WorldWideScience

Sample records for mt hood

  1. 76 FR 40322 - Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort Parking Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... fleet. Also, the location of the current maintenance shop impedes traffic flow and removes potential... new Sunrise Vehicle Maintenance Shop on the north side of the Sunrise parking lot. DATES: Comments... increasing parking capacity and improving traffic flow in at Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort. Parking capacity...

  2. HOODS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palleja, Albert; Jensen, Lars J

    2015-01-01

    Clustering algorithms are often used to find groups relevant in a specific context; however, they are not informed about this context. We present a simple algorithm, HOODS, which identifies context-specific neighborhoods of entities from a similarity matrix and a list of entities specifying...... the context. We illustrate its applicability by finding disease-specific neighborhoods of functionally associated proteins, kinase-specific neighborhoods of structurally similar inhibitors, and physiological-system-specific neighborhoods of interconnected diseases. HOODS can be used via a simple interface...

  3. Seismicity Induced by Groundwater Recharge at Mt. Hood, Oregon, and its Implications for Hydrogeologic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, M. O.; Manga, M.

    2002-12-01

    seismicity at Mt. Hood, Oregon. We can use the time lag of about 120 days between the two records to estimate the regional hydraulic diffusivity (1 m2/s) and other hydrogeologic parameters (permeability ≈ 10-13 m2, vertical matrix compressibility ≈ 10-10 m2/N). These values are comparable with our results from coupled heat and groundwater flow studies that are based on bore hole temperature data at Mt. Hood.

  4. NeighborHood

    OpenAIRE

    Corominola Ocaña, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    NeighborHood és una aplicació basada en el núvol, adaptable a qualsevol dispositiu (mòbil, tablet, desktop). L'objectiu d'aquesta aplicació és poder permetre als usuaris introduir a les persones del seu entorn més immediat i que aquestes persones siguin visibles per a la resta d'usuaris. NeighborHood es una aplicación basada en la nube, adaptable a cualquier dispositivo (móvil, tablet, desktop). El objetivo de esta aplicación es poder permitir a los usuarios introducir a las personas de su...

  5. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  6. Management Observation Facility Fume Hoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundsmo, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-17

    I reviewed all the hoods used for AS&I work in buildings 253, 254, and 255. All have had the minimum annual surveys conducted and some have had semi-annual reviews. The operating parameter labels are posted consistent to the right or above right (with the only exception the perchloric acid hood in 1734- on the left) which facilitates users knowing where to check for information. All hoods with sash doors (except the SE one in 1734 have a note on the Operating Parameters label to "keep sash doors closed". Again, this was checking consistency. No surveys were missed.

  7. Hood Canal Steelhead - Hood Canal Steelhead Supplementation Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hood Canal Steelhead Project is a 17-year before-after-control-impact experiment that tests the effects of supplementation on natural steelhead populations in...

  8. Beyond 2001: a silvicultural odyssey to sustaining terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems? Proceedings of the 2001 national silviculture workshop, May 6-10, Hood River, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon Parker; Susan Stevens. Hummel

    2002-01-01

    The 2001 National Silviculture Workshop was held in Hood River, Oregon, and hosted by the Mt. Hood National Forest, the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station. The Washington Office Vegetation Management and Protection Research and Forest and Grassland staffs are ongoing sponsors of the biennial workshop, which began in 1973 in...

  9. 222-S LABORATORY FUME HOOD TESTING STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RUELAS, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    The 222-S Laboratory contains 155 active fume hoods that are used to support analytical work with radioactive and/or toxic materials. The performance of a fume hood was brought into question after employees detected odors in the work area while mixing chemicals within the subject fume hood. Following the event, testing of the fume hood was conducted to assess the performance of the fume hood. Based on observations from the testing, it was deemed appropriate to conduct performance evaluations of other fume hoods within the laboratory

  10. Mount Hood volcano: phase zero study. Final report, January 1, 1977--June 30 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, D.A.

    1977-08-04

    A base of earth science data was developed for an area centered on Mt. Hood Volcano as the first step in a systematic geothermal resource assessment. A comprehensive technical plan for the assessment was developed and is also described. A preliminary bibliography is included.

  11. "Ameeriklane" Robin Hood / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilmi "Robin Hood : varaste prints" võtetest. Režissöör Kevin Reynolds, peaosas Kevin Costner, USA 1991. Järg: Teleleht nr. 14, 11. aprill 2005, lk. 38 : ill ja Teleleht nr. 15, 18. aprill 2005, lk. 38 : ill

  12. Ecological Baseline, Fort Hood, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    cedar eTm (Uiimus crassifolia), Texas ash (Fraxinus texansis), and Texas persimmon ( Diospyros texana). Conversely, the two predominant tree species...Ilex decidua), Mex- ican buckeye (Ungnadia spjeciosa), and Texas persimmon ( Diospyros texana). Vines included greenbrier (Smilax bona-nox) and white...Hedgehey Cactus (Echinocereus sp.) has been observed on Fort Hood. Due to the brief period of flowering for this genus , the individual species were not

  13. Pilgrim Souvenir: Hood of Cherries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Jeffs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This lead alloy badge from the British Museum represents a medieval hood repurposed as a sack for a harvest of cherries. It measures 38 by 30 millimetres and was cast integrally with its pin and clasp in a three-part mould. When first made, it would have shone like silver. Badges were purchased in their millions by pilgrims between the late twelfth and early sixteenth centuries, as attractive, wearable and cheap souvenirs of their visits to holy sites. By the later Middle Ages badges were also worn as general symbols of devotion, as livery insignia, and as humorous or amorous tokens; which of these categories the “hood of cherries” badge falls into is debatable. Five of them have been found: three in Salisbury, and another in London, while the provenance of the fifth is unknown. Their cataloguers reluctantly associate them with the cult of St Dorothy, whose emblem is a basket of fruit, although Spencer expressed concern that, “a fashionable hood seems far removed from her story.” There are also possible alternative explanations to its meaning, which will be explored here.

  14. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E.; Warwick, William M.; Orrell, Alice C.; Russo, Bryan J.; Parker, Kyle R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Manning, Anathea

    2011-11-14

    This report presents the results of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) follow-on renewable energy (RE) assessment of Fort Hood. Fort Hood receives many solicitations from renewable energy vendors who are interested in doing projects on site. Based on specific requests from Fort Hood staff so they can better understand these proposals, and the results of PNNL's 2008 RE assessment of Fort Hood, the following resources were examined in this assessment: (1) Municipal solid waste (MSW) for waste-to-energy (WTE); (2) Wind; (3) Landfill gas; (4) Solar photovoltaics (PV); and (5) Shale gas. This report also examines the regulatory issues, development options, and environmental impacts for the promising RE resources, and includes a review of the RE market in Texas.

  15. Visitors to nests of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We recommend expanding the Hooded Vulture nest monitoring programme to include more pairs. Keywords: Alopochen aegyptiaca, Chacma Baboon, Egyptian Goose, Hooded Vulture, Kruger-to-Canyons Biosphere Region, Martial Eagle, Necrosyrtes monachus, nest visitors, Papio ursinus, Polemaetus bellicosus ...

  16. Defense.gov Special Report: Fort Hood Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    identify possible insider threats, Army Secretary John M. McHugh told lawmakers. Story Obama: Soldiers ," Army Secretary John M. McHugh told lawmakers. Story President Praises Swift Response to Fort Hood Remarks on Fort Hood Shooting at White House McHugh, Odierno Address Fort Hood Shooting Before Congress

  17. Optimization of the Hood of Diesel Electric Locomotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr TOMEK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The new construction of hood of diesel electric locomotive is analyzed in this paper. The whole construction is loaded by inertia effects caused by prescribed acceleration. The parts of the hood are subject to the standards for railway applications CSN EN 12663-1 [1]. Numerical analyses are performed by FEM computer program COSMOSWorks [2]. The original construction of hood is analyzed in first part of this paper. Structural changes are proposed in the next part of this article. Carrying capacity of the new construction of hood is verified by a numerical analysis. The results of the new construction are compared with the original construction of hood.

  18. Persistence of Change: Fume Hood Campaign Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Elah; Robinson, Jennifer; Wakefield, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability initiatives typically operate for a limited time period, but it is often unclear whether they have lasting effects. The purpose of this paper is to examine a laboratory fume hood campaign, in order to identify factors that might contribute or detract from long-term change persistence. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  19. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; Warwick, William M.; Dixon, Douglas R.; Solana, Amy E.; Weimar, Mark R.; States, Jennifer C.; Reilly, Raymond W.

    2008-06-30

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Hood based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewables Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  20. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family...... injected rats. The specificity of the antibody was also demonstrated in immunocytochemical studies by the elimination of the immunostaining by preincubation of the antibody with brain (but not liver) extracts, and by the results obtained in MT-III null mice. The antibody was used to characterize...... the putative differences between the rat brain MT isoforms, namely MT-I+II and MT-III, in the freeze lesion model of brain damage, and for developing an ELISA for MT-III suitable for brain samples. In the normal rat brain, MT-III was mostly present primarily in astrocytes. However, lectin staining indicated...

  1. Minimum acceptable face velocities of laboratory fume hoods and guidelines for their classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, N.E.; Porter, W.E.; Alcorn, S.P.; Everett, W.S.; Hunt, J.B.; Morehead, J.F.; Higdon, H.F.

    1978-06-01

    Data developed to support the requirement of a 100 LFM minimum face velocity requirement for laboratory fume hoods are summarized. Also included is a description of the Y-12 test hood as well as guidelines for a hood classification scheme

  2. Evaluation of flow hood measurements for residential register flows; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, I.S.; Wray, C.P.; Dickerhoff, D.J.; Sherman, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Flow measurement at residential registers using flow hoods is becoming more common. These measurements are used to determine if the HVAC system is providing adequate comfort, appropriate flow over heat exchangers and in estimates of system energy losses. These HVAC system performance metrics are determined by using register measurements to find out if individual rooms are getting the correct airflow, and in estimates of total air handler flow and duct air leakage. The work discussed in this paper shows that commercially available flow hoods are poor at measuring flows in residential systems. There is also evidence in this and other studies that flow hoods can have significant errors even when used on the non-residential systems they were originally developed for. The measurement uncertainties arise from poor calibrations and the sensitivity of exiting flow hoods to non-uniformity of flows entering the device. The errors are usually large-on the order of 20% of measured flow, which is unacceptably high for most applications. Active flow hoods that have flow measurement devices that are insensitive to the entering airflow pattern were found to be clearly superior to commercially available flow hoods. In addition, it is clear that current calibration procedures for flow hoods may not take into account any field application problems and a new flow hood measurement standard should be developed to address this issue

  3. Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus and African White-backed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basic ecological information is still lacking for many species of African vultures. The Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus is known as a rare breeding resident in north-eastern South Africa. This study set out to monitor the nests of Hooded Vultures and, secondarily, White-backed Vultures Gyps africanus in the Olifants ...

  4. Removal (and attempted removal) of material from a Hooded Vulture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relatively little is documented about nest material theft in vultures. We used camera traps to monitor Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus nests for a year. We report camera trap photographs of a starling Lamprotornis sp. removing what appeared to be dung from an inactive Hooded Vulture nest on Cleveland Game ...

  5. Performance assessment of U.S. residential cooking exhaust hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, William W; Singer, Brett C

    2012-06-05

    This study assessed the performance of seven new residential cooking exhaust hoods representing common U.S. designs. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine fan curves relating airflow to duct static pressure, sound levels, and exhaust gas capture efficiency for front and back cooktop burners and the oven. Airflow rate sensitivity to duct flow resistance was higher for axial fan devices than for centrifugal fan devices. Pollutant capture efficiency (CE) ranged from 98%, varying across hoods and with airflow and burner position for each hood. CE was higher for back burners relative to front burners, presumably because most hoods covered only part of the front burners. Open hoods had higher CE than those with grease screen and metal-covered bottoms. The device with the highest CE--exceeding 80% for oven and front burners--had a large, open hood that covered most of the front burners. The airflow rate for this hood surpassed the industry-recommended level of 118 L·s(-1) (250 cfm) and produced sound levels too high for normal conversation. For hoods meeting the sound and fan efficacy criteria for Energy Star, CE was <30% for front and oven burners.

  6. Hood River Conservation Project load analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, T.K.

    1987-11-01

    As a part of the Hood River Conservation Project (HRCP), 314 homes were monitored to measure electrical energy use. The total electrical load, space heating load, water heating load (in about 200 homes), wood-stove heat output (in about 100 homes), and indoor temperature were monitored. Data were collected for one full year before and one full year after these homes were retrofit with conservation measures. Local weather information was also collected on a 15-min basis. This data base was used to evaluate the load savings attributable to HRCP. Two methods of weather normalization were used and showed close agreement. The weather-normalized diversified residential load savings on the Pacific Power and Light system and Hood River area peak days were >0.5 kW/household. The average spring, summer, and fall savings were much smaller, <0.1 kW/household. The load factor for the diversified residential load decreased following the conservation retrofit actions. 11 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  8. MOUNT HOOD WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  9. Subscale hood seal test topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versteeg, J.L.; Herold, B.A.; McClintic, J.K.; Schmall, R.A.; Hoetzl, M.

    1991-09-06

    To maximize the transfer of heat from the recirculated gases to the scrap, it is essential to percolate as much of the gases as possible through the scrap. To accomplish this flow path and avoid the bypassing of hot gas around the scrap, the seal between the preheater hood and the scrap bucket must be relatively tight. These tests which are described in this report were designed to measure the performance of several possible seal designs under simulated operating conditions. At the conclusion of the tests, one design was recommended as the primary arrangement with another design considered as an alternate. Both designs met the criteria of low leakage but one design was preferred due an expected greater resistance to wear. The test results also provided valuable information for estimating seal leakage in the full scale installation.

  10. 75 FR 30364 - Mt. Hood and Willamette National Forests, Oregon; Cascade Crossing Transmission Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... stations associated with the ``smart'' grid communication system, and permanent roads which would be used.... Wednesday, June 23 4-7 p.m Oregon City, Oregon City High School, 19761 S. Beavercreek Rd. Thursday, June 24 4-7 p.m Salem, McKay High School, 2440 Lancaster Dr., NE. Tuesday, June 29 4-7 p.m Mill City, Mill...

  11. 75 FR 62755 - Mt. Hood National Forest, Oregon; Cooper Spur-Government Camp Land Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Government Camp may result in no net loss of wetlands. Cultural and Heritage resource surveys were conducted... quality, wetlands and floodplains, and cultural/historic sites revealed the following preliminary issues... will be conveying more wetlands than would be acquired. Executive Order 11990 requires no net loss of...

  12. Hood River production program monitoring and evaluation. Report B: Hood River and Pelton Ladder. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, M.B.; Jennings, M.; McCanna, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Hood River Production Program (HRPP) is jointly implemented by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWS) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). The primary goals of the HRPP are (1) to re-establish naturally sustaining spring chinook salmon using Deschutes River stock in the Hood River subbasin, (2) rebuild naturally sustaining runs of summer and winter steelhead in the Hood River subbasin, (3) maintain the genetic characteristics of the populations, and (4) contribute to tribal and non-tribal fisheries, ocean fisheries, and the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) interim goal of doubling salmon runs

  13. Measurements of Capture Efficiency of Range Hoods in Homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2015-01-01

    mapped the pollution distribution in the room, and showed that the pollutants escape more at the sides of the cooktop. These preliminary results suggest that more measurements should be conducted investigating the capture efficiency at different pollutant source temperature, size and location...... want a range hood to use little energy and have high capture efficiency to minimize the required air flow to capture the cooking pollutants. Currently there are no standards for rating range hoods for capture efficiency In this study, measurements of range hood capture efficiency were made a tight...... kitchen-room built in a laboratory chamber, and a methodology for standardizing measurement of capture efficiency was developed. The results for a wall mounted range hood, showed that up to half of the cooking pollutants were not captured at a flow rate of 230 m3/h. A more detailed set of measurements...

  14. Humboldt Open Ocean Disposal Site (HOODS) Survey Work 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Humboldt Open Ocean Disposal Site (HOODS) is a dredged material disposal site located 3 nautical miles (nm) offshore of Humboldt Bay in Northern California....

  15. Sexual aggression by intruders in hooded crow Corvus cornix

    OpenAIRE

    Zduniak, Piotr; Kosicki, Jakub Z.; Yosef, Reuven

    2015-01-01

    The hooded crow Corvus cornix is a west Palaearctic, solitary nesting, monogamous corvid. In the breeding season, populations are characterized by a social organization wherein breeding pairs are territorial and non-breeding individuals, called floaters, live in flocks. During a study of the breeding ecology of the hooded crow, conducted in a protected flooded area, we monitored nests with video cameras. We recorded two separate incidents when intruders attacked a female at the nest. We belie...

  16. Analysis of heat transfer and contaminant transport in fume hoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathanjali, C.; Rahman, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of three-dimensional flow patterns and the associated heat and mass transfer mechanisms in a fume hood enclosure. The flow enters the hood through the front window opening (positive x-direction) and leaves the cupboard through an opening on the top of the hood (positive z-direction). The flow was assumed to be fully turbulent. The flow pattern for different sash openings were studied. The flow pattern around an object located at the bottom of the hood was studied for different locations of the object. It was found that air entering the hood proceeds directly to the back wall, impinges it and turns upward toward the top wall and exits through the outlet. The flow finds its way around any object forming a recirculating region at its training surface. With an increase in the sash opening, the velocity becomes higher and the fluid traces the path to the outlet more quickly. The volume occupied by recirculating flow decreases with increase in sash opening. Both temperature and concentration were found to be maximum near the source and gradually decreased as the heated air or gaseous contaminant entrained with incoming air. The local concentration decreased with increase in sash opening area. The results will be very useful to design experiments with optimum sash opening providing adequate disposal of contaminants with minimum use of conditioned air inside the room

  17. Finite element analysis of car hood for impact test by using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finite element analysis of car hood for impact test by using solidworks software ... high safety and at the same time can be built according to market demands. ... Keywords: finite element analysis; impact test; Solidworks; automation, car hood.

  18. Hood River Production Program Review, Final Report 1991-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Keith; Chapman, Colin; Ackerman, Nicklaus

    2003-12-01

    This document provides a comprehensive review of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded activities within the Hood River Basin from 1991 to 2001. These activities, known as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP), are intended to mitigate for fish losses related to operation of federal dams in the Columbia River Basin, and to contribute to recovery of endangered and/or threatened salmon and steelhead, as directed by Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries). The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the HRPP, which authorized BPA to fund salmon and steelhead enhancement activities in the Hood River Basin, was completed in 1996 (BPA 1996). The EIS specified seven years of monitoring and evaluation (1996-2002) after program implementation to determine if program actions needed modification to meet program objectives. The EIS also called for a program review after 2002, that review is reported here.

  19. Hood River production program monitoring and evaluation. Report A: Hood River and Pelton Ladder evaluation studies. Annual report for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, E.A.; French, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    In 1992, the Northwest Power Planning Council approved the Hood River and Pelton Ladder master plans within the framework of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The master plans define an approach for implementing a hatchery supplementation program in the Hood River subbasin. The hatchery program, as defined in the master plans, is called the Hood River Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP will be implemented at a reduced hatchery production level until (1) the construction of all proposed hatchery facilities has been completed and (2) numbers of returning wild jack and adult fish are sufficient to meet broodstock collection goals. It is anticipated that construction on the hatchery production facilities will be completed by the spring of 1998. The HRPP is jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs (CTWS) Reservation

  20. Estimates of Nutrient Loading by Ground-Water Discharge into the Lynch Cove Area of Hood Canal, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, F. William; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Reich, Christopher D.; Paulson, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    field investigations show that ground-water discharge into the Lynch Cove area of Hood Canal is highly dynamic and strongly affected by the large tidal range. In areas with a steep shoreline and steep hydraulic gradient, ground-water discharge is spatially concentrated in or near the intertidal zone, with increased discharge during low tide. Topographically flat areas with weak hydraulic gradients had more spatial variability, including larger areas of seawater recirculation and more widely dispersed discharge. Measured total-dissolved-nitrogen concentrations in ground water ranged from below detection limits to 2.29 milligrams per liter and the total load entering Lynch Cove was estimated to be approximately 98 ? 10.3 metric tons per year (MT/yr). This estimate is based on net freshwater seepage rates from Lee-type seepage meter measurements and can be compared to estimates derived from geochemical tracer mass balance estimates (radon and radium) of 231 to 749 MT/yr, and previous water-mass-balance estimates (14 to 47 MT/ yr). Uncertainty in these loading estimates is introduced by complex biogeochemical cycles of relevant nutrient species, the representativeness of measurement sites, and by energetic dynamics at the coastal aquifer-seawater interface caused by tidal forcing.

  1. ALARA review for the 202-S plutonium loadout hood stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patch, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    This as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposures, control contamination levels, and control airborne radioactivity concentrations while conducting stabilization of the Reduction-Oxidation (REDOX) Facility plutonium loadout hood and associated piping, and the isolation of the ER-8 ventilation system

  2. Pedestrian protection integrated in the motor hood; Fussgaengerschutz bei Motorhauben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilfrich, E.; Roettger, R.; Zoernack, M.; Patberg, L. [Vertrieb/Engineering, Fahrzeugtechnik, ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    New legislation provides for better pedestrian protection in case of collision with motor cars. This is a great challenge in car design. ThyssenKrupp Steel are working on concepts for motor hoods that meet these requirements. Steel is the material of choice as it combines effective energy absorption with an excellent cost-benefit ration. (orig.)

  3. The decline of an urban Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Likely causes are (1) exponential urbanisation resulting in loss of feeding sites and reduced food availability, (2) increased poisoning of feral dogs with strychnine sulphate due to an upsurge of rabies and (3) increased disappearance of suitable trees for nesting and roosting. Keywords: cutting of trees, Hooded Vulture, ...

  4. 77 FR 12514 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... operating regulation for the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble. This modification would relieve heavy rush hour road traffic on State Routes 3 and 104, by allowing the draws of the bridge to not.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this rule, call or email the Bridge...

  5. First glimpse of the functional benefits of clitoral hood piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Vaughn S; Eichold, Bernard H; Sharpe, Thomasina H; Lynn, Sherwood C

    2005-09-01

    In this exploratory study, we identify a positive relationship between vertical clitoral hood piercing and desire, frequency of intercourse and arousal. There were no dramatic differences in orgasmic functioning. Clinicians can play key roles in educating patients about potential outcomes and risks of genital piercing.

  6. Black on Black Crime: Hollywood's Construction of the Hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Eric

    Most of what the world envisions of the period of westward expansion in America has been crafted through Hollywood cinema. The myths of the West are so ingrained in America's culture that they have taken on a truth all their own. In a series of recent films, which began with the release of "Boyz N the Hood," Hollywood is at it again, presenting…

  7. Improving flow patterns and spillage characteristics of a box-type commercial kitchen hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Han, Meng-Ji; Priyambodo, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    A conventional box-type commercial kitchen hood and its improved version (termed the "IQV commercial kitchen hood") were studied using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique and tracer-gas (sulfur hexafluoride) detection methods. The laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique qualitatively revealed the flow field of the hood and the areas apt for leakages of hood containment. The tracer-gas concentration detection method measured the quantitative leakage levels of the hood containment. The oil mists that were generated in the conventional box-type commercial kitchen hood leaked significantly into the environment from the areas near the front edges of ceiling and side walls. Around these areas, the boundary-layer separation occurred, inducing highly unsteady and turbulent recirculating flow, and leading to spillages of hood containment due to inappropriate aerodynamic design at the front edges of the ceiling and side walls. The tracer-gas concentration measurements on the conventional box-type commercial kitchen hood showed that the sulfur hexafluoride concentrations detected at the hood face attained very large values on an order of magnitude about 10(3)-10(4) ppb. By combining the backward-offset narrow suction slot, deflection plates, and quarter-circular arcs at the hood entrance, the IQV commercial kitchen hood presented a flow field containing four backward-inclined cyclone flow structures. The oil mists generated by cooking were coherently confined in these upward-rising cyclone flow structures and finally exhausted through the narrow suction slot. The tracer-gas concentration measurements on the IQV commercial kitchen hood showed that the order of magnitude of the sulfur hexafluoride concentrations detected at the hood face is negligibly small--only about 10(0) ppb across the whole hood face.

  8. Hooded mergansers swim in the waters of KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A male and two female hooded mergansers swim in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The male displays its distinctive fan-shaped, black-bordered crest. Usually found from Alaska and Canada south to Nebraska, Oregon and Tennessee, hooded mergansers winter south to Mexico and the Gulf Coast, including KSC. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  9. A female hooded merganser swims in the waters of KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A female hooded merganser swims solo in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The male is distinguished by a fan-shaped, black-bordered crest and striped breast. Usually found from Alaska and Canada south to Nebraska, Oregon and Tennessee, hooded mergansers winter south to Mexico and the Gulf Coast, including KSC. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  10. A male hooded merganser swims in the waters of KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The distinctive fan-shaped, black-bordered crest and striped breast identify this hooded merganser, swimming in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. Usually found from Alaska and Canada south to Nebraska, Oregon and Tennessee, hooded mergansers winter south to Mexico and the Gulf Coast, including KSC. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  11. Sexual aggression by intruders in hooded crow Corvus cornix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduniak, Piotr; Kosicki, Jakub Z; Yosef, Reuven

    The hooded crow Corvus cornix is a west Palaearctic, solitary nesting, monogamous corvid. In the breeding season, populations are characterized by a social organization wherein breeding pairs are territorial and non-breeding individuals, called floaters, live in flocks. During a study of the breeding ecology of the hooded crow, conducted in a protected flooded area, we monitored nests with video cameras. We recorded two separate incidents when intruders attacked a female at the nest. We believe that she remained in the nest in order to prevent the strangers cannibalizing the nestlings by mantling over the brood. The spatio-temporal occurrence of these attacks suggests that the observed behaviour is intraspecific sexual aggression wherein non-breeding males mounted an immobilized female.

  12. Effect of internal elements of the steam turbine exhaust hood on losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajč Ladislav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The document deals with the flow in the exhaust hood of a single flow steam turbine. The effect of the shape of the external case of the hood and the position and dimensions of the internal reinforcements on the energy loss coefficient is evaluated. Using this coefficient, it is possible to determine the gained or lost output in the diffuser and the entire exhaust hood at a known flow and efficiency of the last stage. Flow research in the exhaust hood was performed especially using numeric simulations; some variants were verified experimentally in the aerodynamic wind tunnel.

  13. Archeological Testing Fort Hood: 1994-1995. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    ASSOCI TES, INC. (662-22) Archeological Testing at Fort Hood. 1994-199.5 569 -48-1941.1080-134 1935 -058 Figure 7.17 Selected Perforator Types: Awl and...Department of Anthropology, University of Arkansas. Huskey, V. 1935 An Archeological Survey of the Nueces Canyon of Texas, Bulletin of the Texas... epr 064lL.Tan I lms expected 08-FH1 Yellow 4 expected expedctd cd .9 15.Q W n• I less M 0 ~ *~Tax~on Total Total Inmr 53 nac na Vertebra.es 1. FcAuifnm

  14. Carbon epoxy front hood for an electrical city vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bere Paul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP had a very impressive development. Due to its physical and mechanical properties, this material is used in many high-end domains such as: aerospace, aviation, automotive, medical, engineering or building constructions. In the last period FRP are being intensely used in the automotive industry especially for the chassis manufacturing and other vehicle structural components. In this paper, the authors present the model of a carbon epoxy front hood of a two-passenger electrical car which is specially designed in urban area and which makes use of advanced FRP manufacturing.

  15. Fort Hood Building and Landscape Inventory with WWII and Cold War Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    barracks, 1970s (NARA)........................................................... 112 Figure 37. Palmer Movie Theater (NARA...revised 1953) showing layout of Hood Village and trailer park (Fort Hood...arms ammunition storage building #92012 (ERDC-CERL, 2004). ......... 260 Figure 163: Radio reception building #92063 (ERDC-CERL, 2004

  16. Ethanol intake and 3H-serotonin uptake I: A study in Fawn-Hooded rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoust, M.; Compagnon, P.; Legrand, E.; Boucly, P.

    1991-01-01

    Ethanol intake and synaptosomal 3 H-serotonin uptake were studied in male Fawn-Hooded and Sprague-Dawley rats. Fawn-Hooded rats consumed more alcohol and more water than Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma alcohol levels of Sprague-Dawley rats were not detectable but were about 5 mg/dl in Fawn-Hooded rats. Ethanol intake increased the Vmax of serotonin uptake in Fawn-Hooded rats in hippocampus and cortex, but not in thalamus. In Fawn-Hooded rats, serotonin uptake (Vmax) was higher than in Sprague-Dawley rats cortex. Ethanol intake reduced the Vmax of serotonin uptake in Fawn-Hooded rats in hippocampus and cortex. In cortex, the carrier affinity for serotonin was increased in alcoholized Fawn-Hooded rats. These results indicate that synaptosomal 3 H-serotonin uptake is affected by ethanol intake. In Fawn-Hooded rats, high ethanol consumption is associated with high serotonin uptake. In rats presenting high serotonin uptake, alcoholization reduces 3 H-serotonin internalization in synaptosomes, indicating a specific sensitivity to alcohol intake of serotonin uptake system

  17. Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Su-Jung; Ada, Earl; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Ellenbecker, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Manual handling of nanoparticles is a fundamental task of most nanomaterial research; such handling may expose workers to ultrafine or nanoparticles. Recent studies confirm that exposures to ultrafine or nanoparticles produce adverse inflammatory responses in rodent lungs and such particles may translocate to other areas of the body, including the brain. An important method for protecting workers handling nanoparticles from exposure to airborne nanoparticles is the laboratory fume hood. Such hoods rely on the proper face velocity for optimum performance. In addition, several other hood design and operating factors can affect worker exposure. Handling experiments were performed to measure airborne particle concentration while handling nanoparticles in three fume hoods located in different buildings under a range of operating conditions. Nanoalumina and nanosilver were selected to perform handling experiments in the fume hoods. Air samples were also collected on polycarbonate membrane filters and particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Handling tasks included transferring particles from beaker to beaker by spatula and by pouring. Measurement locations were the room background, the researcher's breathing zone and upstream and downstream from the handling location. Variable factors studied included hood design, transfer method, face velocity/sash location and material types. Airborne particle concentrations measured at breathing zone locations were analyzed to characterize exposure level. Statistics were used to test the correlation between data. The test results found that the handling of dry powders consisting of nano-sized particles inside laboratory fume hoods can result in a significant release of airborne nanoparticles from the fume hood into the laboratory environment and the researcher's breathing zone. Many variables were found to affect the extent of particle release including hood design, hood operation (sash height, face velocity

  18. Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Su-Jung, E-mail: candace.umass@gmail.com; Ada, Earl [University of Massachusetts Lowell, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (CHN) (United States); Isaacs, Jacqueline A. [Northeastern University, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (CHN) (United States); Ellenbecker, Michael J. [University of Massachusetts Lowell, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (CHN) (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Manual handling of nanoparticles is a fundamental task of most nanomaterial research; such handling may expose workers to ultrafine or nanoparticles. Recent studies confirm that exposures to ultrafine or nanoparticles produce adverse inflammatory responses in rodent lungs and such particles may translocate to other areas of the body, including the brain. An important method for protecting workers handling nanoparticles from exposure to airborne nanoparticles is the laboratory fume hood. Such hoods rely on the proper face velocity for optimum performance. In addition, several other hood design and operating factors can affect worker exposure. Handling experiments were performed to measure airborne particle concentration while handling nanoparticles in three fume hoods located in different buildings under a range of operating conditions. Nanoalumina and nanosilver were selected to perform handling experiments in the fume hoods. Air samples were also collected on polycarbonate membrane filters and particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Handling tasks included transferring particles from beaker to beaker by spatula and by pouring. Measurement locations were the room background, the researcher's breathing zone and upstream and downstream from the handling location. Variable factors studied included hood design, transfer method, face velocity/sash location and material types. Airborne particle concentrations measured at breathing zone locations were analyzed to characterize exposure level. Statistics were used to test the correlation between data. The test results found that the handling of dry powders consisting of nano-sized particles inside laboratory fume hoods can result in a significant release of airborne nanoparticles from the fume hood into the laboratory environment and the researcher's breathing zone. Many variables were found to affect the extent of particle release including hood design, hood operation (sash height, face

  19. Feeding habits of harp and hooded seals in Greenland waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn O Kapel

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of stomach contents analyses of harp and hooded seals collected in West Greenland waters in the period 1986-1993 are reviewed, and compared with published data and circumstantial information from local hunters.  The diet of harp seals in this region is variable but consists mainly of pelagic crustaceans (Thysanoessa spp. and Parathemisto libellula and small fish species like capelin (Mallotus villosus, sandeel (Ammodytes spp., polar cod (Boreogadus saida and Arctic cod (Arctogadus glacialis. Species of importance for commercial fisheries in Greenland, such as Northern prawn (Pandalus borealis, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, and Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides play a minor role in the diet of harp seals in this area. Variation in the diet of hooded seals is less well documented, but in addition to the species also taken by harp seals, larger demersal fishes like Greenland halibut, redfish (Sebastes spp., cod, and wolffish (Anarhichas minor are apparently important prey items.

  20. Domain specific MT in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus; Almsten, Lisbeth Kjeldgaard

    2008-01-01

    point scale evaluate the sentence from the point of view of the post-editor. The post-editor profile defined by the LSP is based on the experiences of introducing MT in the LSP workflow. The relation between the Translation Edit Rate (TER) scores and “Usability” scores is tested. We find TER a candidate......The paper focuses on domain specific use of MT with a special focus on SMT in the workflow of a Language Service Provider (LSP). We report on the feedback of post-editors using fluency/adequacy evaluation and the evaluation metric ’Usability’, understood in this context as where users on a three...

  1. Effects of boundary-layer separation controllers on a desktop fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hsu, Ching Min; Hung, Shuo-Fu

    2016-10-02

    A desktop fume hood installed with an innovative design of flow boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, work surface, and corners was developed and characterized for its flow and containment leakage characteristics. The geometric features of the developed desktop fume hood included a rearward offset suction slot, two side plates, two side-plate boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, a slanted surface on the leading edge of the work surface, and two small triangular plates on the upper left and right corners of the hood face. The flow characteristics were examined using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique. The containment leakages were measured by the tracer gas (sulphur hexafluoride) detection method on the hood face plane with a mannequin installed in front of the hood. The results of flow visualization showed that the smoke dispersions induced by the boundary-layer separations on the leading edges of the side plates and work surface, as well as the three-dimensional complex flows on the upper-left and -right corners of the hood face, were effectively alleviated by the boundary-layer separation controllers. The results of the tracer gas detection method with a mannequin standing in front of the hood showed that the leakage levels were negligibly small (≤0.003 ppm) at low face velocities (≥0.19 m/s).

  2. Effect of flow characteristics on ultrafine particle emissions from range hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2013-08-01

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms of the production of nanometer-sized particulate generated from cooking oils, the ventilation of kitchen hoods was studied by determining the particle concentration, particle size distribution, particle dimensions, and hood's flow characteristics under several cooking scenarios. This research varied the temperature of the frying operation on one cooking operation, with three kinds of commercial cooking oils including soybean oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil. The variations of particle concentration and size distributions with the elevated cooking oil temperatures were presented. The particle concentration increases as a function of temperature. For oil temperatures ranging between 180°C and 210°C, a 5°C increase in temperature increased the number concentration of ultrafine particles by 20-50%. The maximum concentration of ultrafine particles was found to be approximately 6 × 10(6) particles per cm(3) at 260°C. Flow visualization techniques and particle distribution measurement were performed for two types of hood designs, a wall-mounted range hood and an island hood, at a suction flow rate of 15 m(3) min(-1). The flow visualization results showed that different configurations of kitchen hoods induce different aerodynamic characteristics. By comparing the results of flow visualizations and nanoparticle measurements, it was found that the areas with large-scale turbulent vortices are more prone to dispersion of ultrafine particle leakage because of the complex interaction between the shear layers and the suction movement that results from turbulent dispersion. We conclude that the evolution of ultrafine particle concentration fluctuations is strongly affected by the location of the hood, which can alter the aerodynamic features. We suggest that there is a correlation between flow characteristics and amount of contaminant leakage. This provides a comprehensive strategy to evaluate the effectiveness of kitchen hoods

  3. Hood of the truck statistics for food animal practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenning, Barrett D

    2006-03-01

    This article offers some tips on working with statistics and develops four relatively simple procedures to deal with most kinds of data with which veterinarians work. The criterion for a procedure to be a "Hood of the Truck Statistics" (HOT Stats) technique is that it must be simple enough to be done with pencil, paper, and a calculator. The goal of HOT Stats is to have the tools available to run quick analyses in only a few minutes so that decisions can be made in a timely fashion. The discipline allows us to move away from the all-too-common guess work about effects and differences we perceive following a change in treatment or management. The techniques allow us to move toward making more defensible, credible, and more quantifiably "risk-aware" real-time recommendations to our clients.

  4. Vent hood concept for safely unloading TRUPACT-IIs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    Receipt of transuranic (TRU) waste in the TRUPACT-2 shipping package, implies a potential of receiving waste packages contaminated with only alpha emitters or emitting hazardous gases. Due to the difficulty of rapidly detecting low-level alpha contamination, a strict contamination control system has been developed to check incoming waste packages in a controlled environment. A part of this control is the use of a vent hood system for the TRUPACT-2 shipping container unloading process. A clear final shroud with a monitored/filtered exhaust system has been designed and fabricated to permit direct surveillance of TRU waste packages prior to exposing personnel or facilities to possible radioactive contamination or hazardous gases. This concept has also been adapted to similar evolutions in which packages are exposed that hold TRU or hazardous materials but cannot be directly monitored prior to opening

  5. A new method for infrared imaging of air currents in and around critical hazard fume hoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulac, W.A.; McCreary, J.R.; Schmalz, H.

    1992-01-01

    A real time method of measuring and recording the efficacy of vapor containment in and around critical hazard fume hoods is being developed. An infrared camera whose response is restricted to a spectral range that overlaps a strong absorption band in a non-toxic gas is used to render real-time video images of the presence and flow of the gas. The gas, nitrous oxide, is ejected in a continuous stream in and around fume hoods that are to be certified capable of containing hazardous fumes. The principle advantage is that various scenarios of air flow displacement in and outside the hood can be easily investigated; the principle limitation is the necessity of high tracer gas concentration to obtain strong visualizations. We hope that this technique can be found to be an effective and safe method to test hoods in locations that were built before present regulations were promulgated

  6. Origins of albino and hooded rats: implications from molecular genetic analysis across modern laboratory rat strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuramoto

    Full Text Available Albino and hooded (or piebald rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H locus has been mapped to the ∼460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the albino mutation and the hooded (h mutation that we identified by positional cloning approach to investigate possible genetic roots and relationships of albino and hooded rats. All of 117 existing laboratory albino rats shared the same albino missense mutation, indicating they had only one single ancestor. Genetic fine mapping followed by de novo sequencing of BAC inserts covering the H locus revealed that an endogenous retrovirus (ERV element was inserted into the first intron of the Kit gene where the hooded allele maps. A solitary long terminal repeat (LTR was found at the same position to the ERV insertion in another allele of the H locus, which causes the so called Irish (h(i phenotype. The ERV and the solitary LTR insertions were completely associated with the hooded and Irish coat patterns, respectively, across all colored rat strains examined. Interestingly, all 117 albino rat strains shared the ERV insertion without any exception, which strongly suggests that the albino mutation had originally occurred in hooded rats.

  7. The Effect of Condensing Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Body Geometry on Exhaust Performance Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribin, V. G.; Paramonov, A. N.; Mitrokhova, O. M.

    2018-06-01

    The article presents data from combined numerical and experimental investigations of the effect that the overall dimensions of the exhaust hood of a steam turbine with an underslung condenser has on the aerodynamic losses in the hood. Owing to the properly selected minimum permissible overall dimensions of the exhaust hood, more efficient operation of this turbine component is achieved, better vibration stability of the turbine set shaft line is obtained, and lower costs are required for arranging the steam turbine plant in the turbine building. Experiments have shown that the main overall dimensions of the hood body have a determining effect on the exhaust hood flow path profile and on its aerodynamic performance. Owing to properly selected ratios between the exhaust hood body main sizes without a diffuser, a total loss coefficient equal to approximately unity has been obtained. By using an axial-radial diffuser, the energy loss can be decreased by 30-40% depending on the geometrical parameters and level of velocities in the inlet section of a hood having the optimal overall dimensions. By using the obtained results, it becomes possible to evaluate the overall dimensions necessary for achieving the maximal aerodynamic hood efficiency and, as a consequence, to obtain better technical and economic indicators of the turbine plant as a whole already at the initial stage of its designing. If a need arises to select overall dimensions smaller than their optimal values, the increase of energy loss can be estimated using the presented dependences. The cycle of investigations was carried out on the experimental setups available in the fundamental research laboratory of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute National University's Department of Steam and Gas Turbines with due regard to the operating parameters and similarity criteria.

  8. Field-trip guide to Mount Hood, Oregon, highlighting eruptive history and hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William E.; Gardner, Cynthia A.

    2017-06-22

    This guidebook describes stops of interest for a geological field trip around Mount Hood volcano. It was developed for the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon. The intent of this guidebook and accompanying contributions is to provide an overview of Mount Hood, including its chief geologic processes, magmatic system, eruptive history, local tectonics, and hazards, by visiting a variety of readily accessible localities. We also describe coeval, largely monogenetic, volcanoes in the region. Accompanying the field-trip guidebook are separately authored contributions that discuss in detail the Mount Hood magmatic system and its products and behavior (Kent and Koleszar, this volume); Mount Hood earthquakes and their relation to regional tectonics and the volcanic system (Thelen and Moran, this volume); and young surface faults cutting the broader Mount Hood area whose extent has come to light after acquisition of regional light detection and ranging coverage (Madin and others, this volume).The trip makes an approximately 175-mile (280-kilometer) clockwise loop around Mount Hood, starting and ending in Portland. The route heads east on Interstate 84 through the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. The guidebook points out only a few conspicuous features of note in the gorge, but many other guides to the gorge are available. The route continues south on the Mount Hood National Scenic Byway on Oregon Route 35 following Hood River, and returns to Portland on U.S. Highway 26 following Sandy River. The route traverses rocks as old as the early Miocene Eagle Creek Formation and overlying Columbia River Basalt Group of middle Miocene age, but chiefly lava flows and clastic products of arc volcanism of late Miocene to Holocene age.

  9. Patterns in Seismicity at Mt St Helens and Mt Unzen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Oliver; De Angelis, Silvio; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Cyclic behaviour on a range of timescales is a well-documented feature of many dome-forming volcanoes. Previous work on Soufrière Hills volcano (Montserrat) and Volcán de Colima (Mexico) revealed broad-scale similarities in behaviour implying the potential to develop general physical models of sub-surface processes [1]. Using volcano-seismic data from Mt St Helens (USA) and Mt Unzen (Japan) this study explores parallels in long-term behaviour of seismicity at two dome-forming systems. Within the last twenty years both systems underwent extended dome-forming episodes accompanied by large Vulcanian explosions or dome collapses. This study uses a suite of quantitative and analytical techniques which can highlight differences or similarities in volcano seismic behaviour, and compare the behaviour to changes in activity during the eruptive episodes. Seismic events were automatically detected and characterized on a single short-period seismometer station located 1.5km from the 2004-2008 vent at Mt St Helens. A total of 714 826 individual events were identified from continuous recording of seismic data from 22 October 2004 to 28 February 2006 (average 60.2 events per hour) using a short-term/long-term average algorithm. An equivalent count will be produced from seismometer recordings over the later stages of the 1991-1995 eruption at MT Unzen. The event count time-series from Mt St Helens is then analysed using Multi-taper Method and the Short-Term Fourier Transform to explore temporal variations in activity. Preliminary analysis of seismicity from Mt St Helens suggests cyclic behaviour of subannual timescale, similar to that described at Volcán de Colima and Soufrière Hills volcano [1]. Frequency Index and waveform correlation tools will be implemented to analyse changes in the frequency content of the seismicity and to explore their relations to different phases of activity at the volcano. A single station approach is used to gain a fine-scale view of variations in

  10. An overview of the 2009 Fort Hood Robotics Rodeo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Seth

    2010-04-01

    The Robotics Rodeo held from 31 August to 3 September 2009 at Fort Hood, Texas, had three stated goals: educate key decision makers and align the robotics industry; educate Soldiers and developers; and perform a live market survey of the current state of technologies to encourage the development of robotic systems to support operational needs. Both events that comprised the Robotics Rodeo, the Extravaganza and the robotic technology observation, demonstration and discussion (RTOD2) addressed these stated goals. The Extravaganza was designed to foster interaction between the vendors and the visitors who included the media, Soldiers, others in the robotics industry and key decision makers. The RTOD2 allowed the vendors a more private and focused interaction with the subject matter experts teams, this was the forum for the vendors to demonstrate their robotic systems that supported the III Corps operational needs statements that are focused on route clearance, convoy operations, persistent stare, and robotic wingman. While the goals of the Rodeo were achieved, the underlying success from the event is the development of a new business model that is focused on collapsing the current model to get technologies into the hands of our warfighters quicker. This new model takes the real time data collection from the Rodeo, the Warfighter Needs from TRADOC, the emerging requirements from our current engagements, and assistance from industry partners to develop a future Army strategy for the rapid fielding of unmanned systems technologies.

  11. Melanesian mtDNA complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Friedlaender

    Full Text Available Melanesian populations are known for their diversity, but it has been hard to grasp the pattern of the variation or its underlying dynamic. Using 1,223 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HVR1 and HVR2 from 32 populations, we found the among-group variation is structured by island, island size, and also by language affiliation. The more isolated inland Papuan-speaking groups on the largest islands have the greatest distinctions, while shore dwelling populations are considerably less diverse (at the same time, within-group haplotype diversity is less in the most isolated groups. Persistent differences between shore and inland groups in effective population sizes and marital migration rates probably cause these differences. We also add 16 whole sequences to the Melanesian mtDNA phylogenies. We identify the likely origins of a number of the haplogroups and ancient branches in specific islands, point to some ancient mtDNA connections between Near Oceania and Australia, and show additional Holocene connections between Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan and Island Melanesia with branches of haplogroup E. Coalescence estimates based on synonymous transitions in the coding region suggest an initial settlement and expansion in the region at approximately 30-50,000 years before present (YBP, and a second important expansion from Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan during the interval approximately 3,500-8,000 YBP. However, there are some important variance components in molecular dating that have been overlooked, and the specific nature of ancestral (maternal Austronesian influence in this region remains unresolved.

  12. The Influence of the Bed with a Semiopen Hood on Bacteria Removal in a Negative-Pressure Isolation Room

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng-Min Huang; Hsiang-Tai Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study numerically investigates the influence of a sickbed with a semiopened hood on bacteria removal in a negative-pressure isolation room. The parameters include air change rate, lying style, the length and height of hood, flow rate allotments, and the positions of outlets. The results show that the hood has excellent effect on the removal of contaminated air, which is much better than the case without hood. The flow field of patient's face up cough is very different from face side coug...

  13. The Influence of the Bed with a Semiopen Hood on Bacteria Removal in a Negative-Pressure Isolation Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Min Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study numerically investigates the influence of a sickbed with a semiopened hood on bacteria removal in a negative-pressure isolation room. The parameters include air change rate, lying style, the length and height of hood, flow rate allotments, and the positions of outlets. The results show that the hood has excellent effect on the removal of contaminated air, which is much better than the case without hood. The flow field of patient's face up cough is very different from face side cough, and the contaminated air cannot be removed properly through one air outlet. There are three outlets on the hood, set straight above the patient's face and at both sides. The allotment of the exhaust flow rate of the upper outlet to that of side outlets is suggested to be 4: 6. When the total air change rate is above 6 ACH, the hood length has slight influence on pollutant removal. The increase of hood height has a negative impact when the patient coughs lying on back. When the side exhaust flow rate is high, the hood height has a slight impact for face side cough. The recommended air change rate for the negative-pressure ward with sickbed hood is above 5 ACH.

  14. Hood River and Pelton Ladder monitoring and evaluation project and Hood River fish habitat project : annual progress report 1999-2000.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    2001-01-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin. This annual report summarizes work for two consecutive contract periods: the fiscal year (FY) 1999 contract period was 1 October, 1998 through 30 September, 1999 and 1 October, 1999 through 30 September, 2000 for FY 2000. Work implemented during FY 1999 and FY 2000 included (1) acclimation of hatchery spring chinook salmon and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts, (2) spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys on the West Fork Hood River (3) genetic analysis of steelhead and cutthroat[contractual service with the ODFW], (4) Hood River water temperature studies, (5) Oak Springs Hatchery (OSH) and Round Butte Hatchery (RBH) coded-wire tagging and clipping evaluation, (6) preparation of the Hood River Watershed Assessment (Coccoli et al., December 1999) and the Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan (Coccoli et al., February 2000), (7) project implementation of early action habitat protection and restoration projects, (8) Pelton Ladder evaluation studies, (9) management oversight and guidance to BPA and ODFW engineering on HRPP facilities, and (10) preparation of an annual report summarizing project objectives for FY 1999 and FY 2000

  15. Special report: Mt. St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mt. St Helens Volcano, Cascade Range, Southern Washington, USA (46.20°N, 122.18°W.) All times are local (GMT - 7 h through October 24, GMT - 8 h thereafter. Lava extrusion that probably began October 30 added a new lobe to the composite dome in the crater of Mt. St. Helens. After lava extrusion ended September 10 (see September 22 Eos), rates of deformation in the crater remained low for several weeks, as they had after earlier extrusion episodes. Sulfur dioxide emission ranged from 70 to 190 tons per day between October 9 and 24, but showed no particular trends. Inflation of the dome has caused small thrust faults to form in the surrounding crater floor. In early October the most active thrust, south of the dome, was moving at about 1.5 cm/d, and stations on the north crater rampart showed outward movement of about 0.5 cm/d. By October 24 these rates had increased to 14.5 and 3.5-4 cm/d, respectively, and leveling profiles perpendicular to the dome showed that crater floor tilt rates had reached 400-500 μrad/d, prompting the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to issue an advisory prediction of renewed lava extrusion within the next two weeks.

  16. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, 2008 Annual Report : October 2007 - September 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagan, Robert E.; Olsen, Erik A. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-09-28

    This report summarizes the life history and production data collected in the Hood River subbasin during FY 2008. Included is a summary of jack and adult life history data collected at the Powerdale Dam trap on seventeen complete run years of winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon, and on fifteen complete run years of summer steelhead. Also included are summaries of (1) the hatchery winter steelhead broodstock collection program; (2) hatchery production releases in the Hood River subbasin; (3) subbasin wild summer and winter steelhead smolt production, (4) numbers of hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts leaving the subbasin; (5) smolt migration timing past Bonneville Dam, (6) wild and hatchery steelhead smolt-to-adult survival rates; (7) wild summer and winter steelhead egg to smolt survival rates; and (8) streamflow at selected locations in the Hood River subbasin. Data will be used in part to (1) evaluate the HRPP relative to its impact on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids (see Ardren Draft), (2) evaluate the HRPP's progress towards achieving the biological fish objectives defined in the Hood River Subbasin Plan (Coccoli 2004) and the Revised Master Plan for the Hood River Production Program (HDR|FishPro, ODFW, and CTWSRO 2008), (3) refine spawner escapement objectives to more accurately reflect subbasin carrying capacity, and (4) refine estimates of subbasin smolt production capacity to more accurately reflect current and potential subbasin carrying capacity.

  17. Determination of the internal exposure hazard from plutonium work in an open front hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Cheryl Lynn

    Work with hazardous substances, such as radioactive material, can be done safely when engineered controls are used to maintain the worker effective dose below the International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRP 60 recommendation of 0.02 Sv/year and reduce the worker exposure to material to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). A primary engineered control used at a Los Alamos National Laboratory facility is the open-front hood. An open-front hood, also known as an open-front box, is a laboratory containment box that is fully enclosed except for a 15-cm opening along the front of the box. This research involved collection of the aerosol escaping an open-front hood while PuO2 sample digestion was simulated. Sodium chloride was used as a surrogate to mimic the behavior of PuO2. The NaCl aerosol was binned as a function of median aerodynamic diameter using a Micro-orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI, MSP Corporation, Shoreview, MN) cascade impactor. Using neutron activation analysis (NAA) to measure the mass of material in each of the nine bins of the MOUDI, the mass median diameter of the escaping aerosol was determined. Using the mass median diameter and the total mass of the particle distribution, dose was calculated using ICRP 60 methodology. Experimental conditions mimicked a stationary worker and a worker moving her hands in and out of the open front hood. Measurements were also done in the hood for comparison. The effect of the hands moving in and out of the box was modeled. Information necessary for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling is given, such as volumetric flow rates out of the open front hood and into the experimental room, detailed sketches of the experimental set-up, and energy provided by the hot plate and worker. This research is unique as it measures particle size distribution from routine working conditions. Current research uses tracer gases or describes non-routine conditions. It is important to have results that mimic

  18. Reaching for 100% participation in a utility conservation programme: the Hood River project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, Eric

    1989-04-01

    The Hood River Conservation Project (HRCP) was a major residential retrofit demonstration project. The project was intended to install as many cost-effective retrofit measures in all electrically heated homes in Hood River, OR, USA. To achieve 100% participation, HRCP offered a package of 'super' retrofit measures and paid for installation of these measures. Almost all (91%) of the eligible households participated, in stark contrast to the much lower participation levels achieved in other residential conservation programmes. Also, unlike other programmes, HRCP attracted larger fractions of traditionally hard-to-reach groups: low-income households; occupants of multifamily units; and renters. The key factors leading to this phenomenal success include: the offer of free retrofits; determination on the part of staff to enlist every eligible household; the use of community-based marketing approaches; and reliance on extensive word-of-mouth among Hood River residents. (author).

  19. 42 CFR 84.1135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods... Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces...

  20. 42 CFR 84.135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall...

  1. 42 CFR 84.175 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods....175 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with...

  2. Orthogonal design on range hood with air curtain and its effects on kitchen environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xing; Xi, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Conventional range hoods cannot effectively prevent the oil fumes containing cooking-induced harmful material from escaping into the kitchen Air curtains and guide plates have been used in range hoods to reduce the escape of airborne emissions and heat, thereby improving the kitchen environment and the cook's degree of comfort. In this article, numerical simulations are used to study the effects of the jet velocity of an air curtain, the jet angle of the air curtain, the width of the jet slot, the area of the guide plate, and the exhaust rate of the range hood on the perceived temperature, the perceived concentration of oil fumes, the release temperature of oil fumes, and the concentration of escaped oil fumes in a kitchen. The orthogonal experiment results show that the exhaust rate of the range hood is the main factor influencing the fumes concentration and the temperature distribution in the kitchen. For the range hood examined in the present study, the optimum values of the exhaust rate, the jet velocity of the air curtain, the jet angle of the air curtain, the width of the jet slot, and the area of the guide plate are 10.5 m(3)/min, 1.5 m/s, -5°, 4 mm, and 0.22 m(2), respectively, based on the results of the parametric study. In addition, the velocity field, temperature field, and oil fumes concentration field in the kitchen using the proposed range hood with the air curtain and guide plate are analyzed for those parameters. The study's results provide significant information needed for improving the kitchen environment.

  3. Entrance and Survival of Brucella pinnipedialis Hooded Seal Strain in Human Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K.; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72 – 96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  4. Transfer hood for handling fuel assemblies in nuclear reactors and especially fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, M.; Merland, D.; Renaux, C.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a hood for transferring fuel assemblies between two or more separate guide ramps inclined to the vertical at the same angle of slope and extending respectively through a first passage into the reactor vessel and through a second passage into a fuel-assembly storage chamber. The hood comprises at least one shielded duct joined to a flanged rotating portion which is so arranged that the open lower end of the shielded duct is positioned in the line of extension of one guide ramp and then the other as a result of displacement of the rotating portion

  5. The Influence of Inlet Asymmetry on Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Zoe; Hogg, Simon; Ingram, Grant L

    2014-04-01

    It has been widely recognized for some decades that it is essential to accurately represent the strong coupling between the last stage blades (LSB) and the diffuser inlet, in order to correctly capture the flow through the exhaust hoods of steam turbine low pressure cylinders. This applies to any form of simulation of the flow, i.e., numerical or experimental. The exhaust hood flow structure is highly three-dimensional and appropriate coupling will enable the important influence of this asymmetry to be transferred to the rotor. This, however, presents challenges as the calculation size grows rapidly when the full annulus is calculated. The size of the simulation means researchers are constantly searching for methods to reduce the computational effort without compromising solution accuracy. However, this can result in excessive computational demands in numerical simulations. Unsteady full-annulus CFD calculation will remain infeasible for routine design calculations for the foreseeable future. More computationally efficient methods for coupling the unsteady rotor flow to the hood flow are required that bring computational expense within realizable limits while still maintaining sufficient accuracy for meaningful design calculations. Research activity in this area is focused on developing new methods and techniques to improve accuracy and reduce computational expense. A novel approach for coupling the turbine last stage to the exhaust hood employing the nonlinear harmonic (NLH) method is presented in this paper. The generic, IP free, exhaust hood and last stage blade geometries from Burton et al. (2012. "A Generic Low Pressure Exhaust Diffuser for Steam Turbine Research,"Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, Copenhagen, Denmark, Paper No. GT2012-68485) that are representative of modern designs, are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. This is achieved by comparing results obtained with the NLH to those obtained with a more conventional mixing

  6. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Jain, Arpit; Ved, Jignesh; Unnikrishnan, A G

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM) and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a "good person," who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production.

  7. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a "good person," who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production.

  8. The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Emiko; Yana, Ikuo; Fujita, Chisato; Irifune, Aiko; Takeda, Maki; Madachi, Ayako; Mori, Seiji; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2010-01-01

    The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression remains to be elucidated in spite of many reports on MT1-MMP. Using a human fibrosarcoma cell, HT1080 and a human gastric cancer cell, TMK-1, endogenous expression of MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP was suppressed by siRNA induction to examine the influence of cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. In HT1080 cells, positive both in MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, the migration as well as the invasion was impaired by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression. Also cell proliferation in three dimensional (3D) condition was inhibited by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression and tumor growth in the nude mice transplanted with tumor cells were reduced either MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression with a prolongation of survival time in vivo. MT2-MMP suppression induces more inhibitory effects on 3D proliferation and in vivo tumor growth than MT1-MMP. On the other hand, TMK-1 cells, negative in MT1-MMP and MMP-2 but positive in MT2-MMP, all the migratory, invasive, and 3D proliferative activities in TMK-1 are decreased only by MT2-MMP suppression. These results indicate MT2-MMP might be involved in the cancer progression more than or equal to MT1-MMP independently of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP.

  9. Some Important Observations on the Populations of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus in Urban Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Gbogbo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite major declines in the population of vultures around the world, noticeable increases were reported in the populations of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus over the past decade in Accra—an important vulture habitat in Ghana. In recent times, however, there is a growing concern that the vulture numbers are decreasing even though scientific data to support this is nonexisting. As a vital zoogeographical and conservation tool, it is important to keep an up-to-date knowledge about urban bird populations amidst rapid urbanization and associated changes. Using a combination of field data, literature review, and stakeholder consultations, it was indicative that severe decline might have indeed occurred in the populations of Hooded Vultures in Accra. Evidence suggests the killing of vultures for consumption, traditional medicine, and black magic in an undercover trade with possible transboundary connections as important underlying factor. Additional factors suspected to underlie the declines include changes in management of urban facilities and destruction of roosting and nesting trees. The implications of interspecific competition with Pied Crows Corvus albus on Hooded Vultures however remain unclear. There is an urgent need for conservation campaign and education to save the Hooded Vulture in Ghana.

  10. Measurements and predictions of hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix) call propagation over open field habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Attenborough, Keith

    2008-01-01

    In a study of hooded crow communication over open fields an excellent correspondence is found between the attenuation spectra predicted by a "turbulence-modified ground effect plus atmospheric absorption" model, and crow call attenuation data. Sound propagation predictions and background noise...

  11. Energy Impacts of Effective Range Hood Use for all U.S. Residential Cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M; Singer, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Range hood use during residential cooking is essential to maintaining good indoor air quality. However, widespread use will impact the energy demand of the U.S. housing stock. This paper describes a modeling study to determine site energy, source energy, and consumer costs for comprehensive range hood use. To estimate the energy impacts for all 113 million homes in the U.S., we extrapolated from the simulation of a representative weighted sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey database. A physics-based simulation model that considered fan energy, energy to condition additional incoming air, and the effect on home heating and cooling due to exhausting the heat from cooking was applied to each home. Hoods performing at a level common to hoods currently in U.S. homes would require 19?33 TWh [69?120 PJ] of site energy, 31?53 TWh [110-190 PJ] of source energy; and would cost consumers $1.2?2.1 billion (U.S.$2010) annually in the U.S. housing stock. The average household would spend less than $15 annually. Reducing required airflow, e.g. with designs that promote better pollutant capture has more energy saving potential, on average, than improving fan efficiency.

  12. Experimental study on centerline velocities of a rectangular capture hood under realistic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinjian; Lewis, Braxton V; Guffey, Steven E

    2018-02-01

    Capture hoods are an important component of a local ventilation system designed to reduce exposures to airborne contaminants. The velocity at any point along the centerline of the hood (V x ) is currently estimated using one of many predictive equations developed since the 1930s. It is unproven that those predictive equations for V x are accurate, despite the prodigious number of studies concerning them. Among other issues, almost all experimental verifications were conducted for conditions that were either unrealistically ideal without competing air currents (e.g., zero cross draft) or were not described. This study measured values of V x along the midline using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) at distances of 1-14 inches in front of a rectangular capture hood. The experiments were conducted in a large wind tunnel (9' × 12' × 40', H × W × L) using a heated, breathing, anthropomorphically sized manikin. Three 0 degree draft velocities (V draft = 4, 14, and 50 ft/min) were tested, all directed toward the hood face and the back of the manikin (if present). For each value of V draft , the velocity fields were measured in a factorial design with and without the manikin, and with and without a worktable underneath the hood. An ideal condition was represented by a freestanding hood at the 4 fpm draft. Nonideal conditions included the presence of a worktable or manikin, and the combination of table and manikin. Each condition was tested at the three levels of V draft . The experimental results found significant effects (p < 0.001) for V draft , the presence of the manikin, the presence of the worktable, and all combinations of those factors. The effects of the independent variables were most pronounced at distances greater than 10 in (25.4 cm) from the hood face. It is concluded that none of the previously published models accurately predicted V x under the realistic conditions tested in this study. A satisfactory model will have to include terms for V draft and the

  13. Reduced-scale experimental investigation on ventilation performance of a local exhaust hood in an industrial plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yanqiu; Wang, Yi; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    stratification in the working areas of industrial plants. Investigated factors were confined airflow boundaries, flow rates of the exhaust hoods, source strengths, airflow obstacles and distances between sources and exhaust hoods. Reduced-scale experiments were conducted with a geometric scale of 1...... efficiency. Hood performance was also evaluated by thermal stratification heights in the plants. This study could help improve the capture efficiency of local ventilation systems used in industrial plants. Safe operation heights are recommended in the upper space of industrial plants based on the thermal...

  14. Patent documentation - comparison of two MT strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on two matters: A comparison of how two different MT strategies manage translating the text type of patent documentation and a survey of what is needed to transform a MT research prototype system to a translation application for patent texts. The two MT strategies is represented....... The distinctive text type of patents pose special demands for machine translation and these aspects are discussed based on linguistic observations with focus on the users point of view. Two main demands are automatic pre processing of the documents and implementation of a module which in a flexible and user......-friendly manner offers the opportunity to extend the lexical coverage of the system. These demands and the comparison of the two MT strategies are discussed on the basis of proofread patents....

  15. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik

    2009-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded the development of two master plans which outline the rationale, and general approach, for implementing a defined group of projects that are an integral part of a comprehensive watershed goal to 'Protect, enhance and restore wild and natural populations of anadromous and resident fish within the Hood River Subbasin'. The Hood River Production Master Plan and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1992. Action items identified in the two master plans, as well as in a later document entitled 'Hood River/Pelton Ladder Master Agreement' (ODFW and CTWSRO Undated), are designed to achieve two biological fish objectives: (1) to increase production of wild summer and winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to levels commensurate with the subbasins current carrying capacity and (2) re-establishing a self-sustaining population of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Numerical fish objectives for subbasin escapement, spawner escapement, and subbasin harvest are defined for each of these species in Coccoli (2000). Several projects are presently funded by the BPA to achieve the Hood River subbasin's numerical fish objectives for summer and winter steelhead and spring chinook salmon. They include BPA project numbers 1998-021-00 (Hood River Fish Habitat), 1998-053-03 (Hood River Production Program - CTWSRO: M&E), 1998-053-07 (Parkdale Fish Facility), 1998-053-08 (Powerdale/Oak Springs O&M), and 1998-053-12 (Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study). Collectively, they are implemented under the umbrella of what has come to be defined as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP is jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO). Strategies for achieving the HRPP's biological fish objectives for the Hood

  16. Análise de convergência espacial dos repasses da Lei Robin Hood Spatial convergence analysis of tax transfers from the Robin Hood Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Gonçalves Maranduba Júnior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alega-se que a Lei Robin Hood tem permitido uma melhor distribuição dos valores do ICMS devidos aos municípios do estado de Minas Gerais. O objetivo deste artigo é investigar se essa lei, entre os anos de 2001 e 2005, realmente foi eficaz, isto é, se, em termos relativos, municípios pobres receberam mais dessas transferências do que os municípios ricos. Para fazer isso metodologicamente, implementa-se uma análise exploratória de dados espaciais e uma análise de convergência, para verificar se as disparidades nos repasses diminuíram com o passar do tempo. Os resultados mostraram que os efeitos espaciais importaram nas análises e que não houve um efeito redistributivo dos repasses, considerando-se que o coeficiente indicador de convergência não foi significativo.One alleges that the Robin Hood Act has allowed one better distribution of the values of ICMS to municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais. The paper is aimed at verifying if the Robin Hood Act has actually revealed a redistributive effect in tax transfers to municipalities in the state over the period 2001-2005, that is, if, in relative terms, poor municipalities have received more these transfers than rich ones. In doing methodologically so, an exploratory spatial data analysis and a convergence analysis are implemented to verify if the disparities of tax redistribution have diminished over the time. The findings showed that the spatial effects were important in the analysis as well as there was no redistributive effect in the period because the convergence coefficient was not significant.

  17. Agriculture and Rural Development on Fort Hood Lands, 1849-1942: National Register Assessments of 710 Historic Archeological Properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Martha

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, historians consulting with Prewitt & Associates, Inc., conducted archival research for the purpose of developing historic contexts relevant to the Fort Hood lands taken during the 1940s acquisition...

  18. REDESIGN OF OUTER HOOD PANEL OF ESEMKA R2 CAR TO IMPROVE PEDESTRIAN PROTECTION USING FINITE ELEMENT MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyamin Binyamin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are terrible scourge that occur in many countries, specially for developing countries where transportation affairs like tangled yarn. Besides functioning as an engine compartment cover, the hood of modern compact SUV can also help to manage the impact energy of a pedestrian’s head in a vehicle-pedestrian impact. This paper presents outer hood design of Esemka R2 that has a potential to improve hood’s ability and also to absorb the impact energy of a pedestrian’s head. The developed method for the design of an outer hood configuration aims to provide a robust design and homogeneous of Head Injury Criterion (HIC for impact position at WAD 1000 and three different thicknesses (1.25 mm, 1.35 mm & 1.50 mm of outer hood panel of Esemka R2 compact SUV, taking into consideration the limited space available for deformation. The non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA software (Explicit Dynamics was used in this research to simulate the testing procedurs of head impact for child pedestrian. The results show that the average of comparison dimensional of outer hood panel of Esemka R2 was 4.89 mm. The minimum of deformation space meet the requirement for HIC value which required obtaining robust and homogeneous head impact performance. Outer hood thickness and materials were identified as the factors to influence the stress and HIC value of the hood. By comparing all outer hood panels, aluminium alloy as the best selected material which has the lowest value is 32.78% for the pedestrian protection.

  19. A floating bridge disrupts seaward migration and increases mortality of steelhead smolts in Hood Canal, Washington state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Moore

    Full Text Available Habitat modifications resulting from human transportation and power-generation infrastructure (e.g., roads, dams, bridges can impede movement and alter natural migration patterns of aquatic animal populations, which may negatively affect survival and population viability. Full or partial barriers are especially problematic for migratory species whose life histories hinge on habitat connectivity.The Hood Canal Bridge, a floating structure spanning the northern outlet of Hood Canal in Puget Sound, Washington, extends 3.6 meters underwater and forms a partial barrier for steelhead migrating from Hood Canal to the Pacific Ocean. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor migration behavior and mortality of steelhead smolts passing four receiver arrays and several single receivers within the Hood Canal, Puget Sound, and Strait of Juan de Fuca. Twenty-seven mortality events were detected within the vicinity of the Hood Canal Bridge, while only one mortality was recorded on the other 325 receivers deployed throughout the study area. Migrating steelhead smolts were detected at the Hood Canal Bridge array with greater frequency, on more receivers, and for longer durations than smolts migrating past three comparably configured arrays. Longer migration times and paths are likely to result in a higher density of smolts near the bridge in relation to other sites along the migration route, possibly inducing an aggregative predator response to steelhead smolts.This study provides strong evidence of substantial migration interference and increased mortality risk associated with the Hood Canal Bridge, and may partially explain low early marine survival rates observed in Hood Canal steelhead populations. Understanding where habitat modifications indirectly increase predation pressures on threatened populations helps inform potential approaches to mitigation.

  20. A floating bridge disrupts seaward migration and increases mortality of steelhead smolts in Hood Canal, Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Megan; Berejikian, Barry A; Tezak, Eugene P

    2013-01-01

    Habitat modifications resulting from human transportation and power-generation infrastructure (e.g., roads, dams, bridges) can impede movement and alter natural migration patterns of aquatic animal populations, which may negatively affect survival and population viability. Full or partial barriers are especially problematic for migratory species whose life histories hinge on habitat connectivity. The Hood Canal Bridge, a floating structure spanning the northern outlet of Hood Canal in Puget Sound, Washington, extends 3.6 meters underwater and forms a partial barrier for steelhead migrating from Hood Canal to the Pacific Ocean. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor migration behavior and mortality of steelhead smolts passing four receiver arrays and several single receivers within the Hood Canal, Puget Sound, and Strait of Juan de Fuca. Twenty-seven mortality events were detected within the vicinity of the Hood Canal Bridge, while only one mortality was recorded on the other 325 receivers deployed throughout the study area. Migrating steelhead smolts were detected at the Hood Canal Bridge array with greater frequency, on more receivers, and for longer durations than smolts migrating past three comparably configured arrays. Longer migration times and paths are likely to result in a higher density of smolts near the bridge in relation to other sites along the migration route, possibly inducing an aggregative predator response to steelhead smolts. This study provides strong evidence of substantial migration interference and increased mortality risk associated with the Hood Canal Bridge, and may partially explain low early marine survival rates observed in Hood Canal steelhead populations. Understanding where habitat modifications indirectly increase predation pressures on threatened populations helps inform potential approaches to mitigation.

  1. 44 CFR 15.3 - Access to Mt. Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to Mt. Weather. 15.3... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.3 Access to Mt. Weather. Mt. Weather contains classified material and areas...

  2. Hood River Monitoring and Evaluation Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaivoda, Alexis

    2004-02-01

    The Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project is co-managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. The program is divided up to share responsibilities, provide efficiency, and avoid duplication. From October 2002 to September 2003 (FY 03) project strategies were implemented to monitor, protect, and restore anadromous fish and fish habitat in the Hood River subbasin. A description of the progress during FY 03 is reported here. Additionally an independent review of the entire program was completed in 2003. The purpose of the review was to determine if project goals and actions were achieved, look at critical uncertainties for present and future actions, determine cost effectiveness, and choose remedies that would increase program success. There were some immediate changes to the implementation of the project, but the bulk of the recommendations will be realized in coming years.

  3. A support approach for the conceptual design of energy-efficient cooker hoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicconi, Paolo; Landi, Daniele; Germani, Michele; Russo, Anna Costanza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An eco-innovation approach to support the design of household appliances. •The research is focused on the energy labelling for kitchen hoods. •A software platform provides tools to configure and optimize new solutions. •A tool can calculate the energy efficiency indexes of a product configuration. -- Abstract: In Europe, kitchen hoods currently come with an energy label showing their energy efficiency class and other information regarding the energy consumption and noise level, as established by the European Energy Labelling Directive. Because of recent regulations, designs of cooker hoods must consider new issues, such as the evaluation of the energy efficiency, analysis of the energy consumption, and product lifecycle impact. Therefore, the development of eco-driven products requires Ecodesign tools to support eco-innovation and related sustainability improvements. The scope of the proposed research is to define a method and an agile and affordable platform tool that can support designers in the early estimation of product energy performance, including the calculation of energy efficiency indexes. The approach also considers the use of genetic algorithm methods to optimize the product configuration in terms of energy efficiency. The research context concerns large and small productions of kitchen hoods. The paper describes the methodological approach within the developed tool. The results show a good correlation between real efficiency values and calculated ones. A validation activity has been described, and a test case shows how to apply the proposed approach for the design of a new efficient product with an A-class Energy Efficiency Index.

  4. Biological Assessment of the Effects of Military Associated Activities on Endangered Species at Fort Hood, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    monographing the genus Croton. Dr. Joe Allen Farmer published a dissertation on the species in 1962. Studies on the Fort Hood population have begun under...Woodhouse, S.W., "Descriptions of New Species of the Genus Vireo, VieilL, and Zonorrichia, Swains," Proceeding of the Academy of Natural Sciences of...sinuata Skunkbush Saumac Rhus aroma tica Texas Oak Quercus texazza Texas Persimmon, Diospyros texana Texas Ashe Fraxinus texensis Virginia Creeper Paz

  5. Potential inhalation exposure and containment efficiency when using hoods for handling nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Candace Su-Jung, E-mail: tsai51@purdue.edu [Purdue University, School of Health Science (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Inhalation exposure to airborne nanoparticles (NPs) has been reported during manual activities using typical fume hoods. This research studied potential inhalation exposure associated with the manual handling of NPs using two new nanoparticle-handling enclosures and two biological safety cabinets, and discussed the ability to contain NPs in the hoods to reduce environmental release and exposure. Airborne concentrations of 5 nm to 20 {mu}m diameter particles were measured while handling nanoalumina particles in various ventilated enclosures. Tests were conducted using two handling conditions and concentrations were measured using real-time particle counters, and particles were collected on transmission electron microscope grids to determine particle morphology and elemental composition. Airflow patterns were characterized visually using a laser-light sheet and fog. The average number concentration increase at breathing zone outside the enclosure was less than 1,400 particle/cm{sup 3} for each particle size at all tested conditions and the estimated overall mass concentration was about 83 {mu}g/m{sup 3} which was less than the dosage of typical nanoparticle inhalation exposure studies. The typical front-to-back airflow was used in the studied hoods, which could potentially induce reverse turbulence in the wake region. However, containment of NPs using studied hoods was demonstrated with excellent performance. Smoke tests showed that worker's hand motion could potentially cause nanoparticle escape. The challenge of front-to-back airflow can be partially overcome by gentle motion, low face velocity, and front exhaust to reduce nanoparticle escape.

  6. Factors influencing success of metal to plastic conversion programs for under-hood applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Male, L.J. [Amoco Chemicals Polymers Business Group, Alpharetta, GA (United States); Desai, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper compares high performance engineering polymers available today for under-hood applications. It includes an example of an end cap showing value-added capabilities such as design for machining and assembly (DFMA), team approach and computer aided engineering being used for a most cost-effective custom molding solution. These techniques should be part of standard design procedure for conversion programs to cope with the challenges of today and tomorrow. (orig./HW)

  7. Capture Efficiency of Cooking-Related Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Residential Exhaust Hoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunden, Melissa M.; Delp, William W.

    2014-06-05

    Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80percent. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38percent for low (51?68 L s-1) and 54?72percent for high (109?138 L s-1) settings. CEs for 0.3?2.0 ?m particles during front burner stir-frying were 3?11percent on low and 16?70percent on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80percent both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles.

  8. Dynamics of participation and supply of services in the Hood River Conservation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; Goeltz, R.

    1986-07-01

    The Hood River Conservation Project (HRCP) is a major residential retrofit demonstration project. HRCP is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and run by Pacific Power and Light Company. The project was conducted in the community of Hood River, Oregon, will cost $21 million, and will last for three years (mid-1983 through 1986). Installation of applicable retrofit measures was completed by the end of 1985; data collection, analysis, and report writing will continue through 1986. This report documents the extent to which households participated in HRCP. Differences between participants and eligible nonparticipants are examined. Similarly, differences among participants as a function of when they signed up for HRCP are analyzed. The report also examines the dynamics of program services (i.e., times between audit requests and audit, and between audit and installation of measures). These analyses are based on data from the roughly 3500 Hood River homes eligible for HRCP, 3189 of which received free home energy audits and 2988 of which received HRCP-financed retrofit measures.

  9. Freshwater and Saline Loads of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen to Hood Canal and Lynch Cove, Western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Frans, Lonna M.; Noble, Marlene; Kendall, Carol; Josberger, Edward G.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2006-01-01

    Hood Canal is a long (110 kilometers), deep (175 meters) and narrow (2 to 4 kilometers wide) fjord of Puget Sound in western Washington. The stratification of a less dense, fresh upper layer of the water column causes the cold, saltier lower layer of the water column to be isolated from the atmosphere in the late summer and autumn, which limits reaeration of the lower layer. In the upper layer of Hood Canal, the production of organic matter that settles and consumes dissolved oxygen in the lower layer appears to be limited by the load of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN): nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia. Freshwater and saline loads of DIN to Hood Canal were estimated from available historical data. The freshwater load of DIN to the upper layer of Hood Canal, which could be taken up by phytoplankton, came mostly from surface and ground water from subbasins, which accounts for 92 percent of total load of DIN to the upper layer of Hood Canal. Although DIN in rain falling on land surfaces amounts to about one-half of the DIN entering Hood Canal from subbasins, rain falling directly on the surface of marine waters contributed only 4 percent of the load to the upper layer. Point-source discharges and subsurface flow from shallow shoreline septic systems contributed less than 4 percent of the DIN load to the upper layer. DIN in saline water flowing over the sill into Hood Canal from Admiralty Inlet was at least 17 times the total load to the upper layer of Hood Canal. In September and October 2004, field data were collected to estimate DIN loads to Lynch Cove - the most inland marine waters of Hood Canal that routinely contain low dissolved-oxygen waters. Based on measured streamflow and DIN concentrations, surface discharge was estimated to have contributed about one-fourth of DIN loads to the upper layer of Lynch Cove. Ground-water flow from subbasins was estimated to have contributed about one-half of total DIN loads to the upper layer. In autumn 2004, the relative

  10. Capture efficiency of cooking-related fine and ultrafine particles by residential exhaust hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunden, M M; Delp, W W; Singer, B C

    2015-02-01

    Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking-generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80%. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38% for low (51-68 l/s) and 54-72% for high (109-138 l/s) settings. CEs for 0.3-2.0 μm particles during front burner stir-frying were 3-11% on low and 16-70% on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80% both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood: public health practice, past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, F

    2000-05-01

    Since the mid-19th century, when the first formal health departments were established in the United States, commissioners, directors, and secretaries of public health have functioned as senior members of the staffs of public executives, mayors, governors, and presidents. They have provided important political, managerial, and scientific leadership to agencies of government that have played increasingly important roles in national life, from the sanitary revolution of the 19th century to the prevention of HIV/AIDS and the control of tobacco use today. Although public health officials come from a variety of backgrounds and oversee agencies of varied size and composition, there are philosophical themes that describe and define the commonality of their work. These themes are captured metaphorically by 3 celebrated figures: Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood. By turns, the public health official functions as a determined idealist (Don Quixote), a cunning political strategist (Machiavelli), and an agent who redistributes resources from the wealthier sectors of society to the less well off (Robin Hood.) All 3 personae are important, but, it is argued, Robin Hood is the most endangered.

  12. MT-CYB mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Christian M; Aidt, Frederik H; Havndrup, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a characteristic of heart failure. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA, particularly in MT-CYB coding for cytochrome B in complex III (CIII), have been associated with isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We hypothesized that MT-CYB mutations might play an important...... and m.15482T>C; p.S246P were identified. Modeling showed that the p.C93Y mutation leads to disruption of the tertiary structure of Cytb by helix displacement, interfering with protein-heme interaction. The p.S246P mutation induces a diproline structure, which alters local secondary structure and induces...... of HCM patients. We propose that further patients with HCM should be examined for mutations in MT-CYB in order to clarify the role of these variants....

  13. Revised Master Plan for the Hood River Production Program, Technical Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation

    2008-04-28

    The Hood River Production Program (HRPP) is a Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded program initiated as a mitigation measure for Columbia River hydrosystem effects on anadromous fish. The HRPP began in the early 1990s with the release of spring Chinook and winter steelhead smolts into the basin. Prior to implementation, co-managers, including the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife drafted the Hood River Production Master Plan (O'Toole and ODFW 1991a; O'Toole and ODFW 1991b) and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan (Smith and CTWSR 1991). Both documents were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Council in 1992 and authorized through a BPA-led Environmental Impact Statement in 1996. In 2003, a 10-year programmatic review was conducted for BPA-funded programs in the Hood River (Underwood et al. 2003). The primary objective of the HRPP Review (Review) was to determine if program goals were being met, and if modifications to program activities would be necessary in order to meet or revise program goals. In 2003, an agreement was signed between PacifiCorp and resource managers to remove the Powerdale Dam (RM 10) and associated adult trapping facility by 2010. The HRPP program has been dependant on the adult trap to collect broodstock for the hatchery programs; therefore, upon the dam's removal, some sort of replacement for the trap would be needed to continue the HRPP. At the same time the Hood River Subbasin Plan (Coccoli 2004) was being written and prompted the co-managers to considered future direction of the program. This included revising the numerical adult fish objectives based on the assimilated data and output from several models run on the Hood River system. In response to the Review as well as the Subbasin Plan, and intensive monitoring and evaluation of the current program, the HRPP co-managers determined the spring Chinook program was not achieving the HRPP

  14. Earthworm Lumbricus rubellus MT-2: Metal Binding and Protein Folding of a True Cadmium-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. Kowald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms express, as most animals, metallothioneins (MTs—small, cysteine-rich proteins that bind d10 metal ions (Zn(II, Cd(II, or Cu(I in clusters. Three MT homologues are known for Lumbricus rubellus, the common red earthworm, one of which, wMT-2, is strongly induced by exposure of worms to cadmium. This study concerns composition, metal binding affinity and metal-dependent protein folding of wMT-2 expressed recombinantly and purified in the presence of Cd(II and Zn(II. Crucially, whilst a single Cd7wMT-2 species was isolated from wMT-2-expressing E. coli cultures supplemented with Cd(II, expressions in the presence of Zn(II yielded mixtures. The average affinities of wMT-2 determined for either Cd(II or Zn(II are both within normal ranges for MTs; hence, differential behaviour cannot be explained on the basis of overall affinity. Therefore, the protein folding properties of Cd- and Zn-wMT-2 were compared by 1H NMR spectroscopy. This comparison revealed that the protein fold is better defined in the presence of cadmium than in the presence of zinc. These differences in folding and dynamics may be at the root of the differential behaviour of the cadmium- and zinc-bound protein in vitro, and may ultimately also help in distinguishing zinc and cadmium in the earthworm in vivo.

  15. Ancient mtDNA genetic variants modulate mtDNA transcription and replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Suissa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the functional consequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genetic backgrounds (haplotypes, haplogroups have been demonstrated by both disease association studies and cell culture experiments, it is not clear which of the mutations within the haplogroup carry functional implications and which are "evolutionary silent hitchhikers". We set forth to study the functionality of haplogroup-defining mutations within the mtDNA transcription/replication regulatory region by in vitro transcription, hypothesizing that haplogroup-defining mutations occurring within regulatory motifs of mtDNA could affect these processes. We thus screened >2500 complete human mtDNAs representing all major populations worldwide for natural variation in experimentally established protein binding sites and regulatory regions comprising a total of 241 bp in each mtDNA. Our screen revealed 77/241 sites showing point mutations that could be divided into non-fixed (57/77, 74% and haplogroup/sub-haplogroup-defining changes (i.e., population fixed changes, 20/77, 26%. The variant defining Caucasian haplogroup J (C295T increased the binding of TFAM (Electro Mobility Shift Assay and the capacity of in vitro L-strand transcription, especially of a shorter transcript that maps immediately upstream of conserved sequence block 1 (CSB1, a region associated with RNA priming of mtDNA replication. Consistent with this finding, cybrids (i.e., cells sharing the same nuclear genetic background but differing in their mtDNA backgrounds harboring haplogroup J mtDNA had a >2 fold increase in mtDNA copy number, as compared to cybrids containing haplogroup H, with no apparent differences in steady state levels of mtDNA-encoded transcripts. Hence, a haplogroup J regulatory region mutation affects mtDNA replication or stability, which may partially account for the phenotypic impact of this haplogroup. Our analysis thus demonstrates, for the first time, the functional impact of particular mt

  16. Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is located on the Hood River, an Oregon tributary of the Columbia. These hatchery programs cost the region millions of dollars. However, whether such programs actually improve the status of wild fish remains untested. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hood River hatchery program as required by the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, by the Oregon Plan for Coastal Salmonids, by NMFS ESA Section 4(d) rulings, and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Wild Fish Management Policy (OAR 635-07-525 through 529) and the ODFW Hatchery Fish Gene Resource Management Policy (OAR 635-07-540 through 541). The Hood River supports two populations of steelhead, a summer run and a winter run. They spawn only above the Powerdale Dam, which is a complete barrier to all salmonids. Since 1991 every adult passed above the dam has been measured, cataloged and sampled for scales. Therefore, we have a DNA sample from every adult steelhead that went over the dam to potentially spawn in the Hood River from 1991 to the present. Similar numbers of hatchery and wild fish have been passed above the dam during the last decade. During the 1990's 'old' domesticated hatchery stocks of each run (multiple generations in the hatchery, out-of-basin origin; hereafter H{sub old}) were phased out, and conservation hatchery programs were started for the purpose of supplementing the two wild populations (hereafter 'new' hatchery stocks, H{sub new}). These samples gave us the unprecedented ability to estimate, via

  17. Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) strain in the mouse model with concurrent exposure to PCB 153.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; das Neves, Carlos G; Tryland, Morten; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Santos, Renato Lima; Turchetti, Andreia Pereira; Janczak, Andrew M; Djønne, Berit; Lie, Elisabeth; Berg, Vidar; Godfroid, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis, is linked to reproductive problems in primary hosts. A high proportion of Brucella-positive hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) have been detected in the declined Northeast Atlantic stock. High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also been discovered in top predators in the Arctic, including the hooded seal, PCB 153 being most abundant. The aim of this study was to assess the pathogenicity of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in the mouse model and to evaluate the outcome of Brucella spp. infection after exposure of mice to PCB 153. BALB/c mice were infected with B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain or Brucella suis 1330, and half from each group was exposed to PCB 153 through the diet. B. pinnipedialis showed a reduced pathogenicity in the mouse model as compared to B. suis 1330. Exposure to PCB 153 affected neither the immunological parameters, nor the outcome of the infection. Altogether this indicates that it is unlikely that B. pinnipedialis contribute to the decline of hooded seals in the Northeast Atlantic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Mt Logan Holocene-late Wisconsinan isotope record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Fisher, David; Osterberg, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August......Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August...

  19. Contrasting expression of membrane metalloproteinases, MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP, suggests distinct functions in skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maozhou; Zhang, Bingbing; Zhang, Liang; Gibson, Gary

    2008-07-01

    Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is the most ubiquitous and widely studied of the membrane-type metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs). It was thus surprising to find no published data on chicken MT1-MMP. We report here the characterization of the chicken gene. Its low sequence identity with the MT1-MMP genes of other species, high GC content, and divergent catalytic domain explains the absence of data and our difficulties in characterizing the gene. The absence of structural features in the chicken gene that have been suggested to be critical for the activation of MMP-2 by MT1-MMP; for the effect of MT1-MMP on cell migration and for the recycling of MT1-MMP suggest these features are either not essential or that MT1-MMP does not perform these functions in chickens. Comparison of the expression of chicken MT1-MMP with MT3-MMP and with MMP-2 and MMP-13 has confirmed the previously recognized co-expression of MT1-MMP with MMP-2 and MMP-13 in fibrous and vascular tissues, particularly those surrounding the developing long bones in other species. By contrast, MT3-MMP expression differs markedly from that of MT1-MMP and of both MMP-2 and MMP-13. MT3-MMP is expressed by chondrocytes of the developing articular surface. Similar expression patterns of this group of MT-MMPs and MMPs have been observed in mouse embryos and suggest distinct and specific functions for MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP in skeletal development.

  20. Mathematical modeling of thermal stresses in basic oxygen furnace hood tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasekera, I. V.

    1985-06-01

    The stress-strain history of Basic Oxygen Furnace hood tubes during thermal cycling has been computed using heat flow and stress analyses. The steady-state temperature distribution in a transverse section of the tube was computed at a location where gas temperature in the hood could be expected to be a maximum. Calculations were performed for peak gas temperatures in the range 1950 to 2480 °C (3500 to 4500 °F). The stress-strain history of an element of material located at the center of the tube hot face was traced for three consecutive cycles using elasto-plastic finite-element analysis. It has been shown that the state of stress in the element alternates between compression and tension as the tube successively heats and cools. Yielding and plastic flow occurs at the end of each half of a given cycle. It was postulated that owing to repctitive yielding, plastic strain energy accumulates causing failure of the tubes by fatigue in the low cycle region. Using fatigue theory a conservative estimate for tube life was arrived at. In-plant observations support this mechanism of failure, and the number of cycles within which tube cracking was observed compares reasonably with model predictions. Utilizing the heat flow and stress models it was recommended that tube life could be enhanced by changing the tube material to ARMCO 17-4 pH or AISI 405 steel or alternatively reconstructing hoods with AISI 316L tubes of reduced thickness. These recommendations were based on the criterion that low-cycle fatigue failure could be averted if the magnitude of the cyclic strain could be reduced or if macroscopic plastic flow could be prevented.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Exposure Resulting From Hood Protective Equipment Used in Joint Arthroplasty Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Suhani; Fine, Janelle M; Lim, Michael J; Copp, Steven N; Rosen, Adam S; West, John B; Prisk, G Kim

    2017-08-01

    To protect both the surgeon and patient during procedures, hooded protection shields are used during joint arthroplasty procedures. Headache, malaise, and dizziness, consistent with increased carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) exposure, have been anecdotally reported by surgeons using hoods. We hypothesized that increased CO 2 concentrations were causing reported symptoms. Six healthy subjects (4 men) donned hooded protection, fan at the highest setting. Arm cycle ergometry at workloads of 12 and 25 watts (W) simulated workloads encountered during arthroplasty. Inspired O 2 and CO 2 concentrations at the nares were continuously measured at rest, 12 W, and 25 W. At each activity level, the fan was deactivated and the times for CO 2 to reach 0.5% and 1.0% were measured. At rest, inspired CO 2 was 0.14% ± 0.04%. Exercise had significant effect on CO 2 compared with rest (0.26% ± 0.08% at 12 W, P = .04; 0.31% ± 0.05% at 25 W, P = .003). Inspired CO 2 concentration increased rapidly with fan deactivation, with the time for CO 2 to increase to 0.5% and 1.0% after fan deactivation being rapid but variable (0.5%, 12 ± 9 seconds; 1%, 26 ± 15 seconds). Time for CO 2 to return below 0.5% after fan reactivation was 20 ± 37 seconds. During simulated joint arthroplasty, CO 2 remained within Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards with the fan at the highest setting. With fan deactivation, CO 2 concentration rapidly exceeds OSHA standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 76 FR 18040 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... airspace at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT, to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing... the earth. * * * * * ANM MT E5 West Yellowstone, MT [Amended] West Yellowstone, Yellowstone Airport...

  3. Microbiological and serological monitoring in hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix in the Region Lombardia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Grilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The health status of 276 hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix from various provinces of Lombardy was monitored for three years. Bacteriological examination detected E. coli (76%, Campylobacter jejuni (17%, Salmonella typhimurium (11.6%, Yersinia spp. (6.5%, Clamydophila abortus and C. psittaci (2.6%; from six birds showing severe prostration Pasteurella multocida was isolated. Virological and serological tests were negative for Avian Influenza virus (AIV, West Nile virus (WNV and only three samples were positive for Newcastle disease virus (NDV but only at serology (titre 1:16.

  4. Digital data for preliminary geologic map of the Mount Hood 30- by 60-minute quadrangle, northern Cascade Range, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina Ma,; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The Mount Hood 30- by 60-minute quadrangle covers the axis and east flank of the Cascade Range in northern Oregon. Its namesake, Mount Hood volcano, dominates the view in the northwest quarter of the quadrangle, but the entire area is underlain by Oligocene and younger volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Cascade Range. Since the time of the Columbia River Basalt Group about 15 million years (m.y.) ago, the locus and composition of Cascade Range volcanism have shifted sporadically across the map area. Andesitic eruptions were predominant in the western part from about 14 to 10 m.y. ago (Salmon and Sandy Rivers area), producing the Rhododendron Formation and overlying lava flows. From about 8 to 6.5 m.y. ago, lithic pyroclastic debris of the Dalles Formation was shed by chiefly andesitic volcanoes in the north-central part of the map area (Hood River valley escarpment). Andesitic to dacitic volcanism was again predominant about 5 to 3 m.y. ago, with known eruptive centers located from Lookout Mountain westward to Lolo Pass, probably including the area now occupied by Mount Hood. A major episode of mafic volcanism-basalt and basaltic andesite-began about 3-4 m.y. ago and lasted until about 2 m.y. ago. Volcanism since about 2 m.y. ago has been concentrated along the axis of the High Cascades. North and south of Mount Hood these youngest rocks are predominantly basaltic andesite lava flows; whereas at Mount Hood itself, andesite is predominant, forming pyroclastic and debris-flow deposits and lava flows.

  5. Mt. Kilimanjaro expedition in earth science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Elena; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Narita, Kenji; Brettenny, Mark; Yule, Sheila; O'Toole, Michael; Brettenny, Rogeline

    2010-05-01

    Mt. Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain is 5,895 meters above sea level and is located 330 km south of the equator in Tanzania. In 1976 glaciers covered most of Mt. Kilimanjaro's summit; however in 2000, an estimated eighty percent of the ice cap has disappeared since the last thorough survey done in 1912. There is increased scientific interest in Mt. Kilimanjaro with the increase in global and African average temperatures. A team of college and pre-college school students from Tanzania, South Africa and Kenya, teachers from South Africa and the United States, and scientists from the University of Alaska Fairbanks in the United States and Akita University in Japan, climbed to the summit of Mt Kilimanjaro in October 2009. They were accompanied by guides, porters, two expedition guests, and a videographer. This expedition was part of the GLOBE Seasons and Biomes Earth System Science Project and the GLOBE Africa science education initiative, exploring and contributing to climate change studies. Students learned about earth science experientially by observing their physical and biological surroundings, making soil and air temperature measurements, participating in discussions, journaling their experience, and posing research questions. The international trekkers noted the change in the biomes as the altitude, temperature and conditions changed, from cultivated lands, to rain forest, heath zone, moorland, alpine desert, and summit. They also discovered permafrost, but not at the summit as expected. Rather, it was where the mountain was not covered by a glacier and thus more exposed to low extreme temperatures. This was the first report of permafrost on Mt. Kilimanjaro. Classrooms from all over the world participated in the expedition virtually. They followed the trek through the expedition website (http://www.xpeditiononline.com/) where pictures and journals were posted, and posed their own questions which were answered by the expedition and base camp team members

  6. Locating inputs of freshwater to Lynch Cove, Hood Canal, Washington, using aerial infrared photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Josberger, Edward G.; Chickadel, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The input of freshwater and associated nutrients into Lynch Cove and lower Hood Canal (fig. 1) from sources such as groundwater seeps, small streams, and ephemeral creeks may play a major role in the nutrient loading and hydrodynamics of this low dissolved-oxygen (hypoxic) system. These disbursed sources exhibit a high degree of spatial variability. However, few in-situ measurements of groundwater seepage rates and nutrient concentrations are available and thus may not represent adequately the large spatial variability of groundwater discharge in the area. As a result, our understanding of these processes and their effect on hypoxic conditions in Hood Canal is limited. To determine the spatial variability and relative intensity of these sources, the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center collaborated with the University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory to obtain thermal infrared (TIR) images of the nearshore and intertidal regions of Lynch Cove at or near low tide. In the summer, cool freshwater discharges from seeps and streams, flows across the exposed, sun-warmed beach, and out on the warm surface of the marine water. These temperature differences are readily apparent in aerial thermal infrared imagery that we acquired during the summers of 2008 and 2009. When combined with co-incident video camera images, these temperature differences allow identification of the location, the type, and the relative intensity of the sources.

  7. The gut microbiome of hooded cranes (Grus monacha) wintering at Shengjin Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanghong; Zhou, Lizhi; Dong, Yuanqiu; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Song, Yunwei

    2017-06-01

    Gut microbes of animals play critical roles in processes such as digestion and immunity. Therefore, identifying gut microbes will shed light on understanding the annual life of animal species, particularly those that are threatened or endangered. In the present study, we conducted nucleotide sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes of gut microbiome of the hooded cranes (Grus monacha) wintering at Shengjin Lake, China, by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. We acquired 503,398 high-quality sequences and 785 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from 15 fecal samples from different cranes, representing 22 phyla that were dominated by Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. A total of 305 genera were identified that were dominated by Clostridium, Lysinibacillus, and Enterobacter. The core gut microbiome comprised 26 genera, including many probiotic species such as Clostridium, Bacillus, Cellulosilyticum, and Cellulomonas that could catabolize cellulose. The findings reported here contribute to our knowledge of the microbiology of hooded cranes and will likely advance efforts to protect waterbirds that inhabit Shengjin Lake Reserve during winter. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Computer modeling of fluid flow and combustion in the ISV [In Situ Vitrification] confinement hood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.W.; Paik, S.

    1990-09-01

    Safety and suitability objectives for the application of the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) technology at the INEL require that the physical processes involved in ISVV be modeled to determine their operational behavior. The mathematical models that have been determined to address the modeling needs adequately for the ISV analysis package are detailed elsewhere. The present report is concerned with the models required for simulating the reacting flow that occurs in the ISV confinement hood. An experimental code named COYOTE has been secured that appears adequate to model the combustion in the confinement hood. The COYOTE code is a two-dimensional, transient, compressible, Eulerian, gas dynamics code for modeling reactive flows. It recognizes nonuniform Cartesian and cylindrical geometry and is based on the ICE (Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) family of solution methods. It includes models for chemical reactions based on chemical kinetics as well as equilibrium chemistry. The mathematical models contained in COYOTE, their discrete analogs, the solution procedure, code structure and some test problems are presented in the report. 12 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Periodic disruptions in the MT-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoletnik, S.

    1988-11-01

    Disruptive instabilities are common phenomena in toroidal devices, especially in tokamaks. Three types can be distinguished: internal, minor and major disruptions. Periodic minor disruptions in the MT-1 tokamak were measured systematically with values of the limiter safety factor between 4 and 10. The density limit as a function of plasma current and horizontal displacement was investigated. Precursor oscillations always appear before the instability with increasing amplitude but can be observed at the density limit with quasi-stationary amplitude. Phase correlation between precursor oscillations were measured with Mirnov coils and x-ray detectors, and they show good agreement with a simple magnetic island model. (R.P.) 11 refs.; 6 figs

  10. 76 FR 42502 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Children's Upper Outerwear in Sizes 2T to 12 With Neck or Hood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... because children of those ages are most at risk. 4. Adult Apparel and Marketing Concerns (Comment 4)--Two... smaller adult sizes and larger children's sizes. Further, children at the pre-teen and teen stages often... channel, and the commenters raised concerns about the 2009 recall of children's hooded sweatshirts with...

  11. Nocturnal feeding under artificial light conditions by Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis) in Puerto Madryn harbour (Chubut Province, Argentina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, M.F.; Philippart, C.J.M.; Yorio, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes nocturnal, marine feeding behaviour in the Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis) in November 2009. The gulls assembled at night at the end of a long pier, running 800 m offshore into the Golfo Nuevo, at Puerto Madryn, Chubut Province, Argentina. Powerful lights predictably

  12. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF TECHNOLOGY OF MANUFACTURING A ZINC-COATED TUB WIRE FOR MUZZLE (BOTTLE’ HOOD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Zuev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main technical specifications of galvanized low carbon wire for muzzles (bottle’hood wire, consistent with the exploitation requirements to the wire in the manufacture and use of muzzles. The main criteria when selecting the steel grade and upon selection of the technological processes are given. 

  13. 42 CFR 84.198 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.198 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces...

  14. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Kilgo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging...

  15. Study the velocity and pressure exerted in front of the filter surface in the kitchen hood system by using ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmuin, Norzelawati; Pairan, M. Rasidi; Isa, Norasikin Mat; Sies, Farid

    2017-04-01

    Commercial kitchen hood ventilation system is a device used to capture and filtered the plumes from cooking activities in the kitchen area. Nowadays, it is very popular in the industrial sector such as restaurant and hotel to provide hygiene food. This study focused at the KSA filter part which installed in the kitchen hood system, the purpose of this study is to identify the critical region which indicated by observing the velocity and pressure of plumes exerted at of KSA filter. It is important to know the critical location of the KSA filter in order to install the nozzle which will helps increase the filtration effectiveness. The ANSYS 16.1 (FLUENT) software as a tool used to simulate the kitchen hood systems which consist of KSA filter. The commercial kitchen hood system model has a dimension 700 mm width, 1600 mm length and 555 mm height. The system has two inlets and one outlet. The velocity of the plumes is set to be 0.235m/s and the velocity of the inlet capture jet is set to be 1.078m/s. The KSA filter is placed 45 degree from the y axis. The result shows the plumes has more tendency flowing pass through at the bottom part of KSA filter.

  16. New Radioligands for Describing the Molecular Pharmacology of MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Nosjean

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors have been studied for several decades. The low expression of the receptors in tissues led the scientific community to find a substitute for the natural hormone melatonin, the agonist 2-[125I]-iodomelatonin. Using the agonist, several hundreds of studies were conducted, including the discovery of agonists and antagonists for the receptors and minute details about their molecular behavior. Recently, we attempted to expand the panel of radioligands available for studying the melatonin receptors by using the newly discovered compounds SD6, DIV880, and S70254. These compounds were characterized for their affinities to the hMT1 and hMT2 recombinant receptors and their functionality in the classical GTPS system. SD6 is a full agonist, equilibrated between the receptor isoforms, whereas S70254 and DIV880 are only partial MT2 agonists, with Ki in the low nanomolar range while they have no affinity to MT1 receptors. These new tools will hopefully allow for additions to the current body of information on the native localization of the receptor isoforms in tissues.

  17. The seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Orazi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Vesuvius (southern Italy is one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the world. Its activity is currently characterized by moderate seismicity, with hypocenters located beneath the crater zone with depth rarely exceeding 5 km and magnitudes generally less than 3. The current configuration of the seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius consists of 18 seismic stations and 7 infrasound microphones. During the period 2006-2010 a seismic array with 48 channels was also operative. The station distribution provides appropriate coverage of the area around the volcanic edifice. The current development of the network and its geometry, under conditions of low seismic noise, allows locating seismic events with M<1. Remote instruments continuously transmit data to the main acquisition center in Naples. Data transmission is realized using different technological solutions based on UHF, Wi-Fi radio links, and TCP/IP client-server applications. Data are collected in the monitoring center of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Naples section, which is equipped with systems for displaying and analyzing signals, using both real-time automatic and manual procedures. 24-hour surveillance allows to immediately communicate any significant anomaly to the Civil Protection authorities.

  18. Contrast fluoroscopic evaluation of gastrointestinal transit times with and without the use of falconry hoods in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Grayson A; Williams, Jackie M; Mans, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate gastrointestinal transit times in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) by use of contrast fluoroscopic imaging and investigate the effect of falconry hooding in these hawks on gastrointestinal transit time. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, blinded, complete crossover study. ANIMALS 9 healthy red-tailed hawks. PROCEDURES Hawks were gavage-fed a 30% weight-by-volume barium suspension (25 mL/kg [11.3 mL/lb]) into the crop. Fluoroscopic images were obtained at multiple time points after barium administration. Time to filling and emptying of various gastrointestinal tract organs and overall transit time were measured. The effect of hooding (hooded vs nonhooded) on these variables was assessed in a randomized complete crossover design. RESULTS In nonhooded birds, overall gastrointestinal transit time ranged from 30 to 180 minutes (mean ± SD, 100 ± 52 min). Time to complete crop emptying ranged from 30 to 180 minutes (83 ± 49 min). Contrast medium was present in the ventriculus in all birds within 5 minutes of administration and in the small intestines within 5 to 15 minutes (median, 5 min). Hooding of red-tailed hawks resulted in a significant delay of complete crop emptying (no hood, 83 ± 49 minutes; hood, 133 ± 48 minutes), but no significant effects of hooding were found on other measured variables. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE These results indicated that overall gastrointestinal transit times are faster in red-tailed hawks than has been reported for psittacines and that the use of a falconry hood in red-tailed hawks may result in delayed crop emptying. Hooding did not exert significant effects on overall gastrointestinal transit time in this raptorial species.

  19. Keeping mtDNA in shape between generations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Stewart

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the unexpected discovery that mitochondria contain their own distinct DNA molecules, studies of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have yielded many surprises. In animals, transmission of the mtDNA genome is explicitly non-Mendelian, with a very high number of genome copies being inherited from the mother after a drastic bottleneck. Recent work has begun to uncover the molecular details of this unusual mode of transmission. Many surprising variations in animal mitochondrial biology are known; however, a series of recent studies have identified a core of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms relating to mtDNA inheritance, e.g., mtDNA bottlenecks during germ cell development, selection against specific mtDNA mutation types during maternal transmission, and targeted destruction of sperm mitochondria. In this review, we outline recent literature on the transmission of mtDNA in animals and highlight the implications for human health and ageing.

  20. "Robin Hood" of techno-Turkey or organ trafficking in the state of ethical beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Aslihan

    2004-09-01

    Dr S. is a famous transplant surgeon in the Middle East. He operates "underground" on wealthy patients in different countries, from Israel to Turkey to Russia. The media refer to him as the "Organ Mafia doctor," and patients diagnosed with renal failure speak of him sardonically as "Robin Hood," acknowledging that he takes organs from the poor to give to the rich. But ethical issues of organ trafficking are not limited to marginal private clinics and "Mafia" doctors. All-living related organ transplants in Turkey involve similar ethical dilemmas: many related or nonrelated organ recipients pay their donors, and demand continues to rise. This paper explores practices in state and university hospitals and the ethical dilemmas doctors encounter to understand where and how judicial, cultural, and social categories of "human rights" and "crime" are constructed in our high-tech world.

  1. Overexposure measurement on microtron MT-17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Thanh Luong; Tran Thanh Minh

    1995-01-01

    On 11 November 1992, the Radiation accident happened at the channel of the high energy photon beam generated by stopping 15 MeV accelerated electron on the tungsten target of Microtron MT-17. One physicist has been exposed to the high energy photon beam. The purposes of this work are the determination of overexposure from backscatter and primary beams to estimate the whole body and hand doses received by the victim. It was found that the upper parts of his body may be received the dose from 1.0 Gy to 5.0 Gy per 4 min. of the exposure; the dose received by victim's hands is in interval of 30 - 50 Gy. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Visual Virtual MT: relato de una pesquisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUDMILA BRANDÃO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de contribuir a la discusión acerca de las artes visuales en la sociedad contemporánea y de los dispositivos que operan la colonialidad del arte, sus mecanismos y efectos, cuya urgente desactivación nos impone enormes retos, en este artículo se presentan los resultados de la investigación titulada: “Artes Visuales en Mato Grosso: recopilación, difusión y crítica” encargada de crear el sitio Visual Virtual MT (VVMT. El VVMT reúne producciones aestésicas visuales de artistas individuales y colectivos que operan en diferentes soportes y medios, trabajando con una variedad de materiales que configuran, actualmente, la mayor colección catalogada y digital disponible en el Estado de Mato Grosso, en Brasil.

  3. Preliminary geothermal study of Mt. Etna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongelli, F; Morelli, C

    1964-01-01

    The geothermal status of Italy's Mt. Etna region was studied via borehole thermometry at eight experimental sites. The mathematical principles and other criteria used in borehole site and well depth selection are discussed. The soil temperature is regulated by external temperature variations to a certain depth. The minimum drilling distance which would provide accurate temperature determinations was calculated to be 30 m. The geothermal gradient was determined by the application of a Fourier series to three measurements made at different depths using resistance thermometers. The results are presented in tables and the gradients are plotted on graphs. Geothermal gradient determinations were corrected for topographic effects. Two major groups of gradients were discovered, those having linear gradients were interpreted as being due to the effect of meteoric waters. Other possible disturbances are those caused by surface temperature effects and the influence of nearby bodies of water.

  4. Influence of impact speed on head and brain injury outcome in vulnerable road user impacts to the car hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Rikard; Zhang, Liying; Boström, Ola; Yang, King

    2007-10-01

    EuroNCAP and regulations in Europe and Japan evaluate the pedestrian protection performance of cars. The test methods are similar and they all have requirements for the passive protection of the hood area at a pedestrian to car impact speed of 40 km/h. In Europe, a proposal for a second phase of the regulation mandates a brake-assist system along with passive requirements. The system assists the driver in optimizing the braking performance during panic braking, resulting in activation only when the driver brakes sufficiently. In a European study this was estimated to occur in about 50% of pedestrian accidents. A future system for brake assistance will likely include automatic braking, in response to a pre-crash sensor, to avoid or mitigate injuries of vulnerable road users. An important question is whether these systems will provide sufficient protection, or if a parallel, passive pedestrian protection system will be necessary. This study investigated the influence of impact speed on head and brain injury risk, in impacts to the carhood. One car model was chosen and a rigid adjustable plate was mounted under the hood. Free-flying headform impacts were carried out at 20 and 30 km/h head impact velocities at different under-hood distances, 20 to 100 mm; and were compared to earlier tests at 40 km/h. The EEVC WG17 adult pedestrian headform was used for non-rotating tests and a Hybrid III adult 50th percentile head was used for rotational tests where linear and rotational acceleration was measured. Data from the rotational tests was used as input to a validated finite element model of the human head, the Wayne State University Head Injury Model (WSUHIM). The model was utilized to assess brain injury risk and potential injury mechanism in a pedestrian-hood impact. Although this study showed that it was not necessarily true that a lower HIC value reduced the risk for brain injury, it appeared, for the tested car model, under-hood distances of 60 mm in 20 km/h and 80 mm

  5. Addendum 4 to CSAR 81-001, Installation of an Official Critical Drain on the Plexiglass Contamination Barrier in HC-227T Hood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiao, T.

    1995-12-01

    This report defines the maximum space allowed between the floor surface and the lower edge of an official criticality drain which is to be installed on the plexiglas contamination barrier in HC-227T Hood

  6. Data from moored current meters, temperature and salinity from a historical mooring placed in Hood Canal, Puget Sound, February - April 1980 (NODC Accession 0000680)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, current, and other data were collected from moored buoys in Hood Canal and the Puget Sound from 08 February 1980 to 10 April 1980. Data were collected by...

  7. Magnetotelluric (MT) surveying in the Kakkonda geothermal area; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki deno MT ho tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Y; Takakura, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Uchida, T [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper describes the MT surveying conducted at the vicinity of a deep well (WD-1) in the Kakkonda geothermal area. For the MT surveying, the interval between measuring points was 300 m. Electric field dipole with a length of 300 m was given in the direction of traverse line, and that with a length of 50 m was given in the direction perpendicular to the line. Three components of magnetic field were measured using induction coil. Frequency band of the data was between 0.0005 Hz and 300 Hz. Characteristics of specific resistance model obtained from the MT surveying were illustrated. Low specific resistance zone less than 30 ohm-m was observed in the shallow zone below the altitude 0 m. This zone was comparable to the distribution of montmorillonite. High specific resistance anomaly was analyzed at the western half of the traverse line in the altitude between 0 m and -2000 m, which corresponded to the collective part of focuses. The bottom surface of the anomaly agreed well with the upper surface of neo-granite, i.e., the lower limits of earthquakes. Low specific resistance was observed in the altitude below -2000 m. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Construct Validity of the MMPI-2 College Maladjustment (Mt) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthlow, Deanna L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; McNulty, John L

    2004-01-01

    The construct validity of the MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2) College Maladjustment (Mt) Scale was examined using 376 student clients at a university psychological clinic. A principal components analysis and correlations of Mt scale scores with clients' and therapists' ratings of symptoms and functioning showed that the Mt…

  9. Contamination Status of Seven Elements in Hooded Cranes Wintering in South-West Kyushu, Japan: Comparison with Red-Crowned Cranes in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraoka, Hiroki; Miyagi, Hasumi; Haraguchi, Yuko; Takase, Kozo; Kitazawa, Takio; Noda, Jun

    2018-05-31

    The hooded crane is designated as an endangered species. The cranes breed primarily in wetlands in southeast Russia and China in summer. Most of the hooded crane population winters in the Izumi plain in Japan. It is difficult to know the contamination status of their habitat because of their vast breeding area. We determined the levels of Cd, Pb, As, (total) Hg, Se, Zn, and Cu in the liver, kidney, and muscle of hooded cranes that were found dead in Izumi in the periods 2003-2006 and 2014-2015 compared with the levels in red-crowned cranes in Hokkaido, Japan, as the only cranes in which these elements had been studied extensively. There were no notable differences between levels of the seven elements in the two periods. Overall, tissue levels of the elements examined in hooded cranes were comparable to those in red-crowned cranes except for Hg and Se. Tissue levels of Hg and Se were clearly lower in hooded cranes than in red-crowned cranes that were found dead from 2000. One lead poisoning case was confirmed. The results suggest that Hooded cranes wintering in Izumi are not extensively contaminated with the seven elements examined.

  10. Reduction of exposure to ultrafine particles by kitchen exhaust hoods: the effects of exhaust flow rates, particle size, and burner position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Donghyun; Wallace, Lance; Nabinger, Steven; Persily, Andrew

    2012-08-15

    Cooking stoves, both gas and electric, are one of the strongest and most common sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in homes. UFP have been shown to be associated with adverse health effects such as DNA damage and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. This study investigates the effectiveness of kitchen exhaust hoods in reducing indoor levels of UFP emitted from a gas stove and oven. Measurements in an unoccupied manufactured house monitored size-resolved UFP (2 nm to 100 nm) concentrations from the gas stove and oven while varying range hood flow rate and burner position. The air change rate in the building was measured continuously based on the decay of a tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride, SF(6)). The results show that range hood flow rate and burner position (front vs. rear) can have strong effects on the reduction of indoor levels of UFP released from the stove and oven, subsequently reducing occupant exposure to UFP. Higher range hood flow rates are generally more effective for UFP reduction, though the reduction varies with particle diameter. The influence of the range hood exhaust is larger for the back burner than for the front burner. The number-weighted particle reductions for range hood flow rates varying between 100 m(3)/h and 680 m(3)/h range from 31% to 94% for the front burner, from 54% to 98% for the back burner, and from 39% to 96% for the oven. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 75 FR 43556 - TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel, MT; TA-W-73,381C, Livingston, MT; TA-W-73... Helena, Montana. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-73,381 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of...

  12. Environmental Assessment for Ongoing and Future Operations at U.S. Navy Dabob Bay and Hood Canal Military Operating Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    well as being cultivated in aquaculture operations in Puget Sound, including Hood Canal and Dabob Bay (Figure 3.4-2). Pacific oysters (Crassostrea...gigas) are widely cultivated in aquaculture operations in Puget Sound. Commercial oyster beds exist in Dabob Bay, mostly at the north end. Dabob Bay... Ecotoxicology of metals in aquatic sediments: binding and release, bioavailability, risk assessment, and remediation. Canadian Journal of

  13. A review of Brucella infection in marine mammals, with special emphasis on Brucella pinnipedialis in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Brucella spp. were isolated from marine mammals for the first time in 1994. Two novel species were later included in the genus; Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis, with cetaceans and seals as their preferred hosts, respectively. Brucella spp. have since been isolated from a variety of marine mammals. Pathological changes, including lesions of the reproductive organs and associated abortions, have only been registered in cetaceans. The zoonotic potential differs among the marine mammal Brucella strains. Many techniques, both classical typing and molecular microbiology, have been utilised for characterisation of the marine mammal Brucella spp. and the change from the band-based approaches to the sequence-based approaches has greatly increased our knowledge about these strains. Several clusters have been identified within the B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis species, and multiple studies have shown that the hooded seal isolates differ from other pinniped isolates. We describe how different molecular methods have contributed to species identification and differentiation of B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis, with special emphasis on the hooded seal isolates. We further discuss the potential role of B. pinnipedialis for the declining Northwest Atlantic hooded seal population. PMID:21819589

  14. A review of Brucella infection in marine mammals, with special emphasis on Brucella pinnipedialis in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nymo Ingebjørg H

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brucella spp. were isolated from marine mammals for the first time in 1994. Two novel species were later included in the genus; Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis, with cetaceans and seals as their preferred hosts, respectively. Brucella spp. have since been isolated from a variety of marine mammals. Pathological changes, including lesions of the reproductive organs and associated abortions, have only been registered in cetaceans. The zoonotic potential differs among the marine mammal Brucella strains. Many techniques, both classical typing and molecular microbiology, have been utilised for characterisation of the marine mammal Brucella spp. and the change from the band-based approaches to the sequence-based approaches has greatly increased our knowledge about these strains. Several clusters have been identified within the B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis species, and multiple studies have shown that the hooded seal isolates differ from other pinniped isolates. We describe how different molecular methods have contributed to species identification and differentiation of B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis, with special emphasis on the hooded seal isolates. We further discuss the potential role of B. pinnipedialis for the declining Northwest Atlantic hooded seal population.

  15. Construction and Operation of a Ventilated Hood System for Measuring Greenhouse Gas and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjing Zhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants, such as cattle, has spawned a need for affordable, precise, and accurate methods for the measurement of gaseous emissions arising from enteric fermentation. A new head hood system for cattle designed to capture and quantify emissions was recently developed at the University of California, Davis. The system consists of two head hoods, two vacuum pumps, and an instrumentation cabinet housing the required data collection equipment. This system has the capability of measuring carbon dioxide, methane, ethanol, methanol, water vapor, nitrous oxide, acetic acid emissions and oxygen consumption in real-time. A unique aspect of the hoods is the front, back, and sides are made of clear polycarbonate sheeting allowing the cattle a full range of vision during gas sampling. Recovery rates for these slightly negative pressure chambers were measured ranging from 97.6 to 99.3 percent. This system can capture high quality data for use in improving emission inventories and evaluating gaseous emission mitigation strategies.

  16. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kilgo

    2005-04-20

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging near gaps would find more prey per unit time than those foraging in the surrounding forest. In fact, arthropod abundance was greater >100 m from a gap edge than at 0-30 m or 30-100 m from an edge, due to their abundance on switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea); arthropods did not differ in abundance among distances from gaps on oaks (Quercus spp.) or red maple (Acer rubrum). Similarly, Hooded Warbler foraging attack rates were not higher near gap edges: when foraging for fledglings, attack rate did not differ among distances from gaps, but when foraging for themselves, attack rates actually were lower 0-30 m from gap edges than 30-100 m or >100 m from a gap edge. Foraging attack rate was positively associated with arthropod abundance. Hooded Warblers apparently encountered fewer prey and presumably foraged less efficiently where arthropods were least abundant, i.e., near gaps. That attack rates among birds foraging for fledglings were not affected by distance from gap (and hence arthropod abundance) suggests that prey availability may not be limiting at any location across the forest, despite the depressing effects of gaps on arthropod abundance.

  17. MT3DMS: Model use, calibration, and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C.; Hill, Mary C.; Cao, G.; Ma, R.

    2012-01-01

    MT3DMS is a three-dimensional multi-species solute transport model for solving advection, dispersion, and chemical reactions of contaminants in saturated groundwater flow systems. MT3DMS interfaces directly with the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference groundwater flow model MODFLOW for the flow solution and supports the hydrologic and discretization features of MODFLOW. MT3DMS contains multiple transport solution techniques in one code, which can often be important, including in model calibration. Since its first release in 1990 as MT3D for single-species mass transport modeling, MT3DMS has been widely used in research projects and practical field applications. This article provides a brief introduction to MT3DMS and presents recommendations about calibration and validation procedures for field applications of MT3DMS. The examples presented suggest the need to consider alternative processes as models are calibrated and suggest opportunities and difficulties associated with using groundwater age in transport model calibration.

  18. Viscosity controlled magma-carbonate interaction: a comparison of Mt. Vesuvius (Italy) and Mt. Merapi (Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, L. S.; Misiti, V.; Masotta, M.; Taddeucci, J.; Freda, C.; Troll, V. R.; Deegan, F. M.; Jolis, E. M.

    2012-04-01

    Magma-carbonate interaction is increasingly seen as a viable and extremely important cause of magma contamination, and the generation of a crustally sourced CO2 phase (Goff et al., 2001; Freda et al., 2010). Even though the process is well recognized at certain volcanoes e.g. Popocatépetl, (Mexico); Merapi, (Indonesia); and Colli Albani, (Italy) (Goff et al., 2001; Deegan et al., 2010; Freda et al., 2010), neither the kinetics of carbonate assimilation nor its consequences for controlling the explosivity of eruptions have been constrained. Here we show the results of magma-carbonate interaction experiments conducted at 1200 °C and 0.5 GPa for varying durations (0 s, 60 s, 90 s and 300 s) for the Mt. Merapi (Indonesia) and Mt. Vesuvius (Italy) volcanic systems. We performed experiments using glassy starting materials specific to each volcano (shoshonite for Mt. Vesuvius, basaltic-andesite for Mt. Merapi) with different degrees of hydration (anhydrous vs hydration with ~ 2 wt % water) and using carbonate fragments of local origin; see Deegan et al., (2010) and Jolis et al., (2011). Experimental products include a gas phase (CO2-rich) and two melt phases, one pristine (Ca-normal) and one contaminated (Ca-rich) separated by a 'contamination front' which propagates outwards from the carbonate clast. Vesicles appear to nucleate in the contaminated glass and then migrate into the pristine one. Both contamination front propagation and bubble migration away from the carbonate are slower in anhydrous basaltic-andesite (Merapi anhydrous series) than in hydrated basaltic-andesite and shoshonite (Merapi and Vesuvius hydrated series), suggesting that assimilation speed is strongly controlled by the degree of hydration and the SiO2 content, both of which influence melt viscosity and hence diffusivity. As the carbonate dissolution proceeds in our experiments, initially dissolved and eventually exsolved CO2 builds up in the contaminated Ca-rich melt phase. Once melt volatile

  19. Natural ventilation of a generic cask under a transport hood - CFD and analytical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, D.; Davies, G.; Tso, C.F. [Arup, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    In comparison with finite element simulation for structural and thermal behaviour, the use of computational fluid dynamics technique (hereafter CFD) to analyse, predict and design air and heat flow in package design is relatively novel. Arup has been using CFD techniques to investigate fluid and heat flow, and to use it as a tool to design fluid and heat flow across a broad spectrum of industries for over fifteen years. In order demonstrate the power of the technique and its benefits, the airflow and heat flow characteristics around a transport package during transit under a transport hood has been evaluated using the CFD technique. This paper presents the scenario, the model, the analysis technique and the results of this analysis. Comparison with test results is probably the best way to validate a CFD analysis. In the absence of test results, the analysis was verified by comparison with hand calculation solutions. The scenario as it stands is too complex and hand calculation solution cannot describe the scenario sufficiently. However, hand calculation solutions could be derived for simplified version of the scenario against which CFD analysis of the simplified scenario can be compared. The second half of this paper describes the verification out.

  20. Metabolic activity in striate and extrastriate cortex in the hooded rat: contralateral and ipsilateral eye input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurlow, G.A.; Cooper, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The extent of changes in glucose metabolism resulting from ipsilateral and contralateral eye activity in the posterior cortex of the hooded rat was demonstrated by means of the C-14 2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique. By stimulating one eye with square wave gratings and eliminating efferent activation from the other by means of enucleation or intraocular TTX injection, differences between ipsilaterally and contralaterally based visual activity in the two hemispheres were maximized. Carbon-14 levels in layer IV of autoradiographs of coronal sections were measured and combined across sections to form right and left matrices of posterior cortex metabolic activity. A difference matrix, formed by subtracting the metabolic activity matrix of cortex contralateral to the stimulated eye from the ipsilateral depressed matrix, emphasized those parts of the visual cortex that received monocular visual input. The demarcation of striate cortex by means of cholinesterase stain and the examination of autoradiographs from sections cut tangential to the cortical surface aided in the interpretation of the difference matrices. In striate cortex, differences were maximal in the medial monocular portion, and the lateral or binocular portion was shown to be divided metabolically into a far lateral contralaterally dominant strip along the cortical representation of the vertical meridian, and a more medial region of patches of more or less contralaterally dominant binocular input. Lateral peristriate differences were less than those of striate cortex, and regions of greater and lesser monocular input could be distinguished. We did not detect differences between the two hemispheres in either anterior or medial peristriate areas

  1. University of Missouri research reactor exhaust ventilation/laboratory fume hood upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.B. Jr.; McKibben, J.C.; McCracken, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    The University of Missouri research reactor (MURR) facility is located in Research Park, 1 mile south of the Columbia campus. The reactor is a 10-MW pressurized loop, in-pool-type, light-water-moderated, beryllium-and-graphite-reflected core, serviced by six radial beam tubes for research, and has sample irradiation facilities in both a flux trap and in the graphite region. The reactor operates at full power 150 h/week, 52 week/yr, making it one of the best operating schedules and the most extensively used of any university research reactor. This extensive utilization includes many programs, such as radioisotope applications, neutron activation analysis, etc., that depend heavily on fume hoods, glove boxes, and hot cells that put a tremendous demand on the exhaust system. The exhaust system is required to be operable whenever the reactor is operating and must have the capability of being operated from an emergency electrical generator on loss of site electrical power. The originally installed exhaust ventilation system was below needed capacity and, with increased program requirements and system age, the necessity to upgrade the system was paramount. The challenge was to complete the upgrade construction while continuing to operate the reactor and maintain all the other ongoing programs, rather than take the easy way of an extended shutdown. This paper discusses how MURR met this challenge and solved these problems, problems that are similarly experienced by almost all research reactors to some degree when major work is required on critical systems

  2. Natural ventilation of a generic cask under a transport hood - CFD and analytical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, D.; Davies, G.; Tso, C.F.

    2004-01-01

    In comparison with finite element simulation for structural and thermal behaviour, the use of computational fluid dynamics technique (hereafter CFD) to analyse, predict and design air and heat flow in package design is relatively novel. Arup has been using CFD techniques to investigate fluid and heat flow, and to use it as a tool to design fluid and heat flow across a broad spectrum of industries for over fifteen years. In order demonstrate the power of the technique and its benefits, the airflow and heat flow characteristics around a transport package during transit under a transport hood has been evaluated using the CFD technique. This paper presents the scenario, the model, the analysis technique and the results of this analysis. Comparison with test results is probably the best way to validate a CFD analysis. In the absence of test results, the analysis was verified by comparison with hand calculation solutions. The scenario as it stands is too complex and hand calculation solution cannot describe the scenario sufficiently. However, hand calculation solutions could be derived for simplified version of the scenario against which CFD analysis of the simplified scenario can be compared. The second half of this paper describes the verification out

  3. Porous aerosol in degassing plumes of Mt. Etna and Mt. Stromboli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shcherbakov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols of the volcanic degassing plumes from Mt. Etna and Mt. Stromboli were probed with in situ instruments on board the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt research aircraft Falcon during the contrail, volcano, and cirrus experiment CONCERT in September 2011. Aerosol properties were analyzed using angular-scattering intensities and particle size distributions measured simultaneously with the Polar Nephelometer and the Forward Scattering Spectrometer probes (FSSP series 100 and 300, respectively. Aerosols of degassing plumes are characterized by low values of the asymmetry parameter (between 0.6 and 0.75; the effective diameter was within the range of 1.5–2.8 µm and the maximal diameter was lower than 20 µm. A principal component analysis applied to the Polar Nephelometer data indicates that scattering features of volcanic aerosols of different crater origins are clearly distinctive from angular-scattering intensities of cirrus and contrails. Retrievals of aerosol properties revealed that the particles were "optically spherical" and the estimated values of the real part of the refractive index are within the interval from 1.35 to 1.38. The interpretation of these results leads to the conclusion that the degassing plume aerosols were porous with air voids. Our estimates suggest that aerosol particles contained about 18 to 35 % of air voids in terms of the total volume.

  4. Two-dimensional inversion of MT (magnetotelluric) data; MT ho no nijigen inversion kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S; Okuno, M; Ushijima, K; Mizunaga, H [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    A program has been developed to conduct inversion analysis of two-dimensional model using MT data, accurately. For the developed program, finite element method (FEM) was applied to the section of sequential analysis. A method in which Jacobian matrix is calculated only one first time and is inversely analyzed by fixing this during the repetition, and a method in which Jacobian matrix is corrected at each repetition of inversion analysis, were compared mutually. As a result of the numerical simulation, it was revealed that the Jacobian correction method provided more stable convergence for the simple 2D model, and that the calculation time is almost same as that of the Jacobian fixation method. To confirm the applicability of this program to actually measured data, results obtained from this program were compared with those from the Schlumberger method analysis by using MT data obtained in the Hatchobara geothermal area. Consequently, it was demonstrated that the both are well coincided mutually. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  5. 76 FR 35967 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ..., Gallatin Field Airport, Bozeman, MT, to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing System (ILS... 6005 Class E airspace areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth...

  6. MT Lajpatrai blow-out studies at Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.

    The area around the tanker MT Lajpatrai was monitored for oil pollution studies. Measurements were carried out on the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in water and sediment samples along with visual observations on oil slicks...

  7. [MT-45--a dangerous and potentially ototoxic internet drug].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Erik; Bäckberg, Matilda; Personne, Mark; Helander, Anders

    2014-09-11

    During the last years several synthetic opioids have been introduced on Internet sites selling new psychoactive substances (NPS). One of these, called MT-45, a piperazine derivative originally synthesized as a therapeutic drug candidate in the 1970s, has recently been detected in 21 deaths, according to unpublished data from the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. We present clinical data from 12 analytically confirmed hospital cases of MT-45 poisoning. The cases demonstrate that MT-45, like other opioids, can induce potentially life threatening respiratory depression and loss of consciousness in users and that symptoms are usually reversed by standard doses of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. Significant auditory symptoms with transient tinnitus and hearing loss occurred in two cases and a pronounced sensorineural hearing loss still present at two weeks follow-up in one case. This indicates that MT-45 may be an ototoxic substance, illustrating the ubiquitous risk of unintended adverse effects NPSs pose to users.

  8. α -decay chains of superheavy Mt-279265 isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Nithya, C.

    2017-10-01

    The α -decay chains of the isotopes Mt-279265 are predicted by comparing the α half-lives calculated within the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei of Santhosh et al. [Nucl. Phys. A 850, 34 (2011)], 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.12.002 with the spontaneous fission half-lives using the shell-effect-dependent formula of Santhosh and Nithya [Phys. Rev. C 94, 054621 (2016)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.94.054621. α half-lives also are calculated using different theoretical formalisms for comparison. The predicted half-lives and decay modes match well with the experimental results. The use of four different mass tables for calculating the α - decay energies indicates that the mass table of Wang et al. [Chin. Phys. C 41, 030003 (2017)], 10.1088/1674-1137/41/3/030003, which is based on the AME2016 atomic mass evaluation, is in better agreement with experimental results. The paper predicts long α chains from 265,267-269,271-273MT with half-lives within experimental limits. The isotopes 274-276,278Mt exhibit 2α chains followed by spontaneous fission. The 2α chain of 266Mt and the 4α chain of 270Mt end with electron capture. The isotopes Mt,279277 decay via spontaneous fission. We hope that the paper will open up new areas in this field.

  9. Mass transfer inside a flux hood for the sampling of gaseous emissions from liquid surfaces - Experimental assessment and emission rate rescaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ademir A.; Lucernoni, Federico; Santos, Jane M.; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Le-Minh, Nhat; Stuetz, Richard M.

    2018-04-01

    This study assesses the mass transfer of compounds inside the US EPA flux hood, one of the enclosure devices most commonly employed for the direct measurement of atmospheric emissions from liquid surfaces in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Experiments comprised the evaporation of water and the volatilisation of a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Special attention was given to the evaluation of the mass transfer coefficients in the microenvironment created by the flux hood and the effects of concentration build up in the hood's headspace. The VOCs emission rates and the water evaporation rates generally increased with the sweep air flow rate, as did the mass transfer coefficients for all compounds. The emission of compounds whose volatilisation is significantly influenced by the gas phase was greatly affected by concentration build up, whereas this effect was not significant for liquid phase-controlled compounds. The gas-film mass transfer coefficient (kG) estimated inside the US EPA flux hood was of the same order as the respective kG reported in the literature for wind tunnel-type devices, but the emission rates measured by the flux hood can be expected to be lower, due to the concentration build-up. Compared against an emission model for the passive surfaces in WWTPs, the mass transfer of acetic acid (representing a gas phase-dominated compound) inside the US EPA flux hood was equivalent to conditions of wind speeds at 10 m height (U10) of 0.27, 0.51 and 0.99 m s-1, respectively, for sweep air flow rates of 2, 5 and 10 L min-1. On the other hand, for higher wind speeds, the emission rates of gas phase-controlled compounds obtained with the flux hood can be considerably underestimated: for instance, at U10 = 5 m s-1, the emission rates of acetic acid inside the flux hood would be approximately 23, 12 and 6 times lower than the emission rates in the field, for sweep air flow rates of 2, 5 and 10 L min-1, respectively. A procedure is presented in

  10. Particle release and control of worker exposure during laboratory-scale synthesis, handling and simulated spills of manufactured nanomaterials in fume hoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana S.; Kuijpers, Eelco; Kling, Kirsten I.; Levin, Marcus; Koivisto, Antti J.; Nielsen, Signe H.; Fransman, W.; Fedutik, Yijri; Jensen, Keld A.; Koponen, Ismo K.

    2018-02-01

    Fume hoods are one of the most common types of equipment applied to reduce the potential of particle exposure in laboratory environments. A number of previous studies have shown particle release during work with nanomaterials under fume hoods. Here, we assessed laboratory workers' inhalation exposure during synthesis and handling of CuO, TiO2 and ZnO in a fume hood. In addition, we tested the capacity of a fume hood to prevent particle release to laboratory air during simulated spillage of different powders (silica fume, zirconia TZ-3Y and TiO2). Airborne particle concentrations were measured in near field, far field, and in the breathing zone of the worker. Handling CuO nanoparticles increased the concentration of small particles (control during synthesis and handling of nanomaterials. An appropriate fume hood with adequate sash height and face velocity prevents 98.3% of particles release into the surrounding environment. Care should still be made to consider spills and high cleanliness to prevent exposure via resuspension and inadvertent exposure by secondary routes.

  11. Lidar-enhanced geologic mapping, examples from the Medford and Hood River areas, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, T. J.; McClaughry, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Lidar-based 3-foot digital elevation models (DEMs) and derivatives (slopeshade, hillshade, contours) were used to help map geology across 1700 km2 (650 mi2) near Hood River and Medford, Oregon. Techniques classically applied to interpret coarse DEMs and small-scale topographic maps were adapted to take advantage of lidar's high resolution. Penetration and discrimination of plant cover by the laser system allowed recognition of fine patterns and textures related to underlying geologic units and associated soils. Surficial geologic maps were improved by the ability to examine tiny variations in elevation and slope. Recognition of low-relief features of all sizes was enhanced where pixel elevation ranges of centimeters to meters, established by knowledge of the site or by trial, were displayed using thousands of sequential colors. Features can also be depicted relative to stream level by preparing a DEM that compensates for gradient. Near Medford, lidar-derived contour maps with 1- to 3-foot intervals revealed incised bajada with young, distal lobes defined by concentric contour lines. Bedrock geologic maps were improved by recognizing geologic features associated with surface textures and patterns or topographic anomalies. In sedimentary and volcanic terrain, structure was revealed by outcrops or horizons lying at one stratigraphic level. Creating a triangulated irregular network (TIN) facet from positions of three or more such points gives strike and dip. Each map area benefited from hundreds of these measurements. A more extensive DEM in the plane of the TIN facet can be subtracted from surface elevation (lidar DEM) to make a DEM with elevation zero where the stratigraphic horizon lies at the surface. The distribution of higher and lower stratigraphic horizons can be shown by highlighting areas similarly higher or lower on the same DEM. Poor fit of contacts or faults projected between field traverses suggest the nature and amount of intervening geologic structure

  12. Haul-out behavior of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina in Hood Canal, Washington.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh M London

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to model haul-out behavior of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina in the Hood Canal region of Washington State with respect to changes in physiological, environmental, and temporal covariates. Previous research has provided a solid understanding of seal haul-out behavior. Here, we expand on that work using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM with temporal autocorrelation and a large dataset. Our dataset included behavioral haul-out records from archival and VHF radio tag deployments on 25 individual seals representing 61,430 seal hours. A novel application for increased computational efficiency allowed us to examine this large dataset with a GLMM that appropriately accounts for temporal autocorellation. We found significant relationships with the covariates hour of day, day of year, minutes from high tide and year. Additionally, there was a significant effect of the interaction term hour of day : day of year. This interaction term demonstrated that seals are more likely to haul out during nighttime hours in August and September, but then switch to predominantly daylight haul-out patterns in October and November. We attribute this change in behavior to an effect of human disturbance levels. This study also examined a unique ecological event to determine the role of increased killer whale (Orcinus orca predation on haul-out behavior. In 2003 and 2005 these harbor seals were exposed to unprecedented levels of killer whale predation and results show an overall increase in haul-out probability after exposure to killer whales. The outcome of this study will be integral to understanding any changes in population abundance as a result of increased killer whale predation.

  13. Qualitative: Python Tool for MT Quality Estimation Supporting Server Mode and Hybrid MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramidis Eleftherios

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting the development contributions of the last two years to our Python opensource Quality Estimation tool, a tool that can function in both experiment-mode and online web-service mode. The latest version provides a new MT interface, which communicates with SMT and rule-based translation engines and supports on-the-fly sentence selection. Additionally, we present an improved Machine Learning interface allowing more efficient communication with several state-of-the-art toolkits. Additions also include a more informative training process, a Python re-implementation of QuEst baseline features, a new LM toolkit integration, an additional PCFG parser and alignments of syntactic nodes.

  14. Identification of a Major Locus Contributing to Erythrocyte 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate Variability in Hooded (Long-Evans) Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, N. A.; Brewer, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    The erythrocyte glycolytic intermediate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) play an important role in oxygen transport and delivery by binding to hemoglobin (Hb) and reducing its affinity for oxygen. Considerable quantitative variability in the levels of DPG and ATP exists in human populations and in a population of hooded (Long-Evans) rats we have studied. This paper presents the results of studies on the genetic component of DPG-level variation in an outbred population of hooded rats. Beginning with about 100 rats, a two-way selection experiment was initiated. Pairs of rats with the highest DPG levels were mated to produce a High-DPG rat strain and animals with the lowest DPG levels were mated to produce a Low-DPG strain. Mean DPG levels responded rapidly to selection and, from generation 3 on, the differences between strain means were highly significant. Ten High-DPG strain rats were intercrossed with 10 Low-DPG strain rats of generation 10 to produce an F1 generation in which the DPG levels were almost as high as those of High-DPG animals. This indicates partial dominance of High-DPG alleles. The F2 DPG-level distribution showed two distinct subpopulations. The high DPG subpopulation contained three times as many animals as the low DPG subpopulation. From these results and the statistical analyses performed, it was concluded that the DPG differences between strains were due to an allelic difference at one major locus, the allele carried by the High-DPG strain showing partial dominance over the allele carried by the Low-DPG strain. It appears that this locus may also effect ATP levels to a large extent and is polymorphic in hooded rat populations. Identification of this locus gives us a useful tool for studies of the physiological effects of DPG variability, as well as providing an example of a major gene effect in a quantitatively varying trait. PMID:863239

  15. Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) - Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs : Annual Report For Fiscal Year, October 2007 – September 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenberger, Ryan [Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation

    2009-07-27

    This progress report describes work performed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) portion of the Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project (HRPP) during the 2008 fiscal year. A total of 64,736 hatchery winter steelhead, 12,108 hatchery summer steelhead, and 68,426 hatchery spring Chinook salmon smolts were acclimated and released in the Hood River basin during the spring. The HRPP exceeded program goals for a release of and 50,000 winter steelhead but fell short of the steelhead release goals of 30,000 summer steelhead and 75,000 spring Chinook in 2008. Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT) tags were implanted in 6,652 hatchery winter steelhead, and 1,196 hatchery summer steelhead, to compare migratory attributes and survival rates of hatchery fish released into the Hood River. Water temperatures were recorded at six locations within the Hood River subbasin to monitor for compliance with Oregon Department of Environmental Quality water quality standards. A preseason spring Chinook salmon adult run forecast was generated, which predicted an abundant return adequate to meet escapement goal and brood stock needs. As a result the tribal and sport fisheries were opened. A tribal creel was conducted from May 22 to July 18 during which an estimated 172 spring Chinook were harvested. One hundred sixteen Spring Chinook salmon redds were observed and 72 carcasses were inspected on 19.4 miles of spawning grounds throughout the Hood River Basin during 2008. Annual salvage operations were completed in two irrigation canals resulting in the liberation of 1,641 fish back to the Hood River.

  16. mtDNA, Metastasis, and the Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein Response (UPRmt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Timothy C; Germain, Doris

    2017-01-01

    While several studies have confirmed a link between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and cancer cell metastasis, much debate remains regarding the nature of the alternations in mtDNA leading to this effect. Meanwhile, the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR mt ) has gained much attention in recent years, with most studies of this pathway focusing on its role in aging. However, the UPR mt has also been studied in the context of cancer. More recent work suggests that rather than a single mutation or alternation, specific combinatorial mtDNA landscapes able to activate the UPR mt may be those that are selected by metastatic cells, while mtDNA landscapes unable to activate the UPR mt do not. This review aims at offering an overview of the confusing literature on mtDNA mutations and metastasis and the more recent work on the UPR mt in this setting.

  17. How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution with Hooding, Aposematic Marking, and Spitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagides, Nadya; Jackson, Timothy N W; Ikonomopoulou, Maria P; Arbuckle, Kevin; Pretzler, Rudolf; Yang, Daryl C; Ali, Syed A; Koludarov, Ivan; Dobson, James; Sanker, Brittany; Asselin, Angelique; Santana, Renan C; Hendrikx, Iwan; van der Ploeg, Harold; Tai-A-Pin, Jeremie; van den Bergh, Romilly; Kerkkamp, Harald M I; Vonk, Freek J; Naude, Arno; Strydom, Morné A; Jacobsz, Louis; Dunstan, Nathan; Jaeger, Marc; Hodgson, Wayne C; Miles, John; Fry, Bryan G

    2017-03-13

    The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. On the other hand, a consistent positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and utilisation of the defensive hooding display that cobras are famous for. Hooding and spitting are widely regarded as defensive adaptations, but it has hitherto been uncertain whether cytotoxicity serves a defensive purpose or is somehow useful in prey subjugation. The results of this study suggest that cytotoxicity evolved primarily as a defensive innovation and that it has co-evolved twice alongside hooding behavior: once in the Hemachatus + Naja and again independently in the king cobras ( Ophiophagus ). There was a significant increase of cytotoxicity in the Asian Naja linked to the evolution of bold aposematic hood markings, reinforcing the link between hooding and the evolution of defensive cytotoxic venoms. In parallel, lineages with increased cytotoxicity but lacking bold hood patterns evolved aposematic markers in the form of high contrast body banding. The results also indicate that, secondary to the evolution of venom rich in cytotoxins, spitting has evolved three times independently: once within the African Naja , once within the Asian Naja , and once in the Hemachatus genus. The evolution of cytotoxic venom thus appears to facilitate the evolution of defensive spitting behaviour. In contrast, a secondary loss of cytotoxicity and reduction of the hood occurred in the water cobra Naja annulata , which possesses streamlined neurotoxic venom similar to that of other aquatic elapid snakes (e.g., hydrophiine

  18. How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution with Hooding, Aposematic Marking, and Spitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Panagides

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. On the other hand, a consistent positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and utilisation of the defensive hooding display that cobras are famous for. Hooding and spitting are widely regarded as defensive adaptations, but it has hitherto been uncertain whether cytotoxicity serves a defensive purpose or is somehow useful in prey subjugation. The results of this study suggest that cytotoxicity evolved primarily as a defensive innovation and that it has co-evolved twice alongside hooding behavior: once in the Hemachatus + Naja and again independently in the king cobras (Ophiophagus. There was a significant increase of cytotoxicity in the Asian Naja linked to the evolution of bold aposematic hood markings, reinforcing the link between hooding and the evolution of defensive cytotoxic venoms. In parallel, lineages with increased cytotoxicity but lacking bold hood patterns evolved aposematic markers in the form of high contrast body banding. The results also indicate that, secondary to the evolution of venom rich in cytotoxins, spitting has evolved three times independently: once within the African Naja, once within the Asian Naja, and once in the Hemachatus genus. The evolution of cytotoxic venom thus appears to facilitate the evolution of defensive spitting behaviour. In contrast, a secondary loss of cytotoxicity and reduction of the hood occurred in the water cobra Naja annulata, which possesses streamlined neurotoxic venom similar to that of other aquatic elapid snakes (e

  19. Nuclear collapse observed during the eruption of Mt. Usu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Taka-aki

    2002-01-01

    Mt. Usu which was located about 70 km southwest from Sapporo in Hokkaido (the north island of Japan) began to erupt on March 31 in 2000. A nuclear emulsion was placed on a foot of Mt. Usu to catch small atomic clusters which were expected to be emitted during the eruption. Curious atomic clusters and their reaction products were successfully observed on surfaces of the nuclear emulsion. By comparing them with similar products which were obtained in previous experiments of discharge and electrolysis, it was concluded that micro Ball Lightning was really emitted during the eruption of Mt. Usu and that explosive reactions by nuclear collapse could have been involved to contribute to energy of the eruption. (author)

  20. Vigilance and activity time-budget adjustments of wintering hooded cranes, Grus monacha, in human-dominated foraging habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlin; Zhou, Lizhi; Xu, Li; Zhao, Niannian; Beauchamp, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Due to loss and degradation of natural wetlands, waterbirds increasingly rely on surrounding human-dominated habitats to obtain food. Quantifying vigilance patterns, investigating the trade-off among various activities, and examining the underlying mechanisms will help us understand how waterbirds adapt to human-caused disturbances. During two successive winters (November-February of 2012-13 and 2013-14), we studied the hooded crane, Grus monacha, in the Shengjin Lake National Nature Reserve (NNR), China, to investigate how the species responds to human disturbances through vigilance and activity time-budget adjustments. Our results showed striking differences in the behavior of the cranes when foraging in the highly disturbed rice paddy fields found in the buffer zone compared with the degraded natural wetlands in the core area of the NNR. Time spent vigilant decreased with flock size and cranes spent more time vigilant in the human-dominated buffer zone. In the rice paddy fields, the birds were more vigilant but also fed more at the expense of locomotion and maintenance activities. Adult cranes spent more time vigilant and foraged less than juveniles. We recommend habitat recovery in natural wetlands and community co-management in the surrounding human-dominated landscape for conservation of the hooded crane and, generally, for the vast numbers of migratory waterbirds wintering in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River floodplain.

  1. Utilisation of polyurethane composit with 50% composition of roystonea regia fiber as noise reduction panel on car hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhwansyah; Mulia; Gunawan, S.; Lubis, R. D. W.

    2018-02-01

    The objective is to get the characteristics of noise reduction, noise reduction level, variety of measurement spaces, and knowing the process in making acoustic material of natural fiber becomes noise reduction on a car hood. The process of making noise reduction material used casting method and pressed by using molded press. The composition of noise reduction material consist of 50% roystonea regia by 32 mesh and 50% combined by gypsum and polyurethane. The result shows that the average result of noise reduction at X1- side is 5,7% and X2- side is 3,9%, X1+ side is 0,9% and X2+ side is 6,2%, Z1- side is 8,9% and Z2- side is 10,1%, Z1+ side is 9,7% and Z2+ side is 10,01%. The main conclusion of the study shows that a noise reduction which made of roystonea regia with 32 mesh mixed by matrix of polyurethane and gypsum is appropriate for noise reduction on car hood.

  2. The Robin Hood method - A novel numerical method for electrostatic problems based on a non-local charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazic, Predrag; Stefancic, Hrvoje; Abraham, Hrvoje

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a novel numerical method, named the Robin Hood method, of solving electrostatic problems. The approach of the method is closest to the boundary element methods, although significant conceptual differences exist with respect to this class of methods. The method achieves equipotentiality of conducting surfaces by iterative non-local charge transfer. For each of the conducting surfaces, non-local charge transfers are performed between surface elements, which differ the most from the targeted equipotentiality of the surface. The method is tested against analytical solutions and its wide range of application is demonstrated. The method has appealing technical characteristics. For the problem with N surface elements, the computational complexity of the method essentially scales with N α , where α < 2, the required computer memory scales with N, while the error of the potential decreases exponentially with the number of iterations for many orders of magnitude of the error, without the presence of the Critical Slowing Down. The Robin Hood method could prove useful in other classical or even quantum problems. Some future development ideas for possible applications outside electrostatics are addressed

  3. Alterations in mtDNA, gastric carcinogenesis and early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Antunes, S; Borges, B N

    2018-05-26

    Gastric cancer remains one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Due to this, efforts are being made to improve the diagnosis of this neoplasm and the search for molecular markers that may be involved in its genesis. Within this perspective, the mitochondrial DNA is considered as a potential candidate, since it has several well documented changes and is readily accessible. However, numerous alterations have been reported in mtDNA, not facilitating the visualization of which alterations and molecular markers are truly involved with gastric carcinogenesis. This review presents a compilation of the main known changes relating mtDNA to gastric cancer and their clinical significance.

  4. Expression of the MT1 Melatonin Receptor in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jablonska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer (OC is the leading cause of death among women with genital tract disorders. Melatonin exhibits oncostatic properties which it may effect through binding to its membrane receptor, MT1. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MT1 in OC cells and to correlate this with clinical and pathological data. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 84 cases of OC. Normal ovarian epithelial (IOSE 364 and OC (SK-OV-3, OVCAR-3 cell lines were used to examine the MT1 expression at protein level using the western blot and immunofluorescence technique. The expression of MT1 was observed as cytoplasmic-membrane (MT1CM and membrane (MT1M reactions. A positive correlation between MT1CM and MT1M was found in all the studied cases. There were no significant differences between the expression of MT1CM, MT1M, and histological type, staging, grading, presence of residual disease, or overall survival time. Immunofluorescence showed both MT1M and MT1CM expression in all the tested cell lines. Western blot illustrated the highest protein level of MT1 in IOSE 364 and the lowest in the OVCAR-3. The results indicate the limited prognostic significance of MT1 in OC cells.

  5. Ezra Pound and Du Fu: Gazing at Mt. Tai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Su

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Confined to a six-by-six-foot outdoor steel cage, Ezra Pound saw a series of mountain hills from a few miles to the east of Pisa. The poet compared one of these small 800-metre hills to the sacred Chinese Mt. Tai, which becomes the most common geographical name in The Pisan Cantos. Pound’s poetic summoning of this particular mountain is related to the fact that Mt. Tai is historically and culturally connected to the philosophy of Confucius, who personally ascended the mountain several times. Pound, as a devout Confucian disciple, closely follows the philosophical doctrines and attempts to mentally trace the footsteps of Confucius. This paper will argue how Pound’s poetic evocation of the mountain shares a striking similarity to an eighth-century Chinese poem called “Gazing at Mt. Tai,” which was written by the famous literatus - Du Fu 杜甫(712 – 770 . In spite of living in two completely different eras and countries, Pound’s and Du Fu’s reference to Mt. Tai demonstrates the confluence of their poetic spirits. Neither of them ascended mountain personally. They instead made use of their poetic imagination to follow the paths of Confucius and perceived the mountain as an earthly paradise, one which represents tranquillity and serenity away from the moral and physical corruption of the external world.

  6. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by sabaots of Mt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... medicinal plant species used to manage human ailments at Kopsiro Division Mt. ... The whole plant (1.8%), seed (1.2%), fruit (1.2%), sap (1.2%), flower (0.6%) ... as to maximize the sustainable use of these vital resources in the study area.

  7. 77 FR 44120 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Association (NBAA). The NBAA comments recommended that the FAA lower some of the adjacent Class E airspace...-0274; Airspace Docket No. 12-ANM-4] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E airspace...

  8. MtDNA T4216C variation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, Sasan; Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh

    2016-01-01

    MtDNA T4216C variation has frequently been investigated in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients; nonetheless, controversy has existed about the evidence of association of this variation with susceptibility to MS. The present systematic review and meta-analysis converge the results of the preceding pu...

  9. Deep underground multiple muons at the Mt. Blanc station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamasco, L; Bilokon, H; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Castagnoli, C; Picchi, P [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale)

    1979-12-29

    Results on multiple events recorded at the Mt. Blanc station in the last 3 years are presented. The integral energy spectrum of muons is obtained for Esub(..mu..)>1 TeV in the size range 10/sup 6/ - 10/sup 7/ which favours a multiplicity law for hadronic interactions of the form eta approximately Esup(1/4).

  10. 78 FR 67024 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... aid, Glasgow, MT. A favorable comment from the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) was.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History The FAA published a final rule in the Federal Register establishing Class E..., pursuant to the authority delegated to me, the description under the History heading, as published in the...

  11. Conflicting Values: Spirituality and Wilderness at Mt. Shasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Fernandez-Gimenez; Lynn Huntsinger; Catherine Phillips; Barbara Allen-Diaz

    1992-01-01

    Many people from a variety of backgrounds believe that Mt. Shasta is a major spiritual center. Although these "spiritual users" value the area's natural features, their spiritual and social activities, including construction of sweat lodges, medicine wheels, altars, meditation pads, trails, and campsites, are leading to rapid ecological degradation. This...

  12. 77 FR 55690 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dillon, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach... Airport, Dillon, MT, to accommodate IFR aircraft executing new RNAV (GPS) standard instrument approach.... Steven L. Vale, Acting Manager, Operations Support Group, Western Service Center. [FR Doc. 2012-22269...

  13. 76 FR 9991 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-224; MB Docket No. 11-20; RM-11619] Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  14. 76 FR 27914 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-20; RM-11619, DA 11-750] Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). [[Page 27915

  15. Owning the Journey: Using Collaborative Revisions of Little Red Riding Hood in Teaching Introduction to Literature at a Historically Black University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Design and implementation of a collaborative course project, using Little Red Riding Hood (LRRH) to teach and discuss the concepts of orality, cultural legacy, archetypes, adaptation/appropriation, and social criticism in an Introduction to Literature course at Historically Black Alabama State University in Montgomery, Alabama. The student groups…

  16. Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) types in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, L.H.; Koh, C.L.; Lim, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    Each human cell contains hundreds of mitochondria and thousands of double-stranded circular mtDNA. The delineation of human mtDNA variation and genetics over the past decade has provided unique and often startling insights into human evolution, degenerative diseases, and aging. Each mtDNA of 16,569 base pairs, encodes 13 polypeptides essential to the enzymes of the mitochondrial energy generating pathway, plus the necessary tRNAs and rRNAs. The highly polymorphic noncoding D-(displacement) loop region, also called the control region, is approximately 1.2 kb long. It contains two well-characterized hypervariable (HV-) regions, HV1 and HV2. MtDNA identification is usually based on these sequence differences. According to the TWTGDAM (Technical Working Group for DNA Analysis Methods), the minimum requirement for a mtDNA database for HV1 is from positions 16024 to 16365 and for HV2, from positions 00073 to 00340. The targeted Malaysian population subgroups for this study were mainly the Malays, Chinese, Indians, and indigenous Ibans, Bidayuhs, Kadazan-Dusuns, and Bajaus. Research methodologies undertaken included DNA extraction of samples from unrelated individuals, amplification of the specific regions via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and preparation of template DNA for sequencing by using an automated DNA sequencer. Sufficient nucleotide sequence data were generated from the mtDNA analysis. When the sequences were analyzed, sequence variations were found to be caused by nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Of the three causes of the sequence variations, nucleotide substitutions (86.1%) accounted for the vast majority of polymorphism. It is noted that transitions (83.5%) were predominant when compared to the significantly lower frequencies of transversions (2.6%). Insertions (0.9%) and deletions (13.0%) were rather rare and found only in HV2. The data generated will also form the basis of a Malaysian DNA sequence database of mtDNA D

  17. End-use energy characterization and conservation potentials at DoD Facilities: An analysis of electricity use at Fort Hood, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Konopacki, S.

    1995-05-01

    This report discusses the application of the LBL`s End-use Disaggregation Algorithm (EDA) to a DoD installation and presents hourly reconciled end-use data for all major building types and end uses. The project initially focused on achieving these objectives and pilot-testing the methodology at Fort Hood, Texas. Fort Hood, with over 5000 buildings was determined to have representative samples of nearly all of the major building types in use on DoD installations. These building types at Fort Hood include: office, administration, vehicle maintenance, shop, hospital, grocery store, retail store, car wash, church, restaurant, single-family detached housing, two and four-plex housings, and apartment building. Up to 11 end uses were developed for each prototype, consisting of 9 electric and 2 gas; however, only electric end uses were reconciled against known data and weather conditions. The electric end uses are space cooling, ventilation, cooking, miscellaneous/plugs, refrigeration, exterior lighting, interior lighting, process loads, and street lighting. The gas end uses are space heating and hot water heating. Space heating energy-use intensities were simulated only. The EDA was applied to 10 separate feeders from the three substations at Fort Hood. The results from the analyses of these ten feeders were extrapolated to estimate energy use by end use for the entire installation. The results show that administration, residential, and the bar-rack buildings are the largest consumers of electricity for a total of 250GWh per year (74% of annual consumption). By end use, cooling, ventilation, miscellaneous, and indoor lighting consume almost 84% of total electricity use. The contribution to the peak power demand is highest by residential sector (35%, 24 MW), followed by administration buildings (30%), and barrack (14%). For the entire Fort Hood installation, cooling is 54% of the peak demand (38 MW), followed by interior lighting at 18%, and miscellaneous end uses by 12%.

  18. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 2. System performance and supporting studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas, is presented. System performance analysis and evaluation are described. Feedback of completed performance analyses on current system design and operating philosophy is discussed. The basic computer simulation techniques and assumptions are described and the resulting energy displacement analysis is presented. Supporting technical studies are presented. These include health and safety and reliability assessments; solar collector component evaluation; weather analysis; and a review of selected trade studies which address significant design alternatives. Additional supporting studies which are generally specific to the installation site are reported. These include solar availability analysis; energy load measurements; environmental impact assessment; life cycle cost and economic analysis; heat transfer fluid testing; meteorological/solar station planning; and information dissemination. (WHK)

  19. Association in Long-Evans hooded rats of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels with hemoglobin types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G; Gilman, J; Noble, N; Crews, V

    1978-08-01

    Two sublines of commercially available Long-Evans hooded rats have been developed by genetic selection. These sublines have widely differing levels of erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) due to different alleles at a single genetic locus. In the present work, it is shown that rats from the commercial population are also polymorphic at a hemoglobin locus, probably involving two alleles of the IIIbeta-globin chain locus. Particular hemoglobin types have been found to be strongly associated with certain DPG types, not only in the high-DPG and low-DPG lines but also in the commercial population. Two explanations for this association are considered. One is a single-locus hypothesis, with hemoglobin allelic variation causing DPG variation, and the other is a two-locus hypothesis, with marked linkage disequilibrium.

  20. Hooded seal Cystophora cristata foraging areas in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean-Investigated using three complementary methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Vacquie-Garcia

    Full Text Available Identifying environmental characteristics that define the ecological niche of a species is essential to understanding how changes in physical conditions might affect its distribution and other aspects of its ecology. The present study used satellite relay data loggers (SRDLs to study habitat use by Northeast Atlantic hooded seals (N = 20; 9 adult females, 3 adult males, and 8 juveniles. Three different methods were used in combination to achieve maximum insight regarding key foraging areas for hooded seals in this region, which have decline by 85% in recent decades: 1 first passage time (FPT; 2 vertical transit rate and; 3 change in dive drift rate. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMM were applied to each method to determine whether specific habitat characteristics were associated with foraging. Separate models were run for the post-molting and the post-breeding seasons; sex and age classes were included in the GAMMs. All three methods highlighted a few common geographic areas as being important foraging zones; however, there were also some different areas identified by the different methods, which highlights the importance of using multiple indexes when analyzing tracking and diving data to study foraging behavior. Foraging occurred most commonly in relatively shallow areas with high Sea Surface Temperatures (SST, corresponding to continental shelf areas with Atlantic Water masses. All age and sex classes overlapped spatially to some extent, but the different age and sex groups showed differences in the bathymetry of their foraging areas as well as in their vertical use of the water column. When foraging, pups dove in the upper part of the water column in relatively deep areas. Adult females foraged relatively shallowly in deep water areas too, though in shallower areas than pups. Adult males foraged close to the bottom in shallower areas.

  1. The role of glycogen, glucose and lactate in neuronal activity during hypoxia in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech-Damal, N U; Geiseler, S J; Hoff, M L M; Schliep, R; Ramirez, J-M; Folkow, L P; Burmester, T

    2014-09-05

    The brains of diving mammals are repeatedly exposed to hypoxic conditions during diving. Brain neurons of the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) have been shown to be more hypoxia tolerant than those of mice, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Here we investigated the roles of different metabolic substrates for maintenance of neuronal activity and integrity, by comparing the in vitro spontaneous neuronal activity of brain slices from layer V of the visual cortex of hooded seals with those in mice (Mus musculus). Studies were conducted by manipulating the composition of the artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), containing either 10 mM glucose, or 20 mM lactate, or no external carbohydrate supply (aglycemia). Normoxic, hypoxic and ischemic conditions were applied. The lack of glucose or the application of lactate in the aCSF containing no glucose had little effect on the neuronal activity of seal neurons in either normoxia or hypoxia, while neurons from mice survived in hypoxia only few minutes regardless of the composition of the aCSF. We propose that seal neurons have higher intrinsic energy stores. Indeed, we found about three times higher glycogen stores in the seal brain (∼4.1 ng per μg total protein in the seal cerebrum) than in the mouse brain. Notably, in aCSF containing no glucose, seal neurons can tolerate 20 mM lactate while in mouse neuronal activity vanished after few minutes even in normoxia. This can be considered as an adaptation to long dives, during which lactate accumulates in the blood. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cassini ISS Observations Of The Early Stages Of The Formation Of Titan's South Polar Hood And Vortex In 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert A.; Del Genio, A.; Perry, J.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Turtle, E. P.; Porco, C.; Ovanessian, A.

    2012-10-01

    Northern spring equinox on Titan occurred on August 11, 2009. In March of 2012 the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) on the Cassini spacecraft saw the first evidence for the formation of a polar hood in the atmosphere above Titan’s south pole. Views of the limb showed an optical thickening primarily at about 360 km altitude across a few degrees of latitude centered on the pole. Images of Titan in front of Saturn provide a nearly direct measure of the line-of-sight optical depth as a function of latitude and altitude from about 250 km and higher. Two or more distinct layers are seen, both near the pole and at other latitudes. The highest of these, near 360 km altitude, hosts the embryonic polar hood. On June 27, 2012 ISS observed the pole from high latitude. These images show a distinct and unusual cloudy patch, elongated and not centered on the pole and with an elevated perimeter. The morphology and color indicate an unfamiliar (for Titan) composition and dynamical regime. The interior of the feature consists of concentrations of cloud/haze organized on spatial scales of tens of kilometers. Its morphology is reminiscent of the open cellular convection sometimes seen in the atmospheric boundary layer over Earth’s oceans under conditions of large-scale subsidence. Unlike Earth, where such convection is forced by large surface heat fluxes or the onset of drizzle, convection at 360 km on Titan is more likely to be driven from above by radiative cooling. During the 9 hours we observed Titan, this feature completed a little over one rotation around the pole, providing direct evidence for a polar vortex rotating at a rate roughly consistent with angular-momentum-conserving flow for air displaced from the equator. Part of this work was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Key Metabolic Changes in the Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata Brain in Response to Hypoxia and Reoxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Leivas Müller Hoff

    Full Text Available The brain of diving mammals tolerates low oxygen conditions better than the brain of most terrestrial mammals. Previously, it has been demonstrated that the neurons in brain slices of the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata withstand hypoxia longer than those of mouse, and also tolerate reduced glucose supply and high lactate concentrations. This tolerance appears to be accompanied by a shift in the oxidative energy metabolism to the astrocytes in the seal while in terrestrial mammals the aerobic energy production mainly takes place in neurons. Here, we used RNA-Seq to compare the effect of hypoxia and reoxygenation in vitro on brain slices from the visual cortex of hooded seals. We saw no general reduction of gene expression, suggesting that the response to hypoxia and reoxygenation is an actively regulated process. The treatments caused the preferential upregulation of genes related to inflammation, as found before e.g. in stroke studies using mammalian models. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses showed a downregulation of genes involved in ion transport and other neuronal processes, indicative for a neuronal shutdown in response to a shortage of O2 supply. These differences may be interpreted in terms of an energy saving strategy in the seal's brain. We specifically analyzed the regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism. Hypoxia and reoxygenation caused a similar response, with upregulation of genes involved in glucose metabolism and downregulation of the components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. We also observed upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporter Mct4, suggesting increased lactate efflux. Together, these data indicate that the seal brain responds to the hypoxic challenge by a relative increase in the anaerobic energy metabolism.

  4. 76 FR 19281 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Instrument Landing System (ILS) Localizer (LOC) standard instrument approach procedures at the airport. The... extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ANM MT E5 Bozeman, MT...

  5. MT-ADRES: Multithreading on Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Kanstein, Andreas; Madsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture ADRES (Architecture for Dynamically Reconfigurable Embedded Systems) and its compiler offer high instruction-level parallelism (ILP) to applications by means of a sparsely interconnected array of functional units and register files. As high-ILP archi......The coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture ADRES (Architecture for Dynamically Reconfigurable Embedded Systems) and its compiler offer high instruction-level parallelism (ILP) to applications by means of a sparsely interconnected array of functional units and register files. As high......-ILP architectures achieve only low parallelism when executing partially sequential code segments, which is also known as Amdahl’s law, this paper proposes to extend ADRES to MT-ADRES (Multi-Threaded ADRES) to also exploit thread-level parallelism. On MT-ADRES architectures, the array can be partitioned in multiple...

  6. 77 FR 41939 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ...-0379; Airspace Docket No. 12-ANM-7 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Deer Lodge-City-County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT... System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Deer Lodge-City-County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT...

  7. Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar-like Seq in mt Genome Data detail Data name Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome DOI 10...e Site Policy | Contact Us Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome - RMG | LSDB Archive ... ...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us RMG Nucle

  8. Exchangeable cations in some soils of Mt. Stara planina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belanović Snežana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use in forest and pasture ecosystems requires the respecting of ecological and economic interactions between the individual components of these ecosystems. The content of nutrition elements in the soil solution depends on soil types, climate conditions and vegetation species, i.e., it is conditioned by their cycling in the ecosystem. This paper studies the cation exchange capacity in pasture and forest soils of Mt. Stara Planina.

  9. MT survey in the Minaminoshiro oil field; Minaminoshiro chiiki ni okeru MT ho ni yoru sekiyu tanko (sanjigen MT ho chosa no kento). 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, K; Minegishi, M [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-10-22

    Preliminary experiment, investigation, and study are conducted prior to an experimental 3-D MT (magnetotelluric) survey planned to be carried out in the Minaminoshiro district, Akita Prefecture. In the preliminary investigation, MT measurements were performed at nine locations. It was anticipated that national highways, waste treatment plants, high-voltage power lines, and railways in presence in the district would act as noise sources. Although the impact of such noise was detected in the single site treatment result, yet it was found that it would be mostly eliminated by use of the remote reference treatment. It was learned that the resistivity structure in this district was quite low in contrast or 1 ohm/m against 30 ohm/m, but the result of 3-D model calculation indicated that a sufficient analysis would be possible even in such a low contrast case. Furthermore, as the result of the study of the density of observation stations in the magnetic field, it was found that changes in the response of magnetic field to the resistivity structure would be approximately 2% at the maximum and that the ill effect on the result of measurement would be of the negligible magnitude even when a single magnetic field observation station is deployed against plural electric field observation stations. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Post-transcriptional mending of gene sequences: looking under the hood of mitochondrial gene expression in diplonemids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valach, M.; Moreira, S.; Faktorová, Drahomíra; Lukeš, Julius; Burger, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 12 (2016), s. 1204-1211 ISSN 1547-6286 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-21974S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptic genes * gene fragmentation * trans-splicing * RNA editing * multipartite mtDNA * diplonemids Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.900, year: 2016

  11. b-value distribution in and around Mt. Tarumae, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, K.

    2017-12-01

    Mt. Tarumae is an active volcano located in southeastern Shikotsu caldera, Hokkaido, Japan. Recently, crustal expansion occurred in 1999-2000 and 2013 near the summit of Mt. Tarumae, with a M5.6 earthquake recorded west of the summit on 8 July 2014. In this study, I determined hypocenter distributions and then performed b-value analysis for the period between 1 August 2014 and 12 August 2016 to improve our understanding of the magma system geometry beneath the summit of Mt. Tarumae. Hypocenters are mainly distributed in two regions: 3 - 5 km west of Mt. Tarumae, and beneath the volcano. I then determined b-value distributions. Regions with relatively high b-values ( 1.3) are located at depths of -0.5 to 2.0 km beneath the summit and at depths greater than 6.0 km in the northwestern part at about 1.5 - 3.0 km from the summit, while a region with relatively low b-values ( 0.6) is located at depths of 2.0 - 6.0 km beneath the summit. Compared the b-value distributions with other geophysical observations, it was found that the high b-value region from -0.5 to 2.0 km depth corresponds to regions of lower resistivity, positive self-potential anomaly, and an inflation source observed in 1999-2000. It is thus inferred that this region is generated by crustal heterogeneity, a decrease in effective normal stress, and change of a frictional property due to the development of faults and fissures, and the circulation of hydrothermal fluids. On the other hand, the inflation source observed in 2013 was located near the boundary between the low b-value region beneath the summit and the deeper high b-value region in the northwestern part at about 1.5 - 3.0 km from the summit. Studies of other volcanoes suggest that such a high-b-value region likely corresponds to a magma chamber. From the deeper high b-value region estimated in this study, I am able to point out that the magma chamber is located to depths greater than 6.0 km in the northwestern part at about 1.5 - 3.0 km from the

  12. Palmitoylation at Cys574 is essential for MT1-MMP to promote cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anilkumar, Narayanapanicker; Uekita, Takamasa; Couchman, John R

    2005-01-01

    of the palmitoylated cysteine relative to LLY573, a motif that interacts with mu2 subunit of adaptor protein 2, is critical for the cell motility-promoting activity of MT1-MMP and its clathrin-mediated internalization. Taken together, palmitoylation of MT1-MMP is one of the key posttranslational modifications......MT1-MMP is a type I transmembrane proteinase that promotes cell migration and invasion. Here, we report that MT1-MMP is palmitoylated at Cys574 in the cytoplasmic domain, and this lipid modification is critical for its promotion of cell migration and clathrin-mediated internalization...... that determines MT1-MMP-dependent cell migration....

  13. The Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-Associated Protein SWIB5 Influences mtDNA Architecture and Homologous Recombination

    KAUST Repository

    Blomme, Jonas

    2017-04-19

    In addition to the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts in plant cells also contain genomes. Efficient DNA repair pathways are crucial in these organelles to fix damage resulting from endogenous and exogenous factors. Plant organellar genomes are complex compared with their animal counterparts, and although several plant-specific mediators of organelle DNA repair have been reported, many regulators remain to be identified. Here, we show that a mitochondrial SWI/SNF (nucleosome remodeling) complex B protein, SWIB5, is capable of associating with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Gainand loss-of-function mutants provided evidence for a role of SWIB5 in influencing mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination at specific intermediate-sized repeats both under normal and genotoxic conditions. SWIB5 interacts with other mitochondrial SWIB proteins. Gene expression and mutant phenotypic analysis of SWIB5 and SWIB family members suggests a link between organellar genome maintenance and cell proliferation. Taken together, our work presents a protein family that influences mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination in plants and suggests a link between organelle functioning and plant development.

  14. Remote reference processing in MT survey using GPS clock; MT ho ni okeru GPS wo mochiita jikoku doki system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K; Inoue, J; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosuge, S [DRICO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A report is given about the application of a synchronizing system using clock signals from GPS satellites to a remote reference method which is a technique to reject noise from the MT method. This system uses the C/A code out of the L1 band waves from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites. The new system was operated in MT method-using investigations conducted at China Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, and Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, with the reference points placed several 100km away in Iwate Prefecture on both occasions. It was found as the result that it is basically possible to catch signals from the GPS at any place, that the signals are accurate enough to be applied to time synchronization for the MT method, and that the signals assure a far remote reference method with a separation of several 100km between the sites involved. The referencing process at high frequencies whose feasibility had been doubted proved a success when highly correlated signals were exchanged between two stations over a distance of several 100km. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Residential and service-population exposure to multiple natural hazards in the Mount Hood region of Clackamas County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathie, Amy M.; Wood, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to document residential and service-population exposure to natural hazards in the rural communities of Clackamas County, Oregon, near Mount Hood. The Mount Hood region of Clackamas County has a long history of natural events that have impacted its small, tourism-based communities. To support preparedness and emergency-management planning in the region, a geospatial analysis of population exposure was used to determine the number and type of residents and service populations in flood-, wildfire-, and volcano-related hazard zones. Service populations are a mix of residents and tourists temporarily benefitting from local services, such as retail, education, or recreation. In this study, service population includes day-use visitors at recreational sites, overnight visitors at hotels and resorts, children at schools, and community-center visitors. Although the heavily-forested, rural landscape suggests few people are in the area, there are seasonal peaks of thousands of visitors to the region. “Intelligent” dasymetric mapping efforts using 30-meter resolution land-cover imagery and U.S. Census Bureau data proved ineffective at adequately capturing either the spatial distribution or magnitude of population at risk. Consequently, an address-point-based hybrid dasymetric methodology of assigning population to the physical location of buildings mapped with a global positioning system was employed. The resulting maps of the population (1) provide more precise spatial distributions for hazard-vulnerability assessments, (2) depict appropriate clustering due to higher density structures, such as apartment complexes and multi-unit commercial buildings, and (3) provide new information on the spatial distribution and temporal variation of people utilizing services within the study area. Estimates of population exposure to flooding, wildfire, and volcanic hazards were determined by using overlay analysis in a geographic information system

  16. A reduced number of mtSNPs saturates mitochondrial DNA haplotype diversity of worldwide population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Amigo, Jorge

    2010-05-03

    The high levels of variation characterising the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule are due ultimately to its high average mutation rate; moreover, mtDNA variation is deeply structured in different populations and ethnic groups. There is growing interest in selecting a reduced number of mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) that account for the maximum level of discrimination power in a given population. Applications of the selected mtSNP panel range from anthropologic and medical studies to forensic genetic casework. This study proposes a new simulation-based method that explores the ability of different mtSNP panels to yield the maximum levels of discrimination power. The method explores subsets of mtSNPs of different sizes randomly chosen from a preselected panel of mtSNPs based on frequency. More than 2,000 complete genomes representing three main continental human population groups (Africa, Europe, and Asia) and two admixed populations ("African-Americans" and "Hispanics") were collected from GenBank and the literature, and were used as training sets. Haplotype diversity was measured for each combination of mtSNP and compared with existing mtSNP panels available in the literature. The data indicates that only a reduced number of mtSNPs ranging from six to 22 are needed to account for 95% of the maximum haplotype diversity of a given population sample. However, only a small proportion of the best mtSNPs are shared between populations, indicating that there is not a perfect set of "universal" mtSNPs suitable for all population contexts. The discrimination power provided by these mtSNPs is much higher than the power of the mtSNP panels proposed in the literature to date. Some mtSNP combinations also yield high diversity values in admixed populations. The proposed computational approach for exploring combinations of mtSNPs that optimise the discrimination power of a given set of mtSNPs is more efficient than previous empirical approaches. In contrast to

  17. ATU/Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Military Large-Scale Experiment (LSE-1): system design and support activities. Final report, November 23, 1976-November 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The ATU/Fort Hood Solar Total Energy System will include a concentrating solar collector field of several acres. During periods of direct insolation, a heat-transfer fluid will be circulated through the collector field and thus heated to 500 to 600/sup 0/F. Some of the fluid will be circulated through a steam generator to drive a turbine-generator set; additional fluid will be stored in insulated tanks for use when solar energy is not available. The electrical output will satisfy a portion of the electrical load at Fort Hood's 87,000 Troop Housing Complex. Heat extracted from the turbine exhaust in the form of hot water will be used for space heating, absorption air conditioning, and domestic water heating at the 87,000 Complex. Storage tanks for the hot water are also included. The systems analysis and program support activities include studies of solar availability and energy requirements at Fort Hood, investigation of interfacing LSE-1 with existing energy systems at the 87,000 Complex, and preliminary studies of environmental, health, and safety considerations. An extensive survey of available concentrating solar collectors and modifications to a computerized system simulation model for LSE-1 use are also reported. Important program support activities are military liaison and information dissemination. The engineering test program reported involved completion of the Solar Engineering Test Module (SETM) and extensive performance testing of a single module of the linear-focusing collector.

  18. Mt. Elgon, Africa, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The striking contrast of geologic structures in Africa is shown in this shaded relief image of Mt. Elgon on the left and a section of the Great Rift Valley on the right. Mt. Elgon is a solitary extinct volcano straddling the border between Uganda and Kenya, and at 4,321 meters (14,178 feet) tall is the eighth highest mountain in Africa. It is positioned on the Pre-Cambriam bedrock of the Trans Nzoia Plateau, and is similar to other such volcanoes in East Africa in that it is associated with the formation of the Rift Valley. However one thing that sets Mt. Elgon apart is its age. Although there is no verifiable evidence of its earliest volcanic activity, Mt. Elgon is estimated to be at least 24 million years old, making it the oldest extinct volcano in East Africa. This presents a striking comparison to Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa at 5,895 meters (19,341 feet), which is just over one million years old. Judging by the diameter of its base, it is a common belief among geological experts that Mt. Elgon was once the highest mountains in Africa, however erosion has played a significant role in reducing the height to its present value. Juxtaposed with this impressive mountain is a section of the Great Rift Valley, a geological fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Erosion has concealed some sections, but in some sections like that shown here, there are sheer cliffs several thousand feet high. The present configuration of the valley, which dates from the mid-Pleistocene epoch, results from a rifting process associated with thermal currents in the Earth's mantle. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height

  19. DNA Barcoding the Medusozoa using mtCOI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortman, Brian D.; Bucklin, Ann; Pagès, Francesc; Youngbluth, Marsh

    2010-12-01

    The Medusozoa are a clade within the Cnidaria comprising the classes Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, and Cubozoa. Identification of medusozoan species is challenging, even for taxonomic experts, due to their fragile forms and complex, morphologically-distinct life history stages. In this study 231 sequences for a portion of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (mtCOI) gene were obtained from 95 species of Medusozoans including; 84 hydrozoans (61 siphonophores, eight anthomedusae, four leptomedusae, seven trachymedusae, and four narcomedusae), 10 scyphozoans (three coronatae, four semaeostomae, two rhizostomae, and one stauromedusae), and one cubozoan. This region of mtCOI has been used as a DNA barcode (i.e., a molecular character for species recognition and discrimination) for a diverse array of taxa, including some Cnidaria. Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) genetic distances between sequence variants within species ranged from 0 to 0.057 (mean 0.013). Within the 13 genera for which multiple species were available, K2P distance between congeneric species ranged from 0.056 to 0.381. A cluster diagram generated by Neighbor Joining (NJ) using K2P distances reliably clustered all barcodes of the same species with ≥99% bootstrap support, ensuring accurate identification of species. Intra- and inter-specific variation of the mtCOI gene for the Medusozoa are appropriate for this gene to be used as a DNA barcode for species-level identification, but not for phylogenetic analysis or taxonomic classification of unknown sequences at higher taxonomic levels. This study provides a set of molecular tools that can be used to address questions of speciation, biodiversity, life-history, and population boundaries in the Medusozoa.

  20. Spine growth mechanisms: friction and seismicity at Mt. Unzen, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Hirose, Takehiro; Henton De Angelis, Sarah; De Angelis, Silvio; Umakoshi, Kodo; Miwa, Takahiro; Wadsworth, Fabian; Dingwell, Don; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    The final episode of dome growth during the 1991-1995 eruption of Mt. Unzen was characterised by spine extrusion accompanied by repetitive seismicity. This type of cyclic activity has been observed at several dome-building volcanoes and recent work suggests a source mechanism of brittle failure of magma in the conduit. Spine growth may proceed by densification and closure of permeable pathways within the uppermost conduit magma, leading to sealing of the dome and inflation of the edifice. Amplified stresses on the wall rock and plug cause brittle failure near the conduit wall once static friction forces are overcome, and during spine growth these fractures may propagate to the dome surface. The preservation of these features is rare, and the conduit is typically inaccessible; therefore spines, the extruded manifestation of upper conduit material, provide the opportunity to study direct evidence of brittle processes in the conduit. At Mt. Unzen the spine retains evidence for brittle deformation and slip, however mechanical constraints on the formation of these features and their potential impact on eruption dynamics have not been well constrained. Here, we conduct an investigation into the process of episodic spine growth using high velocity friction apparatus at variable shear slip rate (0.4-1.5 m.s-1) and normal stress (0.4-3.5 MPa) on dome rock from Mt. Unzen, generating frictional melt at velocity >0.4 m.s-1 and normal stress >0.7 MPa. Our results show that the presence of frictional melt causes a deviation from Byerlee's frictional rule for rock friction. Melt generation is a disequilibrium process: initial amphibole breakdown leads to melt formation, followed by chemical homogenization of the melt layer. Ultimately, the experimentally generated frictional melts have a similar final chemistry, thickness and comminuted clast size distribution, thereby facilitating the extrapolation of a single viscoelastic model to describe melt-lubricated slip events at Mt

  1. Mt. Apo geothermal project : a learning experience in sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ote, Leonardo M.; De Jesus, Agnes C.

    1997-01-01

    The Mt. Apo geothermal project, a critical component of the Philippine energy program met stiff opposition from 1988-1991. Seemingly unresolvable legal, environmental and cultural issues between the government developer, the Philippine National Oil Company-Energy Development Corporation (PNOC-EDC) and various affected sectors delayed the project for two years. The paper discusses the efforts undertaken by the developer to resolve these conflicts through a series of initiatives that transformed the project into a legally, environmentally and socially acceptable project. Lastly, the PNOC-EDC experience has evolved a new set of procedures for the environmental evaluation of development project in the Philippines. (author)

  2. Sidereal anisotropy of small air showers observed at Mt. Norikura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, K.; Sakakibara, S.; Fujimoto, K.; Fujii, Z.; Ueno, H.; Kondo, I.

    1977-01-01

    Observation of small air showers has been continued from August 1970, using a part of the multidirectional cosmic ray telescope at Mt. Norikura. Most significant result obtained from this observation was a sidereal diurnal anisotropy of amplitude 0.051 +- 0.004% with maximum at 1.0 +- 0.5 h, which showed a persistent trend over six years. Based on the results of the observation together with those obtained by Gombosi et al. and Fenton et al., a tentative model of sidereal anisotropies is presented. (author)

  3. Food-induced reinforcement is abrogated by the genetic deletion of the MT1 or MT2 melatonin receptor in C3H/HeN mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Shannon J; Hudson, Randall L; Dubocovich, Margarita L

    2018-05-02

    Palatable food is known for its ability to enhance reinforcing responses. Studies have suggested a circadian variation in both drug and natural reinforcement, with each following its own time course. The goal of this study was to determine the role of the MT 1 and MT 2 melatonin receptors in palatable snack food-induced reinforcement, as measured by the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm during the light and dark phases. C3H/HeN wild-type mice were trained for snack food-induced CPP at either ZT 6 - 8 (ZT: Zeitgeber time; ZT 0 = lights on), when endogenous melatonin levels are low, or ZT 19 - 21, when melatonin levels are high. These time points also correspond to the high and low points for expression of the circadian gene Period1, respectively. The amount of snack food (chow, Cheetos®, Froot Loops® and Oreos®) consumed was of similar magnitude at both times, however only C3H/HeN mice conditioned to snack food at ZT 6 - 8 developed a place preference. C3H/HeN mice with a genetic deletion of either the MT 1 (MT 1 KO) or MT 2 (MT 2 KO) receptor tested at ZT 6 - 8 did not develop a place preference for snack food. Although the MT 2 KO mice showed a similar amount of snack food consumed when compared to wild-type mice, the MT 1 KO mice consumed significantly less than either genotype. We conclude that in our mouse model snack food-induced CPP is dependent on time of day and the presence of the MT 1 or MT 2 receptors, suggesting a role for melatonin and its receptors in snack food-induced reinforcement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of melatonin receptor MT1 in cells of human invasive ductal breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, Karolina; Pula, Bartosz; Zemla, Agata; Owczarek, Tomasz; Wojnar, Andrzej; Rys, Janusz; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzena; Ugorski, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    In humans, two main types of membrane melatonin receptors have been identified, MT1 and MT2. Expression of MT1 in neoplastic cells seems to increase the efficacy of melatonin's oncostatic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and the intensity of MT1 expression in breast cancer cells and to correlate it with clinicopathological factors. Immunohistochemical studies (IHC) were conducted on 190 cases of invasive ductal breast carcinomas (IDC) and molecular studies were performed on 29 cases of frozen tumor fragments and selected breast cancer cell lines. Most of the studied tumors manifested a membranous/cytoplasmic IHC expression of MT1. In IDC, the MT1 expression was higher than in fibrocystic breast disease. MT1 expression was higher in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and HER2 positive (HER2+) tumors. Triple negative tumors (TN) manifested the lowest MT1 expression level. The lowest MT1 protein expression level was noted in the TN breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 compared with ER+ cell lines MCF-7 and SK-BR-3. MT1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with the malignancy grade of the studied IDC cases. Moreover, higher MT1 expression was associated with patients' longer overall survival (OS) in the group of ER+ breast cancers and treated with tamoxifen. Multivariate analysis indicated that MT1 was an independent prognostic factor in the ER+ tumors for OS and event-free survival in the ER+ tumors. The results of this study may point to a potential prognostic and therapeutic significance of MT1 in IDC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. 78 FR 33047 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Carson Ranger District Mt. Rose Ski Tahoe-Atoma Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Mt. Rose Ski Tahoe--Atoma Area Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... the effects of a proposal from Mt. Rose Ski Tahoe (Mt. Rose) to expand its lift and terrain network. The project is located approximately 12 miles west of the intersection of Mt. Rose Highway (Nevada...

  6. Studies on the localization of Trypanosoma brucei in the female reproductive tract of bka mice and hooded lister rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipepa, J.A.S.; Brown, H.; Holmes, P.

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish whether Trypanosoma brucei migrated preferentially to the reproductive tracts of female BKA mice, or Hooded Lister rats and lodged there as the site of choice compared to other organs. Blood flow to the reproductive tracts, the liver and spleen was measured using red blood cells labelled with chromium- 51. The distribution of trypanosomes labelled with 75 Se-methionine. The average percentage of the blood flow to the reproductive tract was 0.21Plus or minus0.08 in mice, while the mean concentration of trypanosomes there was 0.30% in both mice and rats. Blood flow to the liver was lower than the percentage distribution of Se-labelled T.Brucei(5.17Plus or minus1.34 versus 8.1Plus or Minus1.2). There were, on the contrary, less labelled trypanosomes as compared to the mean blood flow to the spleen (0.54% plus or minus0.18 versus 2.10%pPlus or minus0.88). After 24 hours there were adequate numbers of T. brucei in the reproductive tract to cause parasitaemia in recipient mice. From these preliminary data it was concluded that T. brucei did not lodge in the reproductive organ system a site of choice. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Robin Hood Gardens: una interpretación desde el pensamiento topográfico de los Limites Romani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Casino

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El estrecho vínculo con el territorio que poseían los Limites Romani demostraba, según Alison Smithson, un profundo “pensamiento topográfico”: un compromiso con el lugar basado en un posicionamiento estratégico en el paisaje, una constante adaptación a las condiciones cambiantes del terreno y un intenso modelado de la superficie del suelo. Aspectos fundamentales de estas fortificaciones fronterizas romanas cuya esencia podemos identificar en algunos proyectos clave de Alison y Peter Smithson. Proyectos enraizados que centraban su atención en el plano del suelo, en articular el contacto de los edificios con el terreno y en configurar sus espacios exteriores. Entre estos, los Robin Hood Gardens mostraban de un modo elocuente la fascinación que sentían los Smithson por la condición topográfica de aquellas obras de ingeniería romana. Un interés que les llevaría a explorar conceptos como “límite” y “protección”, así como a recuperar el conjunto de alteraciones topográficas defensivas convirtiéndolas —despojadas de su naturaleza militar— en operaciones clave para radicar en el lugar (del latín radicare: echar raíces, enraizar: una sofisticada apropiación que gravitó “de la defensa al enraizamiento”

  8. The regeneration of a multi-ethnic mixed-use area: The case of Robin Hood Chase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Bentley

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban designers show increasing interest in promoting community participation in urban regeneration and especially housing regeneration. However, effective participation has proved difficult in multi-ethnic mixed-use areas, with their wide range of different (and often conflicting interest groups. This paper, presented in case-study form, analyses a project in one such area: the Robin Hood Chase local centre in St. Ann’s area of Nottingham. It pays particular attention to the identification of different interest groups and their associated institutions, the use of local media and social events to involve these groups in the urban design process, the use of rearrangeable models in a process of “enquiry by design”, and the production of a widely acceptable urban design strategy for the area. Analysis of feedback from participants indicates a high level of satisfaction both with the final physical design proposal and with the process itself; and also identifies directions for further development in the approach and techniques employed.

  9. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 1. System criteria and design description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    This volume documents the preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas. Current system, subsystem, and component designs are described and additional studies which support selection among significant design alternatives are presented. Overall system requirements which form the system design basis are presented. These include program objectives; performance and output load requirements; industrial, statutory, and regulatory standards; and site interface requirements. Material in this section will continue to be issued separately in the Systems Requirements Document and maintained current through revision throughout future phases of the project. Overall system design and detailed subsystem design descriptions are provided. Consideration of operation and maintenance is reflected in discussion of each subsystem design as well as in an integrated overall discussion. Included are the solar collector subsystem; the thermal storage subsystem, the power conversion sybsystem (including electrical generation and distribution); the heating/cooling and domestic hot water subsystems; overall instrumentation and control; and the STES building and physical plant. The design of several subsystems has progressed beyond the preliminary stage; descriptions for such subsystems are therefore provided in more detail than others to provide complete documentation of the work performed. In some cases, preliminary design parameters require specific verificaton in the definitive design phase and are identified in the text. Subsystem descriptions will continue to be issued and revised separately to maintain accuracy during future phases of the project. (WHK)

  10. Modeling the impact of watershed management policies on marine ecosystem services with application to Hood Canal, WA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, D. A.; Kim, C.; Marsik, M.; Spiridonov, G.; Toft, J.; Ruckelshaus, M.; Guerry, A.; Plummer, M.

    2011-12-01

    Humans obtain numerous benefits from marine ecosystems, including fish to eat; mitigation of storm damage; nutrient and water cycling and primary production; and cultural, aesthetic and recreational values. However, managing these benefits, or ecosystem services, in the marine world relies on an integrated approach that accounts for both marine and watershed activities. Here we present the results of a set of simple, physically-based, and spatially-explicit models that quantify the effects of terrestrial activities on marine ecosystem services. Specifically, we model the circulation and water quality of Hood Canal, WA, USA, a fjord system in Puget Sound where multiple human uses of the nearshore ecosystem (e.g., shellfish aquaculture, recreational Dungeness crab and shellfish harvest) can be compromised when water quality is poor (e.g., hypoxia, excessive non-point source pollution). Linked to the estuarine water quality model is a terrestrial hydrology model that simulates streamflow and nutrient loading, so land cover and climate changes in watersheds can be reflected in the marine environment. In addition, a shellfish aquaculture model is linked to the water quality model to test the sensitivity of the ecosystem service and its value to both terrestrial and marine activities. The modeling framework is general and will be publicly available, allowing easy comparisons of watershed impacts on marine ecosystem services across multiple scales and regions.

  11. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells and internal content. Escherichia coli was isolated from the internal contents of eggs come from an street fair. In aerobic mesophilic counts were obtained from eggs supermarkets counts CFU/g/egg shell of 5,8 x 105, 1,21 x 105 e 4,7 x 103. In relation to the fairs, the counts were 7,2 x 104, 5,66 x 104 e 8,7 x 103. The absence of Salmonella spp. the evaluated eggs classifies them as fit for consumption for compliance with current legislation. However, the presence of E. coli and the values of aerobic mesophilic counts and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to establish measures to reduce bacterial contamination of shell eggs sold out at Sinop, MT.

  12. Vulnerability of settlements around Mt. Cameroon volcano, Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Spinetti, Claudia; Ngouanet, Chretien; Tchoudam, David; Kouokam, Emmanuel; Thierry, Pierre; Bignami, Christian; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria

    2010-05-01

    Located at the bottom of the Gulf of Guinea, Cameroon is exposed to a large variety of natural hazards, including volcanism. Most of the hazard are concentrated around the active volcano Mt. Cameroon which combines effusive and explosive types of activity. The threatened stakes are numerous and different exposed: people, settlements, industrial plantations, petrol refinery and many other factories and infrastructures. Until 2005, no risk management plans has been available. In 2006, the French Embassy in Cameroon, within the framework of a financial convention between Cameroon and France, put in place the GRINP (Management of Natural Risks and Civil Protection) project whose objective was to reinforce the capacity of Cameroon's civil protection department and thus, contribute to the improvement of the security of the population faced with catastrophes. The objective was to realize a Risk Prevention Plan at a local council scale, and taking into consideration the specific natural risks of each zone. The general objective of the RPP was to clearly draw land use maps for risks zones, showing the overlay of stakes with risk of different intensities. In 2008 European Commission funded the Mia-Vita project (Mitigating and Assessing Volcanic Impacts on Terrain and human Activities). The aim of the project is to improve the crisis management capabilities based on monitoring and early warning systems and secure communications; reduction of people's vulnerability and development of recovering capabilities after an event occurs for both local communities and ecological systems. Keyword: natural hazards, Mt. Cameroon, vulnerability, risk prevention plan

  13. Natural radioactivity in volcanic ash from Mt. Pinatubo eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, E.B.; De Vera, C.M.; Garcia, T.Y.; Dela Cruz, F.M.; Esguerra, L.V.; Castaneda, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    Last June 15, 1991, a major pyroclastic eruption occurred from Mt. Pinatubo volcano located in Zambales, Central Luzon. The radiological impact of this eruption was assessed based on the concentrations of the principal naturally occurring radionuclides observed in volcanic ash. The volcanic ash samples were collected from locations which are within 50-km radius of Mt. Pinatubo at various times after the eruption. The mean activity concentrations in Bq/kg wet weight of the natural radionuclides in volcanic ash were as follows: 12.6 for 238 U, 14.0 for 232 Th and 330 for 40 K. These values are significantly higher than the mean activity concentrations of these radionuclides observed in topsoil in the same provinces before the eruption. This suggests that with the deposition of large quantities of volcanic ash and lahar in Central Luzon and concomitant topographic changes, the distribution and quantities of radionuclides which gave rise to terrestrial radiation may have also changed. Outdoor radon concentrations measured three days and later after the eruption were within normal background values. (auth.). 4 refs.; 5 tabs.; 1 fig

  14. Reservoir characterization of the Mt. Simon Sandstone, Illinois Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Damico, J.; Leetaru, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    The integration of open hole well log analyses, core analyses and pressure transient analyses was used for reservoir characterization of the Mt. Simon sandstone. Characterization of the injection interval provides the basis for a geologic model to support the baseline MVA model, specify pressure design requirements of surface equipment, develop completion strategies, estimate injection rates, and project the CO2 plume distribution.The Cambrian-age Mt. Simon Sandstone overlies the Precambrian granite basement of the Illinois Basin. The Mt. Simon is relatively thick formation exceeding 800 meters in some areas of the Illinois Basin. In the deeper part of the basin where sequestration is likely to occur at depths exceeding 1000 m, horizontal core permeability ranges from less than 1 ?? 10-12 cm 2 to greater than 1 ?? 10-8 cm2. Well log and core porosity can be up to 30% in the basal Mt. Simon reservoir. For modeling purposes, reservoir characterization includes absolute horizontal and vertical permeability, effective porosity, net and gross thickness, and depth. For horizontal permeability, log porosity was correlated with core. The core porosity-permeability correlation was improved by using grain size as an indication of pore throat size. After numerous attempts to identify an appropriate log signature, the calculated cementation exponent from Archie's porosity and resistivity relationships was used to identify which porosity-permeability correlation to apply and a permeability log was made. Due to the relatively large thickness of the Mt. Simon, vertical permeability is an important attribute to understand the distribution of CO2 when the injection interval is in the lower part of the unit. Only core analyses and specifically designed pressure transient tests can yield vertical permeability. Many reservoir flow models show that 500-800 m from the injection well most of the CO2 migrates upward depending on the magnitude of the vertical permeability and CO2 injection

  15. Myopathic mtDNA Depletion Syndrome Due to Mutation in TK2 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, Elena; García-Silva, María Teresa; Quijada-Fraile, Pilar; Rodríguez-García, María Elena; Rivera, Henry; Hernández-Laín, Aurelio; Coca-Robinot, David; Fernández-Toral, Joaquín; Arenas, Joaquín; Martín, Miguel A; Martínez-Azorín, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify the disease gene(s) in a Spanish girl with failure to thrive, muscle weakness, mild facial weakness, elevated creatine kinase, deficiency of mitochondrial complex III and depletion of mtDNA. With whole-exome sequencing data, it was possible to get the whole mtDNA sequencing and discard any pathogenic variant in this genome. The analysis of whole exome uncovered a homozygous pathogenic mutation in thymidine kinase 2 gene ( TK2; NM_004614.4:c.323 C>T, p.T108M). TK2 mutations have been identified mainly in patients with the myopathic form of mtDNA depletion syndromes. This patient presents an atypical TK2-related myopathic form of mtDNA depletion syndromes, because despite having a very low content of mtDNA (TK2 gene in mtDNA depletion syndromes and expanded the phenotypic spectrum.

  16. Genetic dysfunction of MT-ATP6 causes axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pitceathly, Robert D S

    2012-09-11

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder, affecting 1 in 2,500 individuals. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are not generally considered within the differential diagnosis of patients with uncomplicated inherited neuropathy, despite the essential requirement of ATP for axonal function. We identified the mtDNA mutation m.9185T>C in MT-ATP6, encoding the ATP6 subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase (OXPHOS complex V), at homoplasmic levels in a family with mitochondrial disease in whom a severe motor axonal neuropathy was a striking feature. This led us to hypothesize that mutations in the 2 mtDNA complex V subunit encoding genes, MT-ATP6 and MT-ATP8, might be an unrecognized cause of isolated axonal CMT and distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN).

  17. Exercise Intolerance and Myoglobinuria Associated with a Novel Maternally Inherited MT-ND1 Mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafiq, Jabin; Duno, Morten; Østergaard, Elsebet

    2016-01-01

    The most common clinical phenotype caused by a mtDNA mutation in complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. We report a family with a novel maternally inherited homoplasmic mtDNA m.4087A>G mutation in the ND1 gene (MT-ND1) associated with isolated...... myopathy, recurrent episodes of myoglobinuria, and rhabdomyolysis. DNA from blood in seven family members and muscle from four family members were PCR amplified and sequenced directly and assessed for the m.4087A>G variation in MT-ND1. Mitochondrial enzyme activity in all muscle biopsies was measured. PCR...... myoglobinuria is a rare phenotype of mitochondrial myopathies. We report this phenotype in a family affected by a novel homoplasmic mutation in MT-ND1. It is the first time such a phenotype has been associated with complex I gene mutations and a homoplasmic mutation of mtDNA....

  18. Regulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by Medicago truncatula bHLH transcription factor MtTT8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penghui; Chen, Beibei; Zhang, Gaoyang; Chen, Longxiang; Dong, Qiang; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Zhao, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The MYB- basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 complexes regulating anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in plants are not fully understood. Here Medicago truncatula bHLH MtTT8 was characterized as a central component of these ternary complexes that control anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis. Mttt8 mutant seeds have a transparent testa phenotype with reduced PAs and anthocyanins. MtTT8 restores PA and anthocyanin productions in Arabidopsis tt8 mutant. Ectopic expression of MtTT8 restores anthocyanins and PAs in mttt8 plant and hairy roots and further enhances both productions in wild-type hairy roots. Transcriptomic analyses and metabolite profiling of mttt8 mutant seeds and M. truncatula hairy roots (mttt8 mutant, mttt8 mutant complemented with MtTT8, or MtTT8 overexpression lines) indicate that MtTT8 regulates a subset of genes involved in PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis. MtTT8 is genetically regulated by MtLAP1, MtPAR and MtWD40-1. Combinations of MtPAR, MtLAP1, MtTT8 and MtWD40-1 activate MtTT8 promoter in yeast assay. MtTT8 interacts with these transcription factors to form regulatory complexes. MtTT8, MtWD40-1 and an MYB factor, MtPAR or MtLAP1, interacted and activated promoters of anthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin synthase to regulate PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis, respectively. Our results provide new insights into the complex regulation of PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis in M. truncatula. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Characterization of pancreatic lesions from MT-tgf alpha, Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha/Ela-myc single and double transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Dezhong Joshua; Wang, Yong; Wu, Jiusheng; Adsay, Nazmi Volkan; Grignon, David; Khanani, Fayyaz; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2006-07-05

    In order to identify good animal models for investigating therapeutic and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer, we analyzed pancreatic lesions from several transgenic models and made a series of novel findings. Female MT-tgf alpha mice of the MT100 line developed pancreatic proliferation, acinar-ductal metaplasia, multilocular cystic neoplasms, ductal adenocarcinomas and prominent fibrosis, while the lesions in males were less severe. MT-tgf alpha-ES transgenic lines of both sexes developed slowly progressing lesions that were similar to what was seen in MT100 males. In both MT100 and MT-tgf alpha-ES lines, TGF alpha transgene was expressed mainly in proliferating ductal cells. Ela-myc transgenic mice with a mixed C57BL/6, SJL and FVB genetic background developed pancreatic tumors at 2-7 months of age, and half of the tumors were ductal adenocarcinomas, similar to what was reported originally by Sandgren et al 1. However, in 20% of the mice, the tumors metastasized to the liver. MT100/Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha-ES/Ela-myc double transgenic mice developed not only acinar carcinomas and mixed carcinomas as previously reported but also various ductal-originated lesions, including multilocular cystic neoplasms and ductal adenocarcinomas. The double transgenic tumors were more malignant and metastasized to the liver at a higher frequency (33%) compared with the Ela-myc tumors. Sequencing of the coding region of p16ink4, k-ras and Rb cDNA in small numbers of pancreatic tumors did not identify mutations. The short latency for tumor development, the variety of tumor morphology and the liver metastases seen in Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha/Ela-myc mice make these animals good models for investigating new therapeutic and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer.

  20. MT2-D inversion analysis in Kakkonda geothermal field; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki ni okeru MT ho nijigen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, S [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Data, collected from an MT method-assisted survey conducted in the Kakkonda geothermal region in 1987, was re-examined, and a new structure was found. The review was carried out by use of a 2D analysis in the TM mode. According to the 1D analysis of 1987 and the geological data gathered then, it is estimated that the resistivity structure of this region runs in the northwest-southeast direction. A northeast-southwest traverse line was set for this analysis, orthogonal to the strike, and the impedance at each observation spot was caused to rotate to this direction across the whole range of frequency. Furthermore, in 1994-95, surveys were conducted using arrayed CSMT/MT methods. All these sum up to indicate that a high-resistivity region extends northwest in the southwestern part of the Kakkonda river but that there exists a low-resistivity region of several 10 Ohm m centering about the B traverse line. The high-resistivity region deep in the ground being the target of excavation in the Kakkonda region, to collect knowledge about this high-resistivity is important, and here the effectiveness of the 2d analysis has been verified. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Melatonin acts through MT1/MT2 receptors to activate hypothalamic Akt and suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Juliana A; Kinote, Andrezza; Ignacio-Souza, Letícia M; de Araújo, Thiago M; Razolli, Daniela S; Doneda, Diego L; Paschoal, Lívia B; Lellis-Santos, Camilo; Bertolini, Gisele L; Velloso, Lício A; Bordin, Silvana; Anhê, Gabriel F

    2013-07-15

    Melatonin can contribute to glucose homeostasis either by decreasing gluconeogenesis or by counteracting insulin resistance in distinct models of obesity. However, the precise mechanism through which melatonin controls glucose homeostasis is not completely understood. Male Wistar rats were administered an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of melatonin and one of following: an icv injection of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, an icv injection of a melatonin receptor (MT) antagonist, or an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anesthetized rats were subjected to pyruvate tolerance test to estimate in vivo glucose clearance after pyruvate load and in situ liver perfusion to assess hepatic gluconeogenesis. The hypothalamus was removed to determine Akt phosphorylation. Melatonin injections in the central nervous system suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased hypothalamic Akt phosphorylation. These effects of melatonin were suppressed either by icv injections of PI3K inhibitors and MT antagonists and by ip injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. We conclude that melatonin activates hypothalamus-liver communication that may contribute to circadian adjustments of gluconeogenesis. These data further suggest a physiopathological relationship between the circadian disruptions in metabolism and reduced levels of melatonin found in type 2 diabetes patients.

  2. Metabolic rescue in pluripotent cells from patients with mtDNA disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong; Folmes, Clifford D L; Wu, Jun; Morey, Robert; Mora-Castilla, Sergio; Ocampo, Alejandro; Ma, Li; Poulton, Joanna; Wang, Xinjian; Ahmed, Riffat; Kang, Eunju; Lee, Yeonmi; Hayama, Tomonari; Li, Ying; Van Dyken, Crystal; Gutierrez, Nuria Marti; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Koski, Amy; Mitalipov, Nargiz; Amato, Paula; Wolf, Don P; Huang, Taosheng; Terzic, Andre; Laurent, Louise C; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2015-08-13

    Mitochondria have a major role in energy production via oxidative phosphorylation, which is dependent on the expression of critical genes encoded by mitochondrial (mt)DNA. Mutations in mtDNA can cause fatal or severely debilitating disorders with limited treatment options. Clinical manifestations vary based on mutation type and heteroplasmy (that is, the relative levels of mutant and wild-type mtDNA within each cell). Here we generated genetically corrected pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) from patients with mtDNA disease. Multiple induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines were derived from patients with common heteroplasmic mutations including 3243A>G, causing mitochondrial encephalomyopathy and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), and 8993T>G and 13513G>A, implicated in Leigh syndrome. Isogenic MELAS and Leigh syndrome iPS cell lines were generated containing exclusively wild-type or mutant mtDNA through spontaneous segregation of heteroplasmic mtDNA in proliferating fibroblasts. Furthermore, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enabled replacement of mutant mtDNA from homoplasmic 8993T>G fibroblasts to generate corrected Leigh-NT1 PSCs. Although Leigh-NT1 PSCs contained donor oocyte wild-type mtDNA (human haplotype D4a) that differed from Leigh syndrome patient haplotype (F1a) at a total of 47 nucleotide sites, Leigh-NT1 cells displayed transcriptomic profiles similar to those in embryo-derived PSCs carrying wild-type mtDNA, indicative of normal nuclear-to-mitochondrial interactions. Moreover, genetically rescued patient PSCs displayed normal metabolic function compared to impaired oxygen consumption and ATP production observed in mutant cells. We conclude that both reprogramming approaches offer complementary strategies for derivation of PSCs containing exclusively wild-type mtDNA, through spontaneous segregation of heteroplasmic mtDNA in individual iPS cell lines or mitochondrial replacement by SCNT in homoplasmic mtDNA-based disease.

  3. Machine translation (MT): qualità, produttività, customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fellet, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the impact of recent technological developments in machine translation (MT) in the language industry. The objectives are: 1. To define the value of MT in terms of suitability and convenience in meeting expressed requirements in those cases where MT is demanded; 2. To examine the potential increase in productivity through a conscious use of the tool; 3. To analyse those activities aimed at satisfying the customer’s explicit and impli...

  4. Neoglacial fluctuations of Deming Glacier, Mt. Baker, Washington USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, G.; Menounos, B.; Scott, K.; Clague, J. J.; Tucker, D.; Riedel, J.; Davis, P.

    2007-12-01

    Deming Glacier flows from the upper west slopes of Mt. Baker, a stratovolcano in the Cascade Range of Washington, USA. The north and south lateral moraines of Deming Glacier are composed of at least four tills separated by layers of detrital wood and sheared stumps in growth position. The stratigraphy records fluctuations of the glacier during the Holocene. The outer ten rings of an in situ stump from the middle wood layer, which is about 40 m below the north lateral moraine crest and 1.2 km downvalley from the present glacier terminus, yielded an age of 1750 ± 50~~ 14C yr BP [1810-1550 cal yr BP]. The stump revealed at least 300 rings and thus records a period of landscape stability and relatively restricted glaciation for several hundred years prior to ca. 1750 14C yr BP . Samples from the lowest wood layer also have been submitted for radiocarbon dating. Outer rings of detrital wood samples collected from two wood mats exposed in the south lateral moraine, 2.3 km downvalley of the glacier terminus, returned radiocarbon ages of 1600 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [1550- 1410 cal yr BP] and 430 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [AD 1420-1620]. These data indicate that Deming Glacier advanced over a vegetated moraine sometime after 1810 cal yr BP to a position less extensive that it achieved at the peak of the Little Ice Age. The glacier then receded before it began its final and most extensive Holocene advance after AD 1420. The older advance is correlative with the 'First Millennium AD' advance, recently recognized throughout western North America. The younger advance coincides with an advance of Mt. Baker's Easton Glacier [AD 1430-1630], and advances of many alpine glaciers elsewhere in western North America. Our data suggest that glaciers on Mt. Baker fluctuated in a similar manner to alpine glaciers in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and in other mountain ranges of northwest North America during Neoglaciation.

  5. Influência de sistemas de plantio e armadilha adesiva na incidência de Frankliniella williamsi Hood na cultura do milho = Influence of planting systems and adhesive trap on the incidence of Frankliniella williamsi Hood in crop maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves de Albuquerque

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar a influência de diferentes sistemas de plantio de milho e o efeito de armadilha adesiva na incidência de Frankliniella williamsi Hood. Os tratamentos consistiram no plantio direto do milho sobre aveia dessecada com glyphosate, aveia tombada, aveia roçada e plantas daninhas, aveia incorporada e plantio convencional. Alguns tratamentos foram associados a armadilha adesiva de coloração azul, colocada horizontalmente no centro da parcela. Verificou-se que tanto a presença de armadilha quanto os diferentes sistemas de plantio influíram significativamente na infestação das plantas de milho pelo tripes, sendo que os tratamentos “aveia dessecada” e “aveia roçada e plantas daninhas” apresentaram menor incidência do inseto, com esse efeito diminuindo com o desenvolvimento das plantas.This research aimed to evaluate the influence of different systems of corn planting and the effect of adhesive trap on the incidence ofFrankliniella williamsi. The treatments consisted of sowing the corn seed directly on oats dried by glyphosate, tilt oats, cut oats and weeds, incorporated oats, and also conventional planting. Some treatments were associated with adhesive trap of blue coloration, puthorizontally in the center of the plot. Results showed that the presence of traps, as well as the different planting systems influenced significantly on the thrips infestation, and the treatmentswith "dry oats" and "cut oats and weeds" presented smaller incidence of the insect with a decreasing effect along the plants growth.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA copy number threshold in mtDNA depletion myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, S E; Bonilla, E; Samuels, D C; DiMauro, S; Chinnery, P F

    2005-08-09

    The authors measured the absolute amount of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) within single muscle fibers from two patients with thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) deficiency and two healthy controls. TK2 deficient fibers containing more than 0.01 mtDNA/microm3 had residual cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity. This defines the minimum amount of wild-type mtDNA molecules required to maintain COX activity in skeletal muscle and provides an explanation for the mosaic histochemical pattern seen in patients with mtDNA depletion syndrome.

  7. Estimates of Continental Ancestry Vary Widely among Individuals with the Same mtDNA Haplogroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Leslie S.; Magnaye, Kevin M.; Bigham, Abigail W.; Akey, Joshua M.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between a geographical region and an mtDNA haplogroup(s) has provided the basis for using mtDNA haplogroups to infer an individual’s place of origin and genetic ancestry. Although it is well known that ancestry inferences using mtDNA haplogroups and those using genome-wide markers are frequently discrepant, little empirical information exists on the magnitude and scope of such discrepancies between multiple mtDNA haplogroups and worldwide populations. We compared genetic-ancestry inferences made by mtDNA-haplogroup membership to those made by autosomal SNPs in ∼940 samples of the Human Genome Diversity Panel and recently admixed populations from the 1000 Genomes Project. Continental-ancestry proportions often varied widely among individuals sharing the same mtDNA haplogroup. For only half of mtDNA haplogroups did the highest average continental-ancestry proportion match the highest continental-ancestry proportion of a majority of individuals with that haplogroup. Prediction of an individual’s mtDNA haplogroup from his or her continental-ancestry proportions was often incorrect. Collectively, these results indicate that for most individuals in the worldwide populations sampled, mtDNA-haplogroup membership provides limited information about either continental ancestry or continental region of origin. PMID:25620206

  8. 77 FR 60137 - Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge, Ravalli County, MT; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... during regular business hours at 4567 Wildfowl Lane, Stevensville, MT. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... habitats and has created and modified wetlands. Riverfront forest includes early succession tree species...

  9. Decreased Circulating mtDNA Levels in Professional Male Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasi, Milena; Cristani, Alessandro; Pinti, Marcello; Lamberti, Igor; Gibellini, Lara; De Biasi, Sara; Guazzaloca, Alessandro; Trenti, Tommaso; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise exerts various effects on the immune system, and evidence is emerging on its anti-inflammatory effects; the mechanisms on the basis of these modifications are poorly understood. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) released from damaged cells acts as a molecule containing the so-called damage-associated molecular patterns and can trigger sterile inflammation. Indeed, high plasma levels of mtDNA are associated to several inflammatory conditions and physiological aging and longevity. The authors evaluated plasma mtDNA in professional male volleyball players during seasonal training and the possible correlation between mtDNA levels and clinical parameters, body composition, and physical performance. Plasma mtDNA was quantified by real-time PCR every 2 mo in 12 professional volleyball players (PVPs) during 2 consecutive seasons. As comparison, 20 healthy nonathlete male volunteers (NAs) were analyzed. The authors found lower levels of mtDNA in plasma of PVPs than in NAs. However, PVPs showed a decrease of circulating mtDNA only in the first season, while no appreciable variations were observed during the second season. No correlation was observed among mtDNA, hematochemical, and anthropometric parameters. Regular physical activity appeared associated with lower levels of circulating mtDNA, further confirming the protective, anti-inflammatory effect of exercise.

  10. Nuclear DNA but not mtDNA controls tumor phenotypes in mouse cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Miho; Niikura, Mamoru; Ichikawa, Masami; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Nakada, Kazuto; Honma, Yoshio; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies showed high frequencies of homoplasmic mtDNA mutations in various human tumor types, suggesting that the mutated mtDNA haplotypes somehow contribute to expression of tumor phenotypes. We directly addressed this issue by isolating mouse mtDNA-less (ρ 0 ) cells for complete mtDNA replacement between normal cells and their carcinogen-induced transformants, and examined the effect of the mtDNA replacement on expression of tumorigenicity, a phenotype forming tumors in nude mice. The results showed that genome chimera cells carrying nuclear DNA from tumor cells and mtDNA from normal cells expressed tumorigenicity, whereas those carrying nuclear DNA from normal cells and mtDNA from tumor cells did not. These observations provided direct evidence that nuclear DNA, but not mtDNA, is responsible for carcinogen-induced malignant transformation, although it remains possible that mtDNA mutations and resultant respiration defects may influence the degree of malignancy, such as invasive or metastatic properties

  11. The SAPPHIRE and 50 MT projects at BWXT, Lynchburg, VA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, R.; Horn, B.; Coates, C.W.; Stainback, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: When the SAPPHIRE project for the down-blending of HEU material of Khazak origin was initiated in 1996 at BWX Technologies (BWXT) formally Babcock and Wilcox in Lynchburg, VA and the Agency was requested to apply its specially designed safeguards measures to the process with a view to provide assurance to the international community that down-blending had actually taken place as stipulated in the USA-Khazak agreement a learning process was initiated from this effort culminating in the current 50 MT downblending process at the same facility with BWXT, the USA Authorities, and the Agency as partners in this technologically advanced enterprise aimed at the downgrading of a substantial quantity of weapons grade material. In the present paper an overview is provided of the road leading to an effective, and mutually agreeable safeguards approach for carrying out verifications in the sensitive environment of a facility devoted to HEU uranium processing. (author)

  12. Mt. St. Helens' aerosols: some tropospheric and stratospheric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalsky, J.J.; Stokes, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Aerosol optical depth measurements based on the attenuation of direct solar radiation before and after the six major explosive eruptions of Mt. St. Helens during 1980 are presented. These automated measurements are from a site 200 km mostly east and slightly north of the volcano. From the analysis it was concluded that in several cases the conversion of sulfur gases to sulfates proceeded much more rapidly (hours) than is usually found for tropospheric conditions. A possible explanation may be the greater availability of OH due to the presence of substantial water in the plume. The second major result of the analysis was that there was no evidence of a residual aerosol burden. Turbidity data taken between eruptions in 1980 were virtually identical in terms of magnitude and wavelength dependence to 1979 turbidity

  13. Atmospheric mercury sources in the Mt. Amiata area, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, R.; Mazzolai, B.; Edner, H.; Svanberg, S.; Wallinder, E.

    1998-01-01

    Mt. Amiata, located in southern Tuscany (Italy), is part of the geologic anomaly of the Mediterranean basin, which contains about 65% of the world's cinnabar (HgS) deposits. Atmospheric mercury emissions from the main sources (geothermal power plants, abandoned mine structures and spoil banks of roasted cinnabar ore) were determined by flux chamber and by LIDAR remote sensing. Mercury emissions from five geothermal power plants were on the order of 24 g h -1 for each plant, a value that remains constant throughout the year. In the month of July, the mine spoils (covering an area of =200000 m 2 ) emit a few grams of mercury per hour, while the abandoned mine structures give off 100-110 g h -1 . These two mercury sources were strongly influenced by ambient temperature. The area affected by mercury sources displays an average air mercury concentration of 20 ng m -3 during the summer and 10 ng m -3 in winter

  14. QUALITY CONTROL OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE TABLETS MARKETED IN SINOP-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Órfão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The thiazide diuretics are of the classes of drugs most frequently used for the treatment of hypertension. Hydrochlorothiazide is the representative of this class and is found in tablet form in doses of 25 and 50 mg. It is marketed in three different categories of drugs: reference, similar and generic. According to the regulator in Brazil, the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, before pharmaceuticals are released for use, the pharmaceutical industry must meet product quality specifications, but the consumption of counterfeit drugs, contraband or without registration with government laws It is growing in Brazil, which affect the entire drug production chain affecting the health of those who use these medicines. In view of the reported problems about the quality of marketed drugs and being the state of Mato Grosso considered a fake gateway drug, due to its proximity to Bolivia, this study aimed to assess the quality of tablets containing hydrochlorothiazide is already one of the most widely used drugs in the treatment of hypertension in Sinop-MT municipality according local search. Samples from five laboratories that produce hydrochlorothiazide tablets at a dose of 25 mg, and the most market in the municipality of Sinop / MT were analyzed as stablished in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. It was found that four of the five samples of drugs in Mato Grosso, performed all the requirements for approval in quality testing, with the exception of a product that has lower hardness values than recommended, which can lead to problems drug presentation as well as directly affect the absorption, bioavailability and action of the therapeutic drug. It was concluded that medicinal products containing hydrochlorothiazide showed adequate quality, ensuring their effectiveness.

  15. Ethnobotany of the Samburu of Mt. Nyiru, South Turkana, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use is of extremely high importance in many societies, and prevalent in African communities. This knowledge is however dwindling rapidly due to changes towards a more Western lifestyle. The influence of modern tourism cannot be neglected in this context. This paper examines the plant use of the Samburu of the Mt. Nyiru area in Northern Kenya. The Samburu pastoralists of Kenya are still amongst the most traditional communities of the country and have retained most of their knowledge about the use of a large part of the plants in their environment for a wide variety of purposes. The results indicate that the local population has a very high knowledge of the plants in their surroundings, and attributes a purpose to a large percentage of the plants found. 448 plant species were collected, identified and their Samburu names and traditional uses recorded. 199 species were reported as of "no use". The high proportion of 249 plant species however had some traditional use: The highest number (180 species was used as fodder, followed by 80 species that had medicinal use. Firewood (59 species, construction (42 species, tools (31 species, food (29 species and ceremonial use (19 species ranked far behind. Traditionally the Samburu attribute most illnesses to the effect of pollutants that block or inhibit digestion. This can include "polluted" food, contagion through sick people as well as witchcraft. In most cases the treatment of illness involves herbal purgatives to cleanse the patient. There are however frequent indications of plant use for common problems like wounds, parasites, body aches and burns. The change from a nomadic to a more sedentary lifestyle, often observed in other areas of the country, has affected the Samburu of remote Mt. Nyiru to a much lesser extent and did so far not lead to a major loss of traditional plant knowledge. However, overgrazing and over-exploitation of plant resources have already led to a

  16. 3D Marine MT Modeling for a Topographic Seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B., Sr.; Yin, C.; Ren, X.; Liu, Y.; Huang, X.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    As an effective geophysical tool, marine magnetotelluric (MMT) exploration has been widely used in offshore oil and gas exploration. Accordingly, the MMT forward modelling has made big progress. However, most of the researches are focused on a flat seafloor. In this paper, we present a 3D finite-element (FE) algorithm for marine MT forward modelling based on unstructured grids that can accurately model the MMT responses for a topographic seafloor. The boundary value problem for the forward modelling is described by an Helmholtz equation together with the boundary conditions derived by assuming the electrical polarizations respectively along the x- and y-direction on the top surface of the modelling domain. Applying the Galerkin method to the boundary value problem and substituting the unstructured finite-element vector shape function into the equation, we derive the final large linear system for the two polarizations, from which the EM fields is obtained for the calculation of impedance apparent resistivities and phases. To verify the effectiveness of our algorithm, we compare our modelling results with those by Key's (2013) 2D marine MT open source code of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Figure 1). From Figure 1, one sees that the two agree well, implying that our 3D modelling method based unstructured FE is an effective modelling tool for topographic seafloor. From the MMT modelling responses for other topographic seafloor models (not shown here), we further observe that 1) the apparent resistivities have a similar profile pattern to the topography at the seafloor; 2) at the edges of the topography, there exist sharp changes; 3) the seafloor topography may dominate the responses from the abnormal bodies under the seafloor. This paper is supported by Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (41530320), China Natural Science Foundation for Young Scientists (41404093), and Key National Research Project of China (2016YFC0303100, 2017YFC0601900)

  17. Age-specific survival of male Golden-cheeked Warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA. However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  18. Age-specific survival of male golden-cheeked warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Adam; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Weckerly, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA). However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ) probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  19. Histopathological effect and stress response of mantle proteome following TBT exposure in the Hooded oyster Saccostrea cucullata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khondee, Phattirapa; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Svasti, Jisnuson; Simpson, Richard J; Kingtong, Sutin

    2016-11-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), an environmental pollutant in marine ecosystems, is toxic to organisms. Although contamination by and bioaccumulation and toxicity of this compound have been widely reported, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we exposed the Hooded oyster Saccostrea cucullata to TBT to investigate histopathological effects and proteome stress response. Animals were exposed to three TBT sub-lethal concentrations, 10, 50 and 150 μg/l for 48 h. TBT produced stress leading to histopathological changes in oyster tissues including mantle, gill, stomach and digestive diverticula. TBT induced mucocyte production in epithelia and hemocyte aggregation in connective tissue. Cell necrosis occurred when exposure dosages were high. Comparative proteome analyses of mantle protein of oysters exposed to 10 μg/l and control animals were analyzed by a 2-DE based proteomic approach. In total, 32 protein spots were found to differ (p TBT induced the expression of proteins involved in defensive mechanisms (HSP-78, HSP-70, aldehyde dehydrogenase and catalase), calcium homeostasis (VDAC-3), cytoskeleton and cytoskeleton-associated proteins, energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism. Our study revealed that TBT disturbs calcium homeostasis via VDAC-3 protein in mantle and this probably is the key molecular mechanism of TBT acting to distort shell calcification. Moreover, proteins involved in cell structure (tubulin-alpha and tubulin-beta) and protein synthesis were reduced after TBT exposure. Additionally, differential proteins obtained from this work will be useful as potential TBT biomarkers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities in informal payments for health care: An assessment of the 'Robin Hood' hypothesis in 33 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankeu, Hyacinthe Tchewonpi; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    In almost all African countries, informal payments are frequently made when accessing health care. Some literature suggests that the informal payment system could lead to quasi-redistribution among patients, with physicians playing a 'Robin Hood' role, subsidizing the poor at the expense of the rich. We empirically tested this assumption with data from the rounds 3 and 5 of the Afrobarometer surveys conducted in 18 and 33 African countries respectively, from 2005 to 2006 for round 3 and from 2011 to 2013 for round 5. In these surveys, nationally representative samples of people aged 18 years or more were randomly selected in each country, with sizes varying between 1048 and 2400 for round 3 and between 1190 and 2407 for round 5. We used the 'normalized' concentration index, the poor/rich gap and the odds ratio to assess the level of inequality in the payment of bribes to access care at the local public health facility and implemented two decomposition techniques to identify the contributors to the observed inequalities. We obtained that: i) the socioeconomic gradient in informal payments is in favor of the rich in almost all countries, indicating a rather regressive system; ii) this is mainly due to the socioeconomic disadvantage itself, to poor/rich differences in supply side factors like lack of medicines, absence of doctors and long waiting times, as well as regional disparities. Although essentially empirical, the paper highlights the need for African health systems to undergo substantial country-specific reforms in order to better protect the worse-off from financial risk when they seek care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Challenges for health care providers, parents and patients who face a child hood cancer diagnosis in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walubita, Mulima; Sikateyo, Bornwell; Zulu, Joseph M

    2018-05-02

    Zambia is experiencing high prevalence of childhood cancer. However, very few children access and complete treatment for cancer. This study aimed to document the challenges for health care providers, parents and patients who face a child hood cancer diagnosis in Zambia, and their coping strategies. This was an exploratory health facility-based qualitative study that was conducted at a Paediatric oncology ward at referral hospital in Zambia. In-depth individual interviews conducted with fifteen (15) caregivers and seven (7) key informants were analysed using thematic analysis. Several challenges related to managing the childhood cancer diagnosis were recorded. Individual and family challenges were inadequate knowledge on childhood cancer, lack of finances to meet treatment and transport costs as well as long period of hospitalisation that affected women's ability to perform multiple responsibilities. Whereas challenges at community level were inadequate support to address emotional and physical distress and social stigmatisation experienced by caregivers. Health systems issues included inadequate specialised health workers, poor communication among health workers, limited space and beds as well as insufficient supplies such as blood. Cultural related factors were the belief that cancer is a product of witchcraft as well as religious beliefs regarding the role of faith healing in childhood cancer treatment. Coping strategies used by parents/ caregivers included praying to God, material support from organisations and church as well as delaying having another child. Addressing the challenges for health care providers, parents and patients who face a childhood cancer diagnosis may require adopting a systems or an ecological approach that allows developing strategies that simultaneously address challenges related to the individual, family, community, health system and cultural aspects.

  2. Optimized mtDNA Control Region Primer Extension Capture Analysis for Forensically Relevant Samples and Highly Compromised mtDNA of Different Age and Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Eduardoff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp. Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS of (multiplex PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes. Molecular genetic studies on archaeological remains that harbor more degraded aDNA have pioneered alternative approaches to target mtDNA, such as capture hybridization and primer extension capture (PEC methods followed by MPS. These assays target smaller mtDNA fragment sizes (down to 50 bp or less, and have proven to be substantially more successful in obtaining useful mtDNA sequences from these samples compared to electrophoretic methods. Here, we present the modification and optimization of a PEC method, earlier developed for sequencing the Neanderthal mitochondrial genome, with forensic applications in mind. Our approach was designed for a more sensitive enrichment of the mtDNA CR in a single tube assay and short laboratory turnaround times, thus complying with forensic practices. We characterized the method using sheared, high quantity mtDNA (six samples, and tested challenging forensic samples (n = 2 as well as compromised solid tissue samples (n = 15 up to 8 kyrs of age. The PEC MPS method produced reliable and plausible mtDNA haplotypes that were useful in the forensic context. It yielded plausible data in samples that did not provide results with STS and other MPS techniques. We addressed the issue of contamination by including four generations of negative controls, and discuss the results in the forensic context. We finally offer perspectives for future research to enable the validation and accreditation of the PEC MPS

  3. MtCAS31 Aids Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation by Protecting the Leghemoglobin MtLb120-1 Under Drought Stress in Medicago truncatula

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    Xin Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF in legume root nodules injects millions of tons of nitrogen into agricultural lands and provides ammonia to non-legume crops under N-deficient conditions. During plant growth and development, environmental stresses, such as drought, salt, cold, and heat stress are unavoidable. This raises an interesting question as to how the legumes cope with the environmental stress along with SNF. Under drought stress, dehydrin proteins are accumulated, which function as protein protector and osmotic substances. In this study, we found that the dehydrin MtCAS31 (cold-acclimation-specific 31 functions in SNF in Medicago truncatula during drought stress. We found that MtCAS31 is expressed in nodules and interacts with leghemoglobin MtLb120-1. The interaction between the two proteins protects MtLb120-1 from denaturation under thermal stress in vivo. Compared to wild type, cas31 mutants display a lower nitrogenase activity, a lower ATP/ADP ratio, higher expression of nodule senescence genes and higher accumulation of amyloplasts under dehydration conditions. The results suggested that MtCAS31 protects MtLb120-1 from the damage of drought stress. We identified a new function for dehydrins in SNF under drought stress, which enriches the understanding of the molecular mechanism of dehydrins.

  4. A Comparative Morphometric Analysis of Three Cranial Nerves in Two Phocids: The Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata) and the Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlert, Dennis; Kröger, Jürgen; Witt, Martin; Schmitt, Oliver; Wree, Andreas; Czech-Damal, Nicole; Siebert, Ursula; Folkow, Lars; Hanke, Frederike D

    2016-03-01

    While our knowledge about the senses of pinnipeds has increased over the last decades almost nothing is known about the organization of the neuroanatomical pathways. In a first approach to this field of research, we assessed the total number of myelinated axons of three cranial nerves (CNs) in the harbor (Phoca vitulina, Pv) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata, Cc). Axons were counted in semithin sections of the nerves embedded in Epon and stained with toluidine blue. In both species, the highest axon number was found within the optic nerve (Pv 187,000 ± 8,000 axons, Cc 481,600 ± 1,300 axons). Generally, considering absolute axon numbers, far more axons were counted within the optic and trigmenial nerve (Pv 136,700 ± 2,500 axons, Cc 179,300 ± 6,900 axons) in hooded in comparison to harbor seals. The axon counts of the vestibulocochlear nerve are nearly identical for both species (Pv 87,100 ± 8,100 axons, Cc 86,600 ± 2,700 axons). However, when comparing cell density, the cell density is almost equal for all nerves for both species except for the optic nerve in which cell density was particularly higher than in the other nerves and higher in hooded in comparison to harbor seals. We here present the first comparative analysis of three CNs in two phocid seals. While the CNs of these closely related species share some general characteristics, pronounced differences in axon numbers/densities are apparent. These differences seem to reflect differences in e.g. size, habitat, and/or functional significance of the innervated sensory systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Hypervariable region polymorphism of mtDNA of recurrent oral ulceration in Chinese.

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    Mao Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MtDNA haplogroups could have important implication for understanding of the relationship between the mutations of the mitochondrial genome and diseases. Distribution of a variety of diseases among these haplogroups showed that some of the mitochondrial haplogroups are predisposed to disease. To examine the susceptibility of mtDNA haplogroups to ROU, we sequenced the mtDNA HV1, HV2 and HV3 in Chinese ROU. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MtDNA haplogroups were analyzed in the 249 cases of ROU patients and the 237 cases of healthy controls respectively by means of primer extension analysis and DNA sequencing. Haplogroups G1 and H were found significantly more abundant in ROU patients than in healthy persons, while haplogroups D5 and R showed a trend toward a higher frequency in control as compared to those in patients. The distribution of C-stretch sequences polymorphism in mtDNA HV1, HV2 and HV3 regions was found in diversity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the first time, the relationship of mtDNA haplogroups and ROU in Chinese was investigated. Our results indicated that mtDNA haplogroups G1 and H might constitute a risk factor for ROU, which possibly increasing the susceptibility of ROU. Meanwhile, haplogroups D5 and R were indicated as protective factors for ROU. The polymorphisms of C-stretch sequences might being unstable and influence the mtDNA replication fidelity.

  6. Infantile presentation of the mtDNA A3243G tRNA(Leu (UUR)) mutation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okhuijsen-Kroes, E.J.; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Mariman, E.C.M.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Wendel, U.A.H.; Koch, G.; Smeitink, J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) disorders are clinically very heterogeneous, ranging from single organ involvement to severe multisystem disease. One of the most frequently observed mtDNA mutations is the A-to-G transition at position 3243 of the tRNA(Leu (UUR)) gene. This mutation is often related to

  7. 77 FR 61248 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ...-0379; Airspace Docket No. 12-ANM-7 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT AGENCY: Federal... at Deer Lodge-City- County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate... procedures at Deer Lodge-City-County Airport. This improves the safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  8. Oxidants and not alkylating agents induce rapid mtDNA loss and mitochondrial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furda, Amy M.; Marrangoni, Adele M.; Lokshin, Anna; Van Houten, Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is essential for proper mitochondrial function and encodes 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and 13 polypeptides that make up subunits of complex I, III, IV, in the electron transport chain and complex V, the ATP synthase. Although mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in processes such as premature aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer, it has not been shown whether persistent mtDNA damage causes a loss of oxidative phosphorylation. We addressed this question by treating mouse embryonic fibroblasts with either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and measuring several endpoints, including mtDNA damage and repair rates using QPCR, levels of mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded proteins using antibody analysis, and a pharmacologic profile of mitochondria using the Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer. We show that a 60 min treatment with H2O2 causes persistent mtDNA lesions, mtDNA loss, decreased levels of a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial subunit, a loss of ATP-linked oxidative phosphorylation and a loss of total reserve capacity. Conversely, a 60 min treatment with 2 mM MMS causes persistent mtDNA lesions but no mtDNA loss, no decrease in levels of a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial subunit, and no mitochondrial dysfunction. These results suggest that persistent mtDNA damage is not sufficient to cause mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22766155

  9. The Regulatory Mechanism of MLT/MT1 Signaling on the Growth of Antler Mesenchymal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (MLT plays an important role in regulating the physiological cycle of seasonal breeding animals. Melatonin receptor I (MT1 is effectively expressed in the cambium layer of deer antler. However, the function and metabolic mechanism of MLT/MT1 signaling in the mesenchymal cells of sika deer remain to be further elucidated. In this work, we detected the effects of MLT/MT1 signaling on mesenchymal cells proliferation and the interaction between MLT/MT1 and IGF1/IGF1-R signaling. The results show that (1 deer antler mesenchymal cells actually express MT1; (2 exogenous melatonin significantly promotes mesenchymal cells proliferation, while MT1 knock-down significantly impairs the positive effects of melatonin; and (3 melatonin significantly enhanced IGF1/IGF1-R signaling, as both the expression of IGF1 and IGF-1R increased, while MT1 knock-down significantly decreased IGF1-R expression and IGF1 synthesis. In summary, these data verified that MLT/MT1 signaling plays a crucial role in antler mesenchymal proliferation, which may be mediated by IGF1/IGF1-R.

  10. [Whole Genome Sequencing of Human mtDNA Based on Ion Torrent PGM™ Platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y; Zou, K N; Huang, J P; Ma, K; Ping, Y

    2017-08-01

    To analyze and detect the whole genome sequence of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by Ion Torrent PGM™ platform and to study the differences of mtDNA sequence in different tissues. Samples were collected from 6 unrelated individuals by forensic postmortem examination, including chest blood, hair, costicartilage, nail, skeletal muscle and oral epithelium. Amplification of whole genome sequence of mtDNA was performed by 4 pairs of primer. Libraries were constructed with Ion Shear™ Plus Reagents kit and Ion Plus Fragment Library kit. Whole genome sequencing of mtDNA was performed using Ion Torrent PGM™ platform. Sanger sequencing was used to determine the heteroplasmy positions and the mutation positions on HVⅠ region. The whole genome sequence of mtDNA from all samples were amplified successfully. Six unrelated individuals belonged to 6 different haplotypes. Different tissues in one individual had heteroplasmy difference. The heteroplasmy positions and the mutation positions on HVⅠ region were verified by Sanger sequencing. After a consistency check by the Kappa method, it was found that the results of mtDNA sequence had a high consistency in different tissues. The testing method used in present study for sequencing the whole genome sequence of human mtDNA can detect the heteroplasmy difference in different tissues, which have good consistency. The results provide guidance for the further applications of mtDNA in forensic science. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  11. Characterization of a Dairy Gyr herd with respect to its mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA origin

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    Anibal Eugênio Vercesi Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zebu breeds were introduced in Brazil mainly in the last century by imports from the Indian subcontinent. When the Zebu cattle arrived, the national herd suffered a significative change by backcrossing the national cows of taurine origin with Zebu sires. These processes created a polymorphism in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the Zebu animals with are in a major part derived from backcrossing and sharing mtDNA of taurine origin. To verify the maternal origin of cows belonging to the Dairy Gyr herd of APTA, Mococa 60 females were analyzed and 33 presented mtDNA from Bos taurus origin and 27 presented mtDNA from Bos indicus origin. None of these animals presented patterns of both mtDNA origins, indicating absence of heteroplasmy for these mitochondrial genotypes.

  12. The expression characteristics of mt-ND2 gene in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenwen; Hou, Lingling; Wang, Ting; Lu, Weiwei; Tao, Yafei; Chen, Wen; Du, Xiaohui; Huang, Yanqun

    2016-09-01

    Subunit 2 of NADH dehydrogenase (ND2) is encoded by the mt-ND2 gene and plays a critical role in controlling the production of the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Our study focused on exploring the mt-ND2 tissue expression patterns and the effects of energy restriction and dietary fat (linseed oil, corn oil, sesame oil or lard) level (2.5% and 5%) on its expression in chicken. The results showed that mt-ND2 gene was expressed in the 15 tissues of hybrid chickens with the highest level in heart and lowest level in pancreas tissue; 30% energy restriction did not significantly affect mt-ND2 mRNA level in chicken liver tissue. Both the mt-ND2 mRNA levels in chicken pectoralis (p chicken age (p chicken age (p chicken age.

  13. No variation and low synonymous substitution rates in coral mtDNA despite high nuclear variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellberg Michael E

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA of most animals evolves more rapidly than nuclear DNA, and often shows higher levels of intraspecific polymorphism and population subdivision. The mtDNA of anthozoans (corals, sea fans, and their kin, by contrast, appears to evolve slowly. Slow mtDNA evolution has been reported for several anthozoans, however this slow pace has been difficult to put in phylogenetic context without parallel surveys of nuclear variation or calibrated rates of synonymous substitution that could permit quantitative rate comparisons across taxa. Here, I survey variation in the coding region of a mitochondrial gene from a coral species (Balanophyllia elegans known to possess high levels of nuclear gene variation, and estimate synonymous rates of mtDNA substitution by comparison to another coral (Tubastrea coccinea. Results The mtDNA surveyed (630 bp of cytochrome oxidase subunit I was invariant among individuals sampled from 18 populations spanning 3000 km of the range of B. elegans, despite high levels of variation and population subdivision for allozymes over these same populations. The synonymous substitution rate between B. elegans and T. coccinea (0.05%/site/106 years is similar to that in most plants, but 50–100 times lower than rates typical for most animals. In addition, while substitutions to mtDNA in most animals exhibit a strong bias toward transitions, mtDNA from these corals does not. Conclusion Slow rates of mitochondrial nucleotide substitution result in low levels of intraspecific mtDNA variation in corals, even when nuclear loci vary. Slow mtDNA evolution appears to be the basal condition among eukaryotes. mtDNA substitution rates switch from slow to fast abruptly and unidirectionally. This switch may stem from the loss of just one or a few mitochondrion-specific DNA repair or replication genes.

  14. mtDNA mutation C1494T, haplogroup A, and hearing loss in Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chengye; Kong Qingpeng; Yao Yonggang; Zhang Yaping

    2006-01-01

    Mutation C1494T in mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was recently reported in two large Chinese families with aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic hearing loss (AINHL) and was claimed to be pathogenic. This mutation, however, was first reported in a sample from central China in our previous study that was aimed to reconstruct East Asian mtDNA phylogeny. All these three mtDNAs formed a subclade defined by mutation C1494T in mtDNA haplogroup A. It thus seems that mutation C1494T is a haplogroup A-associated mutation and this matrilineal background may contribute a high risk for the penetrance of mutation C1494T in Chinese with AINHL. To test this hypothesis, we first genotyped mutation C1494T in 553 unrelated individuals from three regional Chinese populations and performed an extensive search for published complete or near-complete mtDNA data sets (>3000 mtDNAs), we then screened the C1494T mutation in 111 mtDNAs with haplogroup A status that were identified from 1823 subjects across China. The search for published mtDNA data sets revealed no other mtDNA besides the above-mentioned three carrying mutation C1494T. None of the 553 randomly selected individuals and the 111 haplogroup A mtDNAs was found to bear this mutation. Therefore, our results suggest that C1494T is a very rare event. The mtDNA haplogroup A background in general is unlikely to play an active role in the penetrance of mutation C1494T in AINHL

  15. Physical and chemical characteristics of Mt. St. Helens airborne debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, W.A.; Heiken, G.H.; Mroz, E.J.; Gladney, E.S.; Perrin, D.R.; Leifer, R.; Fisenne, I.; Hinchliffe, L.; Chuan, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Tephra and aerosols from the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens, Washington were sampled in the lower stratosphere with a WB-57F aircraft. The main body of the plume was intercepted over western Kansas on May 20, 48 hours after the eruption, at an altitude of 15.2 km. Concentrations on filter samples were 26 ng of SO 4 /g of air and 579 ng of ash/g of air. Angular glass pyroclasts ranged in size from 0.5 to 10 μm, with a mean grain size of 2 μm. Samples collected at altitudes of 16.7 and 12.5 km had only traces of SO 4 and ash. A second flight was flown, 72 hours after the eruption, on May 21. From north Texas to central Wyoming, at an altitude of 15.2 km, 4 /g of air were sampled. At an altitude of 18.3 km, from central Wyoming to NW New Mexico, the plume density and character were variable. Glassy pyroclasts similar to those sampled on the first flight range in size from 0.5 to 4 μm dia. Trace element analysis revealed some volatile element enrichment, but far less than previously observed in the plume from St. Augustine Volcano, 1976. Values of 210 Po/ 210 Pb were 0.7 to 1.32 comparable to the secular equilibrium value of 1.0 and far less than ratios previously reported by Lambert

  16. Urania in the Marketplace: The Selling of Mt. Palomar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    The 200-inch Hale telescope atop Mt. Palomar is one of the most iconic scientific facilities ever constructed. The world's largest optical telescope for over a quarter-century, it served as a symbol of hope for America during the Great Depression and in the post-war years. In 2016 we celebrate the eightieth anniversaries of the completion of the mirror blank, the start of construction of the dome and mounting, and the beginning of astronomical research at Palomar Observatory by Fritz Zwicky (with the 18-inch Schmidt camera).During its construction, and for many years after "first light" in 1949, the Hale telescope was prominently featured in numerous magazine advertisements. Most of these represented companies directly involved in its construction, notably Corning Glass Works, which was justly proud of its magnificent accomplishment. But companies only vaguely linked to the project, or not at all, also co-opted the mystique of "the World's Largest Eye" to promote their goods or services. Surprisingly, in light of the fact that it bore responsibility for fabricating the complex and innovative mounting, the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company appears to have run only a single advertisement (in The National Geographic Magazine) touting its contribution to the project.Examples of magazine advertisements spanning the period 1936 to 1959 are presented.This work was supported by a faculty scholarship grant from Valdosta State University.

  17. Magma reservoir at Mt. Vesuvius: Deeper than 10 km

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, M.; Luongo, G.; Nunziata, C.; Panza, G.F.

    2005-07-01

    One- and two-dimensional Vp models were obtained by TomoVes experiment, all characterized by low Vp in the uppermost 500 m and a sharp discontinuity at about 2-3 km beneath the volcano. Large amplitude late arrivals were identified as P- to S-phases converted at the top, between 8 and 10 km deep, of a low velocity layer with a dramatic drop of Vs, from approximately 3.6 km/s to less than 1.0 km/s. Here we synthesize the interpretation of Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements, made by several authors, to delineate the extent of such anomalous layer of hot, partially molten, crust material. Our non-linear inversion of broad-band dispersion measurements, gives a thickness not greater than 0.35 km, if we assume Vs equal to 1.0 km/s. The volume occupied by this very low velocity layer, sill shaped, is compatible with the size of Mt. Vesuvius cone, but it develops above a much larger hot mass which could be the parental source as the erupted products are only few percent of magma chamber. (author)

  18. Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo and climate of Syowa Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Kaneto

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last year of the Antarctic Climate Research (ACR period, two large volcanos erupted. In June 1991,the volcano Pinatubo in the Philippines Islands (15°N, 120°E erupted and injected a large volcanic cloud in to the lower and middle stratosphere. In August 1991,Mt. Hudson in southern Chile (46°S, 73°W erupted; its volcanic cloud reached to 18km. From NOAA/AVHRR data, within 1991,the volcanic aerosol of Pinatubo dispersed mainly in tropical latitudes and that of Hudson spread in the area south of 40°S. The eruption effects are investigated here by comparing meteorological observation results at Syowa Station (69°S, 39°E with global analyses. The optical observations which measure direct effects of eruption materials, show a large effect from late 1991. Abnormal deviations were detected in surface temperature and total ozone amount but the occurrence is retarded relative to global average occurrence. Effects on stratospheric temperature were not detected.

  19. Occurrence and distribution of pesticides in surface waters of the Hood River basin, Oregon, 1999-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Whitney B.; Johnson, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey analyzed pesticide and trace-element concentration data from the Hood River basin collected by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) from 1999 through 2009 to determine the distribution and concentrations of pesticides in the basin's surface waters. Instream concentrations were compared to (1) national and State water-quality standards established to protect aquatic organisms and (2) concentrations that cause sublethal or lethal effects in order to assess their potential to adversely affect the health of salmonids and their prey organisms. Three salmonid species native to the basin are listed as "threatened" under the U.S. Endangered Species Act: bull trout, steelhead, and Chinook salmon. A subset of 16 sites was sampled every year by the ODEQ for pesticides, with sample collection targeted to months of peak pesticide use in orchards (March-June and September). Ten pesticides and four pesticide degradation products were analyzed from 1999 through 2008; 100 were analyzed in 2009. Nineteen pesticides were detected: 11 insecticides, 6 herbicides, and 2 fungicides. Two of four insecticide degradation products were detected. All five detected organophosphate insecticides and the one detected organochlorine insecticide were present at concentrations exceeding water-quality standards, sublethal effects thresholds, or acute toxicity values in one or more samples. The frequency of organophosphate detection in the basin decreased during the period of record; however, changes in sampling schedule and laboratory reporting limits hindered clear analysis of detection frequency trends. Detected herbicide and fungicide concentrations were less than water-quality standards, sublethal effects thresholds, or acute toxicity values. Simazine, the most frequently detected pesticide, was the only herbicide detected at concentrations within an order of magnitude (factor of 10) of concentrations that impact salmonid olfaction. Some detected

  20. Tiny Bird, Huge Mystery-The Possibly Extinct Hooded Seedeater (Sporophila melanops Is a Capuchino with a Melanistic Cap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Areta

    Full Text Available Known with certainty solely from a unique male specimen collected in central Brazil in the first quarter of the 19th century, the Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct Hooded Seedeater Sporophila melanops has been one of the great enigmas of Neotropical ornithology, arguably the only one of a host of long-lost species from Brazil to remain obstinately undiscovered. We reanalysed the morphology of the type specimen, as well as a female specimen postulated to represent the same taxon, and sequenced mitochondrial DNA (COI and Cyt-b from both individuals. Furthermore, we visited the type locality, at the border between Goiás and Mato Grosso, and its environs on multiple occasions at different seasons, searching for birds with similar morphology to the type, without success. Novel genetic and morphological evidence clearly demonstrates that the type of S. melanops is not closely related to Yellow-bellied Seedeater S. nigricollis, as has been frequently postulated in the literature, but is in fact a representative of one of the so-called capuchinos, a clade of attractively plumaged seedeaters that breed mostly in the Southern Cone of South America. Our morphological analysis indicates that S. melanops has a hitherto unreported dark-coffee throat and that it is probably a Dark-throated Seedeater S. ruficollis collected within its wintering range, acquiring breeding plumage and showing melanism on the cap feathers. Alternatively, it may be a melanistic-capped individual of a local population of seedeaters known to breed in the Esteros del Iberá, Corrientes, Argentina, to which the name S. ruficollis might be applicable, whilst the name S. plumbeiceps might be available for what is currently known as S. ruficollis. A hybrid origin for S. melanops cannot be ruled out from the available data, but seems unlikely. The purported female specimen of S. melanops pertains either to S. nigricollis or to Double-collared Seedeater S. caerulescens based on

  1. Detection of TRPV4 channel current-like activity in Fawn Hooded hypertensive (FHH rat cerebral arterial muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debebe Gebremedhin

    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential vallinoid type 4 (TRPV4 is a calcium entry channel known to modulate vascular function by mediating endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The present study investigated if isolated cerebral arterial myocytes of the Fawn Hooded hypertensive (FHH rat, known to display exaggerated KCa channel current activity and impaired myogenic tone, express TRPV4 channels at the transcript and protein level and exhibit TRPV4-like single-channel cationic current activity. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunostaining analysis detected the expression of mRNA transcript and translated protein of TRPV4 channel in FHH rat cerebral arterial myocytes. Patch clamp recording of single-channel current activity identified the presence of a single-channel cationic current with unitary conductance of ~85 pS and ~96 pS at hyperpolarizing and depolarizing potentials, respectively, that was inhibited by the TRPV4 channel antagonist RN 1734 or HC 067074 and activated by the potent TRPV4 channel agonist GSK1016790A. Application of negative pressure via the interior of the patch pipette increased the NPo of the TRPV4-like single-channel cationic current recorded in cell-attached patches at a patch potential of 60 mV that was inhibited by prior application of the TRPV4 channel antagonist RN 1734 or HC 067047. Treatment with the TRPV4 channel agonist GSK1016790A caused concentration-dependent increase in the NPo of KCa single-channel current recorded in cell-attached patches of cerebral arterial myocytes at a patch potential of 40 mV, which was not influenced by pretreatment with the voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine or the T-type Ca2+ channel blocker Ni2+. These findings demonstrate that FHH rat cerebral arterial myocytes express mRNA transcript and translated protein for TRPV4 channel and display TRPV4-like single-channel cationic current activity that was stretch-sensitive and

  2. Joint 1D inversion of TEM and MT data and 3D inversion of MT data in the Hengill area, SW Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnason, Knutur; Eysteinsson, Hjalmar; Hersir, Gylfi Pall [ISOR-Iceland GeoSurvey, Grensasvegi 9, 108 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2010-03-15

    An extensive study of the resistivity structure of the Hengill area in SW Iceland was carried out by the combined use of TEM and MT soundings. Joint inversion of the collected data can correct for static shifts in the MT data, which can be severe due to large near-surface resistivity contrasts. Joint 1D inversion of 148 TEM/MT sounding pairs and a 3D inversion of a 60 sounding subset of the MT data were performed. The 3D inversion was based on full MT impedance tensors previously corrected for static shift. Both inversion approaches gave qualitatively similar results, and revealed a shallow resistivity layer reflecting conductive alteration minerals at temperatures of 100-240 C. They also delineated a deep conductor at 3-10 km depth. The reason for this deep-seated high conductivity is not fully understood. The distribution of the deep conductors correlates with a positive residual Bouguer gravity anomaly, and with transform tectonics inferred from seismicity. One model of the Hengill that is consistent with the well temperature data and the deep conductor that does not attenuate S-waves, is a group of hot, solidified, but still ductile magmatic intrusions that are closely associated with the heat source for the geothermal system. (author)

  3. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein MDI promotes local protein synthesis and mtDNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Xu, Hong

    2016-05-17

    Early embryonic development features rapid nuclear DNA replication cycles, but lacks mtDNA replication. To meet the high-energy demands of embryogenesis, mature oocytes are furnished with vast amounts of mitochondria and mtDNA However, the cellular machinery driving massive mtDNA replication in ovaries remains unknown. Here, we describe a Drosophila AKAP protein, MDI that recruits a translation stimulator, La-related protein (Larp), to the mitochondrial outer membrane in ovaries. The MDI-Larp complex promotes the synthesis of a subset of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins by cytosolic ribosomes on the mitochondrial surface. MDI-Larp's targets include mtDNA replication factors, mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and electron-transport chain subunits. Lack of MDI abolishes mtDNA replication in ovaries, which leads to mtDNA deficiency in mature eggs. Targeting Larp to the mitochondrial outer membrane independently of MDI restores local protein synthesis and rescues the phenotypes of mdi mutant flies. Our work suggests that a selective translational boost by the MDI-Larp complex on the outer mitochondrial membrane might be essential for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial biogenesis during oogenesis. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Type of featural attention differentially modulates hMT+ responses to illusory motion aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Kozak, Lajos R; Formisano, Elia; Teixeira, João; Xavier, João; Goebel, Rainer

    2009-11-01

    Activity in the human motion complex (hMT(+)/V5) is related to the perception of motion, be it either real surface motion or an illusion of motion such as apparent motion (AM) or motion aftereffect (MAE). It is a long-lasting debate whether illusory motion-related activations in hMT(+) represent the motion itself or attention to it. We have asked whether hMT(+) responses to MAEs are present when shifts in arousal are suppressed and attention is focused on concurrent motion versus nonmotion features. Significant enhancement of hMT(+) activity was observed during MAEs when attention was focused either on concurrent spatial angle or color features. This observation was confirmed by direct comparison of adapting (MAE inducing) versus nonadapting conditions. In contrast, this effect was diminished when subjects had to report on concomitant speed changes of superimposed AM. The same finding was observed for concomitant orthogonal real motion (RM), suggesting that selective attention to concurrent illusory or real motion was interfering with the saliency of MAE signals in hMT(+). We conclude that MAE-related changes in the global activity of hMT(+) are present provided selective attention is not focused on an interfering feature such as concurrent motion. Accordingly, there is a genuine MAE-related motion signal in hMT(+) that is neither explained by shifts in arousal nor by selective attention.

  5. Stimulatory Effects of Melatonin on Porcine In Vitro Maturation Are Mediated by MT2 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghoon Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a multifunctional molecule with numerous biological activities. The fact that melatonin modulates the functions of porcine granulosa cells via the MT2 receptor suggests the possibility of MT2 receptor-mediation for melatonin to promote cumulus expansion of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs. Therefore, we investigated the presence of MT2 in porcine COCs, and the effects of melatonin with or without selective MT2 antagonists (luzindole and 4-P-PDOT on this process; COCs underwent in vitro maturation culturing with six different conditions (control, melatonin, luzindole, 4-P-PDOT, melatonin + luzindole or melatonin + 4-P-PDOT. Cumulus expansion, oocyte nuclear maturation, and subsequent embryo development after parthenogenetic activation (PA were evaluated. In experiment 1, MT2 was expressed in both oocytes and cumulus cells. In experiment 2, melatonin significantly increased the proportion of complete cumulus expansion (degree 4, which was inhibited by simultaneous addition of either luzindole or 4-P-PDOT. A similar pattern was observed in the expression of genes related to cumulus expansion, apoptosis, and MT2. In experiment 3, no significant difference was observed in immature, degenerate, and MII oocyte rates among the groups. In experiment 4, melatonin significantly increased blastocyst formation rates and total blastocyst cell numbers after PA, but these effects were abolished when either luzindole or 4-P-PDOT was added concomitantly. In conclusion, our results indicate that the MT2 receptor mediated the stimulatory effects of melatonin on porcine cumulus expansion and subsequent embryo development.

  6. Regulation of bone mass through pineal-derived melatonin-MT2 receptor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Kunal; Lewis, Kirsty; Furukawa, Takahisa; Yadav, Vijay K

    2017-09-01

    Tryptophan, an essential amino acid through a series of enzymatic reactions gives rise to various metabolites, viz. serotonin and melatonin, that regulate distinct biological functions. We show here that tryptophan metabolism in the pineal gland favors bone mass accrual through production of melatonin, a pineal-derived neurohormone. Pineal gland-specific deletion of Tph1, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the melatonin biosynthesis lead to a decrease in melatonin levels and a low bone mass due to an isolated decrease in bone formation while bone resorption parameters remained unaffected. Skeletal analysis of the mice deficient in MT1 or MT2 melatonin receptors showed a low bone mass in MT2-/- mice while MT1-/- mice had a normal bone mass compared to the WT mice. This low bone mass in the MT2-/- mice was due to an isolated decrease in osteoblast numbers and bone formation. In vitro assays of the osteoblast cultures derived from the MT1-/- and MT2-/- mice showed a cell intrinsic defect in the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization abilities of MT2-/- osteoblasts compared to WT counterparts, and the mutant cells did not respond to melatonin addition. Finally, we demonstrate that daily oral administration of melatonin can increase bone accrual during growth and can cure ovariectomy-induced structural and functional degeneration of bone by specifically increasing bone formation. By identifying pineal-derived melatonin as a regulator of bone mass through MT2 receptors, this study expands the role played by tryptophan derivatives in the regulation of bone mass and underscores its therapeutic relevance in postmenopausal osteoporosis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Pineal Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 75 FR 70691 - World Color Mt. Morris, IL LLC, Premedia Chicago Division, Currently Known as Quad/Graphics, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,142] World Color Mt. Morris... to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on May 24, 2010, applicable to workers of World Color Mt... that on July 2, 2010, World Color Mt. Morris, IL LLC was purchased by Quad/Graphics, Inc. and is...

  8. Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Dan A. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laing, James R. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This campaign was initiated to measure refractory black carbon (rBC, as defined in Schwarz et al. (2010)) at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility single-particle soot photometer (SP2; unit 54). MBO is a high-elevation site located on the summit of Mt. Bachelor in central Oregon, USA (43.979°N, 121.687°W, 2,763 meters ASL). This site is operated by Professor Dan Jaffe’s group at the University of Washington Bothell and has been used continuously as an atmospheric observatory for the past 12 years (Jaffe et al., 2005; Gratz et al., 2014). The location of MBO allows frequent sampling of the free troposphere along with a wide array of plumes from regional and distant sources. MBO is currently supported with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the Principal Investigator (PI; D. Jaffe) via the project “Influence of Free Tropospheric Ozone and PM on Surface Air Quality in the Western U.S.” (#1447832) covering the period 03/15/2015 to 02/28/2018. The SP2 instrument from Droplet Measurement Technologies provides particle-resolved measurements of rBC mass loading, size and mass distributions, and mixing state. The SP2 was installed at MBO on 6/27/2016 and ran through 9/23/2016. Additional measurements at MBO during this campaign included carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM1), aerosol light scattering coefficients (σscat) at three wavelengths using a TSI nephelometer, aerosol absorption coefficients (σabs) with the Brechtel tricolor absorption photometer (TAP), aerosol number size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS), and black carbon (eBC) with an aethalometer. BC data from this campaign have been submitted to the ARM Data Archive. Black carbon (BC) is the predominant light-absorbing aerosol constituent in the atmosphere, and is estimated to exert a positive radiative forcing second only to CO

  9. Evapotranspiration dynamics along elevational and disturbance gradients at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsch, Florian; Otte, Insa; Appelhans, Tim; Nauß, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Future climate characteristics of the Mt. Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, will be governed by two superior processes: (i) global climate change and (ii) local land cover transformation. Whilst precipitation amounts remained stable throughout the last climate normals, recent studies revealed distinctly increasing air temperatures in the study region between 1973 and 2013, resulting in a gradual reduction of available moisture. In addition, climate predictions show rising temperatures over East Africa throughout the 21st century. Modifications of the local hydrological cycle resulting from land cover transformation will either favor or counteract the thus induced, increasing dryness. Considering that the local-scale climate is a key parameter for ecosystem processes and biodiversity, quantifying the driving components on the credit (precipitation, through-fall, fog) and debit side of the local-scale water balance is of outstanding (biogeo-)scientific importance. In this context, a multidisciplinary German research unit investigates the interrelationship between climate, land use and biodiversity along the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. A total of 65 climate stations have been installed to record rainfall and estimate potential evaporation across different land cover types ranging from savanna (880 m a.s.l.) to the upper mountain Helichrysum sites (4,550 m a.s.l.). The associated data is used for both the area-wide interpolation of meteorological parameters and as input for satellite-based retrievals of rainfall and evapotranspiration (ET). We conducted an extensive field campaign employing a surface-layer scintillometer in order to gain insights into ET dynamics over different land cover types following elevational and disturbance gradients. Scintillometer measurements are available for study sites below (savanna, maize, grassland, coffee plantations) and above the forest belt (natural and disturbed ericaceous forest, Helichrysum), covering a period of 4-7 days

  10. Biothermal conditions on Mt. Zlatibor based on thermophysiological indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pecelj Milica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents part of the research in the field of human bioclimatology and refers to biothermal conditions in different geographical environments in Serbia: an urban area and a mountain of medium height. The goal of the paper was to show bioclimatic differences during the summer between the city of Belgrade (116 m a.s.l. and the mountain resort of Zlatibor (1498 m a.s.l.. The basic principle of bioclimatic analysis is the human heat balance between man and environment. This methodological approach is a combination of physiological and meteorological parameters that result in thermophysiological bioclimatic indices: heat load (HL in man and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI. For this analysis, weather data for July, as the warmest month, was obtained, using daily meteorological data for the decade from 2000 to 2010. Results for July indicate a considerable difference between the two abovementioned environments. HL in Belgrade was dominated by degrees of comfort “hot” and “extremely hot, with the highest value of 4.540, while for Zlatibor the dominant degree of comfort was “warm”. The UTCI in Belgrade has dominated by strong heat stress and moderate heat stress, compared to Zlatibor where the UTCI is dominated by moderate heat stress. In addition, a significant part of the monitored decade on Mt. Zlatibor was without heat stress, with the exception of 2006 and 2007, indicating favorable biothermal characteristics. Therefore, compared to Belgrade, with its considerably lower overall heat stress Zlatibor has the characteristics of a site with favorable bioclimatic qualities.

  11. Geology of Mt. Taylor uranium mine, Grants, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alief, M.H.; Kern, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Mt. Taylor uranium mine is located 25 mi due northeast of Grants, New Mexico. Gulf Mineral Resources attained interest in the property in 1971. Surface drilling outlined several orebodies extending for 7 mi and containing over 120 million lb of uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ). Gulf sank two shafts and developed the orebody in Sec. 24, T13N, R8W. Due to depressed markets, the mine was shut down in 1982. Chevron reopened the mine in 1985 following the 1984 Gulf-Chevron merger. The uranium ore occurs in the Westwater Canyon Sandstone Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation. The Westwater Canyon member was deposited as part of a braided-stream channel system. Mineralization was emplaced following the deposition and possibly prior to consolidation of the host. Uranium is intimately associated with carbonaceous matter that may have been deposited as humates prior to and/or contemporaneous with the uranium mineralization. Mineralization coats sand grains and fills intergranular voids. Since 1985, Chevron has produced more than 5 million lb of U 3 O 8 , most of it from Sec. 24 and Sec. 19 (T13N, R7W). Plans are to complete extraction in these sections and to continue southeasterly into Sec. 25 (T13N, R8W) and Sec. 30 (T13N, R7W). More than 40 million lb of U 3 O 8 may be mined from the present facilities. At the current mining rate of 1.5 million lb/year, supplies should take them well beyond the year 2000

  12. Ophthalmodynamometry for ICP prediction and pilot test on Mt. Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querfurth, Henry W; Lieberman, Philip; Arms, Steve; Mundell, Steve; Bennett, Michael; van Horne, Craig

    2010-11-01

    A recent development in non-invasive techniques to predict intracranial pressure (ICP) termed venous ophthalmodynamometry (vODM) has made measurements in absolute units possible. However, there has been little progress to show utility in the clinic or field. One important application would be to predict changes in actual ICP during adaptive responses to physiologic stress such as hypoxia. A causal relationship between raised intracranial pressure and acute mountain sickness (AMS) is suspected. Several MRI studies report that modest physiologic increases in cerebral volume, from swelling, normally accompany subacute ascent to simulated high altitudes. 1) Validate and calibrate an advanced, portable vODM instrument on intensive patients with raised intracranial pressure and 2) make pilot, non-invasive ICP estimations of normal subjects at increasing altitudes. The vODM was calibrated against actual ICP in 12 neurosurgical patients, most affected with acute hydrocephalus and monitored using ventriculostomy/pressure transducers. The operator was blinded to the transducer read-out. A clinical field test was then conducted on a variable data set of 42 volunteer trekkers and climbers scaling Mt. Everest, Nepal. Mean ICPs were estimated at several altitudes on the ascent both across and within subjects. Portable vODM measurements increased directly and linearly with ICP resulting in good predictability (r = 0.85). We also found that estimated ICP increases normally with altitude (10 ± 3 mm Hg; sea level to 20 ± 2 mm Hg; 6553 m) and that AMS symptoms did not correlate with raised ICP. vODM technology has potential to reliably estimate absolute ICP and is portable. Physiologic increases in ICP and mild-mod AMS are separate responses to high altitude, possibly reflecting swelling and vasoactive instability, respectively.

  13. Ophthalmodynamometry for ICP prediction and pilot test on Mt. Everest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Michael

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent development in non-invasive techniques to predict intracranial pressure (ICP termed venous ophthalmodynamometry (vODM has made measurements in absolute units possible. However, there has been little progress to show utility in the clinic or field. One important application would be to predict changes in actual ICP during adaptive responses to physiologic stress such as hypoxia. A causal relationship between raised intracranial pressure and acute mountain sickness (AMS is suspected. Several MRI studies report that modest physiologic increases in cerebral volume, from swelling, normally accompany subacute ascent to simulated high altitudes. Objectives 1 Validate and calibrate an advanced, portable vODM instrument on intensive patients with raised intracranial pressure and 2 make pilot, non-invasive ICP estimations of normal subjects at increasing altitudes. Methods The vODM was calibrated against actual ICP in 12 neurosurgical patients, most affected with acute hydrocephalus and monitored using ventriculostomy/pressure transducers. The operator was blinded to the transducer read-out. A clinical field test was then conducted on a variable data set of 42 volunteer trekkers and climbers scaling Mt. Everest, Nepal. Mean ICPs were estimated at several altitudes on the ascent both across and within subjects. Results Portable vODM measurements increased directly and linearly with ICP resulting in good predictability (r = 0.85. We also found that estimated ICP increases normally with altitude (10 ± 3 mm Hg; sea level to 20 ± 2 mm Hg; 6553 m and that AMS symptoms did not correlate with raised ICP. Conclusion vODM technology has potential to reliably estimate absolute ICP and is portable. Physiologic increases in ICP and mild-mod AMS are separate responses to high altitude, possibly reflecting swelling and vasoactive instability, respectively.

  14. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  15. Robin Hood in reverse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Cathrine Ulla; Panduro, Toke Emil; Lundhede, Thomas

    of nature. Preference parameters are identified locally through restrictions on household utility-functions. First, we assess the relation between demographic factors and household WTP for nature. Households with higher incomes and wealth have a 0.9% higher WTP per 1.000 EUR and this figure is slightly...

  16. Statement on hooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alempijevic, D.; Beriashvili, J.; Beynon, J.

    2011-01-01

    and/or CIDT, forensic experts base their opinions on the extent to which the sum total of physical and/or psychological evidence corroborates an individual’s allegations of abuseand on evidence of physical and mental pain and disabilities associated with the alleged abuse. In our opinion...

  17. XML under the Hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, David

    2002-01-01

    Discusses XML (extensible markup language), particularly as it relates to libraries. Topics include organizing information; cataloging; metadata; similarities to HTML; organizations dealing with XML; making XML useful; a history of XML; the semantic Web; related technologies; XML at the Library of Congress; and its role in improving the…

  18. Telemedicine in the 'Hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgrably, Jordan

    1998-01-01

    Telemedicine, the ability to examine patients while physically removed from them by using high-tech virtual treatment, is used increasingly to diagnose and prescribe treatment for patients in nontraditional settings. In Los Angeles (California), Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and King-Drew Medical Center communicate in real time with…

  19. 76 FR 3569 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... accommodate aircraft using the Instrument Landing System (ILS) Localizer (LOC) standard instrument approach... airspace areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ANM MT E5...

  20. mtDNA point and length heteroplasmy in high- and low radiation areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, L.; Forster, P.; Gurney, S.M.; Spencer, M.; Huang, C.; Röhl, A.; Brinkmann, B.

    2010-01-01

    A coastal peninsula in Kerala (India) contains the world's highest level of natural radioactivity in a densely populated area, offering an opportunity to characterize radiation-associated DNA mutations. Here, we focus on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, which are passed exclusively from the mother to her children. To analyse point mutations, we sampled 248 pedigrees (988 individuals) in the high-radiation peninsula and in nearby low-radiation islands as a control population. Then, in an extended sample of 1,172 mtDNA sequences (containing some non-Indians for comparison), we also analysed length mutations, which in mtDNA can lead to the phenomenon of length heteroplasmy, i.e. the existence of different DNA types in the same cell. We wished to find out how fast mtDNA mutates between generations, and whether the mutation rate is increased in radioactive conditions compared to the low-irradiation sample

  1. The size distribution of 210Po in the atmosphere around Mt. Sakurajima in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashikawa, N.; Matsuoka, N.; Takashima, Y.; Syojo, N.; Imamura, H.; Fujisaki, M.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration and size distribution of 210 Po in particulate matters in the atmosphere were measured around the active volcano, Mt. Sakurajima in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. The samples were collected eight times at four sampling points for the period from June 1994 to January 1996. The highest concentration of 210 Po was 2940 μBq/m 3 at Akamizu located 2 km away from the crater of Mt. Sakurajima. The 210 Po concentrations decreased with the increase of distance form Mt. Sakurajima. The size distribution curves of 210 Po in the particulate matters showed that 210 Po is usually condensed to fine particles smaller than 2 μm in diameter. In addition, it was suggested that the 210 Po concentration in particulate matters collected at Akamizu was affected by the wind direction over Mt. Sakurajima. (author)

  2. Applicability of Daily Solar Radiation Estimated by Mountain Microclimate Simulation Model (MT-CLIM) in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, K.M.; Kim, Y.S.; Lee, D.B.; Kang, K.K.; So, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    Accuracy of daily solar radiation estimated from a Mountain Microclimate Simulation Model (MT-CLIM) was assessed for seven observation sites with complex topography in Uiseong County. The coefficient of determination () between the observed and the estimated daily solar radiation was 0.52 for 7 sites for the study period from 1 August to 30 September 2009. Overall, the MT-CLIM overestimated the solar radiation with root mean square error (RMSE) of which is about 25% of the mean daily solar radiation () for the study period. Considering that the pyranometer's tolerance is of standard sensor, the RMSE of MT-CLIM was too large to accept for a direct application for agricultural sector. The reliability of solar radiation estimated by MT-CLIM must be improved by considering additional ways such as using a topography correction coefficient

  3. Expression of the rgMT gene, encoding for a rice metallothionein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the rice rgMT gene in transgenic yeast and Arabidopsis is implicated in improving their tolerance for .... possible by the use of a microscope with UV optics that ... Abiotic stress factors that induced the expression of the ..... Arabidopsis mutant.

  4. Synthetic Modeling of A Geothermal System Using Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) and Magnetotelluric (MT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega Saputra, Rifki; Widodo

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia has 40% of the world’s potential geothermal resources with estimated capacity of 28,910 MW. Generally, the characteristic of the geothermal system in Indonesia is liquid-dominated systems, which driven by volcanic activities. In geothermal exploration, electromagnetic methods are used to map structures that could host potential reservoirs and source rocks. We want to know the responses of a geothermal system using synthetic data of Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) and Magnetotelluric (MT). Due to frequency range, AMT and MT data can resolve the shallow and deeper structure, respectively. 1-D models have been performed using AMT and MT data. The results indicate that AMT and MT data give detailed conductivity distribution of geothermal structure.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Yunis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequencies of four mitochondrial Native American DNA haplogroups were determined in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia and compared to the frequencies previously obtained for Amerindian and Afro-Colombian populations. Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups ranged from 74% to 97%. The lowest frequencies were found in Departments on the Caribbean coast and in the Pacific region, where the frequency of Afro-Colombians is higher, while the highest mtDNA Amerindian haplogroup frequencies were found in Departments that historically have a strong Amerindian heritage. Interestingly, all four mtDNA haplogroups were found in all Departments, in contrast to the complete absence of haplogroup D and high frequencies of haplogroup A in Amerindian populations in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Our results indicate that all four Native American mtDNA haplogroups were widely distributed in Colombia at the time of the Spanish conquest.

  6. Levels of non-essential elements in muscle from harp seal (Phagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) caught in the Greenland Sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunborg, Linn Anne; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Froyland, Livar; Julshamn, Kare

    2006-01-01

    The non-essential elements, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead, inevitably accumulate in marine top predators such as seals. The concentration of these elements and the essential element selenium, due to its proposed protective properties against mercury toxicity in marine mammals, were measured in muscle, liver and kidney from reproductive active females of harp seal (Phagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) caught in the drift ice between Iceland and East Greenland. Arsenic levels were below 1 μg/g w.w. in all analysed samples, and were therefore low compared to other seafood products. The concentrations of arsenic found in the present study were comparable to the results reported in a similar study from 1985. Mean concentrations of total mercury in muscle from the present study were higher than levels in other seafood products. The levels of total mercury from the present study showed a tendency of lower levels in all tissue samples compared to the study from 1985. Methyl mercury displayed a trend of a lower ratio of methyl mercury to total mercury as the concentration of total mercury increased, indicating a demethylation of methyl mercury at high total mercury concentrations (e.g. mercury in liver of hooded seal). The concentration ratio of methyl mercury to total mercury in muscle samples was more than 75%, with total mercury concentration less than 0.5 μg/g w.w., whereas the ratio for liver was as low as 0.2% with a total mercury concentration of 128 μg/g w.w. The molar concentration ratios of selenium to mercury showed that selenium was present in a molar surplus to mercury in all tissues with low mercury concentration. However, there seemed to be a general mobilisation of selenium in liver and kidney tissues of harp seal and hooded seal, whereas an extraordinary mobilisation seemed to take place at hepatic mercury concentrations exceeding 50 μg/g w.w. The mean concentrations of lead in muscles in the present study were higher

  7. A collaborative EDNAP exercise on SNaPshot™-based mtDNA control region typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiler, NEC; Baca, K; Ballard, D

    2017-01-01

    A collaborative European DNA Profiling (EDNAP) Group exercise was undertaken to assess the performance of an earlier described SNaPshot™-based screening assay (denoted mini-mtSNaPshot) (Weiler et al., 2016) [1] that targets 18 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) positions in the mitochondrial (m...... and derived from a subset of the participants, indicating a need for training and guidelines regarding mini-mtSNaPshot data interpretation....

  8. MT-ComparEval: Graphical evaluation interface for Machine Translation development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klejch Ondřej

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The tool described in this article has been designed to help MT developers by implementing a web-based graphical user interface that allows to systematically compare and evaluate various MT engines/experiments using comparative analysis via automatic measures and statistics. The evaluation panel provides graphs, tests for statistical significance and n-gram statistics. We also present a demo server http://wmt.ufal.cz with WMT14 and WMT15 translations.

  9. Metallothionein (MT) response after chronic palladium exposure in the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Sabrina N.; Singer, Christoph; Sures, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    The effects of different exposure concentrations of palladium (Pd) on relative metallothionein (MT) response and bioaccumulation were investigated in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). The mussels were exposed to 0.05, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L Pd 2+ for 10 weeks under controlled temperature and fasting conditions. Relative MT contents were assessed by a modified Ag-saturation method, which allows to discriminate between MT bound to Pd (Pd-MT) and MT bound to unidentified metals (Ag-MT). Determination of metal contents resulted from atomic absorption spectrometry following a microwave digestion. For unexposed mussels and mussels exposed to 0.05 μg/L Pd no metal accumulation could be detected. All other exposure concentrations resulted in detectable Pd accumulation in mussels with final tissue concentrations of 96 μg/g (500 μg/L), 45 μg/g (50 μg/L), and 9 μg/g (5 μg/L). Compared with initial levels Pd-MT concentrations at the end of the exposure period were 600 (500 μg/L), 160 (50 μg/L), and 27 (5 μg/L) times higher. These results show that an increase in MTs in D. polymorpha already occurs at relatively low aqueous Pd concentrations indicating that there is the need for detoxification of Pd in the mussel. Furthermore, correlations between Ag-MT and Pd accumulation indicate that higher exposure concentrations are associated with adverse effects on the mussels. Thus, harmful effects of chronic Pd exposure of organisms even in lowest concentrations cannot be excluded in the environment

  10. Hydrothermal Alteration of the Mt Unzen Conduit (Shimabara/Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, T. I.; Mayer, K.; Hess, K. U.; Janots, E.; Gilg, H. A.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Investigations were carried out on hydrothermally altered coherent dacitic dykes samples from (USDP-4) drill core at Mt Unzen stratovolcano (Shimabara/Japan). XRF, XRD, EMPA, and C-O-isotope analysis led to insights concerning chemistry, mineralogy, and intensity of alteration as well as the origin of carbonate-precipitating fluids. Additionally a textural characterization of the occurring replacement features in the magma conduit zone was performed. The occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, pyrite, carbonates, and R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite indicate a weak to moderate propylitic to phyllic hydrothermal alteration. The dacitic samples of the dykes show different hydrothermal alteration features: (i) carbonate pseudomorphs after hornblende as well as core and zonal textures due to replacement of plagioclase by R1 illite-smectite, (ii) colloform banded fracture fillings and fillings in dissolution vugs, and (iii) chlorite and R1 illite-smectite in the groundmass. Carbonates in fractures comprise iron-rich dolomite solid solutions ("ankerite") and calcite. Isotopic values of d13Cvpdb = -4.59 ± 0.6‰ and d18Ovpdb = -21.73 ± 0.5‰ indicate a hydrothermal-magmatic origin for the carbonate formation. The chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCPI) and the Ishikawa alteration index (AI), applied to the investigated samples show significant differences (CCPI=52.7-57.8; AI=36.1-40.6) indicating their different degree of alteration. According to Nakada et al., 2005, the C13 to C16 dykes represent the feeder dyke from the latest eruption (1991-1995) whereas C8 represents an earlier dyke feeder dyke from an older eruption. Weakest conduit alteration, which was obtained in samples C16-1-5 and C13-2-5, correlates with the alteration degree of the pristine dome rocks. Highest CCPI value was determined for sample C14-1-5 and the highest AI value was determined for sample C15-2-6. The degrees of alteration do not indicate highest alteration of the

  11. Clast comminution during pyroclastic density current transport: Mt St Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, B.; Brand, B. D.; Dufek, J.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic clasts within pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) tend to be more rounded than those in fall deposits. This rounding reflects degrees of comminution during transport, which produces an increase in fine-grained ash with distance from source (Manga, M., Patel, A., Dufek., J. 2011. Bull Volcanol 73: 321-333). The amount of ash produced due to comminution can potentially affect runout distance, deposit sorting, the volume of ash lofted into the upper atmosphere, and increase internal pore pressure (e.g., Wohletz, K., Sheridan, M. F., Brown, W.K. 1989. J Geophy Res, 94, 15703-15721). For example, increased pore pressure has been shown to produce longer runout distances than non-comminuted PDC flows (e.g., Dufek, J., and M. Manga, 2008. J. Geophy Res, 113). We build on the work of Manga et al., (2011) by completing a pumice abrasion study for two well-exposed flow units from the May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt St Helens (MSH). To quantify differences in comminution from source, sampling and the image analysis technique developed in Manga et al., 2010 was completed at distances proximal, medial, and distal from source. Within the units observed, data was taken from the base, middle, and pumice lobes within the outcrops. Our study is unique in that in addition to quantifying the degree of pumice rounding with distance from source, we also determine the possible range of ash sizes produced during comminution by analyzing bubble wall thickness of the pumice through petrographic and SEM analysis. The proportion of this ash size is then measured relative to the grain size of larger ash with distance from source. This allows us to correlate ash production with degree of rounding with distance from source, and determine the fraction of the fine ash produced due to comminution versus vent-fragmentation mechanisms. In addition we test the error in 2D analysis by completing a 3D image analysis of selected pumice samples using a Camsizer. We find that the roundness of PDC

  12. Data Mining in the Context of Monitoring Mt Etna, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Marco; Cassisi, Carmelo; D'Agostino, Marcello; Falsaperla, Susanna; Ferrari, Ferruccio; Langer, Horst; Messina, Alfio; Montalto, Placido; Reitano, Danilo; Spampinato, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    The persistent volcanic activity of Mt Etna makes the continuous monitoring of multidisciplinary data a first-class issue. Indeed, the monitoring systems rapidly accumulate huge quantity of data, arising specific problems of andling and interpretation. In order to respond to these problems, the INGV staff has developed a number of software tools for data mining. These tools have the scope of identifying structures in the data that can be related to volcanic activity, furnishing criteria for the identification of precursory scenarios. In particular, we use methods of clustering and classification in which data are divided into groups according to a-priori-defined measures of similarity or distance. Data groups may assume various shapes, such as convex clouds or complex concave bodies.The "KKAnalysis" software package is a basket of clustering methods. Currently, it is one of the key techniques of the tremor-based automatic alarm systems of INGV Osservatorio Etneo. It exploits both Self-Organizing Maps and Fuzzy Clustering. Beside seismic data, the software has been applied to the geochemical composition of eruptive products as well as a combined analysis of gas-emission (radon) and seismic data. The "DBSCAN" package exploits a concept based on density-based clustering. This method allows discovering clusters with arbitrary shape. Clusters are defined as dense regions of objects in the data space separated by regions of low density. In DBSCAN a cluster grows as long as the density within a group of objects exceeds some threshold. In the context of volcano monitoring, the method is particularly promising in the recognition of ash particles as they have a rather irregular shape. The "MOTIF" software allows us to identify typical waveforms in time series, outperforming methods like cross-correlation that entail a high computational effort. MOTIF can recognize the non-imilarity of two patterns on a small number of data points without going through the whole length of

  13. Chuva de sementes em remanescentes florestais de Campo Verde, MT

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    William Pietro-Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em avaliar sazonalmente a produção de sementes provenientes de fragmentos florestais presentes na zona rural de Campo Verde, MT. Essa caracterização ocorreu em termos de produção de sementes e riqueza de espécies vegetais. Foram selecionados três fragmentos florestais caracterizados como Floresta Estacional Semidecidual. Em cada fragmento, cinco coletores foram instalados e confeccionados com canos de PVC (1 m²; malha de náilon de 0,001 m e 0,15 m de profundidade do bojo. O material foi coletado mensalmente, cujas sementes foram quantificadas e separadas conforme a síndrome de dispersão, etapa sucessional e forma de vida. Houve a determinação da densidade, frequência absoluta, índice de diversidade e equitabilidade. Ao todo, foram obtidas 3.622 sementes, pertencentes a 74 táxons. Maiores densidades de sementes foram observadas durante os meses de setembro, outubro e novembro. As lianas Gouania sp., Fridericia speciosa, Heteropterys sp. e Distictella sp. responderam com 55,95% do total de sementes aportadas. Das espécies que compuseram a chuva de sementes, 74% não são dispersas pelo vento. Todavia, quando se verificou a quantidade de diásporos coletados, formas dispersas pelo vento foram predominantes, representando 76% do total. Citam-se como táxons arbóreos importantes para a recomposição florestal na região de Campo Verde, situada no Sudeste de Mato Grosso: Tachigali rubiginosa, Siparuna guianensis, Nectandra sp., Cordia alliodora, Alibertia sp., Terminalia brasiliensis e Myrcia sp. Essas espécies devem ser alvo de estudos mais específicos relacionados ao seu potencial para recuperação de ambientes degradados, considerando-se as Áreas de Preservação Permanente e Reservas Legais.

  14. Cloud chemistry in eastern China: Observations from Mt. Tai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, J. L.; Shen, X.; Lee, T.; Wang, X.; Li, Y.; Wang, W.; Wang, T.

    2010-07-01

    Until recently, studies of fog and cloud chemistry in China have been rare - even though the fate of China’s large sulfur dioxide emissions depends, in part, on the ability of regional clouds to support rapid aqueous oxidation to sulfate. Sulfur dioxide oxidized in regional clouds is more likely to be removed by wet deposition while sulfur dioxide that undergoes slower gas phase oxidation is expected to survive longer in the atmosphere and be transported over a much broader spatial scale. Two 2008 field campaigns conducted at Mt. Tai, an isolated peak on the NE China plain, provide insight into the chemical composition of regional clouds and the importance of various aqueous phase sulfur oxidation pathways. Single and two-stage Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collectors were used to collect bulk and drop size-resolved samples of cloudwater. Collected cloudwater was analyzed for key species that influence in-cloud sulfate production, including pH, S(IV), H2O2, Fe and Mn. Other major cloud solutes, including inorganic ions, total organic carbon (TOC), formaldehyde, and organic acids were also analyzed, as were gas phase concentrations of SO2, O3, and H2O2. A wide range of cloud pH was observed, from below 3 to above 6. High concentrations of cloudwater sulfate were consistent with abundant sulfur dioxide emissions in the region. Sampled clouds were also found to contain high concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and organic carbon. Peak TOC concentrations reached approximately 200 ppmC, among the highest concentrations ever measured in cloudwater. Hydrogen peroxide was found to be the dominant aqueous phase S(IV) oxidant when cloud pH was less than approximately 5.4. Despite its fast reaction with sulfur dioxide in cloud droplets, high concentrations of residual hydrogen peroxide were measured in some clouds implying a substantial additional capacity for sulfate production. Ozone was found to be an important S(IV) oxidant when cloud pH was high. Oxidation of S

  15. Thermodynamics of Pb(ii) and Zn(ii) binding to MT-3, a neurologically important metallothionein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, M C; Shami Shah, A; DeSilva, S; Gleaton, A; Su, A; Goundie, B; Croteau, M L; Stevenson, M J; Wilcox, D E; Austin, R N

    2016-06-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to quantify the thermodynamics of Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) binding to metallothionein-3 (MT-3). Pb(2+) binds to zinc-replete Zn7MT-3 displacing each zinc ion with a similar change in free energy (ΔG) and enthalpy (ΔH). EDTA chelation measurements of Zn7MT-3 and Pb7MT-3 reveal that both metal ions are extracted in a tri-phasic process, indicating that they bind to the protein in three populations with different binding thermodynamics. Metal binding is entropically favoured, with an enthalpic penalty that reflects the enthalpic cost of cysteine deprotonation accompanying thiolate ligation of the metal ions. These data indicate that Pb(2+) binding to both apo MT-3 and Zn7MT-3 is thermodynamically favourable, and implicate MT-3 in neuronal lead biochemistry.

  16. The Current State and Historico-geographical Background of Mt. Chirisan Region Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the historico-geographical background and current state of immigrants in the area designated as the “Mt. Chirisan Region,” their characteristics, and related integration issues. This article defines the Mt. Chirisan Region as the 7 cities/kuns of Namwŏn-si, Changsu-kun, Koksŏng-kun, Kurye-kun, Hadong-kun, Sanchŏng-kun, and Hamyang-kun. As the Mt. Chirisan Region mainly consists of mountainous and agricultural areas, the immigrant induction effect socio-economically was low relative to urban and industrial areas. It was also noted that, as the percentage of marriage immigration in Mt. Chirisan was high relative to urban or industrial areas, the female foreigner ratio was higher than that of male foreigners. In regard to the home countries of immigrants, women from South-East Asia and North-East Asia accounted for the majority. Also, this article examines the current situation of support programs of 7 local Multicultural Family Support Centers in the Mt. Chirisan Region, their problems, and probably solutions. Based on the historical development of the region and recent social changes, our society and government need to actively develop a higher level of social integration and employment education support programs, and carry out policies that will protect the diverse cultural identities of immigrants. In addition, differentiated multicultural family support programs appropriate for Mt. Chirisan, an inland mountain region, need to be developed.

  17. Biochemical signatures mimicking multiple carboxylase deficiency in children with mutations in MT-ATP6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Austin A; Balasubramaniam, Shanti; Christodoulou, John; Burrage, Lindsay C; Marom, Ronit; Graham, Brett H; Diaz, George A; Glamuzina, Emma; Hauser, Natalie; Heese, Bryce; Horvath, Gabriella; Mattman, Andre; van Karnebeek, Clara; Lane Rutledge, S; Williamson, Amy; Estrella, Lissette; Van Hove, Johan K L; Weisfeld-Adams, James D

    2018-01-04

    Elevations of specific acylcarnitines in blood reflect carboxylase deficiencies, and have utility in newborn screening for life-threatening organic acidemias and other inherited metabolic diseases. In this report, we describe a newly-identified association of biochemical features of multiple carboxylase deficiency in individuals harboring mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in MT-ATP6 and in whom organic acidemias and multiple carboxylase deficiencies were excluded. Using retrospective chart review, we identified eleven individuals with abnormally elevated propionylcarnitine (C3) or hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5OH) with mutations in MT-ATP6, most commonly m.8993T>G in high heteroplasmy or homoplasmy. Most patients were ascertained on newborn screening; most had normal enzymatic or molecular genetic testing to exclude biotinidase and holocarboxylase synthetase deficiencies. MT-ATP6 is associated with some cases of Leigh disease; clinical outcomes in our cohort ranged from death from neurodegenerative disease in early childhood to clinically and developmentally normal after several years of follow-up. These cases expand the biochemical phenotype associated with MT-ATP6 mutations, especially m.8993T>G, to include acylcarnitine abnormalities mimicking carboxylase deficiency states. Clinicians should be aware of this association and its implications for newborn screening, and consider mtDNA sequencing in patients exhibiting similar acylcarnitine abnormalities that are biotin-unresponsive and in whom other enzymatic deficiencies have been excluded. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Geant4-MT: bringing multi-threading into Geant4 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, S.; Apostolakis, J.; Cosmo, G.; Nowak, A.; Asai, M.; Brandt, D.; Dotti, A.; Coopermann, G.; Dong, X.; Jun, Soon Yung

    2013-01-01

    Geant4-MT is the multi-threaded version of the Geant4 particle transport code. The key goals for the design of Geant4-MT have been a) the need to reduce the memory footprint of the multi-threaded application compared to the use of separate jobs and processes; b) to create an easy migration of the existing applications; and c) to use efficiently many threads or cores, by scaling up to tens and potentially hundreds of workers. The first public release of a Geant4- MT prototype was made in 2011. We report on the revision of Geant4-MT for inclusion in the production-level release scheduled for end of 2013. This has involved significant re-engineering of the prototype in order to incorporate it into the main Geant4 development line, and the porting of Geant4-MT threading code to additional platforms. In order to make the porting of applications as simple as possible, refinements addressed the needs of standalone applications. Further adaptations were created to improve the fit with the frameworks of High Energy Physics experiments. We report on performances measurements on Intel Xeon TM , AMD Opteron TM the first trials of Geant4-MT on the Intel Many Integrated Cores (MIC) architecture, in the form of the Xeon Phi TM co-processor. These indicate near-linear scaling through about 200 threads on 60 cores, when holding fixed the number of events per thread. (authors)

  19. Mitochondrial depolarization in yeast zygotes inhibits clonal expansion of selfish mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavaeva, Iuliia E; Golyshev, Sergey A; Smirnova, Ekaterina A; Sokolov, Svyatoslav S; Severin, Fedor F; Knorre, Dmitry A

    2017-04-01

    Non-identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) compete with each other within a cell and the ultimate variant of mtDNA present depends on their relative replication rates. Using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells as a model, we studied the effects of mitochondrial inhibitors on the competition between wild-type mtDNA and mutant selfish mtDNA in heteroplasmic zygotes. We found that decreasing mitochondrial transmembrane potential by adding uncouplers or valinomycin changes the competition outcomes in favor of the wild-type mtDNA. This effect was significantly lower in cells with disrupted mitochondria fission or repression of the autophagy-related genes ATG8 , ATG32 or ATG33 , implying that heteroplasmic zygotes activate mitochondrial degradation in response to the depolarization. Moreover, the rate of mitochondrially targeted GFP turnover was higher in zygotes treated with uncoupler than in haploid cells or untreated zygotes. Finally, we showed that vacuoles of zygotes with uncoupler-activated autophagy contained DNA. Taken together, our data demonstrate that mitochondrial depolarization inhibits clonal expansion of selfish mtDNA and this effect depends on mitochondrial fission and autophagy. These observations suggest an activation of mitochondria quality control mechanisms in heteroplasmic yeast zygotes. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Strengthening MT6D Defenses with LXC-Based Honeypot Capabilities

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    Dileep Basam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving Target IPv6 Defense (MT6D imparts radio-frequency hopping behavior to IPv6 networks by having participating nodes periodically hop onto new addresses while giving up old addresses. Our previous research efforts implemented a solution to identify and acquire these old addresses that are being discarded by MT6D hosts on a local network besides being able to monitor and visualize the incoming traffic on these addresses. This was essentially equivalent to forming a darknet out of the discarded MT6D addresses, but the solution presented in the previous research effort did not include database integration for it to scale and be extended. This paper presents a solution with a new architecture that not only extends the previous solution in terms of automation and database integration but also demonstrates the ability to deploy a honeypot on a virtual LXC (Linux Container on-demand based on any interesting traffic pattern observed on a discarded address. The proposed architecture also allows an MT6D host to query the solution database for network activity on its relinquished addresses as a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON object. This allows an MT6D host to identify suspicious activity on its discarded addresses and strengthen the MT6D scheme parameters accordingly. We have built a proof-of-concept for the proposed solution and analyzed the solution’s feasibility and scalability.

  1. Random mtDNA mutations modulate proliferation capacity in mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukat, Alexandra; Edgar, Daniel; Bratic, Ivana; Maiti, Priyanka; Trifunovic, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Increased mtDNA mutations in MEFs lead to high level of spontaneous immortalization. → This process is independent of endogenous ROS production. → Aerobic glycolysis significantly contributes to spontaneous immortalization of MEFs. -- Abstract: An increase in mtDNA mutation load leads to a loss of critical cells in different tissues thereby contributing to the physiological process of organismal ageing. Additionally, the accumulation of senescent cells that display changes in metabolic function might act in an active way to further disrupt the normal tissue function. We believe that this could be the important link missing in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of premature ageing in the mtDNA mutator mice. We tested proliferation capacity of mtDNA mutator cells in vitro. When cultured in physiological levels of oxygen (3%) their proliferation capacity is somewhat lower than wild-type cells. Surprisingly, in conditions of increased oxidative stress (20% O 2 ) mtDNA mutator mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit continuous proliferation due to spontaneous immortalization, whereas the same conditions promote senescence in wild-type cells. We believe that an increase in aerobic glycolysis observed in mtDNA mutator mice is a major mechanism behind this process. We propose that glycolysis promotes proliferation and allows a fast turnover of metabolites, but also leads to energy crisis due to lower ATP production rate. This could lead to compromised replication and/or repair and therefore, in rare cases, might lead to mutations in tumor suppressor genes and spontaneous immortalization.

  2. Individual Variations in Inorganic Arsenic Metabolism Associated with AS3MT Genetic Polymorphisms

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    Haruo Takeshita

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Individual variations in inorganic arsenic metabolism may influence the toxic effects. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state methyltransferase (AS3MT that can catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet to trivalent arsenical, may play a role in arsenic metabolism in humans. Since the genetic polymorphisms of AS3MT gene may be associated with the susceptibility to inorganic arsenic toxicity, relationships of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in AS3MT with inorganic arsenic metabolism have been investigated. Here, we summarize our recent findings and other previous studies on the inorganic arsenic metabolism and AS3MT genetic polymorphisms in humans. Results of genotype dependent differences in arsenic metabolism for most of SNPs in AS3MT were Inconsistent throughout the studies. Nevertheless, two SNPs, AS3MT 12390 (rs3740393 and 14458 (rs11191439 were consistently related to arsenic methylation regardless of the populations examined for the analysis. Thus, these SNPs may be useful indicators to predict the arsenic metabolism via methylation pathways.

  3. MT1-MMP-mediated basement membrane remodeling modulates renal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggins, Karen S.; Mernaugh, Glenda; Su, Yan; Quaranta, Vito; Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu; Pozzi, Ambra; Zent, Roy

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling regulates multiple cellular functions required for normal development and tissue repair. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key mediators of this process and membrane targeted MMPs (MT-MMPs) in particular have been shown to be important in normal development of specific organs. In this study we investigated the role of MT1-MMP in kidney development. We demonstrate that loss of MT1-MMP leads to a renal phenotype characterized by a moderate decrease in ureteric bud branching morphogenesis and a severe proliferation defect. The kidneys of MT1-MMP-null mice have increased deposition of collagen IV, laminins, perlecan, and nidogen and the phenotype is independent of the MT-1MMP target, MMP-2. Utilizing in vitro systems we demonstrated that MTI-MMP proteolytic activity is required for renal tubule cells to proliferate in three dimensional matrices and to migrate on collagen IV and laminins. Together these data suggest an important role for MT1-MMP in kidney development, which is mediated by its ability to regulate cell proliferation and migration by proteolytically cleaving kidney basement membrane components.

  4. The amount and integrity of mtDNA in maize decline with development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Delene J; Kumar, Rachana A; Bendich, Arnold J

    2013-02-01

    In maize and other grasses there is a developmental gradient from the meristematic cells at the base of the stalk to the differentiated cells at the leaf tip. This gradient presents an opportunity to investigate changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that accompany growth under light and dark conditions, as done previously for plastid DNA. Maize mtDNA was analyzed by DAPI-DNA staining of individual mitochondria, gel electrophoresis/blot hybridization, and real-time qPCR. Both the amount and integrity of the mtDNA were found to decline with development. There was a 20-fold decline in mtDNA copy number per cell from the embryo to the light-grown leaf blade. The amount of DNA per mitochondrial particle was greater in dark-grown leaf blade (24 copies, on average) than in the light (2 copies), with some mitochondria lacking any detectable DNA. Three factors that influence the demise of mtDNA during development are considered: (1) the decision to either repair or degrade mtDNA molecules that are damaged by the reactive oxygen species produced as byproducts of respiration; (2) the generation of ATP by photophosphorylation in chloroplasts, reducing the need for respiratory-competent mitochondria; and (3) the shift in mitochondrial function from energy-generating respiration to photorespiration during the transition from non-green to green tissue.

  5. No evidence of Neandertal mtDNA contribution to early modern humans.

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    David Serre

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from four Neandertal fossils from Germany, Russia, and Croatia has demonstrated that these individuals carried closely related mtDNAs that are not found among current humans. However, these results do not definitively resolve the question of a possible Neandertal contribution to the gene pool of modern humans since such a contribution might have been erased by genetic drift or by the continuous influx of modern human DNA into the Neandertal gene pool. A further concern is that if some Neandertals carried mtDNA sequences similar to contemporaneous humans, such sequences may be erroneously regarded as modern contaminations when retrieved from fossils. Here we address these issues by the analysis of 24 Neandertal and 40 early modern human remains. The biomolecular preservation of four Neandertals and of five early modern humans was good enough to suggest the preservation of DNA. All four Neandertals yielded mtDNA sequences similar to those previously determined from Neandertal individuals, whereas none of the five early modern humans contained such mtDNA sequences. In combination with current mtDNA data, this excludes any large genetic contribution by Neandertals to early modern humans, but does not rule out the possibility of a smaller contribution.

  6. Automatic Grader of MT Outputs in Colloquial Style by Using Multiple Edit Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Kenji; Sumita, Eiichiro; Nakaiwa, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Okuno, Hiroshi G.

    This paper addresses the challenging problem of automating the human's intelligent ability to evaluate output from machine translation (MT) systems, which are subsystems of Speech-to-Speech MT (SSMT) systems. Conventional automatic MT evaluation methods include BLEU, which MT researchers have frequently used. BLEU is unsuitable for SSMT evaluation for two reasons. First, BLEU assesses errors lightly at the beginning or ending of translations and heavily in the middle, although the assessments should be independent from the positions. Second, BLEU lacks tolerance in accepting colloquial sentences with small errors, although such errors do not prevent us from continuing conversation. In this paper, the authors report a new evaluation method called RED that automatically grades each MT output by using a decision tree (DT). The DT is learned from training examples that are encoded by using multiple edit distances and their grades. The multiple edit distances are normal edit dista nce (ED) defined by insertion, deletion, and replacement, as well as extensions of ED. The use of multiple edit distances allows more tolerance than either ED or BLEU. Each evaluated MT output is assigned a grade by using the DT. RED and BLEU were compared for the task of evaluating SSMT systems, which have various performances, on a spoken language corpus, ATR's Basic Travel Expression Corpus (BTEC). Experimental results showed that RED significantly outperformed BLEU.

  7. Multiple [3H]imipramine binding sites in brains of male and female Fawn-Hooded and Long-Evans rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieni, J.R.; Zukin, S.R.; Praag, H.M. van; Tobach, E.; Barr, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons of high- and low-affinity [ 3 H]imipramine binding to whole brain homogenates from adult male and female rats of the Fawn-Hooded and Long-Evans strains were performed. Most strikingly, no significant differences were observed between the two strains in any of the binding parameters, indicating that brain [ 3 H]imipramine binding sites, which may be related to the serotonergic uptake process, appear normal in a strain of rats with serotonin platelet storage pool disease. However, a significant sex difference in high- but not low-affinity whole brain [ 3 H]imipramine Bsub(max) values was observed, with females of both strains having higher densities than males. (Auth.)

  8. Using stochastic gradient boosting to infer stopover habitat selection and distribution of Hooded Cranes Grus monacha during spring migration in Lindian, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tianlong; Huettmann, Falk; Guo, Yumin

    2014-01-01

    The Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) is a globally vulnerable species, and habitat loss is the primary cause of its decline. To date, little is known regarding the specific habitat needs, and stopover habitat selection in particular, of the Hooded Crane. In this study we used stochastic gradient boosting (TreeNet) to develop three specific habitat selection models for roosting, daytime resting, and feeding site selection. In addition, we used a geographic information system (GIS) combined with TreeNet to develop a species distribution model. We also generated a digital map of the relative occurrence index (ROI) of this species at daytime resting sites in the study area. Our study indicated that the water depth, distance to village, coverage of deciduous leaves, open water area, and density of plants were the major predictors of roosting site selection. For daytime resting site selection, the distance to wetland, distance to farmland, and distance to road were the primary predictors. For feeding site selection, the distance to road, quantity of food, plant coverage, distance to village, plant density, distance to wetland, and distance to river were contributing factors, and the distance to road and quantity of food were the most important predictors. The predictive map showed that there were two consistent multi-year daytime resting sites in our study area. Our field work in 2013 using systematic ground-truthing confirmed that this prediction was accurate. Based on this study, we suggest that Lindian plays an important role for migratory birds and that cultivation practices should be adjusted locally. Furthermore, public education programs to promote the concept of the harmonious coexistence of humans and cranes can help successfully protect this species in the long term and eventually lead to its delisting by the IUCN.

  9. Using stochastic gradient boosting to infer stopover habitat selection and distribution of Hooded Cranes Grus monacha during spring migration in Lindian, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianlong Cai

    Full Text Available The Hooded Crane (Grus monacha is a globally vulnerable species, and habitat loss is the primary cause of its decline. To date, little is known regarding the specific habitat needs, and stopover habitat selection in particular, of the Hooded Crane. In this study we used stochastic gradient boosting (TreeNet to develop three specific habitat selection models for roosting, daytime resting, and feeding site selection. In addition, we used a geographic information system (GIS combined with TreeNet to develop a species distribution model. We also generated a digital map of the relative occurrence index (ROI of this species at daytime resting sites in the study area. Our study indicated that the water depth, distance to village, coverage of deciduous leaves, open water area, and density of plants were the major predictors of roosting site selection. For daytime resting site selection, the distance to wetland, distance to farmland, and distance to road were the primary predictors. For feeding site selection, the distance to road, quantity of food, plant coverage, distance to village, plant density, distance to wetland, and distance to river were contributing factors, and the distance to road and quantity of food were the most important predictors. The predictive map showed that there were two consistent multi-year daytime resting sites in our study area. Our field work in 2013 using systematic ground-truthing confirmed that this prediction was accurate. Based on this study, we suggest that Lindian plays an important role for migratory birds and that cultivation practices should be adjusted locally. Furthermore, public education programs to promote the concept of the harmonious coexistence of humans and cranes can help successfully protect this species in the long term and eventually lead to its delisting by the IUCN.

  10. Targeting MT1-MMP as an ImmunoPET-Based Strategy for Imaging Gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G de Lucas

    Full Text Available A critical challenge in the management of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM tumors is the accurate diagnosis and assessment of tumor progression in a noninvasive manner. We have identified Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP as an attractive biomarker for GBM imaging since this protein is actively involved in tumor growth and progression, correlates with tumor grade and is closely associated with poor prognosis in GBM patients. Here, we report the development of an immunoPET tracer for effective detection of MT1-MMP in GBM models.An anti-human MT1-MMP monoclonal antibody (mAb, LEM2/15, was conjugated to p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine (DFO-NCS for 89Zr labeling. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed in xenograft mice bearing human GBM cells (U251 expressing MT1-MMP and non-expressing breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7 as negative control. Two orthotopic brain GBM models, patient-derived neurospheres (TS543 and U251 cells, with different degrees of blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption were also used for PET imaging experiments.89Zr labeling of DFO-LEM2/15 was achieved with high yield (>90% and specific activity (78.5 MBq/mg. Biodistribution experiments indicated that 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed excellent potential as a radiotracer for detection of MT1-MMP positive GBM tumors. PET imaging also indicated a specific and prominent 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 uptake in MT1-MMP+ U251 GBM tumors compared to MT1-MMP- MCF-7 breast tumors. Results obtained in orthotopic brain GBM models revealed a high dependence of a disrupted BBB for tracer penetrance into tumors. 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed much higher accumulation in TS543 tumors with a highly disrupted BBB than in U251 orthotopic model in which the BBB permeability was only partially increased. Histological analysis confirmed the specificity of the immunoconjugate in all GBM models.A new anti MT1-MMP-mAb tracer, 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15, was synthesized efficiently. In vivo validation showed high

  11. Full-wave Ambient Noise Tomography of Mt Rainier volcano, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, Ashton; Shen, Yang

    2015-04-01

    Mount Rainier towers over the landscape of western Washington (USA), ranking with Fuji-yama in Japan, Mt Pinatubo in the Philippines, and Mt Vesuvius in Italy, as one of the great stratovolcanoes of the world. Notwithstanding its picturesque stature, Mt Rainier is potentially the most devastating stratovolcano in North America, with more than 3.5 million people living beneath is shadow in the Seattle-Tacoma area. The primary hazard posed by the volcano is in the form of highly destructive debris flows (lahars). These lahars form when water and/or melted ice erode away and entrain preexisting volcanic sediment. At Mt Rainier these flows are often initiated by sector collapse of the volcano's hydrothermally rotten flanks and compounded by Mt Rainier's extensive snow and glacial ice coverage. It is therefore imperative to ascertain the extent of the volcano's summit hydrothermal alteration, and determine areas prone to collapse. Despite being one of the sixteen volcanoes globally designated by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior as warranting detailed and focused study, Mt Rainier remains enigmatic both in terms of the shallow internal structure and the degree of summit hydrothermal alteration. We image this shallow internal structure and areas of possible summit alteration using ambient noise tomography. Our full waveform forward modeling includes high-resolution topography allowing us to accuratly account for the effects of topography on the propagation of short-period Rayleigh waves. Empirical Green's functions were extracted from 80 stations within 200 km of Mt Rainier, and compared with synthetic greens functions over multiple frequency bands from 2-28 seconds.

  12. Efficient inhibition of heavy metal release from mine tailings against acid rain exposure by triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Beini; Wu, Pingxiao; Huang, Zhujian; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Shanshan; Dang, Zhi; Ruan, Bo; Kang, Chunxi

    2016-11-15

    The potential application of triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt) in mine tailings treatment and AMD (acid mine drainage) remediation was investigated with batch experiments. The structural and morphological characteristics of TETA-Mt were analyzed with XRD, FTIR, DTG-TG and SEM. The inhibition efficiencies of TETA-Mt against heavy metal release from mine tailings when exposed to acid rain leaching was examined and compared with that of triethylenetetramine (TETA) and Mt. Results showed that the overall inhibition by TETA-Mt surpassed that by TETA or Mt for various heavy metal ions over an acid rain pH range of 3-5.6 and a temperature range of 25-40°C. When mine tailings were exposed to acid rain of pH 4.8 (the average rain pH of the mining site where the mine tailings were from), TETA-Mt achieved an inhibition efficiency of over 90% for Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) release, and 70% for Pb(2+) at 25°C. It was shown that TETA-Mt has a strong buffering capacity. Moreover, TETA-Mt was able to adsorb heavy metal ions and the adsorption process was fast, suggesting that coordination was mainly responsible. These results showed the potential of TETA-Mt in AMD mitigation, especially in acid rain affected mining area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Immobilization of metallothionein to carbon paste electrode surface via anti-MT antibodies and its use for biosensing of silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnkova, Libuse; Krizkova, Sona; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Kizek, Rene

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, heavy metal biosensor based on immobilization of metallothionein (MT) to the surface of carbon paste electrode (CPE) via anti-MT-antibodies is reported. First, the evaluation of MT electroactivity was done. The attention was focused on the capturing of MT to the CPE surface. Antibodies incorporated and mixed into carbon paste were stable; even after two weeks the observed changes in signal height were lower than 5%. Further, the interaction of MT with polyclonal chicken antibodies incorporated in carbon paste electrode was determined by square-wave voltammetry. In the voltammogram, two signals--labelled as cys(MT) and W(a)--were observed. The cys(MT) corresponded to -SH moieties of MT and W(a) corresponded to tryptophan residues of chicken antibodies. Time of interaction (300 s) and MT concentration (125 μg/ml) were optimized to suggest a silver(I) ions biosensor. Biosensor (CPE modified with anti-MT antibody) prepared under the optimized conditions was then used for silver(I) ions detection. The detection limit (3 S/N) for silver(I) ions was estimated as 0.5 nM. The proposed biosensor was tested by detection spiking of silver(I) ions in various water samples (from very pure distilled water to rainwater). Recoveries varied from 74 to 104%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. IFPE/MT4-MT6A-LOCA, Large-break LOCA in-reactor fuel bundle materials tests at NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Turnbull, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Description - Objectives - Results: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted a series of thermal-hydraulic and cladding mechanical deformation tests in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at the Chalk River National Laboratory in Canada. The objective of these tests was to perform simulated loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) experiments using full-length light-water reactor fuel rods to study mechanical deformation, flow blockage, and coolability. Three phases of a LOCA (i.e., heat-up, reflood, and quench) were performed in situ using nuclear fissioning to simulate the low-level decay power during a LOCA after shutdown. All tests used PWR-type, non-irradiated fuel rods. Provided here is information on two materials tests, MT-6A and MT-4, which PNNL considers the better characterized for the purposes of setting up computer cases. The NRU reactor is a heterogeneous, thermal, tank-type research reactor. It has a power level of 135 MWth and is heavy-water moderated and cooled. The coolant has an inlet temperature of 310 K at a pressure of 0.65 MPa. The MT tests were conducted in a specially designed test train to supply the specified coolant conditions of flowing steam, stagnant steam, and then reflood. Typical instrumentation for the MT tests included fuel centerline thermocouples, cladding inner surface thermocouples, cladding outer surface thermocouples, rod internal gas pressure transducers or pressure switches, coolant channel steam probes, and self-powered neutron detectors. This instrumentation allowed for determining rupture times and cladding temperature. The test rods for the LOCA cases in the NRU reactor were irradiated in flowing steam prior to the transient, stagnant steam during the transient and prior to reflood, and then reflood conditions to complete the transient. Both cladding inner surface and outer surface temperatures were measured, in addition to coolant temperatures. However, only cladding inner surface temperatures were

  15. Do mtDNA Deletions Play a Role in the Development of Nasal Polyposis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Tatar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Nasal polyposis (NP is an inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa and paranasal sinuses. Mitochondria are the cellular organelles which produce cellular energy by Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS, and they have own inheritance material, mtDNA. mtDNA is affected by reactive oxygen samples (ROS which are produced by both OXPHOS and the inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to investigate the 4977 bp and 7400 bp deletions of mtDNA in nasal polyposis tissue, and to indicate the possible association of mtDNA deletions with NP. Methods:Thirty-three patients, aged 15 to 65 years, with nasal polyposis were selected to be assessed for mitochondrial DNA deletions. The patients with possible mtDNA mutations due to mitochondrial disease, being treated with radiotherapy, of advanced age, with a familiar history, aspirin hypersensitivity, or a history of asthma, were excluded. Polyp excision surgery was applied to the treatment of the NP, and after histopathological diagnosis 1x1 cm of polyp tissue samples were used to isolate mtDNA. The 4977 bp and 7400 bp deletion regions, and two control regions of mtDNA were assessed by using four pairs of primers. DNA extractions from the NP tissues and peripheral blood samples of the patients were made, and then Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR were made. PCR products were separated in 2% agarose gel.Results:No patient had either the 4977 bp deletion or the 7400 bp deletion in their NP tissue, and neither were these deletions evident in their peripheral blood. Two control sequences, one of them from a non-deleted region, and the other from a possible deletion region, were detected in the NP tissues and peripheral blood of all the patients.Conclusions:We had anticipated that some mtDNA deletion might have occurred in NP tissue due to the increased ROS levels caused by chronic inflammation, but we did not detect any deletion. Probably, the duration of inflammation in NP is insufficient to form mt

  16. Pre-migratory congregations of Red-crowned (Grus japonensis, White-naped (G. vipio and Hooded (G. monacha cranes in the Muraviovka Park for Sustainable Land Use in 1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Gorlov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The autumn pre-migratory concentrations of Red-crowned, White-naped and Hooded Cranes were studied in the Muraviovka Park for Sustainable Land Use and Environmentla Education (Tambov District, Amur Region, Russian Federation during 23.08–29.09.1992. We counted 292 Hooded Cranes, 34 White-naped Cranes, and 17 Red-crowned Cranes during the study period. We also marked specific differences in the behaviour of the birds connected with their readiness for migration. The Hooded Cranes showed the greatest readiness for migration. We observed mutual flights, overnight stays, and feeding of adult birds and family groups in their flocks. This was not the same in the flocks of White-naped Cranes. However, the average number of birds in the flocks of White-naped Cranes had increased by the end of our observations due to new families joining the general flock. The family parties of the Red-crowned Crane and adult birds without young individuals stayed apart from each other and from other crane species during the whole observation period. We registered the autumn departure of Hooded Cranes in late September, the migratory departure of White-naped Cranes in the middle of October, and the Red-crowned Cranes left the area in the first half of November. The breeding period for all crane species starts at the same time: the third decade of April – the beginning of May. The young of the studied crane species differ significantly in the period of time before fledging: Hooded Cranes – 55–60 days, White-naped Cranes – 65–70 days, and Red-crowned Cranes – 70–75 days because of their specific differences in the ratio of size to weight (1 : 1.3 : 1.7. Thus, the time difference between the Hooded and Red-crowned Cranes is about 2–3 weeks. We suggest that this is the main reason that determines the differences between these species in the timing of the the start of autumn migration.

  17. Re-interpreting the Oxbridge stransverse mass variable MT2 in general cases

    CERN Document Server

    Mahbubani, Rakhi; Park, Myeonghun

    2013-01-01

    We extend the range of possible applications of MT2 type analyses to decay chains with multiple invisible particles, as well as to asymmetric event topologies with different parent and/or different children particles. We advocate two possible approaches. In the first, we introduce suitably defined 3+1-dimensional analogues of the MT2 variable, which take into account all relevant on-shell kinematic constraints in a given event topology. The second approach utilizes the conventional MT2 variable, but its kinematic endpoint is suitably reinterpreted on a case by case basis, depending on the specific event topology at hand. We provide the general prescription for this reinterpretation, including the formulas relating the measured MT2 endpoint (as a function of the test masses of all the invisible particles) to the underlying physical mass spectrum. We also provide analytical formulas for the shape of the differential distribution of the doubly projected MT2(perp) variable for the ten possible event topologies wi...

  18. Impact of Sleeping Altitude on Symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness on Mt. Fuji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Uno, Tadashi; Endo, Junko; Handa, Yoko; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2018-05-09

    Horiuchi, Masahiro, Tadashi Uno, Junko Endo, Yoko Handa, and Tatsuya Hasegawa. Impact of sleeping altitude on symptoms of acute mountain sickness on Mt. Fuji. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. We sought to investigate the factors influencing acute mountain sickness (AMS) on Mt. Fuji in Japan, in particular, to assess the effects of sleeping altitude, by means of a questionnaire survey. This study involved 1932 participants who climbed Mt. Fuji, and obtained information regarding sex, age, and whether participants stayed at the mountain lodges. The AMS survey excluded the perceived sleep difficulties assessed with the Lake Louise Scoring (LLS) system for all climbers. The overall prevalence of AMS was 31.6% for all participants (LLS score ≥3 with headache, excluding sleep difficulties). A univariate analysis revealed that overnight stay at Mt. Fuji was associated with an increased prevalence of AMS, but that sex and age were not. For overnight lodgers, the mean sleeping altitude in participants with AMS was slightly higher than that in participants without AMS (p lodge, especially one above 2870 m, may be associated with an increased prevalence of AMS on Mt. Fuji.

  19. Three-dimensional interpretation of MT data in volcanic environments (computer simulation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spichak, V. [Geoelectromagnetic Research Institute RAS, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-04-01

    The research is aimed, first, to find components of MT-fields and their transforms, which facilitate the imaging of the internal structure of volcanoes and, second, to study the detectability of conductivity variations in a magma chamber due to alterations of other physical parameters. The resolving power of MT data with respect to the electric structure of volcanic zones is studied using software developed by the author for three-dimensional (3D) numerical modeling, analysis and imaging. A set of 3D volcano models are constructed and synthetic MT data on the relief Earth's surface are analysed. It is found that impedance phases as well as in-phase and quadrature parts of the electric field type transforms enable the best imaging of the volcanic interior. The determinant impedance is, however, the most suitable for adequate interpretation of measurements carried out for the purpose of monitoring conductivity variations in a magma chamber. The way of removing the geological noise from the MT data by means of its upward analytical continuation to the artificial reference plane is discussed. Interpretation methodologies are suggested aimed at 3D imaging and monitoring volcanic interiors by MT data.

  20. Inspecting close maternal relatedness: Towards better mtDNA population samples in forensic databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Martin; Irwin, Jodi A; Coble, Michael D; Parson, Walther

    2011-03-01

    Reliable data are crucial for all research fields applying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a genetic marker. Quality control measures have been introduced to ensure the highest standards in sequence data generation, validation and a posteriori inspection. A phylogenetic alignment strategy has been widely accepted as a prerequisite for data comparability and database searches, for forensic applications, for reconstructions of human migrations and for correct interpretation of mtDNA mutations in medical genetics. There is continuing effort to enhance the number of worldwide population samples in order to contribute to a better understanding of human mtDNA variation. This has often lead to the analysis of convenience samples collected for other purposes, which might not meet the quality requirement of random sampling for mtDNA data sets. Here, we introduce an additional quality control means that deals with one aspect of this limitation: by combining autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) marker with mtDNA information, it helps to avoid the bias introduced by related individuals included in the same (small) sample. By STR analysis of individuals sharing their mitochondrial haplotype, pedigree construction and subsequent software-assisted calculation of likelihood ratios based on the allele frequencies found in the population, closely maternally related individuals can be identified and excluded. We also discuss scenarios that allow related individuals in the same set. An ideal population sample would be representative for its population: this new approach represents another contribution towards this goal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The past, present and future of mitochondrial genomics: have we sequenced enough mtDNAs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Roy

    2016-01-01

    The year 2014 saw more than a thousand new mitochondrial genome sequences deposited in GenBank-an almost 15% increase from the previous year. Hundreds of peer-reviewed articles accompanied these genomes, making mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) the most sequenced and reported type of eukaryotic chromosome. These mtDNA data have advanced a wide range of scientific fields, from forensics to anthropology to medicine to molecular evolution. But for many biological lineages, mtDNAs are so well sampled that newly published genomes are arguably no longer contributing significantly to the progression of science, and in some cases they are tying up valuable resources, particularly journal editors and referees. Is it time to acknowledge that as a research community we have published enough mitochondrial genome papers? Here, I address this question, exploring the history, milestones and impacts of mitochondrial genomics, the benefits and drawbacks of continuing to publish mtDNAs at a high rate and what the future may hold for such an important and popular genetic marker. I highlight groups for which mtDNAs are still poorly sampled, thus meriting further investigation, and recommend that more energy be spent characterizing aspects of mitochondrial genomes apart from the DNA sequence, such as their chromosomal and transcriptional architectures. Ultimately, one should be mindful before writing a mitochondrial genome paper. Consider perhaps sending the sequence directly to GenBank instead, and be sure to annotate it correctly before submission. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Membrane-type-3 matrix metalloproteinase (MT3-MMP functions as a matrix composition-dependent effector of melanoma cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Tatti

    Full Text Available In primary human melanoma, the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase, MT3-MMP, is overexpressed in the most aggressive nodular-type tumors. Unlike MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, which promote cell invasion through basement membranes and collagen type I-rich tissues, the function of MT3-MMP in tumor progression remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MT3-MMP inhibits MT1-MMP-driven melanoma cell invasion in three-dimensional collagen, while yielding an altered, yet MT1-MMP-dependent, form of expansive growth behavior that phenocopies the formation of nodular cell colonies. In melanoma cell lines originating from advanced primary or metastatic lesions, endogenous MT3-MMP expression was associated with limited collagen-invasive potential. In the cell lines with highest MT3-MMP expression relative to MT1-MMP, collagen-invasive activity was increased following stable MT3-MMP gene silencing. Consistently, MT3-MMP overexpression in cells derived from less advanced superficially spreading melanoma lesions, or in the MT3-MMP knockdown cells, reduced MT1-MMP-dependent collagen invasion. Rather than altering MT1-MMP transcription, MT3-MMP interacted with MT1-MMP in membrane complexes and reduced its cell surface expression. By contrast, as a potent fibrinolytic enzyme, MT3-MMP induced efficient invasion of the cells in fibrin, a provisional matrix component frequently found at tumor-host tissue interfaces and perivascular spaces of melanoma. Since MT3-MMP was significantly upregulated in biopsies of human melanoma metastases, these results identify MT3-MMP as a matrix-dependent modifier of the invasive tumor cell functions during melanoma progression.

  3. Evidence of animal mtDNA recombination between divergent populations of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoolahan, Angelique H; Blok, Vivian C; Gibson, Tracey; Dowton, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Recombination is typically assumed to be absent in animal mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA). However, the maternal mode of inheritance means that recombinant products are indistinguishable from their progenitor molecules. The majority of studies of mtDNA recombination assess past recombination events, where patterns of recombination are inferred by comparing the mtDNA of different individuals. Few studies assess contemporary mtDNA recombination, where recombinant molecules are observed as direct mosaics of known progenitor molecules. Here we use the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, to investigate past and contemporary recombination. Past recombination was assessed within and between populations of G. pallida, and contemporary recombination was assessed in the progeny of experimental crosses of these populations. Breeding of genetically divergent organisms may cause paternal mtDNA leakage, resulting in heteroplasmy and facilitating the detection of recombination. To assess contemporary recombination we looked for evidence of recombination between the mtDNA of the parental populations within the mtDNA of progeny. Past recombination was detected between a South American population and several UK populations of G. pallida, as well as between two South American populations. This suggests that these populations may have interbred, paternal mtDNA leakage occurred, and the mtDNA of these populations subsequently recombined. This evidence challenges two dogmas of animal mtDNA evolution; no recombination and maternal inheritance. No contemporary recombination between the parental populations was detected in the progeny of the experimental crosses. This supports current arguments that mtDNA recombination events are rare. More sensitive detection methods may be required to adequately assess contemporary mtDNA recombination in animals.

  4. Matriptase/MT-SP1 is required for postnatal survival, epidermal barrier function, hair follicle development, and thymic homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Karin; Haudenschild, Christian C; Szabo, Roman

    2002-01-01

    of Matriptase/MT-SP1 also seriously affected hair follicle development resulting in generalized follicular hypoplasia, absence of erupted vibrissae, lack of vibrissal hair canal formation, ingrown vibrissae, and wholesale abortion of vibrissal follicles. Furthermore, Matriptase/MT-SP1-deficiency resulted...... in dramatically increased thymocyte apoptosis, and depletion of thymocytes. This study demonstrates that Matriptase/MT-SP1 has pleiotropic functions in the development of the epidermis, hair follicles, and cellular immune system....

  5. Metallogeny, exploitation and environmental impact of the Mt. Amiata mercury ore district (Southern Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, V.; Chiarantini, L.; Lattanzi, P.; Benvenuti, M.; Beutel, M.; Colica, A.; Costagliola, P.; Di Benedetto, F.; Gabbani, G.; Gray, John E.; Pandeli, E.; Pattelli, G.; Paolieri, M.; Ruggieri, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Mt. Amiata mining district (Southern Tuscany, Italy) is a world class Hg district, with a cumulate production of more than 100,000 tonnes of Hg, mostly occurring between 1870 and 1980. The Hg mineralization at Mt. Amiata is younger than 0.3 Ma, and is directly related to shallow hydrothermal systems similar to present-day geothermal fields of the region. There is likely a continuum of Hg deposition to present day, because Hg emission from geothermal power plants is on-going. In this sense, the Mt. Amiata deposits present some analogies with “hot-spring type” deposits of western USA, although an ore deposit model for the district has not been established. Specifically, the source of Hg remains highly speculative. The mineralizing hydrothermal fluids are of low temperature, and of essentially meteoric origin.

  6. Land, language, and loci: mtDNA in Native Americans and the genetic history of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cecil M; Tito, Raúl Y; Lizárraga, Beatriz; Stone, Anne C

    2005-07-01

    Despite a long history of complex societies and despite extensive present-day linguistic and ethnic diversity, relatively few populations in Peru have been sampled for population genetic investigations. In order to address questions about the relationships between South American populations and about the extent of correlation between genetic distance, language, and geography in the region, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region I sequences and mtDNA haplogroup markers were examined in 33 individuals from the state of Ancash, Peru. These sequences were compared to those from 19 American Indian populations using diversity estimates, AMOVA tests, mismatch distributions, a multidimensional scaling plot, and regressions. The results show correlations between genetics, linguistics, and geographical affinities, with stronger correlations between genetics and language. Additionally, the results suggest a pattern of differential gene flow and drift in western vs. eastern South America, supporting previous mtDNA and Y chromosome investigations. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  7. Special issue “The phreatic eruption of Mt. Ontake volcano in 2014”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Koshun; Geshi, Nobuo; Hashimoto, Tasheki; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Oikawa, Teruki

    2016-01-01

    Mt. Ontake volcano erupted at 11:52 on September 27, 2014, claiming the lives of at least 58 hikers. This eruption was the worst volcanic disaster in Japan since the 1926 phreatic eruption of Mt. Tokachidake claimed 144 lives (Table 1). The timing of the eruption contributed greatly to the heavy death toll: near midday, when many hikers were near the summit, and during a weekend of clear weather conditions following several rainy weekends. The importance of this timing is reflected by the fact that a somewhat larger eruption of Mt. Ontake in 1979 resulted in injuries but no deaths. In 2014, immediate precursors were detected with seismometers and tiltmeters about 10 min before the eruption, but the eruption started before a warning was issued.

  8. Targeting a single function of the multifunctional matrix metalloprotease MT1-MMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsen, Signe; Porse, Astrid; Erpicum, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    and pathological events, has been complicated by the lack of specific inhibitors and the fact that some of the potent MMPs are multifunctional enzymes. These factors have also hampered the setup of therapeutic strategies targeting MMP activity. A tempting target is the membrane-associated MT1-MMP, which has well......-documented importance in matrix degradation but which takes part in more than one pathway in this regard. In this report, we describe the selective targeting of a single function of this enzyme by means of a specific monoclonal antibody against MT1-MMP, raised in an MT1-MMP knock-out mouse. The antibody blocks...... matrix in vitro, as well as in lymphatic vessel sprouting assayed ex vivo. This is the first example of the complete inactivation of a single function of a multifunctional MMP and the use of this strategy to pursue its role....

  9. Canis mtDNA HV1 database: a web-based tool for collecting and surveying Canis mtDNA HV1 haplotype in public database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Quan Ke; Chung, Dung Anh; Tran, Hoang-Dung

    2017-06-26

    Canine and wolf mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, which can be used for forensic or phylogenetic analyses, have been defined in various schemes depending on the region analyzed. In recent studies, the 582 bp fragment of the HV1 region is most commonly used. 317 different canine HV1 haplotypes have been reported in the rapidly growing public database GenBank. These reported haplotypes contain several inconsistencies in their haplotype information. To overcome this issue, we have developed a Canis mtDNA HV1 database. This database collects data on the HV1 582 bp region in dog mitochondrial DNA from the GenBank to screen and correct the inconsistencies. It also supports users in detection of new novel mutation profiles and assignment of new haplotypes. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database (CHD) contains 5567 nucleotide entries originating from 15 subspecies in the species Canis lupus. Of these entries, 3646 were haplotypes and grouped into 804 distinct sequences. 319 sequences were recognized as previously assigned haplotypes, while the remaining 485 sequences had new mutation profiles and were marked as new haplotype candidates awaiting further analysis for haplotype assignment. Of the 3646 nucleotide entries, only 414 were annotated with correct haplotype information, while 3232 had insufficient or lacked haplotype information and were corrected or modified before storing in the CHD. The CHD can be accessed at http://chd.vnbiology.com . It provides sequences, haplotype information, and a web-based tool for mtDNA HV1 haplotyping. The CHD is updated monthly and supplies all data for download. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database contains information about canine mitochondrial DNA HV1 sequences with reconciled annotation. It serves as a tool for detection of inconsistencies in GenBank and helps identifying new HV1 haplotypes. Thus, it supports the scientific community in naming new HV1 haplotypes and to reconcile existing annotation of HV1 582 bp sequences.

  10. Accumulation of pathogenic ΔmtDNA induced deafness but not diabetic phenotypes in mito-mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Kazuto; Sato, Akitsugu; Sone, Hideyuki; Kasahara, Atsuko; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Kagawa, Yasuo; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2004-01-01

    Mito-mice carrying various proportions of deletion mutant mtDNA (ΔmtDNA) were generated by introduction of the ΔmtDNA from cultured cells into fertilized eggs of C57BL/6J (B6) strain mice. Great advantages of mito-mice are that they share exactly the same nuclear-genome background, and that their genetic variations are restricted to proportions of pathogenic ΔmtDNA. Since accumulation of ΔmtDNA to more than 75% induced respiration defects, the disease phenotypes observed exclusively in mito-mice carrying more than 75% ΔmtDNA should be due to accumulated ΔmtDNA. In this study, we focused on the expressions of hearing loss and diabetic phenotypes, since these common age-associated abnormalities have sometimes been reported to be inherited maternally and to be associated with pathogenic mutant mtDNAs. The results showed that accumulation of exogenously introduced ΔmtDNA was responsible for hearing loss, but not for expression of diabetic phenotypes in mito-mice

  11. Targeted transgenic overexpression of mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) alters mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondrial polypeptide abundance: transgenic TK2, mtDNA, and antiretrovirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed H; Kohler, James J; Haase, Chad P; Tioleco, Nina; Stuart, Tami; Keebaugh, Erin; Ludaway, Tomika; Russ, Rodney; Green, Elgin; Long, Robert; Wang, Liya; Eriksson, Staffan; Lewis, William

    2007-03-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity limits nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. NRTI triphosphates, the active moieties, inhibit human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA polymerase pol-gamma. NRTI phosphorylation seems to correlate with mitochondrial toxicity, but experimental evidence is lacking. Transgenic mice (TGs) with cardiac overexpression of thymidine kinase isoforms (mitochondrial TK2 and cytoplasmic TK1) were used to study NRTI mitochondrial toxicity. Echocardiography and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging defined cardiac performance and structure. TK gene copy and enzyme activity, mitochondrial (mt) DNA and polypeptide abundance, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry, and electron microscopy correlated with transgenesis, mitochondrial structure, and biogenesis. Antiretroviral combinations simulated therapy. Untreated hTK1 or TK2 TGs exhibited normal left ventricle mass. In TK2 TGs, cardiac TK2 gene copy doubled, activity increased 300-fold, and mtDNA abundance doubled. Abundance of the 17-kd subunit of complex I, succinate dehydrogenase histochemical activity, and cristae density increased. NRTIs increased left ventricle mass 20% in TK2 TGs. TK activity increased 3 logs in hTK1 TGs, but no cardiac phenotype resulted. NRTIs abrogated functional effects of transgenically increased TK2 activity but had no effect on TK2 mtDNA abundance. Thus, NRTI mitochondrial phosphorylation by TK2 is integral to clinical NRTI mitochondrial toxicity.

  12. Comparison of minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCM-3, MCM-7) and metallothioneins (MT-I/II, MT-III) expression in relation to clinicopathological data in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobierzycki, Christopher; Pula, Bartosz; Skiba, Mateusz; Jablonska, Karolina; Latkowski, Krzysztof; Zabel, Maciej; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa; Spaczynski, Marek; Kedzia, Witold; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzena; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2013-12-01

    Despite great progress in the understanding of ovarian cancer biology, clinicopathological data (i.e. grade, stage, histological type and residual disease after surgery) seem to be the most important prognostic factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between expression of minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCM-3, MCM-7), metallothioneins (MT-I/II, MT-III), and Ki-67 in 103 ovarian cancer cases, mostly of the serous histological type. Statistical analysis revealed strong positive correlations in the expression of MCM-3 vs. Ki-67 (r=0.492), MCM-7 vs. Ki-67 (r=0.651), and MCM-3 vs. MCM-7 (r=0.515) (all pMCM-3 and Ki-67 with increasing grade of histological malignancy (p=0.0011, p=0.029, respectively). Regarding clinical progression, cytoplasmic MT-I/II expression was significantly higher in more advanced disease stages (III+IV vs. I+II; p=0.0247). Due to the correlations shown here, the determination of MCM proteins as proliferation markers of ovarian cancer, should be strongly considered.

  13. Static shift correction of MT data in Tohoku district using TEM soundings; TEM ho data wo mochiita Tohoku chiho MT ho data no statistic shift hosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, N; Kumekawa, Y; Miura, Y; Takasugi, S [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujinawa, Y [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    There is a possibility that the wide-band MT observation data obtained in the central part of Tohoku district include the static shift effect. To grasp the static shift effect in the MT data, the TEM soundings were conducted at all the site where the MT data were measured. The TEM sounding system was developed for the shallow survey depth ranging from 5 m to 150 m. When showing the measured results on the histogram, it was found that the static shifts were concentrated in the vicinity of zero. About 70% of the data was below 0.2 decade. Only a slight static shift effect was observed. This means that the results obtained by the two-dimensional analysis are plausible. Especially, the static shift around plain was small. Therefore, the current results around the plain were trustful. On the other hand, the static shift in the mountainous area was rather large. Accordingly, the results around the mountainous area should be carefully treated. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  14. DNA methyltransferase 1 mutations and mitochondrial pathology: is mtDNA methylated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eMaresca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN and Hereditary sensory neuropathy with dementia and hearing loss (HSN1E are two rare, overlapping neurodegenerative syndromes that have been recently linked to allelic dominant pathogenic mutations in the DNMT1 gene, coding for DNA (cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1. DNMT1 is the enzyme responsible for maintaining the nuclear genome methylation patterns during the DNA replication and repair, thus regulating gene expression. The mutations responsible for ADCA-DN and HSN1E affect the replication foci targeting sequence domain, which regulates DNMT1 binding to chromatin. DNMT1 dysfunction is anticipated to lead to a global alteration of the DNA methylation pattern with predictable downstream consequences on gene expression. Interestingly, ADCA-DN and HSN1E phenotypes share some clinical features typical of mitochondrial diseases, such as optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy and deafness, and some biochemical evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. The recent discovery of a mitochondrial isoform of DNMT1 and its proposed role in methylating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA suggests that DNMT1 mutations may directly affect mtDNA and mitochondrial physiology. On the basis of this latter finding the link between DNMT1 abnormal activity and mitochondrial dysfunction in ADCA-DN and HSN1E appears intuitive, however mtDNA methylation remains highly debated. In the last years several groups demonstrated the presence of 5-methylcytosine in mtDNA by different approaches, but, on the other end, the opposite evidence that mtDNA is not methylated has also been published. Since over 1500 mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome, the altered methylation of these genes may well have a critical role in leading to the mitochondrial impairment observed in ADCA-DN and HSN1E. Thus, many open questions still remain unanswered, such as why mtDNA should be methylated, and how this process is

  15. Modeling variably saturated subsurface solute transport with MODFLOW-UZF and MT3DMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morway, Eric D.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Langevin, Christian D.; Bailey, Ryan T.; Healy, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    The MT3DMS groundwater solute transport model was modified to simulate solute transport in the unsaturated zone by incorporating the unsaturated-zone flow (UZF1) package developed for MODFLOW. The modified MT3DMS code uses a volume-averaged approach in which Lagrangian-based UZF1 fluid fluxes and storage changes are mapped onto a fixed grid. Referred to as UZF-MT3DMS, the linked model was tested against published benchmarks solved analytically as well as against other published codes, most frequently the U.S. Geological Survey's Variably-Saturated Two-Dimensional Flow and Transport Model. Results from a suite of test cases demonstrate that the modified code accurately simulates solute advection, dispersion, and reaction in the unsaturated zone. Two- and three-dimensional simulations also were investigated to ensure unsaturated-saturated zone interaction was simulated correctly. Because the UZF1 solution is analytical, large-scale flow and transport investigations can be performed free from the computational and data burdens required by numerical solutions to Richards' equation. Results demonstrate that significant simulation runtime savings can be achieved with UZF-MT3DMS, an important development when hundreds or thousands of model runs are required during parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis. Three-dimensional variably saturated flow and transport simulations revealed UZF-MT3DMS to have runtimes that are less than one tenth of the time required by models that rely on Richards' equation. Given its accuracy and efficiency, and the wide-spread use of both MODFLOW and MT3DMS, the added capability of unsaturated-zone transport in this familiar modeling framework stands to benefit a broad user-ship.

  16. A Signal, from Human mtDNA, of Postglacial Recolonization in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torroni, Antonio; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Macaulay, Vincent; Richards, Martin; Cruciani, Fulvio; Rengo, Chiara; Martinez-Cabrera, Vicente; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Ene; Parik, Jüri; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Tambets, Kristiina; Forster, Peter; Karger, Bernd; Francalacci, Paolo; Rudan, Pavao; Janicijevic, Branka; Rickards, Olga; Savontaus, Marja-Liisa; Huoponen, Kirsi; Laitinen, Virpi; Koivumäki, Satu; Sykes, Bryan; Hickey, Eileen; Novelletto, Andrea; Moral, Pedro; Sellitto, Daniele; Coppa, Alfredo; Al-Zaheri, Nadia; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Silvana; Semino, Ornella; Scozzari, Rosaria

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondrial HVS-I sequences from 10,365 subjects belonging to 56 populations/geographical regions of western Eurasia and northern Africa were first surveyed for the presence of the T→C transition at nucleotide position 16298, a mutation which has previously been shown to characterize haplogroup V mtDNAs. All mtDNAs with this mutation were then screened for a number of diagnostic RFLP sites, revealing two major subsets of mtDNAs. One is haplogroup V proper, and the other has been termed “pre*V,” since it predates V phylogenetically. The rather uncommon pre*V tends to be scattered throughout Europe (and northwestern Africa), whereas V attains two peaks of frequency: one situated in southwestern Europe and one in the Saami of northern Scandinavia. Geographical distributions and ages support the scenario that pre*V originated in Europe before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), whereas the more recently derived haplogroup V arose in a southwestern European refugium soon after the LGM. The arrival of V in eastern/central Europe, however, occurred much later, possibly with (post-)Neolithic contacts. The distribution of haplogroup V mtDNAs in modern European populations would thus, at least in part, reflect the pattern of postglacial human recolonization from that refugium, affecting even the Saami. Overall, the present study shows that the dissection of mtDNA variation into small and well-defined evolutionary units is an essential step in the identification of spatial frequency patterns. Mass screening of a few markers identified using complete mtDNA sequences promises to be an efficient strategy for inferring features of human prehistory. PMID:11517423

  17. Episodic weakness due to mitochondrial DNA MT-ATP6/8 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auré, Karine; Dubourg, Odile; Jardel, Claude; Clarysse, Lucie; Sternberg, Damien; Fournier, Emmanuel; Laforêt, Pascal; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Petiot, Philippe; Gervais-Bernard, Hélène; Vial, Christophe; Bedat-Millet, Anne-Laure; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Vandier, Christophe; Fontaine, Bertrand; Lombès, Anne

    2013-11-19

    To report that homoplasmic deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA MT-ATP6/8 genes may be responsible for acute episodes of limb weakness mimicking periodic paralysis due to channelopathies and dramatically responding to acetazolamide. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing and restriction PCR, oxidative phosphorylation functional assays, reactive oxygen species metabolism, and patch-clamp technique in cultured skin fibroblasts. Occurrence of a typical MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) syndrome in a single member of a large pedigree with episodic weakness associated with a later-onset distal motor neuropathy led to the disclosure of 2 deleterious mitochondrial DNA mutations. The MT-ATP6 m.9185T>C p.Leu220Pro mutation, previously associated with Leigh syndrome, was present in all family members, while the MT-TL1 m.3271T>C mutation, a known cause of MELAS syndrome, was observed in the sole patient with MELAS presentation. Significant defect of complexes V and I as well as oxidative stress were observed in both primary fibroblasts and cybrid cells with 100% m.9185T>C mutation. Permanent plasma membrane depolarization and altered permeability to K(+) in fibroblasts provided a link with the paralysis episodes. Screening of 9 patients, based on their clinical phenotype, identified 4 patients with similar deleterious MT-ATP6 mutations (twice m.9185T>C and once m.9176T>C or m.8893T>C). A fifth patient presented with an original potentially deleterious MT-ATP8 mutation (m.8403T>C). All mutations were associated with almost-normal complex V activity but significant oxidative stress and permanent plasma membrane depolarization. Homoplasmic mutations in the MT-ATP6/8 genes may cause episodic weakness responding to acetazolamide treatment.

  18. Joint inversion of marine MT and CSEM data over Gemini prospect, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, S.; Orange, A. S.; Key, K.

    2013-12-01

    In 2003 we tested a prototype marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) transmitter over the Gemini salt body in the Gulf of Mexico, collecting one line of data over 15 seafloor receiver instruments using the Cox waveform with a 0.25 Hz fundamental, yielding 3 usable frequencies. Transmission current was 95 amps on a 150 m antenna. We had previously collected 16 sites of marine magnetotelluric (MT) data along this line during the development of broadband marine MT as a tool for mapping salt geometry. Recently we commissioned a finite element code capable of joint CSEM and MT 2D inversion incorporating bathymetry and anisotropy, and this heritage data set provided an opportunity to explore such inversions with real data. We reprocessed the CSEM data to obtain objective error estimates and inverted single frequency CSEM, multi-frequency CSEM, MT, and joint MT and CSEM data sets for a variety of target misfits, using the Occam regularized inversion algorithm. As expected, MT-only inversions produce a smoothed image of the salt and a resistive basement at 9 km depth. The CSEM data image a conductive cap over the salt body and have little sensitivity to the salt or structure at depths beyond about 1500 m below seafloor. However, the joint inversion yields more than the sum of the parts - the outline of the salt body is much sharper and there is much more structural detail even at depths beyond the resolution of the CSEM data. As usual, model complexity greatly depends on target misfit, and even with well-estimated errors the choice of misfit becomes a somewhat subjective decision. Our conclusion is a familiar one; more data are always good.

  19. Joint 3D Inversion of ZTEM Airborne and Ground MT Data with Application to Geothermal Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannamaker, P. E.; Maris, V.; Kordy, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    ZTEM is an airborne electromagnetic (EM) geophysical technique developed by Geotech Inc® where naturally propagated EM fields originating with regional and global lightning discharges (sferics) are measured as a means of inferring subsurface electrical resistivity structure. A helicopter-borne coil platform (bird) measuring the vertical component of magnetic (H) field variations along a flown profile is referenced to a pair of horizontal coils at a fixed location on the ground in order to estimate a tensor H-field transfer function. The ZTEM method is distinct from the traditional magnetotelluric (MT) method in that the electric (E) fields are not considered because of the technological challenge of measuring E-fields in the dielectric air medium. This can lend some non-uniqueness to ZTEM interpretation because a range of conductivity structures in the earth depending upon an assumed background earth resistivity model can fit ZTEM data to within tolerance. MT data do not suffer this particular problem, but they are cumbersome to acquire in their common need for land-based transport often in near-roadless areas and for laying out and digging the electrodes and H coils. The complementary nature of ZTEM and MT logistics and resolution has motivated development of schemes to acquire appropriate amounts of each data type in a single survey and to produce an earth image through joint inversion. In particular, consideration is given to surveys where only sparse MT soundings are needed to drastically reduce the non-uniqueness associated with background uncertainty while straining logistics minimally. Synthetic and field data are analysed using 2D and 3D finite element platforms developed for this purpose. Results to date suggest that indeed dense ZTEM surveys can provide detailed heterogeneous model images with large-scale averages constrained by a modest number of MT soundings. Further research is needed in determining the allowable degree of MT sparseness and the

  20. RESPONSIBLE OWNERSHIP OF DOGS AND CATS FROM SINOP-MT: DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. De Carli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to raise information on the relationship among owners from Sinop/MT and their pets, and also to diagnose the practice of responsible ownership. For this purpose, we developed a questionnaire, which was applied to 77 dog’s and cat’s owners, attended at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Sinop, MT. The obtained results showed the majority of the owners miss information and knowledge about how to take good care of their pets. Most of them foster animals for emotional reasons but, despite this, we can’t conclude they are able to practice responsible ownership.

  1. Experiment operations plan for the MT-4 experiment in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russcher, G.E.; Wilson, C.L.; Parchen, L.J.; Marshall, R.K.; Hesson, G.M.; Webb, B.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1983-06-01

    A series of thermal-hydraulic and cladding materials deformation experiments were conducted using light-water reactor fuel bundles as part of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Simulation Program. This report is the formal operations plan for MT-4 - the fourth materials deformation experiment conducted in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. A major objective of MT-4 was to simulate a pressurized water reactor LOCA that could induce fuel rod cladding deformation and rupture due to a short-term adiabatic transient and a peak fuel cladding temperature of 1200K (1700 0 F)

  2. A Dose–Response Analysis of the Reproductive Effects of a Single Gestational Dose of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Male Long Evans Hooded Rat Offspring,

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, L. E.; Ostby, J. S.; Kelce, W. R.

    1997-01-01

    Male rats exposedin uteroto 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) display reduced fertility as a consequence of the direct action of TCDD on the epididymides, as well as delayed puberty and altered reproductive organ weights. The current study provides dose–response data for the reproductive effects of TCDD, administered during pregnancy, with an emphasis on the effects of TCDD on testicular, epididymal, and ejaculated sperm numbers. Long Evans Hooded rats were dosed by gavage with 0, 0....

  3. Perceptual learning of motion direction discrimination with suppressed and unsuppressed MT in humans: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Thompson

    Full Text Available The middle temporal area of the extrastriate visual cortex (area MT is integral to motion perception and is thought to play a key role in the perceptual learning of motion tasks. We have previously found, however, that perceptual learning of a motion discrimination task is possible even when the training stimulus contains locally balanced, motion opponent signals that putatively suppress the response of MT. Assuming at least partial suppression of MT, possible explanations for this learning are that 1 training made MT more responsive by reducing motion opponency, 2 MT remained suppressed and alternative visual areas such as V1 enabled learning and/or 3 suppression of MT increased with training, possibly to reduce noise. Here we used fMRI to test these possibilities. We first confirmed that the motion opponent stimulus did indeed suppress the BOLD response within hMT+ compared to an almost identical stimulus without locally balanced motion signals. We then trained participants on motion opponent or non-opponent stimuli. Training with the motion opponent stimulus reduced the BOLD response within hMT+ and greater reductions in BOLD response were correlated with greater amounts of learning. The opposite relationship between BOLD and behaviour was found at V1 for the group trained on the motion-opponent stimulus and at both V1 and hMT+ for the group trained on the non-opponent motion stimulus. As the average response of many cells within MT to motion opponent stimuli is the same as their response to non-directional flickering noise, the reduced activation of hMT+ after training may reflect noise reduction.

  4. A monoclonal antibody interferes with TIMP-2 binding and incapacitates the MMP-2-activating function of multifunctional, pro-tumorigenic MMP-14/MT1-MMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiryaev, S A; Remacle, A G; Golubkov, V S

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and, especially membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP/MMP-14, are promising drug targets in malignancies. In contrast with multiple small-molecule and protein pan-inhibitors of MT1-MMP cleavage activity, the murine 9E8 monoclonal antibody targets the MMP-2-activating function...... of cellular MT1-MMP alone, rather than the general proteolytic activity and the pro-migratory function of MT1-MMP. Furthermore, the antibody does not interact in any detectable manner with other members of the membrane type (MT)-MMP family. The mechanism of this selectivity remained unknown. Using mutagenesis......, binding and activity assays, and modeling in silico, we have demonstrated that the 9E8 antibody recognizes the MT-loop structure, an eight residue insertion that is specific for MT-MMPs and that is distant from the MT1-MMP active site. The binding of the 9E8 antibody to the MT-loop, however, prevents...

  5. Monument of nature? An ethnography of the world heritage of Mt. Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van den M.L.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines the World Heritage status of Mt. Kenya, an alpine area in Central Kenya. The mountain joined the World Heritage List in 1997 and in 2013 the original designation expanded to cover a larger area. Both events were formulated exclusively in natural scientific language. This

  6. 76 FR 28065 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Montana Historical Society, Helena, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Montana Historical Society, Helena, MT, that meets the definition of a sacred object under 25 U.S.C. 3001... donated it to the Society's collections in 1900. Consultation with Blackfeet tribal and religious leaders... religious society, and it is required for the practice of a traditional religion by contemporary adherents...

  7. Endurance exercise rescues progeroid aging and induces systemic mitochondrial rejuvenation in mtDNA mutator mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Adeel; Bourgeois, Jacqueline M.; Ogborn, Daniel I.; Little, Jonathan P.; Hettinga, Bart P.; Akhtar, Mahmood; Thompson, James E.; Melov, Simon; Mocellin, Nicholas J.; Kujoth, Gregory C.; Prolla, Tomas A.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    A causal role for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutagenesis in mammalian aging is supported by recent studies demonstrating that the mtDNA mutator mouse, harboring a defect in the proofreading-exonuclease activity of mitochondrial polymerase gamma, exhibits accelerated aging phenotypes characteristic of human aging, systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, multisystem pathology, and reduced lifespan. Epidemiologic studies in humans have demonstrated that endurance training reduces the risk of chronic diseases and extends life expectancy. Whether endurance exercise can attenuate the cumulative systemic decline observed in aging remains elusive. Here we show that 5 mo of endurance exercise induced systemic mitochondrial biogenesis, prevented mtDNA depletion and mutations, increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and respiratory chain assembly, restored mitochondrial morphology, and blunted pathological levels of apoptosis in multiple tissues of mtDNA mutator mice. These adaptations conferred complete phenotypic protection, reduced multisystem pathology, and prevented premature mortality in these mice. The systemic mitochondrial rejuvenation through endurance exercise promises to be an effective therapeutic approach to mitigating mitochondrial dysfunction in aging and related comorbidities. PMID:21368114

  8. Allozyme and mtDNA variation of white seabream Diplodus sargus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results can be explained by the chaotic genetic patchiness hypothesis. In contrast, the mtDNA data indicated genetic homogeneity among localities showing the absence of structure in white seabream populations across the Siculo-Tunisian Strait. Historical demography of this species suggests that it has undergone ...

  9. Regulation of MT1-MMP/MMP-2/TIMP-2 axis in human placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent ZL

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Zoë L Vincent,1,2 Murray D Mitchell,l,3 Anna P Ponnampalam1,2 1Liggins Institute, 2Gravida: National Centre for Growth and Development, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and specific endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs mediate rupture of the fetal membranes in both physiological and pathological conditions. MMPs and TIMPs are subject to regulation by DNA methylation in human malignancies and pre-eclampsia. To determine if membrane type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP, MMP2, and TIMP2 are regulated by DNA methylation in human placentas, we employed an in vitro model where human placental tissues were collected at term gestation and cultured with methylation inhibiting agent 5-aza-2′deoxycytidine (AZA and lipopolysaccharide. The results suggest that DNA methylation is not directly involved in the regulation of MT1-MMP in placental tissue; however, remodeling of chromatin by a pharmacologic agent such as AZA potentiates an infection-related increase in MT1-MMP. MT1-MMP is a powerful activator of MMP2 and this action, coupled with either no change or a decrease in TIMP2 concentrations, favors a gelatinolytic state leading to extracellular matrix degradation, which could predispose fetal membranes to rupture prematurely during inflammation. Keywords: placenta, epigenetic regulation, DNA methylation, MMPs, labor

  10. Amide Proton Transfer (APT) MR imaging and Magnetization Transfer (MT) MR imaging of pediatric brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong; Kang, Huiying; Peng, Yun; Zhao, Xuna; Jiang, Shanshan; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Jinyuan

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the brain maturation process during childhood using combined amide proton transfer (APT) and conventional magnetization transfer (MT) imaging at 3 Tesla. Eighty-two neurodevelopmentally normal children (44 males and 38 females; age range, 2-190 months) were imaged using an APT/MT imaging protocol with multiple saturation frequency offsets. The APT-weighted (APTW) and MT ratio (MTR) signals were quantitatively analyzed in multiple brain areas. Age-related changes in MTR and APTW were evaluated with a non-linear regression analysis. The APTW signals followed a decreasing exponential curve with age in all brain regions measured (R"2 = 0.7-0.8 for the corpus callosum, frontal and occipital white matter, and centrum semiovale). The most significant changes appeared within the first year. At maturation, larger decreases in APTW and lower APTW values were found in the white matter. On the contrary, the MTR signals followed an increasing exponential curve with age in the same brain regions measured, with the most significant changes appearing within the initial 2 years. There was an inverse correlation between the MTR and APTW signal intensities during brain maturation. Together with MT imaging, protein-based APT imaging can provide additional information in assessing brain myelination in the paediatric population. (orig.)

  11. Characterization of mtDNA haplogroups in 14 Mexican indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda I; Arenas-Aranda, Diego; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Buentello-Malo, Leonor; González-Valencia, Gerardo; Torres, Javier; Alvarez, Berenice; Mendoza, Irma; Flores, Mario; Sandoval, Lucila; Loeza, Francisco; Ramos, Irma; Muñoz, Leopoldo; Salamanca, Fabio

    2007-06-01

    In this descriptive study we investigated the genetic structure of 513 Mexican indigenous subjects grouped in 14 populations (Mixteca-Alta, Mixteca-Baja, Otomi, Purépecha, Tzeltal, Tarahumara, Huichol, Nahua-Atocpan, Nahua-Xochimilco, Nahua-Zitlala, Nahua-Chilacachapa, Nahua-Ixhuatlancillo, Nahua-Necoxtla, and Nahua-Coyolillo) based on mtDNA haplogroups. These communities are geographically and culturally isolated; parents and grandparents were born in the community. Our data show that 98.6% of the mtDNA was distributed in haplogroups A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1, and D2. Haplotype X6 was present in the Tarahumara (1/53) and Huichol (3/15), and haplotype L was present in the Nahua-Coyolillo (3/38). The first two principal components accounted for 95.9% of the total variation in the sample. The mtDNA haplogroup frequencies in the Purépecha and Zitlala were intermediate to cluster 1 (Otomi, Nahua-Ixhuatlancillo, Nahua-Xochimilco, Mixteca-Baja, and Tzeltal) and cluster 2 (Nahua-Necoxtla, Nahua-Atocpan, and Nahua-Chilacachapa). The Huichol, Tarahumara, Mixteca-Alta, and Nahua-Coyolillo were separated from the rest of the populations. According to these findings, the distribution of mtDNA haplogroups found in Mexican indigenous groups is similar to other Amerindian haplogroups, except for the African haplogroup found in one population.

  12. 75 FR 54381 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-R-2010-N078; 60138-1261-6CCP-S3] Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, MT AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability: Draft comprehensive conservation plan and draft...

  13. Pleistocene-Holocene boundary in Southern Arabia from the perspective of human mtDNA variation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Al-Abri, A.-R.; Podgorná, E.; Rose, J. I.; Pereira, L.; Mulligan, C. J.; Silva, N. M.; Bayoumi, R.; Soares, P.; Černý, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 2 (2012), s. 291-298 ISSN 0002-9483 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : mtDNA variation * Arabian Peninsula * migrations Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.481, year: 2012

  14. Mutations of mtDNA polymerase-γ and hyperlactataemia in the HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutations of mtDNA polymerase-γ and hyperlactataemia in the HIV-infected Zulu population of South Africa. ... D B A Ojwach, C Aldous, P Kocheleff, B Sartorius ... of their capacity to impede human mitochondrial DNA polymerase-γ (POLG), ...

  15. Comprehensive view of the population history of Arabia as inferred by mtDNA variation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Viktor; Čížková, M.; Poloni, E. S.; Al-Meeri, A.; Mulligan, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 4 (2016), s. 607-616 ISSN 0002-9483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37998S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : mtDNA variation * Arabian Peninsula * migrations Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.552, year: 2016

  16. New and noteworthy bird records from the Mt. Wilhelm elevational gradient, Papua New Guinea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marki, Petter Zahl; Sam, Katerina; Koane, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    The elevational gradient of Mt. Wilhelm, the highest peak in Papua New Guinea, represents one of the best-surveyed elevational gradients in the Indo-Pacific region. Based on field work undertaken in 2013 and 2015, we report range extensions, new elevational records and add 24 species to the list...

  17. Kleptoparasitic behavior and species richness at Mt. Graham red squirrel middens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Edelman; John L. Koprowski; Jennifer L. Edelman

    2005-01-01

    We used remote photography to assess the frequency of inter- and intra-specific kleptoparasitism and species richness at Mt. Graham red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) middens. Remote cameras and conifer cones were placed at occupied and unoccupied middens, and random sites. Species richness of small mammals was higher at red squirrel...

  18. Propagation of dikes at Vesuvio (Italy) and the effect of Mt. Somma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, V.; Porreca, M.; Neri, M.; Massimi, E.; Mattei, M.

    2006-04-01

    Dikes provide crucial information on how magma propagates within volcanoes. Somma-Vesuvio (Italy) consists of the active Vesuvio cone, partly bordered by the older Mt. Somma edifice. Historical chronicles on the fissure eruptions in 1694-1944 are matched with an analytical solution to define the propagation path of the related dikes and to study any control of the Mt. Somma relief. The fissures always consisted of the downslope migration of vents from an open summit conduit, indicating lateral propagation as the predominant mechanism for shallow dike emplacement. No fissure emplaced beyond Mt. Somma, suggesting that its buttressing hinders the propagation of the radial dikes. An analytical solution is defined to describe the mechanism of formation of the laterally propagating dikes and to evaluate the effect of topography. The application to Somma-Vesuvio suggests that, under ordinary excess magmatic pressures, the dikes should not propagate laterally at depths >240-480 m below the surface, as the increased lithostatic pressure requires magmatic pressures higher than average. This implies that, when the conduit is open, the lateral emplacement of dikes is expectable on the S, W and E slopes. The lack of fissures N of Mt. Somma is explained by its buttressing, which hinders dike propagation.

  19. Somatic mtDNA mutation spectra in the aging human putamen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siôn L Williams

    Full Text Available The accumulation of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA deletions and single nucleotide variants (SNVs is a well-accepted facet of the biology of aging, yet comprehensive mutation spectra have not been described. To address this, we have used next generation sequencing of mtDNA-enriched libraries (Mito-Seq to investigate mtDNA mutation spectra of putamen from young and aged donors. Frequencies of the "common" deletion and other "major arc" deletions were significantly increased in the aged cohort with the fold increase in the frequency of the common deletion exceeding that of major arc deletions. SNVs also increased with age with the highest rate of accumulation in the non-coding control region which contains elements necessary for translation and replication. Examination of predicted amino acid changes revealed a skew towards pathogenic SNVs in the coding region driven by mutation bias. Levels of the pathogenic m.3243A>G tRNA mutation were also found to increase with age. Novel multimeric tandem duplications that resemble murine control region multimers and yeast ρ(- mtDNAs, were identified in both young and aged specimens. Clonal ∼50 bp deletions in the control region were found at high frequencies in aged specimens. Our results reveal the complex manner in which the mitochondrial genome alters with age and provides a foundation for studies of other tissues and disease states.

  20. Digital compilation bedrock geologic map of the Mt. Ellen quadrangle, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG95-6A Stanley, RS, Walsh, G, Tauvers, PR, DiPietro, JA, and DelloRusso, V, 1995,�Digital compilation bedrock geologic map of the Mt. Ellen...

  1. Akv murine leukemia virus enhances bone tumorigenesis in hMT-c-fos-LTR transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jörg; Krump-Konvalinkova, Vera; Luz, Arne

    1995-01-01

    hMt-c-fos-LTR transgenic mice (U. Rüther, D. Komitowski, F. R. Schubert, and E. F. Wagner. Oncogene 4, 861–865, 1989) developed bone sarcomas in 20% (3/15) of females at 448 ± 25 days and in 8% (1/12) of males at 523 days. After infection of newborns with Akv, an infectious retrovirus derived from...

  2. MT-ND5 Mutation Exhibits Highly Variable Neurological Manifestations at Low Mutant Load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, Y.S.; Lax, N.Z.; Maddison, P.; Alston, C.L.; Blakely, E.L.; Hepplewhite, P.D.; Riordan, G.; Meldau, S.; Chinnery, P.F.; Pierre, G.; Chronopoulou, E.; Du, A.; Hughes, I.; Morris, A.A.; Kamakari, S.; Chrousos, G.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Saris, C.G.J.; Feeney, C.; Hardy, S.A.; Sakakibara, T.; Sudo, A.; Okazaki, Y.; Murayama, K.; Mundy, H.; Hanna, M.G.; Ohtake, A.; Schaefer, A.M.; Champion, M.P.; Turnbull, D.M.; Taylor, R.W.; Pitceathly, R.D.S.; McFarland, R.; Gorman, G.S.

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the m.13094T>C MT-ND5 gene have been previously described in three cases of Leigh Syndrome (LS). In this retrospective, international cohort study we identified 20 clinically affected individuals (13 families) and four asymptomatic carriers. Ten patients were deceased at the time of

  3. HMEC-1 adopt the mixed amoeboid-mesenchymal migration type during EndMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryczka, Jakub; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Bogusz, Helena; Boncela, Joanna

    2017-06-01

    The contribution of endothelial cells to scar and fibrotic tissue formation is undisputedly connected to their ability to undergo the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) towards fibroblast phenotype-resembling cells. The migration model of fibroblasts and fibroblast-resembling cells is still not fully understood. It may be either a Rho/ROCK-independent, an integrin- and MMP-correlated ECM degradation-dependent, a mesenchymal model or Rho/ROCK-dependent, integrin adhesion- and MMP activity-independent, an amoeboid model. Here, we hypothesized that microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) undergoing EndMT adopt an intermediate state of drifting migration model between the mesenchymal and amoeboid protrusive types in the early stages of fibrosis. We characterized the response of HMEC-1 to TGF-β2, a well-known mediator of EndMT within the microvasculature. We observed that TGF-β2 induces up to an intermediate mesenchymal phenotype in HMEC-1. In parallel, MMP-2 is upregulated and is responsible for most proteolytic activity. Interestingly, the migration of HMEC-1 undergoing EndMT is dependent on both ECM degradation and invadosome formation associated with MMP-2 proteolytic activity and Rho/ROCK cytoskeleton contraction. In conclusion, the transition from mesenchymal towards amoeboid movement highlights a molecular plasticity mechanism in endothelial cell migration in skin fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Concentrations of tritium in atmospheric moisture and precipitation of Mt. Hakkoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideki; Kon, Takezumi; Sasaki, Mamoru

    2000-01-01

    A large-scale spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is now under construction in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture. The 3 H will be one of the major radionuclides released from the plant. To grasp the behavior of 3 H in the environment in Aomori Prefecture, we surveyed 3 H concentrations in the atmospheric moisture and the precipitation samples at Mt. Hakkoda. Additional atmospheric moisture samples were collected at Rokkasho Village and Aomori City. The relatively high 3 H concentration in the atmospheric moisture and the precipitation samples at Mt. Hakkoda were observed from spring to summer. The 3 H concentrations in the precipitation were similar to those in the atmospheric moisture. The temporal variation patterns of 3 H concentrations in the atmospheric moisture were similar in relatively wide region that covers from Mt. Hakkoda to Aomori City and Rokkasho Village. The 3 H concentration in atmospheric moisture at the top of Mt. Hakkoda positively correlated with the ozone concentration. It suggested that 3 H originated from the stratosphere, and showed that ozone might be used as an indictor of background 3 H. (author)

  5. Medicago truncatula copper transporter 1 (MtCOPT1) delivers copper for symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senovilla, Marta; Castro-Rodríguez, Rosario; Abreu, Isidro; Escudero, Viviana; Kryvoruchko, Igor; Udvardi, Michael K; Imperial, Juan; González-Guerrero, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    Copper is an essential nutrient for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This element is delivered by the host plant to the nodule, where membrane copper (Cu) transporter would introduce it into the cell to synthesize cupro-proteins. COPT family members in the model legume Medicago truncatula were identified and their expression determined. Yeast complementation assays, confocal microscopy and phenotypical characterization of a Tnt1 insertional mutant line were carried out in the nodule-specific M. truncatula COPT family member. Medicago truncatula genome encodes eight COPT transporters. MtCOPT1 (Medtr4g019870) is the only nodule-specific COPT gene. It is located in the plasma membrane of the differentiation, interzone and early fixation zones. Loss of MtCOPT1 function results in a Cu-mitigated reduction of biomass production when the plant obtains its nitrogen exclusively from symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Mutation of MtCOPT1 results in diminished nitrogenase activity in nodules, likely an indirect effect from the loss of a Cu-dependent function, such as cytochrome oxidase activity in copt1-1 bacteroids. These data are consistent with a model in which MtCOPT1 transports Cu from the apoplast into nodule cells to provide Cu for essential metabolic processes associated with symbiotic nitrogen fixation. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. 75 FR 6597 - Determination to Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, MT Landfill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... to Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, MT Landfill; Opportunity for Public... for the Lake County landfill, a municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) owned and operated by Lake... operating criteria for MSWLFs, including landfill location restrictions, operating standards, design...

  7. MT1 melatonin receptors and their role in the oncostatic action of melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Danielczyk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, strongly inhibits the growth of cancer cells [i]in vitro[/i] and [i]in vivo[/i]. Some publications indicate that the addition of melatonin to culture medium slows the proliferation of some cancer cell lines. It is also suggested that melatonin used as an adjuvant benefits the effectiveness and tolerance of chemotherapy. The mechanisms of this are not fully understood, but melatonin receptors might be one of the most important elements. Two distinct types of membrane-bound melatonin receptors have been identified in humans: MT1 (Mel1a and MT2 (Mel1b receptors. These subtypes are 60�0homologous at the amino-acid level. MT1 receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors. Through the α subunit of G protein, melatonin receptors stimulate an adenylate cyclase and decrease the level of cAMP. This has a significant influence on cell proliferation and has been confirmed in many tests on different cell lines, such as S-19, B-16 murine melanoma cells, and breast cancer cells. It seems that expression of the MT1 melatonin receptors benefits the efficacy of melatonin treatment. Melatonin and its receptors may provide a promising way to establish new alternative therapeutic approaches in human cancer prevention.

  8. Shallow to intermediate resistivity features of the Colfiorito Fault System inferred by DC and MT survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siniscalchi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade electromagnetic (EM measurements have provided new constraints on the upper-crustal structure of the major fault zones in the world, both when they act as conduit and as a barrier, due to strong sensitivity of resistivity to fluids circulation and mineralization. On the track of a high impact magnetotelluric (MT study performed across the San Andreas Fault, high resolution EM data were collected in the Colfiorito epicentral area along profiles crossing some main fault lineaments. Being the study focussed both on shallow that on intermediate resistivity distribution in the brittle upper-crust, a MT profile was integrated by several electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT. The latter were successful in locating faults even where the structures are buried by a wide covering of Quaternary deposits and in the recognition of different electrical signatures of the faults. MT resistivity model crossing Mt. Prefoglio normal fault clearly imaged the typical thrust structures of the area and a high conductive zone spatially related to the fault. Seismicity seems to be located outside such conductive area, whose behaviour suggests a fluidised and altered zone incapable of supporting significant stress internally.

  9. The Expansion of mtDNA Haplogroup L3 within and out of Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soares, P.; Alshamali, F.; Pereira, J. B.; Fernandes, V.; Silva, N. M.; Afonso, C.; Costa, M. D.; Musilová, E.; Macaulay, V.; Richards, M. B.; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2012), s. 915-927 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : mtDNA * complete genomes * haplogroup L3 * out of Africa * modern human expansions Sub ject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 10.353, year: 2012

  10. MT71x: Multi-Temperature Library Based on ENDF/B-VII.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parsons, Donald Kent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gray, Mark Girard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lee, Mary Beth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); White, Morgan Curtis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-16

    The Nuclear Data Team has released a multitemperature transport library, MT71x, based upon ENDF/B-VII.1 with a few modifications as well as additional evaluations for a total of 427 isotope tables. The library was processed using NJOY2012.39 into 23 temperatures. MT71x consists of two sub-libraries; MT71xMG for multigroup energy representation data and MT71xCE for continuous energy representation data. These sub-libraries are suitable for deterministic transport and Monte Carlo transport applications, respectively. The SZAs used are the same for the two sub-libraries; that is, the same SZA can be used for both libraries. This makes comparisons between the two libraries and between deterministic and Monte Carlo codes straightforward. Both the multigroup energy and continuous energy libraries were verified and validated with our checking codes checkmg and checkace (multigroup and continuous energy, respectively) Then an expanded suite of tests was used for additional verification and, finally, verified using an extensive suite of critical benchmark models. We feel that this library is suitable for all calculations and is particularly useful for calculations sensitive to temperature effects.

  11. Human area MT+ shows load-dependent activation during working memory maintenance with continuously morphing stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galashan, Daniela; Fehr, Thorsten; Kreiter, Andreas K; Herrmann, Manfred

    2014-07-11

    Initially, human area MT+ was considered a visual area solely processing motion information but further research has shown that it is also involved in various different cognitive operations, such as working memory tasks requiring motion-related information to be maintained or cognitive tasks with implied or expected motion.In the present fMRI study in humans, we focused on MT+ modulation during working memory maintenance using a dynamic shape-tracking working memory task with no motion-related working memory content. Working memory load was systematically varied using complex and simple stimulus material and parametrically increasing retention periods. Activation patterns for the difference between retention of complex and simple memorized stimuli were examined in order to preclude that the reported effects are caused by differences in retrieval. Conjunction analysis over all delay durations for the maintenance of complex versus simple stimuli demonstrated a wide-spread activation pattern. Percent signal change (PSC) in area MT+ revealed a pattern with higher values for the maintenance of complex shapes compared to the retention of a simple circle and with higher values for increasing delay durations. The present data extend previous knowledge by demonstrating that visual area MT+ presents a brain activity pattern usually found in brain regions that are actively involved in working memory maintenance.

  12. Amide Proton Transfer (APT) MR imaging and Magnetization Transfer (MT) MR imaging of pediatric brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong; Kang, Huiying; Peng, Yun [Beijing Children' s Hospital, Capital Medical University, Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Zhao, Xuna [Philips Healthcare, Beijing (China); Jiang, Shanshan; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Jinyuan [Johns Hopkins University, Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-10-15

    To quantify the brain maturation process during childhood using combined amide proton transfer (APT) and conventional magnetization transfer (MT) imaging at 3 Tesla. Eighty-two neurodevelopmentally normal children (44 males and 38 females; age range, 2-190 months) were imaged using an APT/MT imaging protocol with multiple saturation frequency offsets. The APT-weighted (APTW) and MT ratio (MTR) signals were quantitatively analyzed in multiple brain areas. Age-related changes in MTR and APTW were evaluated with a non-linear regression analysis. The APTW signals followed a decreasing exponential curve with age in all brain regions measured (R{sup 2} = 0.7-0.8 for the corpus callosum, frontal and occipital white matter, and centrum semiovale). The most significant changes appeared within the first year. At maturation, larger decreases in APTW and lower APTW values were found in the white matter. On the contrary, the MTR signals followed an increasing exponential curve with age in the same brain regions measured, with the most significant changes appearing within the initial 2 years. There was an inverse correlation between the MTR and APTW signal intensities during brain maturation. Together with MT imaging, protein-based APT imaging can provide additional information in assessing brain myelination in the paediatric population. (orig.)

  13. mtDNA sequence diversity of Hazara ethnic group from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Allah; Fatima; Peng, Min-Sheng; Adan, Atif; Bi, Rui; Yasmin, Memona; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2017-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences of Hazaras from Pakistan, so as to generate mtDNA reference database for forensic casework in Pakistan and to analyze phylogenetic relationship of this particular ethnic group with geographically proximal populations. Complete mtDNA control region (nt 16024-576) sequences were generated through Sanger Sequencing for 319 Hazara individuals from Quetta, Baluchistan. The population sample set showed a total of 189 distinct haplotypes, belonging mainly to West Eurasian (51.72%), East & Southeast Asian (29.78%) and South Asian (18.50%) haplogroups. Compared with other populations from Pakistan, the Hazara population had a relatively high haplotype diversity (0.9945) and a lower random match probability (0.0085). The dataset has been incorporated into EMPOP database under accession number EMP00680. The data herein comprises the largest, and likely most thoroughly examined, control region mtDNA dataset from Hazaras of Pakistan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The 2001 Mt. Etna eruption: new constraints on the intrusive mechanism from ground deformation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo J.

    2013-04-01

    The occurrence of seismic swarms beneath the SW flank of Mt. Etna, often observed just a few months before an eruption, has been considered as the fragile response to a magma intrusion (Bonanno et al., 2011 and reference therein). These intrusions and/or pressurization of deep magmatic bodies, have been able to significantly affect the seismic pattern within the volcano edifice, leading to a changes in the local stress field. For example, during the months preceding the 1991-1993 Mt. Etna eruption, shallow intense seismic swarms (4-6 km deep) occurring in the SW flank (e.g. Cocina et al., 1998), related to the magma intrusion before the eruption onset, were observed contemporaneously with a rotation of stress field of about 90°. A similar scenario was observed during January 1998, when a magma recharging phases induced a local rotation of stress tensor, forcing a buried fault zone located beneath the SW flank of Mt. Etna to slip as a right-lateral strike-slip fault (Bonanno et al., 2011). This fault system was forced to slip again, during late April 2001 (more than 200 events in less than 5 days; maximum Magnitude = 3.6) by the pressurization of the magmatic bodies feeding the July-August 2001 Mt. Etna eruption. Here we analyzed in detail the July-August 2001 Mt. Etna eruption as well as the dynamics preceding this event, by using a large dataset of geodetic data (GPS and synthetic aperture radar interferometry) collected between July 2000 and August 2001. References Cocina, O., Neri, G., Privitera, E. and Spampinato S., 1998. Seismogenic stress field beneath Mt. Etna South Italy and possible relationships with volcano-tectonic features. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 83, 335-348. Bonanno A., Palano M., Privitera E., Gresta S., Puglisi G., 2011. Magma intrusion mechanisms and redistribution of seismogenic stress at Mt. Etna volcano (1997-1998). Terra Nova, 23, 339-348, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2011.01019.x, 2011.

  15. 76 FR 28418 - Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 33C; Sony Corporation of America, Mt. Pleasant, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ...-Trade Subzone 33C; Sony Corporation of America, Mt. Pleasant, PA Pursuant to the authority granted in... Industrial Development Corporation of Southwestern Pennsylvania, (grantee of FTZ 33) authorizing the establishment of Foreign-Trade Subzone 33C at the Sony Corporation of America plant in Mt. Pleasant...

  16. Mechanisms of mtDNA segregation and mitochondrial signalling in cells with the pathogenic A3243G mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir Tafrechi, Roshan Sakineh

    2008-01-01

    Using newly developed single cell A3243G mutation load assays a novel mechanism of mtDNA segregation was identified in which the multi-copy mtDNA nucleoid takes a central position. Furthermore, likely due to low level changes in gene expression, no genes or gene sets could be identified with gene

  17. Abnormal Skeletal Growth in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Is Associated with Abnormal Quantitative Expression of Melatonin Receptor, MT2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Moreau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The defect of the melatonin signaling pathway has been proposed to be one of the key etiopathogenic factors in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. A previous report showed that melatonin receptor, MT2, was undetectable in some AIS girls. The present study aimed to investigate whether the abnormal MT2 expression in AIS is quantitative or qualitative. Cultured osteoblasts were obtained from 41 AIS girls and nine normal controls. Semi-quantification of protein expression by Western blot and mRNA expression by TaqMan real-time PCR for both MT1 and MT2 were performed. Anthropometric parameters were also compared and correlated with the protein expression and mRNA expression of the receptors. The results showed significantly lower protein and mRNA expression of MT2 in AIS girls compared with that in normal controls (p = 0.02 and p = 0.019, respectively. No differences were found in the expression of MT1. When dichotomizing the AIS girls according to their MT2 expression, the group with low expression was found to have a significantly longer arm span (p = 0.036. The results of this study showed for the first time a quantitative change of MT2 in AIS that was also correlated with abnormal arm span as part of abnormal systemic skeletal growth.

  18. Messenger RNA for membrane-type 2 matrix metalloproteinase, MT2-MMP, is expressed in human placenta of first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørn, S F; Hastrup, N; Larsen, J F; Lund, L R; Pyke, C

    2000-01-01

    An intimately regulated cell surface activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is believed to be of critical importance for the control of trophoblast invasion. A histological investigation of the expression and localization of three different MMPs, the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 (MT1-MMP, MT2-MMP) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2/gelatinase A) was performed by in situ hybridization on consecutive sections from human placentae of first trimester pregnancies. Cytokeratin immunostaining identified trophoblast cells. Both normal and tubal implantation sites were studied. We observed a high degree of coexpression of MT2-MMP, MT1-MMP and MMP-2 mRNAs in single extravillous cytotrophoblasts that had invaded the endometrium and tubal wall. Furthermore, mRNAs for all three genes were also seen in cytotrophoblasts of cell islands. In contrast to this coexpression pattern, MT2-MMP expression was absent from cell columns and decidual cells, in which signals for MT1-MMP and MMP-2 mRNAs were seen. The present data on the cellular expression of MT2-MMP mRNA in placenta extend our knowledge of the proteolytic events that take place during early pregnancy. The data suggest that MT2-MMP, capable of activating MMP-2 in vitro, is involved in the invasion of extravillous cytotrophoblast, possibly related to the physiological activation of MMP-2. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  19. Global gene expression profiles of MT knockout and wild-type mice in the condition of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yi; Guo, Jun; Dong, Yansheng; Zhong, Weijian; Xiao, Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Lishi; Peng, Shuangqing

    2011-01-15

    Increasing evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies has indicated that MT exerts protective effects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity; however the underlying precise mechanisms still remain an enigma. Therefore, the present study was designed using MT knockout mice in concert with genomic approaches to explore the possible molecular and cellular mechanisms in terms of the genetic network changes. MT-I/II null (MT⁻/⁻) mice and corresponding wild-type mice (MT+/+) were administrated with a single dose of DOX (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or equal volume of saline. Animals were sacrificed on the 4th day after DOX administration and samples were collected for further analyses. Global gene expression profiles of cardiac mRNA from two genotype mice revealed that 381 characteristically MT-responsive genes were identified between MT+/+ mice and MT⁻/⁻ mice in response to DOX, including fos, ucp3, car3, atf3, map3k6, etc. Functional analysis implied MAPK signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, etc. might be involved to mediate the protection of DOX cardiomyopathy by MT. Results from the present study not only validated the previously reported possible mechanisms of MT protection against DOX toxicity, but also provided new clues into the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reductions in dead space ventilation with nasal high flow depend on physiological dead space volume: metabolic hood measurements during sleep in patients with COPD and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biselli, Paolo; Fricke, Kathrin; Grote, Ludger; Braun, Andrew T; Kirkness, Jason; Smith, Philip; Schwartz, Alan; Schneider, Hartmut

    2018-05-01

    Nasal high flow (NHF) reduces minute ventilation and ventilatory loads during sleep but the mechanisms are not clear. We hypothesised NHF reduces ventilation in proportion to physiological but not anatomical dead space.11 subjects (five controls and six chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients) underwent polysomnography with transcutaneous carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) monitoring under a metabolic hood. During stable non-rapid eye movement stage 2 sleep, subjects received NHF (20 L·min -1 ) intermittently for periods of 5-10 min. We measured CO 2 production and calculated dead space ventilation.Controls and COPD patients responded similarly to NHF. NHF reduced minute ventilation (from 5.6±0.4 to 4.8±0.4 L·min -1 ; pspace ventilation (from 2.5±0.4 to 1.6±0.4 L·min -1 ; pspace ventilation correlated with baseline physiological dead space fraction (r 2 =0.36; pspace volume.During sleep, NHF decreases minute ventilation due to an overall reduction in dead space ventilation in proportion to the extent of baseline physiological dead space fraction. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  1. High-altitude adaptation of Tibetan chicken from MT-COI and ATP-6 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoling; Wu, Nan; Zhu, Qing; Gaur, Uma; Gu, Ting; Li, Diyan

    2016-09-01

    The problem of hypoxia adaptation in high altitudes is an unsolved brainteaser in the field of life sciences. As one of the best chicken breeds with adaptability to highland environment, the Tibetan chicken, is genetically different from lowland chicken breeds. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of hypoxic adaptability in high altitude, in the present study, we focused on the MT-COI together with ATP-6 gene to explore the regulatory mechanisms for hypoxia adaptability in Tibet chicken. Here, we sequenced MT-COI of 29 Tibetan chickens and 30 Chinese domestic chickens and ATP-6 gene of 28 Tibetan chickens and 29 Chinese domestic chickens. In MT-COI gene, 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected though none of these was a missense mutation, confirming the fact that MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence. In ATP-6 gene, 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected and we found a missense mutation (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene of Tibetan chicken resulting in an amino acid substitution. Due to the critical role of ATP-6 gene in the proton translocation and energy metabolism, we speculated the possibility of this mutation playing an important role in easier energy conversion and metabolism in Tibetan chickens than Chinese domestic chickens so as to better adapt to the harsh environment of the high-altitude areas. The Median-joining profile also suggested that haplotype Ha2 has the ancestral position to the other haplotypes and has significant relationship with high-altitude adaptation in ATP-6 gene. Therefore, we considered that the polymorphism (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene may affect the specific functions of ATP-6 enzyme relating to high-altitude adaptation of Tibetan chicken and MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence.

  2. Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis l,d-Transpeptidase LdtMt1 by Carbapenems and Cephalosporins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubée, Vincent; Triboulet, Sébastien; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Ethève-Quelquejeu, Mélanie; Gutmann, Laurent; Marie, Arul; Dubost, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    The structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptidoglycan is atypical since it contains a majority of 3→3 cross-links synthesized by l,d-transpeptidases that replace 4→3 cross-links formed by the d,d-transpeptidase activity of classical penicillin-binding proteins. Carbapenems inactivate these l,d-transpeptidases, and meropenem combined with clavulanic acid is bactericidal against extensively drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. Here, we used mass spectrometry and stopped-flow fluorimetry to investigate the kinetics and mechanisms of inactivation of the prototypic M. tuberculosis l,d-transpeptidase LdtMt1 by carbapenems (meropenem, doripenem, imipenem, and ertapenem) and cephalosporins (cefotaxime, cephalothin, and ceftriaxone). Inactivation proceeded through noncovalent drug binding and acylation of the catalytic Cys of LdtMt1, which was eventually followed by hydrolysis of the resulting acylenzyme. Meropenem rapidly inhibited LdtMt1, with a binding rate constant of 0.08 μM−1 min−1. The enzyme was unable to recover from this initial binding step since the dissociation rate constant of the noncovalent complex was low (carbapenem side chains affected both the binding and acylation steps, ertapenem being the most efficient LdtMt1 inactivator. Cephalosporins also formed covalent adducts with LdtMt1, although the acylation reaction was 7- to 1,000-fold slower and led to elimination of one of the drug side chains. Comparison of kinetic constants for drug binding, acylation, and acylenzyme hydrolysis indicates that carbapenems and cephems can both be tailored to optimize peptidoglycan synthesis inhibition in M. tuberculosis. PMID:22615283

  3. Effect of feature-selective attention on neuronal responses in macaque area MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Hoffmann, K.-P.; Albright, T. D.

    2012-01-01

    Attention influences visual processing in striate and extrastriate cortex, which has been extensively studied for spatial-, object-, and feature-based attention. Most studies exploring neural signatures of feature-based attention have trained animals to attend to an object identified by a certain feature and ignore objects/displays identified by a different feature. Little is known about the effects of feature-selective attention, where subjects attend to one stimulus feature domain (e.g., color) of an object while features from different domains (e.g., direction of motion) of the same object are ignored. To study this type of feature-selective attention in area MT in the middle temporal sulcus, we trained macaque monkeys to either attend to and report the direction of motion of a moving sine wave grating (a feature for which MT neurons display strong selectivity) or attend to and report its color (a feature for which MT neurons have very limited selectivity). We hypothesized that neurons would upregulate their firing rate during attend-direction conditions compared with attend-color conditions. We found that feature-selective attention significantly affected 22% of MT neurons. Contrary to our hypothesis, these neurons did not necessarily increase firing rate when animals attended to direction of motion but fell into one of two classes. In one class, attention to color increased the gain of stimulus-induced responses compared with attend-direction conditions. The other class displayed the opposite effects. Feature-selective activity modulations occurred earlier in neurons modulated by attention to color compared with neurons modulated by attention to motion direction. Thus feature-selective attention influences neuronal processing in macaque area MT but often exhibited a mismatch between the preferred stimulus dimension (direction of motion) and the preferred attention dimension (attention to color). PMID:22170961

  4. Pivotal role of hMT+ in long-range disambiguation of interhemispheric bistable surface motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João Valente; Costa, Gabriel Nascimento; Martins, Ricardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    It remains an open question whether long-range disambiguation of ambiguous surface motion can be achieved in early visual cortex or instead in higher level regions, which concerns object/surface segmentation/integration mechanisms. We used a bistable moving stimulus that can be perceived as a pattern comprehending both visual hemi-fields moving coherently downward or as two widely segregated nonoverlapping component objects (in each visual hemi-field) moving separately inward. This paradigm requires long-range integration across the vertical meridian leading to interhemispheric binding. Our fMRI study (n = 30) revealed a close relation between activity in hMT+ and perceptual switches involving interhemispheric segregation/integration of motion signals, crucially under nonlocal conditions where components do not overlap and belong to distinct hemispheres. Higher signal changes were found in hMT+ in response to spatially segregated component (incoherent) percepts than to pattern (coherent) percepts. This did not occur in early visual cortex, unlike apparent motion, which does not entail surface segmentation. We also identified a role for top-down mechanisms in state transitions. Deconvolution analysis of switch-related changes revealed prefrontal, insula, and cingulate areas, with the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) being particularly involved. We observed that directed influences could emerge either from left or right hMT+ during bistable motion integration/segregation. SPL also exhibited significant directed functional connectivity with hMT+, during perceptual state maintenance (Granger causality analysis). Our results suggest that long-range interhemispheric binding of ambiguous motion representations mainly reflect bottom-up processes from hMT+ during perceptual state maintenance. In contrast, state transitions maybe influenced by high-level regions such as the SPL. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4882-4897, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley

  5. Association of AS3MT polymorphisms and the risk of premalignant arsenic skin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Drobna, Zuzana; Hernandez-Castellanos, Erika; Sanchez-Pena, Luz C.; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Borja-Aburto, Victor H.; Styblo, Miroslav; Del Razo, Luz M.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to naturally occurring inorganic arsenic (iAs), primarily from contaminated drinking water, is considered one of the top environmental health threats worldwide. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) is the key enzyme in the biotransformation pathway of iAs. AS3MT catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to trivalent arsenicals, resulting in the production of methylated (MAs) and dimethylated arsenicals (DMAs). MAs is a susceptibility factor for iAs-induced toxicity. In this study, we evaluated the association of the polymorphism in AS3MT gene with iAs metabolism and with the presence of arsenic (As) premalignant skin lesions. This is a case-control study of 71 cases with skin lesions and 51 controls without skin lesions recruited from a iAs endemic area in Mexico. We measured urinary As metabolites, differentiating the trivalent and pentavalent arsenical species, using the hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. In addition, the study subjects were genotyped to analyze three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), A-477G, T14458C (nonsynonymus SNP; Met287Thr), and T35587C, in the AS3MT gene. We compared the frequencies of the AS3MT alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes in individuals with and without skin lesions. Marginal differences in the frequencies of the Met287Thr genotype were identified between individuals with and without premalignant skin lesions (p = 0.055): individuals carrying the C (TC+CC) allele (Thr) were at risk [odds ratio = 4.28; 95% confidence interval (1.0-18.5)]. Also, individuals with C allele of Met287Thr displayed greater percentage of MAs in urine and decrease in the percentage of DMAs. These findings indicate that Met287Thr influences the susceptibility to premalignant As skin lesions and might be at increased risk for other adverse health effects of iAs exposure.

  6. Superpartner Mass Measurement Technique using 1D Orthogonal Decompositions of the Cambridge Transverse Mass Variable MT2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Partha; Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Park, Myeonghun

    2010-07-01

    We propose a new model-independent technique for mass measurements in missing energy events at hadron colliders. We illustrate our method with the most challenging case of a single-step decay chain. We consider inclusive same-sign chargino pair production in supersymmetry, followed by leptonic decays to sneutrinos χ+χ+→ℓ+ℓ'+ν˜ℓν˜ℓ' and invisible decays ν˜ℓ→νℓχ˜10. We introduce two one-dimensional decompositions of the Cambridge MT2 variable: MT2∥ and MT2⊥, on the direction of the upstream transverse momentum P→T and the direction orthogonal to it, respectively. We show that the sneutrino mass Mc can be measured directly by minimizing the number of events N(M˜c) in which MT2 exceeds a certain threshold, conveniently measured from the end point MT2⊥max⁡(M˜c).

  7. The rapid detection of methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) in water using a prototype gas sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy Costello, B P J; Sivanand, P S; Ratcliffe, N M; Reynolds, D M

    2005-01-01

    The gasoline additive Methyl-tertiary-Butyl Ether (MtBE) is the second most common contaminant of groundwater in the USA and represents an important soil contaminant. This compound has been detected in the groundwater in at least 27 states as a result of leaking underground storage facilities (gasoline storage tanks and pipelines). Since the health effects of MtBE are unclear the potential threat to drinking water supplies is serious. Therefore, the ability to detect MtBE at low levels (ppb) and on-line at high-risk groundwater sites would be highly desirable. This paper reports the use of 'commercial' and metal oxide sensor arrays for the detection of MtBE in drinking and surface waters at low ppb level (microg.L(-1) range). The output responses from some of the sensors were found to correlate well with MtBE concentrations under laboratory conditions.

  8. Antineoplastic Activities of MT81 and Its Structural Analogue in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Bearing Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Maiti Choudhury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many fungal toxins exhibit in vitro and in vivo antineoplastic effects on various cancer cell types. Luteoskyrin, a hydroxyanthraquinone has been proved to be a potent inhibitor against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The comparative antitumor activity and antioxidant status of MT81 and its structural analogue [Acetic acid-MT81 (Aa-MT81] having polyhydroxyanthraquinone structure were assessed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC tumor in mice. The in vitro cytotoxicity was measured by the viability of EAC cells after direct treatment of the said compounds. In in vivo study, MT81 and its structural analogue were administered (i.p. at the two different doses (5, 7 mg MT81; 8.93, 11.48 mg Aa-MT81/kg body weight for 7 days after 24 hrs. of tumor inoculation. The activities were assessed using mean survival time (MST, increased life span (ILS, tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, peritoneal cell count, protein percentage and hematological parameters. Antioxidant status was determined by malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH content, and by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CA T. MT81 and its structural analogues increased the mean survival time, normal peritoneal cell count. They decreased the tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, hemoglobin percentage and packed cell volume. Differential counts of WBC, total counts of RBC & WBC that altered by EAC inoculation, were restored in a dose-dependent manner. Increased MDA and decreased GSH content and reduced activity of SOD, and catalase in EAC bearing mice were returned towards normal after the treatment of MT81 and its structural analogue. Being less toxic than parent toxin MT81, the structural analogue showed more prominent antineoplastic activities against EAC cells compared to MT81. At the same time, both compounds exhibit to some extent antioxidant potential for the EAC-bearing mice.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a novel cold-adapted esterase, MtEst45, from Microbulbifer thermotolerans DAU221

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    Yong-Suk eLee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel esterase, MtEst45, was isolated from a fosmid genomic library of Microbulbifer thermotolerans DAU221. The encoding gene is predicted to have a mass of 45,564 Da and encodes 495 amino acids, excluding a 21 amino acid signal peptide. MtEst45 showed a low amino acid identity (approximately 23–24% compared with other lipolytic enzymes belonging to Family III, a closely related bacterial lipolytic enzyme family. MtEst45 also showed a conserved GXSXG motif, G131IS133YG135, which was reported as active site of known lipolytic enzymes, and the putative catalytic triad composed of D237 and H265. Because these mutants of MtEst45, which was S133A, D237N, and H265L, had no activity, these catalytic triad essential for the enzyme catalysis. MtEst45 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 and purified via His-tag affinity chromatography. The optimal pH and temperature of MtEst45 were estimated to be 8.17 and 46.27°C by response surface methodology, respectively. Additionally, MtEst45 was also active between 1–15°C. The optimal hydrolysis substrate for MtEst45 among p-nitrophenyl esters (C2–C18 was p-nitrophenyl butyrate, and the Km and Vmax values were 0.0998 mM and 550 μmol/min/mg of protein, respectively. MtEst45 was strongly inhibited by Hg2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ ions; by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride; and by β-mercaptoethanol. Ca2+ did not affect the enzyme’s activity. These biochemical properties, sequence identity, and phylogenetic analysis suggest that MtEst45 represents a novel and valuable bacterial lipolytic enzyme family and is useful for biotechnological applications.

  10. Effects of mtDNA in SHR-mtF344 versus SHR conplastic strains on reduced OXPHOS enzyme levels, insulin resistance, cardiac hypertrophy, and systolic dysfunction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houštěk, Josef; Vrbacký, Marek; Hejzlarová, Kateřina; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Šilhavý, Jan; Šimáková, Miroslava; Mlejnek, Petr; Kazdová, L.; Mikšík, Ivan; Neckář, Jan; Papoušek, František; Kolář, František; Kurtz, T. W.; Pravenec, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 18 (2014), s. 671-678 ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10267S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10067 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : SHR conplastic strain with F344 mtDNA * impaired glucose tolerance * systolic dysfunction Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.374, year: 2014

  11. Analysis of mtDNT 4977bp deletion induced by ionizing radiation in human peripheral blood nucleated cells using real-time PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Tianli; Wang Ping; Han Lin; Liu Yulong; Liu Yumin

    2010-01-01

    To detect mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) 4977bp deletion(triangle open mtDNA 4977 ) in human peripheral blood nucleated cells exposed to ionizing radiation in vitro by using real-time PCR, and explore possibility of the index as biodosimetry for estimating biological dose in radiation accident,six healthy individuals' peripheral blood was collected,and the blood samples were irradiated with 0,1,2,3,4 and 5 Gy 60 Co gamma-ray. The triangle open mtDNA 4977 and total mtDNA copy number(mtDNA total ) in the mtDNA samples were detected, and then the deletion rates were calculated. The results showed that the mtDNA total and triangle open mtDNA 4977 copy number, and the deletion rates of mtDNA 4977bp in the mtDNA samples from 6 healthy individuals' blood exposed to 1-5 Gy radiation were higher than that with the samples exposed to 0 Gy radiation(p 0.05). The results indicated that ionizing radiation can induce accumulation of the triangle open mtDNA 4977 and increase of mtDNA total copy number in human peripheral blood nucleated cells,but both the mtDNA 4977bp deletion and exposure dose(0-5 Gy) were not obviously correlated. (authors)

  12. Mitochondrial mosaics in the liver of 3 infants with mtDNA defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalais Emmanuel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In muscle cytochrome oxidase (COX negative fibers (mitochondrial mosaics have often been visualized. Methods COX activity staining of liver for light and electron microscopy, muscle stains, blue native gel electrophoresis and activity assays of respiratory chain proteins, their immunolocalisation, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analysis. Results Three unrelated infants showed a mitochondrial mosaic in the liver after staining for COX activity, i.e. hepatocytes with strongly reactive mitochondria were found adjacent to cells with many negative, or barely reactive, mitochondria. Deficiency was most severe in the patient diagnosed with Pearson syndrome. Ragged-red fibers were absent in muscle biopsies of all patients. Enzyme biochemistry was not diagnostic in muscle, fibroblasts and lymphocytes. Blue native gel electrophoresis of liver tissue, but not of muscle, demonstrated a decreased activity of complex IV; in both muscle and liver subcomplexes of complex V were seen. Immunocytochemistry of complex IV confirmed the mosaic pattern in two livers, but not in fibroblasts. MRI of the brain revealed severe white matter cavitation in the Pearson case, but only slight cortical atrophy in the Alpers-Huttenlocher patient, and a normal image in the 3rd. MtDNA in leucocytes showed a common deletion in 50% of the mtDNA molecules of the Pearson patient. In the patient diagnosed with Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome, mtDNA was depleted for 60% in muscle. In the 3rd patient muscular and hepatic mtDNA was depleted for more than 70%. Mutations in the nuclear encoded gene of POLG were subsequently found in both the 2nd and 3rd patients. Conclusion Histoenzymatic COX staining of a liver biopsy is fast and yields crucial data about the pathogenesis; it indicates whether mtDNA should be assayed. Each time a mitochondrial disorder is suspected and muscle data are non-diagnostic, a liver biopsy should be recommended. Mosaics are probably more frequent

  13. Practical Examples of an Integrated Field Study Program at Mt. Fuji: Geosciences and the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T.; Kamikuri, S. I.; Otsuji, H.; Kataguchi, N.; Maruyama, H.; Hashiura, H.

    2017-12-01

    Mt. Fuji is a symbol of existence for the Japanese and it also has been a religiously revered subject. In addition, as represented by the ukiyo-e of Hokusai and Hiroshige, it is a subject of paintings, as well as of various types of literary expression such as waka, haiku and novels. Historically, there was a time when Mt. Fuji was used as a symbol of the integration of the country; and it has long reflected the culture, life and thoughts of the Japanese. On another level, from the Earth scientific point of view, Mt. Fuji is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan. Teacher training colleges in Japan have created educational programs for all subjects taught at school. However, as there is no effective linkage among these subjects, students may have different opinions on them according to their curriculum. In this study, we adopted a multifaceted learning approach toward that most symbolic icon of our country. In FY2014 and FY2016, a course created by the College of Education at Ibaraki University, called "Fieldwork on Geology," was conducted at and around Mt. Fuji. In addition to conducting fieldwork from the viewpoint of earth science, it also had abundant artistic content. Academics in the fields of earth science, art and pedagogy worked closely together from the planning stage and participated in a field study with 25 university students. Specifically, we focused on how the experience of sketching a landscape affects field observations by broadening the viewpoint and deepening the understanding of students. To ascertain the bidirectional educational effects between earth sciences and art, students were asked: 1) to express an image of Mt. Fuji, and 2) to appreciate paintings of Mt. Fuji and express the information they garnered from the paintings, before and after the fieldwork. These two exercises are considered as providing insights into how the students' understanding had changed. In addition, reports and impressions submitted by the students were used as

  14. GIS-BASED ANALYSIS FOR ASSESSING LANDSLIDE AND DROUGHT HAZARD IN THE CORRIDOR OF MT. MERAPI AND MT. MERBABU NATIONAL PARK, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hero Marhaento

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A corridor is an area located between two or more protected areas that are important to support the sustainability of the protected areas. This study is aimed at assessing landslide and drought hazard in the corridor area between Mt. Merapi National Park (MMNP and Mt. Merbabu National Park (MMbNP as a part of the corridor management strategy. The corridor area of MMNP and MMbNP comprises four sub-districts in Central Java Province, namely, Sawangan, Selo, Ampel, and Cepogo. A spatial analysis of ArcGIS 10.1 software was used to assess landslide hazard map and the Thorntwaite-Matter Water Balance approach was used to assess drought hazard map. The results have shown that three villages in Cepogo Sub-district and all villages in Selo Sub-district are highly prone to landslide hazard. Furthermore, two villages in Cepogo Sub-district and four villages in Selo Sub-district are prone to drought hazard. This study suggests that these villages should initiate a program called conservation village model based on disaster mitigation for mitigating future landslide and drought disasters.

  15. Parkinson's disease brain mitochondria have impaired respirasome assembly, age-related increases in distribution of oxidative damage to mtDNA and no differences in heteroplasmic mtDNA mutation abundance

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    Keeney Paula M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD is a nervous system-wide disease that presents with a bradykinetic movement disorder and is frequently complicated by depression and cognitive impairment. sPD likely has multiple interacting causes that include increased oxidative stress damage to mitochondrial components and reduced mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity. We analyzed mitochondria from postmortem sPD and CTL brains for evidence of oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, heteroplasmic mtDNA point mutations and levels of electron transport chain proteins. We sought to determine if sPD brains possess any mtDNA genotype-respiratory phenotype relationships. Results Treatment of sPD brain mtDNA with the mitochondrial base-excision repair enzyme 8-oxyguanosine glycosylase-1 (hOGG1 inhibited, in an age-dependent manner, qPCR amplification of overlapping ~2 kbase products; amplification of CTL brain mtDNA showed moderate sensitivity to hOGG1 not dependent on donor age. hOGG1 mRNA expression was not different between sPD and CTL brains. Heteroplasmy analysis of brain mtDNA using Surveyor nuclease® showed asymmetric distributions and levels of heteroplasmic mutations across mtDNA but no patterns that statistically distinguished sPD from CTL. sPD brain mitochondria displayed reductions of nine respirasome proteins (respiratory complexes I-V. Reduced levels of sPD brain mitochondrial complex II, III and V, but not complex I or IV proteins, correlated closely with rates of NADH-driven electron flow. mtDNA levels and PGC-1α expression did not differ between sPD and CTL brains. Conclusion PD brain mitochondria have reduced mitochondrial respiratory protein levels in complexes I-V, implying a generalized defect in respirasome assembly. These deficiencies do not appear to arise from altered point mutational burden in mtDNA or reduction of nuclear signaling for mitochondrial biogenesis, implying downstream etiologies. The origin of age

  16. Recombinant human melatonin receptor MT1 isolated in mixed detergents shows pharmacology similar to that in mammalian cell membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Logez

    Full Text Available The human melatonin MT1 receptor-belonging to the large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs-plays a key role in circadian rhythm regulation and is notably involved in sleep disorders and depression. Structural and functional information at the molecular level are highly desired for fine characterization of this receptor; however, adequate techniques for isolating soluble MT1 material suitable for biochemical and biophysical studies remain lacking. Here we describe the evaluation of a panel of constructs and host systems for the production of recombinant human MT1 receptors, and the screening of different conditions for their solubilization and purification. Our findings resulted in the establishment of an original strategy using a mixture of Fos14 and CHAPS detergents to extract and purify a recombinant human MT1 from Pichia pastoris membranes. This procedure enabled the recovery of relatively pure, monomeric and ligand-binding active MT1 receptor in the near-milligram range. A comparative study based on extensive ligand-binding characterization highlighted a very close correlation between the pharmacological profiles of MT1 purified from yeast and the same receptor present in mammalian cell membranes. The high quality of the purified MT1 was further confirmed by its ability to activate its cognate Gαi protein partner when reconstituted in lipid discs, thus opening novel paths to investigate this receptor by biochemical and biophysical approaches.

  17. Molecular characterization and expression profile of the melatonin receptor MT1 in the ovary of Tianzhu white yak (Bos grunniens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun Jie; Zhang, Xiao Yu; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Xing Xu; Li, Fa Di; Tao, Jin Zhong

    2017-02-01

    Melatonin plays crucial roles in a wide range of ovarian physiological functions via the melatonin receptors (MRs). Structure and function of MRs have been well studied in sheep, cattle, and humans, but little information exists on the genetic characterization and function of these receptors in the ovary of the white yak. In the present study, the melatonin receptor MT1 was cloned by RT-PCR in the ovary of white yak; the MT1 cDNA fragment obtained (843bp) comprised an open reading frame (827bp) encoding a protein containing 275 residues, characterized by seven transmembrane regions and an NRY motif, two distinct amino acid replacements were found. The white yak MT1 had a 83.9-98.6% protein sequence identity with that of nine other mammals. Using RT-PCR, the expression levels of MT1, MT2, and LHR in the ovary of pregnant and non-pregnant white yaks were compared, revealing higher levels of all genes in pregnant yaks: 3.83-fold increase for MT1 (Pmelatonin and MT1 are associated with the corpus luteum function of pregnancy maintenance and follicular development during oocyte maturation in the white yak. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Recombinant human melatonin receptor MT1 isolated in mixed detergents shows pharmacology similar to that in mammalian cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logez, Christel; Berger, Sylvie; Legros, Céline; Banères, Jean-Louis; Cohen, William; Delagrange, Philippe; Nosjean, Olivier; Boutin, Jean A; Ferry, Gilles; Simonin, Frédéric; Wagner, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    The human melatonin MT1 receptor-belonging to the large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)-plays a key role in circadian rhythm regulation and is notably involved in sleep disorders and depression. Structural and functional information at the molecular level are highly desired for fine characterization of this receptor; however, adequate techniques for isolating soluble MT1 material suitable for biochemical and biophysical studies remain lacking. Here we describe the evaluation of a panel of constructs and host systems for the production of recombinant human MT1 receptors, and the screening of different conditions for their solubilization and purification. Our findings resulted in the establishment of an original strategy using a mixture of Fos14 and CHAPS detergents to extract and purify a recombinant human MT1 from Pichia pastoris membranes. This procedure enabled the recovery of relatively pure, monomeric and ligand-binding active MT1 receptor in the near-milligram range. A comparative study based on extensive ligand-binding characterization highlighted a very close correlation between the pharmacological profiles of MT1 purified from yeast and the same receptor present in mammalian cell membranes. The high quality of the purified MT1 was further confirmed by its ability to activate its cognate Gαi protein partner when reconstituted in lipid discs, thus opening novel paths to investigate this receptor by biochemical and biophysical approaches.

  19. Controls on Magmatic and Hydrothermal Processes at Yellowstone Supervolcano: The Wideband Magnetotelluric Component of an Integrated MT/Seismic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A.; Bennington, N. L.; Bowles-martinez, E.; Imamura, N.; Cronin, R. A.; Miller, D. J.; Hart, L.; Gurrola, R. M.; Neal, B. A.; Scholz, K.; Fry, B.; Carbonari, R.

    2017-12-01

    Previous seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) studies beneath Yellowstone (YS) have provided insight into the origin and migration of magmatic fluids within the volcanic system. However, important questions remain concerning the generation of magmatism at YS, the migration and storage of these magmatic fluids, as well as their relationships to hydrothermal expressions. Analysis of regional-scale EarthScope MT data collected previously suggests a relative absence of continuity in crustal partial melt accumulations directly beneath YS. This is in contrast to some seismic interpretations, although such long-period MT data have limited resolving power in the upper-to-mid crustal section. A wideband MT experiment was designed as a component of an integrated MT/seismic project to examine: the origin and location of magmatic fluids at upper mantle/lower crustal depths, the preferred path of migration for these magmatic fluids into the mid- to upper-crust, the resulting distribution of the magma reservoir, the composition of the magma reservoir, and implications for future volcanism at YS. A high-resolution wideband MT survey was carried out in the YS region in the summer of 2017, with more than forty-five wideband stations installed within and immediately surrounding the YS National Park boundary. These data provided nearly six decades of bandwidth ( 10-3 Hz -to- 103 Hz). Extraordinary permitting restrictions prevented us from using conventional installation methods at many of our sites, and an innovative "no-dig" subaerial method of wideband MT was developed and used successfully. Using these new data along with existing MT datasets, we are inverting for the 3D resistivity structure at upper crustal through upper mantle scales at YS. Complementary to this MT work, a joint inversion for the 3D crustal velocity structure is being carried out using both ambient noise and earthquake travel time data. Taken together, these data should better constrain the crustal velocity

  20. MT-ADRES: multi-threading on coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Kanstein, Andreas; Madsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture ADRES (architecture for dynamically reconfigurable embedded systems) and its compiler offer high instruction-level parallelism (ILP) to applications by means of a sparsely interconnected array of functional units and register files. As high-ILP archi......The coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture ADRES (architecture for dynamically reconfigurable embedded systems) and its compiler offer high instruction-level parallelism (ILP) to applications by means of a sparsely interconnected array of functional units and register files. As high......-ILP architectures achieve only low parallelism when executing partially sequential code segments, which is also known as Amdahl's law, this article proposes to extend ADRES to MT-ADRES (multi-threaded ADRES) to also exploit thread-level parallelism. On MT-ADRES architectures, the array can be partitioned...

  1. Finite element analysis of ground deformation due to dike intrusion with applications to Mt. Etna volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. La Rosa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2D finite elements study was carried out to analyse the effects caused by dike intrusion inside a heterogeneous medium and with a realistic topography of Mt. Etna volcano. Firstly, the method (dimension domain, elements type was calibrated using plane strain models in elastic half-spaces; the results were compared with those obtained from analytical dislocation models. Then the effects caused both by the topographic variations and the presence of multi-layered medium on the surface, were studied. In particular, an application was then considered to Mt. Etna by taking into account the real topography and the stratification deduced from seismic tomography. In these conditions, the effects expected by the dike, employed to model the 2001 eruption under simple elastic half-space medium conditions, were computed, showing that topography is extremely important, at least in the near field.

  2. Welding of high-strength stainless steel 03Kh12N10MT for cryogenic engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is being given to weld resistance to cold and hot cracking at 93 and 77K and to mechanical properties of welded joints of high-strength stainless steel 03Kh12N10MT, produced under the fluxes AN-17M, AN-18, AN-26, AN-45, ANF-5, 48-OF-6, ANK-45 and ANK-49 in combination with various welding wires. It is shown that welds on 03Kh12N10MT steel meet the requirements only when using 48-OF-6 or ANK-49 flux. It is noted that impact strength of welds at 77K is sufficiently affected by the volume fraction of non-metallic inclusions in weld metal

  3. The use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA-investigations in Forensic Sciences

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    S. Dawson

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of methods was developed to characterize mtDNA. The initial aim of these techniques was to try and link diseases with specific mitochondrial defects. As a result of the maternal inheritance trait of mtDNA these techniques facilitate studies of the phylogenetic history and population structure of the human population. It has been shown that mitochondrial DNA typing can be of great value for human identification in forensic cases. The identification of victims of mass-disasters or mass-murders, where human remains can be recovered only after many years have passed, is one of the most challenging fields of forensic identification. By using automated DNA sequencing with fluorescent labels, mitochondrial DNA sequences can be generated rapidly and accurately. Computer software facilitates the rapid comparison of individual and reference sequences.

  4. The mtDNA haplogroup P of modern Asian cattle: A genetic legacy of Asian aurochs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Aoi; Yonesaka, Riku; Sasazaki, Shinji

    2018-01-01

    Background Aurochs (Bos primigenius) were distributed throughout large parts of Eurasia and Northern Africa during the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, and all modern cattle are derived from the aurochs. Although the mtDNA haplogroups of most modern cattle belong to haplogroups T and I, several additional haplogroups (P, Q, R, C and E) have been identified in modern cattle and aurochs. Haplogroup P was the most common haplogroup in European aurochs, but so far, it has been identified in only three of >3,000 submitted haplotypes of modern Asian cattle. Methodology We sequenced the complete mtDNA D-loop region of 181 Japanese Shorthorn cattle and analyzed these together with representative bovine mtDNA sequences. The haplotype P of Japanese Shorthorn cattle was analyzed along with that of 36 previously published European aurochs and three modern Asian cattle sequences using the hypervariable 410 bp of the D-loop region. Conclusions We detected the mtDNA haplogroup P in Japanese Shorthorn cattle with an extremely high frequency (83/181). Phylogenetic networks revealed two main clusters, designated as Pa for haplogroup P in European aurochs and Pc in modern Asian cattle. We also report the genetic diversity of haplogroup P compared with the sequences of extinct aurochs. No shared haplotypes are observed between the European aurochs and the modern Asian cattle. This finding suggests the possibility of local and secondary introgression events of haplogroup P in northeast Asian cattle, and will contribute to a better understanding of its origin and genetic diversity. PMID:29304129

  5. Overexpression of mtDNA-associated AtWhy2 compromises mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou-Rached Charbel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background StWhy1, a member of the plant-specific Whirly single-stranded DNA-binding protein family, was first characterized as a transcription factor involved in the activation of the nuclear PR-10a gene following defense-related stress in potato. In Arabidopsis thaliana, Whirlies have recently been shown to be primarily localized in organelles. Two representatives of the family, AtWhy1 and AtWhy3 are imported into plastids while AtWhy2 localizes to mitochondria. Their function in organelles is currently unknown. Results To understand the role of mitochondrial Whirlies in higher plants, we produced A. thaliana lines with altered expression of the atwhy2 gene. Organellar DNA immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that AtWhy2 binds to mitochondrial DNA. Overexpression of atwhy2 in plants perturbs mitochondrial function by causing a diminution in transcript levels and mtDNA content which translates into a low activity level of respiratory chain complexes containing mtDNA-encoded subunits. This lowered activity of mitochondria yielded plants that were reduced in size and had distorted leaves that exhibited accelerated senescence. Overexpression of atwhy2 also led to early accumulation of senescence marker transcripts in mature leaves. Inactivation of the atwhy2 gene did not affect plant development and had no detectable effect on mitochondrial morphology, activity of respiratory chain complexes, transcription or the amount of mtDNA present. This lack of phenotype upon abrogation of atwhy2 expression suggests the presence of functional homologues of the Whirlies or the activation of compensating mechanisms in mitochondria. Conclusion AtWhy2 is associated with mtDNA and its overexpression results in the production of dysfunctional mitochondria. This report constitutes the first evidence of a function for the Whirlies in organelles. We propose that they could play a role in the regulation of the gene expression machinery of organelles.

  6. The mtDNA haplogroup P of modern Asian cattle: A genetic legacy of Asian aurochs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Aoi; Yonesaka, Riku; Sasazaki, Shinji; Mannen, Hideyuki

    2018-01-01

    Aurochs (Bos primigenius) were distributed throughout large parts of Eurasia and Northern Africa during the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, and all modern cattle are derived from the aurochs. Although the mtDNA haplogroups of most modern cattle belong to haplogroups T and I, several additional haplogroups (P, Q, R, C and E) have been identified in modern cattle and aurochs. Haplogroup P was the most common haplogroup in European aurochs, but so far, it has been identified in only three of >3,000 submitted haplotypes of modern Asian cattle. We sequenced the complete mtDNA D-loop region of 181 Japanese Shorthorn cattle and analyzed these together with representative bovine mtDNA sequences. The haplotype P of Japanese Shorthorn cattle was analyzed along with that of 36 previously published European aurochs and three modern Asian cattle sequences using the hypervariable 410 bp of the D-loop region. We detected the mtDNA haplogroup P in Japanese Shorthorn cattle with an extremely high frequency (83/181). Phylogenetic networks revealed two main clusters, designated as Pa for haplogroup P in European aurochs and Pc in modern Asian cattle. We also report the genetic diversity of haplogroup P compared with the sequences of extinct aurochs. No shared haplotypes are observed between the European aurochs and the modern Asian cattle. This finding suggests the possibility of local and secondary introgression events of haplogroup P in northeast Asian cattle, and will contribute to a better understanding of its origin and genetic diversity.

  7. mtDNA of Fulani Nomads and Their Genetic Relationships to Neighboring Sedentary Populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Viktor; Hájek, Martin; Bromová, Markéta; Čmejla, R.; Diallo, I.; Brdička, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2006), s. 9-27 ISSN 0018-7143 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA404/03/0318 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : mtDNA variation * HVS-I * Fulani nomads * sub-Saharan populations * Chad * Cameroon * Burkina Faso Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.132, year: 2006

  8. Joint TEM and MT aquifer study in the Atacama Desert, North Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthsatz, Alexander D.; Sarmiento Flores, Alvaro; Diaz, Daniel; Reinoso, Pablo Salazar; Herrera, Cristian; Brasse, Heinrich

    2018-06-01

    The Atacama Desert represents one of the driest regions on earth, and despite the absence of sustainable clean water reserves the demand has increased drastically since 1970 as a result of growing population and expanding mining activities. Magnetotelluric (MT) and Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) measurements were carried out for groundwater exploration in late 2015 in the area of the Profeta Basin at the western margin of the Chilean Precordillera. Both methods complement each other: While MT in general attains larger penetration depths, TEM allows better resolution of near surface layers; furthermore TEM is free from galvanic distortion. Data were collected along three profiles, enabling a continuous resistivity image from the surface to at least several hundred meters depth. TEM data were inverted in a 1-D manner, consistently yielding a poorly conductive near-surface layer with a thickness of approximately 30 m and below a well-conducting layer which we interpret as the aquifer with resistivities around 10 Ωm. At marginal sites of the main SW-NE-profile the resistive basement was found in 150 m. These depths are confirmed by interpretation of the MT soundings. Those were firstly inverted with a 2-D approach and then by 3-D inversion as clear indications of three-dimensionality exist. Several modeling runs were performed with different combinations of transfer functions and smoothing parameters. Generally, MT and TEM results agree reasonably well and an overall image of the resistivity structures in the Profeta Basin could be achieved. The aquifer reaches depths of more than 500 m in parts and, by applying Archie's law, resistivities of 1 Ωm can be assumed, indicating highly saline fluids from the source region of the surrounding high Andes under persisting arid conditions.

  9. OCCURRENCE OF LEAD-ZINK ORE AT Mt. IVANŠČICA NEAR IVANEC (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Šinkovec

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineral and ore occurences at Mt. Ivanščica are situated in the Middle Triassic carbonate rocks and are of epigenetic origin. These occurences are characterised by simple paragenesis of primary sulphides of leads and zinc and traces of sulphides of iron and copper. This mineralization is similar to Mississippi Valley Pb-Zn deposits (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. Calculation of the MT25 microtron dynamics and its fast simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krist, Pavel; Chvatil, David; Bila, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a mathematical model and its fast simulation developed for the setup of the control system of the MT25 microtron, which is a cyclic electron accelerator. This type of accelerator has been controlled manually until now. The mathematical model is based on calculations of the electron motion in the accelerating cavity and vacuum chamber. The simulation diagram was created using the Matlab-Simulink tools. (author)

  11. Bayesian resolution of TEM, CSEM and MT soundings: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, D. B.; Ray, A.; Key, K.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the resolution of three electromagnetic exploration methods commonly used to map the electrical conductivity of the shallow crust - the magnetotelluric (MT) method, the controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) method and the transient electromagnetic (TEM) method. TEM and CSEM utilize an artificial source of EM energy, while MT makes use of natural variations in the Earth's electromagnetic field. For a given geological setting and acquisition parameters, each of these methods will have a different resolution due to differences in the source field polarization and the frequency range of the measurements. For example, the MT and TEM methods primarily rely on induced horizontal currents and are most sensitive to conductive layers while the CSEM method generates vertical loops of current and is more sensitive to resistive features. Our study seeks to provide a robust resolution comparison that can help inform exploration geophysicists about which technique is best suited for a particular target. While it is possible to understand and describe a difference in resolution qualitatively, it remains challenging to fully describe it quantitatively using optimization based approaches. Part of the difficulty here stems from the standard electromagnetic inversion toolkit, which makes heavy use of regularization (often in the form of smoothing) to constrain the non-uniqueness inherent in the inverse problem. This regularization makes it difficult to accurately estimate the uncertainty in estimated model parameters - and therefore obscures their true resolution. To overcome this difficulty, we compare the resolution of CSEM, airborne TEM, and MT data quantitatively using a Bayesian trans-dimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) inversion scheme. Noisy synthetic data for this study are computed from various representative 1D test models: a conductive anomaly under a conductive/resistive overburden; and a resistive anomaly under a conductive/resistive overburden. In

  12. The UK MT-3 ballooning test in the Battelle NRU loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, I.H.; Coddington, P.; Healey, T.; Mann, C.A.

    1982-04-01

    The ballooning response of PWR fuel rods under postulated LOCA conditions has been the subject of intensive investigations. The UK MT-3 ballooning test was a co-operative international exercise which was technically very successful. This report describes the pre-test planning and calculations carried out in the UK and then describes in some detail the thermal hydraulic and clad deformation results. (U.K.)

  13. Impurity flux collection at the plasma edge of the tokamak MT-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Bakos, J.S.; Petravich, G.

    1989-09-01

    Fluxes of intrinsic and injected impurities and background plasma ions were collected using a bidirectional probe at the plasma edge of the tokamak MT-1. The directional and radial dependences of injected impurities and plasma ions were very similar indicating a strong coupling of the impurity transport to the dynamics of the background plasma. The measured intrinsic concentration of about 10 -4 for Mo at the plasma edge is derived. (author) 17 refs.; 5 figs

  14. Global analysis of genetic variation in human arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihara, Junko; Soejima, Mikiko; Yasuda, Toshihiro; Koda, Yoshiro; Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Tongu, Miki; Yamada, Takaya; Takeshita, Haruo

    2010-01-01

    Human arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) is known to catalyze the methylation of arsenite. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of the AS3MT gene at the global level. The distribution of 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AS3MT was performed in 827 individuals from 10 populations (Japanese, Korean, Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetans, Sri Lankan Tamils, Sri Lankan Sinhalese, Nepal Tamangs, Ovambo, and Ghanaian). In the African populations, the A allele in A6144T was not observed; the allele frequencies of C35587 were much lower than those in other populations; the allele frequencies of A37616 and C37950 were relatively higher than those in other populations. Among Asian populations, Mongolians showed a different genotype distribution pattern. A lower C3963 and T6144 frequencies were observed, and, in the C37616A and T37950C polymorphism, the Mongolian population showed higher A37616 and C37950 allele frequencies than other Asian populations, similarly to the African populations. A total of 66 haplotypes were observed in the Ovambo, 48, in the Ghanaian, 99, in the Japanese, 103, in the Korean, 103, in the South Chinese, 20, in the Sri Lankan Tamil, 12, in the Sri Lankan Sinhalese, 21, in the Nepal Tamang, 50, in the Tibetan, and 45, in the Mongolian populations. The D' values between the SNP pairs were extremely high in the Sri Lankan Sinhalese population. Relatively higher D' values were observed in Mongolian and Sri Lankan Tamil populations. Network analysis showed two clusters that may have different origins, African and Asians (Chinese and/or Japanese). The present study is the first to demonstrate the existence of genetic heterogeneity in a world wide distribution of 18 SNPs in AS3MT.

  15. The Mt. Gilead Cemetery Study: An Example of Biocultural Analysis from Western Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    and sharp. Of the molars, the roots of #3, #19, and #32 remained; #14 was in place but was 39 -.. hollowed halfway down the buccal roots by gingival ...states that Co does not concentrate with age. Possibly Co is carried over from mother to child during pregnancy . Milk is a very poor source of Co, so...individuals buried at the Mt. Gilead Cemetery ranged in age from newborn infants to an elderly woman , approximately 84 years old. Figure 14 shows the age

  16. Does aerobic exercises induce mtDNA mutation in human blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of eight weeks aerobic training on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation in human blood leucocytes. Twenty untrained healthy students (training group: n =10, age = 20.7±1.5 yrs, weight = 67.7±10 kg, BF% = 17.5±7.35 & control group: n =10, age = 21±1.3 yrs, weight ...

  17. AS3MT, GSTO, and PNP polymorphisms: impact on arsenic methylation and implications for disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Ray; Shao, Kan; Thomas, David J; Sams, Reeder; Cowden, John

    2014-07-01

    Oral exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is associated with adverse health effects. Epidemiological studies suggest differences in susceptibility to these health effects, possibly due to genotypic variation. Genetic polymorphisms in iAs metabolism could lead to increased susceptibility by altering urinary iAs metabolite concentrations. To examine the impact of genotypic polymorphisms on iAs metabolism. We screened 360 publications from PubMed and Web of Science for data on urinary mono- and dimethylated arsenic (MMA and DMA) percentages and polymorphic genes encoding proteins that are hypothesized to play roles in arsenic metabolism. The genes we examined were arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione-s-transferase omega (GSTO), and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP). Relevant data were pooled to determine which polymorphisms are associated across studies with changes in urinary metabolite concentration. In our review, AS3MT polymorphisms rs3740390, rs11191439, and rs11191453 were associated with statistically significant changes in percent urinary MMA. Studies of GSTO polymorphisms did not indicate statistically significant associations with methylation, and there are insufficient data on PNP polymorphisms to evaluate their impact on metabolism. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that AS3MT polymorphisms alter in vivo metabolite concentrations. Preliminary evidence suggests that AS3MT genetic polymorphisms may impact disease susceptibility. GSTO polymorphisms were not associated with iAs-associated health outcomes. Additional data are needed to evaluate the association between PNP polymorphisms and iAs-associated health outcomes. Delineation of these relationships may inform iAs mode(s) of action and the approach for evaluating low-dose health effects for iAs. Genotype impacts urinary iAs metabolite concentrations and may be a potential mechanism for iAs-related disease susceptibility. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Influence of Aerosol Heating on the Stratospheric Transport of the Mt. Pinatubo Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Valentina; Oman, Luke D.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    On June 15th, 1991 the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (15.1 deg. N, 120.3 Deg. E) in the Philippines injected about 20 Tg of sulfur dioxide in the stratosphere, which was transformed into sulfuric acid aerosol. The large perturbation of the background aerosol caused an increase in temperature in the lower stratosphere of 2-3 K. Even though stratospheric winds climatological]y tend to hinder the air mixing between the two hemispheres, observations have shown that a large part of the SO2 emitted by Mt. Pinatubo have been transported from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere. We simulate the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) version 5 global climate model, coupled to the aerosol module GOCART and the stratospheric chemistry module StratChem, to investigate the influence of the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo on the stratospheric transport pattern. We perform two ensembles of simulations: the first ensemble consists of runs without coupling between aerosol and radiation. In these simulations the plume of aerosols is treated as a passive tracer and the atmosphere is unperturbed. In the second ensemble of simulations aerosols and radiation are coupled. We show that the set of runs with interactive aerosol produces a larger cross-equatorial transport of the Pinatubo cloud. In our simulations the local heating perturbation caused by the sudden injection of volcanic aerosol changes the pattern of the stratospheric winds causing more intrusion of air from the Northern into the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, we perform simulations changing the injection height of the cloud, and study the transport of the plume resulting from the different scenarios. Comparisons of model results with SAGE II and AVHRR satellite observations will be shown.

  19. Drawing 1/100,000 scale geological map of Mt. Hakkoda geothermal district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, Hirobumi; Takakura, Shin' ichi

    1987-10-01

    Geological map of geothermal district of Mt. Hakkoda was made which included the main volcanos created after Pliocene era. For the purpose, geothermal liquid, terrestial heat sources and its storing structures, were studied with consulting geological map. Aerial and satelite photographs were used for the study of faults, foldings, and dikes,. By the result, stratigragic order of layers, developing process of vocanos, and evoluting process of magma, were summarized for report. (5 figs, 4 tabs, 101 refs)

  20. Optical diameters of stars measured with the Mt. Wilson Mark III interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.S.; Mozurkewich, D.; Johnston, K.J.; Gaume, R.; Hutter, D.J.; Bowers, P.F.; Colavita, M.M.; Shao, M.

    1990-01-01

    Reliable stellar angular diameters can now be determined using the Mark III Optical Interferometer located on Mt. Wilson, California. The Mark III is a Michelson Interferometer capable of measuring the interferometric fringe visibility for stars using interferometer baselines varying from 3 to 31.5 meters in length. Angular diameters measured with the Mark III Optical Interferometer are presented for 12 stars at wavelengths of 450 and 800 nm. 10 refs

  1. Diversity and Seasonal Variation of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Three Conifers in Mt. Taehwa, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chang-Kyun; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2013-01-01

    The needled leaves of three conifer species were collected in Mt. Taehwa during different seasons of the year. Total 59 isolates and 19 species of endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves and identified using morphological and molecular characteristics. As a result, Shannon index was different in its host plant; Larix kaempferi had a highest value of species diversity. According to the sampling season, 9 species of 19 species were isolated during fall season. The results suggest that th...

  2. Volcanic records of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, E.; Turner, G. M.; Conway, C. E.; Heslop, D.; Roberts, A. P.; Leonard, G.; Townsend, D.; Calvert, A.

    2017-08-01

    We present palaeodirectional records of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from lavas on Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand. Fourteen lava flows on the northwestern and southern flanks of Mt Ruapehu, with 40Ar/39Ar weighted mean plateau ages that range from 46.3 ± 2.0 to 39.9 ± 1.4 ka, were studied. The youngest and older flows carry a normal polarity magnetization; however, six flows, dated between 46.3 ± 2.0 and 42.7 ± 1.8 ka, record excursional directions. Three of these flows record southerly palaeomagnetic declinations and negative inclinations that agree well with a published Laschamp record from the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF). Together, the AVF and Mt Ruapehu lavas currently represent the only volcanic records of the Laschamp excursion outside the Chaîne des Puys region, France. Thus, they make an important contribution to the global set of Laschamp excursion records. Virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) groups for the New Zealand and French records early in the excursion are compatible with a dipole-dominated field that rotated to an equatorial orientation while simultaneously decaying in strength. In contrast, younger excursional flows from France and New Zealand yield separate VGP groups, which suggest either that the field had a nondipolar morphology in this later phase, or that the VGP groups were not synchronous. 40Ar/39Ar ages for the Mt Ruapehu record are on average slightly older than published northern hemisphere ages and from the relative palaeointensity minimum in the GLOPIS sedimentary stack. Although few individual ages differ significantly at the 2σ level, the spread suggests an overall excursion duration that is longer than the currently accepted 1500 years. This age spread may result from excess Ar in magmas at the time of the eruption biasing the results to slightly older ages, or from non-synchronous excursional field behaviour at near-antipodal locations, or, possibly, a precursory phase prior to the main excursion.

  3. Low-temperature thermochronology of the Mt Painter Province, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, M.M.; Kohn, B.P.; O'Sullivan, P.B.; Hartley, M.J.; University of Florida, FL

    2002-01-01

    Apatite fission track results are reported for 26 outcrop samples from the Mt Painter Inlier, Mt Babbage Inlier and adjacent Neoproterozoic rocks of the northwestern Curnamona Craton of South Australia. Forward modelling of the data indicates that the province experienced variable regional cooling from temperatures >110deg C during the Late Palaeozoic (Late Carboniferous to Early Permian). The timing of this cooling is similar to that previously reported from elsewhere in the Adelaide Fold Belt and the Curnamona Craton, suggesting that the entire region underwent extensive Late Palaeozoic cooling most likely related to the waning stages of the Alice Springs or Kanimblan Orogenies. Results from the Paralana Fault Zone indicate that the eastern margin of the Mt Painter Inlier experienced a second episode of cooling (∼40-60deg C) during the Paleocene to Eocene. The entire region also experienced significant cooling (less than ∼40deg C) during the Late Cretaceous to Palaeogene in response to unroofing and/or a decrease in geothermal gradient. Regional cooling/erosion during this time is supported by: geomorphological and geophysical evidence indicating Tertiary exhumation of at least 1 km; Eocene sedimentation initiated in basins adjacent to the Flinders and Mt Lofty Ranges sections of the Adelaide Fold Belt; and Late Cretaceous - Early Tertiary cooling previously reported from apatite fission track studies in the Willyama Inliers and the southern Adelaide Fold Belt. Late Cretaceous to Palaeogene cooling is probably related to a change in stress field propagated throughout the Australian Plate, and driven by the initiation of sea-floor spreading in the Tasman Sea in the Late Cretaceous and the Eocene global plate reorganisation. Copyright (2002) Geological Society of Australia

  4. Oxygenation of the traditional and thin-walled MT-YBCO in flowing oxygen and under high evaluated oxygen pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikhna, Tatiana; Chaud, Xavier; Gawalek, Wolfgang; Rabier, Jaques; Savchuk, Yaroslav; Joulain, Anne; Vlasenko, Andrey; Moshchil, Viktor; Sergienko, Nina; Dub, Sergey; Melnikov, Vladimir; Litzkendorf, Doris; Habisreuther, Tobias; Sverdun, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The high pressure-high temperature oxygenation of thin-walled MT-YBCO (with artificially produced holes) allows decreasing the amount of macrocracks and increasing j c of the material. The MT-YBCO produced from Y123 and Y211 in the fields higher than 2 T showed higher j c in the ab-planes and lower j c in the c-direction than the MT-YBCO manufactured from Y123 and Y 2 O 3 and can be explained by the difference in twin and microcrack density that in turn can be affected by the difference in Y211 phase distribution

  5. mtDNA copy number in oocytes of different sizes from individual pre- and post-pubertal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Løvendahl, Peter; Larsen, Knud Erik

    2014-01-01

    from ovaries of 10 pre- and 10 post-pubertal pigs. Cumulus cells were removed and the oocytes were measured (inside-ZP-diameter). Oocytes were transferred to DNAase-free tubes, snap-frozen, and stored at –80°C. The genes ND1 and COX1 were used to determine the mtDNA copy number. Plasmid preparations...... Reproduction 131, 233–245). However, the correlation between size and mtDNA copy number in single oocytes has not been determined. This study describes the relation between oocytes of defined diameters from individual pre- and postpubertal pigs and mtDNA copy number. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were aspirated...

  6. Internucleotide correlations and nucleotide periodicity in Drosophila mtDNA: New evidence for panselective evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Y Valenzuela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis for the homogeneity of the distribution of the second base of dinucleotides in relation to the first, whose bases are separated by 0, 1, 2,... 21 nucleotide sites, was performed with the VIH-1 genome (cDNA, the Drosophila mtDNA, the Drosophila Torso gene and the human p-globin gene. These four DNA segments showed highly significant heterogeneities of base distributions that cannot be accounted for by neutral or nearly neutral evolution or by the "neighbor influence" of nucleotides on mutation rates. High correlations are found in the bases of dinucleotides separated by 0, 1 and more number of sites. A periodicity of three consecutive significance values (measured by the x²9 was found only in Drosophila mtDNA. This periodicity may be due to an unknown structure or organization of mtDNA. This non-random distribution of the two bases of dinucleotides widespread throughout these DNA segments is rather compatible with panselective evolution and generalized internucleotide co-adaptation.

  7. MicroRNAs in Kidney Fibrosis and Diabetic Nephropathy: Roles on EMT and EndMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swayam Prakash Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a family of small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression in diverse biological and pathological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. As a result, miRNAs emerged as major area of biomedical research with relevance to kidney fibrosis. Fibrosis is characterized by the excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM components, which is the end result of an imbalance of metabolism of the ECM molecule. Recent evidence suggests that miRNAs participate in the fibrotic process in a number of organs including the heart, kidney, liver, and lung. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT and endothelial mesenchymal transition (EndMT programs play vital roles in the development of fibrosis in the kidney. A growing number of the extracellular and intracellular molecules that control EMT and EndMT have been identified and could be exploited in developing therapeutics for fibrosis. This review highlights recent advances on the role of miRNAs in the kidney diseases; diabetic nephropathy especially focused on EMT and EndMT program responsible for the development of kidney fibrosis. These miRNAs can be utilized as a potential novel drug target for the studying of underlying mechanism and treatment of kidney fibrosis.

  8. The Miocene "Pteropod event" in the SW part of the Central Paratethys (Medvednica Mt., northern Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bošnjak, Marija; Sremac, Jasenka; Vrsaljko, Davor; Aščić, Šimun; Bosak, Luka

    2017-08-01

    Deep marine Miocene deposits exposed sporadically in the Medvednica Mt. (northern Croatia) comprise pelagic organisms such as coccolithophores, planktic foraminifera and pteropods. The pteropod fauna from yellow marls at the Vejalnica locality (central part of Medvednica Mt.) encompasses abundant specimens of Vaginella austriaca Kittl, 1886, accompanied with scarce Clio fallauxi (Kittl, 1886). Calcareous nannoplankton points to the presence of NN5 nannozone at this locality. Highly fossiliferous grey marls at the Marija Bistrica locality (north-eastern area of Medvednica Mt.) comprise limacinid pteropods: Limacina valvatina (Reuss, 1867), L. gramensis (Rasmussen, 1968) and Limacina sp. Late Badenian (NN5 to NN6 nannozone) age of these marls is presumed on the basis of coccolithophores. Most of the determined pteropods on species level, except V. austriaca have been found and described from this region for the first time. New pteropod records from Croatia point to two pteropod horizons coinciding with the Badenian marine transgressions in Central Paratethys. These pteropod assemblages confirm the existence of W-E marine connection ("Transtethyan Trench Corridor") during the Badenian NN5 nannozone. Limacinids point to the possible immigration of the "North Sea fauna" through a northern European marine passage during the Late Badenian (end of NN5-beginning of NN6 zone), as previously presumed by some other authors.

  9. MT Post-editing: A Text Repair Experience for the Foreign Language Class.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Niño

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Communication also means having to sort out the problems involved in learning a foreign language, especially with regards to production rather than reception. These learning strategies or skills can also be applied to translation teaching methodology, where students put in practice their risk taking, avoidance, reduction and/ or compensatory strategies in getting the message across. We acknowledge translation as a writing task constrained by the source text. In addition, the translation and the writing cycles have in common a generation stage and a revision stage where grammatical, lexical and stylistic correctness is assessed. Somewhere in the middle between translation and writing skills lies MT (Machine Translation post-editing that involves correcting the raw MT output with the aim of providing a quality text according to the intended purpose. Our research is intended to test the suitability of MT post-editing as an activity to promote error correction and, subsequently, to enhance written production in second and foreign language teaching.

  10. Genetic diversity of mtDNA D-loop sequences in four native Chinese chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H W; Li, C; Wang, X N; Li, Z J; Sun, G R; Li, G X; Liu, X J; Kang, X T; Han, R L

    2017-10-01

    1. To explore the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, a 585 bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) region was sequenced in 102 birds from the Xichuan black-bone chicken, Yunyang black-bone chicken and Lushi chicken. In addition, 30 mtDNA D-loop sequences of Silkie fowls were downloaded from NCBI. The mtDNA D-loop sequence polymorphism and maternal origin of 4 chicken breeds were analysed in this study. 2. The results showed that a total of 33 mutation sites and 28 haplotypes were detected in the 4 chicken breeds. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of these 4 native breeds were 0.916 ± 0.014 and 0.012 ± 0.002, respectively. Three clusters were formed in 4 Chinese native chickens and 12 reference breeds. Both the Xichuan black-bone chicken and Yunyang black-bone chicken were grouped into one cluster. Four haplogroups (A, B, C and E) emerged in the median-joining network in these breeds. 3. It was concluded that these 4 Chinese chicken breeds had high genetic diversity. The phylogenetic tree and median network profiles showed that Chinese native chickens and its neighbouring countries had at least two maternal origins, one from Yunnan, China and another from Southeast Asia or its surrounding area.

  11. Diagnosis of time of increased probability of volcanic earthquakes at Mt. Vesuvius zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotwain, I.; Kuznetsov, I.; De Natale, G.; Peresan, A.; Panza, G.F.

    2003-06-01

    The possibility of intermediate-term earthquake prediction at Mt. Vesuvius by means of the algorithm CN is explored. CN was originally designed to identify the Times of Increased Probability (TIPs) for the occurrence of strong tectonic earthquakes, with magnitude M ≥ M 0 , within a region a priori delimited. Here the algorithm CN is applied, for the first time, to the analysis of volcanic seismicity. The earthquakes recorded at Mt. Vesuvius, during the period from February 1972 to October 2002, are considered and the magnitude threshold M 0 , selecting the events to be predicted, is varied within the range: 3.0 - 3.3. Satisfactory prediction results are obtained, by retrospective analysis, when a time scaling is introduced. In particular, when the length of the time windows is reduced by a factor 2.5 - 3, with respect to the standard version of CN algorithm, more than 90% of the events with M ≥ M 0 occur within the TIP intervals, with TIPs occupying about 30% of the total time considered. The control experiment 'Seismic History' demonstrates the stability of the obtained results and indicates that the algorithm CN can be applied to monitor the preparation of impending earthquakes with M ≥ 3.0 at Mt. Vesuvius. (author)

  12. Radon measurements in the SE and NE flank of Mt. Etna (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Delfa, S.; Imme, G.; Lo Nigro, S.; Morelli, D.; Patane, G.; Vizzini, F.

    2007-01-01

    Soil Radon has been monitored at two fixed sites located in the northeastern and southeastern flank of Mt. Etna. In this study we report the comparison between in-soil Radon concentration trend recorded in the SE flank and that one recorded in the NE one, where an in-soil Radon detection system is operating since 2001. The aim of this work was to implement the investigation area finding a suitable radon detection site, in the south-east flank of Mt. Etna, in order to better understand possible links between Radon anomalies and volcano dynamic. Radon data collected in NE and SE sites were compared with the volcanic tremor, frequency of occurrence of earthquakes and seismic strain-release recorded at a fixed 3D digital seismic station placed in the NE site. Same general in-soil Radon trends and anomalies were found in both sites. These results have confirmed the suitability of the chosen southeastern site for the in-soil Radon monitoring at Mt. Etna. The comparison of the recorded Radon concentration anomalies with seismicity and volcanic tremor trends, has also verified a possible link with the volcanic activity, as observed in our previous published studies

  13. The melatonin-MT1 receptor axis modulates tumor growth in PTEN-mutated gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huihui; Wang, Zhen; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Shangrong; Zhao, Chenggang; Yang, Haoran; Wang, Hongzhi; Fang, Zhiyou; Wu, Lijun; Chen, Xueran

    2018-02-19

    More than 40% of glioma patients have tumors that harbor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten) mutations; this disease is associated with poor therapeutic resistance and outcome. Such mutations are linked to increased cell survival and growth, decreased apoptosis, and drug resistance; thus, new therapeutic strategies focusing on inhibiting glioma tumorigenesis and progression are urgently needed. Melatonin, an indolamine produced and secreted predominantly by the pineal gland, mediates a variety of physiological functions and possesses antioxidant and antitumor properties. Here, we analyzed the relationship between PTEN and the inhibitory effect of melatonin in primary human glioma cells and cultured glioma cell lines. The results showed that melatonin can inhibit glioma cell growth both in culture and in vivo. This inhibition was associated with PTEN levels, which significantly correlated with the expression level of MT1 in patients. In fact, c-fos-mediated MT1 was shown to be a key modulator of the effect of melatonin on gliomas that harbor wild type PTEN. Taken together, these data suggest that melatonin-MT1 receptor complexes represent a potential target for the treatment of glioma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. mtDNA variation in the Yanomami: evidence for additional New World founding lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, R D; Merriwether, D A; Crews, D E; Ferrell, R E

    1996-07-01

    Native Americans have been classified into four founding haplogroups with as many as seven founding lineages based on mtDNA RFLPs and DNA sequence data. mtDNA analysis was completed for 83 Yanomami from eight villages in the Surucucu and Catrimani Plateau regions of Roraima in northwestern Brazil. Samples were typed for 15 polymorphic mtDNA sites (14 RFLP sites and 1 deletion site), and a subset was sequenced for both hypervariable regions of the mitochondrial D-loop. Substantial mitochondrial diversity was detected among the Yanomami, five of seven accepted founding haplotypes and three others were observed. Of the 83 samples, 4 (4.8%) were lineage B1, 1 (1.2%) was lineage B2, 31 (37.4%) were lineage C1, 29 (34.9%) were lineage C2, 2 (2.4%) were lineage D1, 6 (7.2%) were lineage D2, 7 (8.4%) were a haplotype we designated "X6," and 3 (3.6%) were a haplotype we designated "X7." Sequence analysis found 43 haplotypes in 50 samples. B2, X6, and X7 are previously unrecognized mitochondrial founding lineage types of Native Americans. The widespread distribution of these haplotypes in the New World and Asia provides support for declaring these lineages to be New World founding types.

  15. Locating the depth of magma supply for volcanic eruptions, insights from Mt. Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Harri; Barker, Abigail K; Troll, Valentin R

    2016-10-07

    Mt. Cameroon is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa and poses a possible threat to about half a million people in the area, yet knowledge of the volcano's underlying magma supply system is sparse. To characterize Mt. Cameroon's magma plumbing system, we employed mineral-melt equilibrium thermobarometry on the products of the volcano's two most recent eruptions of 1999 and 2000. Our results suggest pre-eruptive magma storage between 20 and 39 km beneath Mt. Cameroon, which corresponds to the Moho level and below. Additionally, the 1999 eruption products reveal several shallow magma pockets between 3 and 12 km depth, which are not detected in the 2000 lavas. This implies that small-volume magma batches actively migrate through the plumbing system during repose intervals. Evolving and migrating magma parcels potentially cause temporary unrest and short-lived explosive outbursts, and may be remobilized during major eruptions that are fed from sub-Moho magma reservoirs.

  16. MtDNA diversity among four Portuguese autochthonous dog breeds: a fine-scale characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa-Rita Pedro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The picture of dog mtDNA diversity, as obtained from geographically wide samplings but from a small number of individuals per region or breed, has revealed weak geographic correlation and high degree of haplotype sharing between very distant breeds. We aimed at a more detailed picture through extensive sampling (n = 143 of four Portuguese autochthonous breeds – Castro Laboreiro Dog, Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog, Portuguese Sheepdog and Azores Cattle Dog-and comparatively reanalysing published worldwide data. Results Fifteen haplotypes belonging to four major haplogroups were found in these breeds, of which five are newly reported. The Castro Laboreiro Dog presented a 95% frequency of a new A haplotype, while all other breeds contained a diverse pool of existing lineages. The Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog, the most heterogeneous of the four Portuguese breeds, shared haplotypes with the other mainland breeds, while Azores Cattle Dog shared no haplotypes with the other Portuguese breeds. A review of mtDNA haplotypes in dogs across the world revealed that: (a breeds tend to display haplotypes belonging to different haplogroups; (b haplogroup A is present in all breeds, and even uncommon haplogroups are highly dispersed among breeds and continental areas; (c haplotype sharing between breeds of the same region is lower than between breeds of different regions and (d genetic distances between breeds do not correlate with geography. Conclusion MtDNA haplotype sharing occurred between Serra da Estrela Mountain dogs (with putative origin in the centre of Portugal and two breeds in the north and south of the country-with the Castro Laboreiro Dog (which behaves, at the mtDNA level, as a sub-sample of the Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog and the southern Portuguese Sheepdog. In contrast, the Azores Cattle Dog did not share any haplotypes with the other Portuguese breeds, but with dogs sampled in Northern Europe. This suggested that the

  17. Analysis of mtDNA sequence variants in colorectal adenomatous polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grizzle William

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colorectal tumors mostly arise from sporadic adenomatous polyps. Polyps are defined as a mass of cells that protrudes into the lumen of the colon. Adenomatous polyps are benign neoplasms that, by definition display some characteristics of dysplasia. It has been shown that polyps were benign tumors which may undergo malignant transformation. Adenomatous polyps have been classified into three histologic types; tubular, tubulovillous, and villous with increasing malignant potential. The ability to differentially diagnose these colorectal adenomatous polyps is important for therapeutic intervention. To date, little efforts have been directed to identifying genetic changes involved in adenomatous polyps. This study was designed to examine the relevance of mitochondrial genome alterations in the three adenomatous polyps. Using high resolution restriction endonucleases and PCR-based sequencing, fifty-seven primary fresh frozen tissues of adenomatous polyps (37 tumors and 20 matched surrounding normal tissues obtained from the southern regional Cooperative Human Tissue Network (CHTN and Grady Memorial Hospital at Atlanta were screened with three mtDNA regional primer pairs that spanned 5.9 kbp. Results from our data analyses revealed the presence of forty-four variants in some of these mitochondrial genes that the primers spanned; COX I, II, III, ATP 6, 8, CYT b, ND 5, 6 and tRNAs. Based on the MITODAT database as a sequence reference, 25 of the 44 (57% variants observed were unreported. Notably, a heteroplasmic variant C8515G/T in the MT-ATP 8 gene and a germline variant 8327delA in the tRNAlys was observed in all the tissue samples of the three adenomatous polyps in comparison to the referenced database sequence. A germline variant G9055A in the MT-ATP 6 gene had a frequency of 100% (17/17 in tubular and 57% (13/23 in villous adenomas; no corresponding variant was in tubulovillous adenomas. Furthermore, A9006G variant at MT-ATP 6 gene was

  18. Identification of West Eurasian mitochondrial haplogroups by mtDNA SNP screening: results of the 2006-2007 EDNAP collaborative exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parson, Walther; Fendt, Liane; Ballard, David

    2008-01-01

    no previous experience with the technology and/or mtDNA analysis. The results of this collaborative exercise stimulate the expansion of screening methods in forensic laboratories to increase efficiency and performance of mtDNA typing, and thus demonstrates that mtDNA SNP typing is a powerful tool for forensic......The European DNA Profiling (EDNAP) Group performed a collaborative exercise on a mitochondrial (mt) DNA screening assay that targeted 16 nucleotide positions in the coding region and allowed for the discrimination of major west Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups. The purpose of the exercise was to evaluate...

  19. Imaging with radiolabelled anti-membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) antibody: potentials for characterizing atherosclerotic plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuge, Yuji [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Hokkaido University, Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Hokkaido University, Central Institute of Isotope Science, Sapporo (Japan); Takai, Nozomi; Ogawa, Yuki; Temma, Takashi; Nishigori, Kantaro; Ishino, Seigo; Kamihashi, Junko; Saji, Hideo [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Zhao, Yan [Hokkaido University, Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Kiyono, Yasushi [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); University of Fukui, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui (Japan); Shiomi, Masashi [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Institute for Experimental Animals, Kobe (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) activates pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-13 to their active forms and plays important roles in the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. This study sought to determine the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled monoclonal antibody (mAb), recognizing MT1-MMP, for imaging atherosclerosis in a rabbit model (WHHLMI rabbits). Anti-MT1-MMP monoclonal IgG{sub 3} and negative control IgG{sub 3} were radiolabelled with {sup 99m}Tc after derivatization with 6-hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC) to yield {sup 99m}Tc-MT1-MMP mAb and {sup 99m}Tc-IgG{sub 3}, respectively. WHHLMI and control rabbits were injected with these radio-probes. The aorta was removed and radioactivity was measured at 24 h after the injection. Autoradiography and histological studies were performed. {sup 99m}Tc-MT1-MMP mAb accumulation in WHHLMI rabbit aortas was 5.4-fold higher than that of control rabbits. Regional {sup 99m}Tc-MT1-MMP mAb accumulation was positively correlated with MT1-MMP expression (r = 0.59, p < 0.0001), while {sup 99m}Tc-IgG{sub 3} accumulation was independent of MT1-MMP expression (r = 0.03, p = NS). The highest {sup 99m}Tc-MT1-MMP mAb accumulation was found in atheromatous lesions (4.8 {+-} 1.9, %ID x BW/mm{sup 2} x 10{sup 2}), followed in decreasing order by fibroatheromatous (1.8 {+-} 1.3), collagen-rich (1.6 {+-} 1.0) and neointimal lesions (1.5 {+-} 1.5). In contrast, {sup 99m}Tc-IgG{sub 3} accumulation was almost independent of the histological grade of lesions. Higher {sup 99m}Tc-MT1-MMP mAb accumulation in grade IV atheroma was shown in comparison with neointimal lesions or other more stable lesions. Nuclear imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-MT1-MMP mAb, in combination with CT and MRI, could provide new diagnostic imaging capabilities for detecting vulnerable plaques, although further investigations to improve target to blood ratios are strongly required. (orig.)

  20. Mitochondrial nucleoid clusters protect newly synthesized mtDNA during Doxorubicin- and Ethidium Bromide-induced mitochondrial stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alán, Lukáš, E-mail: lukas.alan@fgu.cas.cz; Špaček, Tomáš; Pajuelo Reguera, David; Jabůrek, Martin; Ježek, Petr

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is compacted in ribonucleoprotein complexes called nucleoids, which can divide or move within the mitochondrial network. Mitochondrial nucleoids are able to aggregate into clusters upon reaction with intercalators such as the mtDNA depletion agent Ethidium Bromide (EB) or anticancer drug Doxorobicin (DXR). However, the exact mechanism of nucleoid clusters formation remains unknown. Resolving these processes may help to elucidate the mechanisms of DXR-induced cardiotoxicity. Therefore, we addressed the role of two key nucleoid proteins; mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB); in the formation of mitochondrial nucleoid clusters during the action of intercalators. We found that both intercalators cause numerous aberrations due to perturbing their native status. By blocking mtDNA replication, both agents also prevented mtDNA association with TFAM, consequently causing nucleoid aggregation into large nucleoid clusters enriched with TFAM, co-existing with the normal nucleoid population. In the later stages of intercalation (> 48 h), TFAM levels were reduced to 25%. In contrast, mtSSB was released from mtDNA and freely distributed within the mitochondrial network. Nucleoid clusters mostly contained nucleoids with newly replicated mtDNA, however the nucleoid population which was not in replication mode remained outside the clusters. Moreover, the nucleoid clusters were enriched with p53, an anti-oncogenic gatekeeper. We suggest that mitochondrial nucleoid clustering is a mechanism for protecting nucleoids with newly replicated DNA against intercalators mediating genotoxic stress. These results provide new insight into the common mitochondrial response to mtDNA stress and can be implied also on DXR-induced mitochondrial cytotoxicity. - Highlights: • The mechanism for mitochondrial nucleoid clustering is proposed. • DNA intercalators (Doxorubicin or Ethidium Bromide) prevent TFAM

  1. Imaging with radiolabelled anti-membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) antibody: potentials for characterizing atherosclerotic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, Yuji; Takai, Nozomi; Ogawa, Yuki; Temma, Takashi; Nishigori, Kantaro; Ishino, Seigo; Kamihashi, Junko; Saji, Hideo; Zhao, Yan; Kiyono, Yasushi; Shiomi, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) activates pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-13 to their active forms and plays important roles in the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. This study sought to determine the usefulness of 99m Tc-labelled monoclonal antibody (mAb), recognizing MT1-MMP, for imaging atherosclerosis in a rabbit model (WHHLMI rabbits). Anti-MT1-MMP monoclonal IgG 3 and negative control IgG 3 were radiolabelled with 99m Tc after derivatization with 6-hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC) to yield 99m Tc-MT1-MMP mAb and 99m Tc-IgG 3 , respectively. WHHLMI and control rabbits were injected with these radio-probes. The aorta was removed and radioactivity was measured at 24 h after the injection. Autoradiography and histological studies were performed. 99m Tc-MT1-MMP mAb accumulation in WHHLMI rabbit aortas was 5.4-fold higher than that of control rabbits. Regional 99m Tc-MT1-MMP mAb accumulation was positively correlated with MT1-MMP expression (r = 0.59, p 99m Tc-IgG 3 accumulation was independent of MT1-MMP expression (r = 0.03, p = NS). The highest 99m Tc-MT1-MMP mAb accumulation was found in atheromatous lesions (4.8 ± 1.9, %ID x BW/mm 2 x 10 2 ), followed in decreasing order by fibroatheromatous (1.8 ± 1.3), collagen-rich (1.6 ± 1.0) and neointimal lesions (1.5 ± 1.5). In contrast, 99m Tc-IgG 3 accumulation was almost independent of the histological grade of lesions. Higher 99m Tc-MT1-MMP mAb accumulation in grade IV atheroma was shown in comparison with neointimal lesions or other more stable lesions. Nuclear imaging with 99m Tc-MT1-MMP mAb, in combination with CT and MRI, could provide new diagnostic imaging capabilities for detecting vulnerable plaques, although further investigations to improve target to blood ratios are strongly required. (orig.)

  2. Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency-Induced mtDNA Depletion in Mouse Liver Leads to Defect beta-Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaoshan; Kannisto, Kristina; Curbo, Sophie; von Dobeln, Ulrika; Hultenby, Kjell; Isetun, Sindra; Gåfvels, Mats; Karlsson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) deficiency in humans causes mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease and search for treatment options, we previously generated and described a TK2 deficient mouse strain (TK2(-/-)) that progressively loses its mtDNA. The TK2(-/-) mouse model displays symptoms similar to humans harboring TK2 deficient infantile fatal encephalomyopathy. Here, we have studied the TK2(-/-) mouse model to clarify the pathologica...

  3. Induction of hepatic and renal metallothionein synthesis by ferric nitrilotriacetate in mice: the role of MT as an antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Kyong-Son; Morishita, Fumio; Tetsuchikawahara, Noriko; Onosaka, Satomi

    2005-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) demonstrates strong antioxidant properties, yet the physiological relevance of its antioxidant action is not clear. Injection of mice with ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) caused a dose-dependent increase in hepatic and renal MT. Fe-NTA caused a greater increase in hepatic and renal MT concentration (2.5- and 4-fold) compared with FeCl 3 at the same dose of ferric ion. MT mRNA levels were markedly elevated in both of tissues. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values in both tissues reached a maximum after 2-4 h. The MT concentrations were significantly increased after 2-4 h in liver and after 8-16 h in kidneys. Plasma concentrations of cytokines such as IL-6 and TNFα were elevated by 4 h; IL-6 levels were 24 times higher after Fe-NTA than that after injection of FeCl 3 . Pretreatment of mice with ZnSO 4 attenuated nephrotoxicity induced by Fe-NTA after 2 h, but was not effective 4 h after injection. After a Fe-NTA injection, a loss of Cd-binding properties of preinduced MT was observed only in kidneys of Zn-pretreated mice but not in liver. Treatment with BSO, glutathione (GSH) depletor, intensified a loss of its Cd-binding properties after a Fe-NTA injection. These results indicate that induction of MT synthesis may result from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by Fe-NTA, and MT may act in vivo as a complementary antioxidant

  4. Mt-rps3 is an ancient gene which provides insight into the evolution of fungal mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovesi, Artemis G; Ntertilis, Maria; Kouvelis, Vassili N

    2018-05-12

    The nuclear ribosomal protein S3 (Rps3) is implicated in the assembly of the ribosomal small subunit. Fungi and plants present a gene copy in their mitochondrial (mt) genomes. An analysis of 303 complete fungal mt genomes showed that, when rps3 is found, it is either a free-standing gene or an anchored gene within the omega intron of the rnl gene. Early divergent fungi, Basidiomycota and all yeasts but the CTG group belong to the first case, and Pezizomycotina to the second. Its position, size and genetic code employed are conserved within species of the same Order. Size variability is attributed to different number of repeats. These repeats consist of AT-rich sequences. MtRps3 proteins lack the KH domain, necessary for binding to rRNA, in their N-terminal region. Their C-terminal region is conserved in all Domains of life. Phylogenetic analysis showed that nuclear and mt Rps3 proteins are descendants of archaeal and a-proteobacterial homologues, respectively. Thus, fungal mt-rps3 gene is an ancient gene which evolved within the endosymbiotic model and presents different evolutionary routes: (a) coming from a-proteobacteria, it was relocated to another region of the mt genome, (b) via its insertion to the omega intron, it was transferred to the nucleus and/or got lost, and (c) it was re-routed to the mt genome again. Today, Basidiomycota and Saccharomycetales seem to follow the first evolutionary route and almost all Pezizomycotina support the second scenario with their exceptions being the result of the third scenario, i.e., the gene's re-entry to the mt genome. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Clustering of Caucasian Leber hereditary optic neuropathy patients containing the 11778 or 14484 mutations on an mtDNA lineage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.D.; Sun, F.; Wallace, D.C. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a type of blindness caused by mtDNA mutations. Three LHON mtDNA mutations at nucleotide positions 3460, 11778, and 14484 are specific for LHON and account for 90% of worldwide cases and are thus designated as {open_quotes}primary{close_quotes} LHON mutations. Fifteen other {open_quotes}secondary{close_quotes} LHON mtDNA mutations have been identified, but their pathogenicity is unclear. mtDNA haplotype and phylogenetic analysis of the primary LHON mutations in North American Caucasian patients and controls has shown that, unlike the 3460 and 11778 mutations, which are distributed throughout the European-derived (Caucasian) mtDNA phylogeny, patients containing the 14484 mutation tended to be associated with European mtDNA haplotype J. To investigate this apparent clustering, we performed {chi}{sup 2}-based statistical analyses to compare the distribution of LHON patients on the Caucasian phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that, unlike the 3460 and 11778 mutations, the 14484 mutation was not distributed on the phylogeny in proportion to the frequencies of the major Caucasian mtDNA haplogroups found in North America. The 14484 mutation was next shown to occur on the haplogroup J background more frequently that expected, consistent with the observation that {approximately}75% of worldwide 14484-positive LHON patients occur in association with haplogroup J. The 11778 mutation also exhibited a moderate clustering on haplogroup J. These observations were supported by statistical analysis using all available mutation frequencies reported in the literature. This paper thus illustrates the potential importance of genetic background in certain mtDNA-based diseases, speculates on a pathogenic role for a subset of LHON secondary mutations and their interaction with primary mutations, and provides support for a polygenic model for LHON expression in some cases. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. A Phenotype-Driven Approach to Generate Mouse Models with Pathogenic mtDNA Mutations Causing Mitochondrial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna H.K. Kauppila

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of mtDNA are an important cause of human disease, but few animal models exist. Because mammalian mitochondria cannot be transfected, the development of mice with pathogenic mtDNA mutations has been challenging, and the main strategy has therefore been to introduce mutations found in cell lines into mouse embryos. Here, we describe a phenotype-driven strategy that is based on detecting clonal expansion of pathogenic mtDNA mutations in colonic crypts of founder mice derived from heterozygous mtDNA mutator mice. As proof of concept, we report the generation of a mouse line transmitting a heteroplasmic pathogenic mutation in the alanine tRNA gene of mtDNA displaying typical characteristics of classic mitochondrial disease. In summary, we describe a straightforward and technically simple strategy based on mouse breeding and histology to generate animal models of mtDNA-mutation disease, which will be of great importance for studies of disease pathophysiology and preclinical treatment trials.

  7. Co-ordinated expression of MMP-2 and its putative activator, MT1-MMP, in human placentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørn, S F; Hastrup, N; Lund, L R; Danø, K; Larsen, J F; Pyke, C

    1997-08-01

    The spatial expression of mRNA for matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), its putative activator, the membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), and the MMP-2 substrate type IV collagen was investigated in human placentas of both normal and tubal ectopic pregnancies and in cyclic endometrium using in-situ hybridization. Cytokeratin staining applied to adjacent sections was used to identify epithelial and trophoblast cells. In both normal and tubal pregnancies MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and type IV collagen mRNA were highly expressed and co-localized in the extravillous cytotrophoblasts of anchoring villi, in cytotrophoblasts that had penatrated into the placental bed and in cytotrophoblastic cell islands. In addition, the decidual cells of normal pregnancies in some areas co-expressed MT1-MMP and MMP-2 mRNA, with moderate signals for both components. Fibroblast-like stromal cells in tubal pregnancies were positive for MMP-2 mRNA but generally negative for MT1-MMP mRNA. The consistent co-localization of MT1-MMP with MMP-2 and type IV collagen in the same subset of cytotrophoblasts strongly suggests that all three components co-operate in the tightly regulated fetal invasion process. The co-expression of MT1-MMP and MMP-2 mRNA in some of the decidual cells indicates that these cells are also actively involved in the placentation process.

  8. Halogen speciation in volcanic plumes - Development of compact denuder sampling techniques with in-situ derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their application at Mt. Etna, Mt. Nyiragongo and Mt. Nyamulagira in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdiger, Julian; Bobrowski, Nicole; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    products. The diffusion denuder technique allows sampling of gaseous compounds exclusively without collecting particulate matter. Solvent elution of the derivatized analytes and subsequent analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry gives a limit of detection below 1 ng of bromine. The method was applied in 2015 on volcanic gas plumes at Mt. Etna (Italy), Mt. Nyiragongo and Mt. Nyamulagira (DR Congo) giving reactive bromine mixing ratios from 0.3 ppb (Nyiragongo) up to 22 ppb (Etna, NEC). Compared with total halogen data derived by alkaline trap sampling (Raschig-tube) and ion-chromatography analysis the reactive bromine mixing ratios allow the investigation of the conversion of HBr into reactive species due to plume chemistry with progressing plume age. The new method will be described in detail and the first results on the reactive halogen to total halogen output will be discussed (for bromine and chlorine) and compared to earlier volcanic plume chemistry model studies. References Bobrowski, N. and G. Giuffrida: Bromine monoxide / sulphur dioxide ratios in relation to volcanological observations at Mt. Etna 2006-2009. Solid Earth, 3, 433-445, 2012 Bobrowski, N., R. von Glasow, A. Aiuppa, S. Inguaggiato, I. Louban, O. W. Ibrahim and U. Platt: Reactive halogen chemistry in volcanic plumes. J. Geophys. Res., 112, 2007 Donovan A., V. Tsanev, C. Oppenheimer and M. Edmonds: Reactive halogens (BrO and OClO) detected in the plume of Soufrière Hills Volcano during an eruption hiatus. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 15, 3346-3363, 2014 Rüdiger, J., N. Bobrowski, T. Hoffmann (2015), Development and application of compact denuder sampling techniques with in situ derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for halogen speciation in volcanic plumes (EGU2015-2392-2), EGU General Assembly 2015

  9. MT3825BA: a 384×288-25µm ROIC for uncooled microbolometer FPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Gulden, M. Ali; Bayhan, Nusret; Incedere, O. Samet; Soyer, S. Tuncer; Ustundag, Cem M. B.; Isikhan, Murat; Kocak, Serhat; Turan, Ozge; Yalcin, Cem; Akin, Tayfun

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the development of a new microbolometer Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) called MT3825BA. It has a format of 384 × 288 and a pixel pitch of 25μm. MT3825BA is Mikro-Tasarim's second microbolometer ROIC product, which is developed specifically for resistive surface micro-machined microbolometer detector arrays using high-TCR pixel materials, such as VOx and a-Si. MT3825BA has a system-on-chip architecture, where all the timing, biasing, and pixel non-uniformity correction (NUC) operations in the ROIC are applied using on-chip circuitry simplifying the use and system integration of this ROIC. The ROIC is designed to support pixel resistance values ranging from 30 KΩ to 100 KΩ. MT3825BA is operated using conventional row based readout method, where pixels in the array are read out in a row-by-row basis, where the applied bias for each pixel in a given row is updated at the beginning of each line period according to the applied line based NUC data. The NUC data is applied continuously in a row-by-row basis using the serial programming interface, which is also used to program user configurable features of the ROIC, such as readout gain, integration time, and number of analog video outputs. MT3825BA has a total of 4 analog video outputs and 2 analog reference outputs, placed at the top and bottom of the ROIC, which can be programmed to operate in the 1, 2, and 4-output modes, supporting frames rates well above 60 fps at a 3 MHz pixel output rate. The pixels in the array are read out with respect to reference pixels implemented above and below actual array pixels. The bias voltage of the pixels can be programmed over a 1.0 V range to compensate for the changes in the detector resistance values due to the variations coming from the manufacturing process or changes in the operating temperature. The ROIC has an on-chip integrated temperature sensor with a sensitivity of better than 5 mV / K, and the output of the temperature sensor can be read out the

  10. About the Little Red Riding Hood, Durex and anger: production, meaning and reception of one fairy tale and one commercial ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antonijević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By applying the semiological analysis, this paper considers planned and unplanned readings of a provocative domestic commercial, which, in order to convey its message, transposed the Little Red Riding Hood’s character in accordance with the advertised product – Durex condoms. This commercial caused furious reactions of parents who took legal action for breaching the Law on public advertising and, especially, "harming children’s sensibility and integrity". Provocative billboards also caused numerous comments in the daily newspapers, in the Internet chat rooms, with some considering the commercial vulgar and offensive and others having no problem with it, adding that the ones who took offence belonged to those puritan and conservative layers of the society. In order to discover the reasons to this kind of reactions, I started with researching how the commercial was made and what kind of message it offered. Next, I reconsidered the meaning of the very fairy tale "The Red Riding Hood". Its original version, which contains open sexual allusions, is quite different to the changed versions offered by Charles Perrault and the Grimm brothers. Their versions can be seen as fakelore, since they outrageously intervened on the plot and the meaning of the original fairy tale. However, since the Grimm brothers’ version is the most popular, it is a fact that our public reacted with such anger led by the meaning of their version, which accentuates overeating and cannibalism, and not sexual development of girls, which is the basic message of the original version. This is where the "communicational noise" that led to those negative reactions came from. By discovering the true meaning of the tale, the answer is given to the question whether the advertising agency made a slip up, or it had actually found the right way to communicate the hidden message of the tale, and at the same time ruin the advertising campaign for which it was used. In the end, range and

  11. Year-Round Monitoring of Contaminants in Neal and Rogers Creeks, Hood River Basin, Oregon, 2011-12, and Assessment of Risks to Salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney B Hapke

    Full Text Available Pesticide presence in streams is a potential threat to Endangered Species Act listed salmonids in the Hood River basin, Oregon, a primarily forested and agricultural basin. Two types of passive samplers, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs, were simultaneously deployed at four sites in the basin during Mar. 2011-Mar. 2012 to measure the presence of pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. The year-round use of passive samplers is a novel approach and offers several new insights. Currently used pesticides and legacy contaminants, including many chlorinated pesticides and PBDEs, were present throughout the year in the basin's streams. PCBs were not detected. Time-weighted average water concentrations for the 2-month deployment periods were estimated from concentrations of chemicals measured in the passive samplers. Currently used pesticide concentrations peaked during spring and were detected beyond their seasons of expected use. Summed concentrations of legacy contaminants in Neal Creek were highest during July-Sept., the period with the lowest streamflows. Endosulfan was the only pesticide detected in passive samplers at concentrations exceeding Oregon or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality thresholds. A Sensitive Pesticide Toxicity Index (SPTI was used to estimate the relative acute potential toxicity among sample mixtures. The acute potential toxicity of the detected mixtures was likely greater for invertebrates than for fish and for all samples in Neal Creek compared to Rogers Creek, but the indices appear to be low overall (<0.1. Endosulfans and pyrethroid insecticides were the largest contributors to the SPTIs for both sites. SPTIs of some discrete (grab samples from the basin that were used for comparison exceeded 0.1 when some insecticides (azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, malathion were detected at concentrations near or

  12. Comparison of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Tropism Profiles in Clinical Samples by the Trofile and MT-2 Assays▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Eoin; Reeves, Jacqueline D.; Huang, Wei; Mangas-Ruiz, Marga; Maurer, Irma; Harskamp, Agnes M.; Gupta, Soumi; Lie, Yolanda; Petropoulos, Christos J.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; van 't Wout, Angélique B.

    2009-01-01

    The recent availability of CCR5 antagonists as anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) therapeutics has highlighted the need to accurately identify CXCR4-using variants in patient samples when use of this new drug class is considered. The Trofile assay (Monogram Biosciences) has become the method that is the most widely used to define tropism in the clinic prior to the use of a CCR5 antagonist. By comparison, the MT-2 assay has been used since early in the HIV epidemic to define tropism in clinical specimens. Given that there are few data from direct comparisons of these two assays, we evaluated the performance of the plasma-based Trofile assay and the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based MT-2 assay for the detection of CXCR4 use in defining the tropism of HIV isolates derived from clinical samples. The various samples used for this comparison were derived from participants of the Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV infection and AIDS who underwent consecutive MT-2 assay testing of their PBMCs at approximately 3-month intervals. This unique sample set was specifically selected because consecutive MT-2 assays had demonstrated a shift from negative to positive in PBMCs, reflecting the first emergence of CXCR4-using virus in PBMCs above the level of detection of the assay in these individuals. Trofile testing was performed with clonal HIV type 1 (HIV-1) variants (n = 21), MT-2 cell culture-derived cells (n = 20) and supernatants (n = 42), and plasma samples (n = 76). Among the clonal HIV-1 variants and MT-2 cell culture-derived samples, the results of the Trofile and MT-2 assays demonstrated a high degree of concordance (95% to 98%). Among consecutive plasma samples, detection of CXCR4-using virus was at or before the time of first detection by the MT-2 assay in 5/10 patients by the original Trofile assay and in 9/10 patients by the enhanced-sensitivity Trofile assay. Differences in the time to the first detection of CXCR4 use between the MT-2 assay (PBMCs

  13. Comparison of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tropism profiles in clinical samples by the Trofile and MT-2 assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Eoin; Reeves, Jacqueline D; Huang, Wei; Mangas-Ruiz, Marga; Maurer, Irma; Harskamp, Agnes M; Gupta, Soumi; Lie, Yolanda; Petropoulos, Christos J; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; van 't Wout, Angélique B

    2009-11-01

    The recent availability of CCR5 antagonists as anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) therapeutics has highlighted the need to accurately identify CXCR4-using variants in patient samples when use of this new drug class is considered. The Trofile assay (Monogram Biosciences) has become the method that is the most widely used to define tropism in the clinic prior to the use of a CCR5 antagonist. By comparison, the MT-2 assay has been used since early in the HIV epidemic to define tropism in clinical specimens. Given that there are few data from direct comparisons of these two assays, we evaluated the performance of the plasma-based Trofile assay and the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based MT-2 assay for the detection of CXCR4 use in defining the tropism of HIV isolates derived from clinical samples. The various samples used for this comparison were derived from participants of the Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV infection and AIDS who underwent consecutive MT-2 assay testing of their PBMCs at approximately 3-month intervals. This unique sample set was specifically selected because consecutive MT-2 assays had demonstrated a shift from negative to positive in PBMCs, reflecting the first emergence of CXCR4-using virus in PBMCs above the level of detection of the assay in these individuals. Trofile testing was performed with clonal HIV type 1 (HIV-1) variants (n = 21), MT-2 cell culture-derived cells (n = 20) and supernatants (n = 42), and plasma samples (n = 76). Among the clonal HIV-1 variants and MT-2 cell culture-derived samples, the results of the Trofile and MT-2 assays demonstrated a high degree of concordance (95% to 98%). Among consecutive plasma samples, detection of CXCR4-using virus was at or before the time of first detection by the MT-2 assay in 5/10 patients by the original Trofile assay and in 9/10 patients by the enhanced-sensitivity Trofile assay. Differences in the time to the first detection of CXCR4 use between the MT-2 assay (PBMCs

  14. Major Population Expansion of East Asians Began before Neolithic Time: Evidence of mtDNA Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yi; Tan, Jing-Ze; Li, Hui; Jin, Li

    2011-01-01

    It is a major question in archaeology and anthropology whether human populations started to grow primarily after the advent of agriculture, i.e., the Neolithic time, especially in East Asia, which was one of the centers of ancient agricultural civilization. To answer this question requires an accurate estimation of the time of lineage expansion as well as that of population expansion in a population sample without ascertainment bias. In this study, we analyzed all available mtDNA genomes of East Asians ascertained by random sampling, a total of 367 complete mtDNA sequences generated by the 1000 Genome Project, including 249 Chinese (CHB, CHD, and CHS) and 118 Japanese (JPT). We found that major mtDNA lineages underwent expansions, all of which, except for two JPT-specific lineages, including D4, D4b2b, D4a, D4j, D5a2a, A, N9a, F1a1'4, F2, B4, B4a, G2a1 and M7b1'2'4, occurred before 10 kya, i.e., before the Neolithic time (symbolized by Dadiwan Culture at 7.9 kya) in East Asia. Consistent to this observation, the further analysis showed that the population expansion in East Asia started at 13 kya and lasted until 4 kya. The results suggest that the population growth in East Asia constituted a need for the introduction of agriculture and might be one of the driving forces that led to the further development of agriculture. PMID:21998705

  15. Estimating Losses from Volcanic Ash in case of a Mt. Baekdu Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Yoon, Seong-Min; Kim, Sung-Wook; Choi, Eun-Kyeong

    2014-05-01

    We will present the preliminary result of economic losses in South Korea in case of a Mt. Baedu eruption. The Korean peninsula has Mt. Baekdu in North Korea, which will soon enter an active phase, according to volcanologists. The anticipated eruption will be explosive given the viscous and grassy silica-rich magma, and is expected to be one of the largest in recent millennia. We aim to assess the impacts of this eruption to South Korea and help government prepare for the volcanic disasters. In particular, the economic impact from volcanic ash is estimated given the distance from Mt. Baedu to South Korea. In order to scientifically estimate losses from volcanic ash, we need volcanic ash thickness, inventory database, and damage functions between ash thickness and damage ratios for each inventory item. We use the volcanic ash thickness calculated by other research groups in Korea, and they estimated the ash thickness for each eruption scenario using average wind fields. Damage functions are built using the historical damage data in the world, and inventory database is obtained from available digital maps in Korea. According to the preliminary results, the economic impact from volcanic ash is not significant because the ash is rarely deposited in South Korea under general weather conditions. However, the ash can impact human health and environment. Also worst case scenarios can have the significant economic impacts in Korea, and may result in global issues. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-BAEKDUSAN-2012-1-3] from the Volcanic Disaster Preparedness Research Center sponsored by National Emergency Management Agency of Korea.

  16. Phthalimide neovascular factor 1 (PNF1) modulates MT1-MMP activity in human microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieghaus, Kristen A; Gianchandani, Erwin P; Neal, Rebekah A; Paige, Mikell A; Brown, Milton L; Papin, Jason A; Botchwey, Edward A

    2009-07-01

    We are creating synthetic pharmaceuticals with angiogenic activity and potential to promote vascular invasion. We previously demonstrated that one of these molecules, phthalimide neovascular factor 1 (PNF1), significantly expands microvascular networks in vivo following sustained release from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) films. In addition, to probe PNF1 mode of action, we recently applied a novel pathway-based compendium analysis to a multi-timepoint, controlled microarray data set of PNF1-treated (vs. control) human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs), and we identified induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and, subsequently, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling networks by PNF1. Here we validate this microarray data set with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Subsequently, we probe this data set and identify three specific TGF-beta-induced genes with regulation by PNF1 conserved over multiple timepoints-amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (APP), early growth response 1 (EGR-1), and matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14 or MT1-MMP)-that are also implicated in angiogenesis. We further focus on MMP14 given its unique role in angiogenesis, and we validate MT1-MMP modulation by PNF1 with an in vitro fluorescence assay that demonstrates the direct effects that PNF1 exerts on functional metalloproteinase activity. We also utilize endothelial cord formation in collagen gels to show that PNF1-induced stimulation of endothelial cord network formation in vitro is in some way MT1-MMP-dependent. Ultimately, this new network analysis of our transcriptional footprint characterizing PNF1 activity 1-48 h post-supplementation in HMVECs coupled with corresponding validating experiments suggests a key set of a few specific targets that are involved in PNF1 mode of action and important for successful promotion of the neovascularization that we have observed by the drug in vivo.

  17. Defining mtDNA origins and population stratification in Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Filipa; Ferreira, Ana Paula; de Carvalho, Elizeu Fagundes; Parson, Walther; Gusmão, Leonor

    2018-05-01

    The genetic composition of the Brazilian population was shaped by interethnic admixture between autochthonous Native Americans, Europeans settlers and African slaves. This structure, characteristic of most American populations, implies the need for large population forensic databases to capture the high diversity that is usually associated with admixed populations. In the present work, we sequenced the control region of mitochondrial DNA from 205 non-related individuals living in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan region. Overall high haplotype diversity (0.9994 ± 0.0006) was observed, and pairwise comparisons showed a high proportion of haplotype pairs with more than one-point differences. When ignoring homopolymeric tracts, pairwise comparisons showed no differences 0.18% of the time, and differences in a single position were found with a frequency of 0.32%. A high percentage of African mtDNA was found (42%), with lineages showing a major South West origin. For the West Eurasian and Native American haplogroups (representing 32% and 26%, respectively) it was not possible to evaluate a clear geographic or linguistic affiliation. When grouping the mtDNA lineages according to their continental origin (Native American, European and African), differences were observed for the ancestry proportions estimated with autosomal ancestry-informative markers, suggesting some level of genetic substructure. The results from this study are in accordance with historical data where admixture processes are confirmed with a strong maternal contribution of African maternal ancestry and a relevant contribution of Native American maternal ancestry. Moreover, the evidence for some degree of association between mtDNA and autosomal information should be considered when combining these types of markers in forensic analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Land use and nutrient inputs affect priming in Andosols of Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mganga, Kevin; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Organic C and nutrients additions in soil can accelerate mineralisation of soil organic matter i.e. priming effects. However, only very few studies have been conducted to investigate the priming effects phenomenon in tropical Andosols. Nutrients (N, P, N+P) and 14C labelled glucose were added to Andosols from six natural and intensively used ecosystems at Mt. Kilimanjaro i.e. (1) savannah, (2) maize fields, (3) lower montane forest, (4) coffee plantation, (5) grasslands and (6) Chagga homegardens. Carbon-dioxide emissions were monitored over a 60 days incubation period. Mineralisation of glucose to 14CO2 was highest in coffee plantation and lowest in Chagga homegarden soils. Maximal and minimal mineralisation rates immediately after glucose additions were observed in lower montane forest with N+P fertilisation (9.1% ± 0.83 d -1) and in savannah with N fertilisation (0.9% ± 0.17 d -1), respectively. Glucose and nutrient additions accelerated native soil organic matter mineralisation i.e. positive priming. Chagga homegarden soils had the lowest 14CO2 emissions and incorporated the highest percent of glucose into microbial biomass. 50-60% of the 14C input was retained in soil. We attribute this mainly to the high surface area of non-crystalline constituents i.e. allophanes, present in Andosols and having very high sorption capacity for organic C. The allophanic nature of Andosols of Mt. Kilimanjaro especially under traditional Chagga homegarden agroforestry system shows great potential for providing essential environmental services, notably C sequestration. Key words: Priming Effects, Andosols, Land Use Changes, Mt. Kilimanjaro, Allophanes, Tropical Agroforestry

  19. mtDNA variation in caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamshad, M; Fraley, A E; Crawford, M H; Cann, R L; Busi, B R; Naidu, J M; Jorde, L B

    1996-02-01

    Various anthropological analyses have documented extensive regional variation among populations on the subcontinent of India using morphological, protein, blood group, and nuclear DNA polymorphisms. These patterns are the product of complex population structure (genetic drift, gene flow) and a population history noted for numerous branching events. As a result, the interpretation of relationships among caste populations of South India and between Indians and continental populations remains controversial. The Hindu caste system is a general model of genetic differentiation among endogamous populations stratified by social forces (e.g., religion and occupation). The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has unique properties that facilitate the exploration of population structure. We analyzed 36 Hindu men born in Andhra Pradesh who were unrelated matrilineally through at least 3 generations and who represent 4 caste populations: Brahmin (9), Yadava (10), Kapu (7), and Relli (10). Individuals from Africa (36), Asia (36), and Europe (36) were sampled for comparison. A 200-base-pair segment of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS2) of the mtDNA control region was sequenced in all individuals. In the Indian castes 25 distinct haplotypes are identified. Aside from the Cambridge reference sequence, only two haplotypes are shared between caste populations. Middle castes form a highly supported cluster in a neighbor-joining network. Mean nucleotide diversity within each caste is 0.015, 0.012, 0.011, and 0.012 for the Brahmin, Yadava, Kapu, and Relli, respectively. mtDNA variation is highly structured between castes (GST = 0.17; p caste populations of Andhra Pradesh cluster more often with Africans than with Asians or Europeans. This is suggestive of admixture with African populations.

  20. Microbial communities in dark oligotrophic volcanic ice cave ecosystems of Mt. Erebus, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley M. Tebo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s crust hosts a subsurface, dark, and oligotrophic biosphere that is poorly understood in terms of the energy supporting its biomass production and impact on food webs at the Earth’s surface. Dark oligotrophic volcanic ecosystems (DOVEs are good environments for investigations of life in the absence of sunlight as they are poor in organics, rich in chemical reactants and well known for chemical exchange with Earth’s surface systems. Ice caves near the summit of Mt. Erebus (Antarctica offer DOVEs in a polar alpine environment that is starved in organics and with oxygenated hydrothermal circulation in highly reducing host rock. We surveyed the microbial communities using PCR, cloning, sequencing and analysis of the small subunit (16S ribosomal and Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (RubisCO genes in sediment samples from three different caves, two that are completely dark and one that receives snow-filtered sunlight seasonally. The microbial communities in all three caves are composed primarily of Bacteria and fungi; Archaea were not detected. The bacterial communities from these ice caves display low phylogenetic diversity, but with a remarkable diversity of RubisCO genes including new deeply branching Form I clades, implicating the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle as a pathway of CO2 fixation. The microbial communities in one of the dark caves, Warren Cave, which has a remarkably low phylogenetic diversity, were analyzed in more detail to gain a possible perspective on the energetic basis of the microbial ecosystem in the cave. Atmospheric carbon (CO2 and CO, including from volcanic emissions, likely supplies carbon and/or some of the energy requirements of chemoautotrophic microbial communities in Warren Cave and probably other Mt. Erebus ice caves. Our work casts a first glimpse at Mt. Erebus ice caves as natural laboratories for exploring carbon, energy and nutrient sources in the subsurface biosphere and the

  1. Heterogeneous periodicity of drosophila mtDNA: new refutations of neutral and nearly neutral evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Y Valenzuela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We found a consistent 3-site periodicity of the X²9 values for the heterogeneity of the distribution of the second base in relation to the first base of dinucleotides separated by 0 (contiguous, 1, 2, 3 ... 17 (K nucleotide sites in Drosophila mtDNA. Triplets of X²9 values were found where the first was over 300 and the second and third ranged between 37 and 114 (previous studies. In this study, the periodicity was significant until separation of 2011K, and a structure of deviations from randomness among dinucleotides was found. The most deviant dinucleotides were G-G, G-C and C-G for the first, second and third element of the triplet, respectively. In these three cases there were more dinucleotides observed than expected. This inter-bases correlation and periodicity may be related to the tertiary structure of circular DNA, like that of prokaryotes and mitochondria, to protect and preserve it. The mtDNA with 19.517 bp was divided into four equal segments of 4.879 bp. The fourth sub-segment presented a very low proportion of G and C, the internucleotide interaction was weaker in this sub-segment and no periodicity was found. The maintenance of this mtDNA structure and organization for millions of generations, in spite of a high recurrent mutation rate, does not support the notion of neutralism or near neutralism. The high level of internucleotide interaction and periodicity indicate that every nucleotide is co-adapted with the residual genome.

  2. Holistic Analysis For The Interpretation of The Structure of Mt. Somma - Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, G.; Tizzani, P.; Solaro, G.

    The aim of this research is to define a unitary structural model of Mount Somma U Vesuvius, by holistic interpretation of geophysical and geological data. Surface structures pattern shows two different geometrical distribution, radial and horse-shoe shaped. Generally the radial distribution of fractures are due to stress field produced by an active magmatic pressure source; some of them resemble to the regional tec- tonics ones. These fractures are interpreted by an active circular hole model. Instead the collapse structures observed on the Southern side of volcano have been associated to the loading of volcanic edifice. The regional heat flow (100-110 mW/m2) and the hypocentral distribution of the seismicity data let us to obtain the local crust rheolog- ical stratification. In our case the brittle U ductile transition below the volcano is at depth of about 5 km. The loading of the volcanic edifice produces a deviatoric stress of 30 MPa in unconfined weight condition. This stress field can generate the present seismicity at Mt. Vesuvius. Moreover an overpressure acts along the Southern side of the volcano due to the dipping of the carbonate basement toward Tyrrhenian sea, according to the gravimetric Bouguer anomalies. From above considerations we have performed that the Mt. Somma U Vesuvius deformation is due to the spreading of the volcanic edifice togheter carbonate basement. This deformation is characterized by a displacement component in SW of Southern sector of the volcano.direction due to the basement dipping. Finally is reasonable to suppose that the unrest of Mt.Vesuvius may be the result of the basement tectonics and loading of volcanic edifice. In this interpretation the ascent of magma could be the consequence of this process. Ground deformation and seismicity monitoring could provide informations on the instability of Southern sector of the volcano.

  3. The use of paleo-imaging and microbiological testing in the analysis of antique cultural material: multislice tomography, and microbial analysis of the Trogir Cathedral cope hood depicting St. Martin and a beggar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavka, Mislav; Petaros, Anja; Kavur, Lovro; Skrlin, Jasenka; Mlinaric Missoni, Emilija; Jankovic, Ivor; Brkljacic, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Paleoradiology is the study of biological and other materials from archeological settings through the use of various medical imaging techniques. Although it is most often used in the scientific study of ancient human remains, it can also be used to study metals, ceramics, paper, and clothes. The aim of this study was to test two paleoimaging techniques (MSCT and mammography) in the analysis of an important Croatian liturgical vestment: the hood of a bishop's cope from St. Lawrence's Treasury in Trogir depicting St. Martin and a beggar. To ensure a safe environment for scientists participating in the analysis, a preliminary microbiological analysis was performed, which contributed to the database of microbiological flora found on Croatian archeological remains and relics studied to date. Due to a great amount of metal filaments, the paleoradiological analysis did not produce satisfactory results. However, a digitally enhanced image clearly showed fine metal embroidery of the hood that was not so easily perceived by naked eye. This article argues in favor of expanding paleoradiological studies on materials other than human remains and also of publishing unsatisfactory results, as important lessons for future development of techniques and methods to analyze ancient remains and seek answers about human historical and cultural heritage.

  4. Three reciprocally monophyletic mtDNA lineages elucidate the taxonomic status of Grant's gazelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline Deidre; Arctander, Peter; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2008-01-01

    are discussed in reference to the four currently recognised subspecies. We suggest Grant's gazelles be raised to the superspecies Nanger (granti) comprising three taxonomic units corresponding to the three mtDNA lineages. There was no evidence of gene flow between the notata and granti lineages, despite...... their geographic proximity, suggesting reproductive isolation. These constitute evolutionary significant units within the adaptive evolutionary framework. Due to its restricted geographic distribution and genetic and morphological distinctiveness, we suggest the petersii lineage be raised to the species Nanger...

  5. Oiling and cleanup issues in wetlands, M/T Julie N spill, Portland, Maine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, J.; Lehmann, S.M.; Henry, C.B.Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The clean up and environmental assessment techniques which were used following the September 1996 oil spill from the M/T Julie N in Portland Harbor, Maine were reviewed and documented. The spill resulted in heavy oiling of wetland. Aerial photography, ground-truth surveys, transects and chemical sampling were conducted to try to assess the impact to wetlands and to decide on appropriate cleanup options. A range of cleanup methods were attempted including low-pressure flushing, shoreline cleaning agents, vegetation cutting, and natural recovery. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  6. The rediscovery of Astragalus autranii (Fabaceae) on Mt Tomor, south central Albania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Gjeta, Ermelinda

    2015-01-01

    Astragalus autranii (Fabaceae) placed by Sytin & Podlech in a section of its own (A. sect. Baldaccia) was described from a single specimen in the Barbey-Boissier Herbarium at Geneva. Our observations show that its placement in A. sect. Hololeuce would also be appropriate. The species was first co...... by Markgraf. Information on habitat, ecology and threat status are also detailed for the first time. Mt Tomor is designated as a protected National Park; however, some of the Astragalus populations may be affected by future road construction....

  7. Two-Stage Maximum Likelihood Estimation (TSMLE for MT-CDMA Signals in the Indoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesay Abu B

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a two-stage maximum likelihood estimation (TSMLE technique suited for multitone code division multiple access (MT-CDMA system. Here, an analytical framework is presented in the indoor environment for determining the average bit error rate (BER of the system, over Rayleigh and Ricean fading channels. The analytical model is derived for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK modulation technique by taking into account the number of tones, signal bandwidth (BW, bit rate, and transmission power. Numerical results are presented to validate the analysis, and to justify the approximations made therein. Moreover, these results are shown to agree completely with those obtained by simulation.

  8. Observations of reduced ozone concentrations in the tropical stratosphere after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, W. B.; Fishman, J.; Browell, E. V.; Brackett, V. G.; Nganga, D.; Minga, A.; Cros, B.; Veiga, R. E.; Butler, C. F.; Fenn, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    Two independent sets of data, one of aerosols from an airborne lidar system, and one of ozone from ozonesonde measurements indicate that significant ozone decreases may have happened as a result of the injection of debris by the Mt. Pinatubo volcano in June 1991. The amount of this reduction maximizes at 24-25 km, near the peak of the aerosol distribution, though a deficit is seen throughout the lower stratosphere between 19 and 28 km. The greatest differences observed prior and subsequent to the eruptions at these altitudes is 18-20 percent.

  9. The Landscape of mtDNA Modifications in Cancer: A Tale of Two Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertweck, Kate L; Dasgupta, Santanu

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria from normal and cancerous cells represent a tale of two cities, wherein both execute similar processes but with different cellular and molecular effects. Given the number of reviews currently available which describe the functional implications of mitochondrial mutations in cancer, this article focuses on documenting current knowledge in the abundance and distribution of somatic mitochondrial mutations, followed by elucidation of processes which affect the fate of mutations in cancer cells. The conclusion includes an overview of translational implications for mtDNA mutations, as well as recommendations for future research uniting mitochondrial variants and tumorigenesis.

  10. Depletion of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury by plant uptake at Mt. Changbai, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There exists observational evidence that gaseous elemental mercury (GEM can be readily removed from the atmosphere via chemical oxidation followed by deposition in the polar and sub-polar regions, free troposphere, lower stratosphere, and marine boundary layer under specific environmental conditions. Here we report GEM depletions in a temperate mixed forest at Mt. Changbai, Northeast China. The strong depletions occurred predominantly at night during the leaf-growing season and in the absence of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM enrichment (GOM  <  3 pg m−3. Vertical gradients of decreasing GEM concentrations from layers above to under forest canopy suggest in situ loss of GEM to forest canopy at Mt. Changbai. Foliar GEM flux measurements showed that the foliage of two predominant tree species is a net sink of GEM at night, with a mean flux of −1.8 ± 0.3 ng m2 h−1 over Fraxinus mandshurica (deciduous tree species and −0.1 ± 0.2 ng m2 h−1 over Pinus Koraiensis (evergreen tree species. Daily integrated GEM δ202Hg, Δ199Hg, and Δ200Hg at Mt. Changbai during 8–18 July 2013 ranged from −0.34 to 0.91 ‰, from −0.11 to −0.04 ‰ and from −0.06 to 0.01 ‰, respectively. A large positive shift in GEM δ202Hg occurred during the strong GEM depletion events, whereas Δ199Hg and Δ200Hg remained essentially unchanged. The observational findings and box model results show that uptake of GEM by forest canopy plays a predominant role in the GEM depletion at Mt. Changbai forest. Such depletion events of GEM are likely to be a widespread phenomenon, suggesting that the forest ecosystem represents one of the largest sinks ( ∼ 1930 Mg of atmospheric Hg on a global scale.

  11. [Characteristics of precipitation pH and conductivity at Mt. Huang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chun-e; Deng, Xue-liang; Wu, Bi-wen; Hong, Jie; Zhang, Su; Yang, Yuan-jian

    2013-05-01

    To understand the general characteristics of pH distribution and pollution in precipitation at Mt. Huang, statistical analyses were conducted for the routine measurements of pH and conductivity (K) at Mt. Huang during 2006-2011. The results showed that: (1) Over the period of study, the annual volume weighted mean (VWM) precipitation pH varied from 4.81 to 5.57, with precipitation acidity strengthening before 2009 and weakening thereafter. The precipitation acidity showed evident seasonal variations, with the VWM pH lowest in winter (4.78), and highest in summer (5.33). The occurrence frequency of acid rain was 46% , accounting for 45% of total rainfalls and with the most frequent pH falling into weak acid to neutral rain. (2) The annual VWM K varied from 16.91 to 27.84 microS x cm(-1), with no evident trend. As for ions pollution, the precipitation was relatively clean at Mt. Huang, with the most frequent K range being below 15 microS x cm(-1), followed by 15-25 microS x cm(-1). From February 2010 to December 2011, precipitation samples were collected on daily basis for ions analysis, as well as pH and K measurement in lab. Detailed comparisons were conducted between the two sets of pH and K, one set from field measurement and the other from lab measurement. The results indicated: (1) The lab measured pH (K) was highly correlated with the field pH (K); however, the lab pH tended to move towards neutral comparing with the corresponding field pH, and the shift range was closely correlated with the field pH and rainfall. The shift range of K from field to lab was highly correlated with the total ion concentration of precipitation. The field K showed evident negative correlation with the field pH with a correlation coefficient of -0.51. (2) When sampling with nylon-polyethylene bags, the statistics showed smaller bias between two sets of pH, with higher correlation coefficient between two sets of K. Furthermore, the lab K also showed evident negative correlation with

  12. Molecular determinants of the agonist binding site of human MT2 melatonin receptor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berka, Karel; Mazna, Petr; Jelínková, Irena; Balík, Aleš; Svoboda, Petr; Obšilová, Veronika; Obšil, Tomáš; Teisinger, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2005), s. 26-26 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology /4./. 10.03.2005-12.03.2005, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/02/1479; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/04/0496; GA ČR GA204/03/0714; GA AV ČR KJB5011308; GA MŠk LZ1K03020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : MT2 * melatonin * modeling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  13. New avian records along the elevational gradient of Mt. Wilhelm, Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sam, Kateřina; Koane, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 2 (2014), s. 116-133 ISSN 0007-1595 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA ČR GA13-10486S; GA MŠk ME09082; GA ČR(CZ) GP14-32024P Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 156/2013/P; US National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0841885; European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Mt. Wilhelm Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  14. Forensic and phylogeographic characterisation of mtDNA lineages from Somalia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Martin; Fendt, Liane; Röck, Alexander W.

    2012-01-01

    Somali individuals to enrich the severely underrepresented African mtDNA pool. The majority (60.5 %) of the haplotypes were of sub-Saharan origin with L0a1d, L2a1h and L3f being the most frequently observed haplogroups. This is in sharp contrast to previous data reported from the Y-chromosome, where only...... about 5 % of the observed haplogroups were of sub-Saharan provenance. We compared the genetic distances based on population pairwise F (st) values between 11 published East, Central and North African as well as western Asian populations and the Somali sequences and displayed them in a multi...

  15. Targeting of Breast Cancer through MT1-MMP/Tetraspanin Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    182, 765-776. Gordon- Alonso , M., Yanez-Mo, M., Barreiro, O., Alvarez, S., Munoz- Fernandez , M. A., Valenzuela- Fernandez , A. and Sanchez-Madrid, F...Diaz, R., Megias, D., Genis, L., Garcia -Grande, A., Garcia , M. A., Arroyo, A. G., and Montoya, M. C. (2007). MT1-MMP proinvasive activity is regulated by...metalloproteinases as drug targets and anti-targets for cancer therapy. Nat. Rev. Cancer 6, 227–239. Penas, P. F., Garcia -Diez, A., Sanchez-Madrid, F

  16. The Microtron MT-25 facility in Cuba. A contribution to the regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Guibert, R.; Zuniga, J.F.; Guzman, F.; Montero, M.E.; Rizo, O.D.; Ciminos, L.

    2000-01-01

    One of the main difficulties to develop nuclear application research is the lack of nuclear facilities. Different approaches and initiatives have been raised looking for more comprehensive exchanges. However, it is still necessary to strengthen regional cooperation in nuclear applications, in particular in the common use of accelerators and other nuclear facilities, based on a cooperative scheme in which each country contributes with its own facilities. The Microtron MT-25 Project in Cuba is proposed to deal with this kind of scheme. The construction of an electron accelerator up to 25 MeV, called Microtron MT-25, was finished in 1990 for Cuba, as a result of the collaboration of Cuban and Russian physicists in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. The Microtron MT-25 is an electron cycle-accelerator which allows electrons, gamma rays and neutrons to be obtained. The principal characteristics of the accelerator and radiation are described in the paper. The Microtron-Havana facility is conceived for fundamental and applied research. The fundamental research topics of interest are photonuclear reaction studies, Nuclear Astrophysics reactions and photofission reactions. The applied research program involved in the Microtron Project consists of Gamma and Neutron Activation Analysis applied in Environment, Agriculture, Geology, Minerals, as well as materials science. Production of radioactive sources and radioisotopes. Medical and biological applications.To develop the research program, interested institutions need to form a User's Club. It will be formed, among others, by Brazil (Institute of Physics, Univ. Sao Paulo, Linear Accelerator Lab.), Argentina (Tandem Accelerator, called Tandar), Mexico (Institute of Physic, UNAM, Experimental Physics Department), Cuba (ISCTN, CEADEN, Isotopes Center, and IMRE from Havana University.) The participation of the members in the program exploitation will be based on projects in which the financial matters and

  17. Near-real time 3D probabilistic earthquakes locations at Mt. Etna volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberi, G.; D'Agostino, M.; Mostaccio, A.; Patane', D.; Tuve', T.

    2012-04-01

    Automatic procedure for locating earthquake in quasi-real time must provide a good estimation of earthquakes location within a few seconds after the event is first detected and is strongly needed for seismic warning system. The reliability of an automatic location algorithm is influenced by several factors such as errors in picking seismic phases, network geometry, and velocity model uncertainties. On Mt. Etna, the seismic network is managed by INGV and the quasi-real time earthquakes locations are performed by using an automatic-picking algorithm based on short-term-average to long-term-average ratios (STA/LTA) calculated from an approximate squared envelope function of the seismogram, which furnish a list of P-wave arrival times, and the location algorithm Hypoellipse, with a 1D velocity model. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the performances of a different automatic procedure to improve the quasi-real time earthquakes locations. In fact, as the automatic data processing may be affected by outliers (wrong picks), the use of a traditional earthquake location techniques based on a least-square misfit function (L2-norm) often yield unstable and unreliable solutions. Moreover, on Mt. Etna, the 1D model is often unable to represent the complex structure of the volcano (in particular the strong lateral heterogeneities), whereas the increasing accuracy in the 3D velocity models at Mt. Etna during recent years allows their use today in routine earthquake locations. Therefore, we selected, as reference locations, all the events occurred on Mt. Etna in the last year (2011) which was automatically detected and located by means of the Hypoellipse code. By using this dataset (more than 300 events), we applied a nonlinear probabilistic earthquake location algorithm using the Equal Differential Time (EDT) likelihood function, (Font et al., 2004; Lomax, 2005) which is much more robust in the presence of outliers in the data. Successively, by using a probabilistic

  18. Soil radon concentration and volcanic activity of Mt. Etna before and after the 2002 eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imme, G.; La Delfa, S.; Lo Nigro, S.; Morelli, D.; Patane, G.

    2006-01-01

    Soil radon investigation, using a continuous measurement device, has been performed on Mt. Etna in order to observe possible anomalies due to seismic and/or volcanic activity. In October 2002 an eruptive event occurred. Measurements, performed on the NE flank, have shown a possible correlation between eruptive activity of the volcano and soil radon concentration anomaly. The study of the seismic activity recorded in the same flank has, also, allowed to characterize the volcano dynamics and to correlate it with the variations of radon. The obtained results seem to indicate a possible dependence on volcanic activity of the radon concentration

  19. Soil radon monitoring in the NE flank of Mt. Etna (Sicily)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imme, G.; La Delfa, S.; Lo Nigro, S.; Morelli, D.; Patane, G.

    2006-01-01

    Soil radon has been monitored at a fixed location on the northeastern flank of Mt. Etna, a high-risk volcano in Sicily. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the recent volcanic activity on soil radon concentration. Continuous radon measurements have been performed since July 2001. While comparison between the trend in in-soil radon concentration and the acquired meteorological series (temperature, humidity and pressure) appear to confirm a general seasonal correlation, nevertheless particular anomalies suggest a possible dependence of the radon concentration on volcanic dynamics

  20. Evidence of soil radon as tracer of magma uprising in Mt. Etna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morelli, D.; Martino, S. Di; Imme, G.; La Delfa, S.; Lo Nigro, S.; Patane, G.

    2006-01-01

    Soil radon has been monitored at one fixed site located in the northeastern flank of Mt. Etna, high-risk volcano in Sicily. The aim of this study was the evaluation of a possible link between magma uprising and soil radon concentration. Continuous radon measurements were performed since July 2001. Comparison between the in-soil radon trend and the acquired meteorological series (Temperature, Humidity and Pressure) seems to confirm a general seasonal correlation; nevertheless some anomalies suggest a possible dependence of the radon concentration on volcanic dynamics, as confirmed by the volcanic tremor and strain-release analysis