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  1. Lung mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, J.; Lange, P.; Nyboe, J.; Groth, S.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values for mucociliary clearance and mucociliary clearance reserve capacity as determined by β 2 -adrenergic agonist-induced increase in mucociliary clearance. We studied 62 healthy females (n=33) and males (n=29). Their ages ranged evenly between 18 and 84 years. Fifty-three of the subjects were life-long non-smokers, while nine were ex-smokers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that mucociliary clearance was significantly faster when the radioaerosol was deposited in the central airways than when it was deposited in the peripheral airways, and faster in life-long non-smokers than in ex-smokers. There was no influence of age, and no convincing association with sex. The variation was less within than between subjects. Mean mucociliary clearance reserve capacity was 21.3% (SD: 10.0%, P 2 agonist-induced increase in lung mucociliary clearance was significantly larger (P<0.05) than the stimulation which has previously been reported in patients with asthma, bronchiectasis or cystic fibrosis. The signal-to-noise ratio of the mucociliary clearance reserve capacity in relation to measurement of baseline mucociliary clearance indicates that measurement of mucociliary clearance reserve capacity may be a more efficient means of distinguishing between ''normal'' and ''abnormal'' mucociliary clearance than single measurement of baseline mucociliary clearance. (orig.)

  2. Mucociliary clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Mathias; Mortensen, Jann

    2014-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance has long been known to be a significant innate defence mechanism against inhaled microbes and irritants. Important knowledge has been gathered regarding the anatomy and physiology of this system, and in recent years, extensive studies of the pathophysiology related to lung...... pharmacological interventions on clearance rate, to study the importance of defective mucus clearance in different lung diseases or as a diagnostic tool in the work-up of patients with recurrent airway diseases. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology...

  3. Domiciliary humidification improves lung mucociliary clearance in patients with bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, A; Chapman, T H; McCool, D; Smith, R E; Dilworth, J P; Agnew, J E

    2008-01-01

    Inspired air humidification has been reported to show some benefit in bronchiectatic patients. We have investigated the possibility that one effect might be to enhance mucociliary clearance. Such enhancement might, if it occurs, help to lessen the risks of recurrent infective episodes. Using a radioaerosol technique, we measured lung mucociliary clearance before and after 7 days of domiciliary humidification. Patients inhaled high flow saturated air at 37 degrees C via a patient-operated humidification nasal inhalation system for 3 h per day. We assessed tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance from the retention of (99m)Tc-labelled polystyrene tracer particles monitored for 6 h, with a follow-up 24-h reading. Ten out of 14 initially recruited patients (age 37-75 years; seven females) completed the study (two withdrew after their initial screening and two prior to the initial clearance test). Seven patients studied were non-smokers; three were ex-smokers (1-9 pack-years). Initial tracer radioaerosol distribution was closely similar between pre- and post-treatment. Following humidification, lung mucociliary clearance significantly improved, the area under the tracheobronchial retention curve decreased from 319 +/- 50 to 271 +/- 46%h (p humidification treatment improved lung mucociliary clearance in our bronchiectatic patients. Given this finding plus increasing laboratory and clinical interest in humidification mechanisms and effects, we believe further clinical trials of humidification therapy are desirable, coupled with analysis of humidification effects on mucus properties and transport.

  4. Mucociliary clearance, airway inflammation and nasal symptoms in urban motorcyclists

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    Tereza C.S. Brant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that outdoor workers exposed to high levels of air pollution exhibit airway inflammation and increased airway symptoms. We hypothesized that these workers would experience increased airway symptoms and decreased nasal mucociliary clearance associated with their exposure to air pollution. METHODS: In total, 25 non-smoking commercial motorcyclists, aged 18-44 years, were included in this study. These drivers work 8-12 hours per day, 5 days per week, driving on urban streets. Nasal mucociliary clearance was measured by the saccharine transit test; airway acidification was measured by assessing the pH of exhaled breath condensate; and airway symptoms were measured by the Sino-nasal Outcome Test-20 questionnaire. To assess personal air pollution exposure, the subjects used a passive-diffusion nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentration-monitoring system during the 14 days before each assessment. The associations between NO2 and the airway outcomes were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-Square test. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01976039. RESULTS: Compared with clearance in healthy adult males, mucociliary clearance was decreased in 32% of the motorcyclists. Additionally, 64% of the motorcyclists had airway acidification and 92% experienced airway symptoms. The median personal NO2 exposure level was 75 mg/m3 for these subjects and a significant association was observed between NO2 and impaired mucociliary clearance (p = 0.036. CONCLUSION: Non-smoking commercial motorcyclists exhibit increased airway symptoms and airway acidification as well as decreased nasal mucociliary clearance, all of which are significantly associated with the amount of exposure to air pollution.

  5. Measurement with nasal scintigraphy of nasal mucociliary clearance in normal man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Sumiko

    1989-01-01

    Nasal mucociliary function was evaluated by nasal scintigraphy in normal subjects. A microdrop of HSA or saline labelled with 99m Tc was dripped into the middle part of each middle meatus in the nasal cavity and its clearance was observed by scinticamera. The accumulated concentration of RI was determined every 30 seconds for 10 minutes. The changes of accumulated concentration were studied, and a curve of decreasing RI-counts was obtained, with the 'clearance rate' defined as 100% for the count at the initial 30 seconds and 'half time' as the time when radioactivity was reduced to one half the initial count. Nasal resistance was measured by rhinomanometry with the oscillation method. In nonsmokers, 10μl of saline was cleared (78.0±10.4%) significantly faster than 10μl of HSA (59.9±24.6%), and there was no significant difference in the clearance between 10μl and 5μl of HSA (55.9±27.7%). In smakers, the mucociliary clearance of 10μl of HSA and saline was significantly lower than in nonsmokers. The clearance of 10μl of HSA reflects a pathological state much better than that of 5μl. In nonsmokers, there is a significant negative correlation between nasal resistance and clearance rate, suggesting that the more patent the nose, the faster the mucociliary clearance. When both nostrils were closed, the clearance rate was significantly depressed. When one nostril was closed, there was no significant effect on clearance. Nasal resistance was decreased by exercise with a bicycle ergometer. Nasal mucociliary clearance was slightly decreased after exercise but not significantly so. (J.P.N.)

  6. Mucociliary clearance following tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomes, H; Linder, A

    1989-10-01

    Mucociliary clearance is an important cleaning system of the bronchial tree. The complex transport system reacts sensitively to medicinal stimuli and inhaled substances. A disturbance causes secretion retention which encourages the development of acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. It is not yet known in which way sectional resection of the central airway effects mucociliary clearance. A large number of the surgical failures are attributable to septic complications in the area of the anastomosis. In order to study the transportation process over the anastomosis, ten dogs underwent a tracheal resection with end-to-end anastomosis, and the mucociliary activity was recorded using a bronchoscopic video-technical method. Recommencement of mucous transport was observed on the third, and transport over the anastomosis from the sixth to tenth, postoperative days. The mucociliary clearance had completely recovered on the twenty-first day in the majority of dogs. Histological examination of the anastomoses nine months postoperatively showed a flat substitute epithelium without cilia-bearing cells in all dogs. This contrasts with the quick restitution of the transport function. In case of undamaged respiratory mucosa, a good adaptation of the resection margins suffices for the mucous film to slide over the anastomosis.

  7. Quantitative static scintigraphy for the evaluation of mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maini, C.L.; Marchetti, L.; Giordano, A.; Antonelli Incalzi, R.; Fuso, L.

    1988-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance can be evaluated by radionuclide techniques, but such approaches have been usually implemented only in research-oriented laboratories because of technical difficulties. A very practical radionuclide method is here presented which requires only three static acquisitions after the inhalation of a polydisperse radioaerosol produced by a commercial generator. Data processing is also very simple. The diagnostic performance of the method was tested on a study population of 10 healthy subjects and 10 patients with athrophic bronchitis; a higly significance difference between normal and pathological patients was found. Its simple implementation and diagnostic yield recommend this radionuclide method for the routine assessment of mucociliary clearance also in busy clinical-oriented laboratories

  8. Acute exposure to acid fog. Effects on mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laube, B.L.; Bowes, S.M. III; Links, J.M.; Thomas, K.K.; Frank, R.

    1993-01-01

    Submicrometric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol can affect mucociliary clearance without eliciting irritative symptoms or changes in pulmonary function. The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. We quantified mucociliary clearance from the trachea (n = 4) and small airways (n = 7) of young healthy male adults after an acute exposure to H2SO4 fog (MMAD = 10.3 microns; pH = 2.0; liquid water content = 481 +/- 65 mg/m3; osmolarity = 30 mOsm). Acid fog (AF) or saline fog (SF) (10.9 microns; 492 +/- 116 mg/m3; 30 mOsm) was administered for 40 min of unencumbered breathing (no mouth-piece) at rest and for 20 min of exercise sufficient to produce oronasal breathing. Fog exposures were followed by a methacholine (MCh) challenge (a measure of airway reactivity) or inhalation of technetium-99M radioaerosol (MMAD = 3.4 microns) on 2 study days each. Changes in symptoms and forced ventilatory function were also assessed. Clearance was quantified from computer-assisted analyses of gamma camera images of the lower respiratory tract in terms of %removal/min of the radiolabel from the trachea 25 min after inhalation and from the outer zone of the right lung after 1.9 to 3 h. Symptoms, forced ventilatory function, and MCh response were unaffected by either fog. Tracheal clearance was more rapid in four of four subjects after AF (0.83 +/- 1.58% removal/min) compared with that after SF (-0.54 +/- 0.85% removal/min). Outer zone clearance was more rapid in six of seven subjects after AF (0.22 +/- 0.15% removal/min) compared with that after SF (0.01 +/- 0.09% removal/min)

  9. Impairment of nasal mucociliary clearance in woodworkers in the furniture industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, A.; Evans, J. C.; Hadfield, Esme H.; Macbeth, R. G.; Morgan, A.; Walsh, M.

    1974-01-01

    Black, A., Evans, J. C., Hadfield, Esme H., Macbeth, R. G., Morgan, A., and Walsh, M. (1974).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,31, 10-17. Impairment of nasal mucociliary clearance in woodworkers in the furniture industry. Measurements of mucociliary clearance from the anterior end of the middle turbinate were made using technetium-99m-labelled particles in nine woodworkers from the furniture industry and in 12 controls, none of whom had been occupationally exposed to wood dust. Clearance rates in the controls ranged from 1·9 to 18·5 mm min-1 with a mean of 6·8. These values are in good agreement with measurements reported elsewhere for normal subjects. Only one of the woodworkers had a clearance rate which fell within the normal range and he had been occupationally exposed for the shortest period (6 years). In four woodworkers clearance was very slow (furniture industry for more than 10 years. PMID:4821406

  10. Effect of needle puncture and electro-acupuncture on mucociliary clearance in anesthetized quails

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    Wang Tianshan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture therapy for obstructive respiratory diseases has been effectively used in clinical practice and the acupuncture points or acupoints of Zhongfu and Tiantu are commonly-used acupoints to treat patients with the diseases. Since the impaired mucociliary clearance is among the most important features of airway inflammation in most obstructive respiratory diseases, the effect of needle puncture and electro-acupuncture at the specific acupoints on tracheal mucociliary clearance was investigated in anesthetized quails. Methods Mucociliary transport velocity on tracheal mucosa was measured through observing the optimal pathway, and fucose and protein contents in tracheal lavages were determined with biochemical methods. In the therapeutic group, needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to the acupoints was applied without or with constant current output in 2 mA and at frequency of 100 Hz for 60 minutes. In the sham group, electro-acupuncture stimulation to Liangmen was applied. Results Our present experiments demonstrated that the electro-acupuncture stimulation to Zhongfu and Tiantu significantly increased tracheal mucociliary transport velocity and decreased the content of protein in the tracheal lavage, compared with the control group. Moreover, either needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to Zhongfu and Tiantu significantly reverted the human neutrophil elastase-induced decrease in tracheal mucociliary transport velocity and human neutrophil elastase -induced increase in the contents of fucose and protein in the tracheal lavage, compared with the control group. Conclusion These results suggest that either needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to the effective acupoints significantly improves both airway mucociliary clearance and the airway surface liquid and that the improvements maybe ascribed to both the special function of the points and the substantial stimulation of electricity.

  11. Effect of Cilia Beat Frequency on Mucociliary Clearance

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    Sedaghat M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The airway surface liquid (ASL, which is a fluid layer coating the interior epithelial surface of the bronchi and bronchiolesis, plays an important defensive role against foreign particles and chemicals entering lungs. Objective: Numerical investigation has been employed to solve two-layer model consisting of mucus layer as a viscoelastic fluid and periciliary liquid layer as a Newtonian fluid to study the effects of cilia beat frequency (CBF at various amounts of mucus properties on muco-ciliary transport problem. Methods: Hybrid finite difference-lattice Boltzmann-method (FB-LBM has been used to solve the momentum equations and to simulate cilia forces, and also the PCLmucus interface more accurately, immersed boundary method (IBM has been employed. The main contribution of the current study is to use an Oldroyd-B model as the constitutive equation of mucus. Results: Our results show that increasing CBF and decreasing mucus viscosity ratio have great effects on mucus flow, but the effect of viscosity ratio is more significant. The results also illustrate that the relation between cilia beat frequency and mean mucus velocity is almost linear and it has similar behavior at different values of viscosity ratio. Conclusion: Numerical investigation based on hybrid IB-FD-LBM has been used to study the effect of CBF at various mounts of mucus viscosity ratio on the muco-ciliary clearance. The results showed that the effect of viscosity ratio on the muco-ciliary transport process is more significant compared with CBF.

  12. Influence of age on bronchial mucociliary transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchelle, E.; Zahm, J.-M.; Bertrand, A.

    1979-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance was measured in 19 healthy non-smoking male subjects, aged between 21 and 69, by analysing the decrease in bronchial radioactivity of an aerosol of resin particles (mean diameter 7.4 +- 1.5 μm) labelled with sup(99m)Tc. The mucociliary clearance was expressed as the percentage of radioactivity eliminated after 1 h. The measurements were made on two occasions with an average time lapse of 5 weeks. The intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variation were 15.6% and 41.5% respectively. The mucociliary clearance was significantly lower (P 54 years) than that observed (mean 34.1 +- s.d. 14.1%) in the younger subjects (21 to 37 years). A significant negative correlation (r=-0.472, P<0.05) was obtained between the ages of the healthy subjects and their mucociliary clearance. However, the fact that the results varied considerably within each age group suggests that factors other than age may have an effect on the mucociliary clearance. (author)

  13. Mucociliary and cough clearance as a biomarker for therapeutic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William D; Daviskas, Evangelia; Hasani, Amir

    2010-01-01

    or therapeutic evaluation presented details of their methodologies. Attendees participating in the workshop discussions included those interested in the physiology of MCC/CC, some of who use in vitro or animal methods for its study, pharmaceutical companies developing muco-active therapies, and many who were......A workshop/symposium on “Mucociliary and Cough Clearance (MCC/CC) as a Biomarker for Therapeutic Development” was held on October 21–22, 2008, in Research Triangle Park, NC, to discuss the methods for measurement of MCC/CC and how they may be optimized for assessing new therapies designed...

  14. The measurement of tracheo-bronchial mucociliary clearance with 99mTc-DTPA aerosol scintigraphy and its preliminary application in COPD patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Kuang, A.; Deng, H.; Li, X.

    2000-01-01

    Mucocoiliary clearance of respiratory channels is one of the important mechanisms guarding against retention of foreign particles within the lungs. Disorders of the mucociliary transport system play a major role among non-respiratory function in causing congenital and acquired bronchial disease. Thus, objective assay of the system is essential to recognizing and understanding abnormalities. In the present paper, a simple, noninvasive, and reliable in vivo method of monitoring mucociliary clearance function is reported. 18 healthy subjects and 32 COPD patients were studied with 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol scintigraphy. Monitoring was performed by visual inspection (cinescintigraphy, to observe the distribution of 99m Tc-DTPA particles and the movement of radiomucous 'hot bolus') and quantitative analysis (two indexes were utilized: the first is airway clearance ratio (ACR); the second is mucociliary clearance rate (MCC), i.e. speed of advances of mucous bolus, calculated reported by Zwas). Siemens 3700 SPECT, 64 X 64 byte mode, zoom 2. Sequential images (frame/60s) were obtained for 120 minutes. The deposition pattern of 99m Tc-DTPA particles in normal subjects was uniform. The deposition pattern in COPD patients demonstrated in general a centrally located distribution with major retention in the proximal airways. Four abnormal mucous transport patterns were regionally observed: stasis, regurgitation, straying and spiral or zigzag transport. Statistical analysis showed there was a significant difference of ACR between healthy subjects and COPD patients at different time points (P<0.05). The MCC in healthy subjects and COPD patients was 3.89±0.92 mm/min and 1.32±0.59 mm/min respectively. The method of assaying tracheo-bronchial mucociliary clearance reported here is simple and objective. It has not only the advantage of visual inspection and quantitative analysis, but also has a potential usefulness in studying other bronchial diseases and evaluating of therapeutic

  15. Use of scintigraphy for the determination of mucociliary clearance rates in normal, sedated, diseased and exercised horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, R A; Ecker, G L; McKee, S L; Riddolls, L J

    1991-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance rates from the trachea were determined in normal, sedated, diseased and exercised horses from scintigraphs obtained after an injection of technetium-99m sulphide colloid into the tracheal lumen. The group mean tracheal clearance rate of eight clinically normal horses during 42 trials was 2.06 +/- 0.38 cm/min. Significant between horse differences were found (p less than 0.05). When six and seven of these horses were given xylazine and detomidine hydrochloride, respectively, mean group tracheal clearance rates dropped significantly (p less than 0.05). The decreases from each normal horse's mean tracheal clearance rate ranged from 18 to 54%. There did not appear to be a difference between the tracheal clearance rates (TCRs) of the normal horses and those with chronic respiratory disease. Postexercise evaluations were not significantly different from the pre-exercise TCRs in three clinically normal horses and three horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p greater than 0.05). This minimally invasive scintigraphic technique for determining TCRs has proved to be useful and reliable. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1790485

  16. Bronchoscintigraphy and pulmonary clearance of 99mTc-albumin colloid in study of mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, Jann

    1998-01-01

    A radioaerosol based method for measuring MC was introduced. It included an inhalation protocol that resulted in a predominant deposition of radioaerosol in the central bronchi and two simple procedures of evaluation: 1) a visual semi-quantitative bronchoscintigraphic analysis, and 2) a quantitative analysis of the retention of the radioactivity at different points after the inhalation. The results showed that bronchoscintigraphy was a simple technique that may be used to visualize a stimulation of mucociliary transport in the central airways of individuals that do not suffer from too much mucus hypersecretion. Comparison of the MC between individuals, however, should preferably be performed by the method of quantitative analysis of the radioactivity disappearance. A change of MC was found to be one of the first detectable effects on lung function of tobacco smoking. It could be effectively detected by measurement of radioaerosol clearance both by bronchoscintigraphy and simple quantification of the MC. The MC may be either acutely enhanced, reduced or not changed by smoking. Long-term smoking impairs MC. The enhancement of MC by β 2 -agonists was very limited in most patients with CF. In the hope of increasing mucus transport in patients with CF, these are treated with various chest physiotherapy techniques. The radioaerosol based method of measurement of MC could assess mucus clearance by chest physiotherapy and cough. (au)

  17. Bronchoscintigraphy and pulmonary clearance of {sup 99{sup m}}Tc-albumin colloid in study of mucociliary clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Jann

    1998-12-31

    A radioaerosol based method for measuring MC was introduced. It included an inhalation protocol that resulted in a predominant deposition of radioaerosol in the central bronchi and two simple procedures of evaluation: 1) a visual semi-quantitative bronchoscintigraphic analysis, and 2) a quantitative analysis of the retention of the radioactivity at different points after the inhalation. The results showed that bronchoscintigraphy was a simple technique that may be used to visualize a stimulation of mucociliary transport in the central airways of individuals that do not suffer from too much mucus hypersecretion. Comparison of the MC between individuals, however, should preferably be performed by the method of quantitative analysis of the radioactivity disappearance. A change of MC was found to be one of the first detectable effects on lung function of tobacco smoking. It could be effectively detected by measurement of radioaerosol clearance both by bronchoscintigraphy and simple quantification of the MC. The MC may be either acutely enhanced, reduced or not changed by smoking. Long-term smoking impairs MC. The enhancement of MC by {beta}{sub 2}-agonists was very limited in most patients with CF. In the hope of increasing mucus transport in patients with CF, these are treated with various chest physiotherapy techniques. The radioaerosol based method of measurement of MC could assess mucus clearance by chest physiotherapy and cough. (au) 141 refs.

  18. Mucociliary transport and upper airway disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Mucociliary transport so critical in nasal, paranasal sinus, and middle ear physiology is impaired in chronic sinsusitis and otitis media by factors such as increased mucus viscoelasticity, decreased ciliary area, and primary or secondary ciliary immotility. We reviewed the pathophysiology of primary ciliary dyskinesia, otitis media with effusion, chronic sinusitis, and allergic rhinitis in terms of mucociliary transport. Subjects with primary ciliary dyskinesia may experience recurrent middle ear infection, chronic airway infection, predominantly lower-lobe bronchiectasis, male sterility, or situs inversus. Primary ciliary dyskinesia is sometimes difficult to diagnose in cases without situs inversus. Nasal nitric oxide concentration in such patients decreases, although why is unclear. Mutations may involve dynein arm intermediate chain 1 (DNAI1) or dynein arm heavy chain 5 (DNAH5). Mucociliary clearance decreases more in those with otitis media with effusion than in those without, due in part to increased middle ear effusion viscosity. Prognosis is poor in subjects with viscous effusion, which is difficult to clear from the middle ear via the mucociliary system. An understanding of anatomic paranasal sinus variations is thus extremely important in chronic sinusitis when endoscopic sinus surgery is attempted, although recent advances in computed tomography (CT) have enabled paranasal sinus drainage pathways to be delineated more clearly than ever before. (author)

  19. Inhalation scintiscanning of persons with healthy lungs and lung diseases using sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid with special regard to the mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    It is reported about inhalation scintiscanning with radioaerosols under the application of a gamma camera and a magnetic core- and tape memory, providing an interactive display. 89 patients suffering form various pulmonary diseases and 10 test persons with healthy lungs were investigated. The scintigraphic photos were not only evaluated visually, but also according to quantitative parameters, i.e. left/right distribution, degree of central deposition and mucociliary clearance. The latter resulted to be the most informative quantitative diagnostic method. In the 10 test persons with healthy lungs the scintigraphic images always showed a homogeneous distribution of radioactivity and a mucociliary half-time of 9.7 or 11.9 hours respectively was found. A central bronchial carcinoma provoked on the affected side of the lungs a reduced deposition of radioactivity, an increased central deposition and an accelerated mucociliary clearance. In patients suffering from peripheral bronchial carcinoma, pneumonia, pleural processes, pulmonary infarction, pulmonary circular focus or pneumothorax, only inconstant areas of reduced radioactivity deposition could be detected. However, these areas differed by shape, intensity and location from the central bronchial carcinoma. In 3 patients with pulmonary embolism, no pathologic changes could be detected only then, when no infarction occurred. In this case, also the quantitative parameters were normal. With chronical obstructive pulmonary diseases, diseases of the pulmonary framework and in cases of bronchial asthma a clearly pathologic image of the distribution of radioactivity resulted in all cases; in these a differentiation could only be achieved by additionally considering the quantitative parameters. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Flexible micro-OCT endobronchial probe for imaging of mucociliary transport (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dongyao; Chu, Kengyeh K.; Unglert, Carolin I.; Ford, Tim N.; Carruth, Robert W.; Hyun, Daryl; Singh, Kanwarpal; Birket, Susan E.; Solomon, George M.; Rowe, Steve M.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-03-01

    Mucociliary clearance (MCC) plays a significant role in maintaining the health of human respiratory system by eliminating foreign particles trapped within mucus. Failure of this mechanism in diseases such as cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) leads to airway blockage and lung infection, causing morbidity and mortality. The volume of airway mucus and the periciliary liquid encapsulating the cilia, in addition to ciliary beat frequency and velocity of mucociliary transport, are vital parameters of airway health. However, the diagnosis of disease pathogenesis and advances of novel therapeutics are hindered by the lack of tools for visualization of ciliary function in vivo. Our laboratory has previously developed a 1-µm resolution optical coherence tomography method, termed Micro-OCT, which is capable of visualizing mucociliary transport and quantitatively capturing epithelial functional metrics. We have also miniaturized Micro-OCT optics in a first-generation rigid 4mm Micro-OCT endoscope utilizing a common-path design and an apodizing prism configuration to produce an annular profile sample beam, and reported the first in vivo visualization of mucociliary transport in swine. We now demonstrate a flexible 2.5 mm Micro-OCT probe that can be inserted through the instrument channel of standard flexible bronchoscopes, allowing bronchoscopic navigation to smaller airways and greatly improving clinical utility. Longitudinal scanning over a field of view of more than 400 µm at a frame rate of 40 Hz was accomplished with a driveshaft transduced by a piezo-electric stack motor. We present characterization and imaging results from the flexible micro-OCT probe and progress towards clinical translation. The ability of the bronchoscope-compatible micro-OCT probe to image mucus clearance and epithelial function will enable studies of cystic fibrosis pathogenesis in small airways, provide diagnosis of mucociliary clearance disorders, and allow

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH ... clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to ...

  2. The effect of dilute baby shampoo on nasal mucociliary clearance in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Seth; Fakhri, Samer; Luong, Amber; Whited, Chad; Citardi, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm formation has been implicated as an etiologic factor in the development of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Nasal irrigation with surfactants including dilute baby shampoo have been proposed as an antibiofilm treatment for CRS patients. The effect of dilute baby shampoo on normal sinonasal mucosal function is unknown. Mucociliary clearance time (MCT), as measured by the time in minutes for a subject to detect a sweet taste after the application of a saccharin granules at the anterior part of the inferior turbinate, was performed before and shortly after nasal irrigation with 50 ml of 1% baby shampoo (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ) in 27 healthy volunteers. Mean MCTs before and after irrigation were 12.09 (±4.83 minutes) and 15.45 (±7.71 minutes) minutes, respectively. The mean difference, 3.37 minutes, was statistically significant (p = 0.031). Pre- and post-MCTs for each subject were not correlated (r = 0.324; p = 0.100). Nasal irrigations with dilute baby shampoo increase MCTs in healthy subjects. The impact of such interventions in CRS patients warrants additional investigation.

  3. Effect of cigarette smoking on nasal mucociliary clearance: A comparative analysis using saccharin test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Kurian Baby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC system transports the mucus layer covering the nasal epithelium towards nasopharynx by ciliary beating at a frequency of 7-16 Hz. NMC is altered by septal deviations, upper respiratory infections, and drugs. Few studies have revealed significant depression of ciliary activity in smokers. We conducted this study to compare NMC and influence duration of smoking on NMC in adult smokers and nonsmokers using saccharin test. Materials and Methods: Our study included 30 nonsmokers and 30 smokers (21-40 years who were not on any medications and had no history of any systemic illness. Time elapsing until the first experience of sweet taste at posterior nasopharynx, following placement of saccharin particle approximately 1 cm behind the anterior end of inferior turbinate was recorded as NMC time in minutes using standard method described by Anderson. Mean NMC of both groups were compared using Student′s t -test and influence of duration was analyzed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: NMC was significantly prolonged in smokers (481.2 ± 29.83; P 5 years = 637.5 ± 28.49 s; F statistic = 20.8968, P = 0.0000. Conclusions: NMC measurement is a simple and useful index for the assessment of effect of smoking on the ciliary activity of respiratory mucosa. Prolonged clearance observed in smokers of our study may be due to slowed ciliary beat frequency or reduction in number of cilia and changes in viscoelastic properties of mucus.

  4. Ineffective cough and mechanical mucociliary clearance techniques.

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    Fernández-Carmona, A; Olivencia-Peña, L; Yuste-Ossorio, M E; Peñas-Maldonado, L

    Cough is a fundamental defense mechanism for keeping the airway free of foreign elements. Life-threatening situations may arise when cough proves ineffective as a result of muscle weakness or altered mucociliary function. When a patient is unable to cough effectively, techniques are required to either reinforce or replace cough capacity. The use of mechanical systems that facilitate or substitute cough function is increasingly common in Intensive Care Units, where it is relatively frequent to find situations of ineffective cough due to different clinical causes. This review examines the current clinical practice recommendations referred to the indication and use of mechanical cough assist and intrapulmonary percussive ventilation systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Consortia CF Biomarker Consortium CFTR 3-D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH ...

  6. Clinical value of measurement of pulmonary radioaerosol mucociliary clearance in the work up of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Mathias; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Mortensen, Jann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate and define the general clinical applicability and impact of pulmonary radioaerosol mucociliary clearance (PRMC) on the work up of patients suspected of having primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). In addition, we wanted to evaluate the accuracy of the reference values...... primarily to results from nasal ciliary function testing, to electron microscopic (EM) examination of the ultrastructure of the cilia, and to the final clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 239 patients, 27 ended up with a final clinical diagnosis of definitive PCD. No patients with a PRMC test...... of the entire lung. Its greatest strength is its ability to reject a suspected PCD diagnosis with great certainty. In our material, this accounted for 2/3 of referred patients. In addition, the test has a high rate of conclusive results. According to our analyses, reference equations on children would benefit...

  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM Therapeutics Development Network TDN Coordinating Center Study Services Working With the TDN Tools and Resources ...

  8. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... 3-D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM Therapeutics Development Network TDN Coordinating Center ...

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3-D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM Therapeutics Development Network TDN Coordinating Center Study ...

  10. Evaluation of Mucociliary Clearance by Three Dimension Micro-CT-SPECT in Guinea Pig: Role of Bitter Taste Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Jose Luis; Ortiz, Amparo; Milara, Javier; Armengot, Miguel; Sanz, Celia; Compañ, Desamparados; Morcillo, Esteban; Cortijo, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Different image techniques have been used to analyze mucociliary clearance (MCC) in humans, but current small animal MCC analysis using in vivo imaging has not been well defined. Bitter taste receptor (T2R) agonists increase ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and cause bronchodilation but their effects in vivo are not well understood. This work analyzes in vivo nasal and bronchial MCC in guinea pig animals using three dimension (3D) micro-CT-SPECT images and evaluates the effect of T2R agonists. Intranasal macroaggreggates of albumin-Technetium 99 metastable (MAA-Tc99m) and lung nebulized Tc99m albumin nanocolloids were used to analyze the effect of T2R agonists on nasal and bronchial MCC respectively, using 3D micro-CT-SPECT in guinea pig. MAA-Tc99m showed a nasal mucociliary transport rate of 0.36 mm/min that was increased in presence of T2R agonist to 0.66 mm/min. Tc99m albumin nanocolloids were homogeneously distributed in the lung of guinea pig and cleared with time-dependence through the bronchi and trachea of guinea pig. T2R agonist increased bronchial MCC of Tc99m albumin nanocolloids. T2R agonists increased CBF in human nasal ciliated cells in vitro and induced bronchodilation in human bronchi ex vivo. In summary, T2R agonists increase MCC in vivo as assessed by 3D micro-CT-SPECT analysis.

  11. Immediate and short term effects of smoking on nasal mucociliary clearance in smokers

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    M. Proença

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The efficiency of mucociliary transport may vary in different conditions, such as in exposure to harmful particles of the cigarette smoke. The present study evaluated the acute and short term effects of smoking on nasal mucociliary clearance in current smokers by the quantification of the Saccharin Transit Time (STT, and to investigate its correlation with the history of tobacco consumption. Methods: Nineteen current smokers (11 men, 51 ± 16 years; BMI 23 ± 9 kg/m2, 27 ± 11 cigarettes per day, 44 ± 25 pack-years, entering a smoking cessation intervention program, responded to a questionnaire concerning smoking history and were submitted to lung function assessment (spirometry and the STT test. STT was assessed immediately after smoking and 8 hours after smoking. The STT test was also performed in nineteen matched healthy non-smokers’ who served as control group. Results: When compared to STT in non-smokers’ (10 ± 4 min; mean ± standard deviation, smokers presented similar STT immediately after smoking (11 ± 6 min; p = 0.87 and slower STT 8 hours after smoking (16 ± 6 min; p = 0.005 versus non-smokers’ and p = 0.003 versus immediately after smoking. STT 8 hours after smoking correlated positively with age (r = 0.59; p = 0.007, cigarettes per day (r = 0.53; p = 0.02 and pack-years index (r = 0.74; p = 0.0003. Conclusions: In smokers, although the mucociliary clearance immediately after smoking is similar to non-smokers’, eight hours after smoking it is reduced, and this reduction is closely related to the smoking habits. Resumo: Introdução e objectivo: A eficiência do transporte mucociliar pode variar em diferentes condições, como na exposição a partículas nocivas do fumo do cigarro. O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos do cigarro

  12. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... 3-D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH ... ACTs involve coughing or huffing . Many of them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from ...

  13. A pilot study to examine the effect of chronic treatment with immunosuppressive drugs on mucociliary clearance in a vagotomized murine model.

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    Abhiram R Bhashyam

    Full Text Available Previously, we have demonstrated that mucociliary clearance (MCC is diminished within the first months after surgery in lung transplant patients and the explanation for the reduction in MCC is unknown. We hypothesized that chronic treatment with a commonly prescribed regimen of immunosuppressive drugs significantly impairs MCC. We tested this hypothesis in a murine model of lung transplantation.Fifteen C57BL/6 mice underwent vagotomy on the right side to simulate denervation associated with lung transplantation in humans. For 6 days, seven mice (controls were intraperitoneally injected with three 100 µL doses of phosphate buffered saline and eight mice (immunosuppressed were injected with three 100 µL injections of tacrolimus (1 mg/kg, mycophenolate mofetil (30 mg/kg, and prednisone (2 mg/kg once daily. Then, mice inhaled the radioisotope (99mtechnetium and underwent gamma camera imaging of their lungs for 6.5 hrs. Counts in the right lung at 1-1.5 hrs and at 6-6.5 hrs were first background-corrected and then decay-corrected to time 0 counts. Decay-corrected counts were then divided by time 0 counts. Retention at each time point was subtracted from 1.00 and multiplied by 100% to obtain percent removed by mucociliary clearance.Although there was a slowing of MCC at 1-1.5 hrs for the immunosuppressed mice, there was no statistical difference in MCC measured at 1-1.5 hrs for the two groups of mice. At 6-6.5 hrs, MCC was significantly slower in the immunosuppressed mice, compared to controls, with 7.78±5.9% cleared versus 23.01±11.7% cleared, respectively (p = 0.006.These preliminary results suggest that chronic treatment with immunosuppressive medications significantly slows MCC in vagotomized C57BL/6 mice. These findings could shed light on why MCC is reduced in lung transplant patients whose lungs are denervated during surgery and who are chronically treated with immunosuppressive drugs post surgery.

  14. Chemical composition modulates the adverse effects of particles on the mucociliary epithelium

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    Regiani Carvalho-Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:We compared the adverse effects of two types of real ambient particles; i.e., total suspended particles from an electrostatic precipitator of a steel mill and fine air particles from an urban ambient particulate matter of 2.5 µm, on mucociliary clearance.METHOD:Mucociliary function was quantified by mucociliary transport, ciliary beating frequency and the amount of acid and neutral mucous in epithelial cells through morphometry of frog palate preparations. The palates were immersed in one of the following solutions: total suspended particles (0.1 mg/mL, particulate matter 2.5 µm 0.1 mg/mL (PM0.1 or 3.0 mg/mL (PM3.0 and amphibian Ringer’s solution (control. Particle chemical compositions were determined by X-ray fluorescence and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.RESULTS:Exposure to total suspended particles and PM3.0 decreased mucociliary transport. Ciliary beating frequency was diminished by total suspended particles at all times during exposure, while particulate matter of 2.5 µm did not elicit changes. Particulate matter of 2.5 µm reduced epithelial mucous and epithelium thickness, while total suspended particles behaved similarly to the control group. Total suspended particles exhibited a predominance of Fe and no organic compounds, while the particulate matter 2.5 µm contained predominant amounts of S, Fe, Si and, to a lesser extent, Cu, Ni, V, Zn and organic compounds.CONCLUSION:Our results showed that different compositions of particles induced different airway epithelial responses, emphasizing that knowledge of their individual characteristics may help to establish policies aimed at controlling air pollution.

  15. Lung mucociliary transport function in chronic bronchitis and radionuclide methods of its investigation (a review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyrenkova, N.Yu.; Faradzheva, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Several methods for studying lung clearance of smokers and non-smoking patients with chronic bronchitis (CB) are described. Modified technique for investigating mucociliary transport (MCT) in CB patients, using 99m Tc-macroaggregate of human serum albumin, is suggested. The method enables to examine more patients and obtain the most comprehensive data on MCT state on any level of tracheobronchial tree

  16. Dying cell clearance and its impact on the outcome of tumor radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauber, Kirsten; Ernst, Anne; Orth, Michael; Herrmann, Martin; Belka, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The induction of tumor cell death is one of the major goals of radiotherapy and has been considered to be the central determinant of its therapeutic outcome for a long time. However, accumulating evidence suggests that the success of radiotherapy does not only derive from direct cytotoxic effects on the tumor cells alone, but instead might also depend – at least in part – on innate as well as adaptive immune responses, which can particularly target tumor cells that survive local irradiation. The clearance of dying tumor cells by phagocytic cells of the innate immune system represents a crucial step in this scenario. Dendritic cells and macrophages, which engulf, process and present dying tumor cell material to adaptive immune cells, can trigger, skew, or inhibit adaptive immune responses, respectively. In this review we summarize the current knowledge of different forms of cell death induced by ionizing radiation, the multi-step process of dying cell clearance, and its immunological consequences with special regard toward the potential exploitation of these mechanisms for the improvement of tumor radiotherapy.

  17. Mucociliary clearance and its relation with the level of physical activity in daily life in healthy smokers and nonsmokers

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    M. Proença

    2012-09-01

    órico tabagístico. Além disso, os sujeitos permaneceram por 6 dias com um pedómetro para determinar o seu nível de AFVD (passos/dia. Os testes também foram realizados em 30 indivíduos não fumantes saudáveis, pareados, que serviram como grupo controlo. Resultados: Os fumantes leves (≤15 cigarros/dia apresentaram um TTS de 9 (7-11 minutos (mediana [intervalo de confiança], que foi similar aos não-fumantes (8 [8-11] min; p = 0,8. Ambos os fumantes moderados (16-25 cigarros/dia e severos (>25 cigarros/dia apresentaram TTS significativamente maior (13 [11-17] min e 13 [10-21] min, respetivamente do que os não fumantes e fumantes leves (p  0,09 para todos. Houve correlação negativa significativa entre o TTS e a AFVD apenas em fumantes leves (r = -0,55; p = 0,02 e não fumantes (r = -0,42; p = 0,02, mas não em fumantes moderados e pesados. Conclusão: Em fumantes leves e não fumantes, uma melhor função mucociliar está associada a maiores níveis de atividade física diária, ao contrário dos fumantes com função mucociliar diminuída, ou seja, aqueles com consumo moderado e severo de cigarros. Keywords: Mucociliary clearance, Physical activity, Smoking, Palavras-chave: Transporte mucociliar, Atividade física, Tabagismo

  18. A new paradigm in respiratory hygiene: modulating respiratory secretions to contain cough bioaerosol without affecting mucus clearance

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    Bonilla Gloria

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several strategies and devices have been designed to protect health care providers from acquiring transmissible respiratory diseases while providing care. In modulating the physical characteristics of the respiratory secretions to minimize the aerosolization that facilitates transmission of airborne diseases, a fundamental premise is that the prototype drugs have no adverse effect on the first line of respiratory defense, clearance of mucus by ciliary action. Methods To assess and demonstrate the primary mechanism of our mucomodulators (XLs, we have built our evidence moving from basic laboratory studies to an ex-vivo model and then to an in-vivo large animal model. We exposed anesthetized dogs without hypersecretion to different dose concentrations of aerosolized XL "B", XL "D" and XL "S". We assessed: cardio-respiratory pattern, tracheal mucus clearance, airway patency, and mucus viscoelastic changes. Results Exposure of frog palate mucus to XLs did not affect the clearance of mucus by ciliary action. Dogs maintained normal cardio-respiratory pattern with XL administration. Tracheal mucociliary clearance in anesthetized dogs indicated a sustained 40% mean increase. Tracheal mucus showed increased filance, and there was no mucus retention in the airways. Conclusion The ex-vivo frog palate and the in-vivo mammalian models used in this study, appear to be appropriate and complement each other to better assess the effects that our mucomodulators exert on the mucociliary clearance defence mechanism. The physiological function of the mucociliary apparatus was not negatively affected in any of the two epithelial models. Airway mucus crosslinked by mucomodulators is better cleared from an intact airway and normally functioning respiratory system, either due to enhanced interaction with cilia or airflow-dependent mechanisms. Data obtained in this study allow us to assure that we have complied with the fundamental requirement

  19. Measurement of mucociliary function of the eustachian tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuutinen, J.; Kaerjae, J.; Karjalainen, P.

    1983-01-01

    Mucociliary function of the eustachian tube was measured with a radioisotopic method; 0.01 mL of a human serum albumin labeled with technetium 99m was instilled into the anterior part of the middle ear cavity either through a perforation or by puncturing the tympanic membrane, and its course was followed by a gamma-camera. In the normal eustachian tube, the velocity of the mucociliary transport was 0.7 to 1.1 mm/min. The mucociliary function was totally absent in chronic otitis media, in untreated secretory otitis media, and in the ear with a moist perforation of the tympanic membrane. The mucociliary transport returned to normal when the ear was clinically healed. It is assumed that the impairment of the mucociliary function of the eustachian tube and middle ear plays an important role in the pathogenesis of secretory otitis media and chronic ear discharge

  20. Evaluation of nasal mucociliary activity in patients with chronic renal failure.

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    Kucur, Cuneyt; Ozbay, Isa; Gulcan, Erim; Kulekci, Semra; Aksoy, Sinan; Oghan, Fatih

    2016-05-01

    The ability of respiratory mucosal surfaces to eliminate foreign particles and pathogens and to keep mucosal surfaces moist and fresh depends on mucociliary activity. Chronic renal failure (CRF) is an irreversible medical condition that may result in important extrarenal systemic consequences, such as cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory system abnormalities. Although there are studies describing nasal manifestations of CRF, data are lacking concerning the effects of the condition on nasal mucosa. The goal of the current study was to evaluate nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC) time in patients with CRF. This prospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary referral center included 32 non-diabetic end-stage CRF patients and 30 control individuals. The control group consisted of voluntary participants who had been referred to our clinic for symptoms other than rhinological diseases. The mean NMC times in CRF patients and control individuals were 12.51 ± 3.74 min (range 7-22 min) and 8.97 ± 1.83 min (range 6-13 min), respectively. The mean NMC time in patients with CRF was significantly longer than that in control individuals (p < 0.001). Clinicians must keep in mind that NMC time in CRF patients is prolonged and must follow-up these patients more closely for sinonasal and middle ear infections.

  1. MUCOCILIARY DYSFUNCTION IN HIV AND SMOKED SUBSTANCE ABUSE

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    Srinivasan eChinnapaiyan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Impaired mucociliary clearance (MCC is a hallmark of acquired chronic airway diseases like chronic bronchitis associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. This manifests as microbial colonization of the lung consequently leading to recurrent respiratory infections. People living with HIV demonstrate increased incidence of these chronic airway diseases. Bacterial pneumonia continues to be an important comorbidity in people living with HIV even though anti-retroviral therapy has succeeded in restoring CD4+ cell counts. People living with HIV demonstrate increased microbial colonization of the lower airways. The microbial flora is similar to that observed in diseases like cystic fibrosis and COPD suggesting that mucociliary dysfunction could be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of chronic airway diseases in people living with HIV. The three principal components of the MCC apparatus are, a mucus layer, ciliary beating and a periciliary airway surface liquid (ASL layer that facilitates ciliary beating. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR plays a pivotal role in regulating the periciliary airway surface liquid. HIV proteins can suppress all the components of the MCC apparatus by increasing mucus secretion and suppressing CFTR function. This can decrease ASL height leading to suppressed ciliary beating. The effects of HIV on MCC are exacerbated when combined with other aggravating factors like smoking or inhaled substance abuse, which by themselves can suppress one or more components of the MCC system. This review discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to MCC suppression in people living with HIV who also smoke tobacco or abuse illicit drugs.

  2. Endoscopic evaluation of therapeutic effects of “Anuloma-Viloma Pranayama” in Pratishyaya w.s.r. to mucociliary clearance mechanism and Bernoulli's principle

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    Bhardwaj, Atul; Sharma, Mahendra Kumar; Gupta, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    The current endeavor intended to evaluate the effectiveness and mode of action of Anuloma-Viloma Pranayama (AVP), i.e., alternate nasal breathing exercise, in resolving clinical features of Pratishyaya, i.e., rhinosinusitis. The present study was directed to validate the use of classical “saccharin test” in measuring the nasal health by measuring mucociliary clearance time. This study also highlights the effects of AVP by application of Bernoulli principle in ventilation of paranasal sinuses and surface oxygenation of nasal and paranasal sinuses ciliary epithelium. Clinically, endoscopically and radiologically diagnosed patients of Pratishyaya, i.e., rhinosinusitis, satisfying the inclusion criteria were selected to perform AVP as a breathing exercise regularly for 30 min every day in order to evaluate the effectiveness of AVP in resolving features of rhinosinusitis. Saccharin test was performed before and after completion of 40 days trial to assess the nasal ciliary activity, which has been proved to be directly related to the health of ciliary epithelium and nasal health overall as well. AVP may be regarded as a catalyst to conspicuously enhance ventilation and oxygenation of the paranasal sinuses and the positively effect the nasal respiratory epithelium by increasing better surface availability of oxygen and negative pressure in the nasal cavity itself. PMID:24696572

  3. Rhinoscintigraphic analysis of nasal mucociliary function in patients with Bell's palsy.

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    Boynuegri, S; Ozer, S; Peksoy, I; Acikalin, A; Tuna, E Ü; Dursun, E; Eryilmaz, A

    2016-01-01

    Mucociliary transport (MCT) is an important defense mechanism of the respiratory tract. One of the major factors determining MCT is the ciliary activity of the respiratory epithelium. Rhinoscintigraphy is the most commonly used method for the analysis of mucociliary activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of facial paralysis on the nasal mucociliary clearance. This study included 38 Bell's palsy patients as the study group and 10 subjects without any history of paranasal sinus disease or facial paralysis as the control group. A drop of technetium 99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m MAA) was placed posterior to the head of the inferior turbinate and followed with a gamma camera. MCT rate was measured as the velocity of Tc-99m MAA drop. The mean MCT rate was 4.27 ± 0.76 millimeters per minute (mm/min) on 20 sides of 10 healthy controls, 4.11 ± 2.91 mm/min on the affected sides of the patients with Bell's palsy, and 6.03 ± 3.13 mm/min on the nonparalyzed sides of the patients. MCT rate was statistically significantly faster in the nonparalyzed side when compared to the paralyzed side in Bell's palsy patients (P = 0.001). MCT rates were not significantly different in the control group and paralyzed sides of the Bell's palsy patients (P = 0.810). The MCT rate was statistically significantly faster in the nonparalyzed sides of Bell's palsy patients when compared to the controls (P = 0.017). This study showed a faster MCT rate on the nonparalyzed side in Bell's palsy patients when compared to the paralyzed side and the control subjects. A compensatory mechanism could be the underlying reason for faster MCT on the nonparalyzed side. Further studies on larger patient groups are needed to investigate the effect of facial paralysis on the MCT and changes of facial nerve function on the opposite, nonparalyzed side of the face.

  4. Diagnosis of respiratory epithelial clearance abnormality in patients suffering from chemo-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis with comorbidity of bronchial mucosa O. M. Raznatovska, V. M. Khlystun

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    O. M. Raznatovska

    2018-04-01

    according to classification by M. V. Shesterina, A. N. Kalyuk (1975. Results of the research are processed by modern methods of the analysis using the personal computer with the statistical package Statistica® for Windows 6.0 license program (StatSoft Inc., No. AXXR712 D833214FAN5. Results. There were respiratory epithelial clearance disturbances in 94.7 %, which predominate with the 1st and 2nd stages of mucociliary inefficiency (51.1 % and 37.6 %. There was mucociliary inefficiency dependence on the bronchi mucous membrane pathology nature: the incidence of respiratory epithelial clearance in patients with concomitant bronchial tuberculosis in combination with the nonspecific purulent endobronchitis is 2.4 times higher than in those with concomitant bronchial tuberculosis only (70.7 % vs 29.3 %. The association of nonspecific purulent endobronchitis with concomitant bronchial tuberculosis leads to an increase in the mucociliary inefficiency degree of severity, due to its diffuse localization, where it is diagnosed more often than in the limited one, thus, mucociliary inefficiency of the 2nd stage of severity (64.9 % vs 24.6 %, is 2.6 times more (64.9 % vs 24.6 % and 4.6 times more in the 3rd stage (16.2 % vs 3.5 %. Conclusions. The proposed method for the diagnosis of mucociliary inefficiency disorders among patients suffering from CRPTB with bronchial mucosa concomitant pathology allows to diagnose mucociliary inefficiency and mucociliary inefficiency dependence on the bronchi mucous membrane pathology nature.

  5. Is the use of benzalkonium chloride as a preservative for nasal formulations a safety concern? A cautionary note based on compromised mucociliary transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, I L

    2000-01-01

    Topical nasal solution and suspension delivery systems are available for short- and long-acting vasoconstrictors, ipratropium, cromolyn, azelastine, and glucocorticosteroids. The use of intranasal glucocorticosteroids has increased substantially because the efficacy of these agents has been well established for the treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis. Adverse local effects of burning, irritation, and dryness are occasionally associated with glucocorticosteroid nasal preparations. Benzalkonium chloride (BKC) is a quaternary ammonium antimicrobial agent included in some nasal solutions (including glucocorticosteroids) to prevent the growth of bacteria. Some reports suggest that BKC in nasal sprays may cause adverse effects, including reduced mucociliary transport, rhinitis medicamentosa, and neutrophil dysfunction. This article summarizes recent literature about possible adverse biologic effects associated with BKC as a nasal spray preservative by examining its effects on the following properties of mucociliary transport: ciliary motion, ciliary form, ciliary beat frequency, electron microscopy, and particle movement/saccharin clearance tests. Both animal and human in vitro data suggest that BKC promotes ciliostasis and reduction in mucociliary transport that may be partially masked by absorption and dilution effects occurring in respiratory mucus. These possible confounding factors may account for several disparate human in vivo results. The use of BKC-free glucocorticosteroid formulations should be considered, particularly in patients who complain of nasal burning, dryness, or irritation.

  6. The effects of selected air pollutants on clearance of titanic oxide particles from the lungs of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferin, J; Leach, L J

    1975-09-01

    A procedure utilizing the lung clearance kinetics of titanic oxide (TiO2) particles was used to determine the effects of inhaled sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO x) on particle clearance. The procedure is reproducible and mainly tests clearance mechanisms involving alveolar macrophages and the mucociliary transport system at the alveolobronchial clearance pathway. At low SO2 or NOx exposures enhanced particle clearance was observed. Lung clearance was depressed at 15 and 24 ppm of NO2 after 22 exposures as well as at 20 ppm of SO2 after 11 exposures, and also at 1 ppm of SO2 after 25 exposures. Dose-response curves for the SO2 and NOx exposures showed differences explainable by the routes by which these gases reach the alveolar macrophages.

  7. Nasal mucociliary transportability of male and female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzeloto, Juliana Souza; Ramos, Dionei; C F Freire, Ana Paula; G D Christofaro, Diego; Mara C Ramos, Ercy

    Female smoker's present increased susceptibility to several diseases when compared to the opposite gender. However, there are no studies showing differences in nasal mucociliary transport behavior between male and female smokers. To compare the nasal mucociliary transportability in male and female smokers and non-smokers, taking into consideration age, anthropometric data, smoking load and pulmonary function. The analysis included 139 individuals (33 men and 37 women smokers and 32 men and 37 women non-smokers). All participants answered an initial interview to obtain personal data and smoking load. Anthropometric data and carbon monoxide in the exhaled air were assessed. Individuals also performed pulmonary function test and Saccharin Transit Time test. To compare saccharin transit time values between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, stratification of all independent variables was performed (sociodemographic, smoking and respiratory variables) into two categories: below and above the median values. There was no difference between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, regarding nasal mucociliary transportability. Significant differences were only observed between non-smokers. Among those with less forced vital capacity values (smokers), FCV and FEV1 (men non-smokers) and FEF 25-75% (women non-smokers) on saccharin transit time values. Based on the findings of this study, nasal mucociliary transport in male and female adult smokers, apparently healthy, are similar. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Absorption and Clearance of Pharmaceutical Aerosols in the Human Nose: Effects of Nasal Spray Suspension Particle Size and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Alex; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P Worth

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to use a recently developed nasal dissolution, absorption, and clearance (DAC) model to evaluate the extent to which suspended drug particle size influences nasal epithelial drug absorption for a spray product. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mucociliary clearance and drug dissolution were used to calculate total and microscale epithelial absorption of drug delivered with a nasal spray pump. Ranges of suspended particle sizes, drug solubilities, and partition coefficients were evaluated. Considering mometasone furoate as an example, suspended drug particle sizes in the range of 1-5 μm did not affect the total nasal epithelial uptake. However, the microscale absorption of suspended drug particles with low solubilities was affected by particle size and this controlled the extent to which the drug penetrated into the distal nasal regions. The nasal-DAC model was demonstrated to be a useful tool in determining the nasal exposure of spray formulations with different drug particle sizes and solubilities. Furthermore, the model illustrated a new strategy for topical nasal drug delivery in which drug particle size is selected to increase the region of epithelial surface exposure using mucociliary clearance while minimizing the drug dose exiting the nasopharynx.

  9. Alterations in nasal mucociliary activity in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabil Kucur, Suna; Seven, Ali; Yuksel, Beril; Kucur, Cuneyt; Sencan, Halime; Gozukara, Ilay; Keskin, Nadi

    2016-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. It can affect various organ systems, and respiratory mucosa has been reported as being hormone responsive. A case-control study consisting of 50 women with PCOS and 30 control subjects matched for age and body mass index was conducted, in order to investigate nasal mucociliary clearance time (NMCT) in patients with PCOS. Serum basal hormonal-biochemical parameters and NMCT were evaluated on menstrual cycle days 2-5 for all participants. The mean NMCT in PCOS and control groups was 10.45±2.88 and 6.92±1.78, respectively (p=0.0001). A significant positive correlation was found between NMCT and duration of disease (r=0.52; p=0.001), serum total testosterone level (r=0.28; p=0.04), and luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone (r=0.29; p=0.04). Our findings indicate that PCOS is associated with altered NMCT. Prolonged NMCT predisposes patients to respiratory tract and middle ear infections, and clinicians should be aware of this. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of increased surface hydrophobicity via drug conjugation on the clearance of inhaled PEGylated polylysine dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shadabul; McLeod, Victoria M; Jones, Seth; Fung, Sandy; Whittaker, Michael; McIntosh, Michelle; Pouton, Colin; Owen, David J; Porter, Christopher J H; Kaminskas, Lisa M

    2017-10-01

    PEGylated polylysine dendrimers are attractive and well tolerated inhalable drug delivery platforms that have the potential to control the release, absorption kinetics and lung retention time of conjugated drugs. The clinical application of these systems though, would likely require partial substitution of surface PEG groups with drug molecules that are anticipated to alter their lung clearance kinetics and clearance pathways. In the current study, we therefore evaluated the impact of increased surface hydrophobicity via substitution of 50% surface PEG groups with a model hydrophobic drug (α-carboxyl OtButylated methotrexate) on the lung clearance of a Generation 5 PEGylated polylysine dendrimer in rats. PEG substitution with OtBu-methotrexate accelerated lung clearance of the dendrimer by increasing polylysine scaffold catabolism, improving systemic absorption of the intact dendrimer and low molecular weight products of scaffold catabolism, and enhancing mucociliary clearance. These results suggest that the conjugation of hydrophobic drug on the surface of a PEGylated dendrimer is likely to accelerate lung clearance when compared to a fully PEGylated dendrimer. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Airway clearance techniques in chronic obstructive pulmonary syndrome : 2011 update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdekamp, C

    2011-09-01

    For many years the airway clearance techniques used in chest physical therapy were assimilated with the singular technique of postural drainage, percussions and vibrations. However the side effects and counter indications and the lack of scientific proof regarding this technique have forced reflection and development of other techniques more comfortable and without deleterious effects. If all these techniques show a high efficiency in terms of improved mucociliary clearance, the literature is unanimous on how little effect these techniques have in the short and the long-term with regards to lung function and arterial blood gases. In view of the scientific literature, it is clear that the airway clearance techniques don't have the same recognition concerning their efficiency in all obstructive pulmonary diseases. As the cornerstone in the management of cystic fibrosis, the efficiency of the bronchial hygiene techniques are in general poorly documented in the management of the non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, bronchitis or emphysema. The use of the chest physical therapy seems more to do with the interpretation of the imagery and symptomatology. The airway clearance techniques should be individualised according to symptoms, the amount of expectorated mucus and the objectives signs of secretions retention or subjective signs of difficulty expectorating secretions with progression of the disease.

  12. Oxygen With Cold Bubble Humidification Is No Better Than Dry Oxygen in Preventing Mucus Dehydration, Decreased Mucociliary Clearance, and Decline in Pulmonary Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Michelle Lisidati; Athanazio, Rodrigo; Amato-Lourenço, Luis Fernando; Carreirão-Neto, Waldir; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Rubin, Bruce K; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of long-term nasal low-flow oxygen (NLFO) on mucus and symptoms and how this variable is affected by dry or cold humidified gas. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dry-NLFO and cold bubble humidified-NLFO on nasal mucociliary clearance (MCC), mucus properties, inflammation, and symptoms in subjects with chronic hypoxemia requiring long-term domiciliary oxygen therapy. Eighteen subjects (mean age, 68 years; 7 male; 66% with COPD) initiating NLFO were randomized to receive dry-NLFO (n = 10) or humidified-NLFO (n = 8). Subjects were assessed at baseline, 12 h, 7 days, 30 days, 12 months, and 24 months by measuring nasal MCC using the saccharin transit test, mucus contact angle (surface tension), inflammation (cells and cytokine concentration in nasal lavage), and symptoms according to the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20. Nasal MCC decreased significantly (40% longer saccharin transit times) and similarly in both groups over the study period. There was a significant association between impaired nasal MCC and decline in lung function. Nasal lavage revealed an increased proportion of macrophages, interleukin-8, and epidermal growth factor concentrations with decreased interleukin-10 during the study. No changes in the proportion of ciliated cells or contact angle were observed. Coughing and sleep symptoms decreased similarly in both groups. There were no outcome differences comparing dry vs cold bubble humidified NLFO. In subjects receiving chronic NLFO, cold bubble humidification does not adequately humidify inspired oxygen to prevent deterioration of MCC, mucus hydration, and pulmonary function. The unheated bubble humidification performed no better than no humidification. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02515786; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Applications of aerosol inhalation cine-scintigraphy for, clinical investigations of mucociliary transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Shinsaku; Mikami, Riichiro; Ryujin, Yoshitada; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohnuki, Masahiro; Narita, Nobuhiro

    1984-01-01

    Mucociliary transport and cough effect were studied in 10 healthy controls and 116 patients with respiratory diseases using aerosol inhalation cine-scintigraphy which permits visualization of the movement of inhaled aerosols. Additionally, the effectiveness of β-adrenergic stimulant on mucociliary transport was evaluated in 8 normal cases by this method. 1. In healthy controls, the aerosol-bolus moved to the cephalad side rapidly and smoothly in the main bronchus and the trachea, but in many cases of respiratory diseases, we recognized various abnormal patterns such as slow movement, spiral movement, regurgitation etc. We consider that the bolus movements can be used as an index of the mucociliary transport. 2. We found low grade abnormality of bolus movement in cases of atopic bronchial asthma, pulmonary emphysema, silicosis, interstitial pneumonia and asbestosis, but high grade abnormality in cases of bronchiectasis, pulmonary emphysema with chronic bronchitis, mixed or infectious bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and especially acute pulmonary infection and diffuse panbronchiolitis. Normal patterns were observed in atopic asthma patients in remission, but abnormal patterns in cases of attack. With larger daily volumes of sputum, the bolus movements showed higher greater abnormality. 3. Bolus movements by coughing were seen most frequently in patients who had produced moderate volumes of sputum and in whom the bolus had stopped at the first carina. Bolus movements by coughing were classified into three groups: expectoration, cephalad movement that stopped halfway, and regurgitation. When the bolus was in the trachea, especially located on the oral side, we observed that expectoration by coughing was more effective. Patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases had lower effciency of expectoration by coughing. 4. We confirmed that terbutaline (β-adrenergic stimulant) accelerated the mucociliary transport. (author)

  14. Analysis of conservativity analysis for clearance levels. Final report; Konservativitaetsanalysen bei Freigabegrenzwerten. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deckert, A; Thierfeldt, S

    1997-07-01

    , raising the clearance levels would not lead to an increase of the material quantities because other nuclides of the respective nuclide vectors are limiting. In conclusion, the effort to alter the clearance levels of the 1995 SSK recommendation for conventional disposal does not seem worthwhile. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Herleitung von Freigabewerten fuer Reststoffe/Abfaelle werden grundsaetzlich radiologisch notwendige Konservativitaeten einbezogen. Diese koennen fuer verschiedene Saetze von Freigabewerten allerdings stark differieren, was zu Inkompatibilitaeten zwischen Freigabepfaden fuehrt. Ziel ist daher der Vergleich der Konservativitaetsniveaus verschiedener Wertesaetze, wozu Konservativitaeten fuer Freigabewerte fuer Abfaelle zur Deponierung und fuer metallische Reststoffe analysiert werden. Es wurden Methoden erarbeitet, um den Grad an Konservativitaet quantitativ zu erfassen. Die Situation bei der Freigabe zur konventionellen Deponierung wurde analysiert, indem die aktuelle und zukuenftige Situation des Abfallaufkommens hinsichtlich Massen, Nuklidvektoren, geographischer Verteilung und Deponierung probabilistisch modelliert und die resultierende Dosisverteilung berechnet wurden. Als Freigabekriterium wurden die Grenzwerte fuer die Freigabe zur konventionellen Deponierung gemaess des SSK-Empfehlungsentwurfs von 1995 angesetzt. Auf der Basis realistischer Szenarien fuer die Exposition des Deponiepersonals und bei Zugrundelegung der Grenzwerte des SSK-Empfehlungsentwurfs wurde eine Dosisverteilung ermittelt, die zeigt, dass der Bereich des radiologischen Schutzziels im Bereich von 10 {mu}Sv/a nicht verlassen wird, auch wenn groessere Massen als 100 Mg/a freigegebenen Materials deponiert werden. Eine Beschraenkung der jaehrlich freigegebenen Masse oder Aktivitaet ist daher nicht erforderlich. Die Freigabewerte, die durch die Belastungspfade externe Bestrahlung und Inhalation bei Deponierpersonal bestimmt werden, weisen ein aehnliches Mass an Konservativitaet auf wie

  15. Scintigraphic examinations after stent implantation in central airways; Szintigraphische Untersuchungen bei Stents in den zentralen Atemwegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, W.S.; Kettner, B.I.; Munz, D.L. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Medizinische Fakulteat der Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany)

    1998-03-01

    Endotracheal and endobronchial stent implantation has been developed as an effective treatment of benign and malignant airway stenosis and of tracheo- or bronchoesophageal fistulas. The selection of the stent type depends on the kind and site of disease. Chest X-ray and bronchoscopy are the procedures of choice for monitoring of stent position, structure, and function. However, with scintigraphic methods the effects of stent implantation on pulmonary ventilation and perfusion can be assessed non-invasively. The validation of the effect of a stent implantation on mucociliary and tussive clearance remains to be elucidated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die endotracheale und -bronchiale Stentimplantation wurde in den letzten Jahren als effektive Massnahme bei benignen und malignen Stenosen der Atemwege, drohendem Atemwegsverschluss und bei tracheo- bzw. bronchooesophagealen Fisteln eingefuehrt. Der gewaehlte Stenttyp richtet sich nach dem Implantationsort und den krankheitsbedingten Veraenderungen. Zum Monitoring von Lage, Struktur und Funktion eines Stents dienen Thoraxroentgenaufnahmen und die Bronchoskopie. Nuklearmedizinische Verfahren koennen nicht-invasiv den Effekt der Stenteinlage auf Lungenventilation und -perfusion belegen. Die Validierung des Effekts einer Stentimplantation auf die mukoziliaere und tussive Clearance steht noch aus. (orig.)

  16. Acute and chronic in vivo effects of exposure to nicotine and propylene glycol from an E-cigarette on mucociliary clearance in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Beth L; Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Koehler, Kirsten; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2017-04-01

    To determine the effect of an acute (1 week) and chronic (3 weeks) exposure to E-cigarette (E-cig) emissions on mucociliary clearance (MCC) in murine lungs. C57BL/6 male mice (age 10.5 ± 2.4 weeks) were exposed for 20 min/day to E-cigarette aerosol generated by a Joyetech 510-T ® E-cig containing either 0% nicotine (N)/propylene glycol (PG) for 1 week (n = 6), or 3 weeks (n = 9), or 2.4% N/PG for one week (n = 6), or 3 weeks (n = 9), followed by measurement of MCC. Control mice (n = 15) were not exposed to PG alone, or N/PG. MCC was assessed by gamma camera following aspiration of 99m technetium aerosol and was expressed as the amount of radioactivity removed from both lungs over 6 hours (MCC6hrs). Venous blood was assayed for cotinine levels in control mice and in mice exposed for 3-weeks to PG alone and N/PG. MCC6hrs in control mice and in mice acutely exposed to PG alone and N/PG was similar, averaging (±1 standard deviation) 8.6 ± 5.2%, 7.5 ± 2.8% and 11.2 ± 5.9%, respectively. In contrast, chronic exposure to PG alone stimulated MCC6hrs (17.2 ± 8.0)% and this stimulation was significantly blunted following chronic exposure to N/PG (8.7 ± 4.6)% (p < .05). Serum cotinine levels were <0.5 ng/ml in control mice and in mice exposed to PG alone, whereas, N/PG exposed mice averaged 14.6 ± 12.0 ng/ml. In this murine model, a chronic, daily, 20 min-exposure to N/PG, but not an acute exposure, slowed MCC, compared to exposure to PG alone and led to systemic absorption of nicotine.

  17. Recordings of mucociliary activity in vivo: benefit of fast Fourier transformation of the photoelectric signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, S; Cervin, A; Runer, T; Thomasson, L

    1996-09-01

    Investigations of mucociliary activity in vivo are based on photoelectric recordings of light reflections from the mucosa. The alterations in light intensity produced by the beating cilia are picked up by a photodetector and converted to photoelectric signals. The optimal processing of these signals is not known, but in vitro recordings have been reported to benefit from fast Fourier transformation (FFT) of the signal. The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of FFT for frequency analysis of photoelectric signals originating from an artificial light source simulating mucociliary activity or from sinus or nasal mucosa in vivo, as compared to a conventional method of calculating mucociliary wave frequency, in which each peak in the signal is interpreted as a beat (old method). In the experiments with the artificial light source, the FFT system was superior to the conventional method by a factor of 50 in detecting weak signals. By using FFT signal processing, frequency could be correctly calculated in experiments with a compound signal. In experiments in the rabbit maxillary sinus, the spontaneous variations were greater when signals were processed by FFT. The correlation between the two methods was excellent: r = .92. The increase in mucociliary activity in response to the ciliary stimulant methacholine at a dosage of 0.5 microgram/kg was greater measured with the FFT than with the old method (55.3% +/- 8.3% versus 43.0% +/- 8.2%, p detected. In the human nose, recordings from aluminum foil placed on the nasal dorsum and from the nasal septa mucosa displayed some similarities in the lower frequency spectrum (light, the mean frequency in seven healthy volunteers being 7.8 +/- 1.6 Hz for the human nasal mucosa. It is concluded that the FFT system has greater sensitivity in detecting photoelectric signals derived from the mucociliary system, and that it is also a useful tool for analyzing the contributions of artifacts to the signal.

  18. Clearance of lead-212 ions from rabbit bronchial epithelium to blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Greenhalgh, J.R.; Smith, H.

    1977-01-01

    The absorption of 212 Pb ions from bronchial epithelium to blood has been investigated in anaesthetized rabbits. The 212 Pb ions were introduced by intubation either into the trachea or into smaller, more distal bronchi. Removal from lung was followed by external γ-counting. Mucociliary clearance to the GI tract was blocked by tracheostomy. Two distinct phases of clearance from bronchial epithelium to blood were observed. Approximately 20% of deposited 212 Pb was rapidly absorbed with a half-time of about 4 min, the remainder with a biological half-time of about 9 h, irrespective of the site of instillation in the bronchial tree. Two hours after deposition, the 212 Pb remaining in lung was found to be partitioned between mucus and the bronchial epithelium, with a substantial but minor fraction in the epithelium. Uptake of 212 Pb in the skeleton was estimated to be about 20% of the 212 Pb entering the blood circulation. Removal by the kidneys, at 25%, was comparable with skeletal uptake. These results are compared with previously published work using rodents, dogs and man which demonstrated either rapid or slow absorption but not both phases occurring together. (author)

  19. Blanking Clearance and Punch Velocity Effects on The Sheared Edge Characteristic in Micro-Blanking of Commercially Pure Copper Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Didin Zakaria Lubis; Ichsan Ristiawan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the influences between clearance and punch velocity on the part edge quality of blanked parts. Experiments have been conducted using material copper, punch-die clearance and punch velocity variations. In order to determine the reachable punch-die clearance and punch velocity required for blanking. The quality of the part-edge characteristics shows that higher punch velocity and decreases clearance value can improve the part-edge quality, resulting in smaller burr h...

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF SECRETOLYTIC THERAPY IN REHABILITATION PROGRAM IN FREQUENTLY AILING CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Kiselev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of rehabilitation of frequently ailing children (FAC is one of the actual problems in pediatrics. Disorders of mucosal immunity, depending on different factors including the state of mucociliary transport, play important role in formation of FAC group including patients with recurrent episodes of obstructive bronchitis. Morphological and functional unity of mucous tunic of respiratory tract allows determining the state of mucociliary clearance and effectiveness of secretolytic therapy by the state of mucosal tunic of nose and nasopharynx (it is the most accessible mucosal tunic for the objective examination. Specified rates of time of mucociliary transport in different groups of FAC are presented in this article. An effectiveness of mucoregulatory medication ambroxol in complex treatment of FAC with adenoids and recurrent episodes of obstructive bronchitis, and advisability of its prolonged (14–18 days use for the recovery of disturbed system of mucociliary transport were described in this article.Key words: frequently ailing children, somatotype, mucociliary clearance, treatment.

  1. Evaluation of Nasal Mucociliary Transport Rate byTc-Macroaggregated Albumin Rhinoscintigraphy in Woodworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostbil, Zeki; Polat, Cahit; Uysal, Ismail Önder; Bakır, Salih; Karakuş, Askeri; Altındağ, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    Woodworkers in the furniture industry are exposed to wood dust in their workplaces. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of occupational wood dust exposure on the nasal mucociliary transport rates (NMTRs) in woodworkers. Twenty five woodworkers and 30 healthy controls were included in this study. Wood dust concentration in workplaces was measured using the sampling device. (99m) Tc-macroaggregated albumin ((99m)Tc-MAA) rhinoscintigraphy was performed, and NMTR was calculated in all cases. In statistical analysis, an independent samples t-test was used to compare NMTR of woodworkers and control subjects. We found that the mean NMTR of the woodworkers was lower than that of the healthy controls. However, there was not a statistically significant difference between them (P = 0.066). In conclusion, our findings suggested that wood dust exposure may not impair nasal mucociliary transport rate in woodworkers employed in joinery workshops.

  2. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Genetic Disease That Involves Mucociliary Dysfunction of the Peripheral Airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Christopher M.; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Schwarz, Marvin I.; Lynch, David; Kurche, Jonathan; Warg, Laura; Yang, Ivana V.; Schwartz, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an incurable complex genetic disorder that is associated with sequence changes in 7 genes (MUC5B, TERT, TERC, RTEL1, PARN, SFTPC, and SFTPA2) and with variants in at least 11 novel loci. We have previously found that 1) a common gain-of-function promoter variant in MUC5B rs35705950 is the strongest risk factor (genetic and otherwise), accounting for 30-35% of the risk of developing IPF, a disease that was previously considered idiopathic; 2) the MUC5B promoter variant can potentially be used to identify individuals with preclinical pulmonary fibrosis and is predictive of radiologic progression of preclinical pulmonary fibrosis; and 3) MUC5B may be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis with MUC5B message and protein expressed in bronchiolo-alveolar epithelia of IPF and the characteristic IPF honeycomb cysts. Based on these considerations, we hypothesize that excessive production of MUC5B either enhances injury due to reduced mucociliary clearance or impedes repair consequent to disruption of normal regenerative mechanisms in the distal lung. In aggregate, these novel considerations should have broad impact, resulting in specific etiologic targets, early detection of disease, and novel biologic pathways for use in the design of future intervention, prevention, and mechanistic studies of IPF. PMID:27630174

  3. Impact of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Respiratory Mucociliary Function in an Experimental Porcine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sánchez-Véliz

    Full Text Available The impact of cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB on the respiratory mucociliary function is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of CPB and interruption of mechanical ventilation on the respiratory mucociliary system.Twenty-two pigs were randomly assigned to the control (n = 10 or CPB group (n = 12. After the induction of anesthesia, a tracheostomy was performed, and tracheal tissue samples were excised (T0 from both groups. All animals underwent thoracotomy. In the CPB group, an aorto-bicaval CPB was installed and maintained for 90 minutes. During the CPB, mechanical ventilation was interrupted, and the tracheal tube was disconnected. A second tracheal tissue sample was obtained 180 minutes after the tracheostomy (T180. Mucus samples were collected from the trachea using a bronchoscope at T0, T90 and T180. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF and in situ mucociliary transport (MCT were studied in ex vivo tracheal epithelium. Mucus viscosity (MV was assessed using a cone-plate viscometer. Qualitative tracheal histological analysis was performed at T180 tissue samples.CBF decreased in the CPB group (13.1 ± 1.9 Hz vs. 11.1 ± 2.1 Hz, p < 0.05 but not in the control group (13.1 ± 1 Hz vs. 13 ± 2.9 Hz. At T90, viscosity was increased in the CPB group compared to the control (p < 0.05. No significant differences were observed in in situ MCT. Tracheal histology in the CPB group showed areas of ciliated epithelium loss, submucosal edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells.CPB acutely contributed to alterations in tracheal mucocilliary function.

  4. "Cystic fibrotics could survive cholera, choleraics could survive cystic fibrosis"; hypothesis that explores new horizons in treatment of cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Arsalan

    2015-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis, the most common inherited disease of white population, is a disease of CFTR channels, in which mucosal function of many organs especially respiratory tract is impaired. Decreased mucociliary clearance and accumulation of mucus in airways facilitates colonization of infectious microorganisms, followed by infection. Following chronic infection, persistent inflammation ensues, which results in airway remodeling and deterioration of mucociliary clearance and result in a vicious cycle. Here, it is hypothesized that cholera toxin (CT) could ameliorate symptoms of cystic fibrosis as CT could dilute the thickened mucus, improve mucociliary clearance and alleviate airway obstruction. CT strengthens immunity of airway mucosa and it could attenuates bacterial growth and reduce persistency of infection. CT also modulates cellular immune response and it could decrease airway inflammation, hinder airway remodeling and prevent respiratory deterioration. Thereby it is hypothesized that CT could target and ameliorate many of pathophysiologic steps of the disease and it explores new horizons in treatment of CF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Nasal Mucociliary Transport Rate by99mTc-Macroaggregated Albumin Rhinoscintigraphy in Woodworkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostbil, Zeki; Polat, Cahit; Uysal, İsmail Önder; Bakır, Salih; Karakuş, Askeri; Altındağ, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    Woodworkers in the furniture industry are exposed to wood dust in their workplaces. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of occupational wood dust exposure on the nasal mucociliary transport rates (NMTRs) in woodworkers. Twenty five woodworkers and 30 healthy controls were included in this study. Wood dust concentration in workplaces was measured using the sampling device. 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA) rhinoscintigraphy was performed, and NMTR was calculated in all cases. In statistical analysis, an independent samples t-test was used to compare NMTR of woodworkers and control subjects. We found that the mean NMTR of the woodworkers was lower than that of the healthy controls. However, there was not a statistically significant difference between them (P = 0.066). In conclusion, our findings suggested that wood dust exposure may not impair nasal mucociliary transport rate in woodworkers employed in joinery workshops. PMID:21804940

  6. Nasal mucociliary transport in laryngectomees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavia, J.; Garcia, A.; Abello, R.; Herranz, R.; Franch, M.; Espana, R. de

    1986-01-01

    A study has been carried out to assess the mucociliary function of nasal mucosa in 30 patients: 16 had undergone surgery due to larynx malignancy and the remaining 14 were divided in two groups. The first group was composed of seven patients suffering from larynx cancer but not operated, and the second group of seven had pathology not related to the airways (control group). The method used a sup(99m)technetium sulphur colloid drop deposited on the nasal mucosa of one nostril. To calculate the rate of transport, a new method of quantification has been introduced, based on the formation of a parametric image. The mean velocity in laryngectomees was 3.6 mm/min (range 1.1-6.4). It was compared with the group of 14 patients without tracheostomy (mean 5.3, range 3.3-8.2). An impaired student's-t-test gave a significant difference between both groups (P<0.005). The comparison between patients with nonoperated larynx cancer and normals have a nonsignificant difference. The 16 operated patients were arbitrarily divided into two groups as per the time elapsed from laryngectomy; seven were studied within the first 3 years of operation and seven other patients after this term. The comparison between them was not significant. (orig.)

  7. Surface code—biophysical signals for apoptotic cell clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, Mona; Maueröder, Christian; Brauner, Jan M; Chaurio, Ricardo; Herrmann, Martin; Muñoz, Luis E; Janko, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death and the clearance of dying cells play an important and physiological role in embryonic development and normal tissue turnover. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis proceeds in an anti-inflammatory manner. It is orchestrated by the timed release and/or exposure of so-called ‘find-me’, ‘eat me’ and ‘tolerate me’ signals. Mononuclear phagocytes are attracted by various ‘find-me’ signals, including proteins, nucleotides, and phospholipids released by the dying cell, whereas the involvement of granulocytes is prevented via ‘stay away’ signals. The exposure of anionic phospholipids like phosphatidylserine (PS) by apoptotic cells on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is one of the main ‘eat me’ signals. PS is recognized by a number of innate receptors as well as by soluble bridging molecules on the surface of phagocytes. Importantly, phagocytes are able to discriminate between viable and apoptotic cells both exposing PS. Due to cytoskeleton remodeling PS has a higher lateral mobility on the surfaces of apoptotic cells thereby promoting receptor clustering on the phagocyte. PS not only plays an important role in the engulfment process, but also acts as ‘tolerate me’ signal inducing the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines by phagocytes. An efficient and fast clearance of apoptotic cells is required to prevent secondary necrosis and leakage of intracellular danger signals into the surrounding tissue. Failure or prolongation of the clearance process leads to the release of intracellular antigens into the periphery provoking inflammation and development of systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we review the current findings concerning apoptosis-inducing pathways, important players of apoptotic cell recognition and clearance as well as the role of membrane remodeling in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes. (paper)

  8. Blanking Clearance and Punch Velocity Effects on The Sheared Edge Characteristic in Micro-Blanking of Commercially Pure Copper Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didin Zakaria Lubis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the influences between clearance and punch velocity on the part edge quality of blanked parts. Experiments have been conducted using material copper, punch-die clearance and punch velocity variations. In order to determine the reachable punch-die clearance and punch velocity required for blanking. The quality of the part-edge characteristics shows that higher punch velocity and decreases clearance value can improve the part-edge quality, resulting in smaller burr height and rollover, and a larger shear zone. Furthermore, it could be observed that the part-edge quality improvement when blanking with high punch velocity is much more distinct for stele than for copper. According to blanking theory, this improvement was expected because copper have much higher heat conduction coefficients. Therefore, the heat dissipates faster and the desired stress relief effect does not take place to the same degree as for stele.

  9. Nuclear medicine pulmonary diagnosis; Nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik der Lunge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuemichen, C. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik

    2000-10-01

    Scintigraphic recording of regional ventilation and perfusion with {sup 99m}Tc-Aerosol and {sup 99m}Tc-MAA remain in the foreground of nuclear medicine pulmonary diagnostics. The most important indication for ventilation scintigraphy is the prediction of postoperative pulmonary function, which is still performed in many hospitals with perfusion scintigraphy, and with which, in turn, intrapulmonary right-left shunts can be simply and also semiquantitatively recorded. Combined ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy offers a very high degree of sensitivity in the proof of acute pulmonary embolism, is therefore exceptionally well suited for exclusion diagnostics, while specificity compared to pulmonary angiography and spiral CT still needs some clarification. The self-cleaning mechanism of the lung can be quantitatively examined using mucociliary and resorptive clearance. The clinical areas of application are limited for methodical reasons. Primary diagnostics of bronchial carcinoma and dignity differentiation of solitary pulmonary nodules, preferably with {sup 18}F-FDG PET are gaining steadily in importance. (orig.) [German] Im Vordergrund der nuklearmedizinischen Lungendiagnostik steht nach wie vor die szintigraphische Abbildung der regionalen Ventilation und Perfusion mit {sup 99m}Tc-Aerosol und {sup 99m}Tc-MAA. Wichtigste Indikation fuer die Ventilationsszintigraphie ist die Voraussage der postoperativen Lungenfunktion, die vielerorts noch mit der Perfusionsszintigraphie durchgefuehrt wird, mit der sich wiederum intrapulmonale Rechts-links-Shunts einfach und auch semiquantitativ erfassen lassen. Die kombinierte Ventilations-/Perfusionsszintigraphie bietet ein Hoechstmass an Sensitivitaet beim Nachweis der akuten Lungenembolie, ist deshalb fuer die Ausschlussdiagnostik hervorragend geeignet, die Spezifitaet im Vergleich zur Pulmonalisangiographie und Spiral-CT ist weiterhin klaerungsbeduerftig. Die Selbstreinigungsmechanismen der Lunge lassen sich mit der mukoziliaeren

  10. Loss of Acetylcholine Signaling Reduces Cell Clearance Deficiencies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio M Pinto

    Full Text Available The ability to eliminate undesired cells by apoptosis is a key mechanism to maintain organismal health and homeostasis. Failure to clear apoptotic cells efficiently can cause autoimmune diseases in mammals. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have greatly helped to decipher the regulation of apoptotic cell clearance. In this study, we show that the loss of levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor, but not of a typical neuronal acetylcholine receptor causes a reduction in the number of persistent cell corpses in worms suffering from an engulfment deficiency. This reduction is not caused by impaired or delayed cell death but rather by a partial restoration of the cell clearance capacity. Mutants in acetylcholine turn-over elicit a similar phenotype, implying that acetylcholine signaling is the process responsible for these observations. Surprisingly, tissue specific RNAi suggests that UNC-38, a major component of the levamisole-sensitive receptor, functions in the dying germ cell to influence engulfment efficiency. Animals with loss of acetylcholine receptor exhibit a higher fraction of cell corpses positive for the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine. Our results suggest that modulation by ion channels of ion flow across plasma membrane in dying cells can influence the dynamics of phosphatidylserine exposure and thus clearance efficiency.

  11. Bronchial and pulmonary scintigraphy with radioactively marked aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerstle, T.

    1982-01-01

    In 97 patients with bronchitis, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, pneumoconiosis, or tumors the mucociliary clearance and/or deposit pattern after inhalation of radioactively marked aerosols (1 mCi 99m Tc sulfur colloid) was studied. Normal values of the mucociliary 30 min. clearance for the central bronchial/lung periphery are 21%/15%. There was a decreased clearance with bronchitis (11/8%), bronchial asthma, emphysema, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, trachiobronchial amyloidosis, pleural scarring or interstitial pneumona. Increased clearance (29/19%) was shown with pneumoconiosis. The correlation of deposit pattern and disease, for example, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, bullous emphysema, pleural scarring, partial lung resection, bronchopneumonia, or bronchial restriction, is described. In comparison of aerosol scintigraphy to perfusion scintigraphy and ventilation with gaseous xenon, the aerosol scintigraphy is superior to xenon for certain indications. The aerosol particles, which are larger in comparison to xenon, settle easier by obstructions or flow variations and thereby give better clinical indications of regional differences. (orig.) [de

  12. Do not let death do us part: ‘find-me' signals in communication between dying cells and the phagocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, C B; Ravichandran, K S

    2016-01-01

    The turnover and clearance of cells is an essential process that is part of many physiological and pathological processes. Improper or deficient clearance of apoptotic cells can lead to excessive inflammation and autoimmune disease. The steps involved in cell clearance include: migration of the phagocyte toward the proximity of the dying cells, specific recognition and internalization of the dying cell, and degradation of the corpse. The ability of phagocytes to recognize and react to dying cells to perform efficient and immunologically silent engulfment has been well-characterized in vitro and in vivo. However, how apoptotic cells themselves initiate the corpse removal and also influence the cells within the neighboring environment during clearance was less understood. Recent exciting observations suggest that apoptotic cells can attract phagocytes through the regulated release of ‘find-me' signals. More recent studies also suggest that these find-me signals can have additional roles outside of phagocyte attraction to help orchestrate engulfment. This review will discuss our current understanding of the different find-me signals released by apoptotic cells, how they may be relevant in vivo, and their additional roles in facilitating engulfment. PMID:26891690

  13. Radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy in bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    A study on obstructive changes in airways and mucociliary clearance in children and youth with bronchial asthma was performed. Radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphies using 99T c-human serum albumin (HSA) were applied to 50 children and youth with bronchial asthma. The deposition patterns of the radioaerosol and aerosol clearance curves were evaluated. Abnormal deposition patterns, which consisted of non-homogeneous distribution and/or hot spot formation, were likely to be seen in patients with asthmatic attacks at the time of measurements. However, a few asymptomatic patients also revealed abnormal deposition patterns. The deposition patterns were related to FEV 1.0 %, MMF, V 50 and V 25 , but especially to FEV 1.0 %. As an index of mucociliary clearance, β, the rate constant of the 99m Tc-HSA aerosol clearance curve, was introduced. β was significantly lower in patients with abnormal aerosol deposition patterns than in normal persons. β was also significantly lower in patients undergoing asthmatic attack at the time of the measurements than in asymptomatic patients. β correlated negatively with FEV 1.0 %, MMF, V 50 and V 25 , but especially with FEV 1.0 %. Although patients with long term affection or moderate-to-severe asthma tended to reveal abnormal deposition patterns and had low β values, these differences were not statistically significant. Radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy with 99m Tc-HSA is useful for evaluating not only obstructive changes in the airways but also for evaluating mucociliary clearance in children with bronchial asthma. (author)

  14. The Effects of Electronic Cigarette (ECIG-Generated Aerosol and Conventional Cigarette Smoke on the Mucociliary Transport Velocity (MTV Using the Bullfrog (R. catesbiana Palate Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic L. Palazzolo

    2017-12-01

    aerosol-exposed palates appears thicker than control palates while smoke-exposed palates appear to be thinner due to epithelial disruption.Conclusions: These results indicate that ECIG-generated aerosol has only a modest effect on mucocilary clearance of bullfrog palates and aerosol sedimentation accounts for epithelial thickening. In accordance with the primary literature, conventional cigarette smoke dramatically inhibits mucociliary clearance and is, in part, due to decreased number of cilia and disruption of the smoke-exposed epithelium.

  15. Lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in adult sepsis and septic shock patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinto, R.; Widodo, D.; Pohan, H. T.

    2018-03-01

    Previous lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in sepsis and septic shock patient was determined by consensus from small sample size-study. We investigated the best lactate clearance cut off and its ability to predict early mortality in sepsis and septic shock patients. This cohort study was conducted in Intensive Care Unit of CiptoMangunkusumo Hospital in 2013. Patients’ lactate clearance and eight other resuscitationendpoints were recorded, and theoutcome was observed during the first 120 hours. The clearance cut off was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and its ability was investigated with Cox’s proportional hazard regression analysis using other resuscitation endpoints as confounders. Total of 268 subjects was included, of whom 70 (26.11%) subjects died within the first 120 hours. The area under ROC of lactate clearance to predict early mortality was 0.78 (95% % confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.84) with best cut off was <7.5% (sensitivity and specificity 88.99% and 81.4% respectively). Compared with group achieving lactate clearance target, group not achieving lactate clearance target had to increase early mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio 13.42; 95%CI 7.19-25.07). In conclusion, the best lactate clearance cut off as anearly mortality predictor in sepsis and septic shock patients is 7.5%.

  16. Regional deposition of mometasone furoate nasal spray suspension in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Samir A; Berger, Robert L; McDermott, John; Gupta, Pranav; Monteith, David; Connor, Alyson; Lin, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Nasal deposition studies can demonstrate whether nasal sprays treating allergic rhinitis and polyposis reach the ciliated posterior nasal cavity, where turbinate inflammation and other pathology occurs. However, quantifying nasal deposition is challenging, because in vitro tests do not correlate to human nasal deposition; gamma scintigraphy studies are thus used. For valid data, the radiolabel must distribute, as the drug, into different-sized droplets, remain associated with the drug in the formulation after administration, and not alter its deposition. Some nasal deposition studies have demonstrated this using homogenous solutions. However, most commercial nasal sprays are heterogeneous suspensions. Using mometasone furoate nasal suspension (MFS), we developed a technique to validate radiolabel deposition as a surrogate for nasal cavity drug deposition and characterized regional deposition and nasal clearance in humans. Mometasone furoate (MF) formulation was spiked with diethylene triamine pentacaetic acid. Both unlabeled and radiolabeled formulations (n = 3) were sprayed into a regionally divided nasal cast. Drug deposition was quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography within each region; radiolabel deposition was determined by gamma camera. Healthy subjects (n = 12) were dosed and imaged for six hours. Scintigraphic images were coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging scans to quantify anterior and posterior nasal cavity deposition and mucociliary clearance. The ratio of radiolabel to unlabeled drug was 1.05 in the nasal cast and regionally appeared to match, indicating that in vivo radiolabel deposition could represent drug deposition. In humans, MFS delivered 86% (9.2) of metered dose to the nasal cavity, approximately 60% (9.1) of metered dose to the posterior nasal cavity. After 15 minutes, mucociliary clearance removed 59% of the initial radiolabel in the nasal cavity, consistent with clearance rates from the ciliated posterior surface. MFS

  17. Estimation of guinea pig tracheobronchial transport rates using a compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, D.J.; Morrow, P.E.

    1984-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance in the tracheobronchial tree of guinea pigs was examined using monodisperse 7.9 μm MMAD polystyrene particles. Animals were exposed for approximately 1 h by inhalation via an intratracheal tube to aerosols tagged with gold-198 and fluorescent dyes. Following exposure, animals were radioactively monitored and sacrificed at predetermined times. The lungs were removed, freeze-dried, sectioned completely, and examined with a fluorescent microscope. Measurements were made of airway diameters where particles were found. An anatomic model for guinea pig lung morphology was used to assign ranges of airway diameters to five zones, which were incorporated into a compartmental model for lung clearance. Kinetic analysis of particle distributions in the zones led to development of first-order equations describing the compartmental clearance. Rate constants obtained from the kinetic analysis were used to estimate mucociliary transport rates in specific bronchial generations, which ranged from approximately 0.001 mm/min in the distal bronchioles to approximately 8 mm/min in the trachea, and resulted in a calculated 24-h clearance time for tracheobronchial clearance in the guinea pig. No evidence for either bronchial penetration by particles or relatively prolonged bronchial retention of particles was found in this study. 22 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  18. Die funksie van die belydenis in die struktuur van die kerk en die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ter wille van die argument wat in hierdie voordrag na vore gebring word, word vier sodanige konstituerende elemente van die kerklike struktuur onderskei, te wete die belydenis, die teologie, die verkondi- ging (meer bepaald die prediking) en die kerkorde (kerkwet volgens ons terminologie). Ons gaan nou elkeen hiervan ...

  19. die rol van die unieverdedigingsmag in die onderdrukking van die

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agv regeringsoptrede nie.39. Siotsom. In die geskiedenis van die Unieverdedigings- mag word die gebeure random die 1914-staking oorskadu deur die Rebellie en Suid-Afrika se deelname aan die Eerste Wereldoorlog. Tog was dit 'n belangrike mylpaal in die geskiedenis van die organisasie, omdat dit sy eerste optrede ...

  20. Experience of Acute Respiratory Infections Treatment in Children with Combination Drug Askoril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Kramarev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases are mostly accompanied by changes of mucociliary clearance. The paper presents the possibility of using combination preparation with different points of application for the treatment of tracheobronchial drainage disturbances in respiratory diseases in children.

  1. Isotope determinations of renal clearance equivalent with physiological clearance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junges, R.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of renal clearance in nuclear medicine describes the tubular secretion and glomerular filtration of a substance being removed from the blood plasma. The concept of clearance as used physiologically is rather wider and includes consideration of the outflow of the substances remained back in the kidneys. The present paper discusses clearance measurements as seen from a thermodynamic point of view, in which isotope clearances become equivalent with the physiological concept of clearance. In addition, it is possible to quantify each single step of the excretory function of each kidney separately. (orig.) [de

  2. Die rol van die blanke werker in die motivering van die swart werker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Oosthuizen

    1980-11-01

    Opsomming Die motivering van die Swart werker kan nie in die huidige situasie in isolasie bestudeer word nie, omdat die Blanke werker steeds in die bestuursposisie is en daarom die motivering van die Swart werker kan beïnvloed. Hierdie ondersoek was daarop gerig om die rol van die Blanke werker in die motivering van die Swart werker nader te ondersoek. Die houding en die leierskapsbenadering van die Blanke werker teenoor die Swart werker is gemeet, asook die behoeftes wat volgens die Blanke werker by die Swart werker bestaan, bevredig is, of nie bestaan nie. Die behoeftes van Swart werkers, soos deur hulleself gesien, is ook ondersoek. Ten opsigte van sekere aspekte is beduidende verskille gevind.

  3. X-linked primary ciliary dyskinesia due to mutations in the cytoplasmic axonemal dynein assembly factor PIH1D3.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olcese, C.; Patel, M.P.; Shoemark, A.; Kiviluoto, S.; Legendre, M.; Williams, H.J.; Vaughan, C.K.; Hayward, J.; Goldenberg, A.; Emes, R.D.; Munye, M.M.; Dyer, L.; Cahill, T.; Bevillard, J.; Gehrig, C.; Guipponi, M.; Chantot, S.; Duquesnoy, P.; Thomas, L.; Jeanson, L.; Copin, B.; Tamalet, A.; Thauvin-Robinet, C.; Papon, J.F.; Garin, A.; Pin, I.; Vera, G.; Aurora, P.; Fassad, M.R.; Jenkins, L.; Boustred, C.; Cullup, T.; Dixon, M.; Onoufriadis, A.; Bush, A.; Chung, E.M.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Loebinger, M.R.; Wilson, R.; Armengot, M.; Escudier, E.; Hogg, C.; Amselem, S.; Sun, Z.; Bartoloni, L.; Blouin, J.L.; Mitchison, H.M.; Schmidts, M.; et al.,

    2017-01-01

    By moving essential body fluids and molecules, motile cilia and flagella govern respiratory mucociliary clearance, laterality determination and the transport of gametes and cerebrospinal fluid. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder frequently caused by non-assembly of

  4. Recombinant human DNase in children with airway malacia and lower respiratory tract infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, R.; Jongste, J.C. de; Vaessen-Verberne, A.A.; Hop, W.C.J.; Merkus, P.J.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with airway malacia often have protracted courses of airway infections, because dynamic airway collapse during coughing results in impaired mucociliary clearance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the mucolytic drug recombinant human deoxyribonuclease

  5. Comparison of the endogenous creatinine clearance, the creatinin clearance calculated without urine collection and the isotope clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohacsi, Gabor; Lang, Jenoe; Csernay, Laszlo; Sonkodi, Sandor; Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged

    1987-01-01

    Observations are reported relating to the endogenous creatinine clearance, the Tc-99m-EDTA-complex clearance and the creatinine clearance estimated via a selected mathematical formula, with special regard to the problems of renal insufficiency and the nephrotic syndrome. The activity applied was in the range of 3.7-7.4 MBq. It was observed that measurement of the isotope clearance can also be applied to determine the endogeneous creatinine clearance in otherwise less suitable patients. A reliable result is obtained even if the renal function is restricted, but the accuracy of the method may be reduced in nephrotic syndrome cases. (author) 24 refs

  6. Effects of organic and inorganic compounds of diesel exhaust particles on the mucociliary epithelium: An experimental study on the frog palate preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Sergio Henrique Kiemle; Seriani, Robson; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; de Mello Júnior, João Ferreira; Sennes, Luiz Ubirajara; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Macchione, Mariângela

    2018-02-01

    The toxic actions of acute exposition to different diesel exhaust particles (DEPA) fractions on the mucociliary epithelium are not yet fully understood due to different concentrations of organic and inorganic elements. These chemicals elements produce damage to the respiratory epithelium and exacerbate pre-existent diseases. In our study we showed these differences in two experimental studies. Study I (dose-response curve - DRCS): Forty frog-palates were exposed to the following dilutions: frog ringer, intact DEPA diluted in frog-ringer at 3mg/L, 6mg/L and 12mg/L. Study II (DEPF) (DEPA fractions diluted at 12mg/L): Fifty palates - Frog ringer, intact DEPA, DEPA treated with hexane, nitric acid and methanol. Variables analyzed: relative time of mucociliary transport (MCT), ciliary beating frequency (CBF) and morphometric analysis for mucin profile (neutral/acid) and vacuolization. The Results of DRCS: Group DEPA-12mg/L presented a significant increase in the MCT (pepithelium, by promoting a significant increase in the MCT associated to changes in the chemical profile of the intracellular mucins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Creatinine clearance test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum creatinine clearance; Kidney function - creatinine clearance; Renal function - creatinine clearance ... Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical the body makes to supply ...

  8. Bacteriology and treatment of infections in the upper and lower airways in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, Mikkel Christian

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory tract is lined with motile cilia that transport respiratory mucus. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a chronic genetic disease caused by mutations in genes responsible for ciliary structure and function. Non-functional airway cilia impair the mucociliary clearance (MCC), causing...

  9. The spatiotemporal organization of cilia activity drives multiscale circular flows of mucus in reconstituted human bronchial epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Etienne; Gras, Delphine; Chanez, Pascal; Viallat, Annie

    2017-11-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. The bronchial epithelium is the first barrier to protect the respiratory tract via an innate mechanism called mucociliary clearance. It consists in the active transport of a sticky fluid, the mucus, via a myriad of cilia at the epithelial surface of the airways. The mucus traps inhaled pathogens and the protective role of the mucociliary clearance relies on the ability of the cilia to self-organize and coordinate their beating to transport the mucus over the full bronchial tree till its elimination through swallowing or expectoration. Despite a rich corpus of clinical studies, chronic respiratory diseases remain poorly understood and quantitative biophysical studies are still missing. Here we will present the physical mechanisms underlying the mucociliary transport. We will show how the cilia self-organize during the ciliogenesis and how the coordination of their beating direction leads to the formation of fluid flow patterns at the macroscopic scale. Finally, we will discuss the role of long range hydrodynamics interactions in this intricate coupled system. ANR MUCOCIL project, Grant ANR-13-BSV5-0015 and European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA Grant agreement n. PCOFUND-GA-2013-609102.

  10. Compression deformation behaviors of sheet metals at various clearances and side forces

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan Mei; Wang Xianxian; Cao Jian; Yang He

    2015-01-01

    Modeling sheet metal forming operations requires understanding of plastic behaviors of sheet metals along non-proportional strain paths. The plastic behavior under reversed uniaxial loading is of particular interest because of its simplicity of interpretation and its application to material elements drawn over a die radius and underwent repeated bending. However, the attainable strain is limited by failures, such as buckling and in-plane deformation, dependent on clearances and side forces. I...

  11. Claremount Nursing Home, Claremount, Claremorris, Mayo.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  12. Adare and District Nursing Home, Croagh, Limerick.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  13. Hypertonic saline in treatment of pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  14. Die Region braucht die Kultur - die Kultur braucht die Region

    OpenAIRE

    Klemm, Ulrich

    1995-01-01

    Die Region braucht die Kultur - die Kultur braucht die Region. - In: Region in Aktion - oder: Region im Abseits? - Boxberg-Wölchingen : Eigenständige Regionalentwicklung Baden-Württemberg, 1995. - S. 25 f.

  15. DIE GESKIEDENIS VAN DIE PERSONEELFUNKSIE IN DIE SA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stel (kortdiensstelsel). Met die uitbreek van die oorlog in 1939 het die. Unieverdedigingsmag uit 40% Staandemag en. 60% aktiewe Burgermag bestaan. Op 22 Sept. 1939 is magtiging aan die Aktiewe Burgermag- eenhede verleen om vrywilligers vir die duur van die oorlog te aanvaar. Agv beswaar dat die Verdedigingswet.

  16. [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance and endogenous creatinine clearance in advanced renal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, U.G.; Munck, O.; Czartoryski, A.; Stafanger, G.

    1978-01-01

    Comparison of [ 51 Cr]EDTA plasma clearance corrected for extrarenal elimination with 24 h endogenous creatinine clearance in patients with advanced renal failure showed that the corrected [ 51 Cr]EDTA clearance was lower than creatinine clearance, and thus might be a better approximation to the glomerular filtration rate in uraemic patients. The corrections cannot be used on [ 51 Cr]EDTA clearance values below the mean extrarenal clearance, averaging 3.7 ml/min. (Auth.)

  17. Die posisie van die Helper in die sending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. van der Walt

    1972-05-01

    Full Text Available Gedurende die aanvangsjare van die sending het die helper ’n onmisbare funksie vervul. Hulle het die onherbergsame binnelande geken, waardevolle kontakpunte vir die sendelinge geopen en hulle mense geestelik help voorlig en voorberei.

  18. CT-guided radiolabelled aerosol studies for assessing pulmonary impairment in children with bronchiectasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pifferi, M.; Baldini, M.; Caramella, D.; Bartolozzi, C.; Di Mauro, M.; Cangiotti, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether CT-guided mucociliary clearance studies allow differentiation between bronchiectasis associated with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and those unrelated to congenital or genetically transmitted defects. Materials and methods. Fifteen children aged 4-18 years with a CT diagnosis of bronchiectasis were included in the study. Six had PCD, while in nine cases no congenital disorder was demonstrated. Results. CT showed bronchiectasis in 26 (29 %) of 90 lung regions. Radiolabelled aerosol studies were conducted globally for each lung and on the regions affected by bronchiectasis. Global half-time of activity (t 1/2 ) values of patients with PCD were significantly higher (P 1/2 values. Patients with bronchiectasis unrelated to congenital disorders showed significantly higher regional t 1/2 values in the affected regions with respect to the corresponding global pulmonary t 1/2 (P < 0.06). Conclusions. The combination of morphological CT information with functional data concerning the clearance of radiolabelled aerosol adds to our understanding of pulmonary impairment in children with bronchiectasis. In particular, regional studies allow the recognition of different mucociliary clearance patterns in bronchiectasis associated with PCD and those unrelated to congenital or genetically transmitted defects. (orig.)

  19. die ontstaan en die ontwikkeling van die skoolkadette-stelsel in die rsa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toe algemene diensplig ingestel is. Die diens- plig het intussen sy volle beslag gekry en in. Weermagkringe het die gedagte posgevat dat skoolkadette. 'n deeglike ondersoek vereis ten einde die skoolgaande seun vir sy komende nasionale diensplig te orienteer. Tydens kadetopleldlng leer die seuns al die fynere kunsles ...

  20. Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emer P. Reeves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  1. Die funksie van die skeppingstradisie in die boek Jeremia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gedeeites voor wat sterk ooreenkomste toon met die beskrywings van die skep pingsgebeure in die boek Jeremia. • Volgpns Von Rad (1957:144-146) het daar wel 'n groep bestaan wat belange ge- had liet by die oorlewering van die skeppingstradisies. Dit was waarskynlik die. Sadokitiese priesters wat om twee redes aan ...

  2. Die binding van die konfessie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Coetzee

    1970-05-01

    Full Text Available Ons moet waak teen twee uiterstes. Aan die een kant het die dogma as onversoenlike vyand die dogmatisme en aan die ander kant die antidogmatisme — dit hou enersyds die gevaar in van verabsolutering (oorskatting, en ander- syds die gevaar van relativisme (onderskatting.

  3. Die nabyheid van die Koninkryk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Snyman

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available Vanweë die belangrikheid daarvan volg hier ’n breër bespreking van die proefskrif van dr. Tjaart van der Walt oor die nabyheid van die Koninkryk as wat in ’n gewone resensie kan geskied. Die vraagstuk wat onder oë gesien word is so oud as die kerk en die teologie, soms minder en soms meer op die voorgrond. Tans kan gesê word, staan dit in die middelpunt. Daarby is dit nie maar ’n akademiese vraagstuk nie, maar ’n vraagstuk waarvoor elke nadenkende leser van die Skrif te staan kom.

  4. Isotopic evaluation of nasal mucociliary transport in patients with chronic respiratory symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opazo, C.; Troncoso, M.; Quilodran, C.; Lizama, V.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: There are a large number of patients with chronic respiratory symptoms especially in pediatric population in whom it would be important to rule out primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) by electron microscopic examination of cilia obtained from respiratory mucosal biopsies, an expensive and not widely available procedure. Our purpose was to evaluate the role of the radioisotopic mucociliary transport measurement on selecting patients for nasal or tracheobronchial biopsy. Methods: The velocity of nasal mucociliary transport (VNMT) was measured in 100 patients, aged 2m-39y, mean 9 yo, from feb-1999 until feb-2002. Ten were healthy controls. The others had chronic o recurrent respiratory symptoms. The procedure consisted to place a 99m Tc-MAA droplet in one nostril by direct vision and follows its course using a gammacamera-computer system in order to calculate its speed expressed in mm/min. Sedation was needed in the vast majority of children below 4 yo. Values below 3 mm/min were repeated to ensure an accurate result. All cases having VNMT below 2,5 mm/min underwent nasal mucosal biopsy. In some patients with VNMT above 2,5 mm/min, nasal mucosal biopsy was also done based on other considerations. Patients were classified in three groups. Those having respiratory symptoms and no biopsy done (CRRS.NB); patients with respiratory symptoms and PCD diagnosed by biopsy (CRRS.PCD.B (+)); healthy controls. Results: Al cases with CRRS. PCD.B(+) had VNMT below 2.4 mm/min with a mean significantly different from those in CRRS.NB and healthy controls. There were no overlapping between the VNMT highest value in patients having CRRS. PCD.B(+) and the lowest VNMT in CRRS.NB or healthy controls. The results are similar to those published by other centers. Conclusions: The radioisotopic method to measure VNMT is feasible, inexpensive and relatively easy to perform. As PCD has important differences in prognosis and treatment from other conditions with similar symptoms, it is

  5. Effects of active inhalation of trichloroethylene on rat respiratory tract; Andamento della deposizione e della clearance respiratoria nel ratto di un aerosol insolubile in seguito ad inalazione acuta di tricloroetilene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calamosca, M.; Pettinato, G. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute

    1994-05-01

    The effects of an acute inhalation of tricloroethylene (TCE) on the rat respiratory tract have been investigated. In a previous work on mice, the observed damage proved to be limited to Clara cells (CC) and dose-dependent. Injury was correlated with the metabolic properties of CC, where TCE is converted to toxic intermediate metabolites. Since rat CC are located in the distal bronchial tree, a damage at this level is supposed to affect also the mechanical clearance of insoluble particles. Sprague-Dawley, female rats have been exposed for 30min, to a co 30min, to a concentration of 3500 ppm TCE, to investigate the occurrence of an impairment of the mucous-ciliary/alveolar macrophagic (AM) removal system eventually correlated with epithelial damage, whose results are presented in a different pubblication. Nasopharyngeal and bronchopulmonary clearance patterns were obtained from the retention of a radio-labeled carnauba wax control aerosol (0.70 mim CMAD, Sg < 1.08), the rats inhaled 24 h after esposure to TCE. Sequential sacrifices, close together in time, were performed up to 24 h to detect the rapid clearance phase in all the different regions of the respiratory tract; from then on the retention was assessed by in vivo measuring the rats up to 600 h. A new mechanistic model has been designed and applied to the retention data, to achieve the parameters of relative deposition and the rates of clearance. The statistical comparison of the parameter was carried over by means of the bootstrapping method. Even if a major deposition in the bronchial region of the TCE test occurs, no significant differences have been detected between all the parameters describing the clearance both of the bronchoalveolar and nasopharyngeal regions; neither the fraction of sequestered particles in the upper respiratory tract nor the laden AM particles transferred by the mucociliary escalator were significantly different compared with the control test.

  6. Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Nel

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus word beskryf. ’n Dun bindweefselkapsel omring die lewer. Die hepatosietrangskikking vertoon as lobules, met die koorde van hepatosiete wat vanaf ’n sentrale vene uitradieer en met mekaar anastomaseer. Indiwiduele lewerlohules vertoon nie duidelike grense nie, maar enkele duidelike triades word wel in die lewer van O. mossambicus aangetref. Die hepatosiete bevat ’n enkele ronde kern met ’n duidelike nukleolus en die growwe endoplasmiese retikula kom in twee of meer rye om die kerne en teen die selgrense van die hepatosiete voor. Die ander sitoplasmiese organelle kom verspreid in die hepatosietsitoplasma voor. Die eksokriene pankreasselle is om die portale venes gesetel. Die kerne van hierdie selle is rond en is hasaal in die kubies- tot silindervormige selle gelee. ’n Goedontwikkelde growwe endoplasmiese retikulum — vesikulêr, tubulêr en sirkulêr in vorm — en sektretoriese granules wat apikaal in die sel gelee is, kom voor.

  7. die impak van metodologie op die verstaan van die nuwe testament

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    voorbeeld eers een maal deur die bril van die vorm- en redaksiekritiek na die Evangelies gekyk het, dink jy vir altyd anders oor hulle tot- standkoming. Inderdaad, nuwe metodes lei tot nuwe perspektiewe! Dit is dan ook waar die fokus van hierdie artikel val: die impak van metodologie op die verstaan van die Nuwe ...

  8. Die vrede van Münster / Westfale en die betekenis daarvan vir die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In die Suid-Afrikaanse kerkgeskiedenis egter is die Vrede van Münster as epogmakende gebeure tot dusver nie net in die algemeen verwaarloos nie, maar boonop is die direkte verband tussen hierdie sentrale historiese baken aan die een kant en aan die ander kant die vestiging van die VOC se verversingspos aan die ...

  9. Macrophage Clearance of Apoptotic Cells: A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamon Gordon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As the body continues to grow and age, it becomes essential to maintain a balance between living and dying cells. Macrophages and dendritic cells play a central role in discriminating among viable, apoptotic, and necrotic cells, as selective and efficient phagocytes, without inducing inappropriate inflammation or immune responses. A great deal has been learnt concerning clearance receptors for modified and non-self-ligands on potential targets, mediating their eventual uptake, disposal, and replacement. In this essay, we assess current understanding of the phagocytic recognition of apoptotic cells within their tissue environment; we conclude that efferocytosis constitutes a more complex process than simply removal of corpses, with regulatory interactions between the target and effector cells, which determine the outcome of this homeostatic process.

  10. die pers as bron oor die geskiedenis van die eerste vrydeidsoorlog

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dood agv wonde wat hy tydens die slag opgedoen het. Dit was vir die Britse volk onaanvaarbaar dat slegs twee Boere gedood is nadat daar tussen. 20 000 en 30 000 rondtes op die Boere afgevuur is. Die pers kon net nie die ware syfers publiseer nie, want dit sou na 'n onwaarheid Iyk. Het die. Britse volk egter die Boere ...

  11. Die partypolitiek en die toekoms van die Afrikaanse volkskultuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Treurnicht

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available Reeds in 1853 het die Zuid Afrikaan hom soos volg uitgelaat: „Dis ’n dwaling wat ons reeds meermale bestry het dat ons as Britse onderdane verplig sou wees, om die Britse nasionaliteit ons s’n te maak. Die Kolonis van Hollandse oorsprong kan geen Engelsman word nie, en moet ook geen Nederlander wil wees nie. Wanneer hy weet om sy standpunt te waardeer, dan sal hy as verligte kolonis die grondtrekke van die Engelse volkskarakter met dié van die Nederlandse harmonies leer verenig en daardeur word wat hy as Kapenaar moet word.”

  12. die heidelbergse kategismus en die kategesemateriaal van die ned

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subjek, objek, leerstof en die metodiek van die senior kategese. Bloemfontein: Algemene Jeugkommissie Sondagskoolboekhandel. de rAAd oer ned ger kerken in Zuid AfrikA. 1921. De zevende vergadering: handelinge. 1925. De negende vergadering: handelinge. de villierS, d. W. 1957. Die Kategese in die Ned. Geref.

  13. Die invloed van die neo-marxistiese kultuuranalise op die Wêreldraad van Kerke en die Gereformeerde Kerke van Nederland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Vorster

    1979-05-01

    Full Text Available Toe die studente dwarsoor die VSA en Europa in die laat sestigerjare ’n plotselinge en radikale verset openbaar het teen die bestaande orde, het hulle die deur geopen vir ’n nuwe mededinger om die hart van die Westerse kultuur. Dit is die nou reeds bekende neo-Marxisme. Sedertdien het hierdie jongeling sy voetspore op vele vlakke van die Westerse kultuur gelaat.

  14. Die regsposisie van die gemolesteerde kind 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Schabort

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoe reik die reg uit na die seksueel gemolesteerde kind? As na die reg in wye verband gekyk word, sou dit alie wetgewing en alle gemeneregsbeginsels en alle regsprosedures insluit waardeur die Staat poog om molestering te voorkom en die gemolesteerde kind in beskerming te neem. Dit le baie wyd en sou byvoorbeeld die maatreels insluit van die Kindenvet 33 van 1960; die Wet op Egskeiding 70 van 1979; die Wet op Kindersorg 74 van 1983; die Wet op die Status van Kinders 82 van 1987 en die Wet op Bemiddeling in Sekere Egskeidingsaangeleenthede 24 van 1987. Eersdaags sal dit moontlik ook ’n Manifes vir die Regte van Kinders insluit wat vermoedelik geskoei sal wees op die W O se Konvensie vir die Regte van die Kind (1989 w a arv an die RSA tan s nog nie ’n ondertekenaar is nie.

  15. Feasibility to implement the radioisotopic method of nasal mucociliary transport measurement getting reliable results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troncoso, M.; Opazo, C.; Quilodran, C.; Lizama, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Our goal was to implement the radioisotopic method to measure the nasal mucociliary velocity of transport (NMVT) in a feasible way in order to make it easily available as well as to validate the accuracy of the results. Such a method is needed when primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is suspected, a disorder characterized for low NMVT, non-specific chronic respiratory symptoms that needs to be confirmed by electronic microscopic cilia biopsy. Methods: We performed one hundred studies from February 2000 until February 2002. Patients aged 2 months to 39 years, mean 9 years. All of them were referred from the Respiratory Disease Department. Ninety had upper or lower respiratory symptoms, ten were healthy controls. The procedure, done be the Nuclear Medicine Technologist, consists to put a 20 μl drop of 99mTc-MAA (0,1 mCi, 4 MBq) behind the head of the inferior turbinate in one nostril using a frontal light, a nasal speculum and a teflon catheter attached to a tuberculin syringe. The drop movement was acquired in a gamma camera-computer system and the velocity was expressed in mm/min. As there is need for the patient not to move during the procedure, sedation has to be used in non-cooperative children. Abnormal NMVT values cases were referred for nasal biopsy. Patients were classified in three groups. Normal controls (NC), PCD confirmed by biopsy (PCDB) and cases with respiratory symptoms without biopsy (RSNB). In all patients with NMVT less than 2.4 mm/min PCD was confirmed by biopsy. There was a clear-cut separation between normal and abnormal values and interestingly even the highest NMVT in PCDB cases was lower than the lowest NMVT in NC. The procedure is not as easy as is generally described in the literature because the operator has to get some skill as well as for the need of sedation in some cases. Conclusion: The procedure gives reliable, reproducible and objective results. It is safe, not expensive and quick in cooperative patients. Although, sometimes

  16. Die hervertolking van die paradigma in verband met die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kerkorde van De Mist en die Algemene Reglement van 1816, wat onderskeidelik vir die Kaapse Kerk en die .... Een van die eerstes was Sam Freiherr von Pufendorf (1632-1694) wat in sy werk De habitu religionis ..... Koning was weer aan bewind (vgl Diepenhorst sj:74w; De Visser 1926/1927 lll:202w). 43.1 JD Janssen ...

  17. Development of the clearance level verification evaluation system. 2. Construction of the clearance data management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shintaro; Usui, Hideo; Kawagoshi, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Clearance is defined as the removal of radioactive materials or radioactive objects within authorized practices from any further regulatory control by the regulatory body. In Japan, clearance level and a procedure for its verification has been introduced under the Laws and Regulations, and solid clearance wastes inspected by the national authority can be handled and recycled as normal wastes. The most prevalent type of wastes have generated from the dismantling of nuclear facilities, so the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing the Clearance Level Verification Evaluation System (CLEVES) as a convenient tool. The Clearance Data Management System (CDMS), which is a part of CLEVES, has been developed to support measurement, evaluation, making and recording documents with clearance level verification. In addition, validation of the evaluation result of the CDMS was carried out by inputting the data of actual clearance activities in the JAEA. Clearance level verification is easily applied by using the CDMS for the clearance activities. (author)

  18. Die teologiese skool in die P.U.K vir C.H.O.: met die betekenis van die teologiese skool vir die Christelike wetenskap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Postma

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Teologiese Skool van die Gereformeerde Kerk gedink op 29 November 1944 sy vyf-en-sewentigjarige bestaan.Die Raad en Senaat van die P.U.K. vir C.H.O. wil ook langs hierdie weg die Teologiese Skool van harte gelukwens en die versekering gee dat daar by die outoriteite van die P.U.K. ’n diepgevoelde dankbaarheid heers dat hierdie inrigting sovele jare deur onse God en Vader gedra en gespaar is.

  19. die sinodale verband van die nederduitse gereformeerde kerk in die

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liezel

    Strauss. Die sinodale verband van die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk. 122 die Vrystaatse Sinode anti-veranderingsgesind of eerder gesond-behoudend of gereformeerd-gematig? Veral as dit .... howe) in moeilike omstandighede gebring is (NG Kerk in die OVS 1865-1912:5). In 'n brief op 8 Augustus 1864 ontken Ds.

  20. Die kerkregtelike posisie van die ouderling en diaken in die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... drie dekades die Kerkreg gevestig as 'n selfstandige vak in die teologiese curriculum, maar ook 'n baie groot rol gespeel daarin dat die beginsels van die kerk like reg beter begryp word. Naas sy wetenskaplike bydrae word met eweveel genoegdoening gedink aan sy bcsondere persoonlikheid, sy werkvermoe, sy humor-.

  1. Die gebruik van parallelplaatreologie vir die bepaling van die intrinsieke viskositeit van poli-etileentereftalaat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Vorster

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Die bepaling van die intrinsieke viskositeit van poli-etileentereftalaat word bemoeilik deur die feit dat daar tans slegs twee metodes in gebruik is. In die eerste metode word die bepaling deur middel van oplossingsviskometrie gedoen, maar die toksisiteit van die oplosmiddel, asook die tydperk wat dit neem om die bepaling te doen, is ’n probleem. Die tweede metode word beperk deur die kompleksiteit en beskikbaarheid van die apparatuur in Suid-Afrika. In hierdie studie word ’n alternatiewe metode, gebaseer op parallelplaatreologie, voorgestel wat albei hierdie probleme oorkom en die resultate sodoende verkry, word vergelyk met dié wat met bestaande metodes verkry is.

  2. Die ontwikkeling van die bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Engelbrecht

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ: Several criticisms of the psychometric suitability of existing measures of managerial motivation are reported in the literature. This study aimed at developing a new psychometrically sound instrument, the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ. This was done on the basis of a comprehensive study of the literature on managerial motivation and the role-motivation theory. The preliminary MMQ was systematically shortened and refined until the final MMQ of 98 items was composed. This was based on social desirability and semantic appraisal, item analysis and factor analysis of the questionnaire. The results indicate that it was possible to develop a final MMQ that was relatively free of social desirability. It further demonstrated satsifactory internal consistencies on two samples (a = 0/90, N = 360; a = 0/91, N = 535, where all subscale items were found to be relatively pure measures of the isolated factors. Although some evidence was found providing support for the reliability of the MMQ, a need for further research on the construct validity of managerial motivation still exists. Opsomming In die literatuur word verskeie punte van kritiek teen die psigometriese geskiktheid van bestaande meetinstrumente van bestuursmotivering gerapporteer. Die doelstelling van hierdie studie was dus om aan die hand van die konseptuele omiyning van bestuursmotivering, en die rolmotiveringsteorie as algemene verwysingsraamwerk, 'n nuwe psigometries aanvaarbare meetinstrument, die Bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV, te ontwikkel. Op grond van sosiale wenslikheids- en semantiese beoordeling, itemontleding en faktorontleding van die voorlopige BMV is die vraelys stelselmatig verkort en verfyn totdat die finale BMV van 98 items saamgestel is. Die resultate dui daarop dat hierdie studie wel daarin geslaag het om 'n finale BMV te ontwikkel wat relatief vry van sosiale wenslikheid is, bevredigende interne

  3. Effect of aging on tracheal mucociliary clearance in Beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, S.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Wolff, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    Tracheal mucous velocity measurements were made in 24 Beagle dogs, in 5 age groups, using a gamma camera to detect movement on instilled radiolabeled material. Age groups were defined as immature, young adult, middle-aged, mature, and aged dogs. Mean velocities (+/- SE) were 3.6 +/- 0.4 mm/min in the immature dogs, 9.8 +/- 0.7 mm/min in the young adults, 6.9 +/- 0.5 mm/min in the middle-aged dogs, 3.6 +/- 1.1 mm/min in the mature dogs, and 2.8 +/- 0.6 mm/min in the aged dogs. Tracheal mucous velocity was significantly faster in the young adult and middle-aged groups than in the immature, mature, and aged dog groups. 4 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  4. Recent activities on clearance in IAEA and clearance automatic laser inspection system (CLALIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Takatoshi; Sasaki, Michiya

    2005-01-01

    Exemption levels for bulk amounts of materials have been described in RS-G-1.7 published as a safety guide in IAEA on August 2004. In Japan, the Nuclear Safety Commission adopted the RS-G-1.7 values as Japanese clearance levels after the careful review of dose assessment results. After completing revises of regulatory laws in relation to clearance level, solid wastes from decommissioning and operating nuclear power plants will be targets of clearance inspection. In CRIEPI, Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System (CLALIS) has been developed, which can give high reliability and objectivity to the measurement data. The CLALIS is a new monitoring system coupling with 3D laser shape measurement, Monte-Carlo calculation and gamma measurement techniques, which can keep a high accuracy in the measurement data using an automatic correction technique for self-shielding effects of metal waste itself and is expected to apply as a practical use in actual clearance inspections. (author)

  5. Die uitbouing van die Bybelse kanon in antieke Judaïsme en die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Jul 2015 ... die oer-Christelike boodskap tot by sy Ou Testamentiese wortels, die geskrifte van Israel wat cum grano salis die 'Bybel' van die oer-Christendom geword het en die blywende verwysingspunt van die Christelike boodskap is. Erkenning. Hierdie artikel is vertaal na Afrikaans deur Prof. Jan G. van der Watt.

  6. Generic clearance values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Safety Reports Series Nr 44' of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (author)

  7. Generic Clearance Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on the one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document Safety Reports Series 44 of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (authors) [es

  8. How Do Dual Long-acting Bronchodilators Prevent Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beeh, Kai M; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Franssen, Frits M E

    2017-01-01

    that combinations of long-acting β2-adrenergic agonists (LABAs) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) provide greater reductions in exacerbation frequency than either their monocomponents or LABA/inhaled corticosteroids (LABA/ICS) combinations in patients at low and high risk for these events....... In this review, small groups of experts critically evaluated mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased benefit of LABA/LAMA combinations over single LABDs or LABA/ICS in decreasing exacerbation. These included effects on lung hyperinflation and mechanical stress, inflammation, excessive mucus...... production with impaired mucociliary clearance, and symptom severity. The data assembled and analyzed by each group were reviewed by all authors and combined into this manuscript. Available clinical results support the possibility that effects of LABA/LAMA combinations on hyperinflation, mucociliary...

  9. Die verband tussen die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Stanz

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The aim of this study is to design a measuring instrument with acceptable metric characteristics for the strength of the psychological contract within the South African context, and to determine empirically the relation between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The Dhammanungune Model served as foundation for the design of the Strength of the Psychological Contract Questionnaire which consists of two scales namely, a needs expectation scale and a needs fulfilment expectation scale. The items of each scale have been formulated in the manner that ensures that the respondent reacts consecutively to two instructions namely, (a the level of the expectation and (b the importance of the expectation. This questionnaire was administered together with the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire to two population groups within the military environment. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation was calculated between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment and the significance of the correlations was evaluated. Opsomming Die doel van die studie is om 'n meetinstrument met aanvaarbare metriese eienskappe vir die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vir Suid-Afrikaanse omstandighede te ontwerp en om empirics die verband tussen die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid te bepaal. Die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vraelys is op grond van die Dhammanungune-model ontwerp en het uit twee skale naamlik, die behoefteverwagting- en vervullingsverwagtingskale bestaan. Items vir eike skaal is sodanig geformuleer dat die respondent agteropeenvolgens op twee instruksies naamlik (a die vlak van die verwagting en (b die belangrikheid van die verwagting moet reageer. Die vraelys is saam met die organisasieverbondenheidsvraelys op twee populasies uit 'n militere omgewing toegepas. Die Pearson

  10. DIE ROL VAN DIE TAALWETENSKAP IN DIE ONTWIKKELING VAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aanslag op die sogenaamde "Intentional Fallacy", heelwat verder. n. Mens sou hier eintlik ook op die invloed van Lacan se toepassing van. De Sacs sure op Freud moet wys, en op Macherey se Theory of Literary. Production. Barthes is naamlik besig om repressie teen te werk, en die teks as produksieproses in stede van ...

  11. The role of blood lactate clearance as a predictor of mortality in children undergoing surgery for tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suruchi Ladha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The identification of biomarkers for predicting morbidity and mortality, particularly in pediatric population undergoing cardiac surgery will contribute toward improving the patient outcome. There is an increasing body of literature establishing the clinical utility of hyperlactatemia and lactate clearance as prognostic indicator in adult cardiac surgical patients. However, the relationship between lactate clearance and mortality risk in the pediatric population remains to be established. Objective: To assess the role of lactate clearance in determining the outcome in children undergoing corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF. Methods and Study Design: A prospective, observational study. Setting: A tertiary care center. Study Population: Two hundred children undergoing elective surgery for TOF. Study Method: Blood lactate levels were obtained as baseline before operation (T0, postoperatively at admission to the cardiac intensive care unit after surgery (T1, and then at every 6 h for the first 24 h of Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay (T6, T12, T18, and T24, respectively. The lactate clearance in the study is defined by the equation ([lactate initial - lactate delayed]/lactate initial ×100%. Lactate clearance was determined at T1-T6, T1-T12, T1-T18, and T1-T24 time interval, respectively. The primary outcome measured was mortality. Secondary outcomes measured were the duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of inotropic requirement, and duration of ICU stay. Results: Eleven out of the two hundred patients enrolled in the study died. Nonsurvivors had higher postoperative lactate concentration (P 10%, relative to patients with a lactate clearance 10% after 6 h have improved outcome compared with those with lower lactate clearance.

  12. Die belangrikste kenmerk van die diereproduksie- bedrywe oor die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    digdhede teen 1980 uit 'n kudde van 30 rnilj.skape ge- produseer moet word. Tweedens sal die faktore ... die Republiek van Suid-Mrika teen 1980 in totaal 28 milj. sal wees. Indien die produsente dit as 'n ..... Appendix Table 4 in Digestive Physiology and nutrition of ruminants Vol. 3 Ed. and Publ. D.C. Church, Oregon State ...

  13. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tilt was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.

  14. Die brein soos beskou deur die Grieke en Romeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Ou Egipte is mummifikasie met uitgebreide reseksie of uitsnyding van organe geassosieer, maar geen kennis is geneem van die morfologie van die brein nie. Griekse skrywers van die sesde en vyfde eeue v.C. het die brein aanvanklik gesien as die setel van intelligensie, die orgaan van sensoriese waarneming en gedeeltelik die oorsprong van sperma. Pneuma het ’n belangrike rol in breinfunksie gespeel. Hippokrates was die eerste om die brein te beskryf as ’n dubbele orgaan, wat met harsingvlies (meninges bedek, funksioneel van pneuma afhanklik en vertolker van begrip is. Tydgenote soos Plato, Aristoteles en Diokles het tot die beskrywing bygedra, maar laasgenoemde twee het beweer dat die hart die middelpunt van intelligensie is en nie die brein nie. Gedurende die laaste helfte van die vierde eeu v.C. is disseksie van die menslike liggaam tydelik aan die mediese skool van Alexandrië toegelaat en het dit tot merkwaardige vooruitgang in die begrip van die menslike anatomie en fisiologie gelei. Herofilus en Erasistratus het uitstekende beskrywings van die struktuur en funksie van die brein gegee wat eers in die tweede eeu n.C. deur Galenus geëwenaar is.

  15. Die Britse owerheid en die onderwys op Heidelberg gedurende die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The establishment of Christian National Education (CNE) Schools stimulated the concept of mother tongue education. Oor die klaskamerpraktyk en die werklike gehalte van onderrig tydens die kampskooltydperk is daar min bekend. Heidelberg wat na 1902 in 'n belangrike onderwyssentrum in Transvaal ontwikkel het, het ...

  16. Usher syndrome type I associated with bronchiectasis and immotile nasal cilia in two brothers.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonneau, D; Raymond, F; Kremer, C; Klossek, J M; Kaplan, J; Patte, F

    1993-01-01

    Usher syndrome type I is an autosomal recessive disease characterised by congenital sensorineural deafness, involvement of the vestibular system, and progressive visual loss owing to retinitis pigmentosa. Here we report the association of this disease with bronchiectasis, chronic sinusitis, and reduced nasal mucociliary clearance in two sibs and we suggest Usher syndrome type I could be a primary ciliary disorder.

  17. Sedimentêre omgewings van die Inhaca-eilandstelsel met spesiale verwysing na die petrografiese en geochemiese eienskappe van die sedimente spesiale verwysing na die petrografiese en geochemiese eienskappe van die sedimente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Peché

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Inhaca-eilandstelsel is geleë langs die suidooskus van Mosambiek. Die oostekant van die stelsel grens aan die Indiese Oseaan en die westekant aan die Baai van Maputo. Hierdie eilandstelsel bestaan uit Inhaca- en Portugese eiland, asook ’n groep sandbanke wat van die noordlike punt van Inhaca na Portugese eiland strek. Die doel van hierdie studie is om die verskillende moderne en oer-sedimentêre omgewings op die eilandstelsel te identifiseer en te beskryf, die invloed van getye en golfaksie op die moderne sedimentêre omgewing vas te stel en die geochemiese en petrografiese samestelling van die geologiese eenhede te bepaal.

  18. Die Ware Buch und die Philologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Hurch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Die im 19. Jahrhundert sich verändernden Produktionsbedingungen für Druckwerke (Buchdruck, Satz, Papier, Bindung wirkten katalysierend auf die Fachkonstitution und Institutionalisierung der Philologien. Hier steht der tatsächliche Buchmarkt im Vordergrund der Darstellung, das Käuferpublikum und die Voraussetzungen des Vertriebs. Dazu gehören auch die Rezension als entstehende Textsorte und die rasch arbeitenden Rezensionsorgane. F.-R. Hausmann wurde in den letzten Jahren unentbehrlicher Mitarbeiter dieses im Rahmen des Grazer Schuchardt-Projekts "Netzwerk des Wissens" angesiedelten Ansatzes.

  19. Die tug oor ampsdraers tydens die doleansie van 1886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Visser

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available In art 29 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis word bely: “Die merktekens om die ware Kerk te ken is die volgende: As die Kerk die suiwere prediking van die evangelie uitoefen, as dit die suiwer bediening van die sakramente gebruik soos Christus dit ingestel het, as die kerklike tug gebruik word om die sondes te straf.” Dit spreek vanself dat wanneer ampsdraers, aan wie Christus sy kudde toevertrou het (Hand 20 : 28, met leer en /of lewenswandel in sonde volhard en nie daarin met tug gestuit word nie, word die ware kerk nie gebou nie maar afgebreek. 0ns sal later in hierdie artikel aantoon hoedanig die suiwer tug oor ampsdraers, veral leertug, tydens die Doleansie tot skade van die kerk van Christus agterweë gebly het.

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. ... or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their own. Share ...

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy ... clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency Chest Wall ...

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today. ANNUAL FUND Become a Corporate Supporter Cause Marketing Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to ...

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage ... LEGACY GIFT Sponsor a Participant CF Climb CF Cycle for Life Great Strides Xtreme Hike Participate In ...

  4. Die kritiek van tradisie en die tradisie van kritiek in die Geesteswetenskappe. 'n Rekonstruksie van die debat tussen Habermas en Gadamer

    OpenAIRE

    Duvenage, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    In hierdie bydrae word die bekende debat (1967-1971) tussen Jürgen Habermas en Hans-Georg Gadamer gerekonstrueer. Die debat word hier in noue samehang met die kwessie van die geesteswetenskappe gelees. Die bydrae val in vier dele uiteen. In die eerste afdeling word Habermas se opening tot die debat in vyf onderafdelings uiteengesit. Dit gaan hier oor Gadamer se verdediging van tradisie en Habermas se kritiek op die begrip (1.1). In antwoord op Gadamer se begrip van tradisie ontwerp Habermas s...

  5. Study on clearance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Yuko; Miura, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    The clearance system is a legal system to release 'the radioactive waste not requiring treatment as radioactive waste' from the regulatory control. JNES supports NISA on approval and confirmation of clearance measurement and judgment developed by the operator. The objective of this study is to establish technical base of the validation method of the clearance measurement for various objects. In reactor facilities, the bulk measurement technique or the statistical sampling measurement technique may be applied to large scale objects or concrete walls. In this study, the criteria of those techniques were examined. In uranium processing facilities, it is important to confirm surface state of the object in case of detecting alpha rays. The result of the examination about the influence of the surface rust in the uranium clearance measurement by the alpha ray measurement showed that the pollution was distributed in rust layer uniformly. This result will be reflected to the revision of the Ministerial Ordinance on Clearance in 2011FY. To develop a manual for unexpected incidents, the response procedure for an unexpected incident was prepared, including a response system. (author)

  6. Die transvaalse ontwerp-ordonnansie oor die onderwys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Coetzee

    1952-03-01

    Full Text Available In ’n Buitengewone Provinsiale Koerant van die Provinsie Transvaal is onder datum 25 Junie 1952 gepubliseer ’n „Ontwerp-Ordonnansie tot samevatting en wysiging van die Wette betreffende die Sentrale Beheer van die Onderwys, die Plaaslike Beheer van Skole, Godsdiensonderrig in Openbare Skole, Taal en die Onderwys, Onderwyspersoneel, Verpligte Onderwys, Toelating van Leerlinge tot Skole, Klasse of Inrigtings, Openbare Onderwys, Private Skole, Onderwys vir Kleurlinge en Asiate en Onderwys vir Naturelle, en om vir sake in verband daarmee voorsiening te maak” .

  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ... Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast ... Facebook Twitter ...

  8. DIE PLEK VAN SANG EN MUSIEK IN DIE PROTESTANTSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Sy moet hierdie opdrag uitvoer deur mid del van die Prediking d.w.s. deur middel van die Woord-vorm, maar ook deur die bediening van die sakramente, dws. deur middel van die vorm van die Daad. Maar nou wil God nie hê dat die Kerk slegs één maal die Evangelie sal predik en die mense sal doop om hulle daarna.

  9. Evaluation of serum iohexol clearance for use in predicting carboplatin clearance in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Dennis B; Rassnick, Kenneth M; Prey, Joshua D; Dykes, Nathan L

    2009-09-01

    To determine whether a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) assay based on serum iohexol clearance can be used to predict carboplatin clearance in cats. 10 cats with tumors. GFR was measured concurrently by use of plasma clearance of technetium Tc 99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) to yield GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and serum clearance of iohexol to yield GFR(Iohexol). A single dose of carboplatin was administered IV as a bolus. Dose was calculated by use of a target value for the area under the plasma platinum concentration-versus-time curve (AUC(Target)) and estimation of platinum clearance (CL(PT)) derived from GFR(99mTc-DTPA) as follows: dose = AUC(Target) x 2.6 x GFR(99mTc-DTPA) x body weight, where AUC(Target) is 2.75 min.mg.mL(-1). Plasma platinum concentrations were measured via atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Values for GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and GFR(Iohexol) were compared by use of least-squares regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Least-squares regression was used to determine whether CL(PT) could be predicted from GFR(99mTc-DTPA) or GFR(Iohexol) (or both). GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and GFR(Iohexol) were strongly correlated (r = 0.90), but GFR(Iohexol) values were significantly larger by a factor of approximately 1.4. Platinum clearance had a significant linear relationship to GFR(99mTc-DTPA) (CL(PT) = 2.5 x GFR(99mTc-DTPA)) and to GFR(Iohexol) (CL(PT) = [1.3 x GFR(Iohexol)] + 1.4). In cats, serum iohexol clearance was an accurate predictor of CL(PT) and can be used to calculate the carboplatin dose as follows: dose = AUC(Target) x ([1.3 x GFR(Iohexol)] + 1.4) x body weight.

  10. Thomas Erastus oor die struktuur van die gemeenskap'^

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    óók aansprake en regte het, is die opvatting dat sowel die burgerlike gemeenskap as die kerk 'n perfecta societas sibi sufficiens is, nié werklik aanvaar nie. Die Middeleeuse gemeenskap was die corpus christianum,. 'n gemeenskap wat nie deur fisiese of politieke grense beperk was nie. Sy grense het gelê waar die grense ...

  11. Die vestiging van die Kerk in Natal, die Vrystaat en Transvaal na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as eerste predikant van die Voortrekkers laat orden en bevestig. Daama het verskeie kerksake van tyd tot tyd aandag geniet. Met betrekking tot die bevestiging van huwelike stel Retief 'n meer ordelike reëling daar, naamlik dat die gebooie van voomemende egpa- re van nou af drie maal in die kerk afgekondig moes wrord ...

  12. Die historiese betroubaarheid van die aartsvadervertellinge. 'n Beknopte bespreking van die huidige debat na aanleiding van die jongste publikasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Vosloo

    1982-08-01

    Full Text Available Die afgelope twintig jaar was daar �n toenemende belangstelling in die aartsvadervertellinge in Genesis. Benewens die talle tydskrifartikels het skrywers soos die volgende ook boeke oor die onderwerp die lig laat sien: A. Parrot (1962, W. M. Clark (1964, R. Kilian (1966, R. E. Clements (1967, N. Lohfink (1967, H. Weidemann (1968, R. Martin-Achard (1969, T. L. Thompson (1974, J. van Seters (1975, J. P. Fokkelman (1975, C. Westermann (1976, R. Rendtorff (1977, J. Bright (1977, W. McKane (1979 en A. R. Millard en D. J. Wiseman (1980.

  13. Prediking aan die hand van die metafoor van fiksieskryf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    HTS 64(3) 2008 siening van die self en waarheid. In die pre-moderne paradigma kan die dominante metafoor verstaan word aan die hand van 'n spieël wat die lig uit 'n transendente oorsprong weerkaats, terwyl die moderne paradigma uitgedruk word met die metafoor van 'n lamp wat 'n eie, oorspronklike lig binne die self.

  14. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Their Families When There's More Than One Person With CF in the Same School Daily Life ... Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards Training Awards CF ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ...

  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Team Your cystic fibrosis care team includes a group of CF health care professionals who partner with ... Awards and Grants Career Development Awards Research Awards Training Awards CF ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your ...

  16. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin that hijacks the host ubiquitin proteolytic system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Bomberger

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen chronically infecting the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, pneumonia, cystic fibrosis (CF, and bronchiectasis. Cif (PA2934, a bacterial toxin secreted in outer membrane vesicles (OMV by P. aeruginosa, reduces CFTR-mediated chloride secretion by human airway epithelial cells, a key driving force for mucociliary clearance. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism whereby Cif reduces CFTR-mediated chloride secretion. Cif redirected endocytosed CFTR from recycling endosomes to lysosomes by stabilizing an inhibitory effect of G3BP1 on the deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB, USP10, thereby reducing USP10-mediated deubiquitination of CFTR and increasing the degradation of CFTR in lysosomes. This is the first example of a bacterial toxin that regulates the activity of a host DUB. These data suggest that the ability of P. aeruginosa to chronically infect the lungs of patients with COPD, pneumonia, CF, and bronchiectasis is due in part to the secretion of OMV containing Cif, which inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion and thereby reduces the mucociliary clearance of pathogens.

  17. Respiratory alterations due to urban air pollution: An experimental study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldiva, P.H.N.; King, M.; Delmonte, V.L.C.; Macchione, M.; Parada, M.A.C.; Daliberto, M.L.; Sakae, R.S.; Criado, P.M.P.; Silveira, P.L.P.; Zin, W.A.; Boehm, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the adverse effects of urban levels of air pollution, rats were used as biological indicators in a chronic exposure experiment. Animals were housed for 6 months in the center of Sao Paulo and were compared to controls kept for the same period in a clean area. Pollution levels were obtained from a State air pollution monitoring station, 200 m distant from the exposure place, which provided the levels of CO, SO 2 , particulates, and ozone. The animals were submitted to several tests focusing on the respiratory system, comprising pulmonary function tests, studies on mucociliary clearance and mucus rheology, histochemical evaluation of airways, bronchoalveolar lavage, and ultrastructural studies of the epithelium of the airways. Rats exposed to air pollution developed secretory cell hyperplasia in the airways, ultrastructural ciliary alterations, and a more rigid mucus, changes that caused mucociliary clearance impairment. In addition, nasal resistance and the number of inflammatory cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage were increased in air pollution exposed animals. The results obtained in the present investigation suggest that chronic exposure to urban levels of air pollution may cause respiratory lesions in rats

  18. Ontsporing van die regstaatsbegrip en sy konsekwensies vir die afrikanervolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G.S. Van der Walt

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Die opvatting van die suiwere regstaat bring sy vraagstukke mee wanneer dit in verband gebring word met die leer van die soewereiniteit in eie kring. Laasgenoemde leer wortel in die geloof dat God die mens roep tot diens aan Hom, en dat die mens vry moet wees om ten opsigte van alle lewensaspekte God na die hoogste mate te kan dien. Hierdie verskeidenheid van aspekte is deur dr. A. Kuyper en sy volgelinge gesistemati- seer tot menslike verbande en lewenskringe, elk met ’n be- paalde sfeer waarin ander kringe nie mag inmeng nie. Elkeen is dan soewerein binne sy eie kring. Met verwysing na die staat is dan gespreek van die staatstaak as synde die hand- hawing van die reg, en omdat die staat in toenemende mate hom veral in die latere tyd ook besig gehou het met bedrywig- hede wat nouliks as van juridiese aard beskou kan word, is daar die onderskeid gemaak tussen die primêre en sekundêre taak van die staat. Die sistematiek van die wetsidee, deur prof. Dooyeweerd ontwikkel, waar die staat sy bestemmingsfunksie in die regsaspek vind, het vanselfsprekend geen plek vir so 'n dualistiese staatstaak nie, en die oplossing is deur sommige daarin gesoek om sulke staatsoptrede te vertolk as hebbende wel betrekking op die regsgemeenskap of die regsverkeer. Staatsondernemings soos paaie, spoorweë, spellingreëling, ens. word dan beskou as noodsaaklik vir die instandhouding van die regsgemeenskap en regsverkeer. Tereg wys A. M. Donner1 daarop dat so ’n vertolking eintlik neerkom op ’n oorspanning van die regsbegrip. Hy self sien dan die staatstaak in vrede- of orde-handhawing, wat in die eerste plaas wel regshandha- wing veronderstel. Onder orde word dan alles verstaan wat noodsaaklik is vir die gladde verkeer in die ontwikkelingsgang van die regsgemeenskap. Die wese van die staat het dan vol- gens hom te doen met reg, maar sy taak is meer as suiwere regshandhawing. Wat onrus verwek en die orde versteur, moet uit die openbare lewe verwyder word, en die

  19. Accurate defect die placement and nuisance defect reduction for reticle die-to-die inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Vincent; Huang, L. R.; Lin, C. J.; Tseng, Y. N.; Huang, W. H.; Tuo, Laurent C.; Wylie, Mark; Chen, Ellison; Wang, Elvik; Glasser, Joshua; Kelkar, Amrish; Wu, David

    2015-10-01

    Die-to-die reticle inspections are among the simplest and most sensitive reticle inspections because of the use of an identical-design neighboring-die for the reference image. However, this inspection mode can have two key disadvantages: (1) The location of the defect is indeterminate because it is unclear to the inspector whether the test or reference image is defective; and (2) nuisance and false defects from mask manufacturing noise and tool optical variation can limit the usable sensitivity. The use of a new sequencing approach for a die-to-die inspection can resolve these issues without any additional scan time, without sacrifice in sensitivity requirement, and with a manageable increase in computation load. In this paper we explore another approach for die-to-die inspections using a new method of defect processing and sequencing. Utilizing die-to-die double arbitration during defect detection has been proven through extensive testing to generate accurate placement of the defect in the correct die to ensure efficient defect disposition at the AIMS step. The use of this method maintained the required inspection sensitivity for mask quality as verified with programmed-defectmask qualification and then further validated with production masks comparing the current inspection approach to the new method. Furthermore, this approach can significantly reduce the total number of defects that need to be reviewed by essentially eliminating the nuisance and false defects that can result from a die-to-die inspection. This "double-win" will significantly reduce the effort in classifying a die-to-die inspection result and will lead to improved cycle times.

  20. Compression deformation behaviors of sheet metals at various clearances and side forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Mei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling sheet metal forming operations requires understanding of plastic behaviors of sheet metals along non-proportional strain paths. The plastic behavior under reversed uniaxial loading is of particular interest because of its simplicity of interpretation and its application to material elements drawn over a die radius and underwent repeated bending. However, the attainable strain is limited by failures, such as buckling and in-plane deformation, dependent on clearances and side forces. In this study, a finite element (FE model was established for the compression process of sheet specimens, to probe the deformation behavior. The results show that: With the decrease of the clearance from a very large value to a very small value, four defects modes, including plastic t-buckling, micro-bending, w-buckling, and in-plane compression deformation will occur. With the increase of the side force from a very small value to a very large value, plastic t-buckling, w-buckling, uniform deformation, and in-plane compression will occur. The difference in deformation behaviors under these two parameters indicates that the successful compression process without failures for sheet specimens only can be carried out under a reasonable side force.

  1. DIE ONTVC'ERP VAN 'N SENDINGBELEID IN DIE HUIDIGE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    DIE ONTVC'ERP VAN 'N SENDINGBELEID IN DIE. HUIDIGE SITUASIE. Sending is 'n deel van die vervulling van die apostoliese opdrag van die kerk. Dit geskied op grond van en in gehoorsaamheid aan Gods. \\C'oord. Teologiese besinning is daarom die eerste en grondliggende vereiste by die ontwerp van 'n ...

  2. Die sestienpersoonlikheidsfaktorvraelys as hulpmiddel by die takseersentrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. D. Augustyn

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available The 16PF Personality Test as an aid to the assessment centre Assessment centres still remains costly and thime consuming. This study investigates the reduction of time and costs by the use of the 16 PF Personality Test as a method for measuring management dimensions. Promising results were obtained with a relatively small sample for the prediction of initiative and perseverance. Significant multiple correlations were also found for three criteria of management success. Further research may establish the use of the 16 PF as an aid to management assessment and thereby reduce the costs and time involved in assessment centres. Opsomming Takseersentrums se grootste probleem is gelee in die koste en tyd wat dit behels. Hierdie studie ondersoek die moontlikheid om beide te verminder deur die aanwending van die 16 PF Persoonlikheidsvraelys vir die meting van bestuursdimensies. Belowende resultate is met 'n relatiewe klein steekproef bevind ten opsigte van die voorspelling van inisiatiefen deursettingsvermoe. Beduidende meervoudige korrelasies is ook ten opsigte van drie kriteria van bestuursukses bevind. Verdere navorsing kan die gebruik van die 16 PF as hulpmiddel by bestuursevaluering vestig en sodoende die tydsduur en koste van takseersentrums verminder.

  3. Clearance Kinetics and Clearance Routes of Molecules From the Suprachoroidal Space After Microneedle Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Bryce; Wang, Ke; Ethier, C Ross; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2017-01-01

    To determine clearance kinetics and routes of clearance of molecules from the suprachoroidal space (SCS) of live New Zealand White rabbits. Suprachoroidal space collapse rate and pressure changes after microneedle injection into SCS were determined. Fluorescent fundus images were acquired to determine clearance rates of molecules ranging in size from 332 Da to 2 MDa. Microneedle injections of fluorescein were performed, and samples were taken from various sites over time to determine amount of fluorescein exiting the eye. Clearance transport was modeled theoretically and compared with experimental data. After injection, pressures in SCS and vitreous humor spiked and returned to baseline within 20 minutes; there was no difference between these two pressures. Suprachoroidal space collapse occurred within 40 minutes. One hour after fluorescein injection, 46% of fluorescein was still present in the eye, 15% had transported across sclera, 6% had been cleared by choroidal vasculature, and 4% had exited via leakage pathways. Characteristic clearance time increased in proportion with molecular radius, but total clearance of 2 MDa FITC-dextran was significantly slower (21 days) than smaller molecules. These data generally agreed with predictions from a theoretical model of molecular transport. Guided by experimental data in the context of model predictions, molecular clearance from SCS occurred in three regimes: (1) on a time scale of approximately 10 minutes, fluid and molecules exited SCS by diffusion into sclera and choroid, and by pressure-driven reflux via transscleral leakage sites; (2) in approximately 1 hour, molecules cleared from choroid by blood flow; and (3) in 1 to 10 hours, molecules cleared from sclera by diffusion and convection.

  4. die korrelasie tussen die gemiddelde daaglikse toename van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n Regressielyn is uit die gegewens bereken deur 'n beswaarde regressieanaliese en die 80 persent-voorspellings- bande is bepaal. Die punte wat ver buite die normale ver- spreidingsband geval hetkon almal met goeie rede as abnor- maal beskou word (sien tabel 1) en is nie ingesluit by die statistiese berekenings nie.

  5. Study on clearance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The clearance system is a legal system to release 'the radioactive waste not requiring treatment as radioactive waste' from the regulatory control. JNES supports Nuclear Regulatory Agency on approval and confirmation of clearance measurement and judgment developed by the operator. The objective of this study is to establish technical base of the validation method of the clearance measurement for various objects. In uranium processing facilities, simulation sources emitting alpha-rays is used in a validity confirmation examination of the measuring equipment. In this study, these sources were examined by measuring alpha and beta spectra to evaluate the applicability and problem of these sources. In addition, the measuring method detecting gamma-rays was examined. This method can be applied to complicated objects. As a part to develop a manual for unexpected incidents in clearance system, a quick method for measurement of Strontium 90 was examined. In addition, the measuring methods for the judgment of the influence of fallout and for NR (Non-Radioactive) confirmation were examined. (author)

  6. enkele fasette van die problematiek van die akademikus by die skryf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Om verskeie redes het dit van die allergrootste belong geword dot 'n his- tories korrekte, wetenskaplike weerga- we van bogenoemde gebeure opge- teken moet word. Die sluier, in sommige gevalle am logiese redes toegepas, moes eenvoudig gelig word am gebeure wat die gewone man op stroot in Suid-Afrika dikwels ...

  7. Die huwelik as identiteitsmerker in die Ou Testament

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    Gen 2:18). Uit die woorde van Genesis 2:24 dat man en vrou een sal wees, lei die derde formulier af dat dit “getuig dat die huwelik 'n allesinsluitende gemeenskap is ..... die formule gebruik word: “Hier volg die vertelling oor X se nageslag.” (Gen ..... verwys daarna as “intertwining the principal value concepts of tradition”.

  8. amp' van die ouderling in die Nuwe Testament

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jesus self het geen kerk gestig nie en daarom, veral omdat die Jesus-beweging inter mums ten opsigte van die Joodse godsdiens van sy tyd tot stand gekom het, het ...... Die klem val dus nie op die npoTCTT0fievo<; se rang of outoriteit nie, maar op sy pastorale funksie in die huishouding of huisgemeente (kyk Reicke.

  9. Enkele opmerkings oor die intrinsieke waarde van die Latynse teks van Kodeks Bezae as herstelbron vir die Griekse teks van die Nuwe Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J.C. Jordaan

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Een van die belangrikste oud-Latynse vertalings word gevind in Kodeks Bezae, ’n vyfde-eeuse manuskrip van die vier Evangelies. Kodeks Bezae bevat ’n Griekse teks (D en ’n Latynse teks (d van die Evangelies langs mekaar, die Latynse teks in ’n lettertipe wat baie aan die Griekse majuskelskrif herinner. Wat hierdie dokument so merkwaardig maak, is die feit dat dit die enigste manuskrip is wat ’n Griekse Evangelie-teks uit die Westerse teksfamilie bevat.

  10. n Oorsig van die huidige stand van navorsing oor die

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    7 Jun 2011 ... Die eerste maal wat dit as deel van die teks van 1 Johannes aangehaal word, is in die. 4de eeu in 'n Latynse teks, Liber Apologeticus (hf 4). Eers aan die einde van die 16de eeu is dit in 'n amptelike Katolieke uitgawe van die Vulgaat ingesluit. Die doel van die Johannesbriewe. Waarom is die Briewe ...

  11. Die dogmatiese binding van die prediking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    genoemde probleemstelling wat ons homileties na riglyne wil soek, sonder die pretensie dat finale oplossings gevind sal word. Om hierdie probleem te ontleed is dit nodig om eers kortliks 'n begripsbepaling van die begrippe dogma, binding en prediking te maak. Vanuit die begripsbepaling kan ons dan probeer vasstel wat ...

  12. DIE HEDENDAAGSE SIENING VAN DIE NORMERING VAN DUITS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    v a k t a a l k w a l i £ i k a s i e s ) neem d i e I n s t i t u t t a l l e take waar ter u i t b r e i d i n g van kennis van die Duitse taal in die buiteland. Sedert 1964 publiseer die. Institut die tydskrif Deutsch als Fremdsprache met die bylae Sprachpraxis, asook 'n handboek met die titel Deutsch - eln Lehrbuch Eur Auslander (Duits.

  13. Die topkwark

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    R. Tegen

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available ’n Oorsig van die belangrikheid van die onlangs ontdekte topkwark by Fermilab in Chicago word gegee. Daar word aangetnon dat die topkwark belangrik is in fisika van die Oerknal, oftewel "Big Bang", en in die Standaard Model van Elementêredeeltjie-fisika. Toepaslike literatuur vir verdere studie kan van die lys van verwysings in hierdie kort, nietegniese artikel, nagegaan word.

  14. oor die inhoud en boodskap van die heidelbergse kategismus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smit. Oor die Inhoud en Boodskap van die Heidelbergse Kategismus. 52. Uiteraard sal dié tema saamhang met die bedoelinge agter die opstel van die Kategismus. Ook die vraag na moontlike bedoelinge of motiewe is egter 'n ingewikkelder vraag as wat miskien gedink mag word. Uiteraard was daar agter elke kategismus ...

  15. Die vangnet van die woord: forensies-linguistiese getuienis in 'n ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Een van die redes daarvoor is waarskynlik die gepaardgaande sleurwerk verbonde aan die verwerking van die betrokke taaldata — iets wat egter deur die onlangse meteoriese vooruitgang in tegnologiese tegnieke op die agtergrond geskuif is en nuwe moontlikhede na vore laat kom het. In die lig van die kompleksiteit van ...

  16. Die Voortrekker-Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Moerdyk

    1938-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Eeufeesjaar is vir die Afrikaner ’n tydperk van besieling. Nog nooit sedert die ontstaan van ons volk het een enkele gebeurtenis soveel nasietrots gewek as die honderdjarige herdenking van die Groot Trek. Vir die eerste keer in ons geskiedenis voel ons ons nie meer Kapenaars, Vrystaters, Natalers, en Transvalers nie, maar Afrikaners, saamgesnoer deur die tradisies van ’n selfstandige kultuurvolk. Wanneer die klimaks van die Ossewatrek met die hocksteenlegging van die Voortrekker-Monument bereik word, sal die besieling nie uitsterf nie, die krag wat geskep is sal bly voortgroei tot ’n onweerstaanbare mag. Die Afrikaner sal homself vind, en as die Monument na sowat vyf jaar onthul word, sal die saad wat in hierdie jaar gesaai is, tot voile rypheid gekom het. Dan sal die Monument self tot die volk spreek; intussen egter, is dit wenslik, nee noodsaaklik selfs, om die Monument aan die Afrikaners te verklaar, om ‘n uiteensetting te gee van die noodsaaklikheid van so ’n Monument, sowel as om die motief te verduidelik wat as inspirasie gedien het vir die ontwerpdaar van.

  17. e .Kuraioriufn. DIE W ETENSKAPLIKE BETEKENIS VAN DIE W ERK

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    ENGELBRECHT ver antwoordelik vir die Ou-Testamentiese vakke en Hebreeus. Die aan stelling van 'n derde professor het noodsaaklik geword, want dit sou. 85 .... De .Spreuken ran 5a/o?no omvat die nuwe vertaling en die ekse gese van die eerste 24 hoofstukke van die Spreukeboek. Die geskoold- heid in die Semitiese ...

  18. Die faktore gemeenskaplik aan die selfondersoekvraelys van Holland en die nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse beroepsbelangstellingsvraelys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Swanevelder

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The factors common to the Self Directed Search of Holland (SDS and the new South African Vocational Interest Inventory (SAVII. The new South African Vocational Interest Inventory was locally developed with the purpose to create a single vocational interest inventory for all population groups in the RSA. In this study the common factors underlying the SDS and the SAVII were determined with the aid of interbattery factor analysis. The results indicate that there are six common factors underlying the two instruments for both the standard nine boys and girls, and that these factors agree with the six factors built into the SDS by Holland. Opsomming Die nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse Beroepsbelangstellingsvraelys (SABBV is plaaslik ontwikkel met die doel om 'n enkele beroepsbelangstellingsvraelys vir alle bevolkingsgroepe binne die RSA, daar te stel. In hierdie studie is daar ondersoek ingestel na die gemeenskaplike faktore onderliggend aan die SABBV en die Selfondersoekvraelys (SOV van Holland met behulp van 'n interbatteryfaktorontleding. Daar is bevind dat daar ses gemeenskaplike faktore onderliggend aan die twee instrumente is vir sowel standerd nege seuns as dogters, en dat hierdie faktore ooreenstem met die ses faktore wat deur Holland in die SOV ingebou is.

  19. P. J. N. Smal, Die Universalisme in die Psalms. Academisch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    dat die historiese element in Israel se Godsopenbaring en daarmee die insig in sy betekenis te kort gedoen word. Die betekenis van die studie vir die historia revelationis is daardeur gering; as duidelike „tydlose” sistematisering van Outestamentiese gegewens oor die betrokke onder- werpe, soos die laaste hoofstuk, bl.

  20. Die Defects and Die Corrections in Metal Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyad Zahid Qamar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Extrusion is a very popular and multi-faceted manufacturing process. A large number of products for the automotive, aerospace, and construction sectors are produced through aluminum extrusion. Many defects in the extruded products occur because of the conditions of the dies and tooling. The problems in dies can be due to material issues, design and manufacturing, or severe usage. They can be avoided by maintaining the billet quality, by controlling the extrusion process parameters, and through routine maintenance. Die problems that occur on a day-to-day basis are mostly repairable and are rectified through various types of die correction operations. These defects and repair operations have not been reported in detail in the published literature. The current paper presents an in-depth description of repairable die defects and related die correction operations in metal extrusion. All major die defects are defined and classified, and their causes, preventive measures, and die correction operations are described. A brief frequency-based statistical study of die defects is also carried out to identify the most frequent die corrections. This work can be of direct benefit to plant engineers and operators and to researchers and academics in the field of metal extrusion.

  1. Assessment of Liver Remnant Using ICG Clearance Intraoperatively during Vascular Exclusion: Early Experience with the ALIIVE Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Lau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most significant risk following major hepatectomy is postoperative liver insufficiency. Current preoperative assessment of the future liver remnant relies upon assumptions which may not be valid in the setting of advanced resection strategies. This paper reports the feasibility of the ALIIVE technique which assesses the liver remnant with ICG clearance intraoperatively during vascular exclusion. Methods. 10 patients undergoing planned major liver resection (hemihepatectomy or greater were recruited. Routine preoperative assessment included CT and standardized volumetry. ICG clearance was measured noninvasively using a finger spectrophotometer at various time points including following parenchymal transection during inflow and outflow occlusion before vascular division, the ALIIVE step. Results. There were one case of mortality and three cases of posthepatectomy liver failure. The patient who died had the lowest ALIIVE ICG clearance (7.1%/min versus 14.4 ± 4.9. Routine preoperative CT and standardized volumetry did not predict outcome. Discussion/Conclusion. The novel ALIIVE technique is feasible and assesses actual future liver remnant function before the point of no return during major hepatectomy. This technique may be useful as a check step to offer a margin of safety to prevent posthepatectomy liver failure and death. Further confirmatory studies are required to determine a safety cutoff level.

  2. Geslagsverskille in die ouditiewe ontlokte potensiaal van die brein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D Stuart

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in the auditory evoked potential of the brain. Based on literature indications of an association between temperament characteristics and the evoked potential of the brain, and indications of gender differences in certain temperament traits, the purpose of this study was to ascertain whether evoked responses also differentiated between the genders. A sample of 81 male and 210 female students was randomly selected. Two auditory evoked potential procedures were applied. The results indicated statistically significant differences in evoked potential responses between the genders. The results are interpreted against the background of sensory and neurological sources of the evoked potential responses and linked to the neurophysiological foundations of temperament. Opsomming: Gegrond op aanduidings in die literatuur van ’n assosiasie tussen temperamentskenmerke en die ontlokte potensiaal van die brein, sowel as aanduidings van geslagsverskille in sekere temperamentstrekke, was die doel van die huidige studie om te bepaal of ontloktepotensiaal-response ook tussen die geslagte onderskei. ’n Steekproef van 81 manlike en 210 vroulike studente is ewekansig geselekteer. Twee ouditiewe ontloktepotensiaal- prosedures is toegepas. Die resultate het op statisties beduidende verskille tussen die geslagte gedui. Die bevindinge word teen die agtergrond van die sensoriese en neurologiese oorsprong van ontloktepotensiaal–response geïnterpreteer en verbind aan die neurofisiologiese verankering van temperament.

  3. die doeltreffendheid van die afrikaanse woordelys en spelreels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sluiting by die reel vir die verdubbeling van medeklinkers na 'n kort, be- klemtoonde klinker, woorde soos ballet, ballon, terras, terrein, dissipel en dissipline slegs met een konsonant na die eerste vokaal gespel moes word, omdat daardie voorafgaande vokaal onbeklemtoon is. Ook hierdie uit- sondering op die reel word ...

  4. calvyn oor die leiding van die heilige gees in die verklaring van die

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mittel alters, bis er zur Ruhe kommt bei den kanonischen Schriften der. Urzeit der christlichen Ära (Barth ... (ego tamen dimoveri non possum ab amore compendii, CO 10, 403). Deur die boodskap van die .... Idem ergo spiritus qui per os prophetarum loquutus est, in corda nostra penetret necesse est, ut persuadeat fideliter ...

  5. Die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werks prestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Coetzer

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. The aim of the study was to establish the relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. These constructs were selected by virtue of the lack of empirical research regarding the assumed relationship between them. The Locus of Control Scale of Schepers (1995 was used for measuring locus of control. Work performance was measured by the commission earned per month by the marketer, the number of policies generated by the marketer, as well as the percentage of lapsed policies. The relevant measurements were obtained in respect of a sample of 149 black marketing personnel. The results indicated a modest but statistically significant relationship between external locus of control and the work performance of black marketers. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf te bepaal. Hierdie konstrukte is gekies op grond van die gebrek aan empiriese navorsing rakende die veronderstelde verband tussen genoemde konstrukte. Die Lokus van Beheer-vraelys van Schepers (1995 is in die meting van lokus van beheer gebruik. Werksprestasie is aan die hand van kommissie per maand verdien, aantal polisse gegenereer deur 'n bemarker en die persentasie vervalde polisse, gemeet. Die tersaaklike metinge is verkry ten opsigte van 'n steekproef van 149 swart bemarkers. Die resultate toon 'n klein, dog statisties beduidende verband tussen eksterne lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf.

  6. die doel en wese van opvoedende onderwys en die implikasies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oaar moet onderskei word tussen die doelstellings van opvoedende onderwys en die einddoel wat bereik word deur die nastrewing van hierdie doelstellings. Gunter praat van die naderliggende doelstellings (1981, b1.105). \\/at die enddoel van opvoedende onderwys bet ref, gaan die meeste opvoedkundi ges akkoord dat ...

  7. Is die ortodoksie se verstaan van die sondeval belemmerend vir die gesprek tussen teologie en natuurwetenskap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Buitendag

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel is betoog dat die Gereformeerde Ortodoksie se begrip van die sondeval ’n  belemmering  was  vir  die  gesprek  tussen  teologie  en  natuurwetenskap.  Die  rede hiervoor was dat dit ten eerste ’n bepaalde verstaan van liniêre tyd nahou en ten tweede dat dit ’n bonatuurlike ingryp veronderstel het. Albei hierdie aspekte het die debat onnodig problematiseer. Die argument is ontwikkel deur eerstens die probleem te definieer, gevolg deur ’n uiteensetting van die standpunte van Augustinus en Calvyn onderskeidelik oor die sondeval. As ’n heuristiese sleutel is die konsepte van infralapsarisme en supralapsarisme aangewend om die tema te ontleed. Die artikel is afgesluit met die oortuiging dat die imago Dei ’n beliggaamde menslike persoon is wat biologies in die geskiedenis in terme van selfbewussyn en morele verantwoordelikheid ontluik het. Is the Orthodoxy’s notion of the Fall inhibitory for the dialogue between theology and science? In this article it was argued that the Reformed Orthodoxy’s interpretation of the Fall had become an impediment in the dialogue between theology and science. The reason was that it assumed firstly a specific understanding of linear time and secondly a metaphysical intervention. Both events were unnecessarily problematising the debate. The argument was deployed by stating the problem, followed by an exposition of the views of Augustine and Calvin on the Fall. As a heuristic key, the concepts of infralapsarism and supralapsarism were applied respectively to analyse the topic. The article concluded with the conviction that the imago Dei is an embodied human person that had biologically emerged in history as a center of self-awareness, and moral responsibility.

  8. Clearance of materials from accelerator facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokni Sayed H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Technical Standard that supports the clearance of materials and equipment (personal property from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE accelerator facilities has been developed. The Standard focuses on personal property that has the potential to be radiologically impacted by accelerator operations. It addresses material clearance programs and protocols for off-site releases without restriction on use. Common metals with potential volumetric activation are of main interest with technical bases provided in Appendices of the Standard. The clearance protocols in the Standard include three elements: 1 clearance criteria, 2 process knowledge, and 3 measurement methods. This paper presents the technical aspects of the new Standard, discusses operational experience gained in clearance of materials and equipment from several accelerator facilities at SLAC and examples as to how this Standard can be applied to benefit the entirety of the DOE Accelerator Complex.

  9. Die opleiding van bedryfsielkundiges aan die universiteit van Fort Hare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Botha

    1977-11-01

    Full Text Available Die Departement Bedryfsielkunde aan die Universiteit van Fort Hare is 'n relatiewe jong departement en het eers in 1965 tot stand gekom. Voor hierdie datum is Bedryfsielkunde as 'n kort kursus deur die departement van suiwer Sielkunde aangebied en een van die destydse dosente, Dr. W. Backer, het die inisiatief geneem om 'n selfstandige departement van Bedryfsielkunde in die Fakulteit van Ekonomiese Wetenskappe op die been te bring.

  10. Clearance and release from control - An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper tries to give an overview of the clearance, or release from regulatory control, on an international scale, including some of those countries where clearance has become or is about to become vital for D and D. The emphasis lies on the impact of clearance, and in particular of differences between clearance levels of various countries, on D and D. Relevance of clearance for D and D of nuclear installations Clearance is an essential part of waste management (or more general, material management) in nuclear installations, and in particular during the decommissioning phase where waste streams continues to arise. Of course, the relevance of clearance in a particular country depends on a number of factors, like: availability of a final repository and its price; prevailing decommissioning strategy; number of nuclear installations reaching decommissioning phase. This small selection of reasons why clearance may be of varying importance for different countries may already suffice to illustrate why up to now clearance has been developed and implemented in quite different ways. If one thinks of additional reasons that may influence clearance, like politics, the public opinion, availability of funds etc., the situation becomes even more complex. It is, however safe to draw the conclusion that countries with a certain number of nuclear installations which have been or will soon be shut down or which are already in the decommissioning phase will need to implement provisions for clearance. This has indeed been the case with countries like the UK, Germany, the USA, Sweden, and a number of others. It is not essential for clearance levels to be exactly equal between various countries. They may differ as long as the difference is not too large, e.g. the values fall into the same order of magnitude. This is the reason why for example Germany has no problems with clearance levels which differ from the EU recommendation RP 122 partially adopted in a number of EU countries

  11. Filosofiese tendense in die wordinggeskiedenis van ons verstaan van die fisiese natuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. M. Strauss

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Die ontstaan van ’n lang tradisie van natuurwetenskaplike denke is in antieke Griekeland te vind – die bakermat van die Westerse beskawing en die bron van geartikuleerde rasionele besinning. Die vroegste fases van die Griekse kultuur het reeds geboorte geskenk aan ’n teoretiese nadenke oor die heelal. Die Pythagoreërs is veral bekend vir hul klem op die verklaringskrag van getalsverhoudinge. In hul tese dat “alles getal is” het hulle egter slegs rasionale getalle (breuke erken en gevolglik uiteindelik vasgeloop in die ontdekking van irrasionale getalle wat tot die geometrisering van die Griekse wiskunde gelei het en tegelyk die bedding gevorm het van waaruit ’n magtige tradisie van ruimte-metafisika gegroei het wat die hele middeleeuse tydperk omspan het. Die vermeende statiese syn is in die mees ekstreme geval – die skool van Parmenides en die argumente van Zeno teen veelheid en beweging – tot in die uiteindelike antinomiese konsekwensies daarvan deurdink. Dit was egter eers die vroeg-moderne tyd – die voorgangers en nakomelinge van Galilei – wat naas getal en ruimte ’n waardering ontwikkel het vir die verklaringskrag van beweging (vergelyk die klassieke meganistiese wêreldbeeld van die heelal as ’n meganisme van stofdeeltjies in beweging. Maar ook hierdie meganistiese reduksie (waardeur alle fisiese verskynsels herlei is tot die beweging van al of niegelade massapunte sou uiteindelik misluk omdat dit nie van die onomkeerbaarheid van fisiese prosesse rekenskap kon gee nie. Gevolglik beliggaam eers die fisika van die 20ste eeu ’n erkenning van die deurslaggewend-stempelende rol van energie-werking (dus van die fisiese aspek in die aard van stoflike dinge en prosesse. Die artikel word afgesluit met ’n vlugtige verduideliking van die implikasies van die voorafgaande argumentasie vir ’n benadering van die misterie van die bestaan van materie.

  12. N HERSIENING VAN DIE AFRIKAANSE VERTALING VAN DIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    vergewe. Dit sou in orde gewees het as daar gestaan het, ReMomë- j^onta^is hepta?ds. wat die grieks is vir sewentig maal sewe. Die uitdrukking. heMom&ontabis heptd sien hoogswaarskynlik op Gen. 4 : 24 (LXX) waar. Lameg meedeel dat hy sewe-en-sewentig-maal gewreek sal word. Daar sit die Afr. Vert, die uitdrukking ...

  13. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller

    2004-02-27

    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  14. Precision die design by the die expansion method

    CERN Document Server

    Ibhadode, A O Akii

    2009-01-01

    This book presents a new method for the design of the precision dies used in cold-forging, extrusion and drawing processes. The method is based upon die expansion, and attempts to provide a clear-cut theoretical basis for the selection of critical die dimensions for this group of precision dies when the tolerance on product diameter (or thickness) is specified. It also presents a procedure for selecting the minimum-production-cost die from among a set of design alternatives. The mathematical content of the book is relatively simple and will present no difficulty to those who have taken basic c

  15. n hoofstuk in die (outo)biografie van die predikant (pastor?) 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biografie van die dominee (pastor?), spreek om verskeie redes boekdele. Die gebruik van die onbepaalde lidwoord is eerstens 'n bevestiging dat die artikel slegs 'n verdere bydrae (hoofstuk) tot die bestaande en steeds voortgaande gesprek (boek) oor die biografie van die dominee is (Heitink 2001). Tweedens plaas ek ...

  16. DIE ROL VAN DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE WEERMAG IN NATUUR- EN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sedert die vroeg 1900's deur die Weermag be- heer. In 1967 was dit die eerste militere terrein wat tot privaatnatuurreservaat verklaar is. Vhembe bestaan uit 4 hoofplantgemeenskappe nl. rivieraewerbos, vloedvlaktes, ranteveld en die sandveldplato. Wildsoorte op die terrein sl!Jit rooibokke, bosbokke, waterbokke, koedoes,.

  17. Die entwicklung, die metamorphose, die entstehung: Die konzepte des organismus von Aristoteles bis Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamerer Eva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački In diesem Aufsatz versuche ich, die Elemente verschiedener Konzepte des Organismus in der Philosophie und in der Wissenschaft zu analysieren. Die Deutungen des Organismus und der Einheit der Natur bei Aristoteles, Kant und Goethe werden als ein Beispiel der Bewegung von einem finalistischen zum antifinalistischen Bild der Natur verstanden.

  18. Nonrespiratory lung function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isawa, Toyoharu [Tohoku University Research Institute for Chest Disease and Cancer, Sendai (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo.

  19. Nonrespiratory lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, Toyoharu

    1994-01-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo

  20. Non-invasive airway health assessment: Synchrotron imaging reveals effects of rehydrating treatments on mucociliary transit in-vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelley, Martin; Morgan, Kaye S.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Farrow, Nigel R.; Stahr, Charlene S.; Boucher, Richard C.; Fouras, Andreas; Parsons, David W.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of potential cystic fibrosis (CF) therapies we have developed a novel mucociliary transit (MCT) measurement that uses synchrotron phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI) to non-invasively measure the transit rate of individual micron-sized particles deposited into the airways of live mice. The aim of this study was to image changes in MCT produced by a rehydrating treatment based on hypertonic saline (HS), a current CF clinical treatment. Live mice received HS containing a long acting epithelial sodium channel blocker (P308); isotonic saline; or no treatment, using a nebuliser integrated within a small-animal ventilator circuit. Marker particle motion was tracked for 20 minutes using PCXI. There were statistically significant increases in MCT in the isotonic and HS-P308 groups. The ability to quantify in vivo changes in MCT may have utility in pre-clinical research studies designed to bring new genetic and pharmaceutical treatments for respiratory diseases into clinical trials.

  1. die aard van wetgewende diskresies by die suid-afrikaanse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In enige moderne demokrasie is daar een of ander vorm van skeiding van magte tussen die wetgewende, uitvoerende en regsprekende gesag. Hierdie skeiding van magte, die sogenaamde trias politica, kan sover teruggevoer word as 1215, met die ondertekening van die Magna Carta deur Koning John van Engeland.

  2. die krag van simbole en rites in die liturgie 1. probleemstelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uitroepe vervang met die drie keer Kyrie eleison, die drie maal Christe eleison en die drie keer Kyrie eleison-uitroepe (Albrecht 1989:43). Op die lang duur het die uitroep dus heeltemal losgeraak van die gebede en het dit 'n selfstandige liturgiese element geword (Van Rongen. 1990:35). Die Reformasie met sy nadruk op ...

  3. Rational customs clearance technology choice

    OpenAIRE

    Shramenko, N.; Andriets, V.

    2008-01-01

    Issues concerning cargo delivery efficiencyincrease by choice of rational customs clearance technology have been considered. Three possible variants of customs clearance andmethods which allow to define the most rational version of cargo delivery in international road communication based on main efficiency criteria for definite distance have been presented.

  4. 7 CFR 1927.55 - Title clearance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TITLE CLEARANCE AND LOAN CLOSING Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan Closing § 1927.55 Title clearance services. (a) Responsibilities of closing agents. Services to be provided to the agency and the borrower by a closing agent in connection with the transaction vary depending on whether a title insurance...

  5. Relationship between silicon concentration and creatinine clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Nakai, K.; Itoh, C.; Horikiri, J.; Sera, K.; Sato, M.

    1998-01-01

    Silicon levels in dialysis patients are markedly increasing. Using PIXE we determined the relationship between silicon concentration and creatinine clearance in 30 samples. Urine silicon concentration were significantly correlated to creatinine clearance (p<0.001). And also serum silicon concentration were significantly correlated to creatinine clearance (p<0.0001). (author)

  6. Paradigmas en progressie in die teologie: *n Perspektief op die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die metodologie as besinningsterrein word egter al belangriker. Gedurende die tweede week van April 1988 het teoloë van dwarsoor Suid-. Afrika by die nuwe gebou van die Raad vir Geesteswetenskaplike Navorsing in. Pretoria byeen gekom vir 'n kongres van amper drie dae met die tema Paradigma.'> 476. ISSN 0259 ...

  7. Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang

    2015-08-18

    A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  8. DIE PERSOON VAN VREDE IN DIE SENDING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aan dat 'n lewe onder die gesag van God tot volle vrede lei: “In coming under the rule of Yahweh, moreover, life was made whole and safe.” Dit is spesifiek in die tempel waar die volheid van God se vrede ondervind word (1997:662):. The temple is indeed the place where Israel entered into Yahweh's full zone of shalom.

  9. Etiese perspektiewe op haatspraak in die lig van die derde gebod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobus M. (Koos Vorster

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel fokus op die implikasies van die derde gebod met betrekking tot haatspraak in Suid-Afrika (SA vandag. Die artikel gaan uit van die standpunt dat die name van God op sy wese dui. Die name van God soos dit in die bybelse openbaringsgeskiedenis ontwikkel word, druk die gemeenskapskarakter van God se verhouding met mense en die skepping uit. Die betekenis van die name kulmineer in die Nuwe-Testamentiese uitdrukkings Vader en God is liefde. Alle verbale gedrag wat hierdie gemeenskaps- en liefdesverhouding inhibeer, oortree die derde gebod. Die misbruik van die Naam van God vind onder andere plaas wanneer mense, wat na die beeld van God geskep is, gedegradeer word deur haatspraak, omdat sodanige degradering die gemeenskap en liefde tussen God en die mens skend. Ten slotte word sekere gevalle van haatspraak soos dit vandag in Suid-Afrika voorkom, teologies-eties belig teen die agtergrond van die betekenis van die derde gebod. Hierdie vorms sluit religieuse, rassistiese, xenofobiese, seksistiese en homofobiese haatspraak in. This article focuses on the implications of the third commandment for hate speech in modern-day South Africa. The article contends that the names of God are expressions of his Being. The names of God as they are developed in the biblical history of revelation express his creation of covenantal community and restored relations with humankind and creation. The meaning of the names of God culminates in the New Testament expressions Father and God is love. Verbal actions that inhibit the new community created by God or violate love transgress the third commandment. Misuse of the name of God occurs among others when people, created in the image of God, are verbally degraded by hate speech because such degradation violates the community of love between God and humankind. In conclusion, the article indicates forms of hate speech in South Africa that should be dealt with in the light of the third commandment. These are acts

  10. Noninvasive determination of individual renal clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanard, J.; Brunois, J.P.; Ruiz, J.C.; Assailly, J.

    1980-01-01

    A noninvasive method for measurement of individual renal clearance is presented, based on analysis of the early rise of the kidneys' time-activity curves after injection of an appropriate tracer ( 131 I-ortho-iodohippurate for tubular function or 111 In DTPA for glomerular clearance). The analysis is based on the assumption that an insignificant amount of tracer leaves the kidney during the first few moments following injection. Therefore, the kidney activity during this period is directly proportional to the integral of the blood (heart) activity. After blood background subtraction, the linear correlation between the early part of the renogram and the corresponding blood integral activity curve allows calculation of an angular coefficient. The ratio of these coefficients calculated for each kidney is proportional to the ratio of the individual clearances. The latter are calculated from the total clearance simultaneously measured using a simplified method without urine collection. In control subjects with normal renal function individual renal clearances were not significantly different. In uninephrectomized patients a precision of 5% in calculating individual clearance was estimated from data recorded at the level of the remaining kidney. In patients with functional asymmetry, results were compared with 197 HgCl 2 quantitative renal fixation. A linear correlation was found (r = 0.95). The method we propose seems valuable for clinical investigation and allows sequential measurements. (orig.)

  11. Die era van Suid-Afrika se militere hoogbloei met die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4 Jun 1976 ... Die Toyota 1200 bakkie is geadverteer met die woorde 'Hier kom die pantserbakkie', teen die agtergrond van 'n olifant tenk.32. Daar is ook 'n betrekking deur Thorold en van Wyk geadverteer waar militere opleiding 'n voorvereiste was.33. Daar was ook films wat weermag en polisie gebasseer is wat in die ...

  12. ’n Etiek van liefde: Die etiese perspektiewe van die Heidelbergse Kategismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koos Vorster

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel behandel die etiese perspektiewe van die Heidelbergse Kategismus – een van die prominente belydenisskrifte in die gereformeerde tradisie. Die etiese relevansie is ingebed in die konfessie se verklaring van die tien gebooie. Die artikel verduidelik dat die etiek van die Heidelbergse Kategismus ten diepste ’n karakteretiek is en dat dit gelowiges oproep tot ’n etiek van liefde. Hierdie liefde sluit in liefde vir die verbondsgemeenskap, die bediening van die Woord, die heiligheid van God en die waardigheid van mense, die gemeenskap van die gelowiges, gesag, die lewe, die huwelik, privaatbesit en arbeid asook waarheid en geregtigheid. As gevolg van die sinekdogeekarakter van die wet is hierdie etiek van liefde vandag baie relevant. This article deals with the ethical relevance of one of the prominent confessions in the reformed tradition, namely the Heidelberg Cathechism. The ethical relevance lies in the confession’s elucidation of the ten commandments and its application to moral conduct. The article explains that the ethics of the Heidelberg Catechism is essentially a virtue ethics calling for an ethics of love. This love should include love for the covenantal communion, ministry of the Word, the holiness of God and the dignity of people, the communion of the saints, authority, life, marriage, private property and labour, and truth and justice. Due to the synecdochical character of the ten commandments this ethics of love is highy relevant in the present times.

  13. Die invloed van herbivorie en vuur op die oorlewing van sekere meerjarige kruide langs die Sabierivier, Kruger Nasionale Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Myburgh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die groot vloede wat in die jaar 2000 in die Kruger Nasionale Park plaasgevind het, het dierivieroewerplantegroei versteur. Dit het die geleentheid gebied om heinings op te rig langsdie Sabierivier om herbivore uit sekere gebiede uit te sluit en sodoende die herstel van die rivieroewerekosisteme te monitor.

  14. Chrístologie: Die historiese Jesus en die kerugmatiese Christus by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dige Here van sy kerk. Die Christelike teologie en die kerk het dus nie 'n ander oprsprong as wat die Christologiese belydenis van die oer-Christendom het nie, naamlik die paasgebeure. Schmithals (1972b:77) wil kerk en teologie aanmoedig om hierdie oorsprong in gedagte te hou en om goed te besef dat die Christus-.

  15. Die invloed van gesondheidsopvoeding op die prevalensie van skistosoombesmettings by leerders in ’n skistosoom - endemiese gebied in die Limpopoprovinsie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrie Wolmarans

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie studie is geselekteerde direkte en indirekte onderrigmetodes geëvalueer ten opsigte vanhulle potensiaal om die prevalensie van skistosoombesmettings by skoolgaande kinders, woonagtigin ’n landelike omgewing in ’n skistosoom-endemiese gebied, te verlaag. Twee direkte (poppekas enblaaibord en drie indirekte (plakkaat, kennisgewingbord en onderrig via ouers of voogdeonderrigmetodes is geëvalueer.Skistosoombesmette leerders is met behulp van parasitologiese metodes geïdentifiseer en aan ’nvraelys in hul moerdertaal onderwerp om onder andere op hoogte van hulle kennis ten opsigte vanskistosomose te kom en te bepaal hoe die infrastruktuur tot hulle beskikking wat water en sanitasiebetref, daar uitsien. Leerders is met behulp van plaaslike gesondheidspersoneel vir die siekte behandelen daarna op verskeie geleenthede in samewerking met plaaslike onderwysers aan die verskillendeonderrigmetodes blootgestel.’n Aansienlike toename in die leerders se kennis aangaande skistosomose is reeds na die tweedeonderrigsessie waargeneem. Ten spyte van die feit dat die leerders in ’n skistosoom-endemiesegebied woonagtig was, het slegs 2% die siekte met ’n natuurlike waterhabitat soos ’n rivier geassosieer.Daar is verder gevind dat relevante amptelike strukture soos klinieke, geneeshere en skole byna geenrol speel in die verskaffing van inligting van wat die siekte behels en hoe dit oorgedra word nie.Betekenisvolle afnames in die kumulatiewe prevalensie van besmetting het by al die groepe, wat aandie onderskeie onderrigmetodes blootgestel was gedurende die ondersoek, voorgekom, wanneer ditmet die kontrolewaarde waar die leerders geen onderrig ontvang het nie, vergelyk is. Statistiesevergelykings tussen die verskillende onderrigmetodes het getoon dat die poppekas, blaaibord enplakkaat die effektiefste was om die prevalensie te verlaag, terwyl die gebruik van ouers of voogdedie minste effektief was. Alhoewel die kumulatiewe prevalensie van

  16. duele verse sowel as die somtotaal die leser

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    27 Jan 2006 ... selfs 'n landkaart afgedruk) terwyl dit ter- selfdertyd ver bo die lokale uitstyg. Die digter is sterk bewus van sy omgewing, geskiedenis en tradisies, maar veral van die algemene menslike kondisie wat binne hierdie referensiekader vergestalt word. Hy gebruik 'n bekende historiese slagveld as bundeltitel (en ...

  17. Current status of nuclear medicine in chronic airflow limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, S.W.; Agnew, J.E.; Royal Free Hospital, London

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging, quite apart from its role in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, offers information about the distribution of ventilatory and perfusion abnormalities within the lung. The extent of ventilatory abnormality seen can be related to the severity of airways obstruction as assessed spirometrically, whilst abnormalities in the matching of perfusion to ventilation can be related to the severity of hypoxaemia in patients with chronic airflow limitation. Clearance of mucus from the lungs of patients with chronic mucus hypersection may be assessed by following the clearance rate of insoluble radioaerosol particles; by such means the relative contributions of mucociliary transport and of cough to the overall clearance can be observed. Clearance is often severely impaired in patients with airways obstruction; the radioaerosol technique can be used to determine the effects of drug or physiotherapy treatment. Chronic airflow limitation leading to hypoxaemia can be associated with pulmonary artery hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy - this may be investigated noninvasively by a radionuclide test of right ventricular ejection fraction. (orig.)

  18. Current status of nuclear medicine in chronic airflow limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, S.W.; Agnew, J.E.

    1987-06-01

    Radionuclide imaging, quite apart from its role in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, offers information about the distribution of ventilatory and perfusion abnormalities within the lung. The extent of ventilatory abnormality seen can be related to the severity of airways obstruction as assessed spirometrically, whilst abnormalities in the matching of perfusion to ventilation can be related to the severity of hypoxaemia in patients with chronic airflow limitation. Clearance of mucus from the lungs of patients with chronic mucus hypersection may be assessed by following the clearance rate of insoluble radioaerosol particles; by such means the relative contributions of mucociliary transport and of cough to the overall clearance can be observed. Clearance is often severely impaired in patients with airways obstruction; the radioaerosol technique can be used to determine the effects of drug or physiotherapy treatment. Chronic airflow limitation leading to hypoxaemia can be associated with pulmonary artery hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy - this may be investigated noninvasively by a radionuclide test of right ventricular ejection fraction.

  19. Imaging alveolar-capillary permeability in experimental respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, S.; Wagner, H.N.; Swift, D.L.; Proctor, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    Pulmonary edema can be induced in dogs by low doses of oleic acid (20 μl/kg) given intravenously, simulating the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Alveolar-capillary permeability was measured in dogs, using sup(99m)Tc-DTPA and sup(99m)Tc-albumin fine aerosols produced by a newly designed separator. This separator eliminates the effect of mucociliary movement on aerosol clearance. The small molecular-laden aerosol particles were cleared in the order: sup(99m)-TcO 4 - , sup(99m)Tc-DTPA, and sup(99m)Tc-disofenin; the Tsub(1/2) of lung clearance correlated with molecular sizes. Experimental ARDS increased the lung clearance of sup(99m)Tc-DTPA. Lung clearance of large molecule (sup(99m)Tc-albumin) laden aerosol particles was not accelerated in the ARDS model. Inhalation with fine aerosols revealed increased alveolar permeability in the ARDS model without any change of cardiac output

  20. Paulus as vredemaker. Oor die resepsie van die Brief aan Filemon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7 Jul 2015 ... Inleiding. Die woord 'vrede' kom net een maal in die Filemonbrief voor, en wel in die aanhef van die brief. Kommentatore merk egter gereeld op dat 'n mens nie daaruit moet aflei dat dié begrip onbelangrik vir die verstaan van die brief is nie. Om een voorbeeld te noem: Barth en Blanke. (2002) skryf as volg:.

  1. A model of clearance rate regulation in mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Clearance rate regulation has been modelled as an instantaneous response to food availability, independent of the internal state of the animals. This view is incompatible with latent effects during ontogeny and phenotypic flexibility in clearance rate. Internal-state regulation of clearance rate is required to account for these patterns. Here I develop a model of internal-state based regulation of clearance rate. External factors such as suspended sediments are included in the model. To assess the relative merits of instantaneous regulation and internal-state regulation, I modelled blue mussel clearance rate and growth using a DEB model. In the usual standard feeding module, feeding is governed by a Holling's Type II response to food concentration. In the internal-state feeding module, gill ciliary activity and thus clearance rate are driven by internal reserve level. Factors such as suspended sediments were not included in the simulations. The two feeding modules were compared on the basis of their ability to capture the impact of latent effects, of environmental heterogeneity in food abundance and of physiological flexibility on clearance rate and individual growth. The Holling feeding module was unable to capture the effect of any of these sources of variability. In contrast, the internal-state feeding module did so without any modification or ad hoc calibration. Latent effects, however, appeared transient. With simple annual variability in temperature and food concentration, the relationship between clearance rate and food availability predicted by the internal-state feeding module was quite similar to that observed in Norwegian fjords. I conclude that in contrast with the usual Holling feeding module, internal-state regulation of clearance rate is consistent with well-documented growth and clearance rate patterns.

  2. Die wet is evangelie: Die Heidelbergse Kategismus steeds aktueel na 450 jaar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Strauss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In die denke van Martin Luther bestaan daar spanning tussen die wet van God en die evangelie. Vir Luther is liefde die eie werk en die wet die vreemde werk van God. Daarteenoor integreer of versoen Johannes Calvyn God se wet met die evangelie. Hy vertolk die openingswoorde van die wet byvoorbeeld as liefdevol en bevrydend en daarom evangelies. Calvyn beskou die wet as die manier waarop ’n Christen sy liefde vir God uitleef en sy dankaarheid teenoor God vir sy verlossing betoon. Calvyn se siening oor die verhouding tussen die wet en die evangelie het ’n betekenisvolle invloed op die Heidelbergse Kategismus se formulering ten opsigte van hierdie saak. Volgens die Kategismus is die wet evangelie, of die vorm wat die evangelie in die lewe van die mens aanneem. In the thought of Martin Luther tension exists between the law of God and the gospel. Luther regards love as the own work of God and the law as something strange to the Lord. John Calvin, however, integrates Gods law and the gospel to the extent that the opening words of the ten commandments are regarded as words of love and redemption and therefore evangelical. To Calvin the law becomes the way in which a converted Christian lives and shows his gratitude to God for his salvation. Calvin’s view on the relationship between law and gospel had a significant influence on the way in which the Heidelberg Cathecism formulates these two concepts. For the Cathecism the law is gospel or the form in which the gospel takes shape in human life.

  3. Die gebruik van die mite in Die werfbobbejaan van Alexander Strachan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M.M. Klopper

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of myths in Die werfbobbejaan by Alexander Strachan This article focuses on the rote of Zulu myths in Alexander Strachan’s novel Die werfbobbejaan. It lakes as point of departure sources on mythology like Cuddon (1991, Baldick (1990, Grimal (1969, Levi-Strauss (1979 and Jung (1969. Die werfbobbejaan essentially recounts the story of a man (the adventurer, the academic, the writer, the hunter who also is the central character in Strachan's two preceding novels. Die werfbobbejaan focuses on the completion of an individuation process in the life of the central character, a process already begun in the preceding two novels and which in this novel finally culminates in the confrontation between hunter and baboon. The completion of this process is facilitated by the African milieu of Zululand where people give meaning to their existence by means of myths, and where no distinction is made between the mythic and rational modes of experiencing reality.

  4. N HERSIENING VAN DIE AFRIKAANSE VERTALING VAN DIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    aangetoon het, 'n huis in Kapernaum gehad en hierdie geskiedenis speel in Kapernaum of daar digby af. Jesus en sy dissipele het namelik, volgens 6:35 geland by Gennesaret, net suid van Kapernaum Die gevolgtrekking word ondersteun deur Joh. 6:17 waarvolgens die dissi pele na die spysiging op Kapernaum gevaar ...

  5. Die dinamika van die beperkte drie-deeltjie-probleem in sterrekunde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan D. Anderson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Die beperkte drie-deeltjie-probleem is een van die oudste probleme in klassieke fisika en is alvir ongeveer die afgelope honderd jaar bestudeer. Die probleem is nie oplosbaar op ‘n geslote analitiese wyse nie, alhoewel ’n oneindige reeks oplossing bestaan.

  6. Die taak van akademiese geletterdheid/hede binne die konteks van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opsomming. Die vestiging van Akademiese Geletterdheid by tersiêre instansies in Suid-Afrika het gegroei uit die besef dat 'n goedontwikkelde akademiese taalvermoë essensieel is vir akademiese prestasie. Gepubliseerde literatuur getuig van die belangrike verskuiwings wat oor die afgelope aantal dekades plaasgevind ...

  7. Die 'postmoderne' stempel in die Nuwe-Testamentiese hermeneutiek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    georiënteerde teorie en kritiek wat volgens Moore opbou tot 'n herhaling binne. Bybelnavorsing. Dit het reeds by Immanuel Kant begin. Sedert Kant is dit proble- maties cm die objek van kennis te beskou as iets wat kennis objektief in sigself bevat. Objektiwisme is prys gegee. Dialektiek het in die plek daarvan gekom. Die.

  8. DIE KONINGSBEDE AS ELEMENT IN DIE KRONINGSRITUEEL. By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Die offerfees te Gibeon was 'n plegtigheid, waaraan geheel Israel deelgeneem het. Die duisend. "brandoffers" wat sowel Kon. as Kron. vermeld, sal wel opgevat moet word as „brandoffers en dankoffers", sodat daar vir die aanwesiges. *n groot feesmaaltyd aangerig is, vgl. I Kon. 3:15. n Sodanige maal- tyd verbind vors en ...

  9. Quantenfische die Stringtheorie und die Suche nach Weltformel

    CERN Document Server

    Lüst, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Lässt sich das Verhalten aller Dinge, von den kleinsten Teilchen bis zum Universum, einheitlich beschreiben? Der heißeste Kandidat für die Entwicklung einer Weltformel, die alle physikalischen Phänomene erklären kann, ist die Stringtheorie. Sollte sie sich als richtig erweisen, so würde das unser Verständnis über den Ursprung der Naturgesetze dramatisch verändern. Denn das von uns beobachtete Universum wäre dann vermutlich eine winzige Blase in einem viel größeren Gebilde, dem Multiversum. Um die Stringtheorie und die Idee des Multiversums plausibel zu machen, greift der international bekannte theoretische Physiker Dieter Lüst auf ein Modell zurück: das Leben von Fischen in einem Teich. Eines Tages gelingt es den Fischen, die kleinsten Teilchen zu identifizieren, aus denen alles im Fischteich besteht - eingeschlossen sie selbst. Sie nennen diese Urbausteine Quantenfische, da ihr Verhalten nahelegt, dass sie auch eine Art von Lebewesen sind. Doch der ersten folgt eine weitere Entdeckung der Fisch...

  10. The speed dependence of dry running screw type vacuum pumps; Die Drehzahlabhaengigkeit trockenlaufender Schraubenspindel-Vakuumpumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauder, K.; Rohe, A. [Univ. Dortmund (Germany). FG Fluidenergiemaschinen

    2003-07-01

    This contribution describes the development of a simple mathematical approach, which has the primary aim of describing the speed dependence of maximum vacuum of a screw type vacuum pump. Based on a simple positive displacement model assuming an isothermal process and with gas flow through an orifice used to depict the clearance mass flows, the vacuum achieved is calculated as function of rotor speed. Changes in the model's approaches, in particular the number of stages and the transition of viscose flow to molecular flow, enable us to depict the characteristic working behaviour of a screw type vacuum pump from the point of view of its maximum vacuum. An extension of this approach yields the characteristics of the delivery rate as a function of the suction pressure. If we replace the orifice flow with the transition flow it becomes possible to describe the characteristic maximum of suction speed at moderate inlet pressures, which can definitely be ascribed to increasing throttling during the transition of the viscose to the molecular flow type. Where there are larger discrepancies, continuous comparison of calculated with measured characteristics requires analyses of the sensitivity of this approach regarding the gap clearances, and a mathematical consideration of external leakages. Finally the effects of internal compression on working behaviour are calculated by using the algorithm. Even if the potential of this approach can not be completely realised due to unknown boundary condition in the examined machine, it nevertheless yields clear and explicable data about the influences of working and construction parameters on the working behaviour. (orig.) [German] Der vorgelegte Beitrag beschreibt einen einfachen mathematischen Ansatzes, der als primaeres Ziel verfolgt, die signifikante Drehzahlabhaengigkeit des Enddruckes von Schraubenspindel-Vakuumpumpen zu berechnen. Ausgehend vom einfachen Verdraengermaschinenmodell werden zunaechst mit Hilfe eines einstufigen

  11. Predicting Human Clearance of OATP substrates using Cynomolgus monkey: In vitro-in vivo scaling of hepatic uptake clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Tom; Ufuk, Ayse; Cantrill, Carina; Kosa, Rachel E; Bi, Yi-An; Niosi, Mark; Modi, Sweta; Rodrigues, A David; Tremaine, Larry M; Varma, Manthena Vs; Galetin, Aleksandra; Houston, J Brian

    2018-05-02

    This work explores the utility of the cynomolgus monkey as a preclinical model to predict hepatic uptake clearance mediated by organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) transporters. Nine OATP substrates (rosuvastatin, pravastatin, repaglinide, fexofenadine, cerivastatin, telmisartan, pitavastatin, bosentan and valsartan) were investigated in plated cynomolgus monkey and human hepatocytes. Total uptake clearance and passive diffusion were measured in vitro from initial rates in the absence and presence of the OATP inhibitor rifamycin SV, respectively. Total uptake clearance values in plated hepatocytes ranged over three orders of magnitude in both species with a similar rank order and good agreement in the relative contribution of active transport to total uptake between cynomolgus monkey and human. In vivo hepatic clearance for these nine drugs was determined in cynomolgus monkey after intravenous dosing. Hepatic clearances showed a similar range to human parameters and good predictions from respective hepatocyte parameters (with 2.7 and 3.8-fold bias on average, respectively). The use of cross species empirical scaling factors (based on either dataset average or individual drug scaling factor from cynomolgus monkey data) improved prediction (less bias, better concordance) of human hepatic clearance from human hepatocyte data alone. In vitro intracellular binding in hepatocytes also correlated well between species. It is concluded that the minimal species differences observed for the current dataset between cynomolgus monkey and human hepatocyte uptake, both in vitro and in vivo, support future use of this preclinical model to delineate drug hepatic uptake and enable prediction of human in vivo intrinsic hepatic clearance. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. Van die Gasredakteur

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cherish and teach.'1. Die Fakulteit Geneeskunde van die Universiteit van die Oranje-Vrystaat het pragtig gegroei ge- durende die eerste 21 jaar van sy bestaan. Die entoesiasme, doelgerigtheid, harde werk en inisia- tiewe van 'n groot aantal persone was hiervoor verantwoordelik. 'If we see a bit more clearly than they, it is ...

  13. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Business clearance review... GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a...

  14. Estimation of 131I hippuran clearance during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, R.; Stoll, W.; Zenner, I.; Arndt, J.; Friedrich-Schiller-Univ., Jena

    1979-01-01

    Changes in 131 I hippuran clearance were estimated by a non-catheter method, as well as total clearance and clearance of each kidney, in 43 women at various stages of pregnancy and in 13 non-pregnant women who were not using hormonal contraceptives. The results are demonstrated in graph form. The methods used are described in detail. The procedure for determining clearance in separate kidneys is indicated. It was found that clearance values increased up to the 35th and 26th weeks of pregnancy. The difference between the sides that were found corresponds with the previously known difference in the function of the right and left kidneys and ureters. (orig.) [de

  15. Die benutting van vraelyste met die oog op meer effektiewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    effektiewe stresbeheer as een van die temas te hanteer. Op grond van die navorsing deur onder andere Lawson (1985) en Taylor (1999) sou ek graag die proses van differensiasie2 ook by genoemde lys voeg as tema vir bespreking tydens huweliksvoorbereiding. 2 Differensiasie kan beskryf word as die losmaakproses ...

  16. Wêreldmededingendheid en die tegnologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. I. Pistorius

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Afgesien van die interne uitdagings wat die Heropbou- en Ontwikkelingsprogram (HOP aan Suid-Afrika bied, moet die land ook tred hou met die veranderende globale omgewing, spesifiek die toenemende belangrikheid van ekonomiese sekuriteit as komponent van nasionale sekuriteit. Die konsep van mededingendheid vergestalt die doelwit wat nagestreef moet word ten einde die ontluikende globale ekonomiese stryd aan te durf. As ’n belangrike drywer van ekonomiese welvaart is tegnologie een van die belangrikste sleutels tot internasionale mededingendheid. Tegnologiese innovasie is die proses wat as hefboom hiervoor gebruik moet word. Dit is egter nodig dat tegnologie, en spesifiek die proses van tegnologiese innovasie, formeel en gestruktureerd bestuur moet word, sowel op nasionale as firmavlak. Op nasionale vlak is die voorsiene Nasionale Innovasiestelsel beslis ’n stap in die regte rigting.

  17. Die skrifbeskouing van feministiese teoloë, in die besonder dié van Fiorenza, Brenner en Van Dijk-Hemmes – beoordeel in die lig van die gereformeerde teologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alta E. Swart

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dit wil voorkom asof die feministiese Skrifbeskouing op die beginsel van selektiewe Skrifgesag berus. Dit beteken dat slegs dié dele in die Bybel wat met die feministiese ideologie ooreenstem, as gesaghebbend aanvaar word. Dit is veral die sogenaamde androsentriese taalgebruik wat dit vir aanhangers van hierdie benadering moeilik maak om die hele Skrif as gesaghebbend te erken. Hermeneuties vertoon hierdie benadering groot ooreenkomste met die Postmodernisme, waarin geen vaste reëls bestaan om die betekenis van tekste te bepaal nie. Gesien in die lig van die gereformeerde teologie, soos veranker in die Woord en belydenisskrifte, vertoon die feministiese teologie ernstige leemtes. Die bydraes (Skrifbeskouing van drie prominente feministiese teoloë – Fiorenza, Brenner en Van Dijk-Hemmes – word onder die loep geneem en teologies-krities geëvalueer ten einde hierdie leemtes uit te wys. It appears that the feminist view of Scripture is based on the principle of selective authority of the Scriptures, which means that only the parts of the Bible corresponding with the feminist ideology are accepted as authoritative. The use of androcentric language, in particular, makes it difficult for followers of feminism to accept the whole Bible as authoritative. Hermeneutically, their approach resembles Postmodernism, interpreting without any rules. Viewed from the paradigm of the reformed theology, which is anchored in Scripture and the articles of faith, feminist theology shows serious shortfalls. The contributions of three prominent feminist theologians – Fiorenza, Brenner and Van Dijk-Hemmes – are studied closely and evaluated critically in the light of the reformed theology, to underline these shortfalls.

  18. die kasteel••de goede hoop" (1921.1923): die verhaal van in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3. TWEE. KOMITEE-VERGADERINGS. BESLUITE a. Doel en samestelling van die komitee. Op 12 Desember 1921 stuur die Sekretans yap Verdediging uitnodigings aan sekere amptelike instansies en ander behingstd1endes waarin hy die redes vir die wenslikheid van 'n komitee en die werksaamhede uitecnsit en die ge-.

  19. ontwikkeling van die gemenereg in die lig van artikels 39(2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    'n Mens kan met reg vra of die ius connubiorum van Brouwer en die Law of. Husband and Wife van ... AD 560 (Geheime Raad) 563. 5 Sien vir besonderhede Hahlo en Kahn SA Legal System and its Background 304. ..... Die Franse chemikus, Antoine Lavoisier, is in 1794 tydens die Franse revolusie tereggestel. Terwyl die ...

  20. Die relevansie van die boek Prediker

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ook in die dogmatiek te bespeur is nie. 'n Vinnige oorsig oor die teksverwysings van. 'n paar wydgelese dogmatiekhandboeke kan dit bevestig. In Karl Barth se omvang- ryke Kirchliche Dogmatik word Prediker slegs vyf en dertig maal aangehaal en slegs sewe maal word teksgedeeltes bespreek. Emil Brunner haal Prediker ...

  1. Die wonders in Johannes 6 verklaar aan die hand van 'n ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maar die Evangelie van Johannes gee self 'n aanduiding van wat die intensie van die geskrif is, te wete Johannes 20: 30-31: Jesus het nog baie ander wondertekens, wat nie in hierdie boek beskrywe is nie, voor sy dissipels gedoen. Maar hierdie wonder tekens is beskrywe sodat julle kan glo dat Jesus die Christus is, die.

  2. Packaged die heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  3. Die teologie in gesprek met die ekonomie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1723-1790) sy vertrekpunt neem, ontwikkel, as oorwinnaars uit die Franse Revolu .... Die onmiddellike sukses van Adam Smith se 'Wealth of Nations' was .... alle vorme van sosialisme niks anders as 'kommunisme' (Wassenaar 1977:12) nie.

  4. Establishing exemption and clearance criteria by the regulatory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, A.E.A.

    2012-04-01

    This Project work discusses the relationship between the concepts of exemption and clearance, and their practical use in the overall scheme of regulatory control of practices. It also discusses how exemptions and clearance is established and the scope of its applications for regulatory control. The concept of general clearance levels for any type of material and any possible pathway of disposal is also introduced in this work. Guidance of the Group of Experts establishing scenarios for general clearance, parameter values, and a nuclide-specific list of calculated clearance levels is also presented. Regulatory authorities are required to develop guidance on exemption and clearance levels to assist licensees and registrants to know which practices and sources within practices are exempted from regulatory control and those to be cleared from further controls. Exemption and clearance levels are tools for assisting the Regulatory Authority to optimize the use of resources. (author)

  5. 14 CFR 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs clearance and visas. 1260.63 Section 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance and Visas (For...

  6. Die evaluering van 'n bestuursopleidingskursus met behulp van die posmandjie-tegniek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. de Jager

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of a management training course by using the in-basket technique. A management training course was evaluated for effectiveness by using two specially compiled in-basket exercises equivalent in complexity. Outcome evaluation was performed so as to determine whether learning transfer took place, ie., whether management skills in the application of planning, organising and control manifest in the work context afterwards. Significant differences were found between the experimental and the control group and were investigated by means of the "Univariate procedure". This management training course could effectively be measured with the behaviour assessment approach using two groups, where only the one group was exposed to a management training course to assess whether management behaviour changed as a result of learning transfer. This study utilises the in-basket technique as an instrument for training course evaluation. Opsomming Die effektiwiteit van 'n bestuursopleidingskursus is geevalueer aan die hand van gedragverandering soos gemeet deur twee posmandjies van dieselfde moeilikheidsgraad. Uitkomsevaluering is gedoen om te bepaal of leeroordrag plaasgevind het, met ander woorde/ of the nuut aangeleerde bestuursvaardighede in die toepassing van die bestuursdimensies beplanning, organisering en beheer wel na die tyd in die konteks van werkgedrag manifesteer. Beduidende verskille tussen die eksperimentele en die kontrole groep is gevind. Dit is ondersoek met behulp van enkelveranderiike-variansie-ontleding. Die bestuursopleidingskursus kon effektief vanuit die gedragbeoordelingsbcnadering gemeet word by twee groepe, waar slegs die een groep aan 'n bestuursopleidingskursus blootgestel word om te kon bepaal of bestuursgedrag verander het. Die studie benut die posmandjie-tegniek as kursusevalueringsinstmment.

  7. Die ontmaskering van die bose: Eksegetiese perspektiewe op ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    2 Yarbro Collins (1983) bied tans nog die beste agtergrond vir 'n besinning oor geweld in ..... John's grammatical howlers are intentionally designed to alert listerners ..... 26 In die Nuwe Testament word Paul se snydende opmerking teenoor die Korintiërs as ..... rnt g0r`m nh8 ldfhrs`}m du sg}u fg}u + n2sh d/m sg>}} e`ql`jdh.

  8. PROF DR FELIX V. lATEGAN: Die Boer se Roer. Die Groot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF DR FELIX V. lATEGAN: Die Boer se. Roer. Die Groot Geweerboek van Suid-. Afrika. Tafelberg. Uitgewers. Kaapstad, pp. 209, bibliografie, register. Sonder die Boer en sy roer is die geskiede:lis van ons land feitlik ondenkbc:wr en dit is clan ook vo/kome juis gesien dat die skrywer van hierdie baanbrekerswerk die ...

  9. Sal die ‘ewolusie’ vanaf biologie na lewenswetenskappe ‘uitsterwing’ van die vakgebied voorkom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna G. Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word die wysiging van die skoolvak van ‘biologie’ na ‘lewenswetenskappe’ bespreek, asook die gepaardgaande en verwagte implikasies van die verandering. Die vraag word gestel of die beoogde wysiging wel noemenswaardig is en of dit enigsins ‘n verskil aan die dalende belangstelling in die lewenswetenskappe op tersiêre vlak sal maak. Die wysigings in die nuwe kurrikula verhoog die relevansie van die vakinhoud vir leerders en vir die gemeenskap, maar sekere kwessies kry nie aandag nie. Voorstelle word gemaak om die kurrikulum te wysig en onderrigmetodes aan te pas om die nodige vaardighede by leerders te vestig.

  10. n opinie oor die behaviouristiese siening versus die fenomenologie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    verband die eksperimente van Pavlov, Thorndike,. Skinner, Tolmann en Hull.) Fenomenologie. Die fenomenologie is 'n essensie-openbarende denkrigting. Dit impliseer'n denkende soektog na dit wat 'n besondere verskynsel of werklikheid maak juis dit wat dit is en nie iets anders nie. In die fenomenologiese antropologie ...

  11. Die dialogiese prinsipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. de Klerk

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Met die dialogiese prinsipe word daardie beginsel bedoel, waarin die tweerigtingverkeer of kommunikasie onder, of met, of deur die mense op 'n heel besondere gesprekmatige wyse gere�l word. Tot die wese van die dialogiese prinsipe behoort "als Grundvoraussetzung das Ernstnehmen des Gesprachspartners und das darin enthaltene zuhoren-konnen. Dialog ist also etwas anderes als Disput oder Diskussion. Er setzt gegenseitiges Vertrauen und Hochachtung voraus."

  12. Die aanspraak op Goddelike steun in 'n konfliksituasie volgens die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    laws, and ethical or political principles. A synchronic investigation of relevant Old ... die toneel gebring met die vraag: 'aan wie se kant is God' (vgl bv The road to. Damascus 1979:6)? Volgens .... betrekking tot die Ou Testament: Hoe moet ons vasstel wie se kant God nou regtig kies, of wie veg aan die kant van God en wie ...

  13. Die begrafnisdíens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Num 20: 1; Jos 24: 30; Hand 5: 5 - 11). Selfs van die ... Gebruike rondom die begrafnis het van geslag tot geslag gewissel. De Vaux ... der geskied deur die hoorders 'te onderrig, te vermaan, te vertroos en te bestraf, soos dit in elke geval ..... gehandhaaf hoef te word, veral in die lig van die feit dat die predikant die kerklike.

  14. Die Ontstaan en Ontwikkeling van die Pan-Afrikanisme en due implikasies daarvan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J.H. van der Walt

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available Dit was nie voor 1880 dat tropiese Afrika, dil is die grootste gedeelte van Wes-, Oos- en Midde-Afrika, deur ontdekkingsreisigers,handelaars en sendelinge tot so ’11 mate ontsluit is, dat dit in die vaarwater van die wêreldpolitiek geraak het nie. Lank voor hierdie tyd is natuurlik steunpunte aan die Wes-, Suid- en Ooskusdeur die Portugese en later die Nederlanders en Engelse eset ter wille van óf dieslawehandel en/óf as steunpunte op dielarig handelsweg na die ryke Ooste.

  15. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....... measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...

  16. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were...... measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....

  17. Clearance Laboratory - Capability and measurement sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.; Silva, J.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Warming, L.

    2005-08-01

    A new low-level Clearance Laboratory has been built at the Risoe-site. Building materials with a low content of naturally occurring radionuclides have been used. To minimize transport of radon gas from soil into the laboratory the foundation has been supplied with a membrane. The laboratory has been equipped with two high-efficiency germanium detectors. These detectors will be used for clearance measurements on the predicted amount of 15,000 - 18,000 tonnes of non-active or nearly non-active materials, which will originate from the decommissioning of all the nuclear facilities at the Risoe-site. They will be used also for clearance measurements on buildings and land. Objects and materials to be measured for clearance are placed on a rotation table that can carry up to one tonne and can rotate once a minute to simulate some averaging of inhomogeneously distributed activity. Sensitivity and background measurements reveal that measuring times of 20 - 50 minutes would normally be sufficient to detect radionuclide concentrations of only a small fraction of the nuclide-specific clearance levels with a sufficiently low uncertainty. Probability calculations of the measurement capacity of the Clearance Laboratory indicate that the mean value of the total measuring time for all materials that potentially can be cleared would be 13 years with a 95% probability of being less than 25 years. The mean value of the annual amount of materials that can be measured in the laboratory is 600 tonnes with a 95% probability of being less than 1,200 tonnes. If needed, there is room for additional measuring systems to increase the capacity of the laboratory. (au)

  18. Clearance Laboratory - Capability and measurement sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.; Silva, J.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Warming, L.

    2005-09-01

    A new low-level Clearance Laboratory has been built at the Risoe-site. Building materials with a low content of naturally occurring radionuclides have been used. To minimize transport of radon gas from soil into the laboratory the foundation has been supplied with a membrane. The laboratory has been equipped with two high-efficiency germanium detectors. These detectors will be used for clearance measurements on the predicted amount of 15,000 - 18,000 tonnes of non-active or nearly non-active materials, which will originate from the decommissioning of all the nuclear facilities at the Risoe-site. They will be used also for clearance measurements on buildings and land. Objects and materials to be measured for clearance are placed on a rotation table that can carry up to one tonne and can rotate once a minute to simulate some averaging of inhomogeneously distributed activity. Sensitivity and background measurements reveal that measuring times of 20 - 50 minutes would normally be sufficient to detect radionuclide concentrations of only a small fraction of the nuclide-specific clearance levels with a sufficiently low uncertainty. Probability calculations of the measurement capacity of the Clearance Laboratory indicate that the mean value of the total measuring time for all materials that potentially can be cleared would be 13 years with a 95% probability of being less than 25 years. The mean value of the annual amount of materials that can be measured in the laboratory is 600 tonnes with a 95% probability of being less than 1,200 tonnes. If needed, there is room for additional measuring systems to increase the capacity of the laboratory. (au)

  19. Die toepassing van die K3-model op die televisieteks Colour TV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “OIL's approach to investigating the coloured market took place in the form of ethnographic research which ... communication strategies” (Botha 2010: 14). ... Op grond van die waarnemings, onderhoude en vraelyste het OIL tot die volgende ..... hold onto your nearest and dearest because this is going to be a kwaai mix bag.

  20. Vanaf die Fermat-punte na die De Villiers-punte van ’n driehoek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael de Villiers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontdekking van die sogenaamde De Villiers-punte van ’n driehoek die bewyse wat betrokke is, en trek die historiese oorsprong terug na die Fermat-punte van ’n driehoek, die swaartepunt van ’n driehoek, en ’n nuttige veralgemening van die Fermat-punte van ’n driehoek.

  1. Die uitbeelding van die vrou in Huisgenoot (1963 en 2013: ’n Multimodale diskoersanalise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann H. Marais

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Die standpunt dat die mens en die media in ’n verhouding van wedersydse beïnvloeding staan, sowel as die studie wat die kulturele konseptualisering van vroulikheid in twee Huisgenoot-uitgawes (1953 en 2003 ondersoek, geld as uitgangspunt vir dié studie. Hierdie studie het ten doel om te bepaal of daar ’n verskil is in die uitbeelding van die vrou in die Huisgenoot uitgawes van onderskeidelik 1963 en 2013. Volgens navorsing werk die visuele beeld en geskrewe teks saam om ’n boodskap oor te dra. Multimodale diskoersanalise (MDA word juis gebruik om beide visuele beeld en geskrewe teks te bestudeer. Sodoende word die metode van intersemiotiese komplementariteit binne MDA in hierdie studie gebruik. Die studie kom tot die gevolgtrekking dat die uitbeelding van die ideale vrou se verantwoordelikhede uitgebrei is, maar dat die vrou se rol tóg tot sekere ruimtes beperk word, soos die sigbaarheid van die moeder-stereotipe weerspieël.

  2. Die Dependenzgrammatik von Tesnière uno die neue slowenische Syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Pogorelec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available In der Enzyklopädie der slowenischen Sprache (Toporišič 1992: 159 wird die Dependenzgrammatik unter besonderem Stichwort erklärt, in dem diese Grammatik zuerst als "eine Grammatik, die vor allem die Dependenzrelationen im Satz untersucht", definiert wird. Dann werden laut Lucien Tesnière im Satz Reza poje drei Elemente dargestellt: Reza, poje + die Verbindung dazwischen und dann werden drei Stufen des Graphs mit dem Verb als "dem Element, das die Ganzheit zusammenhält" erklärt; außerdem wird gesagt, daß die Koordination gemäß dieser Theorie durch die entsprechende Konjunktion ausgedrückt wird (aus dem graphischen Schema ist ersichtlich, daß dabei die Satzteilkoordination gemeint ist: pojeta -Tine -in -Tone. Im Kommentar wird hinzugefügt, daß auch "unsere" (= moderne slowenische Satzanalyse so aussieht, d. i. sie fängt mit dem Prädikat an, dann fragt man nach folgenden drei Hauptsatzteilen (Subjekt, Objekt, adverbiellen Prädikatbestimmungen, dann nach Attributen und deren Bestimmungen. Es wird die Methode des Unterstreichens von Satzteilen dargestellt, außerdem wird auf mehrere Arten der Dependenzgrammatik und auf verschiedene graphische Bezeichnungen der sprachlichen Erscheinungen aufgrund dieser Methode hingewiesen. -Im demselben Werk werden unter dem Stichwort translativ (Toporišič 1992: 331 zwei Bedeutungen gezeigt, von denen die erste auf einen entfernten Zusammenhang mit der Theorie von Tesnière hinweist, obwohl diese nicht erwähnt ist, lediglich bei der Definition selbst, nicht aber bei den Beispielen; translativ ist nach dieser Enzyklopädie "was aus einem Zustand in den anderen übertragen wird". Aber aus den Beispielen kann man sehen, das geht es um die Translation und nicht um Translativ als Instrument dieser Translation.

  3. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  4. Experience and lessons learnt from clearance in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Clearance is an important corner-stone of waste management in nuclear installations in Germany. It has been practised successfully for around two decades. The importance of clearance can also be judged from the fact that it has been included detailedly in the new German Radiation Protection Ordinance. Currently, there are 19 NPPs and a number of fuel cycle installations in operation in Germany. The main waste quantities, however, arise from the dismantling of NPPs and fuel cycle installations which are currently in decommissioning. As most of the decommissioning projects are targeted for early dismantling instead of safe enclosure, there is already considerable experience with the application of clearance procedures and verification of clearance levels. The German waste management strategy is governed by two options: Clearance of the material (after decontamination and release measurement). After clearance, the material is no longer regarded as radioactive in a legal sense. Final disposal of the material as radioactive waste in a deep geological repository (no near-surface disposal facilities exist or are planned in Germany). A deep geological repository is planned to be operable around 2030. Stefan Thierfeldt described German clearance requirements and lessons learned from their application to decommissioning of power reactors. The great majority of the waste was in fact recycled, although the costs were dominated by the small fraction that had to be disposed of as radioactive waste. Among the lessons learned from the German experience were some revealing insights into the public perception of both clearance and of recycling of material from decommissioning of a nuclear installation

  5. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone...

  6. Comparison of renal clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and inulin, 131I-hippurate and PAH as well as of the creatinine clearance in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, J.; Li Min Su; Strangfeld, D.; Schuerer, M.; Siewert, H.; Pietsch, R.; Kruse, I.; Priem, F.

    1988-01-01

    Order of magnitude and standard deviation of 99m Tc-DTPA and 131 I-hippurate slope clearance were analyzed successively in 56 male Wistar rats. The clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA was 17.4 ± 3.43 μl · s -1 (100 g b-w) -1 , of 131 I-hippurate 34.3 ± 7.21 μl · s -1 (100 g b-w) -1 . In 17 rats inulin and PAH clearances were analyzed by steady state method with permanent infusion and 3 to 4 urine collection periods 3 days later. The endogeneous creatinine clearance was determined within the same periods. The 99m Tc-DTPA slope clearance corresponded to the inulin clearance, as well as the hippurate clearance to the PAH clearance. The high filtration fraction calculated from nuclear medicine and chemical clearance methods and the low PAH extraction (42%) let suggest that PAH and hippurate are eliminated only incompletely from plasma in rat kidney and are unsuitable for determination of renal blood supply in rats. The creatinine clearance with 4.7 ± 1.38 μl · s -1 (100 g b-w) -1 was far beneath the clearance of inulin and 99m Tc-DTPA, supposing that creatinine is reabsorbed tubularly in part and the creatinine clearance can not be used for valuation of the GFR in rats. However, for this the 99m Tc-DTPA clearance in Wistar rats seems to be well suited. (author)

  7. Ruimtelike beplanning: die rol van die stads - en streeksbeplanner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ruimtelike beplanning: die rol van die stads - en streeksbeplanner in die saw. R Erasmus. Abstract. Since 1978 regional and town planners are employed in the SADF on a permanent basis as well as in the capacity of national service men. These men are all academically qualified and as such satisfy a need that developed ...

  8. Bevordering van transformerende leer: Die skryf van ’n reflektiewe joernaal in die Natuurwetenskappe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna R. du Toit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die doel van die artikel is om aan te toon hoe die skryf van ’n reflektiewe joernaal in die Natuurwetenskappe die perspektiewe en denke van onderwysstudente kan transformeer en/of leer kan bevorder. Die studie maak voorspraak vir die gebruik van ’n reflektiewe joernaal as ’n instrument vir studente om betekenis te gee aan die leeromgewing vanuit verskillende perspektiewe deur te leer in praktyk. ’n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsmetode is gevolg om die inskrywings in ’n joernaal te analiseer aan die hand van bepaalde indikatore. Die bevindinge toon dat die meeste studente na die praktykervaring positief was en sommiges het tot ander perspektiewe vanweë hul ervaring gekom.

  9. Die impak van die verbond op 'n paradigma vir pastoraat: research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die verbond het 'n meer omvattende impak op pastorale sorg as ander paradigmas. Genoemde stelling word in hierdie artikel beredeneer. Daar word aangetoon dat die inhoud wat aan die gelowige gekommunikeer word, asook die tegnieke wat gebruik word, deur 'n verbondmatige paradigma vir pastorale sorg be?nvloed ...

  10. Die berekening van vloeiing in ’n roterende annulus deur die metode van kunsmatige saamdrukbaarheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Grobler

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Die vloeiing van ’n onsaamdrukbare, viskeuse vloeier word ondersoek aan die hand van die numeriese oplossing van die gediskretiseerde Navier-Stokes- en kontinuiteitsbeheervergelykings. In die besonder word vloeiing in ’n annulus bestaande uit twee koaksiale silinders wat elk ten opsigte van die ander kan roteer, en met ’n voorgeskrewe drukval oor die lengte van die silinder, beskou. Die oplossings word bereken deur die toepassing van Chorin se metode van kunsmatige saamdrukbaarheid, waarin die tydonafhanklike beheervergelykings getransformeer word na tydafhanklike hulpvergelykings deur die invoering van ’n kunsmatige toestandsvergelyking. Die oplossing van die hulpvergelykings konvergeer na ’n stasionêre oplossing, wat ooreenstem met die oplossing van die oorspronklike tydonafhanklike beheervergelykings. Die gedrag van die vloeier, wanneer ten voile ontwikkelde laminêre vloeiing bereik word, is met sukses bereken. ’n Eenvoudige model vir die bepaling van ontwikkeling van vloeiing langs die annulus vir enige gegewe invloeisnelheidsprofiel word voorgestel. Die berekende resultate stem ooreen met die resultate wat uit die fisika van die probleem verwag word.

  11. Clearance systems in the brain—implications for Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M.; Carare, Roxana O.; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V.; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates—amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles—is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood–brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ. PMID:26195256

  12. Clearance systems in the brain-implications for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M; Carare, Roxana O; Osorio, Ricardo S; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J

    2015-08-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates-amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles-is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood-brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ.

  13. Secretin enhances [14C]erythritol clearance in unanesthetized dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.H.; Baker, A.L.; Dhorajiwala, J.; Moossa, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the effect of secretin infusion on clearance of inert markers into bile, unanesthetized dogs fitted with Thomas cannulas received continuous infusions of [ 14 C]erythritol and [ 3 H]inulin throughout study. Taurocholic acid administered sequentially at 9.0, 20.0, and 40.0 mumol/min enhanced [ 14 C]erythritol clearance, and GIH secretin (3 units/min) administered along with TCA (40.0 mumol/min) increased [ 14 C]erythritol clearance from 4.9 +/- 1.2 ml/10 min to 6.8 +/- 1.3 ml/10 min (P less than 0.001), but simultaneously measured [ 3 H]inulin clearance was unaltered. Secretin alone also increased [ 14 C]erythritol clearance but did not alter [ 3 H]inulin clearance. The increase in [ 14 C]erythritol clearance per unit increase in bile flow was less during secretin infusion than TCA. Thus, secretin increases [ 14 C]erythritol transport through restricted channels, probably distal to the canaliculi. [ 14 C]Erythritol may not be an accurate marker for canalicular bile flow in dogs during secretin infusion

  14. ’n Voorgestelde matriks vir die pastorale berading van die verwonde geloofsvervreemde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentzel C. Coetzer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel fokus op die rol van pastorale berading aan die emosioneel-verwonde en geloofsvervreemde persoon deur middel van die redding in Christus. Die rol van God Drie-enig en die sentrale posisie van die Skrif word ondersoek. Verder word aspekte wat ’n Skrifgefundeerde mensbeeld onderlê, gekonstrueer. Die verband tussen emosionele trauma en geloofsvervreemding, asook die aspek van reg en geregtigheid, word hierna ondersoek. Die belangrikheid van die heil in Christus in die geestelike genesingsproses word ook bespreek. Ter afsluiting word ’n pastoraal-terapeutiese matriks voorgestel vir ingrype in die huidige lewenskrisis en die bestaande geloofsvervreemding met inagneming van die traumageskiedenis. Praktiese riglyne word verder verskaf as hulpmiddel vir begeleiding in die ondersteuningsproses. A proposed matrix regarding the pastoral counselling of the wounded faith-estranged. This article focuses on the role of the pastoral counselling of the emotionally wounded and faith-estranged person through the mediation of the salvation in Christ. The role of the Triune God and the central position of Scripture in mediating the salvation in Christ are also examined and the Scriptural view of man is constructed. The role of emotional trauma in the estrangement from God as well as the importance of justice and retribution are examined as it relates to the spiritual and emotional healing of the wounded faith-estranged. The article also discusses the prominence of the salvation in Christ in the spiritual healing process. In conclusion, a pastoral-therapeutic matrix of intervention is proposed to help in addressing the present life crisis and current faith-estrangement within the context of the trauma history, with a view to find healing from the woundedness and the faith-estrangement through salvation in Christ. Practical guidelines are offered to guide this supporting process.

  15. Etíese perspektiewe vir die bantering van konflik in die mediese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mits versagtende omstandighede nie aangevoer kan word nie. Die howe oefen dan ook alleen sy regterlike funksie uit oor 'n konkrete geskil wat van daadwerklike belang vir die werklike partye is (Strauss 1982:14). Die hof laat hom lei deur die maatstaf van goeie sedes, die boni mores. Regter Mostert se verduideliking in ...

  16. 'n Verkenning van die soorte vennootskappe in die Amerikaanse reg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In die Amerikaanse literatuur word talle verwysings gevind na die vennootskap in mynbou ("mining partnership"), familievennootskap ("family partnership", vennootskap in vaste eiendom ("partnership in real estate") en vennootskap vir boerdery ("farming partnership"). Hierdie onderskeiding is primer gebaseer op die tipe ...

  17. Early diagnosis of morphologic-functional changes of the airways by a simple method of inhalation scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flierdt, E. van de; Bauer, R.; Laubenbacher, C.; Didic, M.; Langhammer, H.R.; Pabst, H.W.

    1992-01-01

    In order to validate a method of inhalation scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labeled human serum albumin in the early diagnosis of morphologic-functional changes of the airways 35 volunteers and patients (12 healthy non-smokers and smokers each, 11 patients with bronchitis) were studied. Deposition of the aerosol immediately after inhalation was calculated quantitatively by a ROI technique and qualitatively (scoring of central deposition, homogeneity, and recognizability of lung outline). Additionally, the regional clearance of the inhaled aerosol was determined by continuous lung imaging up to 60 min (mainly regional mucociliary removal rates). Discrimination between healthy volunteers and patients with bronchitis was possible by means of deposition patterns immediately after inhalation. On the other hand, no differences could be recognized in this way between healthy non-smokers and smokers. Regional mucociliary removal was higher in non-smokers than in smokers, but there was no difference between smokers and patients with bronchitis. (orig.) [de

  18. Comparison of renal clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and inulin 131I-hippurate and PAH as well as creatinine clearance in Wistar-rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, J.; Li Min Su; Strangfeld, D.; Schuerer, M.; Siewert, H.; Pietsch, R.; Kruse, I.; Priem, F.

    1988-01-01

    Averages and standard deviations of 99m Tc-DTPA and 131 I-hippurate slope clearance were consecutively determined for 56 male Wistar rats, with a body-weight of 271 ± 69 g in a single investigation. Clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA was 17.4 ± 3.4, that of 131 I-hippurate was 34.3 ± 7.2 μl · s -1 per 100 g body weight. For 17 rats inulin and PAH clearances were determined after 3 days with the steady-state method with continuous infusion and 3-4 periods of urine collection. During the same periods endogeneous creatinine clearance was determined. 99m Tc-DTPA slope clearance correlated well with inulin clearance, also the hippurate with the PAH clearance. The high values of the filtration fraction, calculated from radioisotope and chemical methods, and the low PAH extraction of 42% lead to the conclusion, that PAH and hippurate are incompletely eliminated by the rat kidney from plasma and therefore are inadequate for determining renal blood flow in rats. Creatinine clearance was 4.7 ± 1.38 μl · s -1 per 100 g body weight, much lower than that of inulin and 99m Tc-DTPA. Therefore is assumed, that tubular reabsorption of creatinine occurs and creatinine clearance cannot serve for the evaluation of GFR in rats. For this, however, the clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA seems well applicable in Wistar rats. (author)

  19. Die identifisering van maatstawwe vir die navorsingsprestasie van akademici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Labuschagne

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of criteria for academic research performance. At South African universities, the achievement of objectives is usually measured in terms of so-called "process criteria" (e.g. pass rates, instead of performance criteria which reflect the quality of academic personnel. Stimulated by the need to identify valid indices of research performance, as a component of academic performance, this study investigated the dimensionality of several criteria, identified from empirical and literature studies. It was found that various valid criteria could be represented by six constructs, viz.: the stature of the researcher as scientist; scientific contributions; enhancement of own profession; community development; participation in research projects; and giving advice to persons or institutions outside the university. Opsomming By Suid-Afrikaanse universiteite word doelwitbereiking gewoonlik aan die hand van sogenaamde "prosesmaat-stawwe" (bv. slaagsyfers in plaas van prestasiemaatstawwe wat die gehalte van akademiese personeel weerspieel, gemeet. Na aanleiding van 'n behoefte aan die identifisering van geldige rigtingwysers vir navorsingsprestasie as 'n komponent van akademiese prestasie, is daar ondersoek ingestel na die dimensionaliteit van verskillende maatstawwe wat vooraf deur middel van empiriese- en literatuurstudies geidentifiseer is. Daar is gevind dat verskeie geldige maatstawwe deur ses konstrukte verteenwoordig word, te wete: die statuur van die navorser as wetenskaplike, wetenskaplike bydraes, uitbouing van eie professie, gemeenskapsontwikkeling, deelname aan navorsingsprojekte en advieslewering aan persone of instellings buite die Universiteit.

  20. Riglyne vir ‘n omvattende verrykingsprogram vir die bevordering van die geestesgesondheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette Gmeiner

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In Suid-Afrika, met die snelle veranderinge in die politiek, ekonomie, lewenstyl en tegnologiese vooruitgang, gepaard met die geweld tans in die land, is die lewenskwaliteit van mense so bemvloed dat produktiwiteit en gedrag benadeel is. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  1. Die effek van intelligensie op die verhouding tussen lokus van kontrole en taakkompleksiteit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. de Kock

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of intelligence on the relationship between locus of control and task complexity. The aim of the study was to establish the effects of intelligence on the relationship between locus of control and task complexity. These constructs were selected by virtue of their importance in the literature, as well as the lack of empirical research regarding the assumed relationship which exists between them. The Human Sciences Research Council's (HSRC General Scholastic Aptitude Test (ASAT was used for measuring intelligence, Duttweiler's Internal Control Index (ICI was used for determining locus of control and the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM was used as a criterion for coping with task complexity. These instruments were administered to 292 subjects to determine whether the relationship between locus of control and task complexity was effected when the effect of intelligence was controlled. The results indicated a significant relationship between locus of control and task complexity, however the relationship was no longer significant after the effect of intelligence was controlled. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die effek van intelligensie op die verhouding tussen lokus van kontrole en taak-kompleksiteit te ondersoek. Hierdie konstrukte is gekies na aanleiding van hulle belangrikheid in die literatuur asook die leemte in empiric se navorsing rakende die veronderstelde verband wat tussen hulle bestaan. Die Algemene Skolastiese Aanlegtoets (ASAT van die Raad vir Geesteswetenskaplike Navorsing (RGN is gebruik vir die meting van intelligensie, die Internal Control Index (ICI van Duttweiler is gebruik vir die meting van lokus van kontrole en die Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM van Raven is gebruik as maatstaf vir die bantering van taakkompleksiteit. Die genoemde meetinstrumente is op 292 proefpersone toegepas om te bepaal of die verband tussen lokus van kontrole en taakkompleksiteit geaffekteer word wanneer daar vir die effek

  2. Metabolic clearance rate and urinary clearance of purified beta-core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehmann, R.E.; Blithe, D.L.; Flack, M.R.; Nisula, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    We injected a highly purified preparation of the beta-core molecule, a fragment of hCG beta excreted in pregnancy urine, into five men and three women to determine its kinetic parameters, MCR, and urinary clearance. The beta-core molecule was distributed in an initial volume [1950 +/- 156 (mean +/- SEM) mL/m2 body surface area] approximately equal to the estimated plasma volume. Its disappearance was multiexponential on a semilogarithmic plot, with a rapid phase t1/2 of 3.5 +/- 0.7 min and a slow phase t1/2 of 22.4 +/- 4.2 min. The transit time (the mean time spent by a molecule of beta-core in transit) was 20.6 +/- 2.1 min. The MCR was 192.0 +/- 8.0 mL/min.m2 body surface area. About 5% of the injected dose of beta-core was excreted into the urine in the first 30 min after injection, and low levels of excretion persisted for up to 7 days. The urinary clearance rate of beta-core was 13.7 +/- 1.4 mL/min.m2, accounting for about 8% of the elimination of beta-core from the plasma. The beta-core immunoreactivity in serum and urine was characterized by gel filtration and three independent RIA systems to show that its properties were indistinguishable from those of the injected beta-core. Serum levels of beta-core in pregnant women were less than 0.2 ng/mL, while the amounts excreted in their urine were as much as 5 mg/day. Based on these clearance parameters of beta-core in normal subjects, less than 0.2% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived by urinary clearance of plasma beta-core. Therefore, more than 99% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived from beta-core in a compartment separate from plasma. In particular, these data indicate that there is relatively little placental secretion of beta-core into plasma and that placental secretion does not account for the vast majority of beta-core in pregnancy urine

  3. 'n Ondersoek na die potensiaal-bepaling van werknemers in die landbousektor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. D. Augustyn

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into determining the potential of workers in the agricultural sector. Industrial Psychological principles and concepts are not being applied extensively in the agricultural sector. Against this background an attempt was made to scientifically identify potential and predict job performance amongst farm labourers. Using the PAQ method of job analysis, critical attributes were identified and a satisfactorily valid battery of tests was developed. The results of this study underlines the importance of the identification of the potential of farm labourers as a first step in the personnel management process. It also serves as a source of information that could be used by farmers for counselling purposes. Opsomming Wat die toepassing van Bedryfsielkundige beginsels en konsepte betref bestaan daar in die landboubedryf nog groot leemtes. Teen hierdie agtergrond is 'n poging aangewend om op 'n wetenskaplike wyse die potensiaal van plaasarbeiders te bepaal. Deur middel van die WOV-metode van posontleding is kritieke attribute by workers geidentifiseer en kon 'n toetsbattery met aanvaarbare geldigheid saamgestel word. Die resultate van die studie bevestig dat die identifisering van die potensiaal van plaaswerkers 'n noodsaaklike eerste stap in die personeelbestuursproses is. Dit kan ook met groot vrug as voorligtingshulpmiddel deur boere gebruik word.

  4. Die invloed van ‘n intensiewe opleidingsprogram op die Kardio Stres-indeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Claassen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mense ondervind baie stressors in hul alledaagse lewe, wat ‘n groot uitwerking het op daagliksefunksionering. Kardio Stres-indeks (KSI is ‘n nie-indringende mate van die stres wat die hartervaar. KSI (uitgedruk as ‘n persentasie berekeninge word gebaseer op die duur van die QRSkompleks, hart tempo, ritme en standaardafwyking van die RR-interval (RRSD spesifieke parameters.

  5. Verskuiwing in die moraal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. van der Walt

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Modewoorde het ons deesdae oorgenoeg in die Christelike sedeleer en hulle kan nogal verwarring stig. U moet my vergun om met u te spreek oor een so ’n modewoord nl „verskuiwing’’ in die moraal. Dis nogal ’n mooi woord, wat so dikwels gebruik word op baie terreine en tog meer wil aandui as maar net ’n veranderde sienswyse, ’n wysiging in opvattinge of nuwe riglyne wat al gangbaar geword het in die praktyk. Die begrip wil eintlik die ewolusionêre gang beklemtoon, want dit is dan eintlik net die ou norme wat effens anders bekyk word of nie meer so nou geneem of dik onderstreep word nie. Die verskuiwing beteken dan dat alles nog dieselfde bly, net die posisie of plek het verander. Verskuiwing beteken tog plekverandering of plekwisseling en dan sekerlik nie in die sin dat die plekke ver uitmekaar lê nie. Verskuiwing beteken net maar vlak langs die vorige te staan kom. As dit dan ’n beter plek is, is dit ewolusie, ontwikkeling, verbetering.

  6. Die bantering van daar-interferensie in die Duits van Afrikaansmoedertaliges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerencia C. Steyn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of sentence constructions in the soundtracks (simulcast of some television programmes indicates a general lack of a German equivalent for the multiple use of the A.frikaans daar. This naturally results in interference in the usage of German by A.frikaans speaking students, as they are inclined to construct their German sentences in accordance with the A.frikaans equivalents. This problem is mainly illustrated in either the erroneous use of a da or an inappropriate es gibt. Various exercises are submitted, aimed at obviating such errors of interference which are mainly noticeable in the spoken ·language. Soos blyk uit 'n vergelyking van segslryses in die parallelle klankbane van enkele televisieprogramme, het die veelvuldige gebruik van die Afrikaanse woord daar gewoonlik geen ekwivalensie in Duits nie. Dit lei maklik tot interferensie in die Duits van Afrikaansmoedertalige studente, omdat hulle daartoe neig om hul Duitse sinne soos die in A.frikaans te konstrueer. Hierdie probleem word hoofsaaklik in die foutiewe gebruik van da geopenbaar; soms egter ook in 'n misplaaste es gibt. Verskeie oefeninge word aan die hand gedoen om sulke interferensiefoute, wat vera! in m(mdelinge werk opduik, te bekamp.

  7. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, Séverine H.; Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Lacroix, Marlène Z.; Puel, Sylvie; Viguié, Catherine; Bousquet-Melou, Alain; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Gayrard, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min

  8. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, Séverine H., E-mail: s.collet@envt.fr; Picard-Hagen, Nicole, E-mail: n.hagen-picard@envt.fr; Lacroix, Marlène Z., E-mail: m.lacroix@envt.fr; Puel, Sylvie, E-mail: s.puel@envt.fr; Viguié, Catherine, E-mail: c.viguie@envt.fr; Bousquet-Melou, Alain, E-mail: a.bousquet-Melou@envt.fr; Toutain, Pierre-Louis, E-mail: pltoutain@wanadoo.fr; Gayrard, Véronique, E-mail: v.gayrard@envt.fr

    2015-05-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  9. Die faktorstruktuur van Bass se veelfaktor- leierskapsvraelys in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C .P. Ackermann

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire in the South African context. The aim of the study was to determine whether the factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ, as a measure of transformational leadership, could be replicated within the South African context. The MLQ was chosen not only because it promised to be a valid and reliable measuring instrument of the construct in question, but also due to the fact that there was an urgent need for such an instrument in the management of human resources within organisations undergoing transformation. The MLQ was administered to 406 subjects within the military context and was subjected to factor analysis and item analysis. The factor analysis yielded three factors, namely transformational leadership, transactional leadership and avoidance of leadership ("laissez faire" leadership. The reliabilities of the scales were determined by means of Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and yielded coefficients of 0,944, 0,736 and 0,803 respectively. The factor structure as conceptualised by Bass (1985 was largely confirmed in the present study. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om vas te stel of die faktorstruktuur van die Veelfaktorleierskapsvraelys (MLQ van Bass, as maatstafvan transformasionele leierskap, in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks gerepliseer kon word. Die MLQ is gekies omdat dit belofte inhou as n geldige en betroubare meetinstrument van die onderhawige konstruk, en ook weens die feit dat daar 'n dringende behoefte bestaan aan so n instrument vir gebruik in die bestuur van menslike hulpbronne in organisasies tydens verandering. Die MLQ is op 406 proefpersone binne militêre konteks toegepas, en aan n faktorontleding en n itemontleding onderwerp. Die faktorontleding het drie faktore opgelewer, te wete transformasionele leierskap, transaksionele leierskap en vermyding van leierskap ("laissez faire"-leierskap. Die betroubaarheid van die skale is bepaal

  10. Ek wil hier graag van die geleentheid gebruik maak am die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    die wildlewe am van die jagters nie eers mel- ding te maak nie en in Lucas se werk kan hulle ure van genot deurbring. Wat ons veral in Lucas se publikasie interes- seer is sy deelname aan die agste grensoor~' log (1850-1853), sy aantekeninge in verband met die slag by Berea (20 Oesember 1852) en sy indrukke van ...

  11. Die radio in Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. de Villiers

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Omvang van radio-uitsendings in en na Afrika. — Redes vir die versnelde tempo van uitbreiding. — Radio as die geskikste massa-kommunikasiemiddel vir Afrika. — Faktore wat die verspreiding bemoeilik. — Skouspelagtige toename in luistertalle.Toe Plinius, wat in die jaar 79 oorlede is, in sy „Historia Naturalis” verklaar het dat daar altyd iets nuuts uit Afrika afkomstig is, kon hy nouliks voorsien het dat die „iets" negentien eeue later in die lug sou setel wat hierdie reuse-vasteland oorspan — ’n Babelse spraakverwarring en ’n ongekende, verbete woorde-oorlog in die etergolwe, onder meer daarop bereken om die harte en hoofde van derduisendes te verower.

  12. Halfkrone vir die Nagmaal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    die omgewing van Velddrif en Laaiplek, ook noordwaarts verby Lambertsbaai tot by. Doringbaai en Strandfontein. “Haar seeverhale is Sussie (Kotze) se belangrikste bydrae tot die Afrikaanse letterkunde”, sê Kotzé-Myburgh in die voorwoord van die versamelbundel. Die leser word herinner aan Kotze se debuutroman, ...

  13. 48 CFR 2452.237-75 - Clearance of contractor personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Clearance of contractor... Clauses 2452.237-75 Clearance of contractor personnel. As prescribed in 2437.110(e), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts. Clearance of Contractor Personnel (OCT 1999) (a) General. This...

  14. Die Leben Einsteins eine Reise durch die Geschichte der Physik

    CERN Document Server

    Fiami

    2005-01-01

    Jeder kennt die Namen Einstein, Newton oder Galilei. aber was weiss man über sie? Hier ein Porträt Einsteins anhand von sechs Meilensteinen aus der Geschichte der Physik. Einstein tritt auf als Protagonist in verschiedenen Epochen und bei verschiedenen Entdeckungen, die die Welt verändert haben.

  15. Die Ukraine-Krise und kritische Fragen an die EU-Erweiterungspolitik

    OpenAIRE

    Lippert, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Die Ukraine-Krise konfrontiert die EU mit kritischen Fragen zu ihrer Erweiterungs-politik. Muss sie nach der Osterweiterung 2004/07 und dem gerade erst begonnenen Einzug der Westbalkan-Staaten nun mit Osteuropa für die übernächste Erweiterungs-runde rechnen? Sollte sie sich gar alsbald politisch verpflichten, interessierte und beitrittsfähige osteuropäische Länder eines Tages aufzunehmen? Wie jetzt auch viel-fach von EU-Akteuren geäußert, wäre dies voreilig: Denn in der konfliktgeladenen und ...

  16. Die waarde van voorafopleiding deur die ouer vir pedo-oudiometrie by drie- en vierjarige kleuters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merisa Lodewyckx

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available Die verkryging van akkurate, betroubare inligting aangaande die gehoorvermoë van jong kinders is van besondere belang vir die oudioloog, maar word dikwels bemoeilik aangesien die kleuter nie goeie samewerking bied in die vreemde pedo-oudiometriese situasie nie. Die oplossing hiervoor is grootliks geleë in die opleiding van die kind voor formele  gehoortoetsing en meer spesifiek  opleiding tuis deur die ouer. Die doel van hierdie studie was om 'n voorbereidende program op te stel wat die ouer tuis met die kind kan uitvoer, voordat formele  toetsing plaasvind. Die waarde en effek van hierdie program in die pedo-oudiometriese situasie is geevalueer by 'n groep drie- en vierjarige kleuters. Resultate dui daarop dat laer en meer akkurate drempels, 'n korter toetstydperk, verminderde angs en beter samewerking verkry is by die kleuters wat vooraf  opleiding ontvang het. Die opleidingsprogram kan dus in die kliniese praktyk benut word as voorafopleiding  vir pedo-oudiometrie.

  17. Varswateralge en die ekonomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. Scott

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Die artikel bespreek die ekonomiese belong wat varswateralge alreeds het en hul moontlike verdere ontginning in die toekoms. Sowel gewenste as ongewenste aspekte word oorweeg en hoofsaaklik met voorbeelde uit Suid-Afrika geïllustreer. Die oormatige ontwikkeling van ongewenste alge in varswater verlaag die watergehalte dear verskeie chemiese veranderinge, wat kan wissel van smake en geure tot die produksie van verbindings wat gesondheidsgevare vir mens of dier inhou. Verwydering van ongewenste alge dra aansienlik by tot die koste van waterbehandeling. Oormatige alggroei belemmer ontspanningsgebruike en kan eiendomswaardes langs rivier- en damoewers beïnvloed.

  18. DIE GESKIEDENIS VAN AFDELING LOGISTIEK

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Aug 1978 ... dan ook aangebied, Agv die probleem wat ont- staan het met die gebrek aan goedgekeurde poste vir die Afdeling en as gevolg van die ver- wagte vertraging met die ondersoek van die. DOS-span, het die Afdeling Logistiek en Afde- ling Personeel oorleg gepleeg en laasgenoemde het ingestem dat die ...

  19. Comparative evaluation of iohexol and inulin clearance for glomerular filtration rate determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, H.G.; Berg, U.B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have evaluated iohexol as a filtration marker in 150 children. The clearance of iohexol was compared with that of inulin or with a formula clearance. The single-sample clearance of iohexol showed a good correlation with the clearance of inulin. The clearance of iohexol correlated well with the formula clearance. The optimal blood sampling time for iohexol clearance determinations appears to be between 120 and 180 min after injection, at least in patient with relatively normal filtration rates. It is concluded that iohexol clearance is an accurate method of determining the glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice. 25 refs., 5 figs

  20. Die begrafnisdíens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (De Vaux 1961:108). Was die begrafnis 'n familie of 'n kerklike aangeleentheid? Hierdie vraag word nie in die Bybel beantwoord nie. Abraham het sy vrou begrawe (Gen 23: 19-. 20). Isak en Ismael ..... ver gekom om die begrafnis 'n kerklike aangeleentheid te maak nie. Hierdie stap .... trou aan die sorg van God. * Die kerk ...

  1. Security Clearance Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — SCTS supports the adjudication process of private background investigations and clearances for potential employees, contractors, interns and student workers.

  2. Effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on structural and functional parameters in the respiratory system of guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on the respiratory system of guinea pigs. Methods: Male guinea pigs were divided into two groups: control and passive smoking, the latter being exposed to the smoke of ten cigarettes for 20 min in the morning, afternoon and evening (30 cigarettes/day for five days. After that period, inflammatory parameters were studied by quantifying mesenteric mast cell degranulation, as well as oxidative stress, in BAL fluid. In addition, we determined MIP, MEP, and mucociliary transport (in vivo, as well as tracheal contractility response (in vitro. Results: In comparison with the control group, the passive smoking group showed a significant increase in mast cell degranulation (19.75 ± 3.77% vs. 42.53 ± 0.42%; p < 0.001 and in the levels of reduced glutathione (293.9 ± 19.21 vs. 723.7 ± 67.43 nM/g of tissue; p < 0.05; as well as a significant reduction in mucociliary clearance (p < 0.05, which caused significant changes in pulmonary function (in MIP and MEP; p < 0.05 for both and airway hyperreactivity. Conclusions: Passive inhalation of cigarette smoke caused significant increases in mast cell degranulation and oxidative stress. This inflammatory process seems to influence the decrease in mucociliary transport and to cause changes in pulmonary function, leading to tracheal hyperreactivity.

  3. Centrifugal compressor tip clearance and impeller flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaatinen-Varri, Ahti; Tiainen, Jonna; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Gronman, Aki; Ameli, Alireza; Backman, Jari [Laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, LUT School of Energy Systems, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland); Engeda, Abraham [Turbomachinery Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Compressors consume a considerable portion of the electricity used in the industrial sector. Hence, improvements in compressor efficiency lead to energy savings and reduce environmental impacts. The efficiency of an unshrouded centrifugal compressor suffers from leakage flow over the blade tips. The effect of tip leakage flow on the passage flow differs between the full and splitter blade passages. In this study, the differences in the flow fields between the full and splitter blade passages were studied numerically in detail. An industrial high-speed compressor with a design pressure ratio of 1.78 was modelled. Numerical studies were conducted with six different tip clearances and three different diffuser widths. The results show that increasing tip clearance considerably increases the reversed flow into the impeller with an unpinched diffuser. The reversed flow then partly mixes into the flow in the same blade passage it entered the impeller and the rest migrates over the blade, mixing with the tip clearance flow. Furthermore, as the reversed and clearance flow mix into the wake, the wake is weakened. As pinch reduces both the reversed flow and clearance flow, the passage wakes are stronger with pinches. However, the pinch is beneficial as the losses at the impeller outlet decrease.

  4. Centrifugal compressor tip clearance and impeller flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaatinen-Varri, Ahti; Tiainen, Jonna; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Gronman, Aki; Ameli, Alireza; Backman, Jari; Engeda, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Compressors consume a considerable portion of the electricity used in the industrial sector. Hence, improvements in compressor efficiency lead to energy savings and reduce environmental impacts. The efficiency of an unshrouded centrifugal compressor suffers from leakage flow over the blade tips. The effect of tip leakage flow on the passage flow differs between the full and splitter blade passages. In this study, the differences in the flow fields between the full and splitter blade passages were studied numerically in detail. An industrial high-speed compressor with a design pressure ratio of 1.78 was modelled. Numerical studies were conducted with six different tip clearances and three different diffuser widths. The results show that increasing tip clearance considerably increases the reversed flow into the impeller with an unpinched diffuser. The reversed flow then partly mixes into the flow in the same blade passage it entered the impeller and the rest migrates over the blade, mixing with the tip clearance flow. Furthermore, as the reversed and clearance flow mix into the wake, the wake is weakened. As pinch reduces both the reversed flow and clearance flow, the passage wakes are stronger with pinches. However, the pinch is beneficial as the losses at the impeller outlet decrease

  5. het om die Woord van God aan die gemeente te bedien. A. D. P ont ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Sizoo vertel met die vlotheid van die ervare skrywer en die ver antwoordelikheid van die wetenskaplike ... Maar in stiptelike trou aan die feitelikheid, verlaat die skrywer hom uitsluitlik op die outentieke bronne om ... de leser; in sy rykdom van gegewens en wetenskaplike betroubaarheid kan dit met vrug gelees word deur die ...

  6. Hepatic drug clearance following traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, R L; Hassett, J M

    1985-11-01

    Trauma is a complex disease state associated with physiologic changes that have the potential to alter hepatic drug clearance mechanisms. These responses include alterations in hepatic blood flow, reduction in hepatic microsomal activity, reduction in hepatic excretion processes, and changes in protein binding. Hepatic blood flow is influenced by sympathomimetic activity. Both animal and human studies demonstrate an initial reduction and subsequent increase in hepatic blood flow, which coincides with an observed increase and subsequent return to normal in serum catecholamine concentrations. Unfortunately, there are no human studies that address the importance these findings may have to the clearance processes of high intrinsic clearance compounds. Animal studies of trauma indicate that hepatic microsomal activity is depressed during the post-traumatic period. Reduction in the hepatic clearance of antipyrine, a model low intrinsic compound, has also been demonstrated in animal models of trauma. In addition to these effects, hepatic excretion of substances such as indocyanine green and bilirubin have been demonstrated to be impaired in both traumatized animals and humans. Finally, substantial increases in the serum concentration of the binding protein alpha 1-acid glycoprotein occur in trauma patients. This has been reported to be associated with subsequent decreases in the free fraction of lidocaine and quinidine. In addition to changing serum drug concentration/response relationships, the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein should also change. Preliminary observations in our laboratory in a dog model of surgically-induced trauma have shown a reduction in the total clearance of lidocaine and reduction in free lidocaine concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Diminished creatinine clearance in anorexia nervosa: reversal with weight gain.

    OpenAIRE

    Boag, F; Weerakoon, J; Ginsburg, J; Havard, C W; Dandona, P

    1985-01-01

    To assess whether patients with anorexia nervosa have abnormalities in creatinine clearance, we measured plasma creatinine concentration, urinary creatinine excretion, and creatinine clearance in 10 patients with anorexia nervosa before and during treatment. Urinary creatinine excretion and creatinine clearance were diminished in all patients. Nine patients had significant decreases in their plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance was increased even when corrected for body weight and body ...

  8. Cerebrospinal Fluid Clearance in Alzheimer Disease Measured with Dynamic PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Mony J; Li, Yi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Tsui, Wai H; Saint-Louis, Les A; Glodzik, Lidia; Osorio, Ricardo S; Fortea, Juan; Butler, Tracy; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Fossati, Silvia; Kim, Hee-Jin; Carare, Roxana O; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Rusinek, Henry

    2017-09-01

    Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) comes primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents, in which predominant extracranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing the cribriform plate, human CSF clearance pathways are not well characterized. Dynamic PET with 18 F-THK5117, a tracer for tau pathology, was used to estimate the ventricular CSF time-activity as a biomarker for CSF clearance. We tested 3 hypotheses: extracranial CSF is detected at the superior turbinates; CSF clearance is reduced in AD; and CSF clearance is inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Methods: Fifteen subjects, 8 with AD and 7 normal control volunteers, were examined with 18 F-THK5117. Ten subjects additionally underwent 11 C-Pittsburgh compound B ( 11 C-PiB) PET scanning, and 8 were 11 C-PiB-positive. Ventricular time-activity curves of 18 F-THK5117 were used to identify highly correlated time-activity curves from extracranial voxels. Results: For all subjects, the greatest density of CSF-positive extracranial voxels was in the nasal turbinates. Tracer concentration analyses validated the superior nasal turbinate CSF signal intensity. AD patients showed ventricular tracer clearance reduced by 23% and 66% fewer superior turbinate CSF egress sites. Ventricular CSF clearance was inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Conclusion: The human nasal turbinate is part of the CSF clearance system. Lateral ventricle and superior nasal turbinate CSF clearance abnormalities are found in AD. Ventricular CSF clearance reductions are associated with increased brain amyloid depositions. These data suggest that PET-measured CSF clearance is a biomarker of potential interest in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  9. Analysis of conservativity analysis for clearance levels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckert, A.; Thierfeldt, S.

    1997-07-01

    When deriving clearance levels for material from nuclear installations it is necessary to proceed with a certain degree of conservativity. This can, however, differ between various sets of clearance levels leading to inconsistencies between clearance pathways. The aim of the work therefore is to compare levels of conservativity for the following two sets of clearance levels: clearance levels for disposal as conventional waste and for metallic materials for recycling/reuse. A method was developed to quantify the degree of conservativity and make it comparable. The actual and future situation for disposal of (conventional) wastes in Germany was analysed. In addition, the masses, nuclide vectors, geographical distribution etc. for slightly radioactive material being cleared for conventional disposal was analysed and modelled and the resulting dose distributions were calculated. The values for the clearance levels were taken from the 1995 recommendation by the German Commission on Radiation Protection (SSK). By using realistic scenarios, the exposure was calculated for the personnel on the landfills and for persons of the general public being exposed via groundwater pathways. It could be shown that the trivial dose range will not be exceeded even if the masses of cleared material per landfill site exceed 100 Mg/a. Because of the types and distribution of nuclear installations in Germany and because of the nuclide vectors it is therefore not necessary to limit the masses per landfill sites. Clearance levels that are determined by the exposure pathways external exposure to and the inhalation of dust by the landfill personnel show a similar level of conservativity as those for metal scrap. This means that the clearance levels for gamma emitting nuclides are not overly restrictive. Although radiologically justified, raising the clearance levels would not lead to an increase of the material quantities because other nuclides of the respective nuclide vectors are limiting. In

  10. Professionalisme met verwysing na die posisie van bedryfsielkunde en die bedryfsielkundige in Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. van der Merwe

    1981-11-01

    Bedryfsielkunde, as relatief jong maar snelgroeiende wetenskap, word aan die hand van ses kriteria vir 'n professie evalueer. Resultate in hierdie verband dui in die algemeen daarop dat die vakgebied alreeds vir 'n aantal jare in 'n oorgangsfase tot ‘n volwaardige professie is en dat daar in hierdie proses reeds ver op die professionele kontinuum gevorder is. Verdere onder-soeke ten opsigte van professionele opleiding, die statutêre organisering van Bedryfsielkunde asook 'n professionele kode en vereniging vir die Bedryfsielkunde word bepleit ten einde die professionele posisie van die vakgebied volledig te konsolideer.

  11. Die design and process optimization of die cast V6 engine blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Hu

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of aluminum, particularly for engine blocks, has grown considerably in the past ten years, and continues to rise in the automotive industry. In order to enhance the quality and engineering functionality of die cast engine blocks, die design and processes have to be optimized. In this study, a computer simulation software, MAGMAsoft, as an advanced tool for optimizing die design and casting process, was emplooyed to virtually visualize cavity filling and patterns of a V6 engine block. The original die design and process was simulated first to establish a baseline. A reality check was used to verify the predicted results. Then, the die modification with a different unner system was made by using a CAD software, Unigraphics (UG. The simulation on combinations of the modified die design and revised process was performed to examine the effect of die modification and process change on flow filling of V6 engine blocks. The simulated prediction indicateds that the enhancement of cavity filling due to the die and process modification minimizeds the occurrence of defects during casting, and consequently improves the quality of blocks. The results of mechanical testing show a significant increase in fatigue strengths, and a moderately improvement on tensile properties for the blocks die cast with the new die design and prpocess in comparison with those produced by the original ones.

  12. die ontstaan van vrouelugverenigings in suid-afrika voor die tweede

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aangestel. Ander eenhede het later gevolg. Drle van die Vrouehulplugmag se lelersflgure staan voor die VHLM se kleure wat gewy Is In Durban op 18 Mei 1940. Die vroue Is vlnr mal (meil E. Percival-Hart, It-kol (mev) D. Dunning en mal (mel) M. Egerton-Bird. 24. Scientia Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies, ...

  13. Numerical investigation of hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Feng, J. J.; Wu, G. K.; Luo, X. Q.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the flow field considering the hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine has been investigated through using the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX based on high-quality structured grids generated by ANSYS ICEM CFD. The turbulence is simulated by k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model together with automatic near wall treatments. Four kinds of simulations have been conducted for the runner geometry without hub clearance, with only the hub front clearance, with only the rear hub clearance, and with both front and rear clearance. The analysis of the obtained results is focused on the flow structure of the hub clearance flow, the effect on the turbine performance including hydraulic efficiency and cavitation performance, which can improve the understanding on the flow field in a Kaplan turbine.

  14. Numerical investigation of hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H; Feng, J J; Wu, G K; Luo, X Q

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the flow field considering the hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine has been investigated through using the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX based on high-quality structured grids generated by ANSYS ICEM CFD. The turbulence is simulated by k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model together with automatic near wall treatments. Four kinds of simulations have been conducted for the runner geometry without hub clearance, with only the hub front clearance, with only the rear hub clearance, and with both front and rear clearance. The analysis of the obtained results is focused on the flow structure of the hub clearance flow, the effect on the turbine performance including hydraulic efficiency and cavitation performance, which can improve the understanding on the flow field in a Kaplan turbine.

  15. ’n Oorsig van die bepaling van die vroeë bakterisidiese aktiwiteit van verskeie antituberkulosemiddels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Donald

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Die vroeë bakterisidiese aktiwiteit (VBA van ’n antituberkulosemiddel is die daaglikse afname van M tuberculosis in log10 kolonievormende eenhede per ml sputum, tydens die eerste twee dae van behandeling met die middel. Dit weerspieël die vermoë van ’n middel om aktief metaboliserende organismes in tuberkulose-longholtes te dood. Dit is ’n relatief goedkoop metode om in ’n klein groep pasiënte die antituberkulose-aktiwiteit van ’n middel, binne maande, in vivo te evalueer. Hierdie artikel som ons ondervinding op tydens sewe gepubliseerde VBA-studies, en die bronne van variasie in die prosedure word identifiseer. Die pasiënte in hierdie studies was gemiddeld 33 jaar oud, met ’n gemiddelde gewig van 50 kg en 55% het ekstensiewe of massiewe longaantasting gehad. Die hoogste VBA-waardes (0,50-0,66 is gevind in pasiënte wat isoniasied ontvang het, en die laagste waardes (0,05 en 0,09 respektiewelik was gevind in pasiënte wat die aminoglikosiede amikasien en paromomisien, albei in doserings van 15 mg/kg liggaamsgewig, ontvang het. Die algehele variasie in die VBA van 248 pasiënte was 0,0312, en die variasie toegeskryf aan die proses van sputumproduksie en -versameling was 0,0223. Dit blyk dat die verskillende aspekte van sputumproduksie en -versameling, betrokke by die lewering van ’n verteenwoordigende sputummonster, ’n groter bydrae maak tot variasie tydens die prosedure as die laboratoriumaspekte van die tegniek. Die keuring van pasiënte vir insluiting in VBA-studies, en hulle vermoë om saam te werk om ’n verteenwoordigende sputummonster te produseer, is van deurslaggewende belang in die suksesvolle voltooiing van VBA-studies.

  16. Determination of renal clearance of 131I-hippuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzon, S.

    1982-01-01

    The author presents his own method for the determination of total renal clearance of 131 I-hippuran under conditions of its diminishing plasma concentration following single intravenous administration. Total renal clearance is determined as the ratio of the amount of activity excreted into the urine over a certain time interval and of the area limited by the curve of activity decrease in plasma and by the time axis in the corresponding interval. The results are demonstrated in five investigated healthy subjects, and very good agreement of the calculated values of total renal clearance for different time intervals in the same subject is pointed out. When isotope nephrography is simultaneously performed, the method allows to determine also the values of isolated renal clearance for each kidney separately. (author)

  17. Riglyne vir die onderwys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. du Plooy

    1960-03-01

    Full Text Available In die afgelope vyftig jaar sedert die Unie tot stand gekom het, is veel op die gebied van onderwys tot stand gebring. Dit is heel natuurlik dat ’n mens sou vra: Wat van die toekoms?

  18. Die huwelik in die eerste-eeuse Mediterreense wêreld (III): Jesus en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    30 Jan 2007 ... description of what marriage, betrothal, adultery, divorce and ..... egbreuk teen wie? Wanneer daar in ag geneem word dat 'n man in die eerste- eeuse Mediterreense wêreld nie egbreuk teenoor sy vrou kon pleeg nie (kyk ... volg egbreuk teen die vrou in die huwelik beteken – al het die vrou owerspel.

  19. Inherited Disorders of Bilirubin Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Naureen; Weinberger, Barry I; Hegyi, Thomas; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2016-01-01

    Inherited disorders of hyperbilirubinemia may be caused by increased bilirubin production or decreased bilirubin clearance. Reduced hepatic bilirubin clearance can be due to defective 1) unconjugated bilirubin uptake and intrahepatic storage, 2) conjugation of glucuronic acid to bilirubin (e.g. Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Lucey-Driscoll syndrome, breast milk jaundice), 3) bilirubin excretion into bile (Dubin-Johnson syndrome), or 4) conjugated bilirubin re-uptake (Rotor syndrome). In this review, the molecular mechanisms and clinical manifestations of these conditions are described, as well as current approaches to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26595536

  20. Die Energiesicherheit Europas in Bezug auf Erdgas und die Auswirkungen einer Kartellbildung im Gassektor

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Luis-Martín

    2011-01-01

    Die Dissertation untersucht die aktuelle Sicherheit der europaeischen Erdgasversorgung. Sie beruecksichtigt zudem die moeglichen Auswirkungen einer Kartellbildung auf die europaeische Gasversorgungssicherheit. Die Arbeit besteht aus einer detaillierten empirischen Studie und darauf aufbauender Szenarioanalyse. Hierzu wird auf den Interdependenzansatz von Robert O. Keohane und Joseph Nye zurueckgegriffen. Zur Darstellung des komplexen Themenbereichs wird auf die Darstellungspraxis der Dichten ...

  1. Der Einfluss von personeller Einkommensverteilung auf die „Great Depression“ und die „Great Recession“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Trappl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Einfluss gestiegener Einkommensungleichheit auf die „Great Depression“ und die „Great Recession“ wurde mehrfach postuliert (Galbraith 1954/2009; Eccles 1951; Rajan 2010; Stiglitz 2012; Piketty 2014. Konkrete empirische Arbeiten zum Zusammenhang zwischen Einkommensverteilung und dem Entstehen von Wirtschaftskrisen gibt es aber bislang wenige. Kumhof/Ranciere (2010 überprüften die von Rajan (2010 aufgestellte Hypothese, die einen entsprechenden Zusammenhang postuliert, mittels Modellrechnung. Bordo/Meissner (2012 und darauf aufbauend Gu/Huang (2014 verwendeten unterschiedliche Regressionsmodelle in Bezug auf einen entsprechenden Zusammenhang, ohne jedoch eindeutige Ergebnisse zu liefern. Die vorliegende Arbeit schließt an diese Arbeiten an, beschränkt die Untersuchung allerdings auf Staaten, für die Daten für die letzten hundert Jahre verfügbar sind, und untersucht zudem explizit die Zeiträume um die beiden größten Krisen der letzten hundert Jahre, die „Great Depression“ und die „Great Recession“. Die Auswertungen zeigen, dass die personelle Einkommensverteilung ein guter Prädiktor für die Kriseneintrittswahrscheinlichkeit ist.

  2. Eksistensialisme in die Franse letterkunde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Teurlinckx

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Nooit sou die Franse jeug — en die van Europa en verder — in dié mate deur die eksistensialisme be'invloed gewees het nie, indien hierdie filosofie in wysgerige traktate sou begrawe gelê het. Die eksistensialiste het die koning van die filosofiese verhaal, Voltaire, met sukses op sy Candide- en Zadig-pad gevolg en hulle teorieë in letterkundige werke, ver- hale, romans en ook toneelstukke kwytgeraak, wat baie gelees is en waaruit ook ander literatore kragte en inspirasie geput het. Omrede daarvan is daar inderdaad baie eksistensialisme in die Franse letterkunde, maar ’n eintlike eksistensialistiese letterkunde was daar nie, en ’n Eksistensialistiese Letterkun­ dige skool het nooit bestaan nie. Ook sit hierdie eksistensialiste nie langs dieselfde vuur nie. Die Christelike eksistensialis Gabriel Marcel het op 21 April van hierdie jaar uitgevaar teen die „Sartriane” na aanleiding van die opvoering van Les Paravents, Die W indskerms van Jean Genêt in ’n Paryse staatsondersteunde teater. „Mens mag seker wees”, skryf Marcel in Les Nouvelles Littéraires, „dat die hele sartriaanse parogie sal skreeu: groot meesterwerk”. Voortgaande op sy distansiëring kan die literêre eksistensialiste in drie groepe ingedeel word: 1. Die Sartriane; 2. Die Christelike Eksistensialiste; 3. Die Onafhanklikes.

  3. Die singulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  4. Die toekoms en ons roeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. du Toit

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available Om te weet wat ons roeping in die toekoms sal wees, moet ons eers besef wat in ons eie tyd aan die gang is en langs watter lyne die dinge beweeg. Dit is ons plig om te let op die tekens van die tye in die lig van die profetiese Woord. En dan wil ons dadelik beklemtoon dat ons in Suid-Afrika nie in die waan moet lewe dat ons hier onbekommerd en onaangetas deur die wêreldgebeure ons roeping en bestemming kan uitwerk nie.

  5. Approaches towards establishing of clearance levels in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumitani, N.; Watanabe, I.; Okoshi, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is important to establish necessary regulatory systems for decommissioning waste management, especially to establish clearance levels from regulatory control. To establish the regulatory systems, the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) has been discussing the unconditional clearance levels for materials from nuclear reactors since May 1997. The NSC tries to derive unconditional clearance levels for the materials such as concrete and ferrous metal, arising from nuclear reactor decommissioning. In the derivation, both disposal and recycle/reuse of the materials are considered. Typical scenarios and parameter values for dose estimation are selected considering the Japanese natural and social conditions. Preliminary clearance levels were derived from 10 μSv/yr of individual dose criterion and deterministic analysis. For most radionuclides, the preliminary results are the same order of magnitude recommended in IAEA-TECDOC-855. Some radionuclides such as β emitters, however, are different order of magnitude from those recommended in IAEA-TECDOC-855. It is necessary that international organizations lead the discussions on the clearance levels to conclude final consensus. (author)

  6. Green technology; only Forest Clearance is needed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. How was Forest Clearance granted before the procedures for constitution of ESZ was completed? How was Forest Clearance granted before the procedures for constitution of ESZ was completed? How was land in Murmurwadi still under litigation made available? How was ...

  7. Die rol van persoonlikheidstrekke in die weerstand teen stres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja V. R. van Oudtshoorn

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of personality characteristics in resistance to stress: A study was conducted to establish whether certain personality characteristics contribute to resistance to stress. Rescue brigadesmen, performing dangerous rescue operations in the goldmining industry, served as basis for the study. The sample consisted of 63 current, 56 ex- and 50 non-brigadesmen. Results indicate that brigadesmen, on the basis of their personality structure, are better equipped to cope with stress. Scores on the 16PF show that they have a lower level of interpersonal anxiety (Factor Q4 and that they are more practical (Factor I, emotionally stable (Factor C, and conscientious (Factor G. These findings support existing knowledge of the 16PF. Opsomming Ten einde vas te stel ofdaar sekere persoonlikheidstrekke bestaan wat bydra tot weerstand teen stres, is 'n studie uitgevoer met reddingspanlede, wat lewensgevaarlike reddingsdiens in die goudmynbedryf verrig, as ondersoekgroep. Die streekproefhet uit 63 huidige, 56 oud-reddingspanlede en 50 amptenare, wat nog nooit aan die span behoort het nie, bestaan. Dit blyk dat reddingspanlede, op grond van hulle persoonlikheidstruktuur, beter toegerus is om stres te hanteer. Tellings op die 16PF toon dat hulle oor 'n laervlakvan interpersoonlike angs beskik, (Faktor Q4, dat hulle meer prakties (Faktor I, emosioneel stabiel (Faktor C en konsensieus is (Faktor G. Hierdie bevindinge sluit aan by die reeds bestaande kennis oor die 16PF.

  8. Nuclear regulation. NRC's security clearance program can be strengthened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Kruslicky, Mary Ann; Bagnulo, John E.

    1988-12-01

    Because of the national security implications of its programs, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) investigates the background of its employees and consultants as well as others to ensure that they are reliable and trustworthy. If the investigation indicates that an employee will not endanger national security, NRC grants a security clearance that allows access to classified information, material, and facilities. NRC also requires periodic checks for some clearance holders to ensure their continued clearance eligibility. The Chairman, Subcommittee on Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources, House Committee on Government Operations, asked GAO to review NRC's personnel security clearance program and assess the procedures that NRC uses to ensure that those who operate nuclear power plants do not pose a threat to the public. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 requires NRC to conduct background investigations of its employees and consultants as well as others who have access to classified information, material, or facilities. To do this, NRC established a personnel security clearance program. Under NRC policies, a security clearance is granted after the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) or the Federal Bureau of Investigation checks the background of those applying for an NRC clearance. NRC also periodically reassesses the integrity of those holding the highest level clearance. NRC employees, consultants, contractors, and licensees as well as other federal employees hold approximately 10,600 NRC clearances. NRC does not grant clearances to commercial nuclear utility employees unless they require access to classified information or special nuclear material. However, the utilities have voluntarily established screening programs to ensure that their employees do not pose a threat to nuclear plants. NRC faces a dilemma when it hires new employees. Although its policy calls for new hires to be cleared before they start work, the security clearance process takes so long

  9. Die invloed van grootgroeponderrig op die selfgereguleerde leer van tersiêre wiskundeleerders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalie

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available elfregulering is belangrik in die ontwikkeling van lewenslange leerders, veral by voordiensonderwysers wat op hul beurt modelleerders van selfregulering in hul eie klaskamers gaan wees. Onderrig op tersiêre vlak word grootliks gekenmerk deur tradisionele onderrigmetodes vanweë die groot groepe leerders betrokke. In hierdie studie is vasgestel of ’n bepaalde grootgroeponderrigstrategie ’n invloed het op lede van groot klasgroepe se selfregulering, al dan nie. ’n Kwantitatiewe voortoets-natoets-ontwerp is gebruik waarin die studiegewoontesveld van die Studie-Oriëntasievraelys in Wiskunde aan die begin en einde van die semester ingesluit is. In ’n tweede vraelys het leerders hul belewenis van die grootgroeponderrigstrategie volgens ’n vyfpunt-Likertskaal beoordeel en ’n oopeindevraag voltooi wat ingesluit is om moontlike addisionele verklarings te bied vir die resultate wat verkry is uit die geslote vrae van die vraelys oor grootgroeponderrig. Beskrywende statistiek is gebruik om die data te interpreteer. Uit die resultate blyk dit dat daar nie ’n verbetering in leerders se selfregulering was nie. By ontleding van die oopeindevraag het dit aan die lig gekom dat verskeie aspekte van selfregulering by leerders ontbreek, soos tydsbestuur en goeie studiegewoontes, asook die bereidwilligheid om meer as net die voorgeskrewe probleme te doen.The influence of a large group teaching strategy on the self-regulated learning of tertiary mathematics learners. Self-regulation is important in developing lifelong learners, especially in the case of pre-service teachers who will soon be models of self-regulation in their own classrooms. In many instances, teaching at tertiary level is characterised by traditional teaching methods in large classes. In this study a particular large group instructional strategy was examined to determine whether it had an influence on learners’ self-regulation. A quantitative pre-test post-test design was used which

  10. Montessori-skole: die ander kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Viljoen

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Na aanleiding van die artikel “Die invloed van die New Age-beweging op die onderwysagenda van die toekoms” deur Lien van Niekerk en Corinne Meier van die Departement Historiese Opvoedkunde van Unisa (vgl. Koers, 59 (1 1994:69-84 wil ek graag ’n ander sy van Montessori-skole onder die aandag van Koers lesers bring.

  11. A study for promoting measures of social acceptance on clearance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoshi, Minoru; Torii, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Yasuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Clearance is one of the useful concepts to manage large amounts of slightly contaminated solid radioactive materials generated from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Cleared materials are expected to be disposed of as conventional wastes or recycled to produce consumer goods. In Japan, the legal frame-work for clearance was established in 2005 by amending the Law to regulate nuclear materials, reactors and so on. However, it is not so clear whether the general public understands clearance well. In this paper, major concerns about clearance from the general public are analyzed based on the public comments for reports on clearance prepared by the Nuclear Safety Commission and the Nuclear Institute Safety Agency. The major anxieties for clearance expressed by the general public are the safety of clearance, unknown factors of radiation effects, possibilities of excess radiation exposure due to inadequate measurements of radioactivities and fairness in decision making. In order to deal with those anxieties, some countermeasures including the confidence in nuclear operators and regulatory authorities and controllability of clearance by the general public are discussed to promote the social acceptance of clearance by the general public. (author)

  12. Tegnologie en die mens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    omgewingsbesoedeling, volgend op industrialisasie en verstedeliking, gee uit- ing tot krete van wanhoop en frustrasie. Die maatskaplike ontwrigting agv outomatisasie het die begrippe van vervreemding en naam- loosheid op die voorgrond van sosiale be- wustheid geplaas. • Die Neutrale Siening. Tegnologie was nag. 34.

  13. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Galway, Galway

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Jillian P

    2015-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by abnormal ciliary motion and impaired mucociliary clearance, leading to recurrent respiratory infections, sinusitis, otitis media and male infertility. Some patients also have laterality defects. We recently reported the identification of three disease-causing PCD genes in the Irish Traveller population; RSPH4A, DYX1C1 and CCNO. We have since assessed an additional Irish Traveller family with a complex phenotype involving PCD who did not have any of the previously identified PCD mutations.

  14. A case report of primary ciliary dyskinesia, laterality defects and developmental delay caused by the co-existence of a single gene and chromosome disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Jillian P

    2015-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by abnormal ciliary motion and impaired mucociliary clearance, leading to recurrent respiratory infections, sinusitis, otitis media and male infertility. Some patients also have laterality defects. We recently reported the identification of three disease-causing PCD genes in the Irish Traveller population; RSPH4A, DYX1C1 and CCNO. We have since assessed an additional Irish Traveller family with a complex phenotype involving PCD who did not have any of the previously identified PCD mutations.

  15. Intraarticular volume and clearance in human synovial effusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, W.J.; Simkin, P.A.; Nelp, W.B.; Foster, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Intraarticular volumes were measured by radiolabeled albumin (RISA) distribution in chronic knee effusions from 11 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 9 osteoarthritis patients. Volumes of synovial fluid obtained at joint aspiration were substantially less than those found by RISA dilution. Up to 24 hours was needed for full distribution of RISA throughout the intraarticular compartment. Measured 123I and RISA radioactivity over the knee described monoexponential rate constants, lambda (minute-1). The clearance of 123I and RISA from synovial effusions was derived by the formulation volume (ml) X lambda (minute-1) = clearance (ml/minute). RISA clearance in rheumatoid effusions was significantly greater than that found in osteoarthritis effusions. Intraarticular volume and isotope clearance were easily quantified and provide measures for further evaluating the microvascular physiology of synovial effusions

  16. Die rol van die onderwys in die handhawing en uitbouing van ons volkskultuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Jordaan

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available Op die oog af lyk dit ’n baie maklike onderwerp, maar hoe meer 'n mens daaroor nadink hoe ingewikkelder en omvangryker word die implikasies wat verband hou. Dit is veral so omdat dit hier voor alles gaan om eerste fundamentele uitgangspunte, dit wil sê, om lewens- en wêreldbeskouing. Dit geld van albei komponente — van onderwys sowel as van kultuur.

  17. DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE JEUG IN VOORTREKKERTYDPERK

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dien. Die planke en velie moes keer dat die assegaaie die mense tref. Voor die geveg het die vrouens en groter dogters koeels gegiet. Tydens die geveg het die seuns gehelp skiet terwyl die vrouens en dogters die gewere vir die mans gelaai het. Van die dogters soos Nellie. Botha (11 jaar oud) en haar sussie Fya (15 jaar.

  18. Test Rig for Evaluating Active Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Control Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Robbie, Malcolm G.

    2003-01-01

    Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor and high pressure turbine can provide dramatic improvements in specific fuel consumption, time-on-wing, compressor stall margin and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities of both military and commercial gas turbine engines. The preliminary design of a mechanically actuated active clearance control (ACC) system for turbine blade tip clearance management is presented along with the design of a bench top test rig in which the system is to be evaluated. The ACC system utilizes mechanically actuated seal carrier segments and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. The purpose of this active clearance control system is to improve upon current case cooling methods. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, re-burst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). The active turbine blade tip clearance control system design presented herein will be evaluated to ensure that proper response and positional accuracy is achievable under simulated high-pressure turbine conditions. The test rig will simulate proper seal carrier pressure and temperature loading as well as the magnitudes and rates of blade tip clearance changes of an actual gas turbine engine. The results of these evaluations will be presented in future works.

  19. IRAN IN DIE INTERNASIONALE MAGSTRYD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In die verband kan genoem word dat die Russe nog grotendeels gebruik maak van 'n metode waarvolgens water in die oliestratum gepomp word om 'n opwaartse druk van ru-olie te verseker; een nadeel hiervan is dat die water mettertyd deur die oliehoudende laag ontsnap en agv die drukverlies isvoortgesette ontginning.

  20. Die rol van kapitaal in die ekonomiese groei en ontwikkeling van onderontwikkelde gebiede*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. du Plessis

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available In die teorie oor ekonomiese groei speel kapitaal ’n besonder prominente rol. Kapitaal met die daarby behorende tegnologiese ontwikkeling, word beskou as die belangrikste enkele faktor verantwoordelik vir die bereiking en instandhouding van ’n „ten voile ontwikkelde” volkshuishouding.

  1. Artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis as geloofsvooronderstelling in die gesprek tussen wetenskap en geloof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Erasmus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis bely dat God deur twee middele geken word, te wete deur middel van die skepping, onderhouding en regering van die wêreld (waaronder die wetenskap en deur die heilige en goddelike Woord (die Bybel. Hierdie belydenis is van groot belang vir die gesprek tussen Wetenskap en Teologie. In hierdie artikel word gepoog om die verskille, maar ook die ooreenkomste tussen hierdie twee middele van openbaring uit te lig, elkeen tot sy reg te laat kom, maar hulle ook in balans met mekaar te stel. Die wyse waarop te werk gegaan word, is die volgende: eers word gestel wat vooronderstellings is, asook die plek wat vooronderstellings in die beoefening van wetenskap sowel as geloof inneem. Daarna word nagevors watter perspektiewe artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis as geloofsvooronderstelling vir die wetenskaps- en teologiebeoefening respektiewelik bied. Hieruit word ’n aantal gevolgtrekkings gemaak wat kan help om die problematiek in die wetenskap-geloofsgesprek op te los. Die kernbevinding van hierdie artikel is die volgende: Vanweë die verskil in die aard en die doel tussen Bybelfeite en wetenskaplike navorsingsresultate kan en sal klaarblyklike harmonieprobleme tussen die Skrif en die wetenskap ontstaan. Hierdie is egter slegs klaarblyklike probleme, omdat ’n verrekening van die verskil in die aard en die bedoeling van die wetenskapresultate en die Bybelfeite hierdie probleem sal oplos. Article 2 of the Belgic Confession as faith presupposition in the science-faith debate. Article 2 of the Belgic Confession confesses that God can be known by two means: firstly by studying the creation, preservation and government of the universe (i.e. science and secondly by studying the Word of God (the Bible. This confession is very important for the discussion between science and faith. In this article the similarities, but also the differences between these two means of revelation are researched. The aim is to

  2. The tear turnover and tear clearance tests - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaszczuk, Izabela K; Montes Mico, Robert; Iskander, D Robert; Expósito, Alejandro Cerviño

    2018-03-01

    The aim is to provide a summary of methods available for the assessment of tear turnover and tear clearance rates. The review defines tear clearance and tear turnover and describes their implication for ocular surface health. Additionally, it describes main types of techniques for measuring tear turnover, including fluorescein tear clearance tests, techniques utilizing electromagnetic spectrum and tracer molecule and novel experimental techniques utilizing optical coherence tomography and fluorescein profilometry. Areas covered: Internet databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar) and most frequently cited references were used as a principal resource of information on tear turnover rate and tear clearance rate, presenting methodologies and equipment, as well as their definition and implications for the anterior eye surface health and function. Keywords used for data-search were as follows: tear turnover, tear clearance, fluorescein clearance, scintigraphy, fluorophotometry, tear flow, drainage, tear meniscus dynamics, Krehbiel flow and lacrimal functional unit. Expert commentary: After decades, the topic of tear turnover assessment has been reintroduced. Recently, new techniques have been developed to propose less invasive, less time consuming and simpler methodologies for the assessment of tear dynamics that have the potential to be utilized in clinical practice.

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The ... Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

  4. Die gebruik van ’n reologiese tegniek in die bepaling van die verhardingsreaksiekinetika van ’n reaktiewe poliësterpoeierdeklaag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Vorster

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Die studie van die verhardingsreaksiekinetika van deklae word bemoeilik deur die aanwesigheid van vlugtige stowwe, pigmente en bypigmente. In hierdie studie word die verhardingsreaksiekinetika van ’n karboksielgetermineerde poliëstertriglisediel-isosianuraat deur middel van parallelplaatspanningsreometrie bepaal. Jeltye is verkry en skaleringseksponente bepaal. ’n Nuwe metode vir die voorspelling van die verloop van die reaksie word voorgestel en vergelyk met resultate verkry deur middel van differensiël skanderingskalorimetrie.

    Abstract

    The use of a rheological technique in the determination of the curing kinetics of a reactive polyester powder coating

    In this article a study of the curing process of carboxyl terminated polyester-triglycidyl isocyanurate systems is reported. A comparison is made between the generally used Differential Scanning Calorimetric methods and rheokinetic methods, using a parallel plate oscillating stress rheometer. Gel times were determined and scaling exponents calculated. A new method for the estimation of the extent of reaction is presented and compared with results obtained by means of differential scanning calorimetry

  5. Die kliniese kindersielkundige as diagnostikus1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. W. Strümpfer

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available Die benaming „Kliniese Kindersielkunde” is nog onbekend en gevolglik betreklik onbemind. Dit is in 1951 die eerste keer gebruik. Die werk van die Kliniese Kindersielkunde is egter so oud as die werk van die algemene Kliniese Sielkunde, waarvan die geskiedenis gewoonlik teruggevoer word tot die begin van sielkundige toetsing vroeg in die tagtigerjare. Tot ’n aansienlike mate is hierdie vroeë werk op kinders uitgevoer, bv. dié van Galton en later die van Binet en Simon. Witmer het in 1896 die eerste sielkundige kliniek geopen en het ook die term „Kliniese Sielkunde” ingevoer; die meerderheid van sy pasiënte was egter ook kinders. Tot voor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was klinies-sielkundige werk hoofsaaklik op kinders toegespits. Sedertdien het die kliniese sielkundige tot ’n belangrike mate toegetree tot die gebied van die diagnose en terapie van psigiese afwykings by volwassenes, tot so ’n mate dat in die gedagtes en geskrifte van baie werkers die terrein van die Kliniese Sielkunde byna tot werk met volwassenes beperk word.

  6. ‘Op de wijze van Kavafis’: Die voorbeeld van die digter uit Alexandrië

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil van Schalkwyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Griekse digter K.P. Kavafis (1863–1933 word wêreldwyd deur lesers sowel as skrywers besonder hoog geag. Hy het nie net van die grootste twintigste-eeuse skrywers beïnvloed nie,maar is vanweë die buitengewone vertaalbaarheid van sy werk ook betreklik sterk teenwoordig in die letterkunde van meer tale as slegs Grieks en Engels. Vir baie – veral gay lesers, skrywers en kunstenaars – besit Kavafis ’n voorbeeldstatus, ten opsigte van die letterkunde sowel asdie lewe. W.H. Auden het beweer dat dit wat Kavafis onderskei, sy stemtoon is, een wat ’n persoon met ’n unieke perspektief op die wêreld openbaar. Hierdie bydrae, wat deel is van ’nnavorsingsprojek oor idiolektiese skrywersidentiteit, is daarop gerig om die onderskeidende kenmerke van Kavafis se werk, sowel in terme van vorm as inhoud, opnuut te ondersoek. Dit word gedoen binne die raamwerk van die breë kritiese diskoers oor Kavafis en met verwysing na enkele manifestasies/voorbeelde van Nederlandse en Afrikaanse kritiese en kreatieweperspektiewe op sy poësie, met die doel om spesifiek lig te werp op die besondere soortwysheid wat in Kavafis se werk oorgedra word.

  7. die kerk, maatskappy en vrye verenigings: 'n studie van die kerkorde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engelhard en Hofman 2001; PKN 2003). Die begrip “moderne gedifferensieerde samelewing”, saamgelees met 'n selfstandigheid in eie bevoegdheid, kom net so van Dooyeweerd af (1957:379; 1963:81). NGK-KO 1962 neem vorm aan in 'n tyd waarin. Dooyeweerd akademies op die kruin van die golf is – gemeet aan sy.

  8. Die sprachnorm und die künstlerische sprache I. Tavčars in seinem werdegang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Orožen

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available In dem ganzen Zeitraum vom 16. his zum 18. Jahrhundert hemühten sich die slovenischen Schriftsteller urn die sprachliche Richtigkeit und stilistische Voll­ kommenheit des Textes. Die praktischen Resultate dieser Bemühungen waren aller­ dings nicht einheitlich, weil auch·die theoretischen Ansichten in Bezug auf die Umständlichkeiten, in denen sich die Schriftsprache entwickelte, nicht einheitlich und so geklärt waren, wie es heutzutage ist. Die wechselseiten Beziehungen dieser Bestrehungen sind in gegenwärtigen Ahhandlungen dargestellt am sprachlichen Material eines einzigen, aher vornehmen Schriftstellers Ivan Tavčar. Die angefiihrte Durchsicht des sprachlichen Materials lässt schliessen, class sich der Schriftsteller Tavčar in seinen Werken nach den Normen der Schriftsprache richtete. Wenn er selhst diese Normen nicht immer heohachtete, so taten es die Redakteure und die Korrektoren der literarischen Zeitschriften. Die Normen hetrachtete er als etwas Verhindliches, doch unterordnete er sich nicht ahsolut allen Vorschriften, welche die Archaisierung der Sprache hezielten. Die slavischen Leihwörter verwendete er, wenn sie dem Sinne funktionell entsprachen. So verstand es, auch die nicht mehr lehendigen Glieder des sprachlichen Systems zu helehen und hildend zu entwickeln. Geschickt verwendete er alle Moglichkeiten des Duhlettierens sowohl in lexikalischer als auch in syntaktischer Hinsicht. Bei der Auswahl des sprachlichen Ausdruckes war für ihn die Funktion massgehend, weshalh in seinen Satzen sowohl die archaischen als auch die zeitgemässen sprachlichen Mittel stilistisch wertvoll erscheinen. Tavčars Werke zeigen von den Anfangen in den Siehzigerjahren his zum Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts eine heneidenswerte sprachliche Entwicklung. Trotz der heengenden Normen der Neunzigerjahre fühlte er sich ungehunden und leistete viel für die Entwicklung der Schriftsprache. In der Zeit, wo die Sprache in ihren Regeln eine höhere Stufe der

  9. Effect of clearance on cartilage tribology in hip hemi-arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizhang, Jia; Taylor, Simon D; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    Hemi-arthroplasty of the hip (an artificial femoral head articulating against the natural acetabulum) is used to treat fractured necks of femur; however, there is evidence that articulation causes erosion of the cartilage, resulting in pain for the patient. Parameters that may influence this cartilage erosion include head material and roughness, clearance between the head and acetabulum and activity levels of the patient. This study has assessed the effect of clearance of hemi-arthroplasty articulations on the contact stress, friction and cartilage deformation in an in vitro tribological simulation of the hemi-arthroplasty joint that applied dynamic loads and motion. It has been demonstrated that peak contact stress increased from 5.6 to 10.6 MPa as radial clearance increased from small (1.8 mm). In all samples, friction factor increased with time and was significantly less with extra-large clearances compared to small (<0.6 mm), medium (0.6-1.2 mm) and large (1.2-1.8 mm) clearances. The cartilage deformation observed was significantly greater in acetabulum samples paired to give small or extra-large clearances compared to those with medium or large clearances.

  10. Die kriminelle Frau“ – ein „Anwendungsfall“ für die Anomietheorie?

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Schmölzer

    2008-01-01

    Die von der Verfasserin vorgenommene Bearbeitung der Anomietheorie des Soziologen Robert K. Merton zielt darauf ab, „relevante Unterschiede zwischen Frauen und Männern zu finden, die den unterschiedlichen Anteil der Geschlechter bei der registrierten Kriminalität erklären können“ (S. 223). Dies gelingt insofern, als sie strukturelle Variablen herausarbeiten kann, die per se die Wahrscheinlichkeit von strafbarem Verhalten erhöhen. Das Geschlecht spielt dabei (nur) insofern eine Rolle, als der ...

  11. Die afrikaner en sy pers*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Scholtz

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available Die versoek w at van u inrigting tot my gekom het om buitengewone professor in die Persw etenskap te word, was vir my deels vererend, m aar deels het dit my in 'n moeilike posisie gestel. Dit was vir my vererend, om dat dit gekom het van 'n universiteit m et wie se Christelik- Nasionale koers ek my ten voile kan vereenselwig. Dit was dan ook vir my vererend, om dat ek daardeur in staat gestel kan w ord om die volk w aartoe ek behoort, op 'n vir my nuwe terrein te dien. As sodanig is dit vir my im m ers m oontlik om ook ’n beskeie bydrae te lewer tot die geestelike vorm ing van die jeug van ons volk. Dit het my m oeilik geval om, w aar ek reeds die m iddeljarige leeftyd bereik het, nou vir die eerste maal as dosent op te tree, aangesien ek daarvan in die verlede nie die m inste kennis en ervaring opgedoen het nie. As joernalis rig ek my im m ers tot die breë publiek deur middel van die pen. As dosent m oet ek my deur middel van die mond tot die studente rig. Dit lê voor die hand dat die eise w at so aan my gestel word, totaal anders is as dié waar- aan ek oor 'n tydperk van m eer as 'n kw arteeu as joer­ nalis gewoond geraak het.

  12. Dimensional control of die castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karve, Aniruddha Ajit

    The demand for net shape die castings, which require little or no machining, is steadily increasing. Stringent customer requirements are forcing die casters to deliver high quality castings in increasingly short lead times. Dimensional conformance to customer specifications is an inherent part of die casting quality. The dimensional attributes of a die casting are essentially dependent upon many factors--the quality of the die and the degree of control over the process variables being the two major sources of dimensional error in die castings. This study focused on investigating the nature and the causes of dimensional error in die castings. The two major components of dimensional error i.e., dimensional variability and die allowance were studied. The major effort of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively study the effects of casting geometry and process variables on die casting dimensional variability and die allowance. This was accomplished by detailed dimensional data collection at production die casting sites. Robust feature characterization schemes were developed to describe complex casting geometry in quantitative terms. Empirical modeling was utilized to quantify the effects of the casting variables on dimensional variability and die allowance for die casting features. A number of casting geometry and process variables were found to affect dimensional variability in die castings. The dimensional variability was evaluated by comparisons with current published dimensional tolerance standards. The casting geometry was found to play a significant role in influencing the die allowance of the features measured. The predictive models developed for dimensional variability and die allowance were evaluated to test their effectiveness. Finally, the relative impact of all the components of dimensional error in die castings was put into perspective, and general guidelines for effective dimensional control in the die casting plant were laid out. The results of

  13. Die reg van die homoseksuele ouer om beheer en toesig oor 'n kind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    regtens seëvier sodat die grondwetlike verbod op onbillike diskriminasie teen mense op grond van hul seksuele georiënteerdheid so .... gerig teen die homoseksueel self en die homoseksuele daad wat hy/sy beoefen, maar dat daar ook gediskrimineer ..... Die Uniform Marriage and Divorce Act,. 60 aangeneem in verskeie ...

  14. Die verband tussen waargenome leierskap en die vlak van outonomie binne spanverband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Van der Heyde

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between perceived leadership and the level of outonomy in a team context remains a contemporary theme in the work environment and seemingly has a substantial influence on organisational success. This study attempted to ascertain the relationship between leadership and the level of outonomy in a team context. Two hundred and thirty (N=230 individuals, grouped into 56 teams from four South African companies participated in the study. The superordinate’s leadership style as well as the level of outonomy in the specific group was measured. Apart from the useful information obtained in comparison with international research, especially in terms of leadership data, the study did conclusively point out a significant correlation between leadership style and autonomy in team context. Opsomming Leierskap en selfgerigte spanfunksionering bly kontemporêre temas in die bedryfsmilieu, wat oënskynlik organisasiesukses wesenlik kan beïnvloed. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die waargenome verband tussen leierskap en die vlak van outonomie binne spanverband te bepaal. Tweehondered-en-dertig (N=230 individue, gegroepeer in 56 spanne vanuit vier Suid-Afrikaanse maatksappye het aan die studie deelgeneem. ‘n Meting van sowel die bogeskikte se leierskapstyl en die vlak van outonomie binne spanverband is verkry. Afgesien van bruikbare inligting rondom veral die leierskapdata in vergelyking met internasionale navorsing, het die studie ‘n beduidende verband tussen leierskapstyl en outonomie binne spanverband uitgewys.

  15. Versoening tussen leerders: Is parallelmediumskole die antwoord op die rassismeprobleem?

    OpenAIRE

    Du Plessis, Elize; Marais, Petro

    2017-01-01

    Die Suid-Afrikaanse Grondwet stel dit duidelik dat enige vorm van diskriminasie nie toegelaat mag word nie. In ons skole beteken dit dat elke leerder ʼn reg het op goeie opvoeding en ʼn veilige skoolomgewing. Die fokus van hierdie navorsing is gerig op bestaande parallelmediumskole. Die uiteindelike vraagstuk is dus hoe multikulturele onderwys bevorder word en hoe rassisme aangespreek kan word? As teoretiese raamwerk is Kohlsberg se kognitiewe ontwikkelingsbenadering en Whitehouse se univerele ...

  16. GODSBEELDE IN DIE LITURGIE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 Mei 2010 ... Biezeveld, de Boer, Brümmer, Muis. 2001; Brown 2006; Durand 2007). ... Wanneer sal hy weer in God se teenwoordigheid verskyn (vers 3)? Dié vraag is vol onsekerheid. (Schuman 2004:8). Sy onsekerheid ... God se volk en die enkeling in die geskiedenis het al die trou van God ervaar waarop die digter ...

  17. Die metafoor by Breyten Breytenbach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    23 Jun 2009 ... metafories, of spesifiek verwysend, te werk gegaan is. Tyd sou mens die hoofmotief van die bundel noem, tyd en geheue wat verbygaan: 1 en 2; en die einde van die storie wat gekom het: “fluit-fluit my storie is uit”. (Die tema van verbygaan word weer opgeneem in 8 en 9: die stories wat nooit meer gehoor ...

  18. Die teologiese debat: Die waarde of betekenis daarvan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ego vero hoc libro non contuli sed asservi et assero, ac penes nullum vo- lo esse iudicium, sed omnibus suadeo, ut praestent obsequium. (M Luther, De servo arbitrio, 1525). 1. INLEIDING. In ons dae is dit hoe mode om oor alles debat te voer. Een van die towerwoorde van ons tyd, veral op die politiek-staatkundige terrein, ...

  19. Modelle in die onderrig van fisika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. A. Smit

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Die rol van modelle in die onderrig van fisika is sedert die vroeë tagtigerjare erken. In die onderrig word die absent op die kwantitaiewe aspekte van die vak geplaas, terwyl die kwatitatiewe aspekte min aandag kry.

  20. CT characterization of inflammatory paranasal sinus disease in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggesboe, H.B.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) the prevalence of paranasal sinus affection approaches 100%. We hypothesized that the hyper viscous mucus reducing mucociliary clearance in CF patients could give sinonasal inflammatory patterns different from those in non-CF patients. We wanted to compare the extent and distribution of paranasal sinus disease and the inflammatory patterns in these two groups of patients. Material and Methods: One-hundred-and-eight CF patients (3-54 years old) and 79 controls (7-51 years old) with paranasal sinus disease confirmed at coronal CT were compared. The extent of disease was noted for each sinus and summed for all sinuses. Inflammatory patterns were identified and classified into: 1) routine surgery group (sporadic, infundibular and ostiomeatal complex (OMC) patterns) and 2) complex surgery group (sinonasal polyposis and sphenoethmoid recess (SER) patterns). Results: CF patients had more widespread sinonasal inflammatory changes and more advanced disease for each sinus. Most CF patients displayed sinonasal polyposis and SER patterns while most controls displayed sporadic, infundibular or OMC patterns. As a result, 67% of CF patients were classified to the complex surgery group, compared to only 19% of controls. Conclusion: The impaired mucociliary clearance in CF causes widespread inflammatory paranasal sinus disease, with inflammatory patterns more often requiring extensive surgery, with a higher risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak or bleeding, or involving areas that are more difficult to reach with the endoscope

  1. Alcohol and airways function in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Joseph H

    2007-08-01

    The volatility of alcohol promotes the movement of alcohol from the bronchial circulation across the airway epithelium and into the conducting airways of the lung. The exposure of the airways through this route likely accounts for many of the biologic effects of alcohol on lung airway functions. The effect of alcohol on lung airway functions is dependent on the concentration, duration, and route of exposure. Brief exposure to mild concentrations of alcohol may enhance mucociliary clearance, stimulates bronchodilation, and probably attenuates the airway inflammation and injury observed in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Prolonged and heavy exposure to alcohol impairs mucociliary clearance, may complicate asthma management, and likely worsens outcomes including lung function and mortality in COPD patients. Nonalcohol congeners and alcohol metabolites act as triggers for airway disease exacerbations especially in atopic asthmatics and in Asian populations who have a reduced capacity to metabolize alcohol. Research focused on the mechanisms of alcohol-mediated changes in airway functions has identified specific mechanisms that mediate alcohol effects within the lung airways. These include prominent roles for the second messengers calcium and nitric oxide, regulatory kinases including PKG and PKA, alcohol- and acetaldehyde-metabolizing enzymes such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2. The role alcohol may play in the pathobiology of airway mucus, bronchial blood flow, airway smooth muscle regulation, and the interaction with other airway exposure agents, such as cigarette smoke, represents opportunities for future investigation.

  2. Modified Augmented Renal Clearance Score Predicts Rapid Piperacillin and Tazobactam Clearance in Critically Ill Surgery and Trauma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    collision; VAP , ventilator-associated pneumonia. TABLE 2. PK Parameter Estimates for Free Piperacillin and Tazobactam in Patients Stratified by ARC Score...SOFA score are typically generated during routine care of the most severely ill patients . Positive screening test results (high ARC scores) can be...Modified Augmented Renal Clearance score predicts rapid piperacillin and tazobactam clearance in critically ill surgery and trauma patients Kevin S

  3. Die huwelik in die eerste-eeuse Mediterreense wêreld (II): Huwelik ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    ingebed was, die vrou altyd in die eer van die man ingebed was, en .... contracted between families (segments of the same family) for a male and a female. ... marriage is on offspring ... this being the sole valid motivating factor in sexual encounters. ...... role in some measure only when she became the mother of a son.38.

  4. Mucociliary transport in porcine trachea: differential effects of inhibiting chloride and bicarbonate secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jeffrey L; Quinton, Paul M; Ballard, Stephen T

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative importance of Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) secretion to mucociliary transport rate (MCT) in ex vivo porcine tracheas. MCT was measured in one group of tissues that was exposed to adventitial HCO(3)(-)-free solution while a parallel group was exposed to adventitial HCO(3)(-)-replete solution. After measurement of baseline MCT rates, acetylcholine (ACh) was added to stimulate submucosal gland mucous liquid secretion, and MCT rates were again measured. Before ACh addition, the mean MCT was higher in the HCO(3)(-)-free group (4.2 ± 0.9 mm/min) than in the HCO(3)(-)-replete group (2.3 ± 0.3 mm/min), but this difference was not statistically significant. ACh addition significantly increased MCT in both groups, but ACh-stimulated MCT was significantly lower in the HCO(3)(-)-free group (11.0 ± 1.5 mm/min) than in the HCO(3)(-)-replete group (17.0 ± 2.0 mm/min). A second series of experiments examined the effect on MCT of blocking Cl(-) secretion with 100 μM bumetanide. Before adding ACh, MCT in the bumetanide-treated group (1.0 ± 0.2 mm/min) was significantly lower than in the control group (3.8 ± 1.1 mm/min). ACh addition significantly increased MCT in both groups, but there was no significant difference between the bumetanide-treated group (21.4 ± 1.7 mm/min) and control group (19.5 ± 3.4 mm/min). These results indicate that ACh-stimulated MCT has greater dependence on HCO(3)(-) secretion, whereas the basal MCT rate has greater dependence on Cl(-) secretion.

  5. Die postpolitische Stadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Swyngedouw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Polis ist tot, es lebe die kreative Stadt! Während die Stadt, zumindest in Teilen des städtischen Raums, blüht und gedeiht, scheint die Polis im idealisierten griechischen Sinn dem Untergang geweiht; in diesem Verständnis ist sie der Ort der öffentlichen politischen Auseinandersetzung und demokratischen Unterhandlung und somit eine Stätte (oft radikaler Abweichung und Unstimmigkeit, an der die politische Subjektivierung buchstäblich ihren Platz hat. Diese Figur einer entpolitisierten (oder postpolitischen und postdemokratischen Stadt im Spätkapitalismus bildet das Leitmotiv des vorliegenden Beitrags. Ich lehne mich dabei an Jacques Rancière, Slavoj Žižek, Chantal Mouffe, Mustafa Dikeç, Alain Badiou und andere Kritiker jenes zynischen Radikalismus an, der dafür gesorgt hat, dass eine kritische Theorie und eine radikale politische Praxis ohnmächtig und unfruchtbar vor jenen entpolitisierenden Gesten stehen, die in der polizeilichen Ordnung des zeitgenössischen neoliberalen Spätkapitalismus als Stadtentwicklungspolitik [urban policy] und städtische Politik [urban politics] gelten. Ziel meiner Intervention ist es, das Politische wieder in den Mittelpunkt der zeitgenössischen Debatten über das Urbane zu stellen. [...

  6. Numerical optimization of die geometry in open die forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with numerical optimization of open die forging of large metallic ingots made by casting implying risk of defects, e.g. central pores. Different material hardening properties and die geometries are combined in order to investigate, which geometry gives rise to maximum closure...

  7. Die adversatiewe stelsel van bewyslewering en die beste belang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    weeg. Hierdie vraag word teen die agtergrond daarvan beoordeel dat veral dispute ..... restructuring family into the highly polarized positions of court-based dispute resolution.16. Talle alternatiewe om tekortkominge in die adversatiewe proses te ..... De Jong M "Mediation and Other Appropriate Forms of Alternative Dispute.

  8. Die «ASEAN-Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft»

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn

    2014-01-01

    Seit dem Ende der 1990er-Jahre verfolgt die ASEAN die Vision einer politischen, wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Gemeinschaft. Doch wie realistisch ist die Umsetzung eines solch ambitionierten Vorhabens vor dem Hintergrund der enormen Heterogenität der Region? ASEAN vereint Staaten auf...... Entwicklungsstufen, wie sie unterschiedlicher kaum sein können. Der Autor, Bonn Juego, nimmt die ASEAN Vision 2020 sowie die Debatten, die diesbezüglich in den einzelnen Ländern geführt werden, unter die Lupe. Er geht dem Potenzial des ASEANAnsatzes zu sozialer Teilhabe und wirtschaftlicher Verteilungsgerechtigkeit...

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in CF Clinical Care Guidelines Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Clinical Care Guidelines Liver Disease Clinical Care Guidelines Respiratory Care Guidelines CF Airway Clearance Therapies Clinical Care Guidelines Chronic Medications to Maintain Lung ...

  10. Die hermeneutiek van gereformeerde kerkreg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries le Roux du Plooy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Die artikel het op die belangrikheid en noodsaaklikheid van ‘n hermeneutiek vir die gereformeerde kerkreg gefokus. Die kerkregtelike dokument wat besonderlik ter sake was, is die kerkorde van die Gereformeerde kerke in Suid-Afrika, met sy besondere band met die Dordtse kerkorde van 1618 en 1619. Agtereenvolgens is aandag gegee aan die volgende aspekte soos (1 die eiesoortige aard van ‘n kerkorde as ‘n teologiese dokument en teks, in onderskeiding van regsdokumente; (2 die aard van die hermeneutiek van kerkreg; (3 enkele teorieë oor die interpretasie of uitleg van tekste, veral regstekste en (4 normatiewe vooronderstellings en reëls vir die interpretasie en verstaan van die teks en artikels van die kerkorde asook besluite van kerklike vergaderinge. Die gevolgtrekking was dat weinig indringende navorsing gedoen is oor die saak van hermeneutiek vir kerkreg, hoewel dit noodsaaklik is. Duidelike hermeneutiese reëls is gesuggereer en verduidelik, wat sou kon meehelp dat kerke en kerklike vergaderinge die artikels van die kerkorde asook besluite en reglemente wat daarop berus het, kan interpreteer en toepas. The hermeneutics of reformed church polity. The article focused on the importance and urgency of a design for reformed hermeneutics on church polity. The Church Order referred to in the article is the Church Order of the Reformed Churches in South Africa, which are closely related to the Church Order of Dordt of 1618 and 1619. The following aspects received attention namely (1  the unique character of a Church Order, in comparison to and distinguished from legal documents and statutes; (2 the character and nature of hermeneutics of church polity; (3 theories of interpretation in the common law tradition and their relevance to church polity and (4 normative presuppositions and marks for the interpretation and understanding of the text and articles of the Church Order, as well as the resolutions of church assemblies. It was found that

  11. Die sterwende kindjie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. De Jongh van Arkel

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available The thought of a child dying appears as an antithesis and thus the feelings evoked by the dying child are stronger than when older persons are dying. Around the child’s death bed there is no place for detached spectators and all become involved in caring for and supporting him. Caregivers also have a supporting responsibility towards the members of the child’s family.

  12. Die invloed van drie kruisbestuiwers op die saadinhoud van Minneola tangelo (Citrus parodist x C reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Esterhuizen

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Die invloed van verskillende kruisbestuiwers (Clementine, Empress en Valencia op die gemiddelde saadinhoud van Minneo­la tangelo is ondersoek. Clementine en Empress as kruisbestuiwers het die grootste invloed op die gemiddelde saadinhoud van die vrugte gehad, terwyl dié van Valencia nie noemenswaardig was nie. Die gemiddelde saadinhoud van die vrugte het afgeneem met toename in afstand vanaf die kruisbestuiwer. Indien ’n beperking op die afstand tussen kultivar en kruisbestuiwer geplaas word, sal ’n groter persentasie vrugte aan uitvoerstandaarde ten opsigte van saadinhoud voldoen.

  13. 2015 Annual Report on Security Clearance Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    only have delegated investigative authority over their civilian employee population and therefore, can only report the overall timeliness for that...completed or pending security clearance determinations for government employees and contractors during the preceding fiscal year that have taken longer...Clearance Determinations to Congress. The IAA directs this report to include the number of United States Government (USG) employees who held a

  14. Dynamic modelling and experimental study of cantilever beam with clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B; Jin, W; Han, L; He, Z

    2012-01-01

    Clearances occur in almost all mechanical systems, typically such as the clearance between slide plate of gun barrel and guide. Therefore, to study the clearances of mechanisms can be very important to increase the working performance and lifetime of mechanisms. In this paper, rigid dynamic modelling of cantilever with clearance was done according to the subject investigated. In the rigid dynamic modelling, clearance is equivalent to the spring-dashpot model, the impact of beam and boundary face was also taken into consideration. In ADAMS software, the dynamic simulation was carried out according to the model above. The software simulated the movement of cantilever with clearance under external excitation. Research found: When the clearance is larger, the force of impact will become larger. In order to study how the stiffness of the cantilever's supporting part influences natural frequency of the system, A Euler beam which is restricted by a draught spring and a torsion spring at its end was raised. Through numerical calculation, the relationship between natural frequency and stiffness was found. When the value of the stiffness is close to the limit value, the corresponding boundary condition is illustrated. An ADAMS experiment was carried out to check the theory and the simulation.

  15. Dynamic modelling and experimental study of cantilever beam with clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Jin, W.; Han, L.; He, Z.

    2012-05-01

    Clearances occur in almost all mechanical systems, typically such as the clearance between slide plate of gun barrel and guide. Therefore, to study the clearances of mechanisms can be very important to increase the working performance and lifetime of mechanisms. In this paper, rigid dynamic modelling of cantilever with clearance was done according to the subject investigated. In the rigid dynamic modelling, clearance is equivalent to the spring-dashpot model, the impact of beam and boundary face was also taken into consideration. In ADAMS software, the dynamic simulation was carried out according to the model above. The software simulated the movement of cantilever with clearance under external excitation. Research found: When the clearance is larger, the force of impact will become larger. In order to study how the stiffness of the cantilever's supporting part influences natural frequency of the system, A Euler beam which is restricted by a draught spring and a torsion spring at its end was raised. Through numerical calculation, the relationship between natural frequency and stiffness was found. When the value of the stiffness is close to the limit value, the corresponding boundary condition is illustrated. An ADAMS experiment was carried out to check the theory and the simulation.

  16. Die kriminelle Frau“ – ein „Anwendungsfall“ für die Anomietheorie?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Schmölzer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Die von der Verfasserin vorgenommene Bearbeitung der Anomietheorie des Soziologen Robert K. Merton zielt darauf ab, „relevante Unterschiede zwischen Frauen und Männern zu finden, die den unterschiedlichen Anteil der Geschlechter bei der registrierten Kriminalität erklären können“ (S. 223. Dies gelingt insofern, als sie strukturelle Variablen herausarbeiten kann, die per se die Wahrscheinlichkeit von strafbarem Verhalten erhöhen. Das Geschlecht spielt dabei (nur insofern eine Rolle, als der Frauenanteil in der besonders kriminalitätsgefährdeten Personengruppe geringer ist.

  17. Die koninkryk van God as ’n kontekstueel-paradigmatiese sleutel vir Skrifberoep in die etiek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Wet Saaiman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In die lig van die Christelike etiek is ’n beroep op die Skrif ’n sine qua non waar standpunte oor etiese vraagstukke ingeneem word. Deur ’n beroep op die Skrif te doen, is die probleem ongelukkig nie sonder meer opgelos nie. Hierdie artikel toon aan dat die begrip koninkryk van God as tema as ’n hermeneutiese vertrekpunt kan dien in die soeke na antwoorde op etiese vraagstukke. Daar word aangedui dat die koninkryk van God ’n noodsaaklike tema is omdat sekere wetsbepalings en kontekstueel bepaalde beginsels en norme in die voortsetting van die gedagte van die koninkryk van God in die Ou en Nuwe Testament ingebed is. Daar is egter ook sekere voorskrifte binne die teokratiese bestel wat vir die volk Israel in hulle spesifieke konteks gegee is wat nie noodwendig direk in die hedendaagse samelewingskonteks kan en mag toegepas word nie. Die boodskap van die Skrif moet dus op ’n verantwoordelike en geldige wyse gekonstateer word en effektief aan die moderne samelewing oorgedra word. The kingdom of God as a contextual paradigmatic key for using Scripture in ethics. The use of Scripture is, in light of Christian ethics, a sine qua non when positions with regard to ethical problems are assumed. A simple interpretation of Scripture does not necessarily settle the problem. This article shows that the concept kingdom of God as a theme can serve as a hermeneutical point of departure in the search for answers to ethical questions. It is shown that the kingdom of God is a necessary theme due to the fact that certain legal stipulations and contextual based principles and norms are embedded in the idea of the kingdom of God in the Old and New Testament. There are also certain prescriptions within the theocratic system of Israel in its specific context that may not and cannot be directly applied to the modern day societal context. The message of the Bible must thus be established in a responsible and valid way, and communicated effectively to modern

  18. Personeelbestuur as toepassingsgebied van die bedryfsielkunde met verwysing na die implikasies wat dit inhou vir die arbeidsituasie in Siud-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. De Villiers

    1976-11-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Psycho logy is a relatively young discipline. In recent years, however, it has been characterised by accelerated development and today covers various areas of application. The most rapid progress in this respect was perhaps experienced in the field of personnel management. Personnel management can be defined as the planning, organising, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration and maintenance of people for the purpose of contributing to organisational goals. In the past some personnel departments rendered merely screening services which included little more than preliminary interviews of applicants, wage and salary administration and other routine administrative work. Personnel management has, however, undergone drastic changes in which the trend has been clearly towards broader and more important assignments. From narrowly prescribed chores, its responsibilities have grown wider and deeper. The personnel manager of the modern organisation is undisputably a participant in top management, where he provides leadership in developing policies and programmes for manpower management. Opsomming Wetenskaplike personeelbestuur kan gedefinieer word as die beplanning, organisasie, rigtinggewing en kontrole van die voorsiening, ontwikkeling, vergoeding, integrasie en instandhouding van personeel om sodoende 'n bydrae tot organisasiedoelbereiking te lewer. Waar die vroegste "personeeldepartemente" hul hoofsaaklik bemoei het met aktiwiteite soos rekrutering en keuring van werkers, loon- en salarisadministrasie en ander roetine en administratiewe take, het daar in die laaste aantal jare drastiese veranderinge na vore gekom. Die personeeldepartement het tans heelwat meer komplekse take van 'n bestuurs- en uitvoerende aard. Die senior personeelamptenaar is dan ook tans deel van die topbestuur van die onderneming waar hy leiding gee in die ontwikkeling van beleid en programme vir doeltreffende

  19. Die Formatestadt

    OpenAIRE

    Günter Trojan

    2013-01-01

    Zu Zeiten von DV oder VHS (wer kennt das eigentlich noch?) war die Welt noch in Ordnung: Da hatte man eine Kassette in der Hand und wenn das passende Gerät gefunden wurde konnte man das Video auch abspielen. Günter Trojan diskutiert die Geschichte und Gegenwart unterschiedlicher Videoformate ...

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... many challenges, including medical, social, and financial. By learning more about how you can manage your disease every day, you can ultimately help find a ... Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic ...

  1. Die pastorale sielkundige as diakonale pastor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Smuts

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available In die bedieningspatroon van die Ned. Geref. Kerk het die pastorale sielkundige die afgelope aantal jare steeds meer op die voorgrond begin tree. Hy is egter 'n problematiese figuur, wie se identiteit van meer as een kant onder bespreking is. In ander lande, selfs in die VSA waar die kerk veel gebruik maak van die sielkunde, is dit moeilik om 'n presiese parallel vir hom te vind. Sowel binne as buite die kerk word hy deur sommige bevraagteken. Daarom is dit noodsaaklik om vanuit die teologie te kyk na die werk wat hy doen.

  2. Refrigeration system with clearance seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    In a refrigeration system such as a split Stirling system, fluid seals associated with the reciprocating displacer are virtually dragless clearance seals. Movement of the displacer relative to the pressure variations in the working volume of gas is retarded by a discrete braking element. Because it is not necessary that the brake providing any sealing action, the brake can be designed for greater durability and less dependence on ambient and operating temperatures. Similarly, the clearance seal can be formed of elements having low thermal expansion such that the seal is not temperature dependent. In the primary embodiments the braking element is a split friction brake

  3. DIE SAGD - SY ONTSTAAN EN ONTWIKKELING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Okt 1977 ... stelling van 'n higiene afdeling het in 'n belang- rike behoefte voorsien. Die pligte van die SAGO het dus op hierdie stadium die ondersoek van soldate, die sanita- sie van kampe, die verpleging van pasiente in militere hospitale en die opleiding van lede be- hels. 'n Hoogtepunt was die opening van die.

  4. Uitdagings in die onderrig van evolusie in die lewenswetenskappeklaskamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef J. de Beer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel skryf die outeurs oor navorsing wat hulle gedoen het oor onderwysers se siening van die onderrig van evolusie, wat in 2008 as ’n tema in lewenswetenskappe in Suid-Afrikaanse skole ingesluit is. Hierdie vernuwing in die kurrikulum is met gemengde reaksies begroet. Terwyl sommige onderwysers dit met entoesiasme onderrig, is baie gekant teen die onderrig van evolusie. Die artikel is gebaseer op ’n navorsingsprojek waarby 255 onderwysers betrek is. Vraelyste is gebruik om kwalitatiewe data, wat vir diskoers ontleed is, in te samel. Die diskoers van die onderwysers het getoon dat ’n groot getal van hulle nie hul onderrigopdrag kan versoen met hul geloof nie en konsepte oor evolusie as ‘feite’ verduidelik, maar seker maak dat evolusie as ’n teorie gediskrediteer word. Dit het verreikende implikasies vir sowel onderwyseropleiding as kurrikulumontwikkeling. Konseptuele veranderingsteorie word as ’n lens gebruik om na hierdie problematiek te kyk. Challenges in the teaching of evolution in the life sciences classroom. In this article the authors report on research that was conducted about teachers’ views on evolution, which was introduced as a theme in the school life sciences curriculum in 2008. This innovation in the curriculum has been met with mixed reactions. Whereas some teachers embrace this new theme, many teachers are opposed to the teaching of evolution. The article reports on an inquiry that was conducted amongst 255 teachers and in which survey questionnaires were used to collect qualitative data, which was analysed for its discourse. The discourse of the teachers shows that many of them cannot reconcile their religious faith with their teaching and that they may teach the ‘facts’ of evolution, but make sure that they discredit evolution as a theory. This raises serious concerns about teacher education and curriculum development. The authors examine these issues through the lens of conceptual change

  5. Die linke und die rechte todesauffassung: Zur kritik einer antitotalitären thanatologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljić Todor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hier sind die tiefere Schichten in der Todesauffassung bei der Ideologien der Linke und der Rechte untersucht und die Frage nach ihren antitotalitären Glei­chsetzung in punkto Betrachtung gestellt. Zu diesem Zweck werden verschiedene Opfersauffassungen und verschiedene Heilshoffnungen, aber auch verschiedene Ideolosierungen des Todes im Faschismus und Sozialismus gelegt, verglichen und in einen breiteren Kontext gestellt. Daraus folgt der starke Kluft zwischen linken und rechten Auffassung von normalen Lebensumständen. Die Herrschaft (nicht der Gott formiert und auf ideologische Weise nützt Angst vom Tod. Für die kritische Theorie ist die Gegenüberstellung von Leben und Tod ein Teil von emanzipatorische Praxis und Kapitalismuskritik. Die dargelegte Kritik der neoliberalen Thanathologie ist ein Teil von dieser Absicht.

  6. Chaos vibration of pinion and rack steering trapezoidal mechanism containing two clearances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Daogao; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Tong; Zheng, Sifa; Zhao, Wenjing; Pan, Zhijie

    2017-08-01

    The multi-clearances of breaking type steering trapezoidal mechanism joints influences vehicle steering stability. Hence, to ascertain the influence of clearance value on steering stability, this paper takes the steering mechanism of a certain vehicle type as a prototype that can be simplified into a planar six-bar linkage, then establishes the system dynamic differential equations after considering the two clearances of tie rods and the steering knuckle arms. The influence of the clearance parameters on the movement stability of the steering mechanism is studied using a numerical computation method. Results show that when the two clearances are equal, the planar movement of the tie rods changes from period-doubling to chaos as the clearances increase. When the two clearances are 0.25 mm and 1.5 mm respectively, the planar movements of the two side tie rods come into chaos, causing the steering stability to deteriorate. Moreover, with the increase of clearances, turning moment fluctuates more intensively and the peak value increases.

  7. Scintigraphic examinations after stent implantation in central airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, W.S.; Kettner, B.I.; Munz, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Endotracheal and endobronchial stent implantation has been developed as an effective treatment of benign and malignant airway stenosis and of tracheo- or bronchoesophageal fistulas. The selection of the stent type depends on the kind and site of disease. Chest X-ray and bronchoscopy are the procedures of choice for monitoring of stent position, structure, and function. However, with scintigraphic methods the effects of stent implantation on pulmonary ventilation and perfusion can be assessed non-invasively. The validation of the effect of a stent implantation on mucociliary and tussive clearance remains to be elucidated. (orig.) [de

  8. Immotile cilia syndrome in an aged dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killingsworth, C.R.; Slocombe, R.F.; Wilsman, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    An 11-year-old Dalmatian was examined and treated for bilateral nasal discharge and cough of 6 months' duration. Response to medical treatment and surgical intervention was unsatisfactory. Histologic examination of lung tissue revealed chronic severe catarrhal bronchitis and bronchiolitis with bronchiectasis. Histologic findings and barium sulfate bronchography indicated abnormal mucociliary clearance in the respiratory tract. Electron microscopy revealed abnormalities or deletions of outer and/or inner dynein arms in 26% of the ciliary profiles from the affected dog. Similar abnormalities were not found in 500 ciliary profiles from age- and gender-matched control dogs

  9. Die konteks vir die keuse van geriefsvoedsel van bepaalde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seugnet

    70. Die konteks vir die keuse van geriefsvoedsel van bepaalde beroepsvroue *. Martha Kok en Priscilla Botha. ABSTRACT. The purpose of this research is to understand and describe the context in which career women choose, purchase and use convenience food (CF). A person is rarely isolated from or unaffected by.

  10. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... decisions about your health care. CF Genetics: The Basics CF Mutations Video Series Find Out More About ... of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing and ...

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinician Career Development Awards Clinician Training Awards Mutation Analysis Program Network News Network News: March 2018 Network ... for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency ...

  12. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today. ANNUAL FUND Become a Corporate Supporter Cause Marketing Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace ... for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency ...

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway ... on their own. Share Facebook Twitter Email More options Print Share Facebook Twitter Email Print Permalink All ...

  14. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinician Career Development Awards Clinician Training Awards Mutation Analysis Program Network News Network News: June 2018 Network ... for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency ...

  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... a Family Parenting as an Adult With CF Treatments and Therapies People with cystic fibrosis are living ... to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique ...

  16. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Therapy Coughing and Huffing High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation Positive Expiratory Pressure Clinical Trials Clinical Trials ... clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to ...

  17. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... in part to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of ... a cure for CF and supports a broad range of research initiatives to tackle the disease from ...

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACTs involve coughing or huffing . Many of them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Care Guidelines Liver Disease Clinical Care Guidelines Respiratory Care Guidelines CF Airway Clearance Therapies Clinical Care ... attack bacteria. Choose What's Best for You Your respiratory therapist or another member of your CF care ...

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing ... Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation ( ...

  1. Die Formatestadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Trojan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Zu Zeiten von DV oder VHS (wer kennt das eigentlich noch? war die Welt noch in Ordnung: Da hatte man eine Kassette in der Hand und wenn das passende Gerät gefunden wurde konnte man das Video auch abspielen. Günter Trojan diskutiert die Geschichte und Gegenwart unterschiedlicher Videoformate ...

  2. DIE SPRACHE VON "BAŠĆANSKA PLOČA" (DIE STEINTAFEL VON BAŠKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Damjanović

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In einer Mehrzahl von Abhandlungen über Bašćanska ploča berücksichtigen die Verfasser auch die Sprache, in der Regel kurz, nur in einem oder zwei Sätzen. Die größten Bemühungen sind auf die Rekonstruirung der unlesbaren Teilen gerichtet, dagegen nicht weinger interessanter lesbarer Teil regte eine Sprachanalyse selten an. Gewöhnlich wird festgestellt, daß die Tafel in der kroatischen Sprache geschrieben ist, während die philologisch gut unterrichtete Forscher vermeiden diesartige Nenunngen, indem sie das Vorhandensein der altslawischen und altkroatischen Sprachelemente entdeckten. Man versuchte noch nicht in einer Analyse sprachliche Grundschichte und darauf geschichtete Sprachelemente zu bestimmen. Nach dem ersten Eindruck wurde bestimmt, ob es sich um "die kroatische Srpache mit den Elementen der alten slawischen liturgischen Sprache" handelt oder um "die altslawische in der manche kroatische Spracheigenschaften hereingekommen sind". Die Analyse mancher Spracheinzelheiten (Halblaute und "Jat" weist auf altslawische Grundschicht hin. Der Verfasser hat sich trotzdem nicht entschieden den Fachausdruck "kroatische Redaktion des altslawischen" zu verwenden, weil er neue Analyse und neue Begriffsbestimmungen als nötig hält, wie z.B. "Redaktion", "Rezension" usw, um mit Sicherkeit sagen zu können, ob es um kroatische Redaktion des altslawischen oder um andere Formen der altslawischen - alt kroatischen Interferenz geht.

  3. Sal die Era van Aquarius met ’n “skrikkelsprong” in die millennium tot sy reg kom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Smits

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Waar ons nou die einde van die 2de millennium AD nader, het dit duidelik geword dat daar heelwat verwarring heers oor hoe en waarom ons kalender opgestel is soos dit is. Die lengte van ’n jaar en van die astronomiese eeu word beide gedefinieer aan die hand van die posisie van ’n bepaalde punt aan die hemel, wat bekend staan as die Eerste punt van Aries. Deurdat hierdie punt met betrekking tot die sterre-agtergrond beweeg, skep dit probleme om sterrekundige gebeurtenisse, wat die seisoene bepaal, aan ’n vaste datum in ons kalender te koppel. Die Katolieke Kerk se wens om Paasfees op ’n datum te vier wat deur spesifieke astronomiese gebeurtenis se bepaal word, het in die 16de eeu gelei tot die implementering van die kalender wat nou internasionaal in gebruik is.

  4. Author: T Bekker DIE MOONTLIKE REGSHERVORMING VAN DIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    So ver terug as die vroeë twintigste eeu het die Appèlhof in Cassiem v Standard. Bank of SA Ltd,1 .... 838; Capital Building Society v De Jager 1963 3 SA 381 (T); Smit v Walles 1985 2 SA 189 (T). 196-198. 18 ...... moeilik kon regverdig.97. Ons howe het tot op hede gehuiwer om 'n algemene plig van goeie trou ten aansien.

  5. 78 FR 77027 - Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... No. USCG-2013-0466] Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... clearance (air-draft) accidents. In its petition, which calls for vessel masters to be provided with... accidents that it says were avoidable and that resulted in damage to or destruction of waterway...

  6. The role of clearance in Germany - release of materials, buildings and sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.

    2005-01-01

    Clearance in Germany is far advanced. A complex regulatory framework exists in the Radiation Protection Ordinance (RPO/Strahlenschutzverordnung, StrlSchV) since 2001 which has replaced previous recommendations on clearance issued by the German Radiation Protection Commission (Strahlenschutzkommission, SSK). A number of options exist both for unconditional clearance (e.g. of all kinds of materials with no restrictions on the destination or future use) and for clearance for a specific purpose (e.g. recycling of metal scrap). For each clearance option there is a set of nuclide specific clearance levels which have been derived on the basis of the 10 Sv/a individual dose criterion using complex radiological models which are tailored to the respective material cycles (metal scrap, buildings, building rubble, waste for disposal, sites). The clearance levels have been thoroughly reviewed by the SSK. An extensive comparison to sets of clearance levels used in other countries or issued as guidance by international bodies revealed that the correspondence between values is between good and acceptable taking into account country-specific approaches and special assumptions which would not necessarily pertain to German situations. Clearance is a major factor in the material management, especially of nuclear installations undergoing decommissioning. The variety of clearance options leaves the operator of a nuclear installation sufficient flexibility for optimisation of the material management. Clearance is of particular importance in a country like Germany where the estimated costs for a future repository are very high and the interim storage facilities for radioactive material are limited and costly. While the licensee is responsible for his material management, the issuance of a clearance permit is done by the regulatory body upon application. The regulators may choose to use the clearance levels and regulations as stipulated by the RPO, or to impose site-specific regulations on

  7. 'n Kwalitatiewe ondersoek na die invloed van aspekte van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 26: No1, 1998. 15 ...... van byvoorbeeld die televisie en gedrukte media 'n invloed op die .... fashion promotion and advertising. New York. ... Consumer behaviour to-.

  8. Metodes in die Christelike etiek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basic question in Christian ethics is not primarily. 'What should I do?' The basic question is rather ' ... should therefore be accepted as being part of the method used in Christian ethics. 1. INLEIDEND ..... aan die kant van die onderdrukte' verkondig word, word die Christen opgeroep om horn te skaar aan die kant van die ...

  9. Whole body and regional clearances of noradrenaline and adrenaline in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Galbo, H; Gjerris, A

    1984-01-01

    the clearance values based on arterial and venous sampling averaged 1.4 and 2.5 l/min, respectively (p less than 0.02). The difference in clearance values was due to peripheral uptake of NA averaging 45%. The plasma appearance rate on NA averaged 2.4 nmol/min before surgery and it increased to 9.5 nmol...... we found no correlation between clearance values based on venous and arterial sampling. In other experiments we measured the influence of physical exercise in young healthy subjects on the clearance rate of plasma adrenaline (A). The clearance of A, which at rest averaged 1.9 l/min tended to increase...

  10. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace Engagement DONATE YOUR PROPERTY eCards for a Cure About ... airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ...

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... people with cystic fibrosis so that they make smart decisions about CF-related research, treatment, and access ... Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

  12. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... CFTR Modulator Therapies Mucus Thinners Nebulizer Care at Home Vascular Access Devices PICCs and Ports Partnerships for ... Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

  13. Radioaerosol inhalation lung imaging for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in Thailand. Final report for the period 10 December 1987 - 15 December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buachum, V [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Nuclear Medicine Div.

    1993-12-01

    The radionuclide pulmonary function studies such as aerosol inhalation lung imaging, mucociliary clearance and pulmonary epithelial were developed and studied in normal and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The results of the aerosol inhalation lung imaging in 71 cases of COPD revealed that the aerosol inhalation lung scan was the most sensitive test for the diagnosis of early COPD as compared to the chest X-ray, vascular perfusion lung scan and spirometric test (% FEVI). The aerosol and perfusion lung scan were also performed in 21 cases of carcinoma of lung who had been treated with external radiation or chemotherapy. The result of study revealed 5 patients died during treatment, 5 patients were slightly improved, no significant change was detected in 10 cases and deterioration was found in one patient. The lung scintigraphy was studied in 15 cases of well differentiated carcinoma of thyroid with pulmonary metastasis who had I-131 treatment. The study showed that the radioactive iodine treatment dose had minimal effect on the post treatment lung imaging study. The perfusion and aerosol study in 15 cases of operated patients revealed no evidence of pulmonary embolism in post operative study. Abnormal vascular disease or pulmonary embolism was observed in one patient preoperatively. 12 refs, 13 figs, 13 tabs.

  14. Radioaerosol inhalation lung imaging for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in Thailand. Final report for the period 10 December 1987 - 15 December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buachum, V.

    1993-12-01

    The radionuclide pulmonary function studies such as aerosol inhalation lung imaging, mucociliary clearance and pulmonary epithelial were developed and studied in normal and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The results of the aerosol inhalation lung imaging in 71 cases of COPD revealed that the aerosol inhalation lung scan was the most sensitive test for the diagnosis of early COPD as compared to the chest X-ray, vascular perfusion lung scan and spirometric test (% FEVI). The aerosol and perfusion lung scan were also performed in 21 cases of carcinoma of lung who had been treated with external radiation or chemotherapy. The result of study revealed 5 patients died during treatment, 5 patients were slightly improved, no significant change was detected in 10 cases and deterioration was found in one patient. The lung scintigraphy was studied in 15 cases of well differentiated carcinoma of thyroid with pulmonary metastasis who had I-131 treatment. The study showed that the radioactive iodine treatment dose had minimal effect on the post treatment lung imaging study. The perfusion and aerosol study in 15 cases of operated patients revealed no evidence of pulmonary embolism in post operative study. Abnormal vascular disease or pulmonary embolism was observed in one patient preoperatively. 12 refs, 13 figs, 13 tabs

  15. Online monitoring of dynamic tip clearance of turbine blades in high temperature environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu; Zhong, Chong; Zhu, Xiaoliang; Zhe, Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Minimized tip clearance reduces the gas leakage over turbine blade tips and improves the thrust and efficiency of turbomachinery. An accurate tip clearance sensor, measuring the dynamic clearances between blade tips and the turbine case, is a critical component for tip clearance control. This paper presents a robust inductive tip clearance sensor capable of monitoring dynamic tip clearances of turbine machines in high-temperature environments and at high rotational speeds. The sensor can also self-sense the temperature at a blade tip in situ such that temperature effect on tip clearance measurement can be estimated and compensated. To evaluate the sensor’s performance, the sensor was tested for measuring the tip clearances of turbine blades under various working temperatures ranging from 700 K to 1300 K and at turbine rotational speeds ranging from 3000 to 10 000 rpm. The blade tip clearance was varied from 50 to 2000 µm. The experiment results proved that the sensor can accurately measure the blade tip clearances with a temporal resolution of 10 µm. The capability of accurately measuring the tip clearances at high temperatures (~1300 K) and high turbine rotation speeds (~30 000 rpm), along with its compact size, makes it promising for online monitoring and active control of blade tip clearances of high-temperature turbomachinery.

  16. Creatinine clearance during cimetidine administration for measurement of glomerular filtration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, B. A.; Koomen, G. C.; Koopman, M. G.; de Waart, D. R.; Arisz, L.

    1992-01-01

    Creatinine clearance inaccurately estimates true glomerular filtration rate (GFR) because of tubular secretion of creatinine. We studied the ability of oral cimetidine, a blocker of tubular creatinine secretion, to improve the accuracy of measuring creatinine clearance. Clearances of inulin and

  17. Depressed reticuloendothelial clearance of platelets in rats after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J E; Moon, D G; Minnear, F L; Saba, T M

    1984-02-01

    Platelet microembolization may contribute to microcirculatory and organ damage following trauma and shock. It is hypothesized that posttraumatic reticuloendothelial depression predisposes to such microembolization by failure to clear altered platelets from the circulation. The present study evaluated the short-term (1 h) clearance and organ localization of radiolabeled homologous damaged platelets in normal rats and in rats following sublethal Noble-Collip drum trauma. Platelets were collected in citrated platelet-rich plasma from normal rats and labeled with 51Cr in citrated saline. Platelets were altered by repeated centrifugation in protein-free medium. These platelets differed functionally and morphologically from normal platelets. Disappearance of iv injected damaged platelets conformed to a two-compartment exponential clearance. Velocity of clearance in the rapid compartment correlated with hepatic platelet localization, whereas velocity of clearance in the second compartment correlated with splenic platelet localization. Clearance rate of the rapid compartment was depressed at 1 h after trauma and elevated at 24 h. These changes were associated with a decrease in hepatic platelet localization at 1 h and an increase above normal at 24 h. Splenic platelet localization was decreased by 3 h following trauma. Pulmonary platelet localization was increased at all times following trauma. It is concluded that the posttrauma state is associated with a defect in the reticuloendothelial system clearance of altered platelets, which may augment embolization of platelets in the lung.

  18. Intercalibration of mussel Mytilus edulis clearance rate measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjerulf Petersen, J.; Bougrier, S.; Smaal, A.C.; Garen, P.; Robert, S.; Larsen, J.E.N.; Brummelhuis, E.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Clearance rate (CR) was measured in blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from Aiguillon Bay and the Oosterschelde using 3 different methods: the flow-through method, the bio-deposition method and the indirect or clearance method. CR differed significantly as a function of the method used and of the origin

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Family Parenting as an Adult With CF Treatments and Therapies People with cystic fibrosis are living longer and ... to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique ...

  20. DIE EKSISTENSIEFILOSOFIE VAN KARL JASPERS. ENKELE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Kierkegaard en Nietzsche, Max Weber en Dilthey, om maar enkeles te noem, en 5.) Jaspers se persoonlike beskouing oor die roe ping en die taak van die Filosofie, sy aanvoeling van die filosofiese problematiek en sy grondhouding teenoor die eksistensiële verbonden- hede. Die woord van Fichte, naamlik dat die Filosofie ...

  1. Pentateugtradisies in die boek Hosea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    om te bepaal of die verwysing na 'n gebeure te doen het met die verre verlede of met die .... Hosea 2:1-2 JHWH se trou aan sy beloftes. ... dat huile na Egipte sal terugkeer. Die presiese bedoeiing van die woorde 'huile sal terugkeer na Egipte' is omstre- de. Kommentatore soos Rudolph meen dat dit verstaan moet word as ...

  2. DOD PERSONNEL CLEARANCES: Additional OMB Actions Are Needed to Improve the Security Clearance Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    Our independent analysis of timeliness data showed that industry personnel contracted to work for the federal government waited more than one year on average to receive top secret clearances, longer...

  3. Die beroepsoriëntasie van professioneel-rekeningkundiges tydens die vroeë beroepsjare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Van Vuuren

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available The career orientation of professional accountants during the early career stage. The purpose with this study was to conduct research into the career orientations of aspiring and qualified persons in the accounting profession. Schein's Career Orientation Inventory was administered to 221 respondents in the early career stage and in different phases of Involvement in the profession. Managerial skill featured as the most prominent career orientation. It was also evident that respondents who had had occupational experience measured highest on the same orientation, i.e. managerial skill, irrespective of their phase within the early career stage. Furthermore, there were indications that career orientation differentiation increased in accordance with occupational experience. Opsomming Die doel met hierdie studie was om die beroepsoriëntasies van aspirant en gekwalifiseerde persone in die rekenmeesterprofessie na te vors. Schein se Beroepsorientasievraelys is afgeneem op 221 proefpersone in hul vroee beroepsjare en in verskillende fases van betrokkenheid in die professie. Bestuursbedrewenheid is as die mees kenmerkende beroepsorientasie geidentifiseer. Dit het ook aan die lig gekom dat proefpersone wat oor beroepsondervinding beskik, ongeag hul fase van betrokkenheid in die vroee beroepsjare, dieselfde orientasie naamlik bestuursbedrewenheid, realiseer. Aanduidings is verder verkry dat beroepsorientasie-differensiasie na gelang van beroepsblootstelling toeneem.

  4. Chirurgie in die Grieks-Romeinse era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François P. Retief

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In die Grieks-Romeinse era het mediese behandeling kenmerkend uit drie elemente bestaan, naamlik regimen (dieet en gesonde leefwyse, geneesmiddels en chirurgie – laasgenoemde alleen toegepas indien regimen en geneesmiddels onsuksesvol was. Bewyse van primitiewe chirurgie dateer terug na die Bronstydperk, en in Homerus se eposse is heelwat vermelding van die chirurgiese hantering van oorlogswonde, met tussenkoms van die gode. Met die koms van empiriese geneeskunde in die 5de eeu v.C. het chirurgie in die Hippokratiese Corpus prominent gefigureer met beduidende bydraes in veral die ortopediese veld en hoofbeserings. Uitbouing van anatomiese en fisiologiese kennis, gebaseer op disseksie van menslike kadawers in Alexandrië vanaf die laat 4de eeu v.C., het chirurgie ’n hupstoot gegee. Teen die Romeinse era vanaf die 2de eeu v.C. het snykundetegnieke (en -instrumente beduidend verbeter, maar is steeds oorwegend deur Griekse geneeshere beoefen. Van geneeshere is steeds verwag om al drie bovermelde terapeutiese modaliteite te bemeester, maar chirurgie het meer aansien verwerf en daar is al meer in onderafdelings van chirurgie soos oogheelkunde, vrouesiektes en verloskunde, blaaskwale en mond- en keelsnykunde gespesialiseer. Militêre geneeskunde was in die Romeinse Ryk ’n belangrike aktiwiteit, en het veral traumachirurgie uitgebou. Betreding van die buik- en toraksholtes was nie meer noodwendig fataal nie, en veeartsenykunde het tot stand gekom. Die eerste beduidende chirurgiehandboek ná die Hippokratiese Corpus is in die 1ste eeu n.C. deur Celsus opgestel. Vanaf die 3de eeu het die chirurgieberoep min vordering gemaak, die beroepstaal het mettertyd van Grieks na Latyn verander en kundigheid is later veral deur Islam-geneeshere na die Middeleeue en later oorgedra.

  5. DIE SAW SE ROL IN SWA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wei die verdediging van die landsgrense teen 'n vyand wat die orde, gesag, vrede, stabiliteit en welvaart in Suidwes-Afrika en die Republiek van. Suid-Afrika wil vernietig. Hierdie oorlog moet nie ge'lsoleerd gesien word nie, maar in perspektief geplaas word teen die agtergrond van 'n nag groter konflik, naamlik die van die ...

  6. Die Erfindung des Manuskripts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benne, Christian

    Die Entstehung der literarischen Moderne ging seit dem 18. Jahrhundert damit einher, dass die Anzahl literarischer Manuskripte ebenso wuchs wie deren Bedeutung. Der Buchdruck hatte die Handschrift keineswegs überflüssig gemacht, sondern provozierte im Gegenteil einen neuen, am Autographen...

  7. Assessment of renal function with the Tc-99m-MAG3 clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keske, U.; Corcles, M.; Andreessen, R.; Wilfling, M.; Roll, D.; Gahl, G.; Felix, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the applicability of the 99m-Tc-mercaptoacetyle-triglycine (MAG3) clearance for the documentation of renal function. Renal clearance was measured with the method of Tauxe in 699 patients during routine renal scintigraphy with 80 MBq of 99mTc-MAG3. Serum creatinine level and MAG3 clearance show an inverse correlation. Patients with an elevated serum creatinine level constantly have a lowered MAG3 clearance and vice versa. For creatinine values lower than 1.8 mg/dL, minor changes in creatinine level are accompanied by large changes in MAG3 clearance. Age (in years) dependence of MAG3 clearance was evaluated in 487 patients who showed no evidence of impaired renal function

  8. Effects of heart rate on myocardial thallium-201 uptake and clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordrehaug, J.E.; Danielsen, R.; Vik-Mo, H.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of heart rate on the myocardial uptake and clearance of 201 Tl were studied prospectively in seven healthy men, mean age 43 +/- 7 (s.d.) yr. Initial and delayed (3 hr) thallium images were obtained in three views after three bicycle exercise tests: to maximal, 80% and 60% of predicted maximal heart rate. The mean of three views initial myocardial 201 Tl uptake was higher at maximal than at both 80% and 60% of predicted maximal heart rate, being 81% (p less than 0.01) and 60% (p less than 0.01) of maximal activity, respectively. The myocardial activity in the delayed images was identical. There was a linear relationship between heart rate and the initial myocardial activity, r = 0.86 (p less than 0.001). The mean (range) 201 Tl clearance was 58% (51-65), 47% (34-56), and 34% (22-49) (all differences p less than 0.01), respectively. Concordance among the three individual views in estimating clearance was best for the highest exercise level. There was a linear relationship between heart rate and clearance, r = 0.80 (p less than 0.001). Clearance was altered by only 1.67 x 10%/heart bpm (0.024 hr/heart beat). Clearance in the liver, spleen and lungs increased at submaximal exercise levels. Thus, a linear relationship between heart rate and clearance is the result of changes in the initial exercise myocardial 201 Tl activity. Submaximal exercise may reduce reproducibility of clearance estimation, and the change of myocardial clearance with heart rate seems less than previously suggested

  9. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shanker

    have been identified [1,3]. These include stone characteristics, the type of lithotripter used, LPC anatomy and body habitus. For iso- lated LPC stones, the pelvicalyceal angle, infundibulum length and width are considered important determinants for stone clearance. The impact of body habitus on stone clearance has so far ...

  10. Delayed clearance of triglyceride‐rich lipoproteins in young, healthy obese subjects†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, R.; Lekahl, S.; Moen, O. S.; Florholmen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. The aims were, first, to study the postprandial triglyceride clearance in young, healthy obese subjects and, second, to investigate if fasting triglycerides can predict delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance. Eighteen apparently healthy, obese subjects with no clinical signs of metabolic disturbances participated. Controls were age‐ and sex‐matched, healthy, normal weight subjects. Subclinical markers of metabolic disturbances were assessed by measuring postprandial triglycerides in serum and in chylomicrons by oral fat tolerance test. Postprandial triglyceride clearance for 8 h was assessed indirectly as removal of the lipid from serum during the oral fat tolerance test. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA‐IR). Twelve (66%) of the apparently healthy obese individuals had insulin resistance measured by HOMA‐IR. There was a delayed clearance of serum triglycerides and chylomicron triglycerides at 6 h when compared with the control group, while, at 8 h, the differences were only detected for the chylomicron triglyceride clearance. Triglyceride response was significantly greater in the obese subjects. Fasting triglycerides in upper normal level predicted a delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. In young, apparently healthy obese subjects early metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance can be detected. Fasting serum triglyceride in upper normal level predicted delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. PMID:26469529

  11. Delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in young, healthy obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M A; Goll, R; Lekahl, S; Moen, O S; Florholmen, J

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. The aims were, first, to study the postprandial triglyceride clearance in young, healthy obese subjects and, second, to investigate if fasting triglycerides can predict delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance. Eighteen apparently healthy, obese subjects with no clinical signs of metabolic disturbances participated. Controls were age- and sex-matched, healthy, normal weight subjects. Subclinical markers of metabolic disturbances were assessed by measuring postprandial triglycerides in serum and in chylomicrons by oral fat tolerance test. Postprandial triglyceride clearance for 8 h was assessed indirectly as removal of the lipid from serum during the oral fat tolerance test. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Twelve (66%) of the apparently healthy obese individuals had insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR. There was a delayed clearance of serum triglycerides and chylomicron triglycerides at 6 h when compared with the control group, while, at 8 h, the differences were only detected for the chylomicron triglyceride clearance. Triglyceride response was significantly greater in the obese subjects. Fasting triglycerides in upper normal level predicted a delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. In young, apparently healthy obese subjects early metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance can be detected. Fasting serum triglyceride in upper normal level predicted delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. © 2015 World Obesity.

  12. Die Freunde im und die Freude am Fernsehen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Ovcina Cajacob

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit besteht darin, die Wirkungen von Popstars und Popbands auf Jugendliche (13- bis 17-Jährige zu erforschen. Im Mittelpunkt der Interessen steht die Frage, welche Wirkungen aus der Rezeption von Musiksendungen (bzw. Videoclips von Musiksendern entstehen und welche Charakteristika innerhalb der aufgebauten Beziehungen zu den Stars bemerkbar sind. Andererseits wurden die Unterschiede und Parallelen zwischen parasozialen Beziehungen zu den Stars und orthosozialen Beziehungen aufgezeigt. Im Zusammenhang mit der empirischen Untersuchung bezieht sich die Autorin auf den Uses-and-Gratifications-Approach, wobei die bedürfnissbefriedigenden Wirkungen von Musikkanälen und den dazu gehörigen Popstars im Mittelpunkt stehen. Mit Hilfe des Uses-and-Gratifications-Approach wird angenommen, dass das Konsumieren der Musiksendungen und der Musikstars von den Jugendlichen gezielt zur Befriedigung bestimmter Bedürfnisse eingesetzt wird.The objective of this study is to explore the effects of pop stars on adolescents (aged between 13 and 17. The focus of interest is the question what effect music channels (i.e. video clips from music channels produce and what characteristics are noticeable from the formed relationship between adolescents and pop stars. On the other side, parallels and differences have been drawn between the para-social relationships to pop stars and ortho-social relationships. In connection with empirical study, the author also refers to Uses-and Gratification-Approach where the need satisfying effects of music channels and pop stars are in focus. With the help of Uses-and Gratification-Approach it will be assumed, that aim of watching music channels and therefore pop stars will be pointed toward the gratification of specific needs.

  13. Dynamic characteristics analysis of deployable space structures considering joint clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tuanjie; Guo, Jian; Cao, Yuyan

    2011-04-01

    The clearance in joints influences the dynamic stability and the performance of deployable space structures (DSS). A virtual experimental modal analysis (VEMA) method is proposed to deal with the effects of joint clearance and link flexibility on the dynamic characteristics of the DSS in this paper. The focus is on the finite element modeling of the clearance joint, VEMA and the modal parameters identification of the DSS. The finite element models (FEM) of the clearance joint and the deployable structure are established in ANSYS. The transient dynamic analysis is conducted to provide the time history data of excitation and response for the VEMA. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique is used to transform the data from time domain to frequency domain. The frequency response function is calculated to identify the modal parameters of the deployable structure. Experimental verification is provided to indicate the VEMA method is both a cost and time efficient approach to obtain the dynamic characteristics of the DSS. Finally, we analyze the effects of clearance size and gravity on the dynamic characteristics of the DSS. The analysis results indicate that the joint clearance and gravity strongly influence the dynamic characteristics of the DSS.

  14. Moderne diskoerse in die teologie vandag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. van Wyk

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word aandag gevra vir enkele moderne diskoerse in die teologie vandag. Volgens die outeur staan die vrae oor God, Jesus, die mens en die aarde in die sentrum van belangstelling en oorheers dit in ’n groot mate die teologiese debat. Die opkoms van die moderne aggressiewe ateïsme, die wetenskaplike navorsing oor die historiese Jesus, die groeiende vrae oor die mens en die menslike samelewing, asook die dreigende ekologiese krisis op aarde, sorg vir nuwe debatte van ongekende omvang. Die outeur bespreek hierdie debatte oorsigtelik, met kritiek waar nodig, en sluit af met enkele rigtingwysers van wat hy as ‘goeie teologie’ verstaan. In this article attention is paid to some modern discourses in theology today. According to the author the questions about God, Jesus, man and the earth are in the centre of interest and to a large extent dominate the theological debate. The rise of modern aggressive atheism, the scientific research on the historic Jesus, the growing questions about man and human society as well as the threatening ecological crisis on earth, provide new discourses of unparalleled magnitude. The author provides a broad summary of these discourses, with criticism where necessary, and concludes with some indicators of his view what can be called ‘good theology’.

  15. Die persepsies en houdings van gelowige jonggetroude egpare oor seksuele intimiteit in die huwelik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinee Pretorius

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel is gebaseer op empiriese navorsing om die persepsies en houdings van gelowige, jonggetroude egpare oor seksuele intimiteit in die huwelik na te vors. Daar is gefokus op hoe die egpare die verhouding sien waarbinne seksuele intimiteit geniet en beleef mag word; wat na hulle mening die man en vrou se plig is rakende die seksuele; wat hulle persepsies is oor die vryheid wat seksuele intimiteit binne die huwelik bied, en wat eksklusiwiteit ten opsigte van seksuele intimiteit binne die huwelik vir elkeen van hulle beteken. ’n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsontwerp is gebruik en sewe gelowige egpare wat minder as twee jaar getroud was (N = 11, het aan die navorsing deelgeneem. Die navorsingsdata is uit ’n kort vraelys verkry en deur semigestruktureerde onderhoude wat met sommige van die deelnemers gevoer is. ’n Ryke oes van data is verkry en ’n hele aantal temas is identifiseer. Hierdie temas sluit goed aan by die basisteoretiese en metateoretiese perspektiewe wat as onderbou vir hierdie navorsing gedien het. The perceptions and attitudes of religious newlywedded couples regarding sexual intimacy in the marriage. This article is based on empirical research done to explore the perceptions and attitudes of religious newlywedded couples regarding sexual intimacy in the marriage. The research focused on how the couples regard a relationship in which sexual intimacy can be enjoyed and experienced; what, in their opinion, the husband and the wife’s responsibilities are towards each other regarding sex; what their perceptions are about the freedom that sexual intimacy offers in marriage, and what marital exclusivity regarding sexual intimacy means to each of the participants. A qualitative research design was used and seven religious couples that were married less than two years (N = 11 participated in this research. The research data was obtained by using a short questionnaire and semi-structured interviews which were conducted with some

  16. Die owerheidsinmenging met betrekking tot kerklike tughandelinge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Roeleveld

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Volgens art 29 NGB is die merktekens van die ware kerk die suiwere prediking van die Evangelie, die suiwere bediening van die Sakramente en die gebruik van die kerklike tug. Art. 32 NGB spreek uit dat die Kerkorde nie mag afwyk van wat Christus ingestel het nie. Menslike vindinge en wette om die gewetens te bind en te dwing, moet daarom verwerp word. Die ekskommunikasie of die ban moet toegepas word volgens die Woord van God.

  17. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation or...

  18. Die Dokter-Pasient Rolverwantskap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    17 Aug 1974 ... en as sodanig 'n ral sped in die persoon se siektegedrag en uiteindelike patroon van hulpsoeke. SIEKEROL EN SOSIALISERING IN DIE. PASIENTROL ..... more cumulative, resulting in a more gradual social and professional maturation.' Vit die voorafgaande word dit duidelik dat Dewy se pragmatiese ...

  19. Modeling of high temperature- and diffusion-controlled die soldering in aluminum high pressure die casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domkin, Konstantin; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    of the die lifetime based on a quantitative analysis of die soldering in the framework of the numerical simulations of the die-casting process. Full 3D simulations of the process, including the filling. solidification, and the die cooling, are carried out using the casting simulation software MAGMAsoft....... The resulting transient temperature fields on the die surface and in the casting are then post-processed to estimate the die soldering. The present work deals only with the metallurgical/chemical kind of soldering which occurs at high temperatures and involves formation and growth of intermetallic layers...

  20. Die meting van die invloed van organisasiegrootte op bruin werkers se houdings en gedrag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. van der Bank

    1985-11-01

    'n Oorsig van die literatuur dui daarop dat bevindinge onkonsekwent is wat betref die invloed van die grootte van organisasies op veranderlikes soos die doeltreffendheid van personeel-keuringstelsels, opleiding, arbeidsomset, werkafwesigheid, werkdoeltreffendheid en so meer. In Wes-Kaapland is tien "groot" fabrieke geselekteer (aantal bruin werkers 300 of meer en vergelyk met 17 "klein" fabrieke (aantal bruin werkers minder as 50. Met behulp van t-toetse is statisties beduidende verskille gevind ten opsigte van die volgende veranderlikes waarvolgens groot organisasies meer gunstig vertoon: 1 meer keuringstegnieke word gebruik; 2 die doeltreffendheid van die keurings-programme is hoër; 3 meer opleidingstegnieke word gebruik; 4 opleidingsprogramme is meer doeltreffend; 5 werkers is meer tevrede; 6 werkers se gemiddelde beroepsaanpassing is beter, en 7 werkers is meer tevrede met hul salarisse of lone. Geen betekenisvolle verskille is egter gevind ten opsigte van arbeidsomset, werkafwesigheid en werkbehoeftes nie.

  1. Applicability of Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System to Clearance Measurement of Concrete Segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, M.; Ogino, H.; Hattori, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant, large amounts of metal scrap and concrete segments require disposal when dismantling the nuclear reactor and surrounding facilities. When their activity level is negligible or sufficiently small, they can be regarded as general industrial waste. To distinguish between radioactive and nonradioactive materials, the clearance level for each radionuclide has been determined in units of activity concentration. These clearance levels are indicated in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.7. The Japanese regulatory authority decided in 2005 to adopt the values given in RS-G-1.7 as clearance levels in legislation. Recently, a Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System (CLALIS) has been developed utilizing gamma-ray measurement, automatic laser shape measurement and Monte Carlo calculation. CLALIS comprises four laser scanners and eight large plastic scintillation detectors surrounded by a 5-cm-thick lead shield. Using three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning, a measurement target, which is placed on the measuring tray, is represented as a dot image. The dot image is converted into voxels after noise removal, and is written in MCNP (A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System) input files. When the gamma-ray measurement is carried out, the MCNP calculations are also carried out to obtain the calibration factor and background (BG) correction factors. For the clearance measurement of concrete segments, the effect of gamma-rays from natural radionuclides in the measurement target, such as K-40 and the radioactive decay products of Th-232 and U-238, should be taken into account to ensure adequate waste management. Since NE102A plastic scintillation detectors are used for gamma-ray measurement in CLALIS, it is impossible to distinguish between the count rates of natural radionuclides and contaminants on the basis of gamma-ray energy information. To overcome this problem, the

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast To learn more about how you can help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist ...

  3. Die omvang en aard van afwesigheid in die werkplek: ‘n Suid-Afrikaanse gevalstudie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anel Du Plessis

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The scope and nature of absenteeism in the workplace: A South African case study. The objective of the study was to develop quantitative measures for monitoring trends of absenteeism in a company within the meat industry and to assess qualitatively the possible existence of a collective culture of absenteeism within the organisation. The scope and frequency of absenteeism, costs incurred due to absenteeism, and individual absenteeism patterns of 145 employees, were studied over a period of one year. It was found that 2900 planned and 912 unplanned leave workdays that were lost, resulted in direct costs of R895,054.55. Five employees who were absent most often accounted for 18.60% of the unplanned leave taken. The extraordinary levels of absenteeism found in this case study were ascribed to specific employees. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om kwantitatiewe metings vir die monitering van afwesigheidstendense vir ‘n maatskappy in die vleisbedryf te ontwikkel en om die moontlike bestaan van ‘n kollektiewe afwesigheidskultuur kwalitatief te ondersoek. Die omvang, frekwensie en koste van afwesigheid, asook individuele afwesigheidspatrone, is bestudeer vir 145 werknemers oor ‘n tydperk van een jaar. Daar is bevind dat 2900 beplande en 912 onbeplande verlofwerkdae wat verloor is, die maatskappy R895,054.55 gekos het. Vyf werknemers wat die meeste afwesig was, was verantwoordelik vir 18,60% van die onbeplande verlof geneem. Die uitsonderlike vlakke van afwesigheid in hierdie gevalstudie is toegeskryf aan spesifieke werknemers.

  4. Narratiwiteit en die Ou Testament

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INLEIDING. Die literêre benadering tot die Ou-Testamentiese narratiewe word algemeen as 'n alternatiewe paradigma in die Bybelwetenskappe aanvaar. Oor die filosofiese uit- gangspunte wat hierdie nuwe paradigma ten grondslag lê, bestaan daar egter nog weinig eenstemmigheid. Heelwat probleme van filosofiese en ...

  5. Clearance level and industrial waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Toichi

    1999-01-01

    Defining the clearance level enables the radioactive waste with lower radioactivity than a certain level to be the general industrial waste and therefore consideration for public acceptance is essential. For this, it is necessary to understand laws concerning not only atomic power and radioactivity but also disposal and cleaning of general waste. It is also necessary that the waste below the clearance level should be as much as possible handled in the modern common concept of recycling of resources. In 1996, the weight of industrial waste was about 400 million tons, of which 40% was disposed by burning and dehydration, 39% was re-used and 21% was subjected to the final disposal like reclamation. Reduction, re-use and recycling of the generated waste are required for making the society with recycling of resources. Scrap concrete materials below the clearance level of 0.6 million tons are estimated to be generated by dismantling the light water reactor of 1 million kW output and profitable technology for recycling the scrap is under investigation. (K.H.)

  6. Development and gamma-scintigraphy study of Hibiscus rosasinensis polysaccharide-based microspheres for nasal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nitin; Tyagi, Shanu; Gupta, Satish Kumar; Kulkarni, Giriraj Thirupathirao; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Kumar, Neeraj

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the application of natural plant polysaccharide as pharmaceutical mucoadhesive excipients in delivery systems to reduce the clearance rate through nasal cavity. Novel natural polysaccharide (Hibiscus rosasinensis)-based mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared by using emulsion crosslinking method for the delivery of rizatriptan benzoate (RB) through nasal route. Mucoadhesive microspheres were characterized for different parameters and nasal clearance of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-radiolabeled microspheres was determined by using gamma-scintigraphy. Their Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the drug was stable during preparation of microspheres. Aerodynamic diameter of microspheres was in the range 13.23 ± 1.83-33.57 ± 3.69 µm. Change in drug and polysaccharide ratio influenced the mucoadhesion, encapsulation efficiency and in-vitro release property. Scintigraphs taken at regular interval indicate that control solution was cleared rapidly from nasal cavity, whereas microspheres showed slower clearance (p < 0.005) with half-life of 160 min. Natural polysaccharide-based microspheres achieved extended residence by minimizing effect of mucociliary clearance with opportunity of sustained delivery for longer duration.

  7. James Henry Greathead en die Londense Moltrein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Wright

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Die artikel ondersoek die oorsprong en vroeë geskiedenis van die toestel genaamd die ‘Greathead Skild’, ‘n belangrike nuwigheid in Viktoriaanse ingenieurwetenskap, wat van deurslaggewende belang was in die konstruksie van die Londense Moltrein. Die doel is om die basis te ontleed waarop, baie jare later, ‘n Suid-Afrikaanse ingenieur wye openbare erkenning in die vorm van ‘n standbeeld vir die ‘ontwerp’ van die Skild geniet het. Uit die perspektief van kulturele studies beskou, hoe moet ons uitvinding verstaan, gegewe dat ander briljante ingenieurs ook betrokke was? Hierdie vraag word ontleed met die gebruik van die konsep ‘extelligence’ (Stewart and Cohen 1997, in samehang met ander kontemporêre en geskiedkundige weergawes, insluitend Greathead se eie rekord van sy prestasies in die verrigtinge van die Instituut van Siviele Ingenieurs en voorgelê in The City and South London Railway (1896, onder redaksie van James Forrest. Hierdie artikel is die eerste keer as referaat aangebied by die konferensie oor ‘Nuuthede en Innovasie in die Negentiende Eeu’ aan die Noordwes-Universiteit, Mei 2016.

  8. Factors Associated with Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C Virus in Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infections spontaneously clear in approximately 15–45% of infected individuals. Factors which influence spontaneous HCV clearance remain to be identified. The purpose of the present study was to identify variables associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in a referred population of Chinese patients. The prevalence of host, viral, and environmental factors known to influence the outcome of HCV infections was compared in 92 HCV spontaneous clearance subjects and 318 HCV persistent infection subjects. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify those factors associated with spontaneous HCV clearance. In univariate analysis, female gender, a history of icteric hepatitis, serologic evidence of concurrent HBV infection, and rs12979860 CC genotype were positively associated with spontaneous HCV clearance, while alcohol consumption was negatively associated with clearance. In multivariate analysis, female gender, a history of icteric hepatitis, concurrent HBV infection, and rs12979860 CC genotype remained independent variables associated with spontaneous HCV clearance. Spontaneous HCV clearance is more likely to occur in females, subjects with a history of icteric hepatitis, HBV coinfections, and those with the rs12979860 CC genotype.

  9. Die Hervormde Teologiese Studies na vyftig jaar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INLEIDEND. In die tweede helfte van die jaar 1943 het die Hervormde Teologiese Studies die eerste maal verskyn. Dit was die produk van lang besinning en beplanning. Die dryfkrag agter die totstandkoming was prof dr S P Engeibrecht, 'n man wie se idealisme en toewyding aan die kerk groot dinge vir die kerk en ook die ...

  10. Brittle Fracture Behaviors of Large Die Holders Used in Hot Die Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifang Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Brittle fracture of large forging equipment usually leads to catastrophic consequences. To avoid this kind of accident, the brittle fracture behaviors of a large die holder were studied by simulating the practical application. The die holder is used on the large die forging press, and it is made of 55NiCrMoV7 hot-work tool steel. Detailed investigations including mechanical properties analysis, metallographic observation, fractography, transmission electron microscope (TEM analysis and selected area electron diffraction (SAED were conducted. The results reveal that the material generated a large quantity of large size polyhedral M23C6 (M: Fe and Cr mainly and elongated M3C (M: Fe mainly carbides along the martensitic lath boundaries when the die holder was recurrently tempered and water-cooled at 250 °C during the service. The large size carbides lead to the material embrittlement and impact toughness degradation, and further resulted in the brittle fracture of the die holder. Therefore, the operation specification must be emphasized to avoid the die holder being cooled by using water, which is aimed at accelerating the cooling.

  11. EUNUG IN DIE ANTIEKE NABYE OOSTE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rang. In Assiries beteken die woord “hoof-eunug”. Soos reeds vermeld (by 2), vorm die eunug 'n belangrike deel van die Assiriese burokrasie. Dokumente dui aan ... rang in die Babiloniese weermag, en so 'n amptenaar het saam met die rabsag ..... baie laat, in die inter-testamentêre periode, gebruik is vir 'n gekastreerde.

  12. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how you can help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage ...

  13. 49 CFR 236.22 - Semaphore signal arm; clearance to other objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Semaphore signal arm; clearance to other objects... Rules and Instructions: All Systems Roadway Signals and Cab Signals § 236.22 Semaphore signal arm; clearance to other objects. At least one-half inch clearance shall be provided between semaphore signal arm...

  14. Whole body and regional clearances of noradrenaline and adrenaline in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Galbo, H; Gjerris, Anne Cathrine Roslev

    1984-01-01

    we found no correlation between clearance values based on venous and arterial sampling. In other experiments we measured the influence of physical exercise in young healthy subjects on the clearance rate of plasma adrenaline (A). The clearance of A, which at rest averaged 1.9 l/min tended to increase...

  15. Using Terrestrial Laser Scanners to Calculate and Map Vertical Bridge Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Arditi, D.; Chen, Z.

    2013-08-01

    The vertical clearance of a bridge over a highway is important in preventing oversized vehicles from hitting the bridge. The vertical clearance of a bridge is traditionally measured by using surveying equipment such as leveling rods and total stations. Typically, measurements are taken at multiple locations in order to determine the minimum vertical clearance under the bridge. This process is time and labor consuming. Also, these measurements may not be accurate because of the traffic, the uneven surface, and the reading error caused by the surveyor. Additionally, when one is faced with a multitude of reports especially in large projects with multiple ramps and bridges, it is not easy and it often takes a long time to find the bridge under study. This research provides a highly accurate measurement of the vertical bridge clearance by using terrestrial laser scanners. The clearance can be measured in the office by processing the collected point cloud data. The minimum vertical clearance is easily identified and the measurement is visualized and geo-referenced. An approach to reduce data noise caused by traffic is also introduced in this study. In addition, to help reduce the confusion of finding the bridge under study and to facilitate access to the clearance data, the clearance measurements are geo-referenced to an online mapping system. This system allows access to the final deliverable very easily through a single web portal. Finally, Illinois Department of Transportation's Circle Interchange is used to demonstrate this new method.

  16. DIE VRYWILLIGERSMAGTE VAN GRIEKWALAND-WES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    teen gekant was, is dit op 15 Oktober 1880 by die Kaapkolonie ingelyf.9. Gedurende sy kortstondige bestaan van minder as 'n dekade lank het die kroonkolonie Griekwa- land-Wes met talle finansiele, ekonomiese, so- siale en ander probleme te doen gehad. Een van die ernstige probleme was die bedreiging wat.

  17. Ouditiewe aandag by die voorskoolse kind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarie Niemand

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available Daar is met hierdie navorsingsprojek gepoog om 'n duidelike beeld te vorm van ouditiewe aandagsprosessering by die voorskoolse kind. Aangesien ouditiewe aandagsprosessering van groot belang is vir die kind wat skool toe gaan is daar op die groep wat in die daaropvolgende jaar skool toe gaan besluit. 'n Groep van 64 kinders is geselekteer. Daar is gebruik gemaak van 'n gegradeerde ouditiefgerigte  ondersoekprogram wat so saamgestel is dat dit wetenskaplik verantwoordbaar is. In sy geheel gesien dui die navorsingsresultate daarop dat die basiese ontwikkelingsproses van ouditiewe aandagsprosessering op hierdie ouderdom (5;2 tot 5;8 voltooi is. 'n Verdere evaluering van die resultate in terme van die uiteengesette doelstellings van die navorsingsprojek dui daarop dat kinders in hierdie ouderdomsgroep nog soms moeite ondervind om aan 'n ouditiewe sei binne omgewingslawaai aandag te skenk. Bekende seine verhoog die vermoë om aandag te skenk. Daar kon egter nie vir alle aannames wat in die literatuur gemaak word, bewys gevind word nie.

  18. Verslaggewing oor volhoubaarheid in die mynbousektor: die identifisering van kritieke aan geleenthede

    OpenAIRE

    Viviers, S; Boudler, J-M

    2010-01-01

    Hierdie studie ondersoek tendense in die volhoubaarheidsverslaggewing deur vyf prominente mynmaatskappye wat op die JSE genoteer is. Die 2005-, 2006-, 2007- en 2008- jaar- en volhoubaarheidsverslae van hierdie maatskappye is ontleed deur middel van inhoudsanalise. Sleutelwoorde wat verband hou met ekonomiese bemagtiging, MIV/VIGS, ander gesondheid- en veiligheidsaangeleenthede en omgewingsimpak sowel as opleiding en onderwys, is getel. Hierdie aangeleenthede is ook gekategoriseer in terme van...

  19. Die spel van assosiasies in en om 'Die verlossing van die beeld' van Breyten Breytenbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. du Toit

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The play of association in and around 'The liberation of the image' by Breyten Breytenbach This analysis focuses on the conjunction of memory and imagination, which is an important impulse in, and key to, Breytenbach’s work. The play with language and with associations, the foregrounding, in the short story, “Die verlossing van die beeld” (Breytenbach, 1983 with its metafictional title and apparently divergent motifs (rain/water, watch, onion, the death and burial of a grandfather acts, as it were, as an invitation to the reader to become a co-player. The reader ventures on a search for traces, intertextual links within the Breytenbach oeuvre and for already acknowledged influences such as Surrealism (which in turn casts some light on the strange title of the story and the Eastern philosophies such as Zen and the even older Taoism. The analysis also takes into account the context in which “Mouroir” was written, namely Breytenbach’s term in prison (1975-1982. Seeing that the writer had to hand in his manuscripts to the jail authorities regularly, he might have decided, consciously or by intuition, to hide some thoughts and feelings behind a screen or a mask, in, for example in “Die verlossing van die beeld”, a lighter tone and irony.

  20. Markus 16:1-8 in die konteks van 'n konstniksie van die Markaanse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gager notes that a sociological approach to early Christianity takes what redaction ...... die Markaanse ervaring die ander kant van die saak nie so 'getrou' weerspieel nie. Markaansc .... insider's knowledge of the apocalyptic code is bound to conclude that Mark and his ..... The ethics of Mark's gospel: In the middle of time.

  1. oordrag van eiendomsreg in die vulgêre reg in die wes-romeinse ryk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr F Schutte

    klassieke. Romeinse reg (250vC-27vC), klassieke Romeins reg (27vC-250nC), na-klassieke Romeinse reg. (250nC-1100nC). Sien verder ook Van Zyl Romeinse Privaatreg. 3 Die vulgêre reg het die klassieke reg in die tydperk tussen 350 en ...

  2. Die vraag na ’n nuwe belydenisskrif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. van Wyk

    1974-05-01

    Full Text Available Die mees bekende reformatoriese belydenisskrifte dateer uit die sestiende en sewentiende eeue (E 16—17 en is dus almal 300 tot 400 jaar oud: Die Galliese Konfessie 1559, die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis 1561, die Heidelbergse Kategismus 1563, die 39 Articles 1563, die Tweede Helvietiese Konfessie 1566, die Dordtse Leerreëls 1619, die Westminsterse Konfessie 1646.

  3. Respiratory clearance of aerosolized radioactive solutes of varying molecular weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huchon, G.J.; Montgomery, A.B.; Lipavsky, A.; Hoeffel, J.M.; Murray, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the influence of varying molecular weight (mol wt) on respiratory clearance of aerosolized solutes, we studied eight radiopharmaceuticals, each administered to four dogs: sodium /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate (TcO4), /sup 99m/Tc glucoheptonate ([/sup 99m/Tc]GH), 51Cr-ethylenedinitrotetraacetate ([51Cr]EDTA), /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ([99mTc] DTPA), 111 In diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ([ 111 In]DTPA), 67 Ga desferoxaminemesylate ([ 67 Ga]DFOM), /sup 99m/Tc dextran ([/sup 99m/Tc]DX) and 111 In transferrin ([ 111 In]TF). After aerosolization (0.8 m MMD, 2.4 GSD), clearance was determined for 30 min and then corrected by intravenous injection for nonairspace radioactivity. In-TF clearance (0.11 +/- 0.10%/min) was lower than TcO4 (6.32 +/- 0.62%/min), [/sup 99m/Tc]GH (1.50 +/- 0.37%/min), [ 51 Cr]EDTA (2.38 +/- 1.02%/min), [/sup 99m/Tc]DTPA (3.51 +/- 0.40%/min), [ 111 In]DTPA (2.35 +/- 0.42%/min), [ 67 Ga] DFOM (1.99 +/- 0.49%/min) and [/sup 99m/Tc]DX (1.81 +/- 0.75%/min) clearances (p less than 0.001). TcO4 clearance was higher than others (p less than 0.001). Technetium binding to DX was unsatisfactory; aerosolization caused unbinding from DTPA. We conclude that respiratory clearance of large mol wt solutes within 30 min is negligible and, that clearance of molecules between 347-5099 daltons differs greatly, suggesting that binding and/or intrapulmonary retention affect transfer

  4. Die beskerming van biologiese diversiteit deur gebruik te maak van die gevoeligheidsvariasie van spesies vir toksiese stowwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Reinecke

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Pogings om algemeen geldende standaarde of maatstawwe vir omgewingskwaliteit op te stel vir die beskerming van Suid-Afrika se ryk biodiversiteit word bemoeilik deur die feit dat spesies baie kan verskil  ten opsigte van hulle gevoeligheid vir toksiese stowwe. Daar kan dus nie sonder meer vanaf een spesie na ’n ander geëkstrapoleer word nie. Deur egter juis gebruik te maak van hierdie variasie in gevoeligheid van spesies, kan die assessering van die risiko wat besoedelingstowwe vir organismes inhou wel op ’n meer wetenskaplike grondslag bedryf word. Hierdie konsep gaan uit van die standpunt dat indien kwaliteitskriteriums opgestel word wat die sensitiefste spesies beskerm, alle ander spesies outomaties beskerm word. Hierdie bydrae fokus op die gebruik van sensitiwiteitsverspreidings van spesies as metode en kyk oorsigtelik en krities na die aard en toepassings van die ekstrapolasiemodelle wat op hierdie verspreidings gebaseer is. Die moontlike aanwending daarvan en die argumente ten gunste daarvan en daarteen word bespreek. Die gevolgtrekking word gemaak dat spesie-sensitiwiteitsverspreidings wel nuttige aanwending kan vind, maar dat  gegewens oor die gevoeligheid van plaaslike spesies  baie skaars is. Hoewel dit reeds bruikbaar is, kan die algemene aanwending daarvan  in Suid-Afrika aansienlik uitgebrei word indien meer navorsing gedoen word om betroubare toksisiteitsgegewens vir verskillende spesies in te win, sodat die model meer verfyn kan word. Daarvoor moet gestandaardiseerde toksisiteitstoetse vir plaaslike spesies eers ontwikkel word.

  5. Die teologiese arbeid van Antonius HJ Gunneweg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En dis 'n klein treetjie van klagte na aanklag en na protes teen die gode, die heersers wat die mens vernietig deur hom oor sy ware lewe te bedrieg. Die ideologie eis dan ook dienooreenkomstig die bevryding en emansipasie van die mens van die gode en van God (1983: 118—119). Volgens die Jahwis is dit die slang wat, ...

  6. Comparison of German and international clearance regulations - chances and limits for harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.; Schartmann, F.

    2005-01-01

    The regulations on clearance in the German nuclear regulatory framework (especially sect. 29 and Annexes III and IV of the Radiation Protection Ordinance) are comprehensive and well founded. Germany has developed some of its clearance levels in advance of recommendations issued by the EC. Therefore, there are differences between the German and international clearance regulations. That has been investigated by a working group on clearance of the German Commission on Radiological Protection (SSK) which has performed an analysis of differences and their reasons for clearance levels in Germany and other countries (UK, The Netherlands, Sweden, USA and others). Differences can mainly be explained by country specific approaches in scenarios. Differences especially for the most relevant nuclides are not significant from a radiological point of view. The level of radiological protection (trivial dose range, a few 10 μSv/a) is guaranteed in all countries. The international discussion on the international harmonisation of clearance levels (mainly within the scope of the OECD/NEA and IAEA) can be enlightened on the basis of these results. This discussion concentrates on the question how far a harmonisation of clearance level values is actually necessary and possible. The IAEA Safety Guide RS-G-1.7 'Application of the concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance' is of particular importance, because it proposes a set of values which might in the long-term take the role of international unconditional clearance levels. International harmonisation is only relevant for unconditional clearance of those materials, which are traded in large quantities among countries, in particular metal scrap. Harmonisation of the values to the same order of magnitude is sufficient. (orig.)

  7. Neurokognitiewe integrasie en die leerproses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Preez, Johan J.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article, "Neuro-cognitive integration and the learning process'; is to find principles and strategies for the development of brain potential and the optimal integration of subject matter. Eight neuro-cognitive systems are identified and their importance to the integration of subject matter is emphasized. These systems are cortical energy, coding, planning and controlling, as well as the verbal sequential, non-verbal holistic, physical-motor, social effective and the subconscious. The relevant principles and strategies can serve as basis for mainstream and special education, guidance as well as psychotherapy. Die doe! met hierdie artikel is om beginsels en strategiee te vind om breinpotensiaal te ontsluit en leerstof optimaal te integreer. Aan die hand van 'n neurokognitiewe model word 'n aantal beginsels en strategiee bespreek en die verband met die leerproses word aangetoon. Agt neurokognitiewe sisteme is gei'dentifiseer en die belangrike rot wat dit speel ten opsigte van die integrasie van leerstof word beklemtoon. Genoemde sisteme sluit die volgende in: kortikale energie, kodering, beplanning en kontrolering, asook die verbaal-sekwensiele, nieverbaal-holistiese, fisiek-motoriese, sosio-affektiewe en die subbewuste. Genoemde beginsels en strategiee kan oak dien as grondslag vir hoofstroomonderwys, spesialiseringsonderwys, voorligting sowel as psigoterapie.

  8. Die nut van kriging in gravitasie-opnames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. van Tonder

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available Ondersoek is ingestel na die gebruik van kriging as hulpmiddel by die gravitasiemetode vir die opsporing van verweerde sones in die dolomitiese gebiede van Suid-Afrika. Na ’n kort bespreking van die basiese beginsels van kriging, word die metode toegepas op die Bouguer-anomaliewaardes, soos waargeneem op ’n deel van die Zuurbekomkompartement. Daar word getoon dat die aantal waarnemingspunte met tot soveel as 90 persent verminder kan word, sonder ’n noemenswaardige verlies van akkuraatheid in die bepaling van die geskatte volumes verweerde dolomiet.

  9. Analise van die Tswanaraaisel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Swanepoel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available ’n Strukturele, stilistiese en funksionele bcskrywing van die Twanaraaisel bring mee dat daar aan die volgende aspekte aandag gegee moet word: •\tWat is ’n raaisel en lioe word dit in Tswana genoem. •\tTot watter studiegebied en literere genre hoort die raaisel en watter subvorme kan vir Tswana onderskei word. •\tHoe sien die struktuur van Tswanaraaisels daar uit. •\tDeur wie, waar, wanneer en hoe word Tswanaraaisels voorgedra. •\tWatter stilistiese kenmcrke kan in Tswanaraaisels onderskei word. •\tWatter funksies vervul raaisels in ’n Tswanagcmeenskap.

  10. The Angry Dying Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert E.

    1999-02-01

    Over 25 years ago, Kubler-Ross identified anger as a predictable part of the dying process. When the dying patient becomes angry in the clinical setting, all types of communication become strained. Physicians can help the angry dying patient through this difficult time by using 10 rules of engagement. When physicians engage and empathize with these patients, they improve the patient's response to pain and they reduce patient suffering. When physicians educate patients on their normal responses to dying and enlist them in the process of family reconciliation, they can impact the end-of-life experience in a positive way.

  11. Discrepancy between circadian rhythms of inulin and creatinine clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, B. A.; Koomen, G. C.; Koopman, M. G.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.

    1992-01-01

    To elucidate the disparity between circadian rhythmicity of inulin and creatinine clearance, we simultaneously measured inulin and creatinine clearances every 3 hours during 1 day in 14 normal subjects and in 8 patients with nephrotic syndrome. All patients and normal subjects had a circadian rhythm

  12. Lung clearance of 99m Tc- DTPA in systemic lupus erythematous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalcin, P.T.R; Barreto, S.S.M.; Xavier, R.M.; Brenol, J.C.T.; Cunha, R.D.; Marroni, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    The early demonstration of lung involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is a difficult but important task. In the present study we attempted to identify abnormalities in pulmonary clearance of 99 mTc-DTPA in SLE, correlating their clearance data with clinical findings and disease activity. Forty-six consecutive SLE patients with and without active disease (LACC score) and 30 normal volunteers were studied. All subjects were submitted to pulmonary scintigraphy with 99 mTc-DTPA to evaluate the pulmonary clearance, and to a chest X-ray, and SLE patients were submitted to tests of disease activity, spirometry, arterial blood gases and tests to assess acute-phase proteins. Pulmonary clearance was faster in SLE patients with active disease when compared to normal controls [half-life of 67.04 min (51.52-82.55 min) in active SLE versus 85.87 min (78.85-92.87 min) in controls, P<0.05] and there was a higher frequency of abnormal clearance rates in patients with active disease (11 of 26 patients, 42.3%) when compared with SLE patients without disease activity (2 of 20 patients, 10%) (P = 0.04). A significant correlation was observed between the clearance rates and cough (P<0.05), but not between the clearance rates and dyspnoea symptoms or radiological findings, duration of SLE disease, antinuclear antibody titers and patterns, C-reactive protein or anti-double stranded DNA antibodies. We conclude that the pulmonary clearance of 99 m Tc-DTPA is increased in SLE patients with active disease. (author)

  13. Faktoren, die das Eiablageverhalten und die Ovulation Wüsten bewohnender Tenebrioniden (Coleoptera: Insecta) beeinflussen

    OpenAIRE

    Rössl, Rüdiger

    2008-01-01

    Über das Eiablage Verhalten und die Faktoren, welche die Eiablage begünstigen, ist bei den meisten der fast 20000 Tenebrioniden nichts bekannt. Lediglich bei einigen wirtschaftlich wichtigen Arten gibt es dazu Untersuchungen (JAKOBS & RENNER 1988). Als eine der wasserärmsten Wüsten der Welt ist die Namib reich an endemischen Coleopteren – insbesondere 320 Tenebrionidaearten (HOLM & DE MEILLON 1996). Langzeituntersuchungen an Tenebrioniden (HENSCHEL 1994, HENSCHEL et al. 1998) legen die Vermut...

  14. Abstraksie en veralgemening in die Wiskunde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Strydom

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available Wanneer ek tot u spreek oor abstraksie en veralgemening in die Wiskunde, wil ek u aandag vestig op die belangrikheid daarvaan vir die Wiskunde, maar u terselfdertyd daarop wys dat die wiskundige hom nie langs hierdie weg heeltemal van die werklikheid kan losmaak nie.

  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cystic fibrosis. CF CARE CENTER finder We provide funding for and accredit more than 120 care centers ... Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The ... Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

  16. Die ästhetische Geburt selbstbefreiter Subjektivität: Hegels dreifache Theorie der klassischen Komödie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebing Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eine Theorie der antiken Komödie entwirft Hegel sowohl in seinem frühen Naturrechtsaufsatz, in der Phänomenologie des Geistes als auch in seinen Berliner Vorlesungen über die Ästhetik. In allen drei Ansätzen steht die Komödie in einer engen Beziehung auf die Tragödie und daher im Zusammenhang umfangreicher politischer, religions- und geschichtsphilosophischer Bestimmungen. In dieser Weise kontextualisiert, arbeitet der Aufsatz Hegels Begriff der dramatischen Gattung des Komischen vor dem Hintergrund der allgemeinen geistphilosophischen Kategorien Sittlichkeit und Substantialität als Ende der klassischen Kunst und zugleich als Entstehung der modernen Subjektivität in ihrer freien Selbstbezüglichkeit heraus. Dabei wird immerzu gefragt, wie die absolutgeistigen Entwicklungen auf dem Gebiet des Ästhetischen objektivgeistige Entwicklungen im Bereich von Staat und Gesellschaft, etwa den in der Komödie bewusst werdenden Untergang des Weltzustands der Polis, aufgreifen und reflektieren. Nicht zuletzt die werkgeschichtliche Dimension von der frühen Position Hegels zum reifen System gibt Aufschluss darüber, dass die Komödienform eine ausgezeichnete Gestalt der Kunst ist, Fragen nach den geistphilosophischen Bruchlinien der Modernität zu verhandeln.

  17. Die Bibliothek des Bezirksmuseums Josefstadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ettl

    2015-01-01

    Josefstadt in Wien werden die Herkunft der Bibliotheksbestände und die beengte Raumsituation beschrieben. Abschließend wird auf die Erfassung der Medien mittels der Bibliothekssoftware „Biblioweb“ eingegangen.

  18. Vlam in die sneeu. Die liefdesbriewe van André P. Brink en Ingrid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Vlam in die sneeu kry lesers dan vir die eerste maal indringende toegang tot. Brink en Jonker se verhouding in hulle eie woorde, vergesel van 'n aantal foto's en faksimilees van 'n paar briewe en tele- gramme. Soos Willie Burger in sy knap voorwoord tot die versameling aandui, kan hierdie stel briewe gelees word as 'n.

  19. Taalgesindhede en die onderrig van Afrikaans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bosch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In die onderrig aan en aanleer van Afrikaans deur nie-moedertaalsprekers behoort daar in 'n multi-kulturele omgewing met taalgesindhede rekening gehou te word: die taalaanleerder se gesindheid teenoor en stereotipiese sienswyses van die sprekers van die teikentaal en die teikentaal self beinvloed die sukses van die verskil/ende stadia van die aanleerproses. Hierdie beinvloeding vind plaas omdat gesindhede motivering beinvloed en as sosio-affektiewe filter in die taalaanleerproses kan optree. Die implikasies van heersende gesindhede teenoor Afrikaans vir die onderrig en aanleer van die taal in 'n multitalige situasie word indringend bespreek. In the teaching of Afrikaans to and the acquisition of the language by non-mother tongue speakers in a multi-lingual environment, cognizance should be taken of prevailing attitudes: the attitudes of the learner towards the target language and his/her stereotypical perceptions of the target language and its speakers which influence the success of the language learning process in various stages. This influence takes place because attitudes affect motivation and can also act as a socio-ajjective filter in the language acquisition process. The implications of existing attitudes towards Afrikaans for the teaching and acquisition of the language in a multi-lingual situation are discussed in depth.

  20. Die vlugtige taal van vergeet: Die metafoor by Breyten Breytenbach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From his first book of poetry, die ysterkoei moet sweet (“the iron cow must sweat”, 1964), till his most recent one, die windvanger (“the windcatcher”, 2007), metaphor has been a central means towards the creation of meaning for Breytenbach. This article will investigate the use of metaphor particularly in this recent book.

  1. Paleontologie en die Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing vandag

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, JF

    2013-01-01

    Die huidige oënskynlike ondersteuning van paleontologie deur die regering en die insluiting en beklemtoning van evolusie in die skoolleerplan word bespreek in die lig van sekere politieke ontwikkelings wat oor die laaste twee dekades in Suid-Afrika plaasgevind het. Dit sluit die regering se ondersteuning van paleontologiese ontdekkings in die media, die ontwikkeling van fossielterreine en paleotoerisme in. Ondanks hierdie positiewe inisiatiewe gedy paleontologie nie in Suid-Afrika nie en is d...

  2. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance office...

  3. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking the...

  4. Secretion clearance strategies in Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumenopoulos, George; Hammond, Naomi; Watts, Nicola R; Thompson, Kelly; Hanlon, Gabrielle; Paratz, Jennifer D; Thomas, Peter

    2017-06-26

    To describe the processes of care for secretion clearance in adult, intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Units (ICUs). A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted through the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group (ANZICS CTG) Point Prevalence Program. Forty-seven ICUs collected data from 230 patients intubated and ventilated on the study day. Secretion clearance techniques beyond standard suctioning were used in 84/230 (37%) of patients during the study period. Chest wall vibration 34/84 (40%), manual lung hyperinflation 24/84 (29%), chest wall percussion 20/84 (24%), postural drainage/patient positioning 17/84 (20%) and other techniques including mobilisation 15/84 (18%), were the most common secretion clearance techniques employed. On average (SD), patients received airway suctioning 8.8 (5.0) times during the 24-h study period. Mucus plugging events were infrequent (2.7%). The additional secretion clearance techniques were provided by physiotherapy staff in 24/47 (51%) ICUs and by both nursing and physiotherapy staff in the remaining 23/47 (49%) ICUs. One-third of intubated and ventilated patients received additional secretion clearance techniques. Mucus plugging events were infrequent with these additional secretion clearance approaches. Prospective studies must examine additional secretion clearance practices, prevalence of mucus plugging episodes and impact on patient outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Die 2004 senior Harmony Suid-Afrikaanse Wiskunde- olimpiade: ’n Analise van die resultate van die senior groep, tweede ronde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Maree

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Suid-Afrikaanse leerders se ontoereikende wiskundeprestasie is ’n bron van kommer vir elkeen wat betrokke is by leerfasilitering i wiskunde. Belanghebbendes soek ernstig na moontlike wyses waarop leerders se insig rakende en prestasie in wiskunde verbeter ka word ten einde leerders toe te rus met wiskundige vaardighede en hulle op hierdie wyse te help om ’n beter kans te hê op lewensukse In hierdie verband word wiskunde-olimpiades wêreldwyd beskou as ’n uitnemende meganisme, enersyds om talentvolle leerders identifiseer en leerders se probleemoplossingsvaardighede in wiskunde te verbeter, en andersyds om leerders voor te berei op wiskundig studierigtings in die algemeen. In hierdie artikel word enkele aspekte van die pas afgelope Harmony Suid-Afrikaanse Wiskunde olimpiade ontleed en enkele aanbevelings gemaak. ’n Belangrike gevolgtrekking wat gemaak word, is dat die Harmony Suid-Afrikaans Wiskunde-olimpiade in ’n groot mate in sy doel slaag, maar nie naastenby soveel leerders en opvoeders bereik as waarop ’n mens so wou hoop nie. Die ideale van die Harmony Suid-Afrikaanse Wiskunde-olimpiade kan waarskynlik slegs bereik word indien alle sko van toereikende fasiliteite voorsien word en die standaard van wiskundeonderrig op nasionale vlak terselfdertyd toepaslik verbete word. Spoedige en indringende gesprek en herbesinning deur alle betrokke partye is daarom dringend noodsaaklik.

  6. Influence of peak exercise heart rate on normal thallium-201 myocardial clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, S.; Chesler, D.A.; Pohost, G.M.; Strauss, H.W.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of myocardial clearance rates between initial and delayed images is a major justification for adding computer quantification to the interpretation of exercise 201 TI images. To clarify the range of normal thallium clearance and its relationship to the level of exercise achieved, exercise thallium images in 89 normal subjects were analyzed: 45 asymptomatic subjects with less than 1% probability of coronary artery disease (CAD) (Group I), and 44 patients with chest pain found to have no significant CAD on angiography (Group II). Mean initial regional thallium uptake was similar in the two groups, but myocardial thallium clearance (mean +/- 1 s.d.) was slower in Group II, expressed as a longer half-life in the myocardium (8.2 +/- 7.6 hr compared with 3.4 +/- 0.7 hr p less than 0.001). Analysis of variance using ten clinical and exercise variables as covariates showed that the slower clearance in Group II was related to a lower peak exercise heart rate (HR) (154 +/- 27 compared with 183 +/- 11, respectively, p less than 0.001). By linear regression analysis, a decrease in peak HR of 1 beat/min was associated with a slower thallium clearance (longer half-life) of 0.05 hr. Using this formula, the clearance value in each patient was then corrected for peak exercise heart rate by decreasing measured clearance by 0.05 hr multiplied by the amount peak exercise heart rate which was below 183 (the mean value in Group I). There were no differences in the corrected clearance between the two groups. We conclude that thallium myocardial clearance after exercise is related in part to factors other than the presence of CAD, being slower when peak exercise HR is lower. Therefore, thallium clearance rates alone uncorrected for peak exercise heart rate should be used with caution when diagnosing CAD

  7. A Study to Determine Clearance Levels of Radioactive Wastes in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukakaa, Zaphania O. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Il [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Due to lack of a radioactive waste disposal facility in Kenya, radioactive wastes are stored in a bonded warehouse until such a time when their activity is low and they meet the criterion for clearance. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established activity concentrations of radionuclides to act as a universal guideline or standard for clearance in member countries. Radioactive wastes whose activity would yield a trivial risk to the people and environment, i.e. with an annual dose below 10 µSv are usually cleared from regulatory control with no further regulatory control mechanisms being taken. The Radiation Protection Board currently depends on the IAEA's generic clearance level activity concentrations for purposes of clearing the radiation wastes within its inventory. This study aims to determine activity concentrations of radionuclides in the Kenyan inventory that correspond to the clearance level dose of 10 µSv/a as set by the IAEA. The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) computer code, an important tool developed in 1989 to aid in evaluation of sites with radioactive contamination, will aid in modeling these clearance level values using a pathways analysis method and available site-specific data from Kenya. Afterwards, the obtained clearance level values will be compared with the IAEA's generic clearance level values of the corresponding radionuclides. The results modeled using the RESRAD code are conservative. For most of the radionuclides in the Kenyan inventory, the values do correspond with the IAEA standard generic clearance level values, albeit with minor differences. For most of the radionuclides, the difference is within the acceptable uncertainty limit. For these low probability events the effective dose resulting from them should not exceed 1 mSv per year. Thus, consideration was given to doses to the skin and an equivalent dose to the skin of 50 mSv per year was duly used in estimating the clearance level activities. The

  8. Die poësie van Elisabeth Eybers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tienie01

    26 Feb 2005 ... Eybers. “Musiek” en “Kind voor die klavier” het 'n religieuse perspektief waar die musiek verband hou met die betree van 'n ander dimensie. Die speel van Mozart se musiek op die klavier is vir die tienerkind 'n transendente ervaring: “Sy tas tot oor die rand van die gebied / waar drome klank word, klaar en ...

  9. Kennisbasisse, gebruikspatrone en gebruikshindernisse ten opsigte van die riglyne vir die ontwikkeling en validering van personeelkeuringsprosedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boolsen

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The guidelines for the validation and use of personnel selection procedures: knowledge, usage and obstacles. Selection is a key human resources function in any organization. Expected changes in South African Labour Law combined with the importance of advancing organizational efficiency lead in 1992 to the publication of the Guidelines on the Development and Validation of Personnel Selection Procedures. The study in question is aimed at a description of the current knowledge base, usage patterns and usage obstacles vis-a-vis the Guidelines of a specific group of human resource specialists in South Africa. Recommendation based on the research findings are made. Opsomming Keuring is 'n sleutel menslike hulpbronbestuursfunksie in enige onderneming. Verwagte veranderinge in Suid-Afrikaanse Arbeidswetgewing en die noodsaaklikheid van die bevordering van organisatoriese doeltreffendheid lei in 1992 tot die publikasie van die Riglyne vir die Ontwikkeling en Validering van Personeelkeuringsprosedures. Die onderhawige studie is gerig op 'n beskrywing van die heersende kennisbasisse, gebruikspatrone en gebruiks- hindernisse vis-a-vis die Riglyne by 'n spesifieke groep menslike hulpbronkundiges in Suid-Afrika. Aanbevelings word op grond van die bevindinge gemaak.

  10. Marlena Jabłońska, Die neuen Herausforderungen für die Archive. Soziale Kommunikation und Publicrelations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Kwiatkowska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Die 2016 veröffentlichte Monografie Marlena Jabłońskas unter dem Titel „Nowe wyzwania archiwów. Komunikacja społeczna i public relations“ [„Die neuen Herausforderungen für die Archive. Die soziale Kommunikation und Publicrelations“] kann nicht nur für die Archivarinnen und Archivare, die ihre Hauptempfänger sind, sondern auch für die Bibliothekarinnen und Bibliothekare aufschlussreich sein. Sie ist ein vorbildlicher Vorschlag, um die soziale Kommunikation und Publicrelations im Zusammenhang mit allen Aufgaben der Archive zu schildern. Es ist eine Verwaltungsphilosophie, die es erlauben sollte, ihre Funktionsweise zu verbessern und die soziale Rezeption positiv zu beeinflussen. Die vorgeschlagenen Lösungen können in der Praxis genutzt werden, selbstverständlich flexibel betrachtet und entsprechend gut angepasst an ein bestimmtes Archiv, an seinen Bestand und seine Bedürfnisse. Dieser neue Blick auf die Archive entspricht sehr gut dem Wandel der Archive und ihrem Milieu in den letzten Jahren. Die technologische Revolution, insbesondere aber die immer größere Offenheit der Archive, erzwingen die Änderungen in ihrer Tätigkeit und die Verwendung immer besserer Verwaltungswerkzeuge, die bereits von verwandten Institutionen, darunter den Bibliotheken erfolgreich verwendet werden. Die Arbeit wurde in einer schönen, lebendigen Sprache verfasst, manchmal sogar sehr emotional. Das zeugt vom Engagement der Autorin und ihrer Überzeugung vom großen Wert der angesprochenen Fragen und formulierten Vorschläge. Die für die Archivare schwierigen Verwaltungsfragen schildert sie klar und verständlich. Den Inhalt bereichern zahlreiche Abbildungen und Tabellen, die von der Autorin bearbeitet wurden. Sie sind eine gute Bestätigung der erläuterten Fragen und erleichtern das Verständnis von Schlussfolgerungen und Zusammenfassungen. Das Buch wurde sorgfältig vorbereitet und veröffentlicht vom Wissenschaftlichen Verlag der Nikolaus

  11. Factors contributing to delay in parasite clearance in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijuade Abayomi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is common in many endemic and other settings but there is no clear recommendation on when to change therapy when there is delay in parasite clearance after initiation of therapy in African children. Methods The factors contributing to delay in parasite clearance, defined as a clearance time > 2 d, in falciparum malaria were characterized in 2,752 prospectively studied children treated with anti-malarial drugs between 1996 and 2008. Results 1,237 of 2,752 children (45% had delay in parasite clearance. Overall 211 children (17% with delay in clearance subsequently failed therapy and they constituted 72% of those who had drug failure, i.e., 211 of 291 children. The following were independent risk factors for delay in parasite clearance at enrolment: age less than or equal to 2 years (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]1.44-3.15, P 50,000/ul (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.77-2.75, P 20000/μl a day after treatment began, were independent risk factors for delay in clearance. Non-artemisinin monotherapies were associated with delay in clearance and treatment failures, and in those treated with chloroquine or amodiaquine, with pfmdr 1/pfcrt mutants. Delay in clearance significantly increased gametocyte carriage (P Conclusion Delay in parasite clearance is multifactorial, is related to drug resistance and treatment failure in uncomplicated malaria and has implications for malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Effect of glucose-insulin-potassium infusion on thallium myocardial clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.A.; Okada, R.D.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Factors influencing the rate of 201 Tl clearance from the myocardium have not been clearly defined. This study determined the effect of an intravenous infusion of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) on the net 201 Tl clearance rates from myocardium with and without initial 201 Tl loading. Anesthetized open-chest dogs underwent 5 min of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and intravenous 201 Tl was injected and the occlusion released 5 min later. Thirty minutes after 201 Tl injection, 30 ml of either GIK (nine dogs) or saline (five dogs) was infused intravenously. The clearance rates of 201 Tl from the anterior wall (without initial 201 Tl loading) and from the posterior wall (with initial 201 Tl loading) were monitored with miniaturized cadmium telluride detectors placed on the myocardium. Calculation of net myocardial clearance rates was performed by linear regression analysis from serial 1 min counts. Compared with saline infusion, GIK increased the net clearance of 201 Tl from both myocardial regions with and without initial loading. The most marked change induced by GIK infusion was in the myocardial region without initial 201 Tl loading; a net increase in 201 Tl activity (72 +/- 42 cpm/30 min) was converted into a net loss (-594 +/- 228 cpm/30 min). There was no significant change in 201 Tl clearance after the saline infusion. Heart rate, aortic and left atrial pressure, sonomicrometer-measured transmural myocardial wall thickness, microsphere-determined myocardial blood flow, and blood glucose and potassium concentrations did not change significantly during GIK or saline infusions. Thus, GIK infusion appears to increase net 201 Tl clearance from myocardial zones with and without initial 201 Tl loading

  13. die geskiedenis van die saw gedenkteken te fort klapperkop militere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As gevolg van enige optrede, op enige plek, te enige tyd, deur enige vyand van die RSA of deur enige terroris(te), insurgent(e) of ander persoon of persone wat die RSA en sy volkere kwaadgesind is. h. Binne twee jaar (vyfhondred-en-dertig dae) nadat hy/sy met 'n ongeskiktheids- pensioen uit diens getree het agv siekte,.

  14. Numerical simulation of the tip clearance flow in axial turbomachinery; Numerische Simulation der Stroemung im radialen Schaufelspalt axialer Turbomaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melake, A [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik

    1997-12-31

    A computer program has been developed to calculate the three-dimensional tip leakage flow in axial turbomachinery based on the Navier-Stokes equation. This program has been applied to investigate the leakage flow within the gap between the blade fip and casing in an annular compressor cascade. A block structured computational mesh has been used in order to resolve the flow details within the gap and the passage flow. Flow characteristics like boundary layer separation, vortex genesis and interaction of the leakage flow with the secondary flow have been investigated and compared with existing experimental data. By varying the incidence angle and the tip gap the above mentioned flow phenomena have been analysed in an annular compressor cascade and a shrouded propfan rotor respectively. Furthermore, the relationship between the total pressure loss, the axial velocity deficit and the divergence of the tip leakage vortex has been investigated. Streamlines, limited streamlines and the critical point theory have been used extensively to analyse the boundary layer separation on the casing and its roll up to form the tip clearance vortex. (orig.). 59 figs., 3 tabs., 110 refs. [Deutsch] Es wurde ein Rechenprogramm zur Berechnung der dreidimensionalen Spaltstroemung im radialen Schaufelspalt axialer Turbomaschinen auf der Basis der Navier-Stokes`schen Gleichungen entwickelt und angewendet. Um die Stroemung innerhalb des Spaltes und der Schaufelpassage besser aufloesen zu koennen, wurde eine blockstrukturierte Netztopologie verwendet. Stroemungseigenschaften wie Grenzschichtabloesung, Entstehung des Spaltwirbels, Interaktion der Spaltstroemung mit der Sekundaerstroemung werden untersucht und mit vorhandenen experimentellen Daten verglichen. Im weiteren werden durch Variation der Inzidenz und der Spaltweite die oben genannten Stroemungsphaenomene an einem axialen Verdichterringgitter und an einem ummantelten Propfan analysiert. Ferner werden die Korrelation zwischen

  15. Comparison of measurements of plasma clearance of Mebrofenine and of indocyanine green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, G.; Coutris, G.; Vaubourdolle, M.; Attal, P.; Patureau, R.; Tabsoba, Th.; Mensch, B.; Askienazy, Pr.S.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of clearance measurements in evaluating renal or hepatic function needs not further demonstration. The isotopic methods were proved in renal exploration but their utilization in exploration of hepato-biliary function needs to be evaluated. In this work we have compared the measurement of plasma clearance by Mebrofenine, a radiopharmaceutical of specifically hepatic elimination, with the reference method, the clearance of indocyanine green. On the basis of scintigraphic data from 23 patients who benefited by a hepato-biliary exploration by Mebrofenine- 99m Tc for pre-surgery account and surveillance, we have determined the plasma clearance of this radiopharmaceutical. The method makes use of the curve of normalized cardiac activity by a blood sampling, taken 60 minutes after injection. The measurement of the clearance of indocyanine green was effected within a delay inferior to 1 month from the moment of biliary scintigraphy. The average clearance of Mebrofenine- 99m Tc is of 553 ml/min for 1.73 m 2 of corporal surface (typical interval is 374 ml/min), the value of indocyanine green is of 450 ml/min (typical interval is 229 ml/min). The two measurements of clearance are correlated (p = 0.05). In conclusion, the measurement of clearance by Mebrofenine- 99m appears to be adapted to the evaluation of hepato-biliary function

  16. DIE NAAM “NEDERDUITSE GEREFORMEERDE KERK”

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P.J. Strauss. DIE NAAM “NEDERDUITSE. GEREFORMEERDE KERK”. ABSTRACT. An investigation into the name of the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) reveals that it is a reformed church in the ... P.J. Strauss, Fakulteit Teologie, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Suid‑Afrika. ..... Dit is so omdat die staat en sy howe die reg in die ...

  17. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to taking...

  18. "Rund um die Monti Berici" - Von Villa zu Villa : ein Fahrradtourismuskonzept für die Region Veneto

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Evelyn

    2002-01-01

    Das Konzeptgebiet, die venezianische Ebene in der Region Veneto, bietet ideale Bedingungen für die Entwicklung von Fahrrad- und Bildungstourismus. Es ist flach und landschaftlich reizvoll. Zudem besitzt die Region ein reiches kulturelles Erbe mit vielfältiger Tradition, vornehmlich die venezianische Villa. Die Villen liegen verstreut in der Landschaft auf der ehemaligen "Terraferma". Sie haben das Gesicht der Kulturlandschaft geprägt. Sie waren die Zentralen, von wo aus enorme Meliorationsarb...

  19. Determining vancomycin clearance in an overweight and obese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Julie V B; Boro, Maureen S; Winter, Michaele

    2011-04-01

    Two methods of calculating vancomycin clearance were compared to determine the best body weight measure to use when dosing vancomycin for overweight and obese patients. Hospitalized veterans weighing more than 120% of their ideal body weight (IBW) with serum vancomycin concentrations (SVCs) drawn between January 1, 2003, and June 30, 2005, were eligible for study inclusion. Exclusion criteria included weight of more than 300% the IBW, unstable renal function, dialysis, uncertain vancomycin dosing or sampling times, and distribution-phase sampling. Data from January 1 through December 31, 2003 (phase 1) determined the best-fit weight for vancomycin clearance for the Leonard and Boro method. The bias and precision of the modified Leonard and Boro method using the best-fit weight for vancomycin clearance were then compared with those of the Rushing and Ambrose method for predicting SVCs from January 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005 (phase 2). Forty-eight patients were included in phase 1, with 67 SVCs for analysis. During phase 1, adjusted body weight (ABW), using the Leonard and Boro method, was superior in predicting vancomycin clearance and the resultant SVCs. A total of 96 patients were included in phase 2 of the study, with 160 SVCs for analysis. The modified Leonard and Boro method was significantly more precise than the Rushing and Ambrose method in predicting vancomycin clearance. Use of ABW proved to be superior compared with total body weight when estimating vancomycin clearance in overweight and obese patients. While there was no difference in bias between methods, the modified Leonard and Boro method was significantly more precise than the Rushing and Ambrose method in predicting SVCs when dosing vancomycin for obese patients.

  20. Tip clearance effect on through-flow and performance of a centrifugal compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eum, Hark Jin; Kang, Young Seok; Kang, Shin Hyoung

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed to investigate tip clearance effect on through-flow and performance of a centrifugal compressor which has the same configuration of impeller with six different tip clearances. Secondary flow and loss distribution have been surveyed to understand the flow mechanism due to the tip clearance. Tip leakage flow strongly interacts with mainstream flow and considerably changes the secondary flow and the loss distribution inside the impeller passage. A method has been described to quantitatively estimate the tip clearance effect on the performance drop and the efficiency drop. The tip clearance has caused specific work reduction and additional entropy generation. The former, which is called inviscid loss, is independent of any internal loss and the latter, which is called viscous loss, is dependent on every loss in the flow passage. Two components equally affected the performance drop as the tip clearances were small, while the efficiency drop was influenced by the viscous component alone. The additional entropy generation was modeled with all the kinetic energy of the tip leakage flow. Therefore, the present paper can provide how to quantitatively estimate the tip clearance effect on the performance and efficiency