authors concluded that in balneotherapy of oral diseases radon water application with low content of radon 222 may be satisfactory and safe. (author)

  15. Phantom gastric mucosa for evaluating computed radiography in double-contrast upper gastrointestinal examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, M.; Watanabe, H.; Nakata, H.

    1996-01-01

    To test the clinical usefulness of computed radiography (CR) with a storage phosphor plate in upper gastrointestinal radiographic examinations, a newly devised phantom gastric mucosa was used. Simulated small elevated and depressed lesions were created on a phantom gastric mucosa made from a styrofoam 'plate'. Twenty-four sets of each CR and screen-film radiographs (SR) were obtained using phototimed exposures. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study and visual ranking using these images were performed. There was no significant difference between the ROC curves of CR and SR. By visual ranking, CR was equal to or better than SR in most cases. In no case was SR definitely superior to CR. CR can be safely applied in upper gastrointestinal roentgenologic examinations. (orig.)

  16. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Study of Colonic Mucosa in IBD Patients: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Salvatori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is one of several novel methods that provide real-time, high-resolution imaging at a micronscale via endoscopes. CLE and related technologies are often termed “virtual biopsy” as they simulate the images seen in traditional histology. Recently, the use of CLE was reported in the study of colonic mucosa in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and in particular in patients affected by ulcerative colitis. CLE has the potential to have an important role in management of IBD patients as it can be used to assess the grading of colitis and in detection of microscopic colitis in endoscopically silent segments. Moreover, CLE can be used in surveillance programs especially in high-risk patients. This report aims to evaluate the current data on the application of confocal endomicroscopy in clinical gastroenterology and particularly in the study of colonic mucosa in UC patients.

  17. The cytological status of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Bazeliuk; B.M. Salimbaeva

    2006-11-15

    Sixty-four persons were examined. The examination was undertaken to study the cytomophological parameters of the cells of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners. Group 1 consisted of 18 donors without contact with industrial dust; Group 2 comprised 24 apparently healthy miners; Group 3 included 22 workers (drift miners) with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis, grade 1 respiratory failure. The patients with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis had noticeably worse morphofunctional characteristics of the epithelium that displayed extensive fields with pronounced structural changes, such as destruction and desquamation of the integumentary epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Nasal mucosal atrophic changes were observed in 50% of the examined miners. Examination of the buccal epithelium in apparently healthy miners (code 0) and in workers with Stage I anthracosilicosis revealed the increased proportion of microfloral (Streptococcus) contamination by 79% and 3.7 times, respectively.

  18. Gene expression profiling of gastric mucosa in mice lacking CCK and gastrin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chun-Mei; Kodama, Yosuke; Flatberg, Arnar

    2014-01-01

    normalized, which was associated with an up-regulated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) type 1 receptor (PAC1). The basal part of the gastric mucosa expressed parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) in a subpopulation of likely ECL cells (and possibly other cells) and vitamin D3 1α...... suggest a possible link between gastric PTHLH and vitamin D and bone metabolism.......The stomach produces acid, which may play an important role in the regulation of bone homeostasis. The aim of this study was to reveal signaling pathways in the gastric mucosa that involve the acid secretion and possibly the bone metabolism in CCK1 and/or CCK2 receptor knockout (KO) mice. Gastric...

  19. Isolation and identification of Helicobacter spp, from canine and feline gastric mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalava, K.; On, Stephen L.W.; VanDamme, P.A.R.

    1998-01-01

    It is known that virtually all healthy adult dogs and cats harbor spiral helicobacters in their gastric mucosa, Three species, Helicobacter felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii, and Helicobacter salomonis have been isolated in vitro from the gastric mucosa of these animals. The aims of this study were...... conventional phenotypic tests, whole-cell protein profiling, and ultrastructural analysis in identifying the different species isolated from canine and feline gastric mucose. We cultured 95 and 22 gastric mucosal biopsies from dogs and cats, respectively. Twenty-one H. bizzozeronii strains, 8 H. felis strains......, 8 H. salomonis strains, 3 mixed cultures, 2 "Flexispira rappini"-like organisms, and 3 as get uncharacterized strains were isolated from the dogs, and 3 H. felis strains were isolated from the cats. The methods used here yielded Helicobacter isolation rates of 51% from dogs and 13.6% from cats...

  20. Ethanol as an inducer of apoptotic process in cheek mucosae in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Borowska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is the process that plays a important role in development and tissue homeostasis. This physiological process is regulated by caspases. The caspases are specific cysteine proteases. The aim of this study was to prove how ethanol induces apoptotic process in cheek mucosae cells in rats. Fifteen male Wistar rats were used in the research. They were divided into two treated groups (group A and group Abis and control group. The biggest histological changes of cheek mucosae was observed in group with ethanol four weeks after last consumption. There is no indication of ability to regeneration in short time after treatment. The most marked was expression of caspase 8 in group A bis. In caspase 9 expression group A was more visible.

  1. Endoscopic OCT for in-vivo imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Alexander M.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Kuznetzova, Irina N.; Snopova, Ludmila; Denisenko, Arkady; Almasov, Valentin

    1998-01-01

    First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography for in vivo studies of human mucosa in gastrointestinal and genital tracts are presented. A novel endoscopic OCT system has ben created that is based on the integration of a sampling arm of an all-optical-fiber interferometer into standard endoscopic devices using their biopsy channel to transmit low-coherence radiation to investigated tissue. We have studied mucous membranes of esophagus, stomach and uterine cervix as typical localization for carcinomatous processes. Images of tumor tissues versus healthy tissues have been recorded and analyzed. Violations of well-defined stratified healthy mucosa structure in cancerous tissue is distinctly seen by EOCT, thus making this technique promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

  2. In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Alexander M.; Gelikonov, V. M.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, R. V.; Gladkova, N. D.; Shakhova, N. M.; Snopova, L. B.; Shakhov, A. V.; Kuznetzova, I. A.; Denisenko, A. N.; Pochinko, V. V.; Chumakov, Yu P.; Streltzova, O. S.

    1997-12-01

    First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography for in vivo studies of human mucosa in respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary and genital tracts are presented. A novel endoscopic OCT (EOCT) system has been created that is based on the integration of a sampling arm of an all-optical-fiber interferometer into standard endoscopic devices using their biopsy channel to transmit low-coherence radiation to investigated tissue. We have studied mucous membranes of esophagus, larynx, stomach, urinary bladder, uterine cervix and body as typical localization for carcinomatous processes. Images of tumor tissues versus healthy tissues have been recorded and analyzed. Violations of well-defined stratified healthy mucosa structure in cancered tissue are distinctly seen by EOCT, thus making this technique promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

  3. [Oral medicine 9. Lichen planus and lichenoid lesions of the oral mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-09-01

    The general dentist is sometimes confronted with white lesions of the oral mucosa. Oral lichen planus is the most common oral white lesion. The diagnosis can usually be made on the basis of the clinical aspect, but is sometimes made more difficult by certain abnormalities in the oral mucosa which clinically resemble oral lichen planus or by abnormalities which cannot be distinguished from oral lichen planus but have a different origin. Those lesions are classified as oral lichenoid lesions. Malignant deterioration has been described in allforms of oral lichen planus lesions and oral lichenoid lesions. There is no known method to predict or prevent malignant transformation. Nor are there any studies examining the efficacy of frequent follow-up visits. It seems sensible, in keeping with the tendency in recent literature, to schedule annual check-ups for patients to be on the safe side. These follow-up visits may reasonably be performed in a general dental practice.

  4. Expression and Antigenic Evaluation of VacA Antigenic Fragment of Helicobacter Pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Leila; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah; Soufian, Safieh; Farjadi, Vahideh; Abtahi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) : Helicobacter pylori, a human specific gastric pathogen is a causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is an effective virulence factor involved in gastric injury. The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant protein containing antigenic region of VacA gene and determine its antigenicity. Materials and Methods: The antigenic region of VacA gene was detected by bioinformatics methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify a highly antigenic region of VacA gene from chromosomal DNA of H. pylori. The eluted product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a. The target protein was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The bacteria including pET32a-VacA plasmids were induced by IPTG. The antigenicity was finally studied by western blotting using sera of 15 H. pylori infected patients after purification. Results: Enzyme digestion analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that the target gene was inserted correctly into the recombinant vector. The expressed protein was purified successfully via affinity chromatography. Data indicated that antigenic region of VacA protein from Helicobacter pylori was recognized by all 15 patient’s sera. Conclusion : Our data showed that antigenic region of VacA protein can be expressed by in E. co.li. This protein was recognized by sera patients suffering from H. pylori infection. the recombinant protein has similar epitopes and close antigenic properties to the natural form of this antigen. Recombinant antigenic region of VacA protein also seems to be a promising antigen for protective and serologic diagnosis . PMID:23997913

  5. Expression and Antigenic Evaluation of VacA Antigenic Fragment of Helicobacter Pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hasanzadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Helicobacter pylori, a human specific gastric pathogen is a causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA is an effective virulence factor involved in gastric injury. The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant protein containing antigenic region of VacA gene and determine its antigenicity.   Materials and Methods: The antigenic region of VacA gene was detected by bioinformatics methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify a highly antigenic region of VacA gene from chromosomal DNA of H. pylori. The eluted product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a. The target protein was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 pLysS. The bacteria including pET32a-VacA plasmids were induced by IPTG. The antigenicity was finally studied by western blotting using sera of 15 H. pylori infected patients after purification. Results: Enzyme digestion analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that the target gene was inserted correctly into the recombinant vector. The expressed protein was purified successfully via affinity chromatography. Data indicated that antigenic region of VacA protein from Helicobacter pylori was recognized by all 15 patient’s sera. Conclusion : Our data showed that antigenic region of VacA protein can be expressed by in E. co.li. This protein was recognized by sera patients suffering from H. pylori infection. the recombinant protein has similar epitopes and close antigenic properties to the natural form of this antigen. Recombinant antigenic region of VacA protein also seems to be a promising antigen for protective and serologic diagnosis .

  6. Ultrastructure of mouse intestinal mucosa and changes observed after long term anthraquinone administration.

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, P; Gendre, P

    1984-01-01

    In an attempt to study the relative toxicity of anthraquinonic laxatives on intestinal mucosa, we compared in mice the effects of fruit pulp containing sennosides A and B with those of a free anthraquinone, 1-8 dihydroxyanthraquinone. Observations have been made with transmission electron microscopy (EM) after 16 weeks of treatment with the two drugs. Although the doses used in this study were equipotent in terms of laxative activity, no damage to the intestinal tissue was observed with the s...

  7. Benign Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Buccal Mucosa: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Giovani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign fibrous histiocytoma is an interesting and challenging entity even in its most usual, cutaneous presentation. Noncutaneous presentation is extremely limited, even more so for the mucosa of the head and neck area. We herein report such a case, describing the clinical characteristics of the lesion, complete diagnostic evaluation, management, and follow-up. Diagnostic histopathological challenges are specifically illustrated. A complete review of the relevant literature is also included.

  8. Structural alterations of the mucosa stroma in the Barrett's esophagus metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Lord, Reginald V N

    2012-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the extracellular matrix play important roles in intercellular communications and contribute to the development of a number of diseases, including diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The present study examined the structural characteristics and alterations of the extracellular matrix of the mucosa stroma in the Barrett's esophagus metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. A total of 41 esophageal tissue specimens (15 esophageal adenocarcinoma, 10 Barrett's esophagus intestinal metaplasia, seven dysplasia and nine normal esophagus) were studied. The present study used transmission electron microscopy and computerized quantitative electron-microscopic analysis in order to investigate the characteristics of the extracellular matrix of the mucosa. The study revealed that marked structural alterations of the mucosa stroma, relating to changes in the distribution and appearance of collagen fibers as well as to changes in numbers of matrix microvesicles, occur in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. It was found that there were 3.1 times more microvesicles in the stroma in Barrett's esophagus than in the stroma of the normal esophagus (P<0.0001) and that there were 5.8 times more microvesicles in esophageal adenocarcinoma than in the normal esophagus (P<0.0001). There were 1.9 times more microvesicles in esophageal adenocarcinoma than in Barrett's esophagus (P=0.0043). The study demonstrates distinctive alterations of the mucosa stroma extracellular matrix in the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. The findings suggest that the redistribution of collagen fibers and increases in numbers of matrix microvesicles may play roles in the formation of specialized intestinal metaplasia and the development of adenocarcinoma. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Mlh1 deficiency in normal mouse colon mucosa associates with chromosomally unstable colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pussila, Marjaana; Törönen, Petri; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Katayama, Shintaro; Krjutškov, Kaarel; Holm, Liisa; Kere, Juha; Peltomäki, Päivi; Mäkinen, Markus J; Linden, Jere; Nyström, Minna

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) genome is unstable and different types of instabilities, such as chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MSI) are thought to reflect distinct cancer initiating mechanisms. Although 85% of sporadic CRC reveal CIN, 15% reveal mismatch repair (MMR) malfunction and MSI, the hallmarks of Lynch syndrome with inherited heterozygous germline mutations in MMR genes. Our study was designed to comprehensively follow genome-wide expression changes and their implications during colon tumorigenesis. We conducted a long-term feeding experiment in the mouse to address expression changes arising in histologically normal colonic mucosa as putative cancer preceding events, and the effect of inherited predisposition (Mlh1+/−) and Western-style diet (WD) on those. During the 21-month experiment, carcinomas developed mainly in WD-fed mice and were evenly distributed between genotypes. Unexpectedly, the heterozygote (B6.129-Mlh1tm1Rak) mice did not show MSI in their CRCs. Instead, both wildtype and heterozygote CRC mice showed a distinct mRNA expression profile and shortage of several chromosomal segregation gene-specific transcripts (Mlh1, Bub1, Mis18a, Tpx2, Rad9a, Pms2, Cenpe, Ncapd3, Odf2 and Dclre1b) in their colon mucosa, as well as an increased mitotic activity and abundant numbers of unbalanced/atypical mitoses in tumours. Our genome-wide expression profiling experiment demonstrates that cancer preceding changes are already seen in histologically normal colon mucosa and that decreased expressions of Mlh1 and other chromosomal segregation genes may form a field-defect in mucosa, which trigger MMR-proficient, chromosomally unstable CRC. PMID:29701748

  10. Prevalence of Candida spp. in Healthy Oral Mucosa Surfaces with Higher Incidence of Chronic Hyperplastic Candidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Claúdia; Artico, Gabriela; Freitas, Roseli; Filho, Antônio; Migliari, Dante

    2016-08-01

    Predisposing factors in chronic hyperplastic candidosis (CHC) have been poorly recognized. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of Candida spp. in areas of the oral mucosa showing greater prevalent rate of CHC, such as the retrocomissural area, the lateral borders of the tongue, and the hard-palate mucosa in four groups of individuals presenting predisposing factors as follows: Smoking habits (group I); patients with low salivary flow rate (SFR) (hyposalivation - group II); patients with loss of vertical dimension of occlusion (LVDO -group III); and control subjects (group IV). A total of 44 individuals (age 4090 years, mean: 55.8 years) were divided into four groups: Group I (11 smokers); group II (10 hyposalivation patients); group III (10 LVDO patients); and group IV (control, 13 healthy subjects). All individuals were tested for Candida-pseudohyphae form by direct examination and for Candida spp. culture growth in samples obtained from the retrocomissural, tongue's lateral border, and hard-soft palatal mucosa. Direct examination showed a statistically significant prevalence rate for pseudohyphae (p < 0.05) on the retrocomissural and on tongue's lateral borders of individuals with LVDO. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) culture growth for Candida spp. was found on the retrocomissural areas of those with hyposalivation and with LVDO, and on the palate mucosa and on the tongue's lateral borders in the smokers and in the individuals with LVDO when compared with those of the control group. While direct examination is effective for detecting pseudohyphae, LVDO and tobacco smoking seem to be factors of relevance to the development of CHC. Since CHC has been linked to a high rate of malignant transformation, this study analyzes some clinical (and exogenous) factors that may contribute to the development of CHC and addresses some preventive measures to reduce its incidence.

  11. Robotic Ureteroplasty with Buccal Mucosa Graft for the Management of Complex Ureteral Strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ziho; Waldorf, Benjamin T; Cho, Eric Y; Liu, Jeffrey C; Metro, Michael J; Eun, Daniel D

    2017-12-01

    Surgical management of proximal and mid ureteral strictures that are not amenable to primary excision and anastomosis is challenging. Although a buccal mucosa graft is commonly used during substitution urethroplasty, its use in substitution ureteroplasty is limited. We describe our technique of robotic ureteroplasty with a buccal mucosa graft to manage complex ureteral strictures and we report our outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 12 patients who underwent robotic ureteroplasty with a buccal mucosa graft between September 2014 and June 2016. The indication for the procedure was a proximal or mid ureteral stricture not amenable to primary excision and anastomosis. The primary outcomes were clinical success, absent symptoms on ureteral pathology and radiological success, defined as absent ureteral obstruction on retrograde pyelography, renal scan and/or computerized tomography. Four of the 12 patients (33.3%) had a ureteropelvic junction stricture, 4 (33.3%) had a proximal stricture and 4 (33.3%) had a mid ureteral stricture. Eight of the 12 patients (66.7%) had previously undergone failed ureteral reconstruction. Median stricture length was 3 cm (range 2 to 5). Median operative time was 217 minutes (range 136 to 344) and mean estimated blood loss was 100 ml (range 50 to 200). Median length of stay was 1 day (range 1 to 6). At a median followup of 13 months (range 4 to 30) 10 of the 12 cases (83.3%) were clinically and radiologically successful. Robotic ureteroplasty with a buccal mucosa graft is associated with low inherent morbidity. It is an effective way to manage complex proximal and mid ureteral strictures. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tau Protein in Oral Mucosa and Cognitive State: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Arredondo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the presence of abnormal aggregates of proteins in brain tissue. Among them, the presence of aggregates of phosphorylated Tau protein (p-Tau is the hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and other major neurodegenerative disorders such as corticobasal degeneration and frontotemporal dementia among others. Although Tau protein has previously been assumed to be exclusive to the central nervous system, it is also found in peripheral tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a differential Tau expression in oral mucosa cells according to cognitive impairment. Eighty-one subjects were enrolled in the study and classified per Mini-Mental State Examination test score into control, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and severe cognitive impairment (SCI groups. Immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence revealed the presence of Tau and four p-Tau forms in the cytoplasm and nucleus of oral mucosa cells. More positivity was present in subjects with cognitive impairment than in control subjects, both in the nucleus and cytoplasm, in a speckle pattern. The mRNA expression of Tau by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was higher in SCI as compared with the control group (P < 0.01. A significantly higher percentage of immunopositive cells in the SCI group was found via flow cytometry in comparison to controls and the MCI group (P < 0.01. These findings demonstrate the higher presence of p-Tau and Tau transcript in the oral mucosa of cognitively impaired subjects when compared with healthy subjects. The feasibility of p-Tau quantification by flow cytometry supports the prospective analysis of oral mucosa as a support tool for screening of proteinopathies in cognitively impaired patients.

  13. Functional Properties of Lactobacillus mucosae Strains Isolated from Brazilian Goat Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Georgia Maciel Dias; de Abreu, Louricélia Rodrigues; do Egito, Antônio Silvio; Salles, Hévila Oliveira; da Silva, Liana Maria Ferreira; Nero, Luís Augusto; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich

    2017-09-01

    The search for probiotic candidates among lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from food may uncover new strains with promising health and technological properties. Lactobacillus mucosae strains attracted recent research attention due to their ability to adhere to intestinal mucus and to inhibit pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract, both related to a probiotic potential. Properties of interest and safety aspects of three Lb. mucosae strains (CNPC006, CNPC007, and CNPC009) isolated from goat milk were investigated employing in vitro tests. The presence of genetic factors related to bile salt hydrolase production (bsh), intestinal adhesion properties (msa, map, mub, and ef-tu), virulence, and biogenic amine production were also verified. All strains exhibited the target map, mub, and ef-tu sequences; the msa gene was detected in CNPC006 and CNPC007 strains. Some of the searched sequences for virulence factors were detected, especially in the CNPC009 strain; all strains carried the hyl gene, related to the production of hyaluronidase. Lb. mucosae CNPC007 exhibited a high survival rate in simulated gastric and enteric conditions. Besides, all strains exhibited the bsh sequence, and CNPC006 and CNPC007 were able to deconjugate salts of glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC). Regarding technological properties for dairy product applications, a relatively higher milk acidification and clotting capacity, diacetyl production, and proteolytic activity were registered for CNPC007 in comparison to the other strains. Collectively, the results aim at Lb. mucosae CNPC007 as a promising probiotic candidate for application in dairy products, deserving further studies to confirm and explore its potential.

  14. Urokinase and the intestinal mucosa: evidence for a role in epithelial cell turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, P; Birchall, I; Rosella, O; Albert, V; Finch, C; Barkla, D; Young, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—The functions of urokinase in intestinal epithelia are unknown. 
Aims—To determine the relation of urokinase expressed by intestinal epithelial cells to their position in the crypt-villus/surface axis and of mucosal urokinase activity to epithelial proliferative kinetics in the distal colon. 
Methods—Urokinase expression was examined immunohistochemically in human intestinal mucosa. Urokinase activity was measured colorimetrically in epithelial cells isolated sequ...

  15. 3D handheld endoscope for optical coherence tomography of the human oral mucosa in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Julia; Schnabel, Christian; Ebert, Nadja; Baumann, Michael; Koch, Edmund

    2017-07-01

    The early non-invasive diagnosis of epithelial tissue alterations in daily clinical routine is still challenging. Since optical coherence tomography (OCT) shows the potential to differentiate between benign and malignant tissue of primal endothelium, OCT could be beneficial for the early diagnosis of malignancies in routine health checks. In this research, a new handheld endoscopic scanning unit was designed and connected to a spectral domain OCT system of our workgroup for the in vivo imaging of the human oral mucosa.

  16. Application of interstitial radiotherapy for cancers of the tongue and oral caving mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamyatin, O.A.; Vakhramova, M.P.; Razorenova, E.V.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with new procedures of interstitial, complex and combined treatment of cancer of the tongue and mucosa of fundus of the oral cavity with time space-differentiated doses of radiation. If indicated, cervical lymph nodes undergo surgery at the final stage of therapy. Interstitial radiotherapy has proved a highly-effective radical component of said treatment for cancers of the tongue and oral cavity

  17. Effects of nonpathogenic bacteria on cytokine secretion by human intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borruel, Natalia; Casellas, Francesc; Antolín, María; Llopis, Marta; Carol, Monica; Espíin, Eloy; Naval, Javier; Guarner, Francisco; Malagelada, Juan R

    2003-04-01

    The human intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, and the mucosa is the interface between the immune system and the luminal environment. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether host-bacteria interactions influence mucosal cytokine production. Macroscopically normal colonic specimens were obtained at surgery from eight patients with neoplasm, and inflamed ileal specimens were obtained from two patients with Crohn's disease. Mucosal explants were cultured for 24 h with either nonpathogenic Escherichia coli ECOR-26, Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001, L. casei DN-114 056, L. casei ATCC-334, or Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB-10. Each study included blank wells with no bacteria. Tissue and bacteria viability were confirmed by LDH release and culture. Concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, transforming growth factor beta1, interleukin (IL)-8, and IL-10 was measured in supernatants. In parallel experiments, neutralizing anti-TNFalpha antibody was added to the culture. Co-culture of mucosa with bacteria did not modify LDH release. Co-culture with L. casei strains significantly reduced TNFalpha release, whereas E. coli increased it. These effects were observed both in normal and inflamed mucosa. In combination studies, L. casei DN-114 001 prevented TNFalpha stimulation by E. coli. L. casei DN-114 001 also reduced IL-8 release via a TNFalpha-independent pathway. L. casei DN-114 056 or E. coli increased IL-10 release in the presence of neutralizing anti-TNFalpha. Nonpathogenic bacteria interact with human intestinal mucosa and can induce changes in cytokine production that are strain specific.

  18. Perineal mass protrusion with rectal mucosa: a rectal duplication that underwent exstrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junjie; Vongphet, Soulithone; Zhang, Zhichong; Mo, Jiacong

    2011-08-01

    We present a rare case of a male neonate with a perineal mass with rectal mucosa, diagnosed as an exstrophic duplication of the rectum. It was accompanied by a cord that was deeply invested in the pelvic diaphragm and was composed of smooth muscle, fibrous tissue, and some rectal glands. The association of exstrophic rectal duplication with a bifid scrotum, hypospadias, and normal anus has not been described previously in the literature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Absence of pepsinogen A3 gene expression in the gastric mucosa of patients with gastric cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, E J; Peña, A S; Crusius, J B; Defize, J; van der Stoop, P; Meuwissen, S G; Pals, G

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the expression of pepsinogen A3 (Pg3) encoding genes in the gastric mucosa of normal controls and subjects with atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. METHODS--One hundred and fifty nine patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with sampling of gastric biopsy specimens and serum. Pg3 isoproteins were determined by electrophoresis in serum and gastric mucosal biopsy specimens. Pg3 encoding genes were assessed by PCR in DNA obtained from peripheral blood. RESULTS...

  20. The Role of Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Taek-Keun; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Choi, Yoo-Duk; Jeong, Jae-Uk; Kim, Yong-Hyeob; Yoon, Mee Sun; Song, Ju-Young; Ahn, Sung-Ja; Chung, Woong-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess radiotherapy for patients with early stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with respect to survival, treatment response, and complications. Materials and Methods Enrolled into this study were 48 patients diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma from January 2000 to September 2012. Forty-one patients had low grade and seven had mixed component with high grade. Helicobacter pylori eradication was performed in 33 patients. Thirty-four patients received rad...

  1. The overmethylated genes in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa are demethylated in gastric cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Sang-Wook

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transitional-CpG sites between weakly methylated genes and densely methylated retroelements are overmethylated in the gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and they are undermethylated in the gastric cancers depending on the level of loss of heterozygosity (LOH events. This study delineated the transitional-CpG methylation patterns of CpG-island-containing and -lacking genes in view of the retroelements. Methods The transitional-CpG sites of eight CpG-island-containing genes and six CpG-island-lacking genes were semi-quantitatively examined by performing radioisotope-labelling methylation-specific PCR under stringent conditions. The level of LOH in the gastric cancers was estimated using the 40 microsatellite markers on eight cancer-associated chromosomes. Each gene was scored as overmethylated or undermethylated based on an intermediate level of transitional-CpG methylation common in the H. pylori-negative gastric mucosa. Results The eight CpG-island genes examined were overmethylated depending on the proximity to the nearest retroelement in the H. pylori-positive gastric mucosa. The six CpG-island-lacking genes were similarly methylated in the H. pylori-positive and -negative gastric mucosa. In the gastric cancers, long transitional-CpG segments of the CpG-island genes distant from the retroelements remained overmethylated, whereas the overmethylation of short transitional-CpG segments close to the retroelements was not significant. Both the CpG-island-containing and -lacking genes tended to be decreasingly methylated in a LOH-level-dependent manner. Conclusions The overmethylated genes under the influence of retroelement methylation in the H. pylori-infected stomach are demethylated in the gastric cancers influenced by LOH.

  2. Bleeding peptic ulcer caused by ectopic gastric mucosa in a duplicated segment of jejunum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, H.; Ching, G.; Halls, J.; Levy, I.J.

    1981-01-01

    The authors present a case in which a patient suffered a bleeding jejunal ulcer caused by heterotopic gastric mucosa in a congenital duplication of a segment of jejunum. This is the first case diagnosed preoperatively by two different radiographic means. These lesions were shown by both pertechnetate flow and barium small bowel studies. The rarity of these entities and the modalities used for diagnosis are described

  3. Mapping Local Cytosolic Enzymatic Activity in Human Esophageal Mucosa with Porous Silicon Nanoneedles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Ciro; Campagnolo, Paola; Almeida, Carina S; Abbassi-Ghadi, Nima; Chow, Lesley W; Hanna, George B; Stevens, Molly M

    2015-09-16

    Porous silicon nanoneedles can map Cathepsin B activity across normal and tumor human esophageal mucosa. Assembling a peptide-based Cathepsin B cleavable sensor over a large array of nano-needles allows the discrimination of cancer cells from healthy ones in mixed culture. The same sensor applied to tissue can map Cathepsin B activity with high resolution across the tumor margin area of esophageal adenocarcinoma. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Efeito genotóxico do etanol em células da mucosa bucal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Silvia Regina de Almeida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O etanol é um dos agentes químicos relacionados ao desenvolvimento de neoplasias malignas bucais. Os micronúcleos são porções de cromatina que permanecem próximas ao núcleo, resultantes de mitoses aberrantes após a ação de agentes genotóxicos. Dessa forma, sua ocorrência reflete o grau de exposição celular a carcinógenos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a freqüência de micronúcleos em células esfoliadas da língua e da mucosa jugal de indivíduos dependentes químicos de etanol. A amostra constou de células esfoliadas da língua e da mucosa jugal de 40 indivíduos alcoólatras não fumantes e de 20 abstêmios de álcool e fumo. As células obtidas foram coradas pelo método de Feulgen e contracoradas pelo "Fast Green". Observou-se um aumento estatisticamente significativo da freqüência de micronúcleos em células esfoliadas da língua no grupo de indivíduos expostos ao etanol em relação ao grupo controle (p 0,05. Conclui-se, portanto, que o consumo excessivo de etanol promove alterações efetivas em células da mucosa bucal, mesmo na ausência de exposição ao fumo. Tais alterações apresentam-se mais expressivas no bordo lateral de língua, um sítio mais exposto à ação de carcinógenos quando comparado à mucosa jugal.

  5. Gene methylation profiles of normal mucosa, and benign and malignant colorectal tumors identify early onset markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatn Morten

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple epigenetic and genetic changes have been reported in colorectal tumors, but few of these have clinical impact. This study aims to pinpoint epigenetic markers that can discriminate between non-malignant and malignant tissue from the large bowel, i.e. markers with diagnostic potential. The methylation status of eleven genes (ADAMTS1, CDKN2A, CRABP1, HOXA9, MAL, MGMT, MLH1, NR3C1, PTEN, RUNX3, and SCGB3A1 was determined in 154 tissue samples including normal mucosa, adenomas, and carcinomas of the colorectum. The gene-specific and widespread methylation status among the carcinomas was related to patient gender and age, and microsatellite instability status. Possible CIMP tumors were identified by comparing the methylation profile with microsatellite instability (MSI, BRAF-, KRAS-, and TP53 mutation status. Results The mean number of methylated genes per sample was 0.4 in normal colon mucosa from tumor-free individuals, 1.2 in mucosa from cancerous bowels, 2.2 in adenomas, and 3.9 in carcinomas. Widespread methylation was found in both adenomas and carcinomas. The promoters of ADAMTS1, MAL, and MGMT were frequently methylated in benign samples as well as in malignant tumors, independent of microsatellite instability. In contrast, normal mucosa samples taken from bowels without tumor were rarely methylated for the same genes. Hypermethylated CRABP1, MLH1, NR3C1, RUNX3, and SCGB3A1 were shown to be identifiers of carcinomas with microsatellite instability. In agreement with the CIMP concept, MSI and mutated BRAF were associated with samples harboring hypermethylation of several target genes. Conclusion Methylated ADAMTS1, MGMT, and MAL are suitable as markers for early tumor detection.

  6. The state of teeth and oral mucosa of children from the radionuclide contaminated districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nichenko, Eh.M.; Gorbacheva, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    In 1986-1987 the stomatology inspection of 862 children in the age of 6-14 years, living at the territory with the level of contamination from 20 to 40 Ci/km 2 has been carried out. High teeth caries disease, bad mouth hygiene, oral mucosa and red lips margin changes was revealed. The teeth caries disease did not depend on the level of thr resident radioactive contamination. 7 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Antigen Cross-Presentation of Immune Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Barbara; Stout, Madeleine; Fiebiger, Edda

    2014-01-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to cross-present tumor antigens has long been a focus of interest to physicians, as well as basic scientists, that aim to establish efficient cell-based cancer immune therapy. A prerequisite for exploiting this pathway for therapeutic purposes is a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the induction of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses when initiated by DCs via cross-presentation. The ability of humans DC to perform cross-presentation is of utmost interest, as this cell type is a main target for cell-based immunotherapy in humans. The outcome of a cross-presentation event is guided by the nature of the antigen, the form of antigen uptake, and the subpopulation of DCs that performs presentation. Generally, CD8α+ DCs are considered to be the most potent cross-presenting DCs. This paradigm, however, only applies to soluble antigens. During adaptive immune responses, immune complexes form when antibodies interact with their specific epitopes on soluble antigens. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) immune complexes target Fc-gamma receptors on DCs to shuttle exogenous antigens efficiently into the cross-presentation pathway. This receptor-mediated cross-presentation pathway is a well-described route for the induction of strong CD8+ T cell responses. IgG-mediated cross-presentation is intriguing because it permits the CD8− DCs, which are commonly considered to be weak cross-presenters, to efficiently cross-present. Engaging multiple DC subtypes for cross-presentation might be a superior strategy to boost CTL responses in vivo. We here summarize our current understanding of how DCs use IgG-complexed antigens for the efficient induction of CTL responses. Because of its importance for human cell therapy, we also review the recent advances in the characterization of cross-presentation properties of human DC subsets. PMID:24744762

  8. Adenocarcinoma of the cervical esophagus arising in heterotopic gastric mucosa: exclusive chemoradiotherapy following a mucosal resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jestin-Letallec, V.; Muller, M.; Metges, J.P.; Bouchekoua, M.; Albarghach, N.; Pradier, O.

    2007-01-01

    Esophagus adenocarcinomas developing within heterotopic gastric mucosa are very rare and described to be found endoscopically in a prevalence of .29%. We report a case of cervical adenocarcinoma arising in ectopic gastric mucosa in a fifty-four year old man. The patient underwent a mucosal resection followed with exclusive chemoradiotherapy because of infiltration of the sub mucosa layer. A radiotherapy dose of 60 Gy ( 2 Gy/Fr, 30 Fr) was realized with a reduction of the fields at 50 Gy associated with a continuous 5FU-cisplatin combination after eliminating known mutation in the dihydro-pyrimidine of the dehydrogenase gene. for this tumor, surgery is the main treatment, (oesophagectomy associated with laryngo-pharyngectomy) and has an important repercussion on the quality of life. Because of the refusal of our patient, after a mucosal resection attempt, we proposed our patient a chemoradiotherapy. For the first time in the literature, we report the results of radio chemotherapy for this rare tumor. Eighteen months after the treatment, the patient is alive without sign of recurrence. The radio chemotherapy could be a safety treatment for this rare tumor associated with a good quality of life. A review of the literature since 1950 will be shown. (authors)

  9. Adenocarcinoma of the cervical esophagus arising in heterotopic gastric mucosa: exclusive chemoradiotherapy following a mucosal resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jestin-Letallec, V.; Muller, M.; Metges, J.P.; Bouchekoua, M.; Albarghach, N.; Pradier, O. [Departement de Cancerologie, 29 - Brest (France)

    2007-11-15

    Esophagus adenocarcinomas developing within heterotopic gastric mucosa are very rare and described to be found endoscopically in a prevalence of .29%. We report a case of cervical adenocarcinoma arising in ectopic gastric mucosa in a fifty-four year old man. The patient underwent a mucosal resection followed with exclusive chemoradiotherapy because of infiltration of the sub mucosa layer. A radiotherapy dose of 60 Gy ( 2 Gy/Fr, 30 Fr) was realized with a reduction of the fields at 50 Gy associated with a continuous 5FU-cisplatin combination after eliminating known mutation in the dihydro-pyrimidine of the dehydrogenase gene. for this tumor, surgery is the main treatment, (oesophagectomy associated with laryngo-pharyngectomy) and has an important repercussion on the quality of life. Because of the refusal of our patient, after a mucosal resection attempt, we proposed our patient a chemoradiotherapy. For the first time in the literature, we report the results of radio chemotherapy for this rare tumor. Eighteen months after the treatment, the patient is alive without sign of recurrence. The radio chemotherapy could be a safety treatment for this rare tumor associated with a good quality of life. A review of the literature since 1950 will be shown. (authors)

  10. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and somatostatin in the plasma and sigmoid mucosa in irritable bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ru; Wang Fuxian

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the possible role and clinical significance of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and somatostatin(SS) in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the VIP and SS in the plasma and sigmoid mucosa were measured by radioimmunoassay in the control group and the IBS group. The VIP concentration in the plasma and sigmoid mucosa of the IBS patients with constipation was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.01), while that of the IBS patients with diarrhea was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05). The SS concentration in two sites was significantly elevated in IBS patients of both types and was significantly higher in IBS with constipation than in IBS with diarrhea (P<0.05). Conclusion: The VIP and SS in IBS are abnormal, which might play a role in the pathogenesis of IBS. The plasma and mucosa concenration of VIP and SS in two kinds of IBS patients are significantly different, which indicates that there might be different pathophysiological basis involved in the pathogenesis of the two kinds of IBS patients. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of tissue engineered models of the oral mucosa to investigate oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadev, Nishant P; Murdoch, Craig; Saville, Stephen P; Thornhill, Martin H

    2011-06-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal organism that can be isolated from the majority of healthy individuals. However, in certain susceptible individuals C. albicans can become pathogenic leading to the mucocutaneous infection; oral candidiasis. Murine models and in vitro monolayer cultures have generated some data on the likely virulence and host factors that contribute to oral candidiasis but these models have limitations. Recently, tissue engineered oral mucosal models have been developed to mimic the normal oral mucosa but little information is available on their true representation. In this study, we assessed the histological features of three different tissue engineered oral mucosal models compared to the normal oral mucosa and analysed both cell damage and cytokine release following infection with C. albicans. Models comprised of normal oral keratinocytes and a fibroblast-containing matrix displayed more similar immunohistological and proliferation characteristics to normal mucosa, compared to models composed of an oral carcinoma cell line. Although all models were invaded and damaged by C. albicans in a similar manner, the cytokine response was much more pronounced in models containing normal keratinocytes. These data suggest that models based on normal keratinocytes atop a fibroblast-containing connective tissue will significantly aid in dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa: An analysis of prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carcinoma of the buccal mucosa is the most common oral cavity cancer in the Indian subcontinent. The aim of this study was to analyze the outcome and evaluate prognostic factors in surgically treated buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma (BMSCC patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed by reviewing the medical records of 409 pathologically proven buccal mucosa cancer patients, who were diagnosed and surgically treated in Tata Memorial Hospital between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2008. Results: The overall 5-year survival of the cohort was found to be 54.1%. The stage-wise survival rate for tumor, node, metastasis (TNM Stage I, II, III, and IV patients was found to be 85.2%, 82.9%, 56.3%, and 42.6% (P < 0.00, respectively. On multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, the presence of comorbidity, histological tumor size, pathological lymph node status, tumor differentiation, perineural invasion, and extracapsular spread were found to be independently associated with overall survival. Conclusion: BMSCC is an aggressive malignant tumor. In addition to TNM classification, other clinical and pathological factors also have a significant role in BMSCC prognostication. Hence, there is a need to move beyond TNM and develop a more inclusive, flexible, and easy to use prognostic system.

  13. Outcome of buccal mucosa urethroplasty in the management of urethral strictures

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    Basri Cakiroglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study is to report the outcome of buccal mucosal urethroplasty. Materials and methods: The follow up data of 15 patients undergoing single stage urethroplasty from September 2010 to September 2015 were retropectively reviewed. They received buccal mucosa graft for urethroplasty. The patients were followed for complications and outcome. Results: Mean age was 53.7 ± 13.6 The stricture length ranged from 3 to 6 cm (mean 4.4 ± 0.8. The success rate for buccal mucosa urethroplasty (BMU was 67.7% at 12th month. Three patients presenting with voiding difficulty in the 3rd month and one in the next 12 months, had urethral restenosis. One patient had fistula formation at 6th month postoperatively. Five patients underwent retreatment procedures such as internal urethrotomy, urethroplasty and/or internal urethrotomy. Conclusions: The buccal mucosa is easy to obtain and handle, therefore BMU can be safely and effectively managed outside high volume institutions.

  14. Angiogenesis in the reparatory mucosa of the mandibular edentulous ridge is driven by endothelial tip cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stănescu, Ruxandra; Didilescu, Andreea Cristiana; Jianu, Adelina Maria; Rusu, M C

    2012-01-01

    Sprouting angiogenesis is led by specialized cell--the endothelial tip cells (ETCs) which can be targeted by pro- or anti-angiogenic therapies. We aimed to perform a qualitative study in order to assess the guidance by tip cells of the endothelial sprouts in the repairing mucosa of the edentulous mandibular crest. Mucosa of the mandibular edentulous ridge was collected from six adult patients, prior to healing abutment placement (second surgery). Slides were prepared and immunostained with antibodies for CD34 and Ki67. The abundant vasculature of the lamina propria was observed on slides and the CD34 antibodies labeled endothelial tip cells in various stages of the endothelial sprouts. Ki67 identified positive endothelial cells, confirming the proliferative status of the microvascular bed. According to the results, the in situ sprouting angiogenesis is driven by tip cells in the oral mucosa of the edentulous ridge and these cells can be targeted by various therapies, as required by the local pathologic or therapeutic conditions.

  15. Association of mast cells with helicobacter pylori infection in the antral mucosa

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    SR KC

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Helicobacter pylori lead to mast cell degranulation and release of active chemical compounds in in-vitro conditions. The objective of this study was to find out the association of mast cell density and Helicobacter pylori in the antral mucosa of the stomach. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 endoscopic biopsies were included in the study. In addition to routine Hematoxylin and Eosin stained slides, Giemsa stain was done in each case for the evaluation of Helicobacter pylori and mast cell density in the gastric mucosa. Results: Out of 150 gastric biopsies with histopathological diagnosis of chronic gastritis, 36 cases (24% were positive for Helicobacter pylori. In the antral mucosa, mast cell density was significantly higher in the Helicobacter pylori-positive group than in the Helicobacter pylori-negative group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Mast cells may play a role in the development of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Keywords: Gastritis; Mast Cell; Helicobacter pylori DOI: 10.3126/jpn.v1i1.4448 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2011 Vol.1, 34-36

  16. In vivo microscopic imaging of the bronchial mucosa using an endo-cytoscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Kiyoshi; Fujiwara, Taiki; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Alaa, Mohamed; Chiyo, Masako; Nakajima, Takahiro; Hoshino, Hidehisa; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Nakatani, Yukio; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the capabilities of an endo-cytoscopy system (ECS) that enables microscopic imaging of the tracheobronchial tree during bronchoscopy, including normal bronchial epithelium, dysplastic mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma. The newly developed ECS has a 3.2 mm diameter that can be passed through the 4.2 mm working channel of a mother endoscope for insertion of the ECS. It has a high magnification of 570× on a 17 in. video monitor. Twenty-two patients (7 squamous cell carcinoma, 11 squamous dysplasia and 4 after PDT therapies) were underwent white light, NBI light and AFI bronchoscopy. Both abnormal areas of interest and normal bronchial mucosa were stained with 0.5% methylene blue and examined with ECS at high magnification (570×). Histological examinations using haematoxylin and eosin staining were made of biopsied specimens. Analyzed ECS images were compared with the corresponding histological examinations. In normal bronchial mucosa, ciliated columnar epithelial cells were visible. In bronchial squamous dysplasia, superficial cells with abundant cytoplasm were arranged regularly. In squamous cell carcinoma, large, polymorphic tumor cells showed increased cellular densities with irregular stratified patterns. These ECS images corresponded well with the light-microscopic examination of conventional histology. ECS was useful for the discrimination between normal bronchial epithelial cells and dysplastic cells or malignant cells during bronchoscopy in real time. This novel technology has an excellent potential to provide in vivo diagnosis during bronchoscopic examinations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transepithelial transport of PAMAM dendrimers across isolated rat jejunal mucosae in ussing chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Dallin; Ghandehari, Hamidreza; Brayden, David J

    2014-08-11

    Oral delivery remains a challenge for poorly permeable hydrophilic macromolecules. Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown potential for their possible oral delivery. Transepithelial transport of carboxyl-terminated G3.5 and amine-terminated G4 PAMAM dendrimers was assessed using isolated rat jejunal mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers. The 1 mM FITC-labeled dendrimers were added to the apical side of mucosae. Apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) from the apical to the basolateral side were significantly increased for FITC when conjugated to G3.5 PAMAM dendrimer compared to FITC alone. Minimal signs of toxicity were observed when mucosae were exposed to both dendrimers with respect to transepithelial electrical resistance changes, carbachol-induced short circuit current stimulation, and histological changes. [(14)C]-mannitol fluxes were not altered in the presence of 1 mM dendrimers, suggesting that the paracellular pathway was not affected at this concentration in this model. These results give insight into the mechanism of PAMAM dendrimer transepithelial rat jejunal transport, as well as toxicological considerations important for oral drug delivery.

  18. Bacteria and Candida yeasts in inflammations of the oral mucosa in children with secondary immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota; Daszkiewicz, Marta; Krasuska-Sławińska; Dembowska-Bagińska, Bozena; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Daszkiewicz, Paweł; Fronc, Beata; Semczuk, Katarzyna

    2012-08-01

    Oral microbial flora and a damaged oral mucosa may increase the risk of bacteriemia, fungemia and complications in immunocompromised patients. Assessment of presence: bacteria and Candida spp. in different oral lesions, and the incidence of bacteremia in the case of a damaged mucosa in transplant recipients and patients receiving anti-tumour chemotherapy. Forty-five patients – 18 months to 18 years of life, were included (20 – organ recipients, 14– anti-tumour chemotherapy, 11 – control group). Clinical, oral mucosa examination focused on the type, severity and site of lesions, and microbiology assessed the presence of bacteria and fungi in the material from lesions. Blood cultures were performed in ten immunocompromised patients with manifestations of systemic infection. The control material consisted of blood cultures made prior to the onset of oral lesions and after 4–6 weeks following their remission in a diagnosed bacteremia. The statistical analysis was performed. In the subjects with secondary immunodeficiency, among other coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS), Candidia spp. were more frequent. In cancer patients, mucositis was associated with Candida spp., Streptococcus spp. Organ recipients with stomatitis exhibited the presence of CoNS, Streptococcus viridians and other. Oral lesions in the control group contained Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Neisseria spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. In 30% of immunocompromised patients, oral lesions were accompanied by bacteremia. A correlation has been found between oral lesions and the presence of S. aureus in patients without secondary immunodeficiency, and of CoNS, Enterococcus spp., Candida spp. in immunocompromised patients.

  19. Cross-sample validation provides enhanced proteome coverage in rat vocal fold mucosa.

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    Nathan V Welham

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The vocal fold mucosa is a biomechanically unique tissue comprised of a densely cellular epithelium, superficial to an extracellular matrix (ECM-rich lamina propria. Such ECM-rich tissues are challenging to analyze using proteomic assays, primarily due to extensive crosslinking and glycosylation of the majority of high M(r ECM proteins. In this study, we implemented an LC-MS/MS-based strategy to characterize the rat vocal fold mucosa proteome. Our sample preparation protocol successfully solubilized both proteins and certain high M(r glycoconjugates and resulted in the identification of hundreds of mucosal proteins. A straightforward approach to the treatment of protein identifications attributed to single peptide hits allowed the retention of potentially important low abundance identifications (validated by a cross-sample match and de novo interpretation of relevant spectra while still eliminating potentially spurious identifications (global single peptide hits with no cross-sample match. The resulting vocal fold mucosa proteome was characterized by a wide range of cellular and extracellular proteins spanning 12 functional categories.

  20. Morphological and morphometric characteristics of gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus

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    Mahmoud Badran Shoeib

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the morphology and histomorphometry of stomach and gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus. The stomach was composed of three indistinctive separate parts namely sacciform forestomach, tubiform forestomach, and hindstomach. The tubiform forestomach was the main tubular section of the organ. The stomach had a compound lining. The non-glandular mucosa occupied the medial blind sac (MBS of the sacciform forestomach; the layer covered about one-third of the tubiform forestomach (non-glandular region and the entire length of the gastric sulcus. The glandular part lined the parietal blind sac (PBS of sacciform forestomach and the cardiac gland region of tubiform forestomach as well as fundic and pyloric gland regions of the hindstomach. The cardiac mucosa had smooth and folded areas; these were filled with mixed glands. In the fundic glands, the parietal cells outnumbered the chief cells. The pyloric glands were of serous-like in characteristics. In conclusion, gross and histological structures of the stomach of western grey kangaroo are adaptive with its food habitat, which allows thorough mixing of highly fibrous grasses.

  1. DNA damage in oral mucosa cells of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

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    Farzin Heravi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The release of toxic metal ions from orthodontic alloys has induced concerns regarding the biocompatibility of fixed appliances. This study investigated the genotoxic effect of metal appliances in a sample of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.The study included twenty-five healthy individuals requiring orthodontic therapy in both jaws. The patients were treated by stainless steel orthodontic brackets and nickel-titanium or stainless steel arch wires. The oral mucosa cells were gathered just before the appliance placement and 9 months later. The cells were centrifuged, fixed and dropped onto slides. After staining, the micronucleus (MN assay was used to determine genome alteration. The data were analyzed by paired sample t-test.The mean micronuclei frequency in the buccal mucosa was 10.6 ± 5.7 per 1000 cells before the appliance placement and 9.2 ± 6.37 per 1000 cells 9 months later. No significant difference was found in the MN count before and 9 months after therapy (p=0.336.Under the conditions used in this study, application of fixed orthodontic appliances did not expose healthy individuals to increased risk of DNA damage in oral mucosa cells.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of Anonna mucosa (Jacq. grown in vivo and obtained by in vitroculture

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    Thiago José de Souza Barboza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian flora includes numerous species of medicinal importance that can be used to develop new drugs. Plant tissue culture offers strategies for conservation and use of these species allowing continuous production of plants and bioactive substances. Annona mucosa has produced substances such as acetogenins and alkaloids that exhibit antimicrobial activities. The widespread use of antibiotics has led to an increase in multidrug-resistant bacteria, which represents a serious risk of infection. In view of this problem, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of A. mucosa obtained by in vitro techniques and also cultured under in vivo conditions. Segments from seedlings were inoculated onto different culture media containing the auxin picloram and the cytokinin kinetin at different concentrations. The calluses obtained were used to produce cell suspension cultures. The materials were subjected to methanol extraction and subsequent fractionation in hexane and dichloromethane. The antimicrobial activity against 20 strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the macrodilution method at minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations. The extracts showed selective antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus thuringiensis at different concentrations. The plant tissue culture methods produced plant materials with antibacterial properties, as well as in vivo grown plants. The antibacterial activity of material obtained through biotechnological procedures of A. mucosa is reported here for the first time.

  3. Bone marrow transplantation rescues intestinal mucosa after whole body radiation via paracrine mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ya Hui; Lin, Li-Mei; Lou, Chi-Wen; Chou, Chuan-Kai; Ch’ang, Hui-Ju

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Our previous study reveals bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recruits host marrow-derived myelomonocytic cells to radiation-injured intestine, enhancing stromal proliferation, leading secondarily to epithelial regeneration. In this study, we propose BMT ameliorates intestinal damage via paracrine mechanisms. Materials and methods: Angiogenic cytokines within the intestinal mucosa of mice after whole body irradiation (WBI) with or without BMT were measured by cytokine array and ELISA. BM conditioned medium (BMCM) with or without treatment with neutralizing antibodies to angiogenic cytokines were continuously infused into mice for three days after radiation. Carrageenan was used to deplete myelomonocytic cells of mice. Results: BMT increased VEGF, bFGF and other angiogenic and chemotactic cytokines in the intestinal mucosa within 24 h after WBI. Infusion of BMCM ameliorated radiation-induced intestinal damage with improved stromal activity and prolonged survival of mice. Neutralization of bFGF, PDGF and other angiogenic cytokines within BMCM abolished the mitigating effect to the intestine. Pretreatment of carrageenan to recipient mice reversed some of the cytokine levels, including VEGF, bFGF and IGF within the intestinal mucosa after BMT. Conclusions: Our result suggests BMT recruits host myelomonocytic cells and enhances intestinal stroma proliferation after radiation by secreting cytokines enhancing angiogenesis and chemotaxis. Host myelomonocytic cells further uplift the paracrine effect to enhance intestinal mucosal recovery.

  4. Recovery time for inflamed middle ear mucosa in chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakır, Onur; Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Damar, Murat; Akyıldız, İlker; Eliçora, Sultan Şevik; Erdem, Duygu

    2016-01-01

    The present study shows that 2-3 weeks after medical treatment the status of middle ear mucosa in draining ears is similar to that of dry ears for at least 3 months. To measure the time required for an inflamed middle ear mucosa to return into optimal state after appropriate medical treatment in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). To assess optimal timing for elective surgical treatment of draining ears in uncomplicated CSOM. In this prospective study, the Eustachian tube (ET) mucociliary clearance time (MCT) was used as the method to demonstrate the status of middle ear mucosa. In group 1 (28 patients) ET-MCT was measured in ears that were free of drainage for at least 3 months. In Group 2 (21 patients), ET-MCT was measured in draining ears, who responded to 10-14 days medical treatment, at presentation, after 10 days and 1 month. The ET-MCT was 8.63 ± 1.32 min in group 1 and 28.96 ± 8.19 min in group 2 at presentation; and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The ET-MCT was 14.76 ± 5.11 min after 10 days and 9.31 ± 2.33 min after 1 month in group 2. The ET-MCT was indifferent between groups 1 and 2 after 1 month (p = 0.235).

  5. Immunoregulatory actions of epithelial cell PPAR gamma at the colonic mucosa of mice with experimental inflammatory bowel disease.

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    Saroj K Mohapatra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors highly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC and immune cells within the gut mucosa and are implicated in modulating inflammation and immune responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of targeted deletion of PPAR gamma in IEC on progression of experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the first phase, PPAR gamma flfl; Villin Cre- (VC- and PPAR gamma flfl; Villin Cre+ (VC+ mice in a mixed FVB/C57BL/6 background were challenged with 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS in drinking water for 0, 2, or 7 days. VC+ mice express a transgenic recombinase under the control of the Villin-Cre promoter that causes an IEC-specific deletion of PPAR gamma. In the second phase, we generated VC- and VC+ mice in a C57BL/6 background that were challenged with 2.5% DSS. Mice were scored on disease severity both clinically and histopathologically. Flow cytometry was used to phenotypically characterize lymphocyte and macrophage populations in blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Global gene expression analysis was profiled using Affymetrix microarrays. The IEC-specific deficiency of PPAR gamma in mice with a mixed background worsened colonic inflammatory lesions, but had no effect on disease activity (DAI or weight loss. In contrast, the IEC-specific PPAR gamma null mice in C57BL/6 background exhibited more severe inflammatory lesions, DAI and weight loss in comparison to their littermates expressing PPAR gamma in IEC. Global gene expression profiling revealed significantly down-regulated expression of lysosomal pathway genes and flow cytometry results demonstrated suppressed production of IL-10 by CD4+ T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN of IEC-specific PPAR gamma null mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that adequate expression of PPAR gamma in IEC is required for the regulation of mucosal

  6. Immunoregulatory Actions of Epithelial Cell PPAR γ at the Colonic Mucosa of Mice with Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Saroj K.; Guri, Amir J.; Climent, Montse; Vives, Cristina; Carbo, Adria; Horne, William T.; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors highly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and immune cells within the gut mucosa and are implicated in modulating inflammation and immune responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of targeted deletion of PPAR γ in IEC on progression of experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methodology/Principal Findings In the first phase, PPAR γ flfl; Villin Cre- (VC-) and PPAR γ flfl; Villin Cre+ (VC+) mice in a mixed FVB/C57BL/6 background were challenged with 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 0, 2, or 7 days. VC+ mice express a transgenic recombinase under the control of the Villin-Cre promoter that causes an IEC-specific deletion of PPAR γ. In the second phase, we generated VC- and VC+ mice in a C57BL/6 background that were challenged with 2.5% DSS. Mice were scored on disease severity both clinically and histopathologically. Flow cytometry was used to phenotypically characterize lymphocyte and macrophage populations in blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Global gene expression analysis was profiled using Affymetrix microarrays. The IEC-specific deficiency of PPAR γ in mice with a mixed background worsened colonic inflammatory lesions, but had no effect on disease activity (DAI) or weight loss. In contrast, the IEC-specific PPAR γ null mice in C57BL/6 background exhibited more severe inflammatory lesions, DAI and weight loss in comparison to their littermates expressing PPAR γ in IEC. Global gene expression profiling revealed significantly down-regulated expression of lysosomal pathway genes and flow cytometry results demonstrated suppressed production of IL-10 by CD4+ T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of IEC-specific PPAR γ null mice. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that adequate expression of PPAR γ in IEC is required for the regulation of mucosal immune responses and prevention of

  7. Studies on antigenic cross-reactivity of Trichuris ovis with host mucosal antigens in goat

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam Patra; Seikh Sahanawaz Alam; Sonjoy Kumar Borthakur; Hridayesh Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether immunodominant antigens of Trichuris ovis might share and cross react with host molecule. Methods: Two crude protein preparations from anterior and posterior parts of Trichuris ovis were characterized along with host mucosal antigen by double immunodiffusion, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting technique. Conventional scanning electron microscopy was performed as per standard procedure. Results: Sharp...

  8. Significant Depletion of CD4+ T Cells Occurs in the Oral Mucosa during Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection with the Infected CD4+ T Cell Reservoir Continuing to Persist in the Oral Mucosa during Antiretroviral Therapy

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    Jeffy George

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV infections are characterized by manifestation of numerous opportunistic infections and inflammatory conditions in the oral mucosa. The loss of CD4+ T cells that play a critical role in maintaining mucosal immunity likely contributes to this process. Here we show that CD4+ T cells constitute a minor population of T cells in the oral mucosa and display a predominantly central memory phenotype mirroring other mucosal sites such as the rectal mucosa. Chronic SIV infection was associated with a near total depletion of CD4+ T cells in the oral mucosa that appear to repopulate during antiretroviral therapy (ART. Repopulating CD4+ T cells harbored a large fraction of Th17 cells suggesting that ART potentially reconstitutes oral mucosal immunity. However, a minor fraction of repopulating CD4+ T cells harbored SIV DNA suggesting that the viral reservoir continues to persist in the oral mucosa during ART. Therapeutic approaches aimed at obtaining sustainable CD4+ T cell repopulation in combination with strategies that can eradicate the latent viral reservoir in the oral mucosa are essential for better oral health and long-term outcome in HIV infected patients.

  9. The role of tobacco as an etiological agent for oral cancer: Cytomorphometrical analysis of the buccal mucosa in tobacco users

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    Megha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results confirmed that tobacco chewing and smoking influenced the cytomorphology of normal appearing buccal mucosa and the degree of these changes were found to be greater in chewers as compared to smokers.

  10. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL/Lcn2) is upregulated in gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpízar-Alpízar, Warner; Laerum, Ole Didrik; Illemann, Martin

    2009-01-01

    characterized here the pattern of expression of NGAL/Lcn2 in gastric mucosa (45 non-neoplastic and 38 neoplastic tissue samples) and explored the connection between NGAL/Lcn2 expression and H. pylori infection. Immunohistochemical analysis showed high NGAL/Lcn2 expression in normal and gastritis-affected mucosa...... compared to low expression in intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and gastric cancer. In normal and gastritis-affected mucosa (n=36 tissue samples), NGAL/Lcn2 was more frequently seen in epithelial cells located at the neck and base of the glands in H. pylori-positive cases than in similar epithelial cells...... of noninfected cases (Fisher's exact test, p=0.04). In conclusion, the high expression of NGAL/Lcn2 in normal and gastritis-affected mucosa infected with H. pylori suggests that NGAL/Lcn2 is upregulated locally in response to this bacterial infection. It is discussed whether this may have a causal relation...

  11. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Sun Young; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Jin Soo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Ji

    2006-01-01

    We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings

  12. Opposed-Flow Flame Spread over Thin Solid Fuels in a Narrow Channel under Different Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Yu, Yong; Wan, Shixin; Wei, Minggang; Hu, Wen-Rui

    Flame spread over solid surface is critical in combustion science due to its importance in fire safety in both ground and manned spacecraft. Eliminating potential fuels from materials is the basic method to protect spacecraft from fire. The criterion of material screening is its flamma-bility [1]. Since gas flow speed has strong effect on flame spread, the combustion behaviors of materials in normal and microgravity will be different due to their different natural convec-tion. To evaluate the flammability of materials used in the manned spacecraft, tests should be performed under microgravity. Nevertheless, the cost is high, so apparatus to simulate mi-crogravity combustion under normal gravity was developed. The narrow channel is such an apparatus in which the buoyant flow is restricted effectively [2, 3]. The experimental results of the horizontal narrow channel are consistent qualitatively with those of Mir Space Station. Quantitatively, there still are obvious differences. However, the effect of the channel size on flame spread has only attracted little attention, in which concurrent-flow flame spread over thin solid in microgravity is numerically studied[4], while the similarity of flame spread in different gravity is still an open question. In addition, the flame spread experiments under microgravity are generally carried out in large wind tunnels without considering the effects of the tunnel size [5]. Actually, the materials are always used in finite space. Therefore, the flammability given by experiments using large wind tunnels will not correctly predict the flammability of materials in the real environment. In the present paper, the effect of the channel size on opposed-flow flame spread over thin solid fuels in both normal and microgravity was investigated and compared. In the horizontal narrow channel, the flame spread rate increased before decreased as forced flow speed increased. In low speed gas flows, flame spread appeared the same trend as that in

  13. Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level in Liver Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoo Ok; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Chang Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1978-09-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen was initially known as tumor specific antigen and had a potential diagnostic value in the detection of digestive tract malignancies. However, subsequent studies showed CEA and CEA-like antigen present in benign disease, particularly in liver. We had collected sera from 58 patients who had liver scan and later were diagnosed clinically and histologically as liver disease. We estimated CEA values and correlations were made with liver function tests in liver cirrhosis cases. The results: 1) The raised plasma carcinoembryonic antigen level were found in 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients cirrhosis, 5 (27.8%) of 18 patients in hepatoma, 5 (71%) of 7 patients in chronic active hepatitis, all 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in obstructive biliary disease and none in each one patient of traumatic liver hematoma, subphrenic abscess and clonorchiasis. 2) There is no linear correlation between carcinoembryonic antigen level and liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and prothrombin time in liver patients.

  14. Human Tumor Antigens Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Olivera J

    2017-05-01

    The question of whether human tumors express antigens that can be recognized by the immune system has been answered with a resounding YES. Most were identified through spontaneous antitumor humoral and cellular immune responses found in cancer patients and include peptides, glycopeptides, phosphopeptides, viral peptides, and peptides resulting from common mutations in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, or common gene fusion events. Many have been extensively tested as candidates for anticancer vaccines. More recently, attention has been focused on the potentially large number of unique tumor antigens, mutated neoantigens, that are the predicted products of the numerous mutations revealed by exome sequencing of primary tumors. Only a few have been confirmed as targets of spontaneous immunity and immunosurveillance, and even fewer have been tested in preclinical and clinical settings. The field has been divided for a long time on the relative importance of shared versus mutated antigens in tumor surveillance and as candidates for vaccines. This question will eventually need to be answered in a head to head comparison in well-designed clinical trials. One advantage that shared antigens have over mutated antigens is their potential to be used in vaccines for primary cancer prevention. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(5); 347-54. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level in Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyoo Ok; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Chang Yun

    1978-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen was initially known as tumor specific antigen and had a potential diagnostic value in the detection of digestive tract malignancies. However, subsequent studies showed CEA and CEA-like antigen present in benign disease, particularly in liver. We had collected sera from 58 patients who had liver scan and later were diagnosed clinically and histologically as liver disease. We estimated CEA values and correlations were made with liver function tests in liver cirrhosis cases. The results: 1) The raised plasma carcinoembryonic antigen level were found in 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients cirrhosis, 5 (27.8%) of 18 patients in hepatoma, 5 (71%) of 7 patients in chronic active hepatitis, all 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in obstructive biliary disease and none in each one patient of traumatic liver hematoma, subphrenic abscess and clonorchiasis. 2) There is no linear correlation between carcinoembryonic antigen level and liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and prothrombin time in liver patients.

  16. Original antigenic sin responses to influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyang; Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

    2009-09-01

    Most immune responses follow Burnet's rule in that Ag recruits specific lymphocytes from a large repertoire and induces them to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells. However, the phenomenon of "original antigenic sin" stands out as a paradox to Burnet's rule of B cell engagement. Humans, upon infection with a novel influenza strain, produce Abs against older viral strains at the expense of responses to novel, protective antigenic determinants. This exacerbates the severity of the current infection. This blind spot of the immune system and the redirection of responses to the "original Ag" rather than to novel epitopes were described fifty years ago. Recent reports have questioned the existence of this phenomenon. Hence, we revisited this issue to determine the extent to which original antigenic sin is induced by variant influenza viruses. Using two related strains of influenza A virus, we show that original antigenic sin leads to a significant decrease in development of protective immunity and recall responses to the second virus. In addition, we show that sequential infection of mice with two live influenza virus strains leads to almost exclusive Ab responses to the first viral strain, suggesting that original antigenic sin could be a potential strategy by which variant influenza viruses subvert the immune system.

  17. Efecto secuestrador del D-002 sobre radicales hidroxilo en mucosa gástrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohani Pérez Guerra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el agente causal de la ulceración gástrica está asociado al desequilibrio entre factores agresivos y defensivos que actúan sobre la mucosa gástrica. El D-002, mezcla de seis alcoholes alifáticos primarios superiores purificada de la cera de abejas, produce efectos gastroprotectores mediados por múltiples mecanismos y reducción de la peroxidación lipídica en la mucosa gástrica. Objetivo: determinar si el D-002 es capaz de capturar el radical hidroxilo añadido in vitro o generado in vivo en ratas con úlcera gástrica inducida por indometacina. Métodos: En la experiencia in vitro el D-002 se añadió a concentraciones entre 0,9 y 1 000 mg/mL. En la experiencia in vivo las ratas se distribuyeron en seis grupos: un control negativo y cinco que recibieron indometacina: un control positivo tratado con el vehículo, tres con D-002 (5, 25, y 100 mg/kg, respectivamente, p.o. y otro con omeprazol (20 mg/kg i.p.. Los tratamientos se administraron una hora (vehículo y D-002 o 30 min (omeprazol, respectivamente, antes de inducir las úlceras. En ambas experiencias se tomaron alícuotas de mucosa gástrica, y se determinó el daño a la 2-desoxirribosa por el radical hidroxilo. Resultados: la administración oral del D-002, no in vitro, protegió a la 2-desoxirribosa del daño oxidativo de modo marcado, significativo y dependiente de la dosis con respecto al control positivo. Conclusiones: los resultados indican que la capacidad del D-002 (25 y 100 mg/kg administrado por vía oral para secuestrar el radical hidroxilo, generado en la mucosa gástrica por la indometacina, pudiera contribuir a sus efectos antioxidantes y gastroprotectores sobre el daño que los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos producen sobre la mucosa gástrica.

  18. Wound healing in the jugal mucosa of rats with a cold blade scalpel and an ultrasonic harmonic scalpel

    OpenAIRE

    Masi,Elen Carolina David João De; Rocha,Sergio Luis; Mocellin,Marcos; Faria,João Luis Garcia de

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound harmonic scalpel has been recently introduced in otorhinolaryngological procedures. AIM: to assess macro and microscopic evolution of the healing process of wounds created in the jugal mucosa of rats by the use of ultrasound scalpel. METHOD: we used 30 Wistar rats in which we made mucosal incisions on the right jugal mucosa with the ultrasound harmonic scalpel (USHS) and on the left side with the cold blade scalpel (CBS). Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations were carried out on ...

  19. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F; Tutt, Andrew N J; Nestle, Frank O; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  20. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Correa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1 specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  1. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M.; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F.; Tutt, Andrew N. J.; Nestle, Frank O.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires. PMID:29628923

  2. Opposed-phase MR imaging of lipid storage myopathy in a case of Chanarin-Dorfman disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, Michele; Celona, Antonio; Racchiusa, Sergio; Mazziotti, Silvio; Minutoli, Fabio; Toscano, Antonio; Musumeci, Olimpia

    2008-01-01

    Chanarin-Dorfman disease (CDD) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by ichthyosis, myopathy, central nervous system disturbances, and intracellular lipid storage in muscle fibers, hepatocytes, and granulocytes. We describe skeletal muscle magnetic resonance imaging findings in a case of CDD, outlining the potential role of GE T1-weighted opposed-phase sequence (chemical shift imaging) in the evaluation of lipid storage myopathies. (orig.)

  3. Opposed-phase MR imaging of lipid storage myopathy in a case of Chanarin-Dorfman disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, Michele; Celona, Antonio; Racchiusa, Sergio; Mazziotti, Silvio [University of Messina, Department of Radiological Sciences, Messina (Italy); Minutoli, Fabio [University of Messina, Department of Radiological Sciences, Messina (Italy); A.O.U. ' ' Policlinico G. Martino' ' , Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Messina (Italy); Toscano, Antonio; Musumeci, Olimpia [University of Messina, Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatry and Anaesthesiology, Messina (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    Chanarin-Dorfman disease (CDD) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by ichthyosis, myopathy, central nervous system disturbances, and intracellular lipid storage in muscle fibers, hepatocytes, and granulocytes. We describe skeletal muscle magnetic resonance imaging findings in a case of CDD, outlining the potential role of GE T1-weighted opposed-phase sequence (chemical shift imaging) in the evaluation of lipid storage myopathies. (orig.)

  4. Complications and Clinical Considerations of the Implant-Retained Zirconia Complete-Arch Prosthesis with Various Opposing Dentitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jorge; Triplett, Robert G

    To evaluate the performance of the implant-retained zirconia complete-arch prosthesis with various opposing dentitions. The 40 patients included in this retrospective case series study were treated with one or two implant-retained zirconia complete-arch prostheses (ZIRCAP) using the Zirkonzahn protocol. Prettau zirconia frames were created with strategic cutbacks in the structure to extend zirconia incisal coverage of the esthetic anterior sextants and complete monolithic zirconia in the molar areas; subsequent layers of porcelain were applied to nonfunctional and esthetic areas. Patients had three possible occlusal scenarios: (1) maxillary ZIRCAP and mandibular ZIRCAP, (2) maxillary ZIRCAP and mandibular natural dentition, and (3) maxillary ZIRCAP and mandibular conventional hybrid prosthesis. Complications were recorded during follow-up appointments 3, 6, and 12 months after definitive prosthesis delivery. The mean treatment observation period was 33 months. Eight prosthetic complications were noted for the 40 implant-retained zirconia complete-arch prostheses (18.18%), including six cases of minor porcelain chipping and two cases of debonding of the metal insert from the zirconia framework. Maxillary ZIRCAP opposing mandibular ZIRCAP and maxillary ZIRCAP opposing mandibular natural dentition occlusal scenarios presented the same complication ratio of 4. No complications were seen in the maxillary ZIRCAP opposing mandibular conventional hybrid prosthesis group, yet 16 complications were found as denture tooth fractures in 12 mandibular conventional hybrid prostheses (ratio of 0.75). The results indicate that the implant-retained zirconia complete-arch prosthesis offers acceptable performance for use as an alternative to the conventional titanium framework acrylic veneer prosthesis for complete edentulism with a lower incidence of prosthetic complications and fewer maintenance appointments. Chipping of veneering porcelain was the most common complication, but a

  5. T Helper 17 Promotes Induction of Antigen-Specific Gut-Mucosal Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes following Adenovirus Vector Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahisa Hemmi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Few current vaccines can establish antigen (Ag-specific immune responses in both mucosal and systemic compartments. Therefore, development of vaccines providing defense against diverse infectious agents in both compartments is of high priority in global health. Intramuscular vaccination of an adenovirus vector (Adv has been shown to induce Ag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs in both systemic and gut-mucosal compartments. We previously found that type I interferon (IFN signaling is required for induction of gut-mucosal, but not systemic, CTLs following vaccination; however, the molecular mechanism involving type I IFN signaling remains unknown. Here, we found that T helper 17 (Th17-polarizing cytokine expression was down-regulated in the inguinal lymph nodes (iLNs of Ifnar2−/− mice, resulting in the reduction of Ag-specific Th17 cells in the iLNs and gut mucosa of the mice. We also found that prior transfer of Th17 cells reversed the decrease in the number of Ag-specific gut-mucosal CTLs in Ifnar2−/− mice following Adv vaccination. Additionally, prior transfer of Th17 cells into wild-type mice enhanced the induction of Ag-specific CTLs in the gut mucosa, but not in systemic compartments, suggesting a gut mucosa-specific mechanism where Th17 cells regulate the magnitude of vaccine-elicited Ag-specific CTL responses. These data suggest that Th17 cells translate systemic type I IFN signaling into a gut-mucosal CTL response following vaccination, which could promote the development of promising Adv vaccines capable of establishing both systemic and gut-mucosal protective immunity.

  6. Studies of blood flow in human nasal mucosa with /sup133/Xe washout technique and laser doppler flowmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, P.

    1986-01-01

    The techniques were applied for studies of the influence of environmental temperature on the human nasal mucosa, for studies of mediators in nasal allergy and for studies of the sympathetic neurogenic control of blood flow in the nasal mucosa. The results show that the two techniques are complementary to one another. The /sup133/Xe washout technique is useful for semiquantitative estimations of blood flow in the deeper parts of the mucosa, while the laser doppler technique is especially suited for continuous recordings of relative blood flow changes in the superficial part of the mucosa. Vascular changes may take part in body temperature regulation changes may take part in body temperature regulation as well as in conditioning of respiratory air. The results support the theories that changes in nasal mucosal blood flow are related to body temperature control, while conditioning of inspiratory air may be more dependent on mucosal blood content. The observed dissociation between changes in the resistance and the capacitance vessels also illustrates that these vascular segments are regulated in different ways. The present results indicate that leukotriene D/sub4/ might contribute to an increased blood flow in the nasal mucosa and to blockage of the nasal airway in the acute allergic reaction. Vasomotion is demonstrated to be present in the nasal mucosa, and it appears to be partly dependent on sympathetic neurogenic activity. The development of the present techniques, means that vascular changes involved in normal nasal function and in nasal disease may be evaluated by a new approach. (author)

  7. Food restriction beginning at lactation interferes with the cellular dynamics of the mucosa and colonic myenteric innervation in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO PAULO F. SCHOFFEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of food restriction (FR on the morphoquantitative aspects of the wall and myenteric neurons of the proximal colon in adult rats were analysed. FR was imposed by duplication of the experimental brood size in relation to the control brood during lactation. The FR group received a 50% reduction of food from weaning until 90 days of age. Samples of the colon underwent histological processing to morphometrically analyze the crypts, muscularis mucosae, tunica mucosa, and muscularis externa. We determined the number of goblet cells and serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells, and morphoquantitatively studied the myenteric neuronal population. FR caused hypertrophy in the tunica mucosa, increase in crypt depth and in the muscular layer of the mucosa, a decrease in the thickness of the tunica muscularis and in the number of goblet cells and an increase in serotoninergic cells. A higher neuronal density in the ganglia and a reduction of the cell profile area were observed in the FR group. FR imposed since lactation led to hypertrophy of the tunica mucosa, a reduction of neutral mucin production, atrophy of the tunica muscularis, and an increase in the survival neuronal in adult rats, attributable to an increase in the number of serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells in mucosa.

  8. Epithelial cell proliferation in human fundic and antral mucosae. Influence of superselective vagotomy and relationship with gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, O.; Lehy, T.; Rene, E.; Gres, L.; Bonfils, S.

    1985-01-01

    Epithelial cell proliferation in the fundic and antral mucosae was studied in 19 duodenal ulcer patients, 11 patients having undergone fundic superselective vagotomy for duodenal ulcer, and 10 controls. This was achieved through in vitro incorporation of tritiated thymidine in mucosal biopsies and radioautography. Except for increased fundic mucosal height, duodenal ulcer patients did not differ from controls for all parameters studied. In vagotomized patients, as compared to the other two groups, the labeling index was significantly enhanced in the innervated antral mucosa where atrophic gastritis developed, but there was no change in the labeling index and no worsening of mucosal inflammation in the denervated fundic mucosa. The only abnormality in the latter was a striking expansion, towards the surface, of the proliferative area within the fundic pit. The labeling indices and the degree of gastritis in gastric mucosae are significantly correlated in control and duodenal ulcer patients. If findings in antral mucosa, after superselective vagotomy, seemed related to gastritis lesions, those in fundic mucosa were not and may indicate an alteration due to the vagotomy per se

  9. A study to analyze the different patterns of quid usage among subjects with chewer′s mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Betel chewer′s mucosa, although not considered as a potentially malignant lesion, has been suggested to be a precursor of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF. Thus a study was undertaken to asses various quid chewing patterns in patients with chewer′s mucosa and to evaluate possible association between chewer′s mucosa and a particular quid usage patter. Materials and methods: The study was done on 150 subjects clinically diagnosed of having chewers mucosa lesion. After complete oral examination, a detailed habit history was taken through preformed questionnaire. The data obtained was analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: Among the 150 subjects males to female ratio was 8:2- Majority of the subjects were within the age group of 20 to 30 years and chewed a combination of betel leaf, arecanut, tobacco, lime- Majority of the subjects of chewer′s mucosa used the quid for a duration of 1 to 5 years, a frequency of three to five quid per day. Conclusion: In the present study, chewers mucosa was seen in majority of the subjects who used the quid for a duration of 1 to 5 years, a frequency of three to five quid per day and chewed the quid containing betel leaf, arecanut, tobacco, lime as its constituents.

  10. Theoretical Considerations and a Mathematical Model for the Analysis of the Biomechanical Response of Human Keratinized Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Tsaira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Removable complete and partial dentures are supported by the residual alveolar ridges consisting of mucosa, submucosa, periosteum and bone. An understanding of the biomechanical behavior of the oral mucosa is essential in order to improve the denture-bearing foundations for complete and partially edentulous patients. The purpose of this paper was to examine the biomechanical behavior of the soft tissues supporting a removable denture and develop a model for that reason. Keratinized oral mucosa blocks with their underlying bone were harvested from the maxillary palatal area adjacent to the edentulous ridges of a cadaver. The compressive response of the oral mucosa was tested by using atomic force microscopy. The specimens were first scanned in order their topography to be obtained. The mechanical properties of the specimens were tested using a single crystal silicon pyramidal tip, which traversed towards the keratinized oral mucosa specimens. Loading-unloading cycles were registered and four mathematical models were tested using MATLAB to note which one approximates the force-displacement curve as close as possible: a. spherical, b. conical, c. third order polynomial, d. Murphy (fourth order polynomial, non-linear Hertzian based. The third order polynomial model showed the best accuracy in representing the force-displacement data of the tested specimens. A model was developed in order to analyze the biomechanical behavior of the human oral keratinized mucosa and obtain information about its mechanical properties.

  11. Oral Mucosa Harbors a High Frequency of Endothelial Cells: A Novel Postnatal Cell Source for Angiogenic Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Rogers, Jason H; Lee, Scott H; Sun, DongMing; Yao, Hai; Mao, Jeremy J; Kong, Kimi Y

    2017-01-15

    Endothelial progenitor cells/endothelial cells (EPCs/ECs) have great potential to treat pathological conditions such as cardiac infarction, muscle ischemia, and bone fractures, but isolation of EPC/ECs from existing cell sources is challenging due to their low EC frequency. We have isolated endothelial progenitor (EP)-like cells from rat oral mucosa and characterized their yield, immunophenotype, growth, and in vivo angiogenic potential. The frequency of EP-like cells derived from oral mucosa is thousands of folds higher than EPCs derived from donor-match bone marrow samples. EP-like cells from oral mucosa were positive for EC markers CD31, VE-Cadherin, and VEGFR2. Oral mucosa-derived EP-like cells displayed robust uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein and formed stable capillary networks in Matrigel. Subcutaneously implanted oral mucosa-derived EP-like cells anastomosed with host blood vessels, implicating their ability to elicit angiogenesis. Similar to endothelial colony-forming cells, EP-like cells from oral mucosa have a significantly higher proliferative rate than human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These findings identify a putative EPC source that is easily accessible in the oral cavity, potentially from discarded tissue specimens, and yet with robust yield and potency for angiogenesis in tissue and organ regeneration.

  12. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  13. Harnessing Dendritic Cells for Tumor Antigen Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nierkens, Stefan [Department of Tumor Immunology, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 28, Nijmegen 6525 GA (Netherlands); Janssen, Edith M., E-mail: edith.janssen@cchmc.org [Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Research Foundation, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2011-04-26

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that are crucial for the induction of anti-tumor T cell responses. As a consequence, research has focused on the harnessing of DCs for therapeutic interventions. Although current strategies employing ex vivo-generated and tumor-antigen loaded DCs have been proven feasible, there are still many obstacles to overcome in order to improve clinical trial successes and offset the cost and complexity of customized cell therapy. This review focuses on one of these obstacles and a pivotal step for the priming of tumor-specific CD8{sup +} and CD4{sup +} T cells; the in vitro loading of DCs with tumor antigens.

  14. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizak, B.; Plucienniczak, A.

    1995-01-01

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs

  15. Original antigenic sin: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatti, Anup; Monsalve, Diana M; Pacheco, Yovana; Chang, Christopher; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Gershwin, M Eric

    2017-09-01

    The concept of "original antigenic sin" was first proposed by Thomas Francis, Jr. in 1960. This phenomenon has the potential to rewrite what we understand about how the immune system responds to infections and its mechanistic implications on how vaccines should be designed. Antigenic sin has been demonstrated to occur in several infectious diseases in both animals and humans, including human influenza infection and dengue fever. The basis of "original antigenic sin" requires immunological memory, and our immune system ability to autocorrect. In the context of viral infections, it is expected that if we are exposed to a native strain of a pathogen, we should be able to mount a secondary immune response on subsequent exposure to the same pathogen. "Original antigenic sin" will not contradict this well-established immunological process, as long as the subsequent infectious antigen is identical to the original one. But "original antigenic sin" implies that when the epitope varies slightly, then the immune system relies on memory of the earlier infection, rather than mount another primary or secondary response to the new epitope which would allow faster and stronger responses. The result is that the immunological response may be inadequate against the new strain, because the immune system does not adapt and instead relies on its memory to mount a response. In the case of vaccines, if we only immunize to a single strain or epitope, and if that strain/epitope changes over time, then the immune system is unable to mount an accurate secondary response. In addition, depending of the first viral exposure the secondary immune response can result in an antibody-dependent enhancement of the disease or at the opposite, it could induce anergy. Both of them triggering loss of pathogen control and inducing aberrant clinical consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between apoptosis and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the clinical stages in gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, K; Chen, D; Tian, Y; Lu, X; Yang, X

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between the apoptosis and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the clinical stages in gastric cancers was studied. By using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique and PCNA immunohistochemical staining, the apoptosis and the expression of PCNA in tissue of gastric carcinoma were assayed in situ, the index of apoptosis (AI), index of PCNA (PI) and the rate of AI/PI were calculated. AI and PI in gastric cancer tissues were (6.5 +/- 3.7)% and (49.8 +/- 15.9)% respectively, and the rate of AI/PI was 0.13 +/- 0.05, which were obviously different from those of normal gastric mucosa in paragastric cancer (P stages of gastric carcinoma, the AI was decreased, PI was increased and the rate of AI/PI decreased in gastric carcinoma. There was significant difference in them between the gastric cancer tissues and normal gastric mucosa in pericarcinoma in TNM stage II to IV (P gastric carcinoma. The AI, PI and the rate of AI/PI would become the prognostic factors in advanced gastric carcinoma.

  17. Tatuagem extensa por amálgama em mucosa gêngivo-alveolar Extensive amalgam tattoo on the alveolar-gingival mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian C Galletta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tatuagens por amálgama são lesões pigmentadas, exógenas, de frequente ocorrência na mucosa bucal, que resultam da introdução acidental de partículas de amálgama nos tecidos moles. O diagnóstico da tatuagem por amálgama é simples, geralmente, baseado em achados clínicos, complementado pela história recente ou pregressa de remoção de restauração por amálgama. Radiografias intraorais podem ser úteis na detecção de radiopacidade, associadas à partícula de amálgama. Nos casos em que as tatuagens por amálgama não permitem diferenciação de outras lesões melanocíticas, o exame histopatológico deve ser realizado. Os autores relatam à ocorrência de lesão extensa por tatuagem de amálgama com confirmação histopatológica.Amalgam tattoos are common exogenous pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa occurring mainly by inadvertent placement of amalgam particles into soft tissues. The diagnosis of amalgam tattoo is simple, usually based on clinical findings associated with presence or history of amalgam fillings removal. Intraoral X-rays may be helpful in detecting amalgam-related radiopacity. In cases where amalgam tattoo cannot be differentiated from other causes of oral pigmentation, a biopsy should be performed. This article deals with an extensive amalgam tattoo lesion which required a biopsy for a definitive diagnosis.

  18. A mucosa oral na hanseníase: um estudo clínico e histopatológico The oral mucosa in leprosy: a clinical and histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado de Abreu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a anseníase multibacilar pode causar comprometimento da mucosa oral, com ou sem lesões aparentes. Há poucos estudos que tratam deste assunto na era da multidrogaterapia. OBJETIVO: Verificar a freqüência do comprometimento da mucosa oral em pacientes de hanseníase multibacilar. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal em vinte pacientes de hanseníase multibacilar, não-tratados, atendidos consecutivamente em Dracena, São Paulo, entre o período de 2000 e 2002. Foi realizado exame clínico completo da mucosa oral. Os pacientes foram submetidos a biópsias na mucosa jugal, na língua e no palato mole, em alteração ou em pontos pré-estabelecidos. Os cortes foram corados pelas técnicas da hematoxilina-eosina e Ziehl-Neelsen. O encontro de granuloma e bacilos álcool-ácido-resistentes ao exame histopatológico determinou o comprometimento específico. RESULTADOS: O estudo envolveu 19 pacientes multibacilares com tempo médio de evolução de 2,5 anos. Ocorreu comprometimento histopatológico específico em apenas um paciente virchowiano, com mucosa oral clinicamente normal, na língua e no palato mole. CONCLUSÕES: 1. Alteração clínica na mucosa oral não implica em comprometimento pela doença, é necessário confirmação histopatológica. 2. Alterações clínicas específicas aparentes são raras. 3. A mucosa oral clinicamente normal pode exibir comprometimento histopatológico específico.INTRODUCTION: Multibacillary leprosy may involve the oral mucosa, with or without apparent lesions. There are few studies that deal with this issue in the era of multidrug therapy. AIM: To assess the frequence of oral mucosa involvement in multibacillary leprosy patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A transversal study with twenty non-treated multibacillary leprosy patients. The patients were treated in Dracena, São Paulo, between 2000 and 2002. Clinical examination of the oral mucosa was carried out. All patients were

  19. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compeer, Ewoud Bernardus; Flinsenberg, Thijs Willem Hendrik; van der Grein, Susanna Geertje; Boes, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I major histocompatibility complex complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8(+) T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells capable of antigen cross-presentation, identification of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC), there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlights DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, maturation-induced endosomal sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell surface-directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with the description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.

  20. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewoud Bernardus Compeer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I MHC complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8+ T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells (APC capable of antigen cross-presentation, description of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC, there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlight DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, recycling and maturation including the sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell-surface directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.