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Sample records for mrna degradation machinery

  1. Interactions between the HIV-1 Unspliced mRNA and Host mRNA Decay Machineries

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    Daniela Toro-Ascuy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 unspliced transcript is used both as mRNA for the synthesis of structural proteins and as the packaged genome. Given the presence of retained introns and instability AU-rich sequences, this viral transcript is normally retained and degraded in the nucleus of host cells unless the viral protein REV is present. As such, the stability of the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA must be particularly controlled in the nucleus and the cytoplasm in order to ensure proper levels of this viral mRNA for translation and viral particle formation. During its journey, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA assembles into highly specific messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs containing many different host proteins, amongst which are well-known regulators of cytoplasmic mRNA decay pathways such as up-frameshift suppressor 1 homolog (UPF1, Staufen double-stranded RNA binding protein 1/2 (STAU1/2, or components of miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC and processing bodies (PBs. More recently, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA was shown to contain N6-methyladenosine (m6A, allowing the recruitment of YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2 (YTHDF2, an m6A reader host protein involved in mRNA decay. Interestingly, these host proteins involved in mRNA decay were shown to play positive roles in viral gene expression and viral particle assembly, suggesting that HIV-1 interacts with mRNA decay components to successfully accomplish viral replication. This review summarizes the state of the art in terms of the interactions between HIV-1 unspliced mRNA and components of different host mRNA decay machineries.

  2. A novel link between Sus1 and the cytoplasmic mRNA decay machinery suggests a broad role in mRNA metabolism

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    Llopis Ana

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression is achieved by the coordinated action of multiple factors to ensure a perfect synchrony from chromatin epigenetic regulation through to mRNA export. Sus1 is a conserved mRNA export/transcription factor and is a key player in coupling transcription initiation, elongation and mRNA export. In the nucleus, Sus1 is associated to the transcriptional co-activator SAGA and to the NPC associated complex termed TREX2/THSC. Through these associations, Sus1 mediates the nuclear dynamics of different gene loci and facilitate the export of the new transcripts. Results In this study, we have investigated whether the yeast Sus1 protein is linked to factors involved in mRNA degradation pathways. We provide evidence for genetic interactions between SUS1 and genes coding for components of P-bodies such as PAT1, LSM1, LSM6 and DHH1. We demonstrate that SUS1 deletion is synthetic lethal with 5'→3' decay machinery components LSM1 and PAT1 and has a strong genetic interaction with LSM6 and DHH1. Interestingly, Sus1 overexpression led to an accumulation of Sus1 in cytoplasmic granules, which can co-localise with components of P-bodies and stress granules. In addition, we have identified novel physical interactions between Sus1 and factors associated to P-bodies/stress granules. Finally, absence of LSM1 and PAT1 slightly promotes the Sus1-TREX2 association. Conclusions In this study, we found genetic and biochemical association between Sus1 and components responsible for cytoplasmic mRNA metabolism. Moreover, Sus1 accumulates in discrete cytoplasmic granules, which partially co-localise with P-bodies and stress granules under specific conditions. These interactions suggest a role for Sus1 in gene expression during cytoplasmic mRNA metabolism in addition to its nuclear function.

  3. Arabidopsis mRNA polyadenylation machinery: comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interactions and gene expression profiling

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    Mo Min

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polyadenylation of mRNA is one of the critical processing steps during expression of almost all eukaryotic genes. It is tightly integrated with transcription, particularly its termination, as well as other RNA processing events, i.e. capping and splicing. The poly(A tail protects the mRNA from unregulated degradation, and it is required for nuclear export and translation initiation. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that the polyadenylation process is also involved in the regulation of gene expression. The polyadenylation process requires two components, the cis-elements on the mRNA and a group of protein factors that recognize the cis-elements and produce the poly(A tail. Here we report a comprehensive pairwise protein-protein interaction mapping and gene expression profiling of the mRNA polyadenylation protein machinery in Arabidopsis. Results By protein sequence homology search using human and yeast polyadenylation factors, we identified 28 proteins that may be components of Arabidopsis polyadenylation machinery. To elucidate the protein network and their functions, we first tested their protein-protein interaction profiles. Out of 320 pair-wise protein-protein interaction assays done using the yeast two-hybrid system, 56 (~17% showed positive interactions. 15 of these interactions were further tested, and all were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and/or in vitro co-purification. These interactions organize into three distinct hubs involving the Arabidopsis polyadenylation factors. These hubs are centered around AtCPSF100, AtCLPS, and AtFIPS. The first two are similar to complexes seen in mammals, while the third one stands out as unique to plants. When comparing the gene expression profiles extracted from publicly available microarray datasets, some of the polyadenylation related genes showed tissue-specific expression, suggestive of potential different polyadenylation complex configurations. Conclusion An

  4. New insights into the interplay between the translation machinery and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay factors.

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    Raimondeau, Etienne; Bufton, Joshua C; Schaffitzel, Christiane

    2018-06-19

    Faulty mRNAs with a premature stop codon (PTC) are recognized and degraded by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Recognition of a nonsense mRNA depends on translation and on the presence of NMD-enhancing or the absence of NMD-inhibiting factors in the 3'-untranslated region. Our review summarizes our current understanding of the molecular function of the conserved NMD factors UPF3B and UPF1, and of the anti-NMD factor Poly(A)-binding protein, and their interactions with ribosomes translating PTC-containing mRNAs. Our recent discovery that UPF3B interferes with human translation termination and enhances ribosome dissociation in vitro , whereas UPF1 is inactive in these assays, suggests a re-interpretation of previous experiments and modification of prevalent NMD models. Moreover, we discuss recent work suggesting new functions of the key NMD factor UPF1 in ribosome recycling, inhibition of translation re-initiation and nascent chain ubiquitylation. These new findings suggest that the interplay of UPF proteins with the translation machinery is more intricate than previously appreciated, and that this interplay quality-controls the efficiency of termination, ribosome recycling and translation re-initiation. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. CYP3A5 mRNA degradation by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.

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    Busi, Florent; Cresteil, Thierry

    2005-09-01

    The total CYP3A5 mRNA level is significantly greater in carriers of the CYP3A5*1 allele than in CYP3A5*3 homozygotes. Most of the CYP3A5*3 mRNA includes an intronic sequence (exon 3B) containing premature termination codons (PTCs) between exons 3 and 4. Two models were used to investigate the degradation of CYP3A5 mRNA: a CYP3A5 minigene consisting of CYP3A5 exons and introns 3 to 6 transfected into MCF7 cells, and the endogenous CYP3A5 gene expressed in HepG2 cells. The 3'-untranslated region g.31611C>T mutation has no effect on CYP3A5 mRNA decay. Splice variants containing exon 3B were more unstable than wild-type (wt) CYP3A5 mRNA. Cycloheximide prevents the recognition of PTCs by ribosomes: in transfected MCF7 and HepG2 cells, cycloheximide slowed down the degradation of exon 3B-containing splice variants, suggesting the participation of nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). When PTCs were removed from pseudoexon 3B or when UPF1 small interfering RNA was used to impair the NMD mechanism, the decay of the splice variant was reduced, confirming the involvement of NMD in the degradation of CYP3A5 splice variants. Induction could represent a source of variability for CYP3A5 expression and could modify the proportion of splice variants. The extent of CYP3A5 induction was investigated after exposure to barbiturates or steroids: CYP3A4 was markedly induced in a pediatric population compared with untreated neonates. However, no effect could be detected in either the total CYP3A5 RNA, the proportion of splice variant RNA, or the protein level. Therefore, in these carriers, induction is unlikely to switch on the phenotypic CYP3A5 expression in carriers of CYP3A5*3/*3.

  6. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy for degradation monitoring of machinery lubricants

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    Sosnovski, Oleg; Suresh, Pooja; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Green, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    Lubrication oil is a vital component of heavy rotating machinery defining the machine's health, operational safety and effectiveness. Recently, the focus has been on developing sensors that provide real-time/online monitoring of oil condition/lubricity. Industrial practices and standards for assessing oil condition involve various analytical methods. Most these techniques are unsuitable for online applications. The paper presents the results of studying degradation of antioxidant additives in machinery lubricants using Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM) Spectroscopy and Machine Learning techniques. EEM Spectroscopy is capable of rapid and even standoff sensing; it is potentially applicable to real-time online monitoring.

  7. Architecture of eukaryotic mRNA 3′-end processing machinery

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    Hill, Chris H.; Easter, Ashley D.; Emsley, Paul; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Gordiyenko, Yuliya; Santhanam, Balaji; Wolf, Jana; Wiederhold, Katrin; Dornan, Gillian L.; Skehel, Mark; Robinson, Carol V.; Passmore, Lori A.

    2018-01-01

    Newly transcribed eukaryotic precursor messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs) are processed at their 3′ ends by the ~1-megadalton multiprotein cleavage and polyadenylation factor (CPF). CPF cleaves pre-mRNAs, adds a polyadenylate tail, and triggers transcription termination, but it is unclear how its various enzymes are coordinated and assembled. Here, we show that the nuclease, polymerase, and phosphatase activities of yeast CPF are organized into three modules. Using electron cryomicroscopy, we determined a 3.5-angstrom-resolution structure of the ~200-kilodalton polymerase module. This revealed four β propellers, in an assembly markedly similar to those of other protein complexes that bind nucleic acid. Combined with in vitro reconstitution experiments, our data show that the polymerase module brings together factors required for specific and efficient polyadenylation, to help coordinate mRNA 3′-end processing. PMID:29074584

  8. Identification and analysis of the RNA degrading complexes and machinery of Giardia lamblia using an in silico approach.

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    Williams, Christopher W; Elmendorf, Heidi G

    2011-11-29

    RNA degradation is critical to the survival of all cells. With increasing evidence for pervasive transcription in cells, RNA degradation has gained recognition as a means of regulating gene expression. Yet, RNA degradation machinery has been studied extensively in only a few eukaryotic organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans. Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protist with unusual genomic traits: it is binucleated and tetraploid, has a very compact genome, displays a theme of genomic minimalism with cellular machinery commonly comprised of a reduced number of protein components, and has a remarkably large population of long, stable, noncoding, antisense RNAs. Here we use in silico approaches to investigate the major RNA degradation machinery in Giardia lamblia and compare it to a broad array of other parasitic protists. We have found key constituents of the deadenylation and decapping machinery and of the 5'-3' RNA degradation pathway. We have similarly found that all of the major 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways are present in Giardia, including both exosome-dependent and exosome-independent machinery. However, we observe significant loss of RNA degradation machinery genes that will result in important differences in the protein composition, and potentially functionality, of the various RNA degradation pathways. This is most apparent in the exosome, the central mediator of 3'-5' degradation, which apparently contains an altered core configuration in both Giardia and Plasmodium, with only four, instead of the canonical six, distinct subunits. Additionally the exosome in Giardia is missing both the Rrp6, Nab3, and Nrd1 proteins, known to be key regulators of noncoding transcript stability in other cells. These findings suggest that although the full complement of the major RNA degradation mechanisms were present - and likely functional - early in eukaryotic evolution, the composition and function of the complexes is more variable than previously

  9. Interactions between mRNA export commitment, 3'-end quality control, and nuclear degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libri, Domenico; Dower, Ken; Boulay, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    Several aspects of eukaryotic mRNA processing are linked to transcription. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, overexpression of the mRNA export factor Sub2p suppresses the growth defect of hpr1 null cells, yet the protein Hpr1p and the associated THO protein complex are implicated in transcriptional el...... results show that several classes of defective RNPs are subject to a quality control step that impedes release from transcription site foci and suggest that suboptimal messenger ribonucleoprotein assembly leads to RNA degradation by Rrp6p....

  10. A biochemical framework for eIF4E-dependent mRNA export and nuclear recycling of the export machinery.

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    Volpon, Laurent; Culjkovic-Kraljacic, Biljana; Sohn, Hye Seon; Blanchet-Cohen, Alexis; Osborne, Michael J; Borden, Katherine L B

    2017-06-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E acts in the nuclear export and translation of a subset of mRNAs. Both of these functions contribute to its oncogenic potential. While the biochemical mechanisms that underlie translation are relatively well understood, the molecular basis for eIF4E's role in mRNA export remains largely unexplored. To date, over 3000 transcripts, many encoding oncoproteins, were identified as potential nuclear eIF4E export targets. These target RNAs typically contain a ∼50-nucleotide eIF4E sensitivity element (4ESE) in the 3' UTR and a 7-methylguanosine cap on the 5' end. While eIF4E associates with the cap, an unknown factor recognizes the 4ESE element. We previously identified cofactors that functionally interacted with eIF4E in mammalian cell nuclei including the leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat protein LRPPRC and the export receptor CRM1/XPO1. LRPPRC simultaneously interacts with both eIF4E bound to the 5' mRNA cap and the 4ESE element in the 3' UTR. In this way, LRPPRC serves as a specificity factor to recruit 4ESE-containing RNAs within the nucleus. Further, we show that CRM1 directly binds LRPPRC likely acting as the export receptor for the LRPPRC-eIF4E-4ESE RNA complex. We also found that Importin 8, the nuclear importer for cap-free eIF4E, imports RNA-free LRPPRC, potentially providing both coordinated nuclear recycling of the export machinery and an important surveillance mechanism to prevent futile export cycles. Our studies provide the first biochemical framework for the eIF4E-dependent mRNA export pathway. © 2017 Volpon et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  11. In-operation inspection technology development 'development of degradation prediction technology for rotating machinery'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Uhara, Y.; Hattori, H.; O'shima, E.; Matsumoto, K.

    2001-01-01

    In order to rationalize facility maintenance management and improve reliabilities of rotating machines, it is desirable to develop the technology for estimating bearing wear and predicting bearing wear growth. Therefore, we developed a bearing wear analysis method for evaluating bearing wear growth in the mixed lubrication, and developed a degradation prediction system which estimates the bearing wear and predicts bearing wear growth from external parameters, such as shaft vibration. In bearing wear analysis, the influence of bearing surface roughness and elastic deformation are considered. This analysis model was validated by the bearing wear test. The developed system can predict degradation respecting bearing wear, casing deformation, shaft curvature and bearing sleeve corrosion, using some physical models of degradation that take into account various degradation phenomena. Furthermore, this system can estimate bearing life, taking into consideration the distribution of the vibration characteristic caused by the differences in assembling processes and the distribution of the degradation characteristic. This system was validated by the degradation simulation test. (authors)

  12. Degradation of protein translation machinery by amino acid starvation-induced macroautophagy

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    Gretzmeier, Christine; Eiselein, Sven; Johnson, Gregory R.

    2017-01-01

    , unbiased approaches relying on quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Macroautophagy is induced by rapamycin treatment, and by amino acid and glucose starvation in differentially, metabolically labeled cells. Protein dynamics are linked to image-based models of autophagosome turnover. Depending...... on the inducing stimulus, protein as well as organelle turnover differ. Amino acid starvation-induced macroautophagy leads to selective degradation of proteins important for protein translation. Thus, protein dynamics reflect cellular conditions in the respective treatment indicating stimulus-specific pathways...

  13. The RDE-10/RDE-11 complex triggers RNAi-induced mRNA degradation by association with target mRNA in C. elegans.

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    Yang, Huan; Zhang, Ying; Vallandingham, Jim; Li, Hua; Li, Hau; Florens, Laurence; Mak, Ho Yi

    2012-04-15

    The molecular mechanisms for target mRNA degradation in Caenorhabditis elegans undergoing RNAi are not fully understood. Using a combination of genetic, proteomic, and biochemical approaches, we report a divergent RDE-10/RDE-11 complex that is required for RNAi in C. elegans. Genetic analysis indicates that the RDE-10/RDE-11 complex acts in parallel to nuclear RNAi. Association of the complex with target mRNA is dependent on RDE-1 but not RRF-1, suggesting that target mRNA recognition depends on primary but not secondary siRNA. Furthermore, RDE-11 is required for mRNA degradation subsequent to target engagement. Deep sequencing reveals a fivefold decrease in secondary siRNA abundance in rde-10 and rde-11 mutant animals, while primary siRNA and microRNA biogenesis is normal. Therefore, the RDE-10/RDE-11 complex is critical for amplifying the exogenous RNAi response. Our work uncovers an essential output of the RNAi pathway in C. elegans.

  14. Rapid RNase L-driven arrest of protein synthesis in the dsRNA response without degradation of translation machinery.

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    Donovan, Jesse; Rath, Sneha; Kolet-Mandrikov, David; Korennykh, Alexei

    2017-11-01

    Mammalian cells respond to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by activating a translation-inhibiting endoribonuclease, RNase L. Consensus in the field indicates that RNase L arrests protein synthesis by degrading ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs). However, here we provide evidence for a different and far more efficient mechanism. By sequencing abundant RNA fragments generated by RNase L in human cells, we identify site-specific cleavage of two groups of noncoding RNAs: Y-RNAs, whose function is poorly understood, and cytosolic tRNAs, which are essential for translation. Quantitative analysis of human RNA cleavage versus nascent protein synthesis in lung carcinoma cells shows that RNase L stops global translation when tRNAs, as well as rRNAs and mRNAs, are still intact. Therefore, RNase L does not have to degrade the translation machinery to stop protein synthesis. Our data point to a rapid mechanism that transforms a subtle RNA cleavage into a cell-wide translation arrest. © 2017 Donovan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  15. Clofibrate-induced increases in peroxisomal proteins: effect on synthesis, degradation, and mRNA activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of clofibrate on the polypeptide composition of peroxisomes was determined. A simple method was developed for the isolation of peroxisomes with a purity of 90-95% using sedimentation in a metrizamide gradient. The specific activities of HD did not change with clofibrate treatment so that the increases in enzyme activities are solely due to increases in protein amounts. The hepatic concentration of HD increased 63 times. The HD synthesis rate, as measured by the incorporation of [ 3 H]leucine, increased 74 times, so that the increase in the synthesis was sufficient to account for the increase in protein. Clofibrate caused no discernible change in the degradation rate of HD labeled with [ 14 C]bicarbonate. The half-life of HD was approximately 2 days. The translatable mRBA coding for HD increased 55 times. This value is not significantly different from the increase in HD protein or in HD synthesis. This observation was also true for several other peroxisomal proteins. Therefore, clofibrate causes an increase in the mRNA activity, which increases the synthesis of HD leading to an accumulation of protein and enzyme activity. The kinetics of the clofibrate-induced changes in HD synthesis rate, protein level, and enzymatic activity was analyzed using a simple model which included the half-lives of the drug, mRNA, and protein. The best fit of the model to the data gave an mRNA half-life of 10 hours and a protein half-life of 1.8 days, with no significant change by clofibrate

  16. Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII binds to two distant regions of coa mRNA to arrest translation and promote mRNA degradation.

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    Clément Chevalier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII is the intracellular effector of the quorum sensing system that temporally controls a large number of virulence factors including exoproteins and cell-wall-associated proteins. Staphylocoagulase is one major virulence factor, which promotes clotting of human plasma. Like the major cell surface protein A, the expression of staphylocoagulase is strongly repressed by the quorum sensing system at the post-exponential growth phase. Here we used a combination of approaches in vivo and in vitro to analyze the mechanism used by RNAIII to regulate the expression of staphylocoagulase. Our data show that RNAIII represses the synthesis of the protein through a direct binding with the mRNA. Structure mapping shows that two distant regions of RNAIII interact with coa mRNA and that the mRNA harbors a conserved signature as found in other RNAIII-target mRNAs. The resulting complex is composed of an imperfect duplex masking the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of coa mRNA and of a loop-loop interaction occurring downstream in the coding region. The imperfect duplex is sufficient to prevent the formation of the ribosomal initiation complex and to repress the expression of a reporter gene in vivo. In addition, the double-strand-specific endoribonuclease III cleaves the two regions of the mRNA bound to RNAIII that may contribute to the degradation of the repressed mRNA. This study validates another direct target of RNAIII that plays a role in virulence. It also illustrates the diversity of RNAIII-mRNA topologies and how these multiple RNAIII-mRNA interactions would mediate virulence regulation.

  17. Nascent peptide-mediated translation elongation arrest coupled with mRNA degradation in the CGS1 gene of Arabidopsis

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    Onouchi, Hitoshi; Nagami, Yoko; Haraguchi, Yuhi; Nakamoto, Mari; Nishimura, Yoshiko; Sakurai, Ryoko; Nagao, Nobuhiro; Kawasaki, Daisuke; Kadokura, Yoshitomo; Naito, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Expression of the Arabidopsis CGS1 gene that codes for cystathionine γ-synthase is feedback regulated at the step of mRNA stability in response to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet). A short stretch of amino acid sequence, called the MTO1 region, encoded by the first exon of CGS1 itself is involved in this regulation. Here, we demonstrate, using a cell-free system, that AdoMet induces temporal translation elongation arrest at the Ser-94 codon located immediately downstream of the MTO1 region, by analyzing a translation intermediate and performing primer extension inhibition (toeprint) analysis. This translation arrest precedes the formation of a degradation intermediate of CGS1 mRNA, which has its 5′ end points near the 5′ edge of the stalled ribosome. The position of ribosome stalling also suggests that the MTO1 region in nascent peptide resides in the ribosomal exit tunnel when translation elongation is temporarily arrested. In addition to the MTO1 region amino acid sequence, downstream Trp-93 is also important for the AdoMet-induced translation arrest. This is the first example of nascent peptide-mediated translation elongation arrest coupled with mRNA degradation in eukaryotes. Furthermore, our data suggest that the ribosome stalls at the step of translocation rather than at the step of peptidyl transfer. PMID:16027170

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulates the Hypocretin system via mRNA degradation and ubiquitination.

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    Zhan, Shuqin; Cai, Guo-Qiang; Zheng, Anni; Wang, Yuping; Jia, Jianping; Fang, Haotian; Yang, Youfeng; Hu, Meng; Ding, Qiang

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies recognize that Hypocretin system (also known as Orexin) plays a critical role in sleep/wake disorders and feeding behaviors. However, little is known about the regulation of the Hypocretin system. It is also known that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is involved in the regulation of sleep/wake cycle. Here, we test our hypothesis that the Hypocretin system is regulated by TNF-α. Prepro-Hypocretin and Hypocretin receptor 2 (HcrtR2) can be detected at a very low level in rat B35 neuroblastoma cells. In response to TNF-α, Prepro-Hypocretin mRNA and protein levels are down-regulated, and also HcrtR2 protein level is down-regulated in B35 cells. To investigate the mechanism, exogenous rat Prepro-Hypocretin and rat HcrtR2 were overexpressed in B35 cells. In response to TNF-α, protein and mRNA of Prepro-Hypocretin are significantly decreased (by 93% and 94%, respectively), and the half-life of Prepro-Hypocretin mRNA is decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The level of HcrtR2 mRNA level is not affected by TNF-α treatment; however, HcrtR2 protein level is significantly decreased (by 86%) through ubiquitination in B35 cells treated with TNF-α. Downregulation of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 and -2 (cIAP-1 and -2) abrogates the HcrtR2 ubiquitination induced by TNF-α. The control green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression is not affected by TNF-α treatment. These studies demonstrate that TNF-α can impair the function of the Hypocretin system by reducing the levels of both Prepro-Hypocretin and HcrtR2. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In-operation inspection technology development 'development of degradation prediction technology for rotating machinery'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaki, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Uhara, Y.; Hattori, H. [Toshiba Ceramics Co. Ltd., Ykohama (Japan); O' shima, E. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Matsumoto, K. [Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation, Chiba (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In order to rationalize facility maintenance management and improve reliabilities of rotating machines, it is desirable to develop the technology for estimating bearing wear and predicting bearing wear growth. Therefore, we developed a bearing wear analysis method for evaluating bearing wear growth in the mixed lubrication, and developed a degradation prediction system which estimates the bearing wear and predicts bearing wear growth from external parameters, such as shaft vibration. In bearing wear analysis, the influence of bearing surface roughness and elastic deformation are considered. This analysis model was validated by the bearing wear test. The developed system can predict degradation respecting bearing wear, casing deformation, shaft curvature and bearing sleeve corrosion, using some physical models of degradation that take into account various degradation phenomena. Furthermore, this system can estimate bearing life, taking into consideration the distribution of the vibration characteristic caused by the differences in assembling processes and the distribution of the degradation characteristic. This system was validated by the degradation simulation test. (authors)

  20. Bi-polarized translation of ascidian maternal mRNA determinant pem-1 associated with regulators of the translation machinery on cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum (cER).

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    Paix, Alexandre; Le Nguyen, Phuong Ngan; Sardet, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Polarized cortical mRNA determinants such as maternal macho-1 and pem-1 in ascidians, like budding yeast mating factor ASH1 reside on the cER-mRNA domain a subdomain of cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER) and are translated in its vicinity. Using high resolution imaging and isolated cortical fragments prepared from eggs and embryos we now find that macho-1 and pem-1 RNAs co-localize with phospho-protein regulators of translation initiation (MnK/4EBP/S6K). Translation of cortical pem-1 RNA follows its bi-polarized relocalization. About 10 min after fertilization or artificial activation with a calcium ionophore, PEM1 protein is detected in the vegetal cortex in the vicinity of pem-1 RNA. About 40 min after fertilization-when pem-1 RNA and P-MnK move to the posterior pole-PEM1 protein remains in place forming a network of cortical patches anchored at the level of the zygote plasma membrane before disappearing. Cortical PEM1 protein is detected again at the 4 cell stage in the posterior centrosome attracting body (CAB) region where the cER-mRNA domain harboring pem-1/P-MnK/P-4EBP/P-S6K is concentrated. Bi-polarized PEM1 protein signals are not detected when pem-1 morpholinos are injected into eggs or zygotes or when MnK is inhibited. We propose that localized translation of the pem-1 RNA determinant is triggered by the fertilization/calcium wave and that the process is controlled by phospho-protein regulators of translation initiation co-localized with the RNA determinant on a sub-domain of the cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Involvement of Arabidopsis thaliana ribosomal protein S27 in mRNA degradation triggered by genotoxic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revenkova, E.; Masson, J.; Koncz, C.; Afsar, K.; Jakovleva, L.; Paszkowski, J.

    1999-01-01

    A recessive Arabidopsis mutant with elevated sensitivity to DNA damaging treatments was identified in one out of 800 families generated by T-DNA insertion mutagenesis. The T-DNA generated a chromosomal deletion of 1287 bp in the promoter of one of three S27 ribosomal protein genes (ARS27A) preventing its expression. Seedlings of ars27A developed normally under standard growth conditions, suggesting wildtype proficiency of translation. However, growth was strongly inhibited in media supplemented with methyl methane sulfate (MMS) at a concentration not affecting the wild type. This inhibition was accompanied by the formation of tumor–like structures instead of auxiliary roots. Wild-type seedlings treated with increasing concentrations of MMS up to a lethal dose never displayed such a trait, neither was this phenotype observed in ars27A plants in the absence of MMS or under other stress conditions. Thus, the hypersensitivity and tumorous growth are mutant-specific responses to the genotoxic MMS treatment. Another important feature of the mutant is its inability to perform rapid degradation of transcripts after UV treatment, as seen in wild-type plants. Therefore, we propose that the ARS27A protein is dispensable for protein synthesis under standard conditions but is required for the elimination of possibly damaged mRNA after UV irradiation. (author)

  2. Apoptosis Triggers Specific, Rapid, and Global mRNA Decay with 3′ Uridylated Intermediates Degraded by DIS3L2

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    Marshall P. Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a tightly coordinated cell death program that damages mitochondria, DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids. Little is known about the fate of RNA as cells die. Here, we show that mRNAs, but not noncoding RNAs, are rapidly and globally degraded during apoptosis. mRNA decay is triggered early in apoptosis, preceding membrane lipid scrambling, genomic DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic changes to translation initiation factors. mRNA decay depends on mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and is amplified by caspase activation. 3′ truncated mRNA decay intermediates with nontemplated uridylate-rich tails are generated during apoptosis. These tails are added by the terminal uridylyl transferases (TUTases ZCCHC6 and ZCCHC11, and the uridylated transcript intermediates are degraded by the 3′ to 5′ exonuclease DIS3L2. Knockdown of DIS3L2 or the TUTases inhibits apoptotic mRNA decay, translation arrest, and cell death, whereas DIS3L2 overexpression enhances cell death. Our results suggest that global mRNA decay is an overlooked hallmark of apoptosis.

  3. A SEL1L mutation links a canine progressive early-onset cerebellar ataxia to the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD machinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisa Kyöstilä

    Full Text Available Inherited ataxias are characterized by degeneration of the cerebellar structures, which results in progressive motor incoordination. Hereditary ataxias occur in many species, including humans and dogs. Several mutations have been found in humans, but the genetic background has remained elusive in dogs. The Finnish Hound suffers from an early-onset progressive cerebellar ataxia. We have performed clinical, pathological, and genetic studies to describe the disease phenotype and to identify its genetic cause. Neurological examinations on ten affected dogs revealed rapidly progressing generalized cerebellar ataxia, tremors, and failure to thrive. Clinical signs were present by the age of 3 months, and cerebellar shrinkage was detectable through MRI. Pathological and histological examinations indicated cerebellum-restricted neurodegeneration. Marked loss of Purkinje cells was detected in the cerebellar cortex with secondary changes in other cortical layers. A genome-wide association study in a cohort of 31 dogs mapped the ataxia gene to a 1.5 Mb locus on canine chromosome 8 (p(raw = 1.1x10(-7, p(genome = 7.5x10(-4. Sequencing of a functional candidate gene, sel-1 suppressor of lin-12-like (SEL1L, revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.1972T>C; p.Ser658Pro, in a highly conserved protein domain. The mutation segregated fully in the recessive pedigree, and a 10% carrier frequency was indicated in a population cohort. SEL1L is a component of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD machinery and has not been previously associated to inherited ataxias. Dysfunctional protein degradation is known to cause ER stress, and we found a significant increase in expression of nine ER stress responsive genes in the cerebellar cortex of affected dogs, supporting the pathogenicity of the mutation. Our study describes the first early-onset neurodegenerative ataxia mutation in dogs, establishes an ERAD-mediated neurodegenerative

  4. Characterization of the arabinoxylan-degrading machinery of the thermophilic bacterium Herbinix hemicellulosilytica-Six new xylanases, three arabinofuranosidases and one xylosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechelke, M; Koeck, D E; Broeker, J; Roessler, B; Krabichler, F; Schwarz, W H; Zverlov, V V; Liebl, W

    2017-09-10

    Herbinix hemicellulosilytica is a newly isolated, gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium with extensive hemicellulose-degrading capabilities obtained from a thermophilic biogas reactor. In order to exploit its potential as a source for new industrial arabinoxylan-degrading enzymes, six new thermophilic xylanases, four from glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) and two from GH11, three arabinofuranosidases (1x GH43, 2x GH51) and one β-xylosidase (GH43) were selected. The recombinantly produced enzymes were purified and characterized. All enzymes were active on different xylan-based polysaccharides and most of them showed temperature-vs-activity profiles with maxima around 55-65°C. HPAEC-PAD analysis of the hydrolysates of wheat arabinoxylan and of various purified xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS) was used to investigate their substrate and product specificities: among the GH10 xylanases, XynB showed a different product pattern when hydrolysing AXOS compared to XynA, XynC, and XynD. None of the GH11 xylanases was able to degrade any of the tested AXOS. All three arabinofuranosidases, ArfA, ArfB and ArfC, were classified as type AXH-m,d enzymes. None of the arabinofuranosidases was able to degrade the double-arabinosylated xylooligosaccharides XA 2+3 XX. β-Xylosidase XylA (GH43) was able to degrade unsubstituted XOS, but showed limited activity to degrade AXOS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Concordant association of insulin degrading enzyme gene (IDE variants with IDE mRNA, Abeta, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva M Carrasquillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-degrading enzyme gene (IDE is a strong functional and positional candidate for late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD.We examined conserved regions of IDE and its 10 kb flanks in 269 AD cases and 252 controls thereby identifying 17 putative functional polymorphisms. These variants formed eleven haplotypes that were tagged with ten variants. Four of these showed significant association with IDE transcript levels in samples from 194 LOAD cerebella. The strongest, rs6583817, which has not previously been reported, showed unequivocal association (p = 1.5x10(-8, fold-increase = 2.12,; the eleven haplotypes were also significantly associated with transcript levels (global p = 0.003. Using an in vitro dual luciferase reporter assay, we found that rs6583817 increases reporter gene expression in Be(2-C (p = 0.006 and HepG2 (p = 0.02 cell lines. Furthermore, using data from a recent genome-wide association study of two Croatian isolated populations (n = 1,879, we identified a proxy for rs6583817 that associated significantly with decreased plasma Abeta40 levels (ss = -0.124, p = 0.011 and total measured plasma Abeta levels (b = -0.130, p = 0.009. Finally, rs6583817 was associated with decreased risk of LOAD in 3,891 AD cases and 3,605 controls. (OR = 0.87, p = 0.03, and the eleven IDE haplotypes (global p = 0.02 also showed significant association.Thus, a previously unreported variant unequivocally associated with increased IDE expression was also associated with reduced plasma Abeta40 and decreased LOAD susceptibility. Genetic association between LOAD and IDE has been difficult to replicate. Our findings suggest that targeted testing of expression SNPs (eSNPs strongly associated with altered transcript levels in autopsy brain samples may be a powerful way to identify genetic associations with LOAD that would otherwise be difficult to detect.

  6. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  7. BTG/Tob family members Tob1 and Tob2 inhibit proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells via Id3 mRNA degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuanfan; Wang, Chenchen; Wu, Jenny; Li, Lingsong

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian BTG/Tob family is a group of proteins with anti-proliferative ability, and there are six members including BTG1, BTG2/PC3/Tis21, BTG3/ANA, BTG4/PC3B, Tob1/Tob and Tob2. Among them, Tob subfamily members, specifically Tob1/Tob and Tob2, have the most extensive C-terminal regions. As previously reported, overexpression of BTG/Tob proteins is associated with the inhibition of G1 to S-phase cell cycle progression and decreased cell proliferation in a variety of cell types. Tob subfamily proteins have similar anti-proliferative effects on cell cycle progression in cultured tumor cells. An important unresolved question is whether or not they have function in rapidly proliferating cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Tob1 and Tob2 were expressed ubiquitously in mouse ESCs (mESCs), suggesting a possible role in early embryonic development and mESCs. To address the above question and explore the possible functions of the Tob subfamily in ESCs, we established ESCs from different genotypic knockout inner cell mass (ICM). We found that Tob1 −/− , Tob2 −/− , and Tob1/2 double knockout (DKO, Tob1 −/− & Tob2 −/− ) ESCs grew faster than wild type (WT) ESCs without losing pluripotency, and we provide a possible mechanistic explanation for these observations: Tob1 and Tob2 inhibit the cell cycle via degradation of Id3 mRNA, which is a set of directly targeted genes of BMP4 signaling in mESCs that play critical roles in the maintenance of ESC properties. Together, our data suggest that BTG/Tob family protein Tob1 and Tob2 regulation cell proliferation does not compromise the basic properties of mESCs. - Highlights: • We established mouse Tob1/2 double knockout embryonic stem cells. • Tob1 and Tob2 inhibit the proliferation of ESCs without effect on pluripotency. • Tob1 and Tob2 involved in the degradation of Id3 in mESCs

  8. BTG/Tob family members Tob1 and Tob2 inhibit proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells via Id3 mRNA degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuanfan; Wang, Chenchen [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Peking University Stem Cell Research Center, China National Center for International Research, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); SARI Center for Stem Cell and Nanomedicine, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200120 (China); Wu, Jenny [SARI Center for Stem Cell and Nanomedicine, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200120 (China); Li, Lingsong, E-mail: lils@sari.ac.cn [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Peking University Stem Cell Research Center, China National Center for International Research, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); SARI Center for Stem Cell and Nanomedicine, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200120 (China)

    2015-07-03

    The mammalian BTG/Tob family is a group of proteins with anti-proliferative ability, and there are six members including BTG1, BTG2/PC3/Tis21, BTG3/ANA, BTG4/PC3B, Tob1/Tob and Tob2. Among them, Tob subfamily members, specifically Tob1/Tob and Tob2, have the most extensive C-terminal regions. As previously reported, overexpression of BTG/Tob proteins is associated with the inhibition of G1 to S-phase cell cycle progression and decreased cell proliferation in a variety of cell types. Tob subfamily proteins have similar anti-proliferative effects on cell cycle progression in cultured tumor cells. An important unresolved question is whether or not they have function in rapidly proliferating cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Tob1 and Tob2 were expressed ubiquitously in mouse ESCs (mESCs), suggesting a possible role in early embryonic development and mESCs. To address the above question and explore the possible functions of the Tob subfamily in ESCs, we established ESCs from different genotypic knockout inner cell mass (ICM). We found that Tob1{sup −/−}, Tob2{sup −/−}, and Tob1/2 double knockout (DKO, Tob1{sup −/−} & Tob2{sup −/−}) ESCs grew faster than wild type (WT) ESCs without losing pluripotency, and we provide a possible mechanistic explanation for these observations: Tob1 and Tob2 inhibit the cell cycle via degradation of Id3 mRNA, which is a set of directly targeted genes of BMP4 signaling in mESCs that play critical roles in the maintenance of ESC properties. Together, our data suggest that BTG/Tob family protein Tob1 and Tob2 regulation cell proliferation does not compromise the basic properties of mESCs. - Highlights: • We established mouse Tob1/2 double knockout embryonic stem cells. • Tob1 and Tob2 inhibit the proliferation of ESCs without effect on pluripotency. • Tob1 and Tob2 involved in the degradation of Id3 in mESCs.

  9. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  10. Exonuclease hDIS3L2 specifies an exosome-independent 3'-5' degradation pathway of human cytoplasmic mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubas, Michal Szymon; Damgaard, Christian Kroun; Tomecki, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Turnover of mRNA in the cytoplasm of human cells is thought to be redundantly conducted by the monomeric 5'-3' exoribonuclease hXRN1 and the 3'-5' exoribonucleolytic RNA exosome complex. However, in addition to the exosome-associated 3'-5' exonucleases hDIS3 and hDIS3L, the human genome encodes...

  11. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the P......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome.......Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the Par...

  12. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  13. Matrix analysis of electrical machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, N N

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Analysis of Electrical Machinery, Second Edition is a 14-chapter edition that covers the systematic analysis of electrical machinery performance. This edition discusses the principles of various mathematical operations and their application to electrical machinery performance calculations. The introductory chapters deal with the matrix representation of algebraic equations and their application to static electrical networks. The following chapters describe the fundamentals of different transformers and rotating machines and present torque analysis in terms of the currents based on the p

  14. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  15. Safeness of radiological machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shun

    1979-01-01

    The human factors affecting the safeness of radiological machinery, which are often very big and complicated machines, are described from the stand point of handling. 20 to 50% of the troubles on equipments seem to be caused by men. This percentage will become even higher in highly developed equipments. Human factors have a great influence on the safeness of radiological equipments. As the human factors, there are sensory factors and knowledge factors as well as psychological factors, and the combination of these factors causes mishandling and danger. Medical services at present are divided in various areas, and consist of the teamwork of the people in various professions. Good human relationship, education and control are highly required to secure the safeness. (Kobatake, H.)

  16. Necrosome core machinery: MLKL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yu; He, Wenyan; Sun, Liming

    2016-06-01

    In the study of regulated cell death, the rapidly expanding field of regulated necrosis, in particular necroptosis, has been drawing much attention. The signaling of necroptosis represents a sophisticated form of a death pathway. Anti-caspase mechanisms (e.g., using inhibitors of caspases, or genetic ablation of caspase-8) switch cell fate from apoptosis to necroptosis. The initial extracellular death signals regulate RIP1 and RIP3 kinase activation. The RIP3-associated death complex assembly is necessary and sufficient to initiate necroptosis. MLKL was initially identified as an essential mediator of RIP1/RIP3 kinase-initiated necroptosis. Recent studies on the signal transduction using chemical tools and biomarkers support the idea that MLKL is able to make more functional sense for the core machinery of the necroptosis death complex, called the necrosome, to connect to the necroptosis execution. The experimental data available now have pointed that the activated MLKL forms membrane-disrupting pores causing membrane leakage, which extends the prototypical concept of morphological and biochemical events following necroptosis happening in vivo. The key role of MLKL in necroptosis signaling thus sheds light on the logic underlying this unique "membrane-explosive" cell death pathway. In this review, we provide the general concepts and strategies that underlie signal transduction of this form of cell death, and then focus specifically on the role of MLKL in necroptosis.

  17. Molecular building blocks and their architecture in biologically/environmentally compatible soft matter chemical machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Taro; Banno, Taisuke; Nitta, Sachiko; Takinoue, Masahiro; Nomoto, Tomonori; Natsume, Yuno; Matsumura, Shuichi; Fujinami, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent developments in the construction of biologically/environmentally compatible chemical machinery composed of soft matter. Since environmental and living systems are open systems, chemical machinery must continuously fulfill its functions not only through the influx and generation of molecules but also via the degradation and dissipation of molecules. If the degradation or dissipation of soft matter molecular building blocks and biomaterial molecules/polymers can be achieved, soft matter particles composed of them can be used to realize chemical machinery such as selfpropelled droplets, drug delivery carriers, tissue regeneration scaffolds, protocell models, cell-/tissuemarkers, and molecular computing systems.

  18. Chromatoid Body Protein TDRD6 Supports Long 3' UTR Triggered Nonsense Mediated mRNA Decay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorios Fanourgakis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromatoid bodies (CBs are spermiogenesis-specific organelles of largely unknown function. CBs harbor various RNA species, RNA-associated proteins and proteins of the tudor domain family like TDRD6, which is required for a proper CB architecture. Proteome analysis of purified CBs revealed components of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD machinery including UPF1. TDRD6 is essential for UPF1 localization to CBs, for UPF1-UPF2 and UPF1-MVH interactions. Upon removal of TDRD6, the association of several mRNAs with UPF1 and UPF2 is disturbed, and the long 3' UTR-stimulated but not the downstream exon-exon junction triggered pathway of NMD is impaired. Reduced association of the long 3' UTR mRNAs with UPF1 and UPF2 correlates with increased stability and enhanced translational activity. Thus, we identified TDRD6 within CBs as required for mRNA degradation, specifically the extended 3' UTR-triggered NMD pathway, and provide evidence for the requirement of NMD in spermiogenesis. This function depends on TDRD6-promoted assembly of mRNA and decay enzymes in CBs.

  19. mRNA decay proteins are targeted to poly(A+ RNA and dsRNA-containing cytoplasmic foci that resemble P-bodies in Entamoeba histolytica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzel López-Rosas

    Full Text Available In higher eukaryotes, mRNA degradation and RNA-based gene silencing occur in cytoplasmic foci referred to as processing bodies (P-bodies. In protozoan parasites, the presence of P-bodies and their putative role in mRNA decay have yet to be comprehensively addressed. Identification of P-bodies might provide information on how mRNA degradation machineries evolved in lower eukaryotes. Here, we used immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy assays to investigate the cellular localization of mRNA degradation proteins in the human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica and found evidence of the existence of P-bodies. Two mRNA decay factors, namely the EhXRN2 exoribonuclease and the EhDCP2 decapping enzyme, were localized in cytoplasmic foci in a pattern resembling P-body organization. Given that amoebic foci appear to be smaller and less rounded than those described in higher eukaryotes, we have named them "P-body-like structures". These foci contain additional mRNA degradation factors, including the EhCAF1 deadenylase and the EhAGO2-2 protein involved in RNA interference. Biochemical analysis revealed that EhCAF1 co-immunoprecipitated with EhXRN2 but not with EhDCP2 or EhAGO2-2, thus linking deadenylation to 5'-to-3' mRNA decay. The number of EhCAF1-containing foci significantly decreased after inhibition of transcription and translation with actinomycin D and cycloheximide, respectively. Furthermore, results of RNA-FISH assays showed that (i EhCAF1 colocalized with poly(A(+ RNA and (ii during silencing of the Ehpc4 gene by RNA interference, EhAGO2-2 colocalized with small interfering RNAs in cytoplasmic foci. Our observation of decapping, deadenylation and RNA interference proteins within P-body-like foci suggests that these structures have been conserved after originating in the early evolution of eukaryotic lineages. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the localization of mRNA decay proteins within P

  20. Principles of mRNA transport in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heym, Roland Gerhard; Niessing, Dierk

    2012-06-01

    mRNA localization and localized translation is a common mechanism by which cellular asymmetry is achieved. In higher eukaryotes the mRNA transport machinery is required for such diverse processes as stem cell division and neuronal plasticity. Because mRNA localization in metazoans is highly complex, studies at the molecular level have proven to be cumbersome. However, active mRNA transport has also been reported in fungi including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ustilago maydis and Candida albicans, in which these events are less difficult to study. Amongst them, budding yeast S. cerevisiae has yielded mechanistic insights that exceed our understanding of other mRNA localization events to date. In contrast to most reviews, we refrain here from summarizing mRNA localization events from different organisms. Instead we give an in-depth account of ASH1 mRNA localization in budding yeast. This approach is particularly suited to providing a more holistic view of the interconnection between the individual steps of mRNA localization, from transcriptional events to cytoplasmic mRNA transport and localized translation. Because of our advanced mechanistic understanding of mRNA localization in yeast, the present review may also be informative for scientists working, for example, on mRNA localization in embryogenesis or in neurons.

  1. Core RNAi machinery and gene knockdown in the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chaoyang; Alvarez Gonzales, Miguel A; Poland, Therese M; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2015-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in insect functional genomics research and provides an alternative approach for insect pest management. To understand whether the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive and destructive coleopteran insect pest of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.), possesses a strong RNAi machinery that is capable of degrading target mRNA as a response to exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induction, we identified three RNAi pathway core component genes, Dicer-2, Argonaute-2 and R2D2, from the A. planipennis genome sequence. Characterization of these core components revealed that they contain conserved domains essential for the proteins to function in the RNAi pathway. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they are closely related to homologs derived from other coleopteran species. We also delivered the dsRNA fragment of AplaScrB-2, a β-fructofuranosidase-encoding gene horizontally acquired by A. planipennis as we reported previously, into A. planipennis adults through microinjection. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis on the dsRNA-treated beetles demonstrated a significantly decreased gene expression level of AplaScrB-2 appearing on day 2 and lasting until at least day 6. This study is the first record of RNAi applied in A. planipennis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Strategies for Improving Enterprise Standardization Management of Tropical Crop Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ There are two categories of tropical crop machinery. One comprises operation machinery that is used for planting, managing and harvesting tropical crops, while the other comprises process machinery for processing tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery is distinguished from other agricultural machinery by the special crops that such machinery cultivates and processes.

  3. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Augments mRNA Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeeva, Subbiah; Cheng, Erdong; Ganaie, Safder S; Mir, Mohammad A

    2017-08-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne Nairovirus of the Bunyaviridae family, causing severe illness with high mortality rates in humans. Here, we demonstrate that CCHFV nucleocapsid protein (CCHFV-NP) augments mRNA translation. CCHFV-NP binds to the viral mRNA 5' untranslated region (UTR) with high affinity. It facilitates the translation of reporter mRNA both in vivo and in vitro with the assistance of the viral mRNA 5' UTR. CCHFV-NP equally favors the translation of both capped and uncapped mRNAs, demonstrating the independence of this translation strategy on the 5' cap. Unlike the canonical host translation machinery, inhibition of eIF4F complex, an amalgam of three initiation factors, eIF4A, eIF4G, and eIF4E, by the chemical inhibitor 4E1RCat did not impact the CCHFV-NP-mediated translation mechanism. However, the proteolytic degradation of eIF4G alone by the human rhinovirus 2A protease abrogated this translation strategy. Our results demonstrate that eIF4F complex formation is not required but eIF4G plays a critical role in this translation mechanism. Our results suggest that CCHFV has adopted a unique translation mechanism to facilitate the translation of viral mRNAs in the host cell cytoplasm where cellular transcripts are competing for the same translation apparatus. IMPORTANCE Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, a highly contagious viral disease endemic to more than 30 countries, has limited treatment options. Our results demonstrate that NP favors the translation of a reporter mRNA harboring the viral mRNA 5' UTR. It is highly likely that CCHFV uses an NP-mediated translation strategy for the rapid synthesis of viral proteins during the course of infection. Shutdown of this translation mechanism might selectively impact viral protein synthesis, suggesting that an NP-mediated translation strategy is a target for therapeutic intervention against this viral disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Rotating machinery surveillance system reduces plant downtime and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohanick, J.S.; Robinson, J.C.; Allen, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    A rotating machinery surveillance system (RMSS) was permanently installed at Grand Gulf nuclear station (GGNS) as part of a program sponsored by the US Department of Energy whose goal was to reduce radiation exposure to power plant personnel resulting from the inspection, maintenance, and repair of rotating machinery. The RMSS was installed at GGNS in 1983 to continuously monitor 173 analog vibration signals from proximity probes mounted on 26 machine trains and ∼450 process data points via a computer data link. Vibration frequency spectra, i.e., the vibration amplitude versus frequency of vibration, and various characterizations of these spectra are the fundamental data collected by the RMSS for performing machinery diagnostics. The RMSS collects vibration frequency spectra on a daily basis for all the monitored rotating equipment and automatically stores the collected spectra for review by the vibration engineer. Vibration spectra automatically stored by the RMSS fall into categories that include the last normal, alarm, minimum and maximum, past three-day data set, baseline, current, and user-saved spectra. During first and second fuel-cycle operation at GGNS, several significant vibration problems were detected by the RMSS. Two of these are presented in this paper: recirculation pumps and turbine-generator bearing degradation. The total reduction in personnel radiation exposure at GGNS from 1985 to 1987 due to the presence of the RMSS was estimated to be in the range from 49 to 54 person-rem

  5. Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery mediates ATP-dependent RISC loading of small RNA duplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shintaro; Kobayashi, Maki; Yoda, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Yuriko; Katsuma, Susumu; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Tomari, Yukihide

    2010-07-30

    Small silencing RNAs--small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs)--direct posttranscriptional gene silencing of their mRNA targets as guides for the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Both siRNAs and miRNAs are born double stranded. Surprisingly, loading these small RNA duplexes into Argonaute proteins, the core components of RISC, requires ATP, whereas separating the two small RNA strands within Argonaute does not. Here we show that the Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery is required to load small RNA duplexes into Argonaute proteins, but not for subsequent strand separation or target cleavage. We envision that the chaperone machinery uses ATP and mediates a conformational opening of Ago proteins so that they can receive bulky small RNA duplexes. Our data suggest that the chaperone machinery may serve as the driving force for the RISC assembly pathway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation technologies in metallurgy and machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, I.N.

    1990-01-01

    Applications of electron beam accelerators for technologies in metallurgy and machinery are discussed. Processes described are provided with special industrial accelerators, developed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk. (author)

  7. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space, noise. 58.01-50 Section 58.01-50... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-50 Machinery space, noise. (a) Each machinery space must be designed to minimize the exposure of personnel to noise in accordance with IMO A.468(XII...

  8. Machinery condition monitoring principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Amiya Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Find the Fault in the MachinesDrawing on the author's more than two decades of experience with machinery condition monitoring and consulting for industries in India and abroad, Machinery Condition Monitoring: Principles and Practices introduces the practicing engineer to the techniques used to effectively detect and diagnose faults in machines. Providing the working principle behind the instruments, the important elements of machines as well as the technique to understand their conditions, this text presents every available method of machine fault detection occurring in machines in general, an

  9. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.

  10. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.……

  11. Open innovation and supply chain management in food machinery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open innovation and supply chain management in food machinery supply chain: a ... This paradigm describes a new approach to internal R&D management, which ... a picture of the adoption of open innovation in the food machinery industry.

  12. The Autophagic Machinery in Enterovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jeffrey K F; Sam, I-Ching; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-27

    The Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family comprises many important human pathogens, including polioviruses, rhinovirus, enterovirus A71, and enterovirus D68. They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild to severe life-threatening diseases. Currently, no effective vaccine is available against enteroviruses except for poliovirus. Enteroviruses subvert the autophagic machinery to benefit their assembly, maturation, and exit from host. Some enteroviruses spread between cells via a process described as autophagosome-mediated exit without lysis (AWOL). The early and late phases of autophagy are regulated through various lipids and their metabolizing enzymes. Some of these lipids and enzymes are specifically regulated by enteroviruses. In the present review, we summarize the current understanding of the regulation of autophagic machinery by enteroviruses, and provide updates on recent developments in this field.

  13. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall inspect...

  14. 46 CFR 252.33 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 252.33 Section 252.33... Subsidy Rates § 252.33 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery, increased value, excess general average...

  15. 46 CFR 282.23 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 282.23 Section 282.23... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.23 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be securely fastened to the spindle and the bearing surface shall run true. When more than one wheel... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive wheel machinery. 1910.215 Section 1910.215 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery. (a...

  17. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of...

  18. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of...

  19. Machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a complete presentatin of the basic essentials of machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management, and takes a look at the cutting-edge discipline of intelligent failure prognosis technologies for condition-based maintenance.  Latest research results and application methods are introduced for signal processing, reliability moelling, deterioration evaluation, residual life prediction and maintenance-optimization as well as applications of these methods.

  20. Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potvin, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Reactor Maintenance's Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program (MVMP) plays an essential role in ensuring the safe operation of the three Production Reactors at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WRSC) Savannah River Site (SRS). This program has increased machinery availability and reduced maintenance cost by the early detection and determination of machinery problems. This paper presents the Reactor Maintenance's Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program, which has been documented based on Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) NP-5311, Utility Machinery Monitoring Guide, and some examples of the successes that it has enjoyed

  1. The functional half-life of an mRNA depends on the ribosome spacing in an early coding region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Margit; Nissen, Søren; Mitarai, Namiko

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial mRNAs are translated by closely spaced ribosomes and degraded from the 5'-end, with half-lives of around 2 min at 37 °C in most cases. Ribosome-free or "naked" mRNA is known to be readily degraded, but the initial event that inactivates the mRNA functionally has not been fully described...

  2. Fluid machinery application, selection, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Published nearly a decade ago, Fluid Machinery: Performance, Analysis, and Design quickly became popular with students, professors, and professionals because of its comprehensive and comprehensible introduction to the fluid mechanics of turbomachinery. Renamed to reflect its wider scope and reorganized content, this second edition provides a more logical flow of information that will enhance understanding. In particular, it presents a consistent notation within and across chapters, updating material when appropriate. Although the authors do account for the astounding growth in the field of com

  3. Analysis of electric machinery and drive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Sudhoff, Scott D; Pekarek, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a new edition of the popular reference on machine analysis Now in a fully revised and expanded edition, this widely used reference on machine analysis boasts many changes designed to address the varied needs of engineers in the electric machinery, electric drives, and electric power industries. The authors draw on their own extensive research efforts, bringing all topics up to date and outlining a variety of new approaches they have developed over the past decade. Focusing on reference frame theory that has been at the core of this work since the first edition, th

  4. Electrification of agricultural machinery; Elektrifizierung von Landmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, Manuel; Grad, Karl; Weinmann, Olrik [ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    As early as 2009, ZF exhibited a generator system for agricultural machinery at Agritechnica under the name Terra+ which consisted of an electric motor in the transmission housing. As part of the ElecTra project, the company is now presenting its first tractor prototype with this generator system at Agritechnica 2011. The project involves combining the electrification of the tractor's auxiliary systems with electric drives for an attachment. The electrification of the implement was carried out in cooperation with Amazone, manufacturer of implements for the agricultural industry. (orig.)

  5. Bioinspired nanocomplex for spatiotemporal imaging of sequential mRNA expression in differentiating neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Ruili; Wang, Zhongliang; Wang, He-Fang; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Fu; Li, Weitao; Niu, Gang; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-12-23

    Messenger RNA plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular activities. The expression dynamics of specific mRNA contains substantial information on the intracellular milieu. Unlike the imaging of stationary mRNAs, real-time intracellular imaging of the dynamics of mRNA expression is of great value for investigating mRNA biology and exploring specific cellular cascades. In addition to advanced imaging methods, timely extracellular stimulation is another key factor in regulating the mRNA expression repertoire. The integration of effective stimulation and imaging into a single robust system would significantly improve stimulation efficiency and imaging accuracy, producing fewer unwanted artifacts. In this study, we developed a multifunctional nanocomplex to enable self-activating and spatiotemporal imaging of the dynamics of mRNA sequential expression during the neural stem cell differentiation process. This nanocomplex showed improved enzymatic stability, fast recognition kinetics, and high specificity. With a mechanism regulated by endogenous cell machinery, this nanocomplex realized the successive stimulating motif release and the dynamic imaging of chronological mRNA expression during neural stem cell differentiation without the use of transgenetic manipulation. The dynamic imaging montage of mRNA expression ultimately facilitated genetic heterogeneity analysis. In vivo lateral ventricle injection of this nanocomplex enabled endogenous neural stem cell activation and labeling at their specific differentiation stages. This nanocomplex is highly amenable as an alternative tool to explore the dynamics of intricate mRNA activities in various physiological and pathological conditions.

  6. The RNAi Inheritance Machinery of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklin, George; Fields, Brandon; Wan, Gang; Becker, Diveena; Wallig, Ashley; Shukla, Aditi; Kennedy, Scott

    2017-07-01

    Gene silencing mediated by dsRNA (RNAi) can persist for multiple generations in Caenorhabditis elegans (termed RNAi inheritance). Here we describe the results of a forward genetic screen in C. elegans that has identified six factors required for RNAi inheritance: GLH-1/VASA, PUP-1/CDE-1, MORC-1, SET-32, and two novel nematode-specific factors that we term here (heritable RNAi defective) HRDE-2 and HRDE-4 The new RNAi inheritance factors exhibit mortal germline (Mrt) phenotypes, which we show is likely caused by epigenetic deregulation in germ cells. We also show that HRDE-2 contributes to RNAi inheritance by facilitating the binding of small RNAs to the inheritance Argonaute (Ago) HRDE-1 Together, our results identify additional components of the RNAi inheritance machinery whose conservation provides insights into the molecular mechanism of RNAi inheritance, further our understanding of how the RNAi inheritance machinery promotes germline immortality, and show that HRDE-2 couples the inheritance Ago HRDE-1 with the small RNAs it needs to direct RNAi inheritance and germline immortality. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. Availability analysis of selected mining machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodny Jarosław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Underground extraction of coal is characterized by high variability of mining and geological conditions in which it is conducted. Despite ever more effective methods and tools, used to identify the factors influencing this process, mining machinery, used in mining underground, work in difficult and not always foreseeable conditions, which means that these machines should be very universal and reliable. Additionally, a big competition, occurring on the coal market, causes that it is necessary to take action in order to reduce the cost of its production, e.g. by increasing the efficiency of utilization machines. To meet this objective it should be pro-ceed with analysis presented in this paper. The analysis concerns to availability of utilization selected mining machinery, conducted using the model of OEE, which is a tool for quantitative estimate strategy TPM. In this article we considered the machines being part of the mechanized longwall complex and the basis of analysis was the data recording by the industrial automation system. Using this data set we evaluated the availability of studied machines and the structure of registered breaks in their work. The results should be an important source of information for maintenance staff and management of mining plants, needed to improve the economic efficiency of underground mining.

  8. Cell secretion machinery: Studies using the AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Bhanu P.

    2006-01-01

    A new field in biology, 'nano-cell biology', has emerged from the successful use of force microscopy in understanding the structure and dynamics of cells and biomolecules, at nm resolution and in real time. Atomic force microscopy, in combination with conventional tools and approaches (electron microscopy, electrophysiology, X-ray diffraction, photon correlation spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, biochemistry, and molecular biology), has revealed for the first time, the universal molecular machinery and mechanism of secretion in cells. Secretion occurs in all living cells and involves the delivery of intracellular products to the cell exterior. Secretory products are packaged and stored in membranous sacs or vesicles within the cell. When the cell needs to secrete these products, the secretory vesicles containing them, dock and fuse at plasma membrane-associated supramolecular structures called Porosome, to release their contents. Specialized cells for neurotransmission, enzyme secretion, or hormone release utilize a highly regulated secretory process. During secretion, swelling of secretory vesicles results in a build-up of intravesicular pressure, allowing expulsion of vesicular contents. The extent of vesicle swelling dictates the amount of vesicular contents expelled. The discovery of the porosome as the universal secretory machinery, its isolation, its structure and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time, its biochemical composition and functional reconstitution into artificial lipid membrane, have been determined. The molecular mechanism of secretory vesicle swelling, and the fusion of opposing bilayers, i.e., the fusion of secretory vesicle membrane at the base of the porosome membrane, has also been resolved

  9. Welding technologies for nuclear machinery and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masahiro; Yokono, Tomomi.

    1991-01-01

    The main welding methods applied to nuclear machinery and equipment are shielded metal arc welding, submerged arc welding, MAG welding and TIG welding. But in the last 10 years, in order to improve the reliability required for the welding of nuclear machinery and equipment, the welding technologies aiming at the reduction of heat input, the decrease of the number of welding pass and the automatic control of welding factors have been applied for the main purpose of bettering the quality and excluding human errors. The merits and the technology of narrow gap, pulsed MAG welding and melt-through welding are explained. As the automation of TIG welding, image processing type narrow gap, hot wire TIG welding and remote control type automatic TIG welding are described. For the longitudinal welding of active metal sheet products, plasma key-hole welding is applied. Since the concentration of its arc is good, high speed welding with low heat input can be done. For the stainless steel cladding by welding, electroslag welding has become to be employed in place of conventional submerged arc welding. Arc is not generated in the electroslag welding, and the penetration into base metal is small. (K.I.)

  10. Rotating Machinery Predictive Maintenance Through Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarath Kumar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern rotating machines such as turbomachines, either produce or absorb huge amount of power. Some of the common applications are: steam turbine-generator and gas turbine-compressor-generator trains produce power and machines, such as pumps, centrifugal compressors, motors, generators, machine tool spindles, etc., are being used in industrial applications. Condition-based maintenance of rotating machinery is a common practice where the machine's condition is monitored constantly, so that timely maintenance can be done. Since modern machines are complex and the amount of data to be interpreted is huge, we need precise and fast methods in order to arrive at the best recommendations to prevent catastrophic failure and to prolong the life of the equipment. In the present work using vibration characteristics of a rotor-bearing system, the condition of a rotating machinery (electrical rotor is predicted using an off-line expert system. The analysis of the problem is carried out in an Object Oriented Programming (OOP framework using the finite element method. The expert system which is also developed in an OOP paradigm gives the type of the malfunctions, suggestions and recommendations. The system is implemented in C++.

  11. On Development of Agricultural Machinery Operating Service in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjing; TAN; Shi; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing takes on rapid increase in number of service organizations,diversified service methods,improvement in service level,and constant service income. However,there are some problems,including unreasonable composition and small scale of service organization,imbalanced development of four service methods,low service level,and low operating income of agricultural machinery households. To accelerate development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing,it is recommended to take following measures: adjusting subsidy for purchase and operation of agricultural machinery; improving fiscal and taxation and financial system; speeding up infrastructure construction,establishing agricultural machinery information network,and improving organizational form and methods of agricultural machinery operating service.

  12. Advanced cell-based modeling of the royal disease: characterization of the mutated F9 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, L; Luce, E; Vazquez, J L; Richaud-Patin, Y; Jimenez-Delgado, S; Corrales, I; Borras, N; Casacuberta-Serra, S; Weber, A; Parra, R; Altisent, C; Follenzi, A; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, A; Raya, A; Vidal, F; Barquinero, J

    2017-11-01

    Essentials The Royal disease (RD) is a form of hemophilia B predicted to be caused by a splicing mutation. We generated an iPSC-based model of the disease allowing mechanistic studies at the RNA level. F9 mRNA analysis in iPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells showed the predicted abnormal splicing. Mutated F9 mRNA level was very low but we also found traces of wild type transcripts. Background The royal disease is a form of hemophilia B (HB) that affected many descendants of Queen Victoria in the 19th and 20th centuries. It was found to be caused by the mutation F9 c.278-3A>G. Objective To generate a physiological cell model of the disease and to study F9 expression at the RNA level. Methods Using fibroblasts from skin biopsies of a previously identified hemophilic patient bearing the F9 c.278-3A>G mutation and his mother, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Both the patient's and mother's iPSCs were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) and their F9 mRNA was analyzed using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Results and Conclusion We demonstrated the previously predicted aberrant splicing of the F9 transcript as a result of an intronic nucleotide substitution leading to a frameshift and the generation of a premature termination codon (PTC). The F9 mRNA level in the patient's HLCs was significantly reduced compared with that of his mother, suggesting that mutated transcripts undergo nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), a cellular mechanism that degrades PTC-containing mRNAs. We also detected small proportions of correctly spliced transcripts in the patient's HLCs, which, combined with genetic variability in splicing and NMD machineries, could partially explain some clinical variability among affected members of the European royal families who had lifespans above the average. This work allowed the demonstration of the pathologic consequences of an intronic mutation in the F9 gene and represents the first bona fide cellular model of HB allowing the

  13. Condition monitoring of machinery using motor current signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryter, R.C.; Haynes, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is a powerful monitoring tool for motor-driven equipment that provides a nonintrusive means for detecting the presence of mechanical and electrical abnormalities in the motor and the driven equipment, including altered conditions in the process ''downstream'' of the motor-driven equipment. It was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a means for determining the effects of aging and service wear systems, but it is applicable to a broad range of machinery. MCSA is based on the recognition that an electric motor (ac or dc) driving a mechanical load acts as an efficient and permanently available transducer by sensing mechanical load variations, large and small, long-term and rapid, and converting them into variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. These motor current variations are carried by the electrical cables processes as desired. Motor current signatures, obtained in both time and over time to provide early indication of degradation. Successful applications of MCSA technology (patent applied for) include not only motor-operated valves but also pumps of various designs, blowers, and air conditioning systems. Examples are presented briefly, and speculation regarding the applicability of MCSA to a broader range of equipment monitoring and production line testing is also given. 1 ref., 13 figs

  14. Structure, Function and Regulation of the Hsp90 Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone which is essential in eukaryotes. It is required for the activation and stabilization of a wide variety of client proteins and many of them are involved in important cellular pathways. Since Hsp90 affects numerous physiological processes such as signal transduction, intracellular transport, and protein degradation, it became an interesting target for cancer therapy. Structurally, Hsp90 is a flexible dimeric protein composed of three different domains which adopt structurally distinct conformations. ATP binding triggers directionality in these conformational changes and leads to a more compact state. To achieve its function, Hsp90 works together with a large group of cofactors, termed co-chaperones. Co-chaperones form defined binary or ternary complexes with Hsp90, which facilitate the maturation of client proteins. In addition, posttranslational modifications of Hsp90, such as phosphorylation and acetylation, provide another level of regulation. They influence the conformational cycle, co-chaperone interaction, and inter-domain communications. In this review, we discuss the recent progress made in understanding the Hsp90 machinery.

  15. Neural networks for the monitoring of rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak

    1991-01-01

    Vibration monitoring of components in engineering systems and plants involves the collection of vibration data and detailed analysis to detect features which reflect the operational state of the machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. This paper describes a methodology for the automation of some of the activities related to motion and vibration monitoring in these systems. The technique involves training a neural network to model the inter- relationship between signals from two related sensors mounted on an engineering system or component at a time when it is known to be operating properly. Then one signal (or its characteristics) is put into the neural network model to predict the second signal (or its characteristics). This predicted signal is continuously compared with the actual signal A deviation between the predicted and actual signal indicates a changing relationship, usually failure of the component or system. This deviation may be quantified and provides meaningful information about the degree of degradation and deterioration of the component

  16. Technical development of fluid machinery area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Kyung Nam; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Yang Ik

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, recent research activity of Hyundai Heavy Industries in the fluid machinery area is introduced. Technical development has been carried out in pumps, turbines, construction equipment, side thrusters, engine lubrication flow, etc. Here the technology of pumps and cooling of construction equipment will be dealt with. We have actively used computational fluid dynamics in the performance analysis of pump models and the design of new models of various industrial pumps or marine pumps. And a cooling analysis system composed of 3D flow analysis and 1D cooling analysis has been established, and applied to the design of cooling systems of new models of excavators and wheel loaders. The above mentioned technology is presented in details, and some future works are mentioned

  17. Utility machinery vibration monitoring guide: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.T.; Thomas, C.C.

    1987-08-01

    Section I of this guide presents a methodology for developing machinery vibration monitoring programs specifically designed for application within the utility industry. The methodology is designed to enhance a monitoring program and can be used at the outset of program development or as a reference after programs have been started. Section I evaluates all aspects of the monitoring program, including Objectives and Goals, Information Type, Timing and Format, Data Analysis, Data Acquisition, Measurement and Transducer Selection, Personnel and Organization, Program Instrumentation, Program Costs, Program Justification, and Implementation of a Monitoring Program. The methodology is then applied to two host utility plants in Section II, which contains the monitoring programs developed by Gulf States Utilities and Philadelphia Electric Company using this guide. Section III contains the histories of several different types of existing utility monitoring programs. Some of the lessons learned, including the recommendations of these ''mature'' programs for persons starting new programs, are included

  18. Multiple Cylinder Free-Piston Stirling Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchowitz, David M.; Kwon, Yong-Rak

    In order to improve the specific power of piston-cylinder type machinery, there is a point in capacity or power where an advantage accrues with increasing number of piston-cylinder assemblies. In the case of Stirling machinery where primary energy is transferred across the casing wall of the machine, this consideration is even more important. This is due primarily to the difference in scaling of basic power and the required heat transfer. Heat transfer is found to be progressively limited as the size of the machine increases. Multiple cylinder machines tend to preserve the surface area to volume ratio at more favorable levels. In addition, the spring effect of the working gas in the so-called alpha configuration is often sufficient to provide a high frequency resonance point that improves the specific power. There are a number of possible multiple cylinder configurations. The simplest is an opposed pair of piston-displacer machines (beta configuration). A three-cylinder machine requires stepped pistons to obtain proper volume phase relationships. Four to six cylinder configurations are also possible. A small demonstrator inline four cylinder alpha machine has been built to demonstrate both cooling operation and power generation. Data from this machine verifies theoretical expectations and is used to extrapolate the performance of future machines. Vibration levels are discussed and it is argued that some multiple cylinder machines have no linear component to the casing vibration but may have a nutating couple. Example applications are discussed ranging from general purpose coolers, computer cooling, exhaust heat power extraction and some high power engines.

  19. Machinery failure analysis and troubleshooting practical machinery management for process plants

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    2012-01-01

    Solve the machinery failure problems costing you time and money with this classic, comprehensive guide to analysis and troubleshooting  Provides detailed, complete and accurate information on anticipating risk of component failure and avoiding equipment downtime Includes numerous photographs of failed parts to ensure you are familiar with the visual evidence you need to recognize Covers proven approaches to failure definition and offers failure identification and analysis methods that can be applied to virtually all problem situations Demonstr

  20. 46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section is satisfied, a vessel having only a natural ventilation system must satisfy the following: V/A≥1... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315... SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.315 Ventilation (other than machinery...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.164 - Ship's propulsion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's propulsion machinery. 1915.164 Section 1915.164 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.164 Ship's...

  2. A Survey of Fish Production and Processing Machinery in Rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of fish production and processing machinery in Port Harcourt City Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria was carried out to evaluate the followings: different machines used for fish production and processing, the most acceptable machine, effect of cost of machinery on the fish farmer, whether gender has ...

  3. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident...

  4. 46 CFR 185.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing...

  5. 46 CFR 122.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report...

  6. A comparative genomic analysis of the oxidative enzymes potentially involved in lignin degradation by Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshavardhan Doddapaneni; Venkataramanan Subramanian; Bolei Fu; Dan Cullen

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative enzymatic machinery for degradation of organic substrates in Agaricus bisporus (Ab) is at the core of the carbon recycling mechanisms in this fungus. To date, 156 genes have been tentatively identified as part of this oxidative enzymatic machinery, which includes 26 peroxidase encoding genes, nine copper radical oxidase [including three...

  7. Endocytic collagen degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel H.; Jürgensen, Henrik J.; Ingvarsen, Signe Ziir

    2012-01-01

    it crucially important to understand both the collagen synthesis and turnover mechanisms in this condition. Here we show that the endocytic collagen receptor, uPARAP/Endo180, is a major determinant in governing the balance between collagen deposition and degradation. Cirrhotic human livers displayed a marked...... up-regulation of uPARAP/Endo180 in activated fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells located close to the collagen deposits. In a hepatic stellate cell line, uPARAP/Endo180 was shown to be active in, and required for, the uptake and intracellular degradation of collagen. To evaluate the functional...... groups of mice clearly revealed a fibrosis protective role of uPARAP/Endo180. This effect appeared to directly reflect the activity of the collagen receptor, since no compensatory events were noted when comparing the mRNA expression profiles of the two groups of mice in an array system focused on matrix-degrading...

  8. The Antioxidant Machinery of Young and Senescent Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells and Their Microvesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Bodega

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the antioxidant role of young and senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and their microvesicles (MVs. Proteomic and Western blot studies have shown young HUVECs to have a complete and well-developed antioxidant system. Their MVs also contain antioxidant molecules, though of a smaller and more specific range, specialized in the degradation of hydrogen peroxide and the superoxide anion via the thioredoxin-peroxiredoxin system. Senescence was shown to be associated with a large increase in the size of the antioxidant machinery in both HUVECs and their MVs. These responses might help HUVECs and their MVs deal with the more oxidising conditions found in older cells. Functional analysis confirmed the antioxidant machinery of the MVs to be active and to increase in size with senescence. No glutathione or nonpeptide antioxidant (ascorbic acid and vitamin E activity was detected in the MVs. Endothelial cells and MVs seem to adapt to higher ROS concentrations in senescence by increasing their antioxidant machinery, although this is not enough to recover completely from the senescence-induced ROS increase. Moreover, MVs could be involved in the regulation of the blood plasma redox status by functioning as ROS scavengers.

  9. Modulation of DNA methylation machineries in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis by ethanol and 5-azacytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasmahapatra, Asok K; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-01-01

    As a sequel of our investigations on the impact of epigenome in inducing fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish, we have investigated on several DNA methylation machinery genes including DNA methyl transferase 3ba (dnmt3ba) and methyl binding proteins (MBPs), namely, mbd1b, mbd3a, mbd3b, and mecp2 at the transcription level. Studies were made during normal development, from 0day post fertilization (dpf) to hatching, and also exposing the fertilized eggs to ethanol or a DNMT inhibitor, 5-azacytidine (5-azaC). We observed that during development, all these genes followed distinct expression patterns, generally high mRNA copies in early phases (0-1dpf) and significantly low mRNA copies prior to or after hatching. Ethanol (100-500mM, 0-2dpf) was unable to alter any of these mRNAs in 2dpf; additional four day (2-6dpf) maintenance of these embryos in ethanol-free environment, on 6dpf, was also unable to establish any significant difference in these mRNA levels in comparison with the corresponding controls. However, continuous exposure of fertilized eggs in 300mM ethanol, 0-6dpf, showed significantly high mRNA copies only in MBPs (mbd1b, mbd3a, mbd3b, mecp2). 5-azaC (2mM) on 2dpf was able to enhance only mbd3b mRNA. Removal of 5-azaC and maintenance of these embryos in clean medium, 2-6dpf, showed significantly enhanced mbd3b and mecp2 mRNAs compared to corresponding controls on 6dpf. Our studies showed that in Japanese rice fish embryogenesis both ethanol and 5-azaC have the potential to specifically modulate the developmental rhythm of DNA methylation machineries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  11. Racial Differences in Expression Levels of miRNA Machinery-Related Genes, Dicer, Drosha, DGCR8, and AGO2, in Asian Korean Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Comparative Validation Using the Cancer Genome Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegil Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant regulation of microRNA (miRNA machinery components is associated with various human cancers, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, which is the most common type of thyroid cancer, and a higher prevalent female malignancy. The purpose of this study is to investigate racial differences in mRNA expression levels of four miRNA machinery components, Dicer, Drosha, DGCR8, and AGO2, and their correlations with clinicopathological characteristics. Forty PTC samples from female Asian Korean PTC patients were enrolled. Using qPCR, we examined mRNA expression levels of the components and next validated our results by comparison with results of female white American in the TCGA PTC project. Interestingly, mRNA expression levels of the selected factors were altered in the TCGA PTC samples. However, only Drosha showed a significantly lower expression level in Asian Korean PTC samples. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of the four components showed no association with clinicopathological characteristics in both groups. On the other hand, positive correlations were observed between altered mRNA expression levels of Dicer and Drosha and DGCR8 and Drosha in TCGA PTC samples. These findings collectively revealed that altered mRNA expression levels of miRNA machinery components might be responsible for racial differences in the carcinogenesis of PTC.

  12. Coordinated Regulations of mRNA Synthesis and Decay during Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis Cells.

    KAUST Repository

    Arae, Toshihiro

    2017-04-18

    Plants possess a cold acclimation system to acquire freezing tolerance through pre-exposure to non-freezing low temperatures. The transcriptional cascade of C-repeat binding factors (CBFs)/dehydration response element-binding factors (DREBs) is considered a major transcriptional regulatory pathway during cold acclimation. However, little is known regarding the functional significance of mRNA stability regulation in the response of gene expression to cold stress. The actual level of individual mRNAs is determined by a balance between mRNA synthesis and degradation. Therefore, it is important to assess the regulatory steps to increase our understanding of gene regulation. Here, we analyzed temporal changes in mRNA amounts and half-lives in response to cold stress in Arabidopsis cell cultures based on genome-wide analysis. In this mRNA decay array method, mRNA half-life measurements and microarray analyses were combined. In addition, temporal changes in the integrated value of transcription rates were estimated from the above two parameters using a mathematical approach. Our results showed that several cold-responsive genes, including Cold-regulated 15a, were relatively destabilized, whereas the mRNA amounts were increased during cold treatment by accelerating the transcription rate to overcome the destabilization. Considering the kinetics of mRNA synthesis and degradation, this apparently contradictory result supports that mRNA destabilization is advantageous for the swift increase in CBF-responsive genes in response to cold stress.

  13. Automation facilities for agricultural machinery control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Izmaylov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of use of the automation equipment for agricultural machinery control is investigated. The authors proposed solutions on creation of the centralized unified automated information system for mobile aggregates management. In accordance with the modern requirements this system should be open, integrated into the general schema of agricultural enterprise control. Standard hardware, software and communicative features should be realized in tasks of monitoring and control. Therefore the schema should be get with use the unified modules and Russian standards. The complex multivariate unified automated control system for different objects of agricultural purpose based on block and modular creation should correspond to the following principles: high reliability, simplicity of service, low expenses in case of operation, the short payback period connected to increase in productivity, the reduced losses when harvesting, postharvest processing and storage, the improved energetic indices. Technological processes control in agricultural production is exercised generally with feedback. The example without feedback is program control by temperature in storage in case of the cooling mode. Feedback at technological processes control in agricultural production allows to optimally solve a problem of rational distribution of functions in man-distributed systems and forming the intelligent ergonomic interfaces, consistent with professional perceptions of decision-makers. The negative feedback created by the control unit allows to support automatically a quality index of technological process at the set level. The quantitative analysis of a production situation base itself upon deeply formalized basis of computer facilities that promotes making of the optimal solution. Information automated control system introduction increases labor productivity by 40 percent, reduces energetic costs by 25 percent. Improvement of quality of the executed technological

  14. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  15. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1995-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous special vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Pump head and flow rate are also monitored, per code requirements. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition; advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  16. Emerging roles of the spliceosomal machinery in myelodysplastic syndromes and other hematological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconte, V; Makishima, H; Maciejewski, J P; Tiu, R V

    2012-12-01

    In humans, the majority of all protein-coding transcripts contain introns that are removed by mRNA splicing carried out by spliceosomes. Mutations in the spliceosome machinery have recently been identified using whole-exome/genome technologies in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and in other hematological disorders. Alterations in splicing factor 3 subunit b1 (SF3b1) were the first spliceosomal mutations described, immediately followed by identification of other splicing factor mutations, including U2 small nuclear RNA auxillary factor 1 (U2AF1) and serine arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2). SF3b1/U2AF1/SRSF2 mutations occur at varying frequencies in different disease subtypes, each contributing to differences in survival outcomes. However, the exact functional consequences of these spliceosomal mutations in the pathogenesis of MDS and other hematological malignancies remain largely unknown and subject to intense investigation. For SF3b1, a gain of function mutation may offer the promise of new targeted therapies for diseases that carry this molecular abnormality that can potentially lead to cure. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the emerging role of the spliceosome machinery in the biology of MDS/hematological disorders with an emphasis on the functional consequences of mutations, their clinical significance, and perspectives on how they may influence our understanding and management of diseases affected by these mutations.

  17. Emerging roles of the spliceosomal machinery in myelodysplastic syndromes and other hematologic disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconte, V; Makishima, H; Maciejewski, JP; Tiu, RV

    2013-01-01

    In humans, the majority of all protein-coding transcripts contain introns that are removed by mRNA splicing carried out by spliceosomes. Mutations in the spliceosome machinery have recently been identified using whole exome/genome technologies in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and in other hematologic disorders. Alterations in Splicing Factor 3 Subunit b1 (SF3b1) were the first spliceosomal mutations described, immediately followed by identification of other splicing factor mutations, including U2 Small Nuclear RNA Auxillary Factor 1 (U2AF1) and Serine Arginine Rich Splicing Factor 2 (SRSF2). SF3b1/U2AF1/SRSF2 mutations occur at varying frequencies in different disease subtypes, each contributing to differences in survival outcomes. However, the exact functional consequences of these spliceosomal mutations in the pathogenesis of MDS and other hematologic malignancies remain largely unknown and subject to intense investigation. For SF3b1, a gain of function mutation may offer the promise of new targeted therapies for diseases that carry this molecular abnormality that can potentially lead to cure. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the emerging role of the spliceosome machinery in the biology of MDS/hematologic disorders with an emphasis on the functional consequences of mutations, their clinical significance, and perspectives on how they may influence our understanding and management of diseases affected by these mutations. PMID:22678168

  18. Mutations in SNRPB, encoding components of the core splicing machinery, cause cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacrot, Séverine; Doyard, Mathilde; Huber, Céline; Alibeu, Olivier; Feldhahn, Niklas; Lehalle, Daphné; Lacombe, Didier; Marlin, Sandrine; Nitschke, Patrick; Petit, Florence; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Munnich, Arnold; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2015-02-01

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) is a developmental disorder characterized by the association of Pierre Robin sequence and posterior rib defects. Exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing in five unrelated CCMS patients revealed five heterozygous variants in the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptides B and B1 (SNRPB) gene. This gene includes three transcripts, namely transcripts 1 and 2, encoding components of the core spliceosomal machinery (SmB' and SmB) and transcript 3 undergoing nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. All variants were located in the premature termination codon (PTC)-introducing alternative exon of transcript 3. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant increase in transcript 3 levels in leukocytes of CCMS individuals compared to controls. We conclude that CCMS is due to heterozygous mutations in SNRPB, enhancing inclusion of a SNRPB PTC-introducing alternative exon, and show that this developmental disease is caused by defects in the splicing machinery. Our finding confirms the report of SNRPB mutations in CCMS patients by Lynch et al. (2014) and further extends the clinical and molecular observations. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  19. The pupylation machinery is involved in iron homeostasis by targeting the iron storage protein ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küberl, Andreas; Polen, Tino; Bott, Michael

    2016-04-26

    The balance of sufficient iron supply and avoidance of iron toxicity by iron homeostasis is a prerequisite for cellular metabolism and growth. Here we provide evidence that, in Actinobacteria, pupylation plays a crucial role in this process. Pupylation is a posttranslational modification in which the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein Pup is covalently attached to a lysine residue in target proteins, thus resembling ubiquitination in eukaryotes. Pupylated proteins are recognized and unfolded by a dedicated AAA+ ATPase (Mycobacterium proteasomal AAA+ ATPase; ATPase forming ring-shaped complexes). In Mycobacteria, degradation of pupylated proteins by the proteasome serves as a protection mechanism against several stress conditions. Other bacterial genera capable of pupylation such as Corynebacterium lack a proteasome, and the fate of pupylated proteins is unknown. We discovered that Corynebacterium glutamicum mutants lacking components of the pupylation machinery show a strong growth defect under iron limitation, which was caused by the absence of pupylation and unfolding of the iron storage protein ferritin. Genetic and biochemical data support a model in which the pupylation machinery is responsible for iron release from ferritin independent of degradation.

  20. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented

  1. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  2. The kinematics of machinery outlines of a theory of machines

    CERN Document Server

    Reuleaux, Franz

    2012-01-01

    A classic on the kinematics of machinery, this volume was written by the Father of Kinematics. Reuleaux writes with authority and precision, developing the subject from its fundamentals. 450 figures. 1876 edition.

  3. Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0644 TITLE: Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chun-Ju...Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0644 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a cell population with acquired perpetuating self-renewal properties which

  4. Intelligence and the machinery of government: conceptualizing the intelligence community

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, PHJ

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that the failure to address intelligence agencies as public organizations part and parcel with the overt machinery of government constitutes a significant lacuna both in the specialist study of intelligence and the broader discipline of public administration studies. The role and status of intelligence institutions as aspects of the machinery of central government is examined, along with the prospects of certain key paradigms in the field for understanding those institutio...

  5. Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein Promotes Efficient Nuclear Export of Unspliced Viral M1 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carina F; Read, Eliot K C; Wise, Helen M; Amorim, Maria J; Digard, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Influenza A virus mRNAs are transcribed by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the cell nucleus before being exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Segment 7 produces two major transcripts: an unspliced mRNA that encodes the M1 matrix protein and a spliced transcript that encodes the M2 ion channel. Export of both mRNAs is dependent on the cellular NXF1/TAP pathway, but it is unclear how they are recruited to the export machinery or how the intron-containing but unspliced M1 mRNA bypasses the normal quality-control checkpoints. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization to monitor segment 7 mRNA localization, we found that cytoplasmic accumulation of unspliced M1 mRNA was inefficient in the absence of NS1, both in the context of segment 7 RNPs reconstituted by plasmid transfection and in mutant virus-infected cells. This effect was independent of any major effect on steady-state levels of segment 7 mRNA or splicing but corresponded to a ∼5-fold reduction in the accumulation of M1. A similar defect in intronless hemagglutinin (HA) mRNA nuclear export was seen with an NS1 mutant virus. Efficient export of M1 mRNA required both an intact NS1 RNA-binding domain and effector domain. Furthermore, while wild-type NS1 interacted with cellular NXF1 and also increased the interaction of segment 7 mRNA with NXF1, mutant NS1 polypeptides unable to promote mRNA export did neither. Thus, we propose that NS1 facilitates late viral gene expression by acting as an adaptor between viral mRNAs and the cellular nuclear export machinery to promote their nuclear export. IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus is a major pathogen of a wide variety of mammalian and avian species that threatens public health and food security. A fuller understanding of the virus life cycle is important to aid control strategies. The virus has a small genome that encodes relatively few proteins that are often multifunctional. Here, we characterize a new function for the NS1 protein, showing that, as well as

  6. Genomic, proteomic and biochemical analysis of the chitinolytic machinery of Serratia marcescens BJL200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuveng, Tina R; Hagen, Live Heldal; Mekasha, Sophanit; Frank, Jeremy; Arntzen, Magnus Øverlie; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Eijsink, Vincent G H

    2017-04-01

    The chitinolytic machinery of Serratia marcescens BJL200 has been studied in detail over the last couple of decades, however, the proteome secreted by this Gram-negative bacterium during growth on chitin has not been studied in depth. In addition, the genome of this most studied chitinolytic Serratia strain has until now, not been sequenced. We report a draft genome sequence for S. marcescens BJL200. Using label-free quantification (LFQ) proteomics and a recently developed plate-method for assessing secretomes during growth on solid substrates, we find that, as expected, the chitin-active enzymes (ChiA, B, C, and CBP21) are produced in high amounts when the bacterium grows on chitin. Other proteins produced in high amounts after bacterial growth on chitin provide interesting targets for further exploration of the proteins involved in degradation of chitin-rich biomasses. The genome encodes a fourth chitinase (ChiD), which is produced in low amounts during growth on chitin. Studies of chitin degradation with mixtures of recombinantly produced chitin-degrading enzymes showed that ChiD does not contribute to the overall efficiency of the process. ChiD is capable of converting N,N'-diacetyl chitobiose to N-acetyl glucosamine, but is less efficient than another enzyme produced for this purpose, the Chitobiase. Thus, the role of ChiD in chitin degradation, if any, remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  8. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate of...

  9. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification referring...

  10. The RNAi machinery controls distinct responses to environmental signals in the basal fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás, Francisco E; Vila, Ana; Moxon, Simon; Cascales, María D; Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M; Garre, Victoriano

    2015-03-25

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved mechanism of genome defence that can also have a role in the regulation of endogenous functions through endogenous small RNAs (esRNAs). In fungi, knowledge of the functions regulated by esRNAs has been hampered by lack of clear phenotypes in most mutants affected in the RNAi machinery. Mutants of Mucor circinelloides affected in RNAi genes show defects in physiological and developmental processes, thus making Mucor an outstanding fungal model for studying endogenous functions regulated by RNAi. Some classes of Mucor esRNAs map to exons (ex-siRNAs) and regulate expression of the genes from which they derive. To have a broad picture of genes regulated by the silencing machinery during vegetative growth, we have sequenced and compared the mRNA profiles of mutants in the main RNAi genes by using RNA-seq. In addition, we have achieved a more complete phenotypic characterization of silencing mutants. Deletion of any main RNAi gene provoked a deep impact in mRNA accumulation at exponential and stationary growth. Genes showing increased mRNA levels, as expected for direct ex-siRNAs targets, but also genes with decreased expression were detected, suggesting that, most probably, the initial ex-siRNA targets regulate the expression of other genes, which can be up- or down-regulated. Expression of 50% of the genes was dependent on more than one RNAi gene in agreement with the existence of several classes of ex-siRNAs produced by different combinations of RNAi proteins. These combinations of proteins have also been involved in the regulation of different cellular processes. Besides genes regulated by the canonical RNAi pathway, this analysis identified processes, such as growth at low pH and sexual interaction that are regulated by a dicer-independent non-canonical RNAi pathway. This work shows that the RNAi pathways play a relevant role in the regulation of a significant number of endogenous genes in M. circinelloides during exponential

  11. Fault size classification of rotating machinery using support vector machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Park, S. K. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Studies on fault diagnosis of rotating machinery have been carried out to obtain a machinery condition in two ways. First is a classical approach based on signal processing and analysis using vibration and acoustic signals. Second is to use artificial intelligence techniques to classify machinery conditions into normal or one of the pre-determined fault conditions. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is well known as intelligent classifier with robust generalization ability. In this study, a two-step approach is proposed to predict fault types and fault sizes of rotating machinery in nuclear power plants using multi-class SVM technique. The model firstly classifies normal and 12 fault types and then identifies their sizes in case of predicting any faults. The time and frequency domain features are extracted from the measured vibration signals and used as input to SVM. A test rig is used to simulate normal and the well-know 12 artificial fault conditions with three to six fault sizes of rotating machinery. The application results to the test data show that the present method can estimate fault types as well as fault sizes with high accuracy for bearing an shaft-related faults and misalignment. Further research, however, is required to identify fault size in case of unbalance, rubbing, looseness, and coupling-related faults.

  12. Fault size classification of rotating machinery using support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Park, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on fault diagnosis of rotating machinery have been carried out to obtain a machinery condition in two ways. First is a classical approach based on signal processing and analysis using vibration and acoustic signals. Second is to use artificial intelligence techniques to classify machinery conditions into normal or one of the pre-determined fault conditions. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is well known as intelligent classifier with robust generalization ability. In this study, a two-step approach is proposed to predict fault types and fault sizes of rotating machinery in nuclear power plants using multi-class SVM technique. The model firstly classifies normal and 12 fault types and then identifies their sizes in case of predicting any faults. The time and frequency domain features are extracted from the measured vibration signals and used as input to SVM. A test rig is used to simulate normal and the well-know 12 artificial fault conditions with three to six fault sizes of rotating machinery. The application results to the test data show that the present method can estimate fault types as well as fault sizes with high accuracy for bearing an shaft-related faults and misalignment. Further research, however, is required to identify fault size in case of unbalance, rubbing, looseness, and coupling-related faults

  13. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  14. Multiscale singular value manifold for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yi; Lu, BaoChun; Zhang, Deng Feng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology,Nanjing (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Time-frequency distribution of vibration signal can be considered as an image that contains more information than signal in time domain. Manifold learning is a novel theory for image recognition that can be also applied to rotating machinery fault pattern recognition based on time-frequency distributions. However, the vibration signal of rotating machinery in fault condition contains cyclical transient impulses with different phrases which are detrimental to image recognition for time-frequency distribution. To eliminate the effects of phase differences and extract the inherent features of time-frequency distributions, a multiscale singular value manifold method is proposed. The obtained low-dimensional multiscale singular value manifold features can reveal the differences of different fault patterns and they are applicable to classification and diagnosis. Experimental verification proves that the performance of the proposed method is superior in rotating machinery fault diagnosis.

  15. Structural insights into the bacterial carbon - phosphorus lyase machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seweryn, Paulina; Van, Lan Bich; Kjeldgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus is required for all life and microorganisms can extract it from their environment through several metabolic pathways. When phosphate is in limited supply, some bacteria are able to use phosphonate compounds, which require specialized enzymatic machinery to break the stable carbon......–phosphorus (C–P) bond. Despite its importance, the details of how this machinery catabolizes phosphonates remain unknown. Here we determine the crystal structure of the 240-kilodalton Escherichia coli C–P lyase core complex (PhnG–PhnH–PhnI–PhnJ; PhnGHIJ), and show that it is a two-fold symmetric hetero...

  16. Densification of chipper harvested SRC using on-farm machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, M.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives details of a project to density wood chips using on-farm machinery in order to avoid problems encountered in bulk handling and storage of low density short rotation cultivation (SRC) wood chips - especially as some customers can only accept baled material. Trials using different lengths of chips produced by a standard SRC harvester are described, and the failure to produce acceptable bales is reported. The potential cost of modifying equipment is deemed to make the baling of SRC chips using standard farm machinery currently not viable.

  17. MECHANISM AND REGULATION OF NONSENSE-MEDIATED MRNA DECAY (NMD, AN ESSENTIAL QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEM OF PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Silhavy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cell, various quality control mechanisms have evolved to ensure that only perfect mRNAs could be translated. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD is a quality control system that identifies and eliminates mRNAs containing premature termination codons, thereby preventing the accumulation of potentially harmful truncated proteins. While NMD is well-characterized in yeast, in invertebrates and in mammals, plant NMD is poorly understood. In yeast and in invertebrates unusually long 3'untranslated regions (3'UTRs render an mRNA subject to NMD, while in mammals' 3'UTR located introns trigger NMD. UPF1, 2 and 3 are the key trans-acting NMD factors in yeast as well as in animals. However, in mammals, the core components of the Exon Junction Complex (Mago, Y14, eIF4A3 and MLN51 are also required for NMD. It was proposed that long 3’UTR-induced NMD is the ancient type and that it was changed to a more complex intron-based NMD in mammals. To better understand the evolution of eukaryotic NMD systems, we have studied the NMD machinery of plants, as plants are outgroup relative to fungi and animals. We have elaborated various transient assays to analyze plant NMD. Using these assays we defined the cis elements of plant NMD and characterized several trans-acting plant NMD factors. We demonstrated that two plant NMD pathways co-exist, one pathway, as yeast or invertebrate NMD systems, eliminates mRNAs with long 3'UTRs, while a distinct pathway, like mammalian NMD, degrades mRNAs harbouring 3'UTR-located introns. We showed that UPF1, UPF2, and SMG-7 are involved in both plant NMD pathways, whereas Mago and Y14 are required only for intron-based NMD. We also provide evidence that the molecular mechanism of long 3'UTR-based plant NMD resembles yeast NMD, while the intron-based NMD is similar to mammalian NMD. Moreover we have found that the SMG-7 component of plant NMD is targeted by NMD suggesting that plant NMD is autoregulated. We propose that in

  18. Applying the breaks on gene expression - mRNA deadenylation by Pop2p

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Røjkjær; Jonstrup, Anette Thyssen; Van, Lan Bich

    When driving a car, control of the brakes is just as important as control of the accelerator pedal. Likewise, in gene expression, regulation of mRNA degradation is as important as regulation of its synthesis (Mühlemann, 2005). The rate-determining step of mRNA decay in eukaryotes seems to be the ......When driving a car, control of the brakes is just as important as control of the accelerator pedal. Likewise, in gene expression, regulation of mRNA degradation is as important as regulation of its synthesis (Mühlemann, 2005). The rate-determining step of mRNA decay in eukaryotes seems...... to be the shortening of the poly(A) tail (deadenylation), as this step is slower than the subsequent decapping and degradation of the mRNA body. The Mega-Dalton Ccr4-Not complex contains two exonucleases, Ccr4p and Pop2p, responsible for this process. It is not known at present why two conserved nucleases are needed...

  19. Autophagy response: manipulating the mTOR-controlled machinery by amino acids and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Claudio Marcelo; Aguilera, Milton Osmar; Colombo, María Isabel

    2015-10-01

    Macroautophagy is a self-degradative process that normally maintains cellular homeostasis via a lysosomal pathway. It is induced by different stress signals, including nutrients and growth factors' restriction as well as pathogen invasions. These stimuli are modulated by the serine/threonine protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) which control not only autophagy but also protein translation and gene expression. This review focuses on the important role of mTOR as a master regulator of cell growth and the autophagy pathway. Here, we have discussed the role of intracellular amino acid availability and intracellular pH in the redistribution of autophagic structures, which may contribute to mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity regulation. We have also discussed that mTORC1 complex and components of the autophagy machinery are localized at the lysosomal surface, representing a fascinating mechanism to control the metabolism, cellular clearance and also to restrain invading intracellular pathogens.

  20. Proteasomal and Lysosomal Protein Degradation and Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xuejun; Robbins, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    In the cell, the proteasome and lysosomes represent the most important proteolytic machineries, responsible for the protein degradation in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy, respectively. Both the UPS and autophagy are essential to protein quality and quantity control. Alterations in cardiac proteasomal and lysosomal degradation are remarkably associated with most heart disease in humans and are implicated in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure. Studies carried out ...

  1. Implications of material selection on the design of packaging machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J P

    2009-01-01

    Material selection has significant implications on the design and cost of horizontal-form-fill-seal packaging machinery. To avoid excessive costs, machine redesigns and project delays, material selection must be reconciled early in the project and revisited throughout the construction of the machine.

  2. The Machinery for Enforcement of Domestic Arbitral Awards in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... Arbitration is a private means of resolving dispute which is resorted to, chiefly because the parties choose to avoid as much as possible employing the state machinery for dispute resolution, namely the court and its dreaded time consuming ...

  3. The capacity of sugar beet farms’ machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata BZOWSKA – BAKALARZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey investigates into equipment of sugar beet farms of the Lublin region, Poland, with machinery – with reference to plantation size and yields. To assess the production potential of the farms, the authors determined the age structure of the machinery owned by the farmers and established the scale of investment in new equipment. The machinery most important for sugar beet production are pre-sowing and post-harvest tillage units, sprayers, seed drills, combine harvesters and self-unloading trailers. In most cases, the surveyed farmers own most of these machines, but they are often obsolete: 37% of them is in operation for more than 15 years. As for the machines dedicated solely to sugar beet growing (harvesters and seeders, their age structure is most unfavourable – 70% of them have been used for over 15 years. A trend towards increasing plantation sizes provides incentives for introducing innovation to cultivation methods. However, the scale of investment in new machinery is small, especially in the case of small and medium-sized farms that dominate in the region. The authors surveyed also the scale of using professional services in the field of tillage processes to determine changes in farming practices.

  4. Web-based Interactive Simulator for Rotating Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Vijayalaxmi

    1999-01-01

    Baroma (Balance of Rotating Machinery), the Web-based educational engineering interactive software for teaching/learning combines didactical and software ergonomical approaches. The software in tutorial form simulates a problem using Visual Interactive Simulation in graphic display, and animation is brought about through graphical user interface…

  5. Correlation of mRNA Profiles, miRNA Profiles, and Functional Immune Response in Rainbow Trout (Oncorrhynkus Mykiss) Infected With Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) and in Fish Vaccinated With a DNA Vaccine Against VHSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Jørgensen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    and are incorporated into the RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC), which target specific mRNA sequences, causing either mRNA degradation or translation repression. This results in altered mRNA and protein profiles characteristic of a particular cellular phenotype or physiological state. By targeting immune relevant m...

  6. Deciphering the signaling mechanisms of the plant cell wall degradation machinery in Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udatha, D. B. R. K. Gupta; Topakas, Evangelos; Salazar, Margarita Pena

    2015-01-01

    is required to rationally engineer filamentous fungi for more efficient bioconversion of different types of biomass. Results: In this study we focused on ten chemically defined inducers to drive expression of cellulases, hemicellulases and accessory enzymes in the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae....... oryzae genome were only partially explained by the chemical similarity of the enzyme inducers. Genes encoding enzymes that have attracted considerable interest such as cellobiose dehydrogenases and copper-dependent polysaccharide mono-oxygenases presented a substrate-specific induction. Several homology...... in 2360 reactions in the genome scale metabolic network of A. oryzae, was performed through a two-step molecular docking against the binding pockets of the transcription factors AoXlnR and AoAmyR. A total of six metabolites viz., sulfite (H2SO3), sulfate (SLF), uroporphyrinogen III (UPGIII), ethanolamine...

  7. Acute Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Independent Unconventional Splicing of XBP1 mRNA in the Nucleus of Mammalian Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of expression of X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP1, a transcriptional factor, involves an unconventional mRNA splicing that removes the 26 nucleotides intron. In contrast to the conventional splicing that exclusively takes place in the nucleus, determining the location of unconventional splicing still remains controversial. This study was designed to examine whether the unconventional spicing of XBP1 mRNA could occur in the nucleus and its possible biological relevance. We use RT-PCR reverse transcription system and the expand high fidelity PCR system to detect spliced XBP1 mRNA, and fraction cells to determine the location of the unconventional splicing of XBP1 mRNA. We employ reporter constructs to show the presence of unconventional splicing machinery in mammal cells independently of acute endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Our results reveal the presence of basal unconventional splicing of XBP1 mRNA in the nucleus that also requires inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase and endonuclease 1α (IRE1α and can occur independently of acute ER stress. Furthermore, we confirm that acute ER stress induces the splicing of XBP1 mRNA predominantly occurring in the cytoplasm, but it also promotes the splicing in the nucleus. The deletion of 5′-nucleotides in XBP1 mRNA significantly increases its basal unconventional splicing, suggesting that the secondary structure of XBP1 mRNA may determine the location of unconventional splicing. These results suggest that the unconventional splicing of XBP1 mRNA can take place in the nucleus and/or cytoplasm, which possibly depends on the elaborate regulation. The acute ER stress-independent unconventional splicing in the nucleus is most likely required for the maintaining of day-to-day folding protein homeostasis.

  8. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  9. Repetitive stimulation of autophagy-lysosome machinery by intermittent fasting preconditions the myocardium to ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Rebecca J; Ma, Xiucui; Liu, Haiyan; Murphy, John T; Weinheimer, Carla J; Kovacs, Attila; Crosby, Seth D; Saftig, Paul; Diwan, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway, is potently stimulated in the myocardium by fasting and is essential for maintaining cardiac function during prolonged starvation. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent fasting protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via transcriptional stimulation of the autophagy-lysosome machinery. Adult C57BL/6 mice subjected to 24-h periods of fasting, every other day, for 6 wk were protected from in-vivo ischemia-reperfusion injury on a fed day, with marked reduction in infarct size in both sexes as compared with nonfasted controls. This protection was lost in mice heterozygous null for Lamp2 (coding for lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2), which demonstrate impaired autophagy in response to fasting with accumulation of autophagosomes and SQSTM1, an autophagy substrate, in the heart. In lamp2 null mice, intermittent fasting provoked progressive left ventricular dilation, systolic dysfunction and hypertrophy; worsening cardiomyocyte autophagosome accumulation and lack of protection to ischemia-reperfusion injury, suggesting that intact autophagy-lysosome machinery is essential for myocardial homeostasis during intermittent fasting and consequent ischemic cardioprotection. Fasting and refeeding cycles resulted in transcriptional induction followed by downregulation of autophagy-lysosome genes in the myocardium. This was coupled with fasting-induced nuclear translocation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of autophagy-lysosome machinery; followed by rapid decline in nuclear TFEB levels with refeeding. Endogenous TFEB was essential for attenuation of hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cell death by repetitive starvation, in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, in-vitro. Taken together, these data suggest that TFEB-mediated transcriptional priming of the autophagy-lysosome machinery mediates the beneficial effects of fasting-induced autophagy in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  10. Repetitive stimulation of autophagy-lysosome machinery by intermittent fasting preconditions the myocardium to ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Rebecca J; Ma, Xiucui; Liu, Haiyan; Murphy, John T; Weinheimer, Carla J; Kovacs, Attila; Crosby, Seth D; Saftig, Paul; Diwan, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway, is potently stimulated in the myocardium by fasting and is essential for maintaining cardiac function during prolonged starvation. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent fasting protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via transcriptional stimulation of the autophagy-lysosome machinery. Adult C57BL/6 mice subjected to 24-h periods of fasting, every other day, for 6 wk were protected from in-vivo ischemia-reperfusion injury on a fed day, with marked reduction in infarct size in both sexes as compared with nonfasted controls. This protection was lost in mice heterozygous null for Lamp2 (coding for lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2), which demonstrate impaired autophagy in response to fasting with accumulation of autophagosomes and SQSTM1, an autophagy substrate, in the heart. In lamp2 null mice, intermittent fasting provoked progressive left ventricular dilation, systolic dysfunction and hypertrophy; worsening cardiomyocyte autophagosome accumulation and lack of protection to ischemia-reperfusion injury, suggesting that intact autophagy-lysosome machinery is essential for myocardial homeostasis during intermittent fasting and consequent ischemic cardioprotection. Fasting and refeeding cycles resulted in transcriptional induction followed by downregulation of autophagy-lysosome genes in the myocardium. This was coupled with fasting-induced nuclear translocation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of autophagy-lysosome machinery; followed by rapid decline in nuclear TFEB levels with refeeding. Endogenous TFEB was essential for attenuation of hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cell death by repetitive starvation, in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, in-vitro. Taken together, these data suggest that TFEB-mediated transcriptional priming of the autophagy-lysosome machinery mediates the beneficial effects of fasting-induced autophagy in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:26103523

  11. Host factor I, Hfq, binds to Escherichia coli ompA mRNA in a growth rate-dependent fashion and regulates its stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vytvytska, O; Jakobsen, J S; Balcunaite, G

    1998-01-01

    RNA. In hfq mutant cells with a deficient Hfq gene product, the RNA-binding activity is missing, and analysis of the ompA mRNA showed that the growth-rate dependence of degradation is lost. Furthermore, the half-life of the ompA mRNA is prolonged in the mutant cells, irrespective of growth rate. Hfq has...

  12. Identification of stress responsive genes by studying specific relationships between mRNA and protein abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Shimpei; Yahara, Koji

    2018-03-01

    Protein expression is regulated by the production and degradation of mRNAs and proteins but the specifics of their relationship are controversial. Although technological advances have enabled genome-wide and time-series surveys of mRNA and protein abundance, recent studies have shown paradoxical results, with most statistical analyses being limited to linear correlation, or analysis of variance applied separately to mRNA and protein datasets. Here, using recently analyzed genome-wide time-series data, we have developed a statistical analysis framework for identifying which types of genes or biological gene groups have significant correlation between mRNA and protein abundance after accounting for potential time delays. Our framework stratifies all genes in terms of the extent of time delay, conducts gene clustering in each stratum, and performs a non-parametric statistical test of the correlation between mRNA and protein abundance in a gene cluster. Consequently, we revealed stronger correlations than previously reported between mRNA and protein abundance in two metabolic pathways. Moreover, we identified a pair of stress responsive genes ( ADC17 and KIN1 ) that showed a highly similar time series of mRNA and protein abundance. Furthermore, we confirmed robustness of the analysis framework by applying it to another genome-wide time-series data and identifying a cytoskeleton-related gene cluster (keratin 18, keratin 17, and mitotic spindle positioning) that shows similar correlation. The significant correlation and highly similar changes of mRNA and protein abundance suggests a concerted role of these genes in cellular stress response, which we consider provides an answer to the question of the specific relationships between mRNA and protein in a cell. In addition, our framework for studying the relationship between mRNAs and proteins in a cell will provide a basis for studying specific relationships between mRNA and protein abundance after accounting for potential

  13. Scattering transform and LSPTSVM based fault diagnosis of rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shangjun; Cheng, Bo; Shang, Zhaowei; Liu, Geng

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery to overcome the shortcomings of classical techniques which are noise sensitive in feature extraction and time consuming for training. Based on the scattering transform and the least squares recursive projection twin support vector machine (LSPTSVM), the method has the advantages of high efficiency and insensitivity for noise signal. Using the energy of the scattering coefficients in each sub-band, the features of the vibration signals are obtained. Then, an LSPTSVM classifier is used for fault diagnosis. The new method is compared with other common methods including the proximal support vector machine, the standard support vector machine and multi-scale theory by using fault data for two systems, a motor bearing and a gear box. The results show that the new method proposed in this study is more effective for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery.

  14. Regulation of mRNA translation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Marvin E; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Weissman, Jonathan S; Vale, Ronald D

    2015-08-25

    Passage through mitosis is driven by precisely-timed changes in transcriptional regulation and protein degradation. However, the importance of translational regulation during mitosis remains poorly understood. Here, using ribosome profiling, we find both a global translational repression and identified ~200 mRNAs that undergo specific translational regulation at mitotic entry. In contrast, few changes in mRNA abundance are observed, indicating that regulation of translation is the primary mechanism of modulating protein expression during mitosis. Interestingly, 91% of the mRNAs that undergo gene-specific regulation in mitosis are translationally repressed, rather than activated. One of the most pronounced translationally-repressed genes is Emi1, an inhibitor of the anaphase promoting complex (APC) which is degraded during mitosis. We show that full APC activation requires translational repression of Emi1 in addition to its degradation. These results identify gene-specific translational repression as a means of controlling the mitotic proteome, which may complement post-translational mechanisms for inactivating protein function.

  15. 46 CFR 182.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... furnish natural or powered supply and exhaust ventilation. The total inlet area and the total outlet area... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 182... Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with...

  16. 49 CFR 393.130 - What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery which operate on wheels or tracks, such as front end... heavy vehicles, equipment or machinery with crawler tracks or wheels. (1) In addition to the...

  17. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  18. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and auxiliary...

  19. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to examine...

  20. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  1. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must be...

  2. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel tanks...

  3. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section 169.629 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural...

  4. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fumigants for grain-mill machinery... Tolerances § 180.521 Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants may be safely used in or on grain-mill machinery in accordance with the following prescribed conditions...

  5. Dedicated monitoring and machinery protection systems on reciprocating compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, Alvaro; Wenisch, Markus [Hoerbiger Ventilwerke GmbH and Co KG, Wien (Austria); Jacobs, Denis [HOERBIGER do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Growing demands on reciprocating compressors (recips) in the process gas industry require particular solutions for machinery protection and performance monitoring systems. Compared to rotating equipment, monitoring systems for recips have to consider the special mechanical and physical characteristics, such as oscillating masses, variable vibration behaviour and varying operating conditions. Furthermore, they provide valuable information about the performance of cylinder related components allowing the operator the optimization of efficiency and availability, and therefore increase production. (author)

  6. Abrasive Wear of Alloyed Cast Steels Applied for Heavy Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studnicki A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results and analysis of abrasive wear studies were shown for two grades of cast steels: low-alloyed cast steel applied for heavy machinery parts such as housing, covers etc. and chromium cast steels applied for kinetic nodes of pin-sleeve type. Studies were performed using the modified in Department of Foundry pin-on-disc method.

  7. Targeting Transcription Elongation Machinery for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    ABSTRACT: This project focuses on the important but under-studied role of the P-TEFb- dependent transcription elongation machinery in human breast...molecule CDK9 inhibitors can be used to halt breast cancer metastasis. 8 experimental groups to test various drug dosage and frequency regimes will...tumor cells, which are said to be ’ addicted ’ to this protein. Consistently, pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 has demonstrated great promise in

  8. Electric machinery and drives in thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The following subjects were dealt with during the VDE meeting: 1) Requirements made by the electric network on the generators and their excitation equipment, and the influence thereof on their design; 2) requirements made by the power station process on the electric drives and the influence thereof on type and design; 3) requirements made on protective measures from the point of the electric power station machinery. (TK) [de

  9. Performance of machinery in potato production in one growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE. The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits.

  10. Progress in control equipment for fuel-handling machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutting, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper outlines the development of the equipment used to control the fuel-handling machinery associated with nuclear reactors, from the early electromechanical equipment, through solid-state switching logic to programmable controllers and microprocessors. The control techniques have developed along with the technology, and modern systems offer versatility, reliability and ease of design, operation and maintenance. Future trends and developments are discussed together with possible limiting factors. (author)

  11. Designing a machinery control system (MCS) security testbed

    OpenAIRE

    Desso, Nathan H.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Industrial control systems (ICS) face daily cyber security threats, can have a significant impact to the security of our nation, and present a difficult challenge to defend. Critical infrastructures, including military systems like the machinery control systems (MCS) found onboard modern U.S. warships, are affected because of their use of commercial automation solutions. The increase of automated control systems within the U.S. Navy sa...

  12. Performance of machinery in potato production in one growing season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, K.; Jensen, A.L.; Bochtis, D.D.; Sørensen, C.G.

    2015-07-01

    Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE). The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits. (Author)

  13. Fault diagnosis in rotating machinery by vibration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzad, M.; Asayesh, M.

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic behavior of unbalanced bent shaft has been investigated in this research. Finite element method is used for unbalance response calculation of a bent shaft. The result shows the effect of bent on the unbalance response. The angle between bent vector and unbalance force, position and type of supports, shaft diameter and disk position can affect the outcome. The results of this research can significantly help in fault diagnosis in rotating machinery

  14. Production method of hydrogen jet plasma process in hydro machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of present paper is to the process of plasma formation in hydro machinery when a hydro turbine operates at various conditions and load rejection. By investigation the power, shock pressure , and impact effects of hydro machinery, it is revealed that energy and hydrogen are generated by the plasma process. The investigation on several turbines of various hydro power plants reveals that cold fusion process in hydro machinery generates hydrogen. The hypothesis concerning the participation of alkaline metals in river water and the atomic nuclei of the runner blade material in the formation of hydrogen are considered. It is possible to assume hydrogen, deuterium, helium, and tritium atoms (based on Dr. Mizuno and Dr. Kanarev theories) that are formed, diffuse into cavitation bubbles. The plasma is generated during the collapse of the bubble; thus, the quantity of burnt hydrogen determine the volume of generating hydrogen and the impact force caused by hydrogen explosion (noise).There are five main notions, which can determine hydrogen and plasma process: (1) turbine power effect, (2) high shock pressure, (3) crack on turbine parts, (4) impacts effects and (4) the lift of rotating parts. The frequency of the excitation lies in a range from 0.786 to 1.095 Hz.In future, it may be possible to design hydro turbines based on the plasma process that generates hydrogen; or there may exist turbines that rotate with a mixture of hydrogen explosion and water energies

  15. On the reversed Brayton cycle with high speed machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J.

    1996-12-31

    This work was carried out in the laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, at Lappeenranta University of Technology during the years 1991-1996. The research was a part of larger high speed technology development research. First, there was the idea of making high speed machinery applications with the Brayton cycle. There was a clear need to deepen the knowledge of the cycle itself and to make a new approach in the field of the research. Also, the removal of water from the humid air seemed very interesting. The goal of this work was to study methods of designing high speed machinery for the reversed Brayton cycle, from theoretical principles to practical applications. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. A new calculation method for the Brayton cycle is developed. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. Also, the influence of calculating the process with actual, achievable process equipment efficiencies is essential for the development of future machinery. The above theoretical calculations are confirmed with two different laboratory prototypes. (53 refs.)

  16. On the reversed Brayton cycle with high speed machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J

    1997-12-31

    This work was carried out in the laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, at Lappeenranta University of Technology during the years 1991-1996. The research was a part of larger high speed technology development research. First, there was the idea of making high speed machinery applications with the Brayton cycle. There was a clear need to deepen the knowledge of the cycle itself and to make a new approach in the field of the research. Also, the removal of water from the humid air seemed very interesting. The goal of this work was to study methods of designing high speed machinery for the reversed Brayton cycle, from theoretical principles to practical applications. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. A new calculation method for the Brayton cycle is developed. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. Also, the influence of calculating the process with actual, achievable process equipment efficiencies is essential for the development of future machinery. The above theoretical calculations are confirmed with two different laboratory prototypes. (53 refs.)

  17. Structural design of nuclear reactor machinery and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Hideki

    1992-01-01

    Since the machinery, equipment and piping which compose nuclear power station facilities are diverse, when those are designed, consideration is given sufficiently to the objective of use and the importance of the object machinery and equipment so that those can maintain the soundness over the design life. In this report, on the contents and the design standard in the design techniques for nuclear reactor machinery and equipment, the way of thinking is shown, taking an example of reactor pressure vessel which is stipulated as the vessel kind 1 in the 'Technical standard of structures and others regarding nuclear facilities for electric power generation', Notice No. 501 of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. The reactor pressure vessel of 1350 MWe improved type BWR (ABWR) is used under the condition of 87.9 kg/cm 2 and 302 degC, and the inside diameter is about 7.2 m, the inside height is about 21 m, and the wall thickness is about 170 mm. The design standard for reactor pressure vessels and its way of thinking, breakdown prevention design and the design techniques for reactor pressure vessels are described. (K.I.)

  18. Spatiotemporal Regulation of Nuclear Transport Machinery and Microtubule Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Naoyuki; Sato, Masamitsu

    2015-01-01

    Spindle microtubules capture and segregate chromosomes and, therefore, their assembly is an essential event in mitosis. To carry out their mission, many key players for microtubule formation need to be strictly orchestrated. Particularly, proteins that assemble the spindle need to be translocated at appropriate sites during mitosis. A small GTPase (hydrolase enzyme of guanosine triphosphate), Ran, controls this translocation. Ran plays many roles in many cellular events: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling through the nuclear envelope, assembly of the mitotic spindle, and reorganization of the nuclear envelope at the mitotic exit. Although these events are seemingly distinct, recent studies demonstrate that the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are substantially the same as explained by molecular interplay of the master regulator Ran, the transport factor importin, and its cargo proteins. Our review focuses on how the transport machinery regulates mitotic progression of cells. We summarize translocation mechanisms governed by Ran and its regulatory proteins, and particularly focus on Ran-GTP targets in fission yeast that promote spindle formation. We also discuss the coordination of the spatial and temporal regulation of proteins from the viewpoint of transport machinery. We propose that the transport machinery is an essential key that couples the spatial and temporal events in cells. PMID:26308057

  19. Association between SNPs in microRNA-machinery genes and tuberculosis susceptibility in Chinese Tibetan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingbo; Li, Siyue; QuCuo, MeiLang; Zhou, MeiLang; Zhou, Yi; Hu, Xin; Zhou, Juan; Lu, Xiaojun; Wang, Jun; Hua, Wei; Ye, Yuanxin; Ying, Binwu; Wang, Lanlan

    2013-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality caused by infectious agents worldwide. Although our current understanding of the pathogenesis of TB is far from clear, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting a genetic contribution to the etiology of TB. By analyzing 294 TB cases and 287 healthy controls in a Chinese Tibetan population, we used a candidate gene approach to evaluate the association between six single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs10719, rs3757, rs3742330, rs636832, rs7813, and rs3744741) in microRNA machinery genes and TB susceptibility. The genotypic distributions of rs3757 and rs3744741 in controls were not in accordance with the Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium (P microRNA-632 (miR-632) and that the G allele alters the affinity of microRNA-mRNA binding by disrupting the local structure of dicer 1, ribonuclease type III (DICER) mRNA, presumably allowing for upregulated DICER expression. Taken together, our data suggest that common genetic variations DICER may influence TB risk, possibly through miR-632-mediated regulation. Replication of our studies in other populations will strengthen our understanding of this association.

  20. Cavitation and gas-liquid flow in fluid machinery and devices. FED-Volume 190

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hern, T.J.; Kim, J.H.; Morgan, W.B.; Furuya, O.

    1994-01-01

    Cavitation and gas-liquid two-phase flow have remained important areas in many industrial applications and constantly provided challenges for academic researchers and industrial practitioners alike. Cavitation and two-phase flow commonly occur in fluid machinery such as pumps, propellers, and fluid devices such as orifices, valves, and diffusers. Cavitation not only degrades the performance of these machines and devices but deteriorates the materials. Gas-liquid two-phase flow has also been known to degrade the performance of pumps and propellers and can often induce an instability. The industrial applications of cavitation and two-phase flow can be found in power plants, ship propellers, hydrofoils, and aerospace equipment, to name but a few. The papers presented in this volume reflect the variety and richness of cavitation and gas-liquid two-phase flow in various flow transporting components and the increasing role they play in modern and conventional technologies. Separate abstracts were prepared for 35 papers in this book

  1. Risk assessments and safe machinery ensuring compliance with the EU directives

    CERN Document Server

    Jespen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the prerequisites for the placing on the market and the safe use of machinery in compliance with the relevant EU Directives, especially the Machinery Directive 2006/42. It provides readers with high-level knowledge concerning the Essential Health and Safety Requirements (EHSR) that machinery must fulfill. The approach and principles of the Machinery Directive were most recently made worldwide acknowledged in the ILO code of practice on safe machinery, released in 2013. The book addresses that code, as well as providing valuable insight into other EU Product and Workplace legislation. Focusing on the key aspect of safe machinery, the “machinery safety risk assessment”, which allows readers to better understand the more difficult aspects of risk assessments, the book equips readers to tackle problems at the manufacturing stage and in different use scenarios, introducing them to risk reduction techniques and functional safety aspects.

  2. Vibration vector monitoring of rotating machinery: A predictive/preventative maintenance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humes, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring of overall vibration amplitudes to indicate machinery faults is a standard practice in most industries. The appearance of shaft cracks in machines retrofitted for extended life have prompted development of higher levels of machinery monitoring. Part 1 of this paper discusses vibration vector monitoring for machinery malfunction prediction and failure prevention. Machinery faults which can be diagnosed by this type of monitoring, such as rotor rubs, loose parts, shaft cracks, ..., are presented along with their most common characteristics. The newest, most effective methods of permanent machinery monitoring are presented and critiqued. An extensive case history is presented in Part 2 in which a potentially disastrous machinery fault was predicted using vibration vector monitoring and analysis. The addition of vector monitoring to the normal, overall vibration monitoring proved more effective in diagnosing the machinery fault and predicting impending failure

  3. AAA-ATPases in Protein Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikiran S. Yedidi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteolytic machineries containing multisubunit protease complexes and AAA-ATPases play a key role in protein quality control and the regulation of protein homeostasis. In these protein degradation machineries, the proteolytically active sites are formed by either threonines or serines which are buried inside interior cavities of cylinder-shaped complexes. In eukaryotic cells, the proteasome is the most prominent protease complex harboring AAA-ATPases. To degrade protein substrates, the gates of the axial entry ports of the protease need to be open. Gate opening is accomplished by AAA-ATPases, which form a hexameric ring flanking the entry ports of the protease. Protein substrates with unstructured domains can loop into the entry ports without the assistance of AAA-ATPases. However, folded proteins require the action of AAA-ATPases to unveil an unstructured terminus or domain. Cycles of ATP binding/hydrolysis fuel the unfolding of protein substrates which are gripped by loops lining up the central pore of the AAA-ATPase ring. The AAA-ATPases pull on the unfolded polypeptide chain for translocation into the proteolytic cavity of the protease. Conformational changes within the AAA-ATPase ring and the adjacent protease chamber create a peristaltic movement for substrate degradation. The review focuses on new technologies toward the understanding of the function and structure of AAA-ATPases to achieve substrate recognition, unfolding and translocation into proteasomes in yeast and mammalian cells and into proteasome-equivalent proteases in bacteria and archaea.

  4. AAA-ATPases in Protein Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S; Wendler, Petra; Enenkel, Cordula

    2017-01-01

    Proteolytic machineries containing multisubunit protease complexes and AAA-ATPases play a key role in protein quality control and the regulation of protein homeostasis. In these protein degradation machineries, the proteolytically active sites are formed by either threonines or serines which are buried inside interior cavities of cylinder-shaped complexes. In eukaryotic cells, the proteasome is the most prominent protease complex harboring AAA-ATPases. To degrade protein substrates, the gates of the axial entry ports of the protease need to be open. Gate opening is accomplished by AAA-ATPases, which form a hexameric ring flanking the entry ports of the protease. Protein substrates with unstructured domains can loop into the entry ports without the assistance of AAA-ATPases. However, folded proteins require the action of AAA-ATPases to unveil an unstructured terminus or domain. Cycles of ATP binding/hydrolysis fuel the unfolding of protein substrates which are gripped by loops lining up the central pore of the AAA-ATPase ring. The AAA-ATPases pull on the unfolded polypeptide chain for translocation into the proteolytic cavity of the protease. Conformational changes within the AAA-ATPase ring and the adjacent protease chamber create a peristaltic movement for substrate degradation. The review focuses on new technologies toward the understanding of the function and structure of AAA-ATPases to achieve substrate recognition, unfolding and translocation into proteasomes in yeast and mammalian cells and into proteasome-equivalent proteases in bacteria and archaea.

  5. Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The decapping activator Edc3 and the Q/N-rich domain of Lsm4 function together to enhance mRNA stability and alter mRNA decay pathway dependence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Huch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The rate and regulation of mRNA decay are major elements in the proper control of gene expression. Edc3 and Lsm4 are two decapping activator proteins that have previously been shown to function in the assembly of RNA granules termed P bodies. Here, we show that deletion of edc3, when combined with a removal of the glutamine/asparagine rich region of Lsm4 (edc3Δ lsm4ΔC reduces mRNA stability and alters pathways of mRNA degradation. Multiple tested mRNAs exhibited reduced stability in the edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant. The destabilization was linked to an increased dependence on Ccr4-mediated deadenylation and mRNA decapping. Unlike characterized mutations in decapping factors that either are neutral or are able to stabilize mRNA, the combined edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant reduced mRNA stability. We characterized the growth and activity of the major mRNA decay systems and translation in double mutant and wild-type yeast. In the edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant, we observed alterations in the levels of specific mRNA decay factors as well as nuclear accumulation of the catalytic subunit of the decapping enzyme Dcp2. Hence, we suggest that the effects on mRNA stability in the edc3Δ lsm4ΔC mutant may originate from mRNA decay protein abundance or changes in mRNPs, or alternatively may imply a role for P bodies in mRNA stabilization.

  7. Human Machine Interaction by Simulation of Dynamics of Construction Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard

    -body vibration exposure was more than 20 percent and at the same time the fuel consumption was reduced significant. Training of operators is hence beneficial for both employees and employers of the construction industry. The whole-body vibration exposure on operators of dump trucks are dominated by off-road......This industrial Ph.D. project concerns whole-body vibrations in human operated construction machinery. The emissions of these vibrations is closely related to the subjective experience of comfort and in some cases these vibrations can occur in a level which can cause the operator back disorders...

  8. Recent Advances in Precision Machinery and Manufacturing Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Hsiang; Chang, Zong-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Precision machinery and manufacturing technology are be- coming more important in current and future technologies. New knowledge in this field will aid in the advancement of various technologies that are needed to gain industrial competitiveness. To this end, the special issue aims to disseminate...... the latest advancements of relevant fundamental and applied research works of high quality to the inter- national community. The topics of the accepted articles in the special issue include precision manufacturing pro- cesses, measurements and control, robotics and automation, machine tools, advanced...

  9. Dengue virus-induced regulation of the host cell translational machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S.A. Villas-Bôas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DV-induced changes in the host cell protein synthesis machinery are not well understood. We investigated the transcriptional changes related to initiation of protein synthesis. The human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, was infected with DV serotype 2 for 1 h at a multiplicity of infection of one. RNA was extracted after 6, 24 and 48 h. Microarray results showed that 36.5% of the translation factors related to initiation of protein synthesis had significant differential expression (Z-score ≥ ±2.0. Confirmation was obtained by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Of the genes involved in the activation of mRNA for cap-dependent translation (eIF4 factors, eIF4A, eIF4G1 and eIF4B were up-regulated while the negative regulator of translation eIF4E-BP3 was down-regulated. This activation was transient since at 24 h post-infection levels were not significantly different from control cells. However, at 48 h post-infection, eIF4A, eIF4E, eIF4G1, eIF4G3, eIF4B, and eIF4E-BP3 were down-regulated, suggesting that cap-dependent translation could be inhibited during the progression of infection. To test this hypothesis, phosphorylation of p70S6K and 4E-BP1, which induce cap-dependent protein synthesis, was assayed. Both proteins remained phosphorylated when assayed at 6 h after infection, while infection induced dephosphorylation of p70S6K and 4E-BP1 at 24 and 48 h of infection, respectively. Taken together, these results provide biological evidence suggesting that in HepG2 cells DV sustains activation of the cap-dependent machinery at early stages of infection, but progression of infection switches protein synthesis to a cap-independent process.

  10. Clinical significance of LUNX mRNA, CK19 mRNA, CEA mRNA expression in detecting micrometastasis from lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guangying; Liu Delin; Chen Jie

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and clinical significance of CK19 mRNA, CEA mRNA and LUNX mRNA for detecting micrometastasis by sampling the peripheral blood and regional lymph nodes of lung cancer patients. Methods: Reverse transcriptase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect LUNX mRNA, CK19 mRNA, CEA mRNA for micrometastasis by sampling the peripheral blood of 48 lung cancer patients and 44 regional lymph nodes of such patients treated by curative resection. Peripheral blood of 30 patients with pulmonary benign lesions and 10 normal healthy volunteers and lymph nodes of 6 patients with benign pulmonary diseases served as control. Results: 1) LUNX mRNA, CK19 mRNA, CEA mRNA were expressed in all (35/35) lung cancer tissues. 2) In the peripheral blood from 48 lung cancer patients, 30 (62.5%) were positive for LUNX mRNA, 24 (50.0%) positive for CK19 mRNA and 32(66.7%) positive for CEA mRNA. The positive detection rates of micrometastasis in 44 lymph nodes from lung cancer patients were 36.4% (16 out of 44) for LUNX mRNA, 27.3% (12 out of 44) for CK19 mRNA and 40.9% (18 out of 44) for CEA mRNA. 3) In the 30 blood samples from patients with pulmonary benign diseases, 2 (6.7%) expressed CK19 mRNA, but none expressed LUNX mRNA or CEA mRNA. All the 3 molecular markers were negative in the 10 blood samples from healthy volunteers. In 11 lymph nodes from patients with pulmonary benign lesions, none was positive for any of the three markers. 4) In 44 regional lymph nodes from lung cancer patients, 6 (13.6%) were positive for metastasis by histopathological examination, with a positive rate significantly lower than that of the RT-PCR (P<0.05). 5) The micrometastatic positive rate in the peripheral blood of 40 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients was significantly related to TNM stage (P=0.01). Conclusions: LUNX mRNA, CK19 MRNA, CEA mRNA are all appropriate target genes for the detection of micrometastasis from lung cancer. LUNX mRNA and CEA mRNA

  11. Altered Mitochondria, Protein Synthesis Machinery, and Purine Metabolism Are Molecular Contributors to the Pathogenesis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansoleaga, Belén; Garcia-Esparcia, Paula; Llorens, Franc; Hernández-Ortega, Karina; Carmona Tech, Margarita; Antonio Del Rio, José; Zerr, Inga; Ferrer, Isidro

    2016-06-12

    Neuron loss, synaptic decline, and spongiform change are the hallmarks of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), and may be related to deficiencies in mitochondria, energy metabolism, and protein synthesis. To investigate these relationships, we determined the expression levels of genes encoding subunits of the 5 protein complexes of the electron transport chain, proteins involved in energy metabolism, nucleolar and ribosomal proteins, and enzymes of purine metabolism in frontal cortex samples from 15 cases of sCJD MM1 and age-matched controls. We also assessed the protein expression levels of subunits of the respiratory chain, initiation and elongation translation factors of protein synthesis, and localization of selected mitochondrial components. We identified marked, generalized alterations of mRNA and protein expression of most subunits of all 5 mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in sCJD cases. Expression of molecules involved in protein synthesis and purine metabolism were also altered in sCJD. These findings point to altered mRNA and protein expression of components of mitochondria, protein synthesis machinery, and purine metabolism as components of the pathogenesis of CJD. © 2016 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recruitment of TREX to the transcription machinery by its direct binding to the phospho-CTD of RNA polymerase II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik M Meinel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Messenger RNA (mRNA synthesis and export are tightly linked, but the molecular mechanisms of this coupling are largely unknown. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the conserved TREX complex couples transcription to mRNA export and mediates mRNP formation. Here, we show that TREX is recruited to the transcription machinery by direct interaction of its subcomplex THO with the serine 2-serine 5 (S2/S5 diphosphorylated CTD of RNA polymerase II. S2 and/or tyrosine 1 (Y1 phosphorylation of the CTD is required for TREX occupancy in vivo, establishing a second interaction platform necessary for TREX recruitment in addition to RNA. Genome-wide analyses show that the occupancy of THO and the TREX components Sub2 and Yra1 increases from the 5' to the 3' end of the gene in accordance with the CTD S2 phosphorylation pattern. Importantly, in a mutant strain, in which TREX is recruited to genes but does not increase towards the 3' end, the expression of long transcripts is specifically impaired. Thus, we show for the first time that a 5'-3' increase of a protein complex is essential for correct expression of the genome. In summary, we provide insight into how the phospho-code of the CTD directs mRNP formation and export through TREX recruitment.

  13. Recruitment of TREX to the transcription machinery by its direct binding to the phospho-CTD of RNA polymerase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, Dominik M; Burkert-Kautzsch, Cornelia; Kieser, Anja; O'Duibhir, Eoghan; Siebert, Matthias; Mayer, Andreas; Cramer, Patrick; Söding, Johannes; Holstege, Frank C P; Sträßer, Katja

    2013-11-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis and export are tightly linked, but the molecular mechanisms of this coupling are largely unknown. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the conserved TREX complex couples transcription to mRNA export and mediates mRNP formation. Here, we show that TREX is recruited to the transcription machinery by direct interaction of its subcomplex THO with the serine 2-serine 5 (S2/S5) diphosphorylated CTD of RNA polymerase II. S2 and/or tyrosine 1 (Y1) phosphorylation of the CTD is required for TREX occupancy in vivo, establishing a second interaction platform necessary for TREX recruitment in addition to RNA. Genome-wide analyses show that the occupancy of THO and the TREX components Sub2 and Yra1 increases from the 5' to the 3' end of the gene in accordance with the CTD S2 phosphorylation pattern. Importantly, in a mutant strain, in which TREX is recruited to genes but does not increase towards the 3' end, the expression of long transcripts is specifically impaired. Thus, we show for the first time that a 5'-3' increase of a protein complex is essential for correct expression of the genome. In summary, we provide insight into how the phospho-code of the CTD directs mRNP formation and export through TREX recruitment.

  14. Human cytomegalovirus TRS1 protein associates with the 7-methylguanosine mRNA cap and facilitates translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehr, Benjamin; Lenarcic, Erik; Vincent, Heather A; Cecil, Chad; Garcia, Benjamin; Shenk, Thomas; Moorman, Nathaniel J

    2015-06-01

    Viruses rely on the host translation machinery for the synthesis of viral proteins. Human cells have evolved sensors that recognize viral RNAs and inhibit mRNA translation in order to limit virus replication. Understanding how viruses manipulate the host translation machinery to gain access to ribosomes and disable the antiviral response is therefore a critical aspect of the host/pathogen interface. In this study, we used a proteomics approach to identify human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) proteins that might contribute to viral mRNA translation. The HCMV TRS1 protein (pTRS1) associated with the 7-methylguanosine mRNA cap, increased the total level of protein synthesis, and colocalized with mRNAs undergoing translation initiation during infection. pTRS1 stimulated translation of a nonviral reporter gene and increased the translation of a reporter containing an HCMV 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) to a greater extent. The preferential effect of pTRS1 on translation of an mRNA containing a viral 5'UTR required the pTRS1 RNA and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-binding domains, and was likely the result of PKR inhibition. However, pTRS1 also stimulated the total level of protein synthesis and translation directed by an HCMV 5'UTR in cells lacking PKR. Thus our results demonstrate that pTRS1 stimulates translation through both PKR-dependent and PKR-independent mechanisms. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Transportation of part supply improvement in agricultural machinery assembly plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saysaman, Anusit; Chutima, Parames

    2018-02-01

    This research focused on the problem caused by the transportation of part supply in agricultural machinery assembly plant in Thailand, which is one of the processes that are critical to the whole production process. If poorly managed, it will affect transportation of part supply, the emergence of sink cost, quality problems, and the ability to respond to the needs of the customers in time. Since the competition in the agricultural machinery market is more intense, the efficiency of part transportation process has to be improved. In this study, the process of transporting parts of the plant was studied and it was found that the efficiency of the process of transporting parts from the sub assembly line to its main assembly line was 83%. The approach to the performance improvement is done by using the Lean tool to limit wastes based on the ECRS principle and applying pull production system by changing the transportation method to operate as milkrun for transportation of parts to synchronize with the part demands of the main assembly line. After the transportation of parts from sub-assembly line to the main assembly line was improved, the efficiency raised to 98% and transportation process cost was saved to 540,000 Baht per year.

  16. Fault Severity Estimation of Rotating Machinery Based on Residual Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault severity estimation is an important part of a condition-based maintenance system, which can monitor the performance of an operation machine and enhance its level of safety. In this paper, a novel method based on statistical property and residual signals is developed for estimating the fault severity of rotating machinery. The fast Fourier transformation (FFT is applied to extract the so-called multifrequency-band energy (MFBE from the vibration signals of rotating machinery with different fault severity levels in the first stage. Usually these features of the working conditions with different fault sensitivities are different. Therefore a sensitive features-selecting algorithm is defined to construct the feature matrix and calculate the statistic parameter (mean in the second stage. In the last stage, the residual signals computed by the zero space vector are used to estimate the fault severity. Simulation and experimental results reveal that the proposed method based on statistics and residual signals is effective and feasible for estimating the severity of a rotating machine fault.

  17. Kinetics of lipid-nanoparticle-mediated intracellular mRNA delivery and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2017-10-01

    mRNA delivery into cells forms the basis for one of the new and promising ways to treat various diseases. Among suitable carriers, lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) with a size of about 100 nm are now often employed. Despite high current interest in this area, the understanding of the basic details of LNP-mediated mRNA delivery and function is limited. To clarify the kinetics of mRNA release from LNPs, the author uses three generic models implying (i) exponential, (ii) diffusion-controlled, and (iii) detachment-controlled kinetic regimes, respectively. Despite the distinct differences in these kinetics, the associated transient kinetics of mRNA translation to the corresponding protein and its degradation are shown to be not too sensitive to the details of the mRNA delivery by LNPs (or other nanocarriers). In addition, the author illustrates how this protein may temporarily influence the expression of one gene or a few equivalent genes. The analysis includes positive or negative regulation of the gene transcription via the attachment of the protein without or with positive or negative feedback in the gene expression. Stable, bistable, and oscillatory schemes have been scrutinized in this context.

  18. Nuclear imprisonment of host cellular mRNA by nsp1β protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Mingyuan; Ke, Hanzhong; Zhang, Qingzhan; Yoo, Dongwan

    2017-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA genomes function as mRNA for viral protein synthesis which is fully reliant on host cell translation machinery. Competing with cellular protein translation apparatus needs to ensure the production of viral proteins, but this also stifles host innate defense. In the present study, we showed that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), whose replication takes place in the cytoplasm, imprisoned host cell mRNA in the nucleus, which suggests a novel mechanism to enhance translation of PRRSV genome. PRRSV nonstructural protein (nsp) 1β was identified as the nuclear protein playing the role for host mRNA nuclear retention and subversion of host protein synthesis. A SAP (SAF-A/B, Acinus, and PIAS) motif was identified in nsp1β with the consensus sequence of 126 -LQxxLxxxGL- 135 . In situ hybridization unveiled that SAP mutants were unable to cause nuclear retention of host cell mRNAs and did not suppress host protein synthesis. In addition, these SAP mutants reverted PRRSV-nsp1β-mediated suppression of interferon (IFN) production, IFN signaling, and TNF-α production pathway. Using reverse genetics, a series of SAP mutant PRRS viruses, vK124A, vL126A, vG134A, and vL135A were generated. No mRNA nuclear retention was observed during vL126A and vL135A infections. Importantly, vL126A and vL135A did not suppress IFN production. For other arteriviruses, mRNA nuclear accumulation was also observed for LDV-nsp1β and SHFV-nsp1β. EAV-nsp1 was exceptional and did not block the host mRNA nuclear export. - Highlights: •PRRS virus blocks host mRNA nuclear export to the cytoplasm. •PRRSV nsp1β is the viral protein responsible for host mRNA nuclear retention. •SAP domain in nsp1β is essential for host mRNA nuclear retention and type I interferon suppression. •Mutation in the SAP domain of nsp1β causes the loss of function. •Host mRNA nuclear retention by nsp1β is common in the family Arteriviridae, except equine arteritis virus.

  19. Nuclear imprisonment of host cellular mRNA by nsp1β protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Mingyuan, E-mail: hanming@umich.edu; Ke, Hanzhong; Zhang, Qingzhan; Yoo, Dongwan, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu

    2017-05-15

    Positive-strand RNA genomes function as mRNA for viral protein synthesis which is fully reliant on host cell translation machinery. Competing with cellular protein translation apparatus needs to ensure the production of viral proteins, but this also stifles host innate defense. In the present study, we showed that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), whose replication takes place in the cytoplasm, imprisoned host cell mRNA in the nucleus, which suggests a novel mechanism to enhance translation of PRRSV genome. PRRSV nonstructural protein (nsp) 1β was identified as the nuclear protein playing the role for host mRNA nuclear retention and subversion of host protein synthesis. A SAP (SAF-A/B, Acinus, and PIAS) motif was identified in nsp1β with the consensus sequence of {sub 126}-LQxxLxxxGL-{sub 135}. In situ hybridization unveiled that SAP mutants were unable to cause nuclear retention of host cell mRNAs and did not suppress host protein synthesis. In addition, these SAP mutants reverted PRRSV-nsp1β-mediated suppression of interferon (IFN) production, IFN signaling, and TNF-α production pathway. Using reverse genetics, a series of SAP mutant PRRS viruses, vK124A, vL126A, vG134A, and vL135A were generated. No mRNA nuclear retention was observed during vL126A and vL135A infections. Importantly, vL126A and vL135A did not suppress IFN production. For other arteriviruses, mRNA nuclear accumulation was also observed for LDV-nsp1β and SHFV-nsp1β. EAV-nsp1 was exceptional and did not block the host mRNA nuclear export. - Highlights: •PRRS virus blocks host mRNA nuclear export to the cytoplasm. •PRRSV nsp1β is the viral protein responsible for host mRNA nuclear retention. •SAP domain in nsp1β is essential for host mRNA nuclear retention and type I interferon suppression. •Mutation in the SAP domain of nsp1β causes the loss of function. •Host mRNA nuclear retention by nsp1β is common in the family Arteriviridae, except equine

  20. Vibration Feature Extraction and Analysis for Fault Diagnosis of Rotating Machinery-A Literature Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem Riaz; Hassan Elahi; Kashif Javaid; Tufail Shahzad

    2017-01-01

    Safety, reliability, efficiency and performance of rotating machinery in all industrial applications are the main concerns. Rotating machines are widely used in various industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery faults are very important and often complex and labor-intensive. Feature extraction techniques play a vital role for a reliable, effective and efficient feature extraction for the diagnosis of rotating machinery. Therefore, deve...

  1. The cell pole: the site of cross talk between the DNA uptake and genetic recombination machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidane, Dawit; Ayora, Silvia; Sweasy, Joann B; Graumann, Peter L; Alonso, Juan C

    2012-01-01

    Natural transformation is a programmed mechanism characterized by binding of free double-stranded (ds) DNA from the environment to the cell pole in rod-shaped bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis some competence proteins, which process the dsDNA and translocate single-stranded (ss) DNA into the cytosol, recruit a set of recombination proteins mainly to one of the cell poles. A subset of single-stranded binding proteins, working as "guardians", protects ssDNA from degradation and limit the RecA recombinase loading. Then, the "mediators" overcome the inhibitory role of guardians, and recruit RecA onto ssDNA. A RecA·ssDNA filament searches for homology on the chromosome and, in a process that is controlled by "modulators", catalyzes strand invasion with the generation of a displacement loop (D-loop). A D-loop resolvase or "resolver" cleaves this intermediate, limited DNA replication restores missing information and a DNA ligase seals the DNA ends. However, if any step fails, the "rescuers" will repair the broken end to rescue chromosomal transformation. If the ssDNA does not share homology with resident DNA, but it contains information for autonomous replication, guardian and mediator proteins catalyze plasmid establishment after inhibition of RecA. DNA replication and ligation reconstitute the molecule (plasmid transformation). In this review, the interacting network that leads to a cross talk between proteins of the uptake and genetic recombination machinery will be placed into prospective.

  2. Neo-industrialization of Kuzbass economy in innovative development of coal industry and machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balabanova Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of rental-resource model and access restrictions to capital and new technologies, the attempts to encourage import substitution made by the government do not generate innovative type of economic development and reconstruction of economy’s manufacturing industry competitive on the domestic market. In conditions of searching for a new model of Russian economy development the analysis of a number of problems such as industry degradation, reducing the competitiveness of Russian producers, the growth of structural imbalances and overcoming the negative macroeconomic trends becomes strategically important. This raises the value of neo-industrialization as the integrator of resource security, scientific and industrial potential of Russian economy and high capacity of the domestic market in the innovative development system. A special role neo-industrialization plays for the economic development of old industrial regions, which include Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia. Neo-industrial development of Kuzbass economy should be initiated by the technological modernization of mining machinery and innovative development of coal industry.

  3. Hijacking of the host SCF ubiquitin ligase machinery by plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimpei eMagori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein ubiquitin ligase complex mediates polyubiquitination of proteins targeted for degradation, thereby controlling a plethora of biological processes in eukaryotic cells. Although this ubiquitination machinery is found and functional only in eukaryotes, many non-eukaryotic pathogens also encode F-box proteins, the critical subunits of the SCF complex. Increasing evidence indicates that such non-eukaryotic F-box proteins play an essential role in subverting or exploiting the host ubiquitin/proteasome system for efficient pathogen infection. A recent bioinformatic analysis has identified more than 70 F-box proteins in 22 different bacterial species, suggesting that use of pathogen-encoded F-box effectors in the host cell may be a widespread infection strategy. In this review, we focus on plant pathogen-encoded F-box effectors, such as VirF of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, GALAs of Ralstonia solanacearum, and P0 of Poleroviruses, and discuss the molecular mechanism by which plant pathogens use these factors to manipulate the host cell for their own benefit.

  4. Integrated logistics management system for operation of machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Frąś

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main issue in the operations of machinery and equipment, which is the subject of theoretical and empirical research is to provide high reliability and durability with qualitative post-trade services of machinery and equipment. Quality of service can be achieved through planned maintenance activities supported by computer technology. The article presents the concept of an integrated system of logistics management operation of machinery and equipment, especially special one for stationary transport equipment. At the outset, it emphasized the importance and essence of technological transport and storage systems storage in modern manufacturing enterprise. Then the objective and the method of research have been set. An essential part of deliberations in the article is the concept of integrated logistics management system operation for stationary transport equipment. Authors of this article have presented the results the implementation and operation of the system. The results are presented in a descriptive and graphic form. Methods: The purpose of this article is to present the concept of implementing an integrated logistics management system for operation of stationary transport equipment. It goes through combination of planning, event logging service, warehouse management in the field of spare parts, account and records of the cost of service activities. The paper presents an analysis and evaluation method of brainstorming a new approach to logistics management operation stationary transport equipment. Authors takes into account the specific conditions of use of transport equipment and conduct the service, which have a significant impact on the time and place of cost and service as well. It should be noted that the developed system has been implemented. It was also carried out an assessment of its functionality and efficiency as the new IT tool for logistics management operation. Results and conclusions: The paper presents a new

  5. STUDY OF THE PARAMETERS OF EFFICIENCY IN CENTRES FOR REPAIR OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Stoyanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes a thorough study of the parameters of efficiency in the centers for the repair of agricultural machinery, considering production and technological structure, the basic principles for design of the process of service, the quantitative indicators for servicing. It presents a theoretical model for the management of services in the service business, taking into account the basic system requirements for maintenance of agricultural machinery, the main elements of the standards of customer service, choice of forms for maintenance of agricultural machinery. Opportunities are proposed for the optimization of repair activities in the centers for repair of agricultural machinery.

  6. Structural Insights Into The Bacterial Carbon-Phosphorus Lyase Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Ditlev Egeskov

    the proteins encoded in the phn operon act in concert to catabolise phosphonate remain unknown. We have determined the crystal structure of a 240 kDa Escherichia coli carbon-phosphorus lyase core complex at 1.7 Å and show that it comprises a highly intertwined network of subunits with several unexpected......Phosphonate compounds act as a nutrient source for some microorganisms when phosphate is limiting but require a specialised enzymatic machinery due to the presence of the highly stable carbon-phosphorus bond. Despite the fundamental importance to microbial metabolism, the details of how...... structural features. The complex contains at least two different active sites and suggest a revision of current models of carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage. Using electron microscopy, we map the binding site of an additional protein subunit, which may use ATP for driving conformational changes during...

  7. Vibration analysis for trending ageing in rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.K.; Rama Rao, A.

    2006-01-01

    The need for condition monitoring system for important equipment and machinery is a growing requirement in every industry and more so in the nuclear power plants because of stringent safety requirements. This is largely because of the inherent benefit of being able to promote predictive maintenance practice rather than uneconomical preventive maintenance practice in the plant. Forerunner among the condition monitoring parameter is vibration signatures measured on a rotating machine. It is known that every moving element in a rotating machine generates vibration signal that is uniquely its own. Detection of such signals and monitoring the changing conditions in a machine through vibration analysis is a technique involving the knowledge of engineering art and the mathematical theory. This blend of sound engineering judgement and vibration data interpretation skill is in fact the basis of vibration diagnostic techniques. (author)

  8. Computer System For Diagnostics of Mobile Machinery Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Antipenko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for diagnostics of mechanical transmissions of mobile machinery is proposed in the paper. The method presupposes an application of computing equipment and its purpose is to decrease labor-consumption of diagnostics procedure and increase diagnostics efficiency.The method is based on comparison of duration of impulse periods picked up at primary transducers which are installed at transmission input and output. A signal picked up at a flywheel ring gear is taken as a reference signal.While selecting clearances of one and then the direction in speed-up - braking transmission regime changes in number of reference impulses at output provide data on angular clearance value in every gearing. As data are supplied registration and processing of results and forecasting of residual resource are to be done with the help of a program on the basis of realized algorithms for every gearing.

  9. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...... and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17...

  10. C4 photosynthetic machinery: insights from maize chloroplast proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eZhao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available C4 plants exhibit much higher CO2 assimilation rates than C3 plants. The specialized differentiation of mesophyll cell (M and bundle sheath cell (BS type chloroplasts is unique to C4 plants and improves photosynthesis efficiency. Maize (Zea mays is an important crop and model with C4 photosynthetic machinery. Current high-throughput quantitative proteomics approaches (e.g., 2DE, iTRAQ, and shotgun proteomics have been employed to investigate maize chloroplast structure and function. These proteomic studies have provided valuable information on C4 chloroplast protein components, photosynthesis, and other metabolic mechanisms underlying chloroplast biogenesis, stromal and membrane differentiation, as well as response to salinity, high/low temperature, and light stress. This review presents an overview of proteomics advances in maize chloroplast biology.

  11. Skoda Concern's cooperation with State Machinery Design Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valchar, J.; Kuhn, L.

    1988-01-01

    The main areas are presented of cooperation between the Skoda Plzen Concern and the State Machinery Design Research Institute in Prague-Bechovice. This is mainly the development of steam turbines, from 50 MW turbines to the present 1000 MW saturated steam turbines designed for nuclear power plants. Main attention is centred on conditions of the boiling crisis in the steam turbine circuit, and its consequences. This study is served by the experimental equipment of the institute and its computer. The cooperation of the two institutions in the field of testing and diagnostic equipment is centred on measuring natural oscillations of turbine blades, the diagnostics of vibrations of steam turbines, the measurement of the humidity of saturated steam, optical measurements of the parameters of saturated steam, ultrasound diagnostics and the measurement of turbine blade deformation caused by hydraulic effects. (Z.M.). 8 figs

  12. Mechatronics Applied to Fluid Film Bearings: Towards More Efficient Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier

    the machine is defined as a mechatronic system. This integrated approach comprises the usage of machine elements capable of modifying their characteristics, by using in a combined way mechanical elements, sensors, processing units and actuators. The research project entitled "Mechatronics Applied to Fluid......The current trends regarding turbomachinery design and operation demand for an expansion of the operational boundaries of these mechanical systems, regarding production rate, reliability and adaptability. In order to face the new requirements, it is necessary to migrate towards a new concept, where...... Film Bearings: Towards more Efficient Machinery" was aimed at improving the state of the art regarding the usage of fluid film bearings as "smart" machine elements. Specifically, this project dealt with a tilting pad journal bearing design that features a controllable lubrication system, capable...

  13. SKODA Nuclear Machinery - tradition and expertise in nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svitak, F.

    1997-01-01

    The SKODA Nuclear Machinery company is a major manufacturer of nuclear reactor assemblies and supplier of WWER type primary coolant circuits. In the past, the company was nearly a monopolistic manufacturer of WWER reactor assemblies supplied to the Central and East European countries (except the USSR) grouped in the former Council of Mutual Economic Assistance. Over the 1980-1993 period, 21 units of the WWER-440 type and 3 units of the WWER-1000 type were manufactured. The company keeps abreast of technological progress and has been switching to new manufacturing areas, such as compact storage racks for spent fuel pools, hermetic cable bushings, spent fuel storage and transport casks, and cooperation in the manufacture of neutron flux measuring channels. Technological services provided to nuclear power plants constitute another important field of the company's business. The company's combined expertise in Soviet and Western designed PWRs is a considerable asset. (P.A.)

  14. Stepwise Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery Using Force Identification Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Kawamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine condition monitoring and diagnosis have become increasingly important, and the application of these processes has been widely investigated. The authors previously proposed a stepwise diagnosis method for a beam structure. In that method, the location of the abnormality is first estimated using the force identification approach, and then the cause of the abnormality is identified. In this study, the stepwise diagnosis method was improved specifically for rotating machinery. The applicability of the proposed method was checked by using the experimental data. In the case of a rotor system with unbalance, it was shown that the location of the abnormality and its severity could be identified, and, in the case of a rotor system with stationary rubbing, the location of the abnormality could be accurately identified. Therefore, it was confirmed that the proposed diagnostic method is feasible for actual application.

  15. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-R.; Lei, H.-Y.; Liu, M.-T.; Wang, J.-R.; Chen, S.-H.; Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F.; Lin, Y.-S.; Yeh, T.-M.; Liu, C.-C.; Liu, H.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication

  16. Engineering yeast transcription machinery for improved ethanol tolerance and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Hal; Moxley, Joel; Nevoigt, Elke; Fink, Gerald R; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2006-12-08

    Global transcription machinery engineering (gTME) is an approach for reprogramming gene transcription to elicit cellular phenotypes important for technological applications. Here we show the application of gTME to Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved glucose/ethanol tolerance, a key trait for many biofuels programs. Mutagenesis of the transcription factor Spt15p and selection led to dominant mutations that conferred increased tolerance and more efficient glucose conversion to ethanol. The desired phenotype results from the combined effect of three separate mutations in the SPT15 gene [serine substituted for phenylalanine (Phe(177)Ser) and, similarly, Tyr(195)His, and Lys(218)Arg]. Thus, gTME can provide a route to complex phenotypes that are not readily accessible by traditional methods.

  17. Monitoring of vibrating machinery using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.

    1991-01-01

    The primary source of vibration in complex engineering systems is rotating machinery. Vibration signatures collected from these components render valuable information about the operational state of the system and may be used to perform diagnostics. For example, the low frequency domain contains information about unbalance, misalignment, instability in journal bearing and mechanical looseness; analysis of the medium frequency range can render information about faults in meshing gear teeth; while the high frequency domain will contain information about incipient faults in rolling-element bearings. Trend analysis may be performed by comparing the vibration spectrum for each machine with a reference spectrum and evaluating the vibration magnitude changes at different frequencies. This form of analysis for diagnostics is often performed by maintenance personnel monitoring and recording transducer signals and analyzing the signals to identify the operating condition of the machine. With the advent of portable fast Fourier transform (FFT) analyzers and ''laptop'' computers, it is possible to collect and analyze vibration data an site and detect incipient failures several weeks or months before repair is necessary. It is often possible to estimate the remaining life of certain systems once a fault has been detected. RMS velocity, acceleration, displacements, peak value, and crest factor readings can be collected from vibration sensors. To exploit all the information embedded in these signals, a robust and advanced analysis technique is required. Our goal is to design a diagnostic system using neural network technology, a system such as this would automate the interpretation of vibration data coming from plant-wide machinery and permit efficient on-line monitoring of these components

  18. Cholinergic Machinery as Relevant Target in Acute Lymphoblastic T Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Dobrovinskaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Various types of non-neuronal cells, including tumors, are able to produce acetylcholine (ACh, which acts as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. T lymphocytes represent a key component of the non-neuronal cholinergic system. T cells-derived ACh is involved in a stimulation of their activation and proliferation, and acts as a regulator of immune response. The aim of the present work was to summarize the data about components of cholinergic machinery in T lymphocytes, with an emphasis on the comparison of healthy and leukemic T cells. Cell lines derived from acute lymphoblastic leukemias of T lineage (T-ALL were found to produce a considerably higher amount of ACh than healthy T lumphocytes. Additionally, ACh produced by T-ALL is not efficiently hydrolyzed, because acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity is drastically decreased in these cells. Up-regulation of muscarinic ACh receptors was also demonstrated at expression and functional level, whereas nicotinic ACh receptors seem to play a less important role and not form functional channels in cells derived from T-ALL. We hypothesized that ACh over-produced in T-ALL may act as an autocrine growth factor and play an important role in leukemic clonal expansion through shaping of intracellular Ca2+ signals. We suggest that cholinergic machinery may be attractive targets for new drugs against T-ALL. Specifically, testing of high affinity antagonists of muscarinic ACh receptors as well as antagomiRs, which interfere with miRNAs involved in the suppression of AChE expression, may be the first choice options.

  19. 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubas, Michal Szymon

    RNA synthesis and degradation are key steps in the regulation of gene expression in all living organisms. During the course of his PhD studies, Michal Lubas centred his research on the nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA turnover of both noncoding and coding RNAs in human cells. His proteomic studies...... revealed the interaction network of the main 3'-5' RNA degradation machinery – the RNA exosome complex. One of the key findings was the identification and characterisation of the Nuclear Exosome Targeting (NEXT) complex, important for nuclear functions of the exosome. Michal Lubas also studied the role...

  20. The yeast PNC1 longevity gene is up-regulated by mRNA mistranslation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel M Silva

    Full Text Available Translation fidelity is critical for protein synthesis and to ensure correct cell functioning. Mutations in the protein synthesis machinery or environmental factors that increase synthesis of mistranslated proteins result in cell death and degeneration and are associated with neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and with an increasing number of mitochondrial disorders. Remarkably, mRNA mistranslation plays critical roles in the evolution of the genetic code, can be beneficial under stress conditions in yeast and in Escherichia coli and is an important source of peptides for MHC class I complex in dendritic cells. Despite this, its biology has been overlooked over the years due to technical difficulties in its detection and quantification. In order to shed new light on the biological relevance of mistranslation we have generated codon misreading in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using drugs and tRNA engineering methodologies. Surprisingly, such mistranslation up-regulated the longevity gene PNC1. Similar results were also obtained in cells grown in the presence of amino acid analogues that promote protein misfolding. The overall data showed that PNC1 is a biomarker of mRNA mistranslation and protein misfolding and that PNC1-GFP fusions can be used to monitor these two important biological phenomena in vivo in an easy manner, thus opening new avenues to understand their biological relevance.

  1. Decreased expression of RNA interference machinery, Dicer and Drosha, is associated with poor outcome in ovarian cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, William M.; Lin, Yvonne G.; Han, Liz Y.; Kamat, Aparna A.; Spannuth, Whitney A.; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Urbauer, Diana; Pennacchio, Len A.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Zeidan, Alexandra; Wang, Hua; Mueller, Peter; Lenburg, Marc E.; Gray, Joe W.; Mok, Samuel; Birrer, Michael J.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Coleman, Robert L.; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Sood, Anil K.

    2008-05-06

    The clinical and functional significance of RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, Dicer and Drosha, in ovarian cancer is not known and was examined. Dicer and Drosha expression was measured in ovarian cancer cell lines (n=8) and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer specimens (n=111) and correlated with clinical outcome. Validation was performed with previously published cohorts of ovarian, breast, and lung cancer patients. Anti-Galectin-3 siRNA and shRNA transfections were used for in vitro functional studies. Dicer and Drosha mRNA and protein levels were decreased in 37% to 63% of ovarian cancer cell lines and in 60% and 51% of human ovarian cancer specimens, respectively. Low Dicer was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage (p=0.007), and low Drosha with suboptimal surgical cytoreduction (p=0.02). Tumors with both high Dicer and Drosha were associated with increased median patient survival (>11 years vs. 2.66 years for other groups; p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, high Dicer (HR=0.48; p=0.02), high-grade histology (HR=2.46; p=0.03), and poor chemoresponse (HR=3.95; p<0.001) were identified as independent predictors of disease-specific survival. Findings of poor clinical outcome with low Dicer expression were validated in separate cohorts of cancer patients. Galectin-3 silencing with siRNA transfection was superior to shRNA in cell lines with low Dicer (78-95% vs. 4-8% compared to non-targeting sequences), and similar in cell lines with high Dicer. Our findings demonstrate the clinical and functional impact of RNAi machinery alterations in ovarian carcinoma and support the use of siRNA constructs that do not require endogenous Dicer and Drosha for therapeutic applications.

  2. An essential nuclear protein in trypanosomes is a component of mRNA transcription/export pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Serpeloni

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, different RNA species are exported from the nucleus via specialized pathways. The mRNA export machinery is highly integrated with mRNA processing, and includes a different set of nuclear transport adaptors as well as other mRNA binding proteins, RNA helicases, and NPC-associated proteins. The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a widespread and neglected human disease which is endemic to Latin America. Gene expression in Trypanosoma has unique characteristics, such as constitutive polycistronic transcription of protein-encoding genes and mRNA processing by trans-splicing. In general, post-transcriptional events are the major points for regulation of gene expression in these parasites. However, the export pathway of mRNA from the nucleus is poorly understood. The present study investigated the function of TcSub2, which is a highly conserved protein ortholog to Sub2/ UAP56, a component of the Transcription/Export (TREX multiprotein complex connecting transcription with mRNA export in yeast/human. Similar to its orthologs, TcSub2 is a nuclear protein, localized in dispersed foci all over the nuclei -except the fibrillar center of nucleolus- and at the interface between dense and non-dense chromatin areas, proposing the association of TcSub2 with transcription/processing sites. These findings were analyzed further by BrUTP incorporation assays and confirmed that TcSub2 is physically associated with active RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II, but not RNA polymerase I (RNA pol I or Spliced Leader (SL transcription, demonstrating participation particularly in nuclear mRNA metabolism in T. cruzi. The double knockout of the TcSub2 gene is lethal in T. cruzi, suggesting it has an essential function. Alternatively, RNA interference assays were performed in Trypanosoma brucei. It allowed demonstrating that besides being an essential protein, its knockdown causes mRNA accumulation in the nucleus and

  3. Updating the model TREMOD - Mobile Machinery (TREMOD-MM); Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD - Mobile Machinery (TREMOD-MM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, Hinrich; Lambrecht, Udo; Knoerr, Wolfram [ifeu - Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    In the context of the project ''Development of a model for the computation of the air pollutant emissions and the fuel consumption of combustion engines in mobile devices and machines'', the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research GmbH (Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany) has created the model TREMOD-MM (TREMOD Mobile Machinery). Thus a detailed computation of the emissions from mobile devices and machines in the agriculture, construction industry, forestry and gardening as well as the sport shipping and passenger shipping can be accomplished. Strongly differentiated data are considered to the age structure, engine performance, use and emission behaviour. Thus it is possible to compute the emissions for different scenarios in high degree of detail.

  4. Identification of stress responsive genes by studying specific relationships between mRNA and protein abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimpei Morimoto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein expression is regulated by the production and degradation of mRNAs and proteins but the specifics of their relationship are controversial. Although technological advances have enabled genome-wide and time-series surveys of mRNA and protein abundance, recent studies have shown paradoxical results, with most statistical analyses being limited to linear correlation, or analysis of variance applied separately to mRNA and protein datasets. Here, using recently analyzed genome-wide time-series data, we have developed a statistical analysis framework for identifying which types of genes or biological gene groups have significant correlation between mRNA and protein abundance after accounting for potential time delays. Our framework stratifies all genes in terms of the extent of time delay, conducts gene clustering in each stratum, and performs a non-parametric statistical test of the correlation between mRNA and protein abundance in a gene cluster. Consequently, we revealed stronger correlations than previously reported between mRNA and protein abundance in two metabolic pathways. Moreover, we identified a pair of stress responsive genes (ADC17 and KIN1 that showed a highly similar time series of mRNA and protein abundance. Furthermore, we confirmed robustness of the analysis framework by applying it to another genome-wide time-series data and identifying a cytoskeleton-related gene cluster (keratin 18, keratin 17, and mitotic spindle positioning that shows similar correlation. The significant correlation and highly similar changes of mRNA and protein abundance suggests a concerted role of these genes in cellular stress response, which we consider provides an answer to the question of the specific relationships between mRNA and protein in a cell. In addition, our framework for studying the relationship between mRNAs and proteins in a cell will provide a basis for studying specific relationships between mRNA and protein abundance after

  5. Dissecting mechanisms of nuclear mRNA surveillance in THO/sub2 complex mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rougemaille, Mathieu; Gudipati, Rajani K; Olesen, Jens Raabjerg

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear exosome is involved in numerous RNA metabolic processes. Exosome degradation of rRNA, snoRNA, snRNA and tRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is activated by TRAMP complexes, containing either the Trf4p or Trf5p poly(A) polymerase. These enzymes are presumed to facilitate exosome access...... is required for both retention and degradation of nuclear restricted mRNAs. We show here that Trf4p, in the context of TRAMP, is an mRNA surveillance factor. However, unlike Rrp6p, Trf4p only partakes in RNA degradation and not in transcript retention. Surprisingly, a polyadenylation-defective Trf4p protein...

  6. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL... Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the duty of an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly. If...

  7. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system must...

  8. 46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65-60 Section 167.65-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL... machinery by engineer. It shall be the duty of an engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.47 - Machinery (account XX-27-40).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery (account XX-27-40). 1242.47 Section 1242...-Equipment § 1242.47 Machinery (account XX-27-40). Separate common expenses on the basis of the freight/passenger separation of administration (account XX-27-01). ...

  10. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel tanks must comply with the requirements of part 182 of this chapter. ...

  11. A Method of Rotating Machinery Fault Diagnosis Based on the Close Degree of Information Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Jun-bao; HUANG Shu-hong; JIN Jia-shan; CHEN Fei; LIU Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method of rotating machinery fault diagnosis based on the close degree of information entropy. In the view of the information entropy, we introduce four information entropy features of the rotating machinery, which describe the vibration condition of the machinery. The four features are, respectively, denominated as singular spectrum entropy, power spectrum entropy, wavelet space state feature entropy and wavelet power spectrum entropy. The value scopes of the four information entropy features of the rotating machinery in some typical fault conditions are gained by experiments, which can be acted as the standard features of fault diagnosis. According to the principle of the shorter distance between the more similar models, the decision-making method based on the close degree of information entropy is put forward to deal with the recognition of fault patterns. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach in an instance involving the fault pattern recognition of some rotating machinery.

  12. mRNA processing in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, A.

    1982-01-01

    Investigations in this laboratory center on basic enzymatic reactions of RNA. Still undefined are reactions involved in the conversion of precursors of mRA (pre-mRNA) to mRNA in eukaryotes. The pre-mRNA is called heterogeneous nuclear RNA and is 2 to 6 times larger than mRNA. The conversion, called splicing, involves a removal of internal sequences called introns by endoribonuclease action followed by a rejoining of the 3'- and 5'-end fragments, called exons, by ligating activity. It has not been possible yet to study the enzymes involved in vitro. Also undefined are reactions involved in the turnover or discarding of certain of the pre-mRNA molecules. Yeast is a simple eukaryote and may be expected to have the same, but perhaps simpler, processing reactions as the higher eukaryotes. Two enzymes involved in the processing of pre-mRNA and mRNA in yeast are under investigation. Both enzymes have been partially purified from ribonucleoprotein particles of yeast. The first is a unique decapping enzyme which cleaves [ 3 H]m 7 Gppp [ 14 C]RNA-poly (A) of yeast, yielding [ 3 H]m 7 GDP and is suggested by the finding that the diphosphate product, m 7 GpppA(G), and UDP-glucose are not hydrolyzed. The second enzyme is an endoribonuclease which converts both the [ 3 H] and [ 14 C] labels of [ 3 H]m 7 Gppp[ 14 C]RNA-poly(A) from an oligo(dT)-cellulose bound form to an unbound, acid-insoluble form. Results show that the stimulation involves an interaction of the labeled RNA with the small nuclear RNA. The inhibition of the enzyme by ethidium bromide and its stimulation by small nuclear RNA suggest that it may be a processing ribonuclease, requiring specific double-stranded features in its substrate. The characterization of the unique decapping enzyme and endoribonuclease may help to understand reactions involved in the processing of pre-mRNA and mRNA in eukaryotes

  13. Urinary mRNA for the Diagnosis of Renal Allograft Rejection: The Issue of Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galichon, P; Amrouche, L; Hertig, A; Brocheriou, I; Rabant, M; Xu-Dubois, Y-C; Ouali, N; Dahan, K; Morin, L; Terzi, F; Rondeau, E; Anglicheau, D

    2016-10-01

    Urinary messenger RNA (mRNA) quantification is a promising method for noninvasive diagnosis of renal allograft rejection (AR), but the quantification of mRNAs in urine remains challenging due to degradation. RNA normalization may be warranted to overcome these issues, but the strategies of gene normalization have been poorly evaluated. Herein, we address this issue in a case-control study of 108 urine samples collected at time of allograft biopsy in kidney recipients with (n = 52) or without (n = 56) AR by comparing the diagnostic value of IP-10 and CD3ε mRNAs-two biomarkers of AR-after normalization by the total amount of RNA, normalization by one of the three widely used reference RNAs-18S, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT)-or normalization using uroplakin 1A (UPK) mRNA as a possible urine-specific reference mRNA. Our results show that normalization based on the total quantity of RNA is not substantially improved by additional normalization and may even be worsened with some classical reference genes that are overexpressed during rejection. However, considering that normalization by a reference gene is necessary to ensure polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quality and reproducibility and to suppress the effect of RNA degradation, we suggest that GAPDH and UPK1A are preferable to 18S or HPRT RNA. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. Nuclear export of human hepatitis B virus core protein and pregenomic RNA depends on the cellular NXF1-p15 machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Chun; Huang, Er-Yi; Li, Hung-Cheng; Su, Pei-Yi; Shih, Chiaho

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) can shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. Cytoplasm-predominant HBc is clinically associated with severe liver inflammation. Previously, we found that HBc arginine-rich domain (ARD) can associate with a host factor NXF1 (TAP) by coimmunoprecipitation. It is well known that NXF1-p15 heterodimer can serve as a major export receptor of nuclear mRNA as a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP). In the NXF1-p15 pathway, TREX (transcription/export) complex plays an important role in coupling nuclear pre-mRNA processing with mRNA export in mammalian cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis whether HBc and HBV specific RNA can be exported via the TREX and NXF1-p15 mediated pathway. We demonstrated here that HBc can physically and specifically associate with TREX components, and the NXF1-p15 export receptor by coimmunoprecipitation. Accumulation of HBc protein in the nucleus can be induced by the interference with TREX and NXF1-p15 mediated RNA export machinery. HBV transcripts encodes a non-spliced 3.5 kb pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) which can serve as a template for reverse transcription. Cytoplasmic HBV pgRNA appeared to be reduced by siRNA treatment specific for the NXF1-p15 complex by quantitative RT-qPCR and Northern blot analyses. This result suggests that the pgRNA was also exported via the NXF1-p15 machinery. We entertain the hypothesis that HBc protein can be exported as an RNP cargo via the mRNA export pathway by hijacking the TREX and NXF1-p15 complex. In our current and previous studies, HBc is not required for pgRNA accumulation in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, HBc ARD can mediate nuclear export of a chimeric protein containing HBc ARD in a pgRNA-independent manner. Taken together, it suggests that while both pgRNA and HBc protein exports are dependent on NXF1-p15, they are using the same export machinery in a manner independent of each other.

  15. Binding of NUFIP2 to Roquin promotes recognition and regulation of ICOS mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehage, Nina; Davydova, Elena; Conrad, Christine; Behrens, Gesine; Maiser, Andreas; Stehklein, Jenny E; Brenner, Sven; Klein, Juliane; Jeridi, Aicha; Hoffmann, Anne; Lee, Eunhae; Dianzani, Umberto; Willemsen, Rob; Feederle, Regina; Reiche, Kristin; Hackermüller, Jörg; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Sharma, Sonia; Niessing, Dierk; Heissmeyer, Vigo

    2018-01-19

    The ubiquitously expressed RNA-binding proteins Roquin-1 and Roquin-2 are essential for appropriate immune cell function and postnatal survival of mice. Roquin proteins repress target mRNAs by recognizing secondary structures in their 3'-UTRs and by inducing mRNA decay. However, it is unknown if other cellular proteins contribute to target control. To identify cofactors of Roquin, we used RNA interference to screen ~1500 genes involved in RNA-binding or mRNA degradation, and identified NUFIP2 as a cofactor of Roquin-induced mRNA decay. NUFIP2 binds directly and with high affinity to Roquin, which stabilizes NUFIP2 in cells. Post-transcriptional repression of human ICOS by endogenous Roquin proteins requires two neighboring non-canonical stem-loops in the ICOS 3'-UTR. This unconventional cis-element as well as another tandem loop known to confer Roquin-mediated regulation of the Ox40 3'-UTR, are bound cooperatively by Roquin and NUFIP2. NUFIP2 therefore emerges as a cofactor that contributes to mRNA target recognition by Roquin.

  16. Defective HLA class I antigen processing machinery in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lei; Michelakos, Theodoros; Yamada, Teppei; Fan, Song; Wang, Xinhui; Schwab, Joseph H; Ferrone, Cristina R; Ferrone, Soldano

    2018-02-27

    Malignant transformation of cells is frequently associated with defective HLA class I antigen processing machinery (APM) component expression. This abnormality may have functional relevance, since it may have a negative impact on tumor cell recognition by cognate T cells. Furthermore, HLA class I APM abnormalities appear to have clinical significance, since they are associated with poor prognosis in several malignant diseases and may play a role in the resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitor-based immunotherapy. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature describing abnormalities in HLA class I APM component expression in many types of cancer. These abnormalities have been reported in all types of cancer analyzed with a frequency ranging between a minimum of 35.8% in renal cancer and a maximum of 87.9% in thyroid cancer for HLA class I heavy chains. In addition, we have described the molecular mechanisms underlying defects in HLA class I APM component expression and function by malignant cells. Lastly, we have discussed the clinical significance of HLA class I APM component abnormalities in malignant tumors.

  17. Radiation survey of aircraft and heavy machinery scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriss, Hajo; Salih, Isam; Gumaa, Elsadig; Yassin, Abbas; Yousif, E H; Abdel Hamid, Saad Eldeen M; Sam, A K

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted primarily to survey aircraft and heavy machinery at 30 locations within Khartoum State using handheld radiation survey meters to detect and identify any radiation sources that might be present and to estimate radiation dose levels. The survey has resulted in detection of 16 sealed sources of (90)Sr and one of (226)Ra in aircraft scrap. Of course, (90)Sr sources are used in military aircraft as temperature sensors while (226)Ra is used for indicating fuel levels. These sources were found intact without spreading radioactivity contamination; however, none was detected in heavy machine scrap. The levels of radiation dose measured at 0.1m from the source fall within the range of 25.1-40.2 μSv/h with an average value of 33.52 ± 4.06 μSv/h. These orphan sources have been separated from the scrap, tested for possible leakage, conditioned and stored in waste management facility. The result of this study has revealed without doubt that the scrap constitute a serious source of public exposure and highlights the importance of legislation making radiation monitoring of scrap in the country mandatory before it is sold to metal industry for reprocessing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Customer relationship management in the agricultural machinery market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Letícia Pit Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Customer Relationship Management can be regarded as a business approach. The objective was to know the customers, meet their expectations, and thus build customer loyalty. Although, the agricultural sector makes significant economic contributions to the Brazilian market and induces sharp competition among its companies, a huge opportunity still presents itself for the diffusion and implementation of CRM in the agricultural machinery sector. This study aimed to highlight the importance of customer management, by introducing the customer relationship management (CRM concept. This is possible in the event of reselling agricultural machines, with the intention of retaining the customers and raising the profitability of these companies. It is necessary to understand CRM as more than a mere a concept or a tool. It is a business strategy, an endeavor that must be endorsed by the entire company. The concessionaire must be perceived as greater than a mere reseller. It is to be viewed rather as a problem solver, as one who offers services that are high in quality and meet client specifics.

  19. Optimization of Hydraulic Machinery Bladings by Multilevel CFD Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thum Susanne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical design optimization for complex hydraulic machinery bladings requires a high number of design parameters and the use of a precise CFD solver yielding high computational costs. To reduce the CPU time needed, a multilevel CFD method has been developed. First of all, the 3D blade geometry is parametrized by means of a geometric design tool to reduce the number of design parameters. To keep geometric accuracy, a special B-spline modification technique has been developed. On the first optimization level, a quasi-3D Euler code (EQ3D is applied. To guarantee a sufficiently accurate result, the code is calibrated by a Navier-Stokes recalculation of the initial design and can be recalibrated after a number of optimization steps by another Navier-Stokes computation. After having got a convergent solution, the optimization process is repeated on the second level using a full 3D Euler code yielding a more accurate flow prediction. Finally, a 3D Navier-Stokes code is applied on the third level to search for the optimum optimorum by means of a fine-tuning of the geometrical parameters. To show the potential of the developed optimization system, the runner blading of a water turbine having a specific speed n q = 41 1 / min was optimized applying the multilevel approach.

  20. Comparison of methods for separating vibration sources in rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Renata

    2017-12-01

    Vibro-acoustic signatures are widely used for diagnostics of rotating machinery. Vibration based automatic diagnostics systems need to achieve a good separation between signals generated by different sources. The separation task may be challenging, since the effects of the different vibration sources often overlap. In particular, there is a need to separate between signals related to the natural frequencies of the structure and signals resulting from the rotating components (signal whitening), as well as a need to separate between signals generated by asynchronous components like bearings and signals generated by cyclo-stationary components like gears. Several methods were proposed to achieve the above separation tasks. The present study compares between some of these methods. The paper also presents a new method for whitening, Adaptive Clutter Separation, as well as a new efficient algorithm for dephase, which separates between asynchronous and cyclo-stationary signals. For whitening the study compares between liftering of the high quefrencies and adaptive clutter separation. For separating between the asynchronous and the cyclo-stationary signals the study compares between liftering in the quefrency domain and dephase. The methods are compared using both simulated signals and real data.

  1. Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E.; Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging

  2. Small machinery for pumping and compressing helium near 40K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, W.L.; Sixsmith, H.

    1984-01-01

    There is a significant need for small, reliable pumps and compressors suitable for circulating helium at temperatures near 4 0 K. Most pumps or compressors which have been developed to data for these applications are designed for relatively limited use. They are generally used in laboratory environments where life requirements for the experiments may be relatively short, being of the order of several hundred hours. In recent years, several applications have been identified where pumps or compressors (at liquid helium temperatures) must have high reliability if they are to be used successfully. These applications include liquid helium circulation systems through superconducting magnets and transmission lines, and cold compression applications where the compressor is used as a vacuum pump to lower the temperature of a liquid helium bath. This paper discusses the technical considerations which must be taken into account in the design and development of machinery to meet these needs. The design of a centrifugal machine which can act as a helium pump or compressor is presented

  3. Butyrate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in intestinal cells and Crohn's mucosa through modulation of antioxidant defense machinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Russo

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, including Crohn's disease (CrD. High levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS induce the activation of the redox-sensitive nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB, which in turn triggers the inflammatory mediators. Butyrate decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by the lamina propria mononuclear cells in CrD patients via inhibition of NF-κB activation, but how it reduces inflammation is still unclear. We suggest that butyrate controls ROS mediated NF-κB activation and thus mucosal inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa by triggering intracellular antioxidant defense systems. Intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and colonic mucosa from 14 patients with CrD and 12 controls were challenged with or without lipopolysaccaride from Escherichia coli (EC-LPS in presence or absence of butyrate for 4 and 24 h. The effects of butyrate on oxidative stress, p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation, p65-NF-κB activation and mucosal inflammation were investigated by real time PCR, western blot and confocal microscopy. Our results suggest that EC-LPS challenge induces a decrease in Gluthation-S-Transferase-alpha (GSTA1/A2 mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity; enhanced levels of ROS induced by EC-LPS challenge mediates p65-NF-κB activation and inflammatory response in Caco-2 cells and in CrD colonic mucosa. Furthermore butyrate treatment was seen to restore GSTA1/A2 mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity and to control NF-κB activation, COX-2, ICAM-1 and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In conclusion, butyrate rescues the redox machinery and controls the intracellular ROS balance thus switching off EC-LPS induced inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa.

  4. Mammalian tissues defective in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay display highly aberrant splicing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim Lütken; Waage, Johannes Eichler; Tian, Geng

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) affects the outcome of alternative splicing by degrading mRNA isoforms with premature termination codons. Splicing regulators constitute important NMD targets; however, the extent to which loss of NMD causes extensive deregulation...... of alternative splicing has not previously been assayed in a global, unbiased manner. Here, we combine mouse genetics and RNA-seq to provide the first in vivo analysis of the global impact of NMD on splicing patterns in two primary mouse tissues ablated for the NMD factor UPF2. RESULTS: We developed...... importance, the latter events are associated with high intronic conservation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that NMD regulates alternative splicing outcomes through an intricate web of splicing regulators and that its loss leads to the deregulation of a panoply of splicing events, providing novel...

  5. Application of DNA Machineries for the Barcode Patterned Detection of Genes or Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhixin; Luo, Guofeng; Wulf, Verena; Willner, Itamar

    2018-06-05

    The study introduces an analytical platform for the detection of genes or aptamer-ligand complexes by nucleic acid barcode patterns generated by DNA machineries. The DNA machineries consist of nucleic acid scaffolds that include specific recognition sites for the different genes or aptamer-ligand analytes. The binding of the analytes to the scaffolds initiate, in the presence of the nucleotide mixture, a cyclic polymerization/nicking machinery that yields displaced strands of variable lengths. The electrophoretic separation of the resulting strands provides barcode patterns for the specific detection of the different analytes. Mixtures of DNA machineries that yield, upon sensing of different genes (or aptamer ligands), one-, two-, or three-band barcode patterns are described. The combination of nucleic acid scaffolds acting, in the presence of polymerase/nicking enzyme and nucleotide mixture, as DNA machineries, that generate multiband barcode patterns provide an analytical platform for the detection of an individual gene out of many possible genes. The diversity of genes (or other analytes) that can be analyzed by the DNA machineries and the barcode patterned imaging is given by the Pascal's triangle. As a proof-of-concept, the detection of one of six genes, that is, TP53, Werner syndrome, Tay-Sachs normal gene, BRCA1, Tay-Sachs mutant gene, and cystic fibrosis disorder gene by six two-band barcode patterns is demonstrated. The advantages and limitations of the detection of analytes by polymerase/nicking DNA machineries that yield barcode patterns as imaging readout signals are discussed.

  6. Genome-scale modeling of the protein secretory machinery in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Amir; Österlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina

    2013-01-01

    The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lacking....... Here, we present the first genome-scale model for the yeast secretory machinery which captures the knowledge generated through more than 50 years of research. The model is based on the concept of a Protein Specific Information Matrix (PSIM: characterized by seven PTMs features). An algorithm...

  7. PTP1B targets the endosomal sorting machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuible, Matthew; Abella, Jasmine V; Feldhammer, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Dephosphorylation and endocytic down-regulation are distinct processes that together control the signaling output of a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). PTP1B can directly dephosphorylate several RTKs, but it can also promote activation of downstream pathways through largely unknown...... mechanisms. These positive signaling functions likely contribute to the tumor-promoting effect of PTP1B in mouse cancer models. Here, we have identified STAM2, an endosomal protein involved in sorting activated RTKs for lysosomal degradation, as a substrate of PTP1B. PTP1B interacts with STAM2 at defined...... phosphotyrosine sites, and knockdown of PTP1B expression augments STAM2 phosphorylation. Intriguingly, manipulating the expression and phosphorylation state of STAM2 did not have a general effect on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EGF receptor trafficking, degradation, or signaling. Instead, phosphorylated...

  8. Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Berestovsky

    Full Text Available The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them

  9. Liquid metal current collectors for high-speed rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    Recent interest in superconducting motors and generators has created a renewed interest in homopolar machinery. Homopolar machine designs have always been limited by the need for compact, high-current, low-voltage, sliding electrical curent collectors. Conventional graphite-based solid brushes are inadequate for use in homopolar machines. Liquid metals, under certain conditions of relative sliding velocities, electrical currents, and magnetic fields are known to be capable of performing well in homopolar machines. An effort to explore the capabilities and limits of a tongue-and-groove style current collector, utilizing sodium-potassium eutectic alloy (NaK) as the working fluid in high sliding speed operation is reported here. A double current collector generator model with a 14.5-cm maximum rotor diameter, 20,000 rpm rotational capability, and electrical current carrying ability was constructed and operated successfully at a peripheral velocity of 125 m/s. The limiting factor in these experiments was a high-speed fluid-flow instability resulting in the ejection of the working fluid from the operating portions of the collectors. The effects of collector size and geometry, working fluid (NaK or water), and cover gas pressure are reported. Hydrodynamic frictional torque-speed curves are given for the two fluids and for several geometries. Electrical resistances as a function of peripheral velocity at 60 amperes are reported, and the phenomenology of the high-speed fluid-flow instabilities is discussed. The possibility of long-term high-speed operation of current collectors of the tongue-and-groove type, along with experimental and theoretical hydrodynamic friction losses at high peripheral velocities, is considered

  10. Radiation survey of aircraft and heavy machinery scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idriss, Hajo; Salih, Isam; Gumaa, Elsadig; Yassin, Abbas; Yousif, E.H.; Abdel Hamid, Saad Eldeen M.; Sam, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted primarily to survey aircraft and heavy machinery at 30 locations within Khartoum State using handheld radiation survey meters to detect and identify any radiation sources that might be present and to estimate radiation dose levels. The survey has resulted in detection of 16 sealed sources of 90 Sr and one of 226 Ra in aircraft scrap. Of course, 90 Sr sources are used in military aircraft as temperature sensors while 226 Ra is used for indicating fuel levels. These sources were found intact without spreading radioactivity contamination; however, none was detected in heavy machine scrap. The levels of radiation dose measured at 0.1 m from the source fall within the range of 25.1–40.2 μSv/h with an average value of 33.52±4.06 μSv/h. These orphan sources have been separated from the scrap, tested for possible leakage, conditioned and stored in waste management facility. The result of this study has revealed without doubt that the scrap constitute a serious source of public exposure and highlights the importance of legislation making radiation monitoring of scrap in the country mandatory before it is sold to metal industry for reprocessing. - Highlights: ► Sealed radioactive sources ( 90 Sr and 226 Ra) were detected in aircraft scrap. ► No source was detected in heavy machine scrap. ► Radiation dose measured at 0.1 m from the source can be used to estimate exposure to public. ► Monitoring of scrap was found to be useful for protection (from orphan sources).

  11. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibits EGF-induced cell transformation via reduction of cyclin D1 mRNA stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingjie; Ouyang, Weiming; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Yu, Yonghui; Wang, York; Li, Xuejun; Huang, Chuanshu

    2012-01-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibiting cancer cell growth has been associated with its downregulation of cyclin D1 protein expression at transcription level or translation level. Here, we have demonstrated that SAHA inhibited EGF-induced Cl41 cell transformation via the decrease of cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. We found that SAHA treatment resulted in the dramatic inhibition of EGF-induced cell transformation, cyclin D1 protein expression and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. Further studies showed that SAHA downregulation of cyclin D1 was only observed with endogenous cyclin D1, but not with reconstitutionally expressed cyclin D1 in the same cells, excluding the possibility of SAHA regulating cyclin D1 at level of protein degradation. Moreover, SAHA inhibited EGF-induced cyclin d1 mRNA level, whereas it did not show any inhibitory effect on cyclin D1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter activity under the same experimental conditions, suggesting that SAHA may decrease cyclin D1 mRNA stability. This notion was supported by the results that treatment of cells with SAHA decreased the half-life of cyclin D1 mRNA from 6.95 h to 2.57 h. Consistent with downregulation of cyclin D1 mRNA stability, SAHA treatment also attenuated HuR expression, which has been well-characterized as a positive regulator of cyclin D1 mRNA stability. Thus, our study identifies a novel mechanism responsible for SAHA inhibiting cell transformation via decreasing cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest in Cl41 cells. -- Highlights: ► SAHA inhibits cell transformation in Cl41 cells. ► SAHA suppresses Cyclin D1 protein expression. ► SAHA decreases cyclin D1 mRNA stability.

  12. CUP promotes deadenylation and inhibits decapping of mRNA targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igreja, Catia; Izaurralde, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    CUP is an eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) that represses the expression of specific maternal mRNAs prior to their posterior localization. Here, we show that CUP employs multiple mechanisms to repress the expression of target mRNAs. In addition to inducing translational repression, CUP maintains mRNA targets in a repressed state by promoting their deadenylation and protects deadenylated mRNAs from further degradation. Translational repression and deadenylation are independent of eIF4E binding and require both the middle and C-terminal regions of CUP, which collectively we termed the effector domain. This domain associates with the deadenylase complex CAF1–CCR4–NOT and decapping activators. Accordingly, in isolation, the effector domain is a potent trigger of mRNA degradation and promotes deadenylation, decapping and decay. However, in the context of the full-length CUP protein, the decapping and decay mediated by the effector domain are inhibited, and target mRNAs are maintained in a deadenylated, repressed form. Remarkably, an N-terminal regulatory domain containing a noncanonical eIF4E-binding motif is required to protect CUP-associated mRNAs from decapping and further degradation, suggesting that this domain counteracts the activity of the effector domain. Our findings indicate that the mode of action of CUP is more complex than previously thought and provide mechanistic insight into the regulation of mRNA expression by 4E-BPs. PMID:21937713

  13. 2006 China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair:Ample Fruits Shown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2006 Malaysia China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair, organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT), was held in August in Prince World Trade Center(PWTC), Kuala Lumpur.

  14. The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines.

  15. Guidelines for meeting emission regulations for rotating machinery with mechanical seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanical seals have played a major role during many years in minimizing emissions to atmosphere in rotating machinery. A review is presented of the continuing innovations and new technologies to improve mechanical seal performance in terms of emissions.

  16. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance, lease rentals, joint facility rents, other rents, depreciation, joint facility, repairs billed to others... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other...

  17. Reconstitution of Biosynthetic Machinery for the Synthesis of the Highly Elaborated Indole Diterpene Penitrem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chengwei; Tagami, Koichi; Minami, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    KULNJ). Importantly, without conventional gene disruption, reconstitution of the biosynthetic machinery provided sufficient data to determine the pathway. It was thus demonstrated that the Aspergillus oryzae reconstitution system is a powerful method for studying the biosynthesis of complex natural products....

  18. Application of Choi—Williams Reduced Interference Time Frequency Distribution to Machinery Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard A. Gaberson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses time frequency analysis of machinery diagnostic vibration signals. The short time Fourier transform, the Wigner, and the Choi–Williams distributions are explained and illustrated with test cases. Examples of Choi—Williams analyses of machinery vibration signals are presented. The analyses detect discontinuities in the signals and their timing, amplitude and frequency modulation, and the presence of different components in a vibration signal.

  19. An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    targeting of critical androgen receptor -604 coregulator interactions in prostate cancer . Nature communications 4, 1923, 605 doi:10.1038/ncomms2912 (2013...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0474 TITLE: An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...14 Sep 2017 4. Title An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  20. mRNA Cancer Vaccines-Messages that Prevail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwitz, Christian; Kranz, Lena M

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade, mRNA became increasingly recognized as a versatile tool for the development of new innovative therapeutics. Especially for vaccine development, mRNA is of outstanding interest and numerous clinical trials have been initiated. Strikingly, all of these studies have proven that large-scale GMP production of mRNA is feasible and concordantly report a favorable safety profile of mRNA vaccines. Induction of T-cell immunity is a multi-faceted process comprising antigen acquisition, antigen processing and presentation, as well as immune stimulation. The effectiveness of mRNA vaccines is critically dependent on making the antigen(s) of interest available to professional antigen-presenting cells, especially DCs. Efficient delivery of mRNA into DCs in vivo remains a major challenge in the mRNA vaccine field. This review summarizes the principles of mRNA vaccines and highlights the importance of in vivo mRNA delivery and recent advances in harnessing their therapeutic potential.

  1. Ribosome profiling-guided depletion of an mRNA increases cell growth rate and protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert Kallehauge, Thomas; Li, Shangzhong; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant protein production coopts the host cell machinery to provide high protein yields of industrial enzymes or biotherapeutics. However, since protein translation is energetically expensive and tightly controlled, it is unclear if highly expressed recombinant genes are translated as effici......Recombinant protein production coopts the host cell machinery to provide high protein yields of industrial enzymes or biotherapeutics. However, since protein translation is energetically expensive and tightly controlled, it is unclear if highly expressed recombinant genes are translated...... as efficiently as host genes. Furthermore, it is unclear how the high expression impacts global translation. Here, we present the first genome-wide view of protein translation in an IgG-producing CHO cell line, measured with ribosome profiling. Through this we found that our recombinant mRNAs were translated...... as efficiently as the host cell transcriptome, and sequestered up to 15% of the total ribosome occupancy. During cell culture, changes in recombinant mRNA translation were consistent with changes in transcription, demonstrating that transcript levels influence specific productivity. Using this information, we...

  2. Efficient mRNA delivery with graphene oxide-polyethylenimine for generation of footprint-free human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Yeon; Lee, Tae-Jin; Yang, Gwang-Mo; Oh, Jaesur; Won, Jihye; Han, Jihae; Jeong, Gun-Jae; Kim, Jongpil; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2016-08-10

    Clinical applications of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) require development of technologies for the production of "footprint-free" (gene integration-free) iPSCs, which avoid the potential risk of insertional mutagenesis in humans. Previously, several studies have shown that mRNA transfer can generate "footprint-free" iPSCs, but these studies did not use a delivery vehicle and thus repetitive daily transfection was required because of mRNA degradation. Here, we report an mRNA delivery system employing graphene oxide (GO)-polyethylenimine (PEI) complexes for the efficient generation of "footprint-free" iPSCs. GO-PEI complexes were found to be very effective for loading mRNA of reprogramming transcription factors and protection from mRNA degradation by RNase. Dynamic suspension cultures of GO-PEI/RNA complexes-treated cells dramatically increased the reprogramming efficiency and successfully generated rat and human iPSCs from adult adipose tissue-derived fibroblasts without repetitive daily transfection. The iPSCs showed all the hallmarks of pluripotent stem cells including expression of pluripotency genes, epigenetic reprogramming, and differentiation into the three germ layers. These results demonstrate that mRNA delivery using GO-PEI-RNA complexes can efficiently generate "footprint-free" iPSCs, which may advance the translation of iPSC technology into the clinical settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Presence of albumin mRNA precursors in nuclei of analbuminemic rat liver lacking cytoplasmic albumin mRNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Esumi, H; Takahashi, Y; Sekiya, T; Sato, S; Nagase, S; Sugimura, T

    1982-01-01

    Analbuminemic rats, which lack serum albumin, were previously found to have no albumin mRNA in the cytoplasm of the liver. In the present study, the existence of nuclear albumin mRNA precursors in the liver of analbuminemic rats was examined by RNA X cDNA hybridization kinetics. Albumin mRNA precursors were present in the nuclei of analbuminemic rat liver at almost normal levels, despite the absence of albumin mRNA from the cytoplasm. Nuclear RNA of analbuminemic rat liver was subjected to el...

  4. A ribonuclease coordinates siRNA amplification and mRNA cleavage during RNAi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsin-Yue; Chen, Chun-Chieh G; Conte, Darryl; Moresco, James J; Chaves, Daniel A; Mitani, Shohei; Yates, John R; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Mello, Craig C

    2015-01-29

    Effective silencing by RNA-interference (RNAi) depends on mechanisms that amplify and propagate the silencing signal. In some organisms, small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are amplified from target mRNAs by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). Both RdRP recruitment and mRNA silencing require Argonaute proteins, which are generally thought to degrade RNAi targets by directly cleaving them. However, in C. elegans, the enzymatic activity of the primary Argonaute, RDE-1, is not required for silencing activity. We show that RDE-1 can instead recruit an endoribonuclease, RDE-8, to target RNA. RDE-8 can cleave RNA in vitro and is needed for the production of 3' uridylated fragments of target mRNA in vivo. We also find that RDE-8 promotes RdRP activity, thereby ensuring amplification of siRNAs. Together, our findings suggest a model in which RDE-8 cleaves target mRNAs to mediate silencing, while generating 3' uridylated mRNA fragments to serve as templates for the RdRP-directed amplification of the silencing signal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Glucocorticoid control of rat growth hormone gene expression: Effect on cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleic acid production and degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, B.J.; Gardner, D.G.; Baxter, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone on the production and degradation of rat GH (rGH) cytoplasmic mRNA was studied in cultured rat pituitary tumor (GC) cells. The incorporation of [3H]uridine into both rGH cytoplasmic mRNA and the pyrimidine nucleotide precursor pool was determined in hormone-treated and control cells. From these measurements glucocorticoid effects on absolute production rates of rGH cytoplasmic mRNA were determined and compared to effects on rGH mRNA accumulation. Rat GH mRNA half-life was then calculated based on a first-order decay model. Rat GH mRNA half-life was also directly assayed by: (1) pulse-chase studies and (2) measuring the kinetics of decay of rGH mRNA in cells after transfer from serum-containing to hormone-deficient media. From these independent analyses rGH mRNA half-life estimates ranged from 28-55 h in different experiments. Within individual experiments there was little variability of rGH mRNA decay rates; glucocorticoids were found not to alter the stability of rGH cytoplasmic mRNA. Glucocorticoid induction of rGH cytoplasmic mRNA accumulation was accounted for solely on the basis of increased mRNA production

  6. Research of the degradation products of chitosan's angiogenic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianyun; Chen Yuanwei; Ding Yulong; Shi Guoqi; Wan Changxiu

    2008-01-01

    Angiogenesis is of great importance in tissue engineering and has gained large attention in the past decade. But how it will be influenced by the biodegradable materials, especially their degradation products, remains unknown. Chitosan (CS) is a kind of naturally occurred polysaccharide which can be degraded in physiological environment. In order to gain some knowledge of the influences of CS degradation products on angiogenesis, the interaction of vascular endothelial cells with the degradation products was investigated in the present study. The CS degradation products were prepared by keeping CS sample in physiological saline aseptically at 37 deg. C for 120 days. Endothelial cells were co-cultured with the degradation products and the angiogenic cell behaviors, including cell proliferation, migration and tube-like structure (TLS) formation, were tested by MTT assay, cell migration quantification method (CMQM), and tube-like structure quantification method (TLSQM) respectively. Furthermore, mRNA expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metallo proteinase (MMP-2) were determined by real-time reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Physiological saline served as a negative control. As the results showed, the degradation products obtained from 20th to 60th day significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration, and TLS formation of endothelial cells. However, degradation products of the first 14 days and the last 30 days were found to be proangiogenic. At the molecular level, the initial results indicated that the mRNA expressions of VEGF and MMP-2 were increased by the degradation products of 7th day, but were decreased by the ones of 60th day. According to all the results, it could be concluded that the angiogenic behaviors of endothelial cells at both cellular and molecular level could be significantly stimulated or suppressed by the degradation products of CS and the influences are quite time-dependent

  7. Complex degradation processes lead to non-exponential decay patterns and age-dependent decay rates of messenger RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlus Deneke

    Full Text Available Experimental studies on mRNA stability have established several, qualitatively distinct decay patterns for the amount of mRNA within the living cell. Furthermore, a variety of different and complex biochemical pathways for mRNA degradation have been identified. The central aim of this paper is to bring together both the experimental evidence about the decay patterns and the biochemical knowledge about the multi-step nature of mRNA degradation in a coherent mathematical theory. We first introduce a mathematical relationship between the mRNA decay pattern and the lifetime distribution of individual mRNA molecules. This relationship reveals that the mRNA decay patterns at steady state expression level must obey a general convexity condition, which applies to any degradation mechanism. Next, we develop a theory, formulated as a Markov chain model, that recapitulates some aspects of the multi-step nature of mRNA degradation. We apply our theory to experimental data for yeast and explicitly derive the lifetime distribution of the corresponding mRNAs. Thereby, we show how to extract single-molecule properties of an mRNA, such as the age-dependent decay rate and the residual lifetime. Finally, we analyze the decay patterns of the whole translatome of yeast cells and show that yeast mRNAs can be grouped into three broad classes that exhibit three distinct decay patterns. This paper provides both a method to accurately analyze non-exponential mRNA decay patterns and a tool to validate different models of degradation using decay data.

  8. Large scale comparative codon-pair context analysis unveils general rules that fine-tune evolution of mRNA primary structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Moura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Codon usage and codon-pair context are important gene primary structure features that influence mRNA decoding fidelity. In order to identify general rules that shape codon-pair context and minimize mRNA decoding error, we have carried out a large scale comparative codon-pair context analysis of 119 fully sequenced genomes. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed mathematical and software tools for large scale comparative codon-pair context analysis. These methodologies unveiled general and species specific codon-pair context rules that govern evolution of mRNAs in the 3 domains of life. We show that evolution of bacterial and archeal mRNA primary structure is mainly dependent on constraints imposed by the translational machinery, while in eukaryotes DNA methylation and tri-nucleotide repeats impose strong biases on codon-pair context. CONCLUSIONS: The data highlight fundamental differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNA decoding rules, which are partially independent of codon usage.

  9. The ApaH-like phosphatase TbALPH1 is the major mRNA decapping enzyme of trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kramer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available 5'-3' decay is the major mRNA decay pathway in many eukaryotes, including trypanosomes. After deadenylation, mRNAs are decapped by the nudix hydrolase DCP2 of the decapping complex and finally degraded by the 5'-3' exoribonuclease. Uniquely, trypanosomes lack homologues to all subunits of the decapping complex, while deadenylation and 5'-3' degradation are conserved. Here, I show that the parasites use an ApaH-like phosphatase (ALPH1 as their major mRNA decapping enzyme. The protein was recently identified as a novel trypanosome stress granule protein and as involved in mRNA binding. A fraction of ALPH1 co-localises exclusively with the trypanosome 5'-3' exoribonuclease XRNA to a special granule at the posterior pole of the cell, indicating a connection between the two enzymes. RNAi depletion of ALPH1 is lethal and causes a massive increase in total mRNAs that are deadenylated, but have not yet started 5'-3' decay. These data suggest that ALPH1 acts downstream of deadenylation and upstream of mRNA degradation, consistent with a function in mRNA decapping. In vitro experiments show that recombinant, N-terminally truncated ALHP1 protein, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, sensitises the capped trypanosome spliced leader RNA to yeast Xrn1, but only if an RNA 5' polyphosphatase is included. This indicates that the decapping mechanism of ALPH1 differs from the decapping mechanism of Dcp2 by leaving more than one phosphate group at the mRNA's 5' end. This is the first reported function of a eukaryotic ApaH-like phosphatase, a bacterial-derived class of enzymes present in all phylogenetic super-groups of the eukaryotic kingdom. The substrates of eukaryotic ApaH-like phosphatases are unknown. However, the substrate of the related bacterial enzyme ApaH, diadenosine tetraphosphate, is highly reminiscent of a eukaryotic mRNA cap.

  10. ARMOUR – A Rice miRNA: mRNA Interaction Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeti Sanan-Mishra

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ARMOUR was developed as ARice miRNA:mRNA interaction resource. This informative and interactive database includes the experimentally validated expression profiles of miRNAs under different developmental and abiotic stress conditions across seven Indian rice cultivars. This comprehensive database covers 689 known and 1664 predicted novel miRNAs and their expression profiles in more than 38 different tissues or conditions along with their predicted/known target transcripts. The understanding of miRNA:mRNA interactome in regulation of functional cellular machinery is supported by the sequence information of the mature and hairpin structures. ARMOUR provides flexibility to users in querying the database using multiple ways like known gene identifiers, gene ontology identifiers, KEGG identifiers and also allows on the fly fold change analysis and sequence search query with inbuilt BLAST algorithm. ARMOUR database provides a cohesive platform for novel and mature miRNAs and their expression in different experimental conditions and allows searching for their interacting mRNA targets, GO annotation and their involvement in various biological pathways. The ARMOUR database includes a provision for adding more experimental data from users, with an aim to develop it as a platform for sharing and comparing experimental data contributed by research groups working on rice.

  11. ARMOUR - A Rice miRNA: mRNA Interaction Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanan-Mishra, Neeti; Tripathi, Anita; Goswami, Kavita; Shukla, Rohit N; Vasudevan, Madavan; Goswami, Hitesh

    2018-01-01

    ARMOUR was developed as A Rice miRNA:mRNA interaction resource. This informative and interactive database includes the experimentally validated expression profiles of miRNAs under different developmental and abiotic stress conditions across seven Indian rice cultivars. This comprehensive database covers 689 known and 1664 predicted novel miRNAs and their expression profiles in more than 38 different tissues or conditions along with their predicted/known target transcripts. The understanding of miRNA:mRNA interactome in regulation of functional cellular machinery is supported by the sequence information of the mature and hairpin structures. ARMOUR provides flexibility to users in querying the database using multiple ways like known gene identifiers, gene ontology identifiers, KEGG identifiers and also allows on the fly fold change analysis and sequence search query with inbuilt BLAST algorithm. ARMOUR database provides a cohesive platform for novel and mature miRNAs and their expression in different experimental conditions and allows searching for their interacting mRNA targets, GO annotation and their involvement in various biological pathways. The ARMOUR database includes a provision for adding more experimental data from users, with an aim to develop it as a platform for sharing and comparing experimental data contributed by research groups working on rice.

  12. Increased IL-10 mRNA and IL-23 mRNA expression in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, Martin; Sorensen, P; Khademi, M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interferon (IFN)-beta therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been suggested to promote a deviation from T lymphocyte production of pathogenic Th1 cytokines to less detrimental Th2 cytokines, but this is still controversial. We studied patterns of in vivo blood mononuclear cell (MNC...... of any Th1 or Th2 cytokines. The largest changes in cytokine mRNA levels occurred early (~9-12 h) after an IFN-beta injection. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence of a Th1- or Th2-mRNA-promoting effect of IFN-beta therapy. The therapeutic effect of IFN-beta is more likely attributable to the induction...

  13. mRNA quality control pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Efficient production of translation-competent mRNAs involves processing and modification events both in the nucleus and cytoplasm which require a number of complex machineries at both co-transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Mutations in the genomic sequence sometimes result in the formation of mutant ...

  14. Enzymatic degradation of aliphatic nitriles by Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2, a versatile nitrile-degrading bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shumei; An, Xuejiao; Liu, Hongyuan; Cheng, Yi; Hou, Ning; Feng, Lu; Huang, Xinning; Li, Chunyan

    2015-06-01

    Nitriles are common environmental pollutants, and their removal has attracted increasing attention. Microbial degradation is considered to be the most acceptable method for removal. In this work, we investigated the biodegradation of three aliphatic nitriles (acetonitrile, acrylonitrile and crotononitrile) by Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2 and the expression of their corresponding metabolic enzymes. This organism can utilize all three aliphatic nitriles as sole carbon and nitrogen sources, resulting in the complete degradation of these compounds. The degradation kinetics were described using a first-order model. The degradation efficiency was ranked according to t1/2 as follows: acetonitrile>trans-crotononitrile>acrylonitrile>cis-crotononitrile. Only ammonia accumulated following the three nitriles degradation, while amides and carboxylic acids were transient and disappeared by the end of the assay. mRNA expression and enzyme activity indicated that the tested aliphatic nitriles were degraded via both the inducible NHase/amidase and the constitutive nitrilase pathways, with the former most likely preferred. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fragile X mental retardation protein recognizes a G quadruplex structure within the survival motor neuron domain containing 1 mRNA 5'-UTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAninch, Damian S; Heinaman, Ashley M; Lang, Cara N; Moss, Kathryn R; Bassell, Gary J; Rita Mihailescu, Mihaela; Evans, Timothy L

    2017-07-25

    G quadruplex structures have been predicted by bioinformatics to form in the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of several thousand mature mRNAs and are believed to play a role in translation regulation. Elucidation of these roles has primarily been focused on the 3'-UTR, with limited focus on characterizing the G quadruplex structures and functions in the 5'-UTR. Investigation of the affinity and specificity of RNA binding proteins for 5'-UTR G quadruplexes and the resulting regulatory effects have also been limited. Among the mRNAs predicted to form a G quadruplex structure within the 5'-UTR is the survival motor neuron domain containing 1 (SMNDC1) mRNA, encoding a protein that is critical to the spliceosome. Additionally, this mRNA has been identified as a potential target of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), whose loss of expression leads to fragile X syndrome. FMRP is an RNA binding protein involved in translation regulation that has been shown to bind mRNA targets that form G quadruplex structures. In this study we have used biophysical methods to investigate G quadruplex formation in the 5'-UTR of SMNDC1 mRNA and analyzed its interactions with FMRP. Our results show that SMNDC1 mRNA 5'-UTR forms an intramolecular, parallel G quadruplex structure comprised of three G quartet planes, which is bound specifically by FMRP both in vitro and in mouse brain lysates. These findings suggest a model by which FMRP might regulate the translation of a subset of its mRNA targets by recognizing the G quadruplex structure present in their 5'-UTR, and affecting their accessibility by the protein synthesis machinery.

  16. Conceptual modeling in systems biology fosters empirical findings: the mRNA lifecycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov Dori

    Full Text Available One of the main obstacles to understanding complex biological systems is the extent and rapid evolution of information, way beyond the capacity individuals to manage and comprehend. Current modeling approaches and tools lack adequate capacity to model concurrently structure and behavior of biological systems. Here we propose Object-Process Methodology (OPM, a holistic conceptual modeling paradigm, as a means to model both diagrammatically and textually biological systems formally and intuitively at any desired number of levels of detail. OPM combines objects, e.g., proteins, and processes, e.g., transcription, in a way that is simple and easily comprehensible to researchers and scholars. As a case in point, we modeled the yeast mRNA lifecycle. The mRNA lifecycle involves mRNA synthesis in the nucleus, mRNA transport to the cytoplasm, and its subsequent translation and degradation therein. Recent studies have identified specific cytoplasmic foci, termed processing bodies that contain large complexes of mRNAs and decay factors. Our OPM model of this cellular subsystem, presented here, led to the discovery of a new constituent of these complexes, the translation termination factor eRF3. Association of eRF3 with processing bodies is observed after a long-term starvation period. We suggest that OPM can eventually serve as a comprehensive evolvable model of the entire living cell system. The model would serve as a research and communication platform, highlighting unknown and uncertain aspects that can be addressed empirically and updated consequently while maintaining consistency.

  17. Machinery and labour force requirements for forest chip production in Finland in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K.; Strandsroem, M. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi, Email: markus.strandstrom@metsateho.fi; Lahtinen, P.; Elo, J. (Poeyry Energy Oy, Espoo (Finland)), Email: perttu.lahtinen@poyry.com, Email: juha.elo@poyry.com

    2009-07-01

    The research carried out by Metsaeteho Oy and Poeyry Energy Oy estimated how much machinery and labour would be needed for large-scale forest chip production if the use of forest chips increases extensively in Finland during the coming decade. If the production and consumption of forest chips are 25 to 30 TWh in Finland 2020, then 1,900 to 2,200 machinery units, i.e. machines and trucks, would be needed. This would mean total investments in production machinery of 530 to 630 million euro (VAT 0 %). The labour demand would be 3,400 to 4,000 machine operators and drivers, and 4,200 to 5,100 labour years including indirect labour. Respectively, if the production and consumption of forest chips is 15 to 20 TWh in Finland in 2020, then the production machinery requirement would be 1,100 to 1,500 machines and trucks. The total machinery investment cost would be 320 to 420 million euro (VAT 0 %) and the calculated labour demand 2,000 to 2,700 machine operators and drivers (2,500 to 3,400 labour years). The results of the study indicated that forest chip production resources will be a major bottleneck in reaching the consumption target of 12 million m3, i.e. around 24 TWh of forest chips in Finland by 2020. (orig.)

  18. Detection of Early Faults in Rotating Machinery Based on Wavelet Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Hee Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the application of wavelet analysis for the detection of early changes in rotor dynamics caused by common machinery faults, namely, rotor unbalance and minor blade rubbing conditions. In this paper, the time synchronised wavelet analysis method was formulated and its effectiveness to detect machinery faults at the early stage was evaluated based on signal simulation and experimental study. The proposed method provides a more standardised approach to visualise the current state of rotor dynamics of a rotating machinery by taking into account the effects of time shift, wavelet edge distortion, and system noise suppression. The experimental results showed that this method is able to reveal subtle changes of the vibration signal characteristics in both the frequency content distribution and the amplitude distortion caused by minor rotor unbalance and blade rubbing conditions. Besides, this method also appeared to be an effective tool to diagnose and to discriminate the different types of machinery faults based on the unique pattern of the wavelet contours. This study shows that the proposed wavelet analysis method is promising to reveal machinery faults at early stage as compared to vibration spectrum analysis.

  19. Design and Realization of Rotating Machinery Conditions Monitoring System Based on Labview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qiyuan

    Nonlinear dynamic analysis of rotating machinery system has always been the hot spot of the rotational dynamics research. This article sets up a rotating machinery condition monitoring system to realize the measurement of system dynamic characteristic parameters based on NI(National Instruments) virtual instruments technology. The measurement of vibration signal of rotating machinery system is achieved by using NI company general data acquisition module of NI company. Meanwhile, by analyzing and processing the acquired data using Labview 2012, the dynamic characteristics, such as .the speed of the rotating machinery system, the axis trajectory, spectrum parameters, are attained. The measurement results show that the rotating machinery condition monitoring system based on Labview is easy to operate, easy to realize the function extension and maintenance, and that it can be used in the industrial engineering projects with rotation characteristics. Labview as the development tools used by virtual instrument function, is very powerful data acquisition software products support is one of the features of it, so using Labview programming and data acquisition is simple and convenient [1].

  20. Non-machinery dialysis that achieves blood purification therapy without using full-scale dialysis machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takaya; Onoda, Mistutaka; Matsuura, Tomohiko; Sugimura, Jun; Obara, Wataru; Sato, Toshiya; Takahashi, Mihoko; Chiba, Kenta; Abe, Tomiya

    2017-09-01

    An electrical or water supply and a blood purification machine are required for renal replacement therapy. There is a possibility that acute kidney injury can occur in large numbers and on a wide scale in the case of a massive earthquake, and there is the potential risk that the current supply will be unable to cope with acute kidney injury cases. However, non-machinery dialysis requires exclusive circuits and has the characteristic of not requiring the full-scale dialysis machines. We performed perfusion experiments that used non-machinery dialysis and recent blood purification machines in 30-min intervals, and the effectiveness of non-machinery dialysis was evaluated by the assessing the removal efficiency of potassium, which causes lethal arrhythmia during acute kidney injury. The non-machinery dialysis potassium removal rate was at the same level as continuous blood purification machines with a dialysate flow rate of 5 L/h after 15 min and continuous blood purification machines with a dialysate flow rate of 3 L/h after 30 min. Non-machinery dialysis required an exclusive dialysate circuit, the frequent need to replace bags, and new dialysate exchanged once every 30 min. However, it can be seen as an effective renal replacement therapy for crush-related acute kidney injury patients, even in locations or facilities not having the full-scale dialysis machines.

  1. Emergence and modular evolution of a novel motility machinery in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Luciano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria glide across solid surfaces by mechanisms that have remained largely mysterious despite decades of research. In the deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus, this locomotion allows the formation stress-resistant fruiting bodies where sporulation takes place. However, despite the large number of genes identified as important for gliding, no specific machinery has been identified so far, hampering in-depth investigations. Based on the premise that components of the gliding machinery must have co-evolved and encode both envelope-spanning proteins and a molecular motor, we re-annotated known gliding motility genes and examined their taxonomic distribution, genomic localization, and phylogeny. We successfully delineated three functionally related genetic clusters, which we proved experimentally carry genes encoding the basal gliding machinery in M. xanthus, using genetic and localization techniques. For the first time, this study identifies structural gliding motility genes in the Myxobacteria and opens new perspectives to study the motility mechanism. Furthermore, phylogenomics provide insight into how this machinery emerged from an ancestral conserved core of genes of unknown function that evolved to gliding by the recruitment of functional modules in Myxococcales. Surprisingly, this motility machinery appears to be highly related to a sporulation system, underscoring unsuspected common mechanisms in these apparently distinct morphogenic phenomena.

  2. Machinery fault diagnosis using joint global and local/nonlocal discriminant analysis with selective ensemble learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianbo

    2016-11-01

    The vibration signals of faulty machine are generally non-stationary and nonlinear under those complicated working conditions. Thus, it is a big challenge to extract and select the effective features from vibration signals for machinery fault diagnosis. This paper proposes a new manifold learning algorithm, joint global and local/nonlocal discriminant analysis (GLNDA), which aims to extract effective intrinsic geometrical information from the given vibration data. Comparisons with other regular methods, principal component analysis (PCA), local preserving projection (LPP), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and local LDA (LLDA), illustrate the superiority of GLNDA in machinery fault diagnosis. Based on the extracted information by GLNDA, a GLNDA-based Fisher discriminant rule (FDR) is put forward and applied to machinery fault diagnosis without additional recognizer construction procedure. By importing Bagging into GLNDA score-based feature selection and FDR, a novel manifold ensemble method (selective GLNDA ensemble, SE-GLNDA) is investigated for machinery fault diagnosis. The motivation for developing ensemble of manifold learning components is that it can achieve higher accuracy and applicability than single component in machinery fault diagnosis. The effectiveness of the SE-GLNDA-based fault diagnosis method has been verified by experimental results from bearing full life testers.

  3. Lignin degradation: microorganisms, enzymes involved, genomes analysis and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janusz, Grzegorz; Pawlik, Anna; Sulej, Justyna; Swiderska-Burek, Urszula; Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Anna; Paszczynski, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    Extensive research efforts have been dedicated to describing degradation of wood, which is a complex process; hence, microorganisms have evolved different enzymatic and non-enzymatic strategies to utilize this plentiful plant material. This review describes a number of fungal and bacterial organisms which have developed both competitive and mutualistic strategies for the decomposition of wood and to thrive in different ecological niches. Through the analysis of the enzymatic machinery engaged in wood degradation, it was possible to elucidate different strategies of wood decomposition which often depend on ecological niches inhabited by given organism. Moreover, a detailed description of low molecular weight compounds is presented, which gives these organisms not only an advantage in wood degradation processes, but seems rather to be a new evolutionatory alternative to enzymatic combustion. Through analysis of genomics and secretomic data, it was possible to underline the probable importance of certain wood-degrading enzymes produced by different fungal organisms, potentially giving them advantage in their ecological niches. The paper highlights different fungal strategies of wood degradation, which possibly correlates to the number of genes coding for secretory enzymes. Furthermore, investigation of the evolution of wood-degrading organisms has been described. © FEMS 2017.

  4. Two tandem RNase III cleavage sites determine betT mRNA stability in response to osmotic stress in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minji Sim

    Full Text Available While identifying genes regulated by ribonuclease III (RNase III in Escherichia coli, we observed that steady-state levels of betT mRNA, which encodes a transporter mediating the influx of choline, are dependent on cellular concentrations of RNase III. In the present study, we also observed that steady-state levels of betT mRNA are dependent on RNase III activity upon exposure to osmotic stress, indicating the presence of cis-acting elements controlled by RNase III in betT mRNA. Primer extension analyses of betT mRNA revealed two tandem RNase III cleavage sites in its stem-loop region, which were biochemically confirmed via in vitro cleavage assays. Analyses of cleavage sites suggested the stochastic selection of cleavage sites by RNase III, and mutational analyses indicated that RNase III cleavage at either site individually is insufficient for efficient betT mRNA degradation. In addition, both the half-life and abundance of betT mRNA were significantly increased in association with decreased RNase III activity under hyper-osmotic stress conditions. Our findings demonstrate that betT mRNA stability is controlled by RNase III at the post-transcriptional level under conditions of osmotic stress.

  5. Degradation of microbial polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P

    2004-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), one of the largest groups of thermoplastic polyesters are receiving much attention as biodegradable substitutes for non-degradable plastics. Poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and most intensively studied PHA. Microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various PHB-degrading microorganisms and PHB depolymerases have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. Distributions of PHB-degrading microorganisms, factors affecting the biodegradability of PHB, and microbial and enzymatic degradation of PHB are discussed in this review. We also propose an application of a new isolated, thermophilic PHB-degrading microorganism, Streptomyces strain MG, for producing pure monomers of PHA and useful chemicals, including D-3-hydroxycarboxylic acids such as D-3-hydroxybutyric acid, by enzymatic degradation of PHB.

  6. Zebrafish usp39 mutation leads to rb1 mRNA splicing defect and pituitary lineage expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesenia Ríos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of retinoblastoma (Rb tumor suppressor function is associated with human malignancies. Molecular and genetic mechanisms responsible for tumorigenic Rb downregulation are not fully defined. Through a forward genetic screen and positional cloning, we identified and characterized a zebrafish ubiquitin specific peptidase 39 (usp39 mutation, the yeast and human homolog of which encodes a component of RNA splicing machinery. Zebrafish usp39 mutants exhibit microcephaly and adenohypophyseal cell lineage expansion without apparent changes in major hypothalamic hormonal and regulatory signals. Gene expression profiling of usp39 mutants revealed decreased rb1 and increased e2f4, rbl2 (p130, and cdkn1a (p21 expression. Rb1 mRNA overexpression, or antisense morpholino knockdown of e2f4, partially reversed embryonic pituitary expansion in usp39 mutants. Analysis of pre-mRNA splicing status of critical cell cycle regulators showed misspliced Rb1 pre-mRNA resulting in a premature stop codon. These studies unravel a novel mechanism for rb1 regulation by a neuronal mRNA splicing factor, usp39. Zebrafish usp39 regulates embryonic pituitary homeostasis by targeting rb1 and e2f4 expression, respectively, contributing to increased adenohypophyseal sensitivity to these altered cell cycle regulators. These results provide a mechanism for dysregulated rb1 and e2f4 pathways that may result in pituitary tumorigenesis.

  7. Research on bearing fault diagnosis of large machinery based on mathematical morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    To study the automatic diagnosis of large machinery fault based on support vector machine, combining the four common faults of the large machinery, the support vector machine is used to classify and identify the fault. The extracted feature vectors are entered. The feature vector is trained and identified by multi - classification method. The optimal parameters of the support vector machine are searched by trial and error method and cross validation method. Then, the support vector machine is compared with BP neural network. The results show that the support vector machines are short in time and high in classification accuracy. It is more suitable for the research of fault diagnosis in large machinery. Therefore, it can be concluded that the training speed of support vector machines (SVM) is fast and the performance is good.

  8. Managing the exploitation life of the mining machinery for an unlimited duration of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of determining the optimum exploitation life of machinery, namely, the optimum time for machinery and equipment replacement, represents a complex and highly responsible engineering task. Taking into consideration the situation prevailing at coal pit mines in Serbia, the tasks of this rank are very complex and difficult. To make a decision on the replacement of capital equipment and machinery, such as bucket wheel excavators within the mentioned systems, implies a management task of utmost responsibility. It requires high professional and analytical knowledge as well as reliable arguments, based on a multidisciplinary professional approach. In this paper, the authors present their views on the problem of establishing the optimum exploitation life of bucket wheel excavators, offering an algorithm, based on dynamic programming, as a solution.

  9. Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  10. The experimental study on efficiency improvement of turbo machinery supported with magnetic bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In Hwang; Park, Young Ho; Han, Dong Chul

    2007-01-01

    To implement a conventional electromagnetic bearing in small turbo machinery, it has problems such as load capacity and size. Therefore, in this paper, these problems are resolved by using a permanent magnet biased electromagnetic bearing as a thrust bearing of small turbo machinery. Because the flux path of the bearing is designed by reluctance path modulation using an electromagnet and a permanent magnet, the bearing improves upon non-linearity, power consumption, size and load capacity of a conventional electromagnetic bearing. Test rotating the shaft over 500,000DN were carried out to verify the performance of the proposed small turbo machinery. In addition, the relationships between mass flow rate and pressure rise were measured as changing the tip clearance to verify the feasibility of efficiency improvement and active surge control and these results were compared with theoretical results

  11. Application of Functional Link Artificial Neural Network for Prediction of Machinery Noise in Opencast Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Nanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional link-based neural network models were applied to predict opencast mining machineries noise. The paper analyzes the prediction capabilities of functional link neural network based noise prediction models vis-à-vis existing statistical models. In order to find the actual noise status in opencast mines, some of the popular noise prediction models, for example, ISO-9613-2, CONCAWE, VDI, and ENM, have been applied in mining and allied industries to predict the machineries noise by considering various attenuation factors. Functional link artificial neural network (FLANN, polynomial perceptron network (PPN, and Legendre neural network (LeNN were used to predict the machinery noise in opencast mines. The case study is based on data collected from an opencast coal mine of Orissa, India. From the present investigations, it could be concluded that the FLANN model give better noise prediction than the PPN and LeNN model.

  12. ERGONOMIC AND ECOLOGICALSAFETY - FACTORSNESSARY TO IMPROVETHE COMPETITIVENESS OF THE DOMESTIC CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov Andrey Anatol’evich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of output and domestic used construction machinery showed that the most vulnerable link remains a problem of underreporting of ergonomics and environmental safety requirements. Compliance with ergonomic requirements enhances the performance of mechanized operations, leading to a decrease in construction costs. Increased environmental requirements reduce the negative impact on air basin. These results suggest the need to improve the structures of building machines. Made recommendations for a comprehensive solution to the problem. The measures to improve environmental safety, ergonomic design requirements of construction machinery, mechanisms of the optimal development of the domestic construction machinery, through the development and implementation of appropriate measures. Keywords: ergonomics of construction equipment, environmental safety of construction equipment

  13. Directional Wigner-Ville distribution and its application for rotating-machinery condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Wan; Ha, Jae HOng; Shin, Hae Gon; Lee, Yoon Hee; Kim, Young Baik

    1996-01-01

    Vibration analysis is one of the most powerful tools available for the detection and isolation of incipient faults in mechanical systems. The methods of vibration analysis in use today and under continuous study are broad band vibration monitoring, time domain analysis, and frequency domain analysis. In recent years, great interest has been generated concerning the use of time-frequency representation and its application for a machinery diagnostics and condition monitoring system. The objective of the research described in this paper was to develop a new diagnostic tool for the rotating machinery. This paper introduces a new time-frequency representation, Directional Wigner-Ville Distribution, which analyses the time-frequency structure of the rotating machinery vibration

  14. Noise test system of rotating machinery in nuclear power station based on microphone array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xincai; Guan, Jishi; Qi, Liangcai

    2017-12-01

    Rotating machinery plays an important role in all walks of life. Once the equipment fails, equipment maintenance and shutdown will cause great social harm and economic losses. Equipment safety operations at nuclear power stations have always been of top priority. It is prone to noise when the equipment is out of order or aging. Failure to find or develop equipment at the initial stage of equipment failure or ageing will pose a serious threat to the safety of the plant’s equipment. In this paper, sound imaging diagnosis technology is applied as a supplementary method to the condition monitoring and diagnosis system of rotating machinery in nuclear power stations. It provides a powerful guarantee for the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery in nuclear power stations.

  15. Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations : Proceedings of the Second International Conference "Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationnary Operations"

    CERN Document Server

    Bartelmus, Walter; Chaari, Fakher; Zimroz, Radoslaw; Haddar, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Condition monitoring of machines in non-stationary operations (CMMNO) can be seen as the major challenge for research in the field of machinery diagnostics. Condition monitoring of machines in non-stationary operations is the title of the presented book and the title of the Conference held in Hammamet - Tunisia March 26 – 28, 2012. It is the second conference under this title, first took place in Wroclaw - Poland , March 2011. The subject CMMNO comes directly from industry needs and observation of real objects. Most monitored and diagnosed objects used in industry works in non-stationary operations condition. The non-stationary operations come from fulfillment of machinery tasks, for which they are designed for. All machinery used in different kind of mines, transport systems, vehicles like: cars, buses etc, helicopters, ships and battleships and so on work in non-stationary operations. The papers included in the book are shaped by the organizing board of the conference and authors of the papers. The papers...

  16. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery: A Method based on Image Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lu

    Full Text Available Rotating machinery is one of the most typical types of mechanical equipment and plays a significant role in industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery has gained wide attention for its significance in preventing catastrophic accident and guaranteeing sufficient maintenance. With the development of science and technology, fault diagnosis methods based on multi-disciplines are becoming the focus in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. This paper presents a multi-discipline method based on image-processing for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Different from traditional analysis method in one-dimensional space, this study employs computing method in the field of image processing to realize automatic feature extraction and fault diagnosis in a two-dimensional space. The proposed method mainly includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal is transformed into a bi-spectrum contour map utilizing bi-spectrum technology, which provides a basis for the following image-based feature extraction. Then, an emerging approach in the field of image processing for feature extraction, speeded-up robust features, is employed to automatically exact fault features from the transformed bi-spectrum contour map and finally form a high-dimensional feature vector. To reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector, thus highlighting main fault features and reducing subsequent computing resources, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding is adopt to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. At last, probabilistic neural network is introduced for fault identification. Two typical rotating machinery, axial piston hydraulic pump and self-priming centrifugal pumps, are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method based on image-processing achieves a high accuracy, thus providing a highly effective means to fault diagnosis for

  17. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery: A Method based on Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen; Wang, Yang; Ragulskis, Minvydas; Cheng, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Rotating machinery is one of the most typical types of mechanical equipment and plays a significant role in industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery has gained wide attention for its significance in preventing catastrophic accident and guaranteeing sufficient maintenance. With the development of science and technology, fault diagnosis methods based on multi-disciplines are becoming the focus in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. This paper presents a multi-discipline method based on image-processing for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Different from traditional analysis method in one-dimensional space, this study employs computing method in the field of image processing to realize automatic feature extraction and fault diagnosis in a two-dimensional space. The proposed method mainly includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal is transformed into a bi-spectrum contour map utilizing bi-spectrum technology, which provides a basis for the following image-based feature extraction. Then, an emerging approach in the field of image processing for feature extraction, speeded-up robust features, is employed to automatically exact fault features from the transformed bi-spectrum contour map and finally form a high-dimensional feature vector. To reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector, thus highlighting main fault features and reducing subsequent computing resources, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding is adopt to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. At last, probabilistic neural network is introduced for fault identification. Two typical rotating machinery, axial piston hydraulic pump and self-priming centrifugal pumps, are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method based on image-processing achieves a high accuracy, thus providing a highly effective means to fault diagnosis for rotating machinery.

  18. Modern principles used in conformity assessment of machinery from forestry sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov Anca Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aiming to implement the general principles of risk prevention at employer’s level, with respect to occupational risks evaluation, the elimination of risk and accident factors, and information of workers which are using the machinery in the forestry sector. For the use of machinery in the forestry sector in terms of economic performance and a level of maximum safety, it is necessary to ensure the user guides set by the manufacturer in terms of commissioning, use and to provide appropriate safe working operations and interventions and to guarantee the technical and environmental requirements, including appropriate measures and means of protection against accidents and occupational disease. The impact of occupational risks for machinery used in this sector can be reduced through the application of modern principles in conformity assessment and certification and, where appropriate, through technical diagnostics and inspection, taking into account the provisions of the new Machinery Directive 2006/42 / EC which is imposing the obligation of manufacturer to implement conformity assessment procedures in accordance with the methods of assessment and verification of safety at the certification bodies, notified at the European Commission. The paper aims to develop modern technical tools for conformity assessment and verification of this category of machines used in the forestry sector that would provide prerequisite for increasing competitiveness of employers in the market economy. Applying these tools of modern technology for manufacturers and users of this category of machinery provides the necessary conditions for placing on the market of safe products with a appropriate safety level, in the intended using conditions, in order to guarantee the essential requirements for safety and health, technical and environmental conditions, including measures and means of protection. The result of this research is to develop technical tools needed to

  19. A Modelling Approach to Multibody Dynamics of Fluid Power Machinery with Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency potential of the digital displacement technology and the increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modelling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss...... mechanisms is necessary in order to accommodate this demand. At present fully coupled thermo-elastic models for various tribological interfaces has been presented. However, in order to analyse the interaction between tribological interfaces in fluid power pumps and motors, these interface models needs...

  20. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Oil and gas field machinery and equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil and gas field machinery and equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for oil and gas field machinery and equipment

  1. Full-length mRNA sequencing uncovers a widespread coupling between transcription initiation and mRNA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvar, Seyed Yahya; Allard, Guy; Tseng, Elizabeth; Sheynkman, Gloria M; de Klerk, Eleonora; Vermaat, Martijn; Yin, Raymund H; Johansson, Hans E; Ariyurek, Yavuz; den Dunnen, Johan T; Turner, Stephen W; 't Hoen, Peter A C

    2018-03-29

    The multifaceted control of gene expression requires tight coordination of regulatory mechanisms at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Here, we studied the interdependence of transcription initiation, splicing and polyadenylation events on single mRNA molecules by full-length mRNA sequencing. In MCF-7 breast cancer cells, we find 2700 genes with interdependent alternative transcription initiation, splicing and polyadenylation events, both in proximal and distant parts of mRNA molecules, including examples of coupling between transcription start sites and polyadenylation sites. The analysis of three human primary tissues (brain, heart and liver) reveals similar patterns of interdependency between transcription initiation and mRNA processing events. We predict thousands of novel open reading frames from full-length mRNA sequences and obtained evidence for their translation by shotgun proteomics. The mapping database rescues 358 previously unassigned peptides and improves the assignment of others. By recognizing sample-specific amino-acid changes and novel splicing patterns, full-length mRNA sequencing improves proteogenomics analysis of MCF-7 cells. Our findings demonstrate that our understanding of transcriptome complexity is far from complete and provides a basis to reveal largely unresolved mechanisms that coordinate transcription initiation and mRNA processing.

  2. A Point Mutation in the Exon Junction Complex Factor Y14 Disrupts Its Function in mRNA Cap Binding and Translation Enhancement*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Tzu-Wei; Lee, Kuo-Ming; Lou, Yuan-Chao; Lu, Chia-Chen; Tarn, Woan-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNA biogenesis involves a series of interconnected steps mediated by RNA-binding proteins. The exon junction complex core protein Y14 is required for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) and promotes translation. Moreover, Y14 binds the cap structure of mRNAs and inhibits the activity of the decapping enzyme Dcp2. In this report, we show that an evolutionarily conserved tryptophan residue (Trp-73) of Y14 is critical for its binding to the mRNA cap structure. A Trp-73 mutant (W73V) bound weakly to mRNAs and failed to protect them from degradation. However, this mutant could still interact with the NMD and mRNA degradation factors and retained partial NMD activity. In addition, we found that the W73V mutant could not interact with translation initiation factors. Overexpression of W73V suppressed reporter mRNA translation in vitro and in vivo and reduced the level of a set of nascent proteins. These results reveal a residue of Y14 that confers cap-binding activity and is essential for Y14-mediated enhancement of translation. Finally, we demonstrated that Y14 may selectively and differentially modulate protein biosynthesis. PMID:26887951

  3. A Point Mutation in the Exon Junction Complex Factor Y14 Disrupts Its Function in mRNA Cap Binding and Translation Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Tzu-Wei; Lee, Kuo-Ming; Lou, Yuan-Chao; Lu, Chia-Chen; Tarn, Woan-Yuh

    2016-04-15

    Eukaryotic mRNA biogenesis involves a series of interconnected steps mediated by RNA-binding proteins. The exon junction complex core protein Y14 is required for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) and promotes translation. Moreover, Y14 binds the cap structure of mRNAs and inhibits the activity of the decapping enzyme Dcp2. In this report, we show that an evolutionarily conserved tryptophan residue (Trp-73) of Y14 is critical for its binding to the mRNA cap structure. A Trp-73 mutant (W73V) bound weakly to mRNAs and failed to protect them from degradation. However, this mutant could still interact with the NMD and mRNA degradation factors and retained partial NMD activity. In addition, we found that the W73V mutant could not interact with translation initiation factors. Overexpression of W73V suppressed reporter mRNA translation in vitro and in vivo and reduced the level of a set of nascent proteins. These results reveal a residue of Y14 that confers cap-binding activity and is essential for Y14-mediated enhancement of translation. Finally, we demonstrated that Y14 may selectively and differentially modulate protein biosynthesis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Expression of calmodulin mRNA in rat olfactory neuroepithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffo, S; Goren, T; Khew-Goodall, Y S; Miara, J; Margolis, F L

    1991-04-01

    A calmodulin (CaM) cDNA was isolated by differential hybridization screening of a lambda gt10 library prepared from rat olfactory mucosa. This cDNA fragment, containing most of the open reading frame of the rat CaMI gene, was subcloned and used to characterize steady-state expression of CaM mRNA in rat olfactory neuroepithelium and bulb. Within the bulb mitral cells are the primary neuronal population expressing CaM mRNA. The major CaM mRNA expressed in the olfactory mucosa is 1.7 kb with smaller contributions from mRNAs of 4.0 and 1.4 kb. CaM mRNA was primarily associated with the olfactory neurons and, despite the cellular complexity of the tissue and the known involvement of CaM in diverse cellular processes, was only minimally evident in sustentacular cells, gland cells or respiratory epithelium. Following bulbectomy CaM mRNA declines in the olfactory neuroepithelium as does olfactory marker protein (OMP) mRNA. In contrast to the latter, CaM mRNA makes a partial recovery by one month after surgery. These results, coupled with those from in situ hybridization, indicate that CaM mRNA is expressed in both mature and immature olfactory neurons. The program regulating CaM gene expression in olfactory neurons is distinct from those controlling expression of B50/GAP43 in immature, or OMP in mature, neurons respectively.

  5. Human Adenovirus Core Protein V Is Targeted by the Host SUMOylation Machinery To Limit Essential Viral Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberger, Nora; Meyer, Tina; Groitl, Peter; Dobner, Thomas; Schreiner, Sabrina

    2018-02-15

    Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are nonenveloped viruses containing a linear, double-stranded DNA genome surrounded by an icosahedral capsid. To allow proper viral replication, the genome is imported through the nuclear pore complex associated with viral core proteins. Until now, the role of these incoming virion proteins during the early phase of infection was poorly understood. The core protein V is speculated to bridge the core and the surrounding capsid. It binds the genome in a sequence-independent manner and localizes in the nucleus of infected cells, accumulating at nucleoli. Here, we show that protein V contains conserved SUMO conjugation motifs (SCMs). Mutation of these consensus motifs resulted in reduced SUMOylation of the protein; thus, protein V represents a novel target of the host SUMOylation machinery. To understand the role of protein V SUMO posttranslational modification during productive HAdV infection, we generated a replication-competent HAdV with SCM mutations within the protein V coding sequence. Phenotypic analyses revealed that these SCM mutations are beneficial for adenoviral replication. Blocking protein V SUMOylation at specific sites shifts the onset of viral DNA replication to earlier time points during infection and promotes viral gene expression. Simultaneously, the altered kinetics within the viral life cycle are accompanied by more efficient proteasomal degradation of host determinants and increased virus progeny production than that observed during wild-type infection. Taken together, our studies show that protein V SUMOylation reduces virus growth; hence, protein V SUMOylation represents an important novel aspect of the host antiviral strategy to limit virus replication and thereby points to potential intervention strategies. IMPORTANCE Many decades of research have revealed that HAdV structural proteins promote viral entry and mainly physical stability of the viral genome in the capsid. Our work over the last years showed that this

  6. Degradation of AF1Q by chaperone-mediated autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peng; Ji, Min; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Jingru; Li, Huanjie; Cui, Taixing; Li Wang, Xing; Tang, Dongqi; Ji, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    AF1Q, a mixed lineage leukemia gene fusion partner, is identified as a poor prognostic biomarker for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), adult AML with normal cytogenetic and adult myelodysplastic syndrome. AF1Q is highly regulated during hematopoietic progenitor differentiation and development but its regulatory mechanism has not been defined clearly. In the present study, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to influence chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and explored the degradation mechanism of AF1Q. Pharmacological inhibitors of lysosomal degradation, such as chloroquine, increased AF1Q levels, whereas activators of CMA, including 6-aminonicotinamide and nutrient starvation, decreased AF1Q levels. AF1Q interacts with HSPA8 and LAMP-2A, which are core components of the CMA machinery. Knockdown of HSPA8 or LAMP-2A increased AF1Q protein levels, whereas overexpression showed the opposite effect. Using an amino acid deletion AF1Q mutation plasmid, we identified that AF1Q had a KFERQ-like motif which was recognized by HSPA8 for CMA-dependent proteolysis. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that AF1Q can be degraded in lysosomes by CMA. - Highlights: • Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is involved in the degradation of AF1Q. • Macroautophagy does not contribute to the AF1Q degradation. • AF1Q has a KFERQ-like motif that is recognized by CMA core components

  7. Degradation of AF1Q by chaperone-mediated autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng; Ji, Min; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Jingru [Department of Hematology, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Li, Huanjie; Cui, Taixing; Li Wang, Xing [Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Tang, Dongqi, E-mail: tangdq@sdu.edu.cn [Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250033 (China); Ji, Chunyan, E-mail: jichunyan@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Hematology, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2014-09-10

    AF1Q, a mixed lineage leukemia gene fusion partner, is identified as a poor prognostic biomarker for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), adult AML with normal cytogenetic and adult myelodysplastic syndrome. AF1Q is highly regulated during hematopoietic progenitor differentiation and development but its regulatory mechanism has not been defined clearly. In the present study, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to influence chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and explored the degradation mechanism of AF1Q. Pharmacological inhibitors of lysosomal degradation, such as chloroquine, increased AF1Q levels, whereas activators of CMA, including 6-aminonicotinamide and nutrient starvation, decreased AF1Q levels. AF1Q interacts with HSPA8 and LAMP-2A, which are core components of the CMA machinery. Knockdown of HSPA8 or LAMP-2A increased AF1Q protein levels, whereas overexpression showed the opposite effect. Using an amino acid deletion AF1Q mutation plasmid, we identified that AF1Q had a KFERQ-like motif which was recognized by HSPA8 for CMA-dependent proteolysis. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that AF1Q can be degraded in lysosomes by CMA. - Highlights: • Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is involved in the degradation of AF1Q. • Macroautophagy does not contribute to the AF1Q degradation. • AF1Q has a KFERQ-like motif that is recognized by CMA core components.

  8. Alternative Polyadenylation and Nonsense-Mediated Decay Coordinately Regulate the Human HFE mRNA Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rute; Proença, Daniela; Silva, Bruno; Barbosa, Cristina; Silva, Ana Luísa; Faustino, Paula; Romão, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) is an mRNA surveillance pathway that selectively recognizes and degrades defective mRNAs carrying premature translation-termination codons. However, several studies have shown that NMD also targets physiological transcripts that encode full-length proteins, modulating their expression. Indeed, some features of physiological mRNAs can render them NMD-sensitive. Human HFE is a MHC class I protein mainly expressed in the liver that, when mutated, can cause hereditary hemochromatosis, a common genetic disorder of iron metabolism. The HFE gene structure comprises seven exons; although the sixth exon is 1056 base pairs (bp) long, only the first 41 bp encode for amino acids. Thus, the remaining downstream 1015 bp sequence corresponds to the HFE 3′ untranslated region (UTR), along with exon seven. Therefore, this 3′ UTR encompasses an exon/exon junction, a feature that can make the corresponding physiological transcript NMD-sensitive. Here, we demonstrate that in UPF1-depleted or in cycloheximide-treated HeLa and HepG2 cells the HFE transcripts are clearly upregulated, meaning that the physiological HFE mRNA is in fact an NMD-target. This role of NMD in controlling the HFE expression levels was further confirmed in HeLa cells transiently expressing the HFE human gene. Besides, we show, by 3′-RACE analysis in several human tissues that HFE mRNA expression results from alternative cleavage and polyadenylation at four different sites – two were previously described and two are novel polyadenylation sites: one located at exon six, which confers NMD-resistance to the corresponding transcripts, and another located at exon seven. In addition, we show that the amount of HFE mRNA isoforms resulting from cleavage and polyadenylation at exon seven, although present in both cell lines, is higher in HepG2 cells. These results reveal that NMD and alternative polyadenylation may act coordinately to control HFE mRNA levels, possibly varying its

  9. Recent evolutions of refrigerating machineries and heat pumps; Evolutions recentes des machines a froid et thermopompes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This book of proceedings reports on 10 papers (or series of transparencies) concerning some recent developments about refrigerating machineries and heat pumps as used in space heating, air-conditioning and industrial refrigeration. Various aspects are developed: thermodynamic cycles, thermal performances, dimensioning, modeling, refrigerants substitution, design of flanged exchangers, compressors etc.. (J.S.)

  10. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery Using Vibration Measurement Deep Statistical Feature Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis is important for the maintenance of rotating machinery. The detection of faults and fault patterns is a challenging part of machinery fault diagnosis. To tackle this problem, a model for deep statistical feature learning from vibration measurements of rotating machinery is presented in this paper. Vibration sensor signals collected from rotating mechanical systems are represented in the time, frequency, and time-frequency domains, each of which is then used to produce a statistical feature set. For learning statistical features, real-value Gaussian-Bernoulli restricted Boltzmann machines (GRBMs are stacked to develop a Gaussian-Bernoulli deep Boltzmann machine (GDBM. The suggested approach is applied as a deep statistical feature learning tool for both gearbox and bearing systems. The fault classification performances in experiments using this approach are 95.17% for the gearbox, and 91.75% for the bearing system. The proposed approach is compared to such standard methods as a support vector machine, GRBM and a combination model. In experiments, the best fault classification rate was detected using the proposed model. The results show that deep learning with statistical feature extraction has an essential improvement potential for diagnosing rotating machinery faults.

  11. Assessment of exposure to manganese in welding operations during the assembly of heavy excavation machinery accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smargiassi, A; Baldwin, M; Savard, S; Kennedy, G; Mergler, D; Zayed, J

    2000-10-01

    Welder exposure to metals in various industrial sectors is poorly characterized. We had the opportunity to carry out an exploratory study to characterize manganese exposure in welding operations in a recently established Quebec factory that assembled accessories for heavy excavation machinery. Ten workers were sampled for total manganese for at least two consecutive days out of three followed by two consecutive days for respirable manganese (with a size selective sampler with a median cut-off of 4 microns), during a typical week in the summer of 1998. Parts being welded were characterized as large or small. Small parts were those being welded on tables during subassembly. Workers were divided into two groups according to the parts they were welding. Seventy-eight percent of the total manganese exposure levels of welding operations during the assembly of large accessories of heavy excavation machinery exceeded the manganese American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.20 mg/m3 (GM 0.24 mg/m3, n = 14) while none exceeded the TLV during the assembly of small pieces (GM 0.06 mg/m3, n = 8). Welding operations during the assembly of large heavy excavation machinery accessories may pose a significant health hazard. Considering the importance of task-related variables affecting exposure among workers, further studies are needed to better characterize exposure determinants of welding operations during the assembly of heavy excavation machinery accessories.

  12. Research on prediction of agricultural machinery total power based on grey model optimized by genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Li, Mu; Zhou, Jin; Zheng, Chang-zheng

    2009-07-01

    Agricultural machinery total power is an important index to reflex and evaluate the level of agricultural mechanization. It is the power source of agricultural production, and is the main factors to enhance the comprehensive agricultural production capacity expand production scale and increase the income of the farmers. Its demand is affected by natural, economic, technological and social and other "grey" factors. Therefore, grey system theory can be used to analyze the development of agricultural machinery total power. A method based on genetic algorithm optimizing grey modeling process is introduced in this paper. This method makes full use of the advantages of the grey prediction model and characteristics of genetic algorithm to find global optimization. So the prediction model is more accurate. According to data from a province, the GM (1, 1) model for predicting agricultural machinery total power was given based on the grey system theories and genetic algorithm. The result indicates that the model can be used as agricultural machinery total power an effective tool for prediction.

  13. Machinery for Forest Chip Production in Finland in 2007 and in the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy, P.O. Box 101, FI-00171 Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-10-15

    Metsaeteho Oy's study consisted of a survey of the production machinery for forest chips used by energy plants in 2007. The major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. In addition, the machinery and equipment stocked by the manufacturers and vendors of energy wood harvester heads, stump lifting devices, and chippers were also surveyed. The study provided also an estimate of future machinery requirements for forest chip production in Finland. The study estimated that a total of 1,100 machine and truck units were employed in the production of forest chips for energy plants in 2007. A total of 770 machine and truck units were contracted for the major forest chip suppliers in 2007. Increasing forest chip consumption will considerable increase the demand for additional forest chip production resources in the future. If the consumption of forest chips by energy plants in 2015 reaches 15 TWh, i.e. about 7.5 mill. m3, then the forest machine and truck requirement will be over 1,700 units. The corresponding machinery requirement at an energy plant with a forest chip consumption of 25 TWh (approx. 12.5 mill. m3), will be close to 2,300 machine and truck units

  14. The phototransduction machinery in the rod outer segment has a strong efficacy gradient

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzolini, Monica

    2015-05-04

    Rod photoreceptors consist of an outer segment (OS) and an inner segment. Inside the OS a biochemical machinery transforms the rhodopsin photoisomerization into electrical signal. This machinery has been treated as and is thought to be homogenous with marginal inhomogeneities. To verify this assumption, we developed a methodology based on special tapered optical fibers (TOFs) to deliver highly localized light stimulations. By using these TOFs, specific regions of the rod OS could be stimulated with spots of light highly confined in space. As the TOF is moved from the OS base toward its tip, the amplitude of saturating and single photon responses decreases, demonstrating that the efficacy of the transduction machinery is not uniform and is 5-10 times higher at the base than at the tip. This gradient of efficacy of the transduction machinery is attributed to a progressive depletion of the phosphodiesterase along the rod OS. Moreover we demonstrate that, using restricted spots of light, the duration of the photoresponse along the OS does not increase linearly with the light intensity as with diffuse light. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

  15. Hybridisation of powertrains for construction machinery; Hybridisierung von Antriebsstraengen fuer Baumaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Mark; Goetz, Manuel; Fellmann, Martin [ZF Friedrichshafen AG (Germany). Vorentwicklung Arbeitsmaschinen-Antriebe; Brehmer, Udo [ZF Passau GmbH (Germany). Entwicklung Baumaschinengetriebe

    2010-04-15

    Increasing fuel prices and increased environmental requirements lead, for construction machinery, to an increased importance of measures to reduce fuel consumption. The hybrid drive in this sector could become an economical option by using synergies for example with the commercial vehicle section. (orig.)

  16. Developing an Online Learning Media Using Smartphone for the Electrical Machinery Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchlas

    2018-01-01

    This research is aimed to prepare a desktop-based learning media that can be used to support an online lab activities using android smartphones in Electrical Machinery Course at the Department of Electrical Engineering for the undergraduate level. This work uses a conceptual development model which integrates some sub systems of internet…

  17. Domestication of self-splicing introns during eukaryogenesis : the rise of the complex spliceosomal machinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosseberg, Julian; Snel, Berend

    2017-01-01

    ᅟ: The spliceosome is a eukaryote-specific complex that is essential for the removal of introns from pre-mRNA. It consists of five small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) and over a hundred proteins, making it one of the most complex molecular machineries. Most of this complexity has emerged during

  18. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... inspection. These rules may be purchased from the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), ABS Plaza, 16855...

  19. DETERMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY OPERATORS’ OPINIONS ABOUT THE CABIN COMFORT IN ESKİŞEHİR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge ACARBAŞ BALTACI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Comfort has a great importance in the interior design of tractor and agricultural machinery cabins. Operators are exposed to muscoskeletal system disorders since they spend long time periods during the day in these vehicles. There is a few work in the literature reporting operators’ opinions about cabin comfort of these machineries. In this study, a questionnaire was conducted in order to get information about agricultural machinery operators’ opinions about the comfort of their vehicles. Tractor cabins and combine harvester machine cabins were selected as machineries. The study was conducted in Eskişehir in Turkey. Questionnaire was composed of four groups of questions and five ordered response levels were used in the Likert's scale. Demographic questions, general questions about the machine, personal evaluation questions and open ended questions were asked to the operators. After the questionnaire completed, collected data were classified according to the machine type. Frequency tables were used to present the results. Visibility and the accessibility were the most satisfied issues for the tractor operators with 55.9% and 55.4% percentages, respectively. Seat comfort has the highest satisfaction degree with 43.7% for the combine harvester operators. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient was used for the satisfaction questions in the applied questionnaire. The reliability of the study was high with coefficients of 0.878 and 0.940 for the tractor and combine harvester questionnaires, respectively. This study will support design and development process of new products by considering operator opinions.

  20. DIESEL ENGINE SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF DIESEL ENGINES. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON…

  1. Recent evolutions of refrigerating machineries and heat pumps; Evolutions recentes des machines a froid et thermopompes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This book of proceedings reports on 10 papers (or series of transparencies) concerning some recent developments about refrigerating machineries and heat pumps as used in space heating, air-conditioning and industrial refrigeration. Various aspects are developed: thermodynamic cycles, thermal performances, dimensioning, modeling, refrigerants substitution, design of flanged exchangers, compressors etc.. (J.S.)

  2. High voltage electrification of tractor and agricultural machinery – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreda, G.P.; Muñoz-García, M.A.; Barreiro, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CO_2 emission reduction calls for energy-efficient mobile work machines. • Energy recovery could be possible in some agricultural machinery operations. • Owning and operating costs of electrified tractor-implement pairs should be analyzed. • Plug-in hybrid electric tractors running along tramlines make sense. • Electrification allows for precise speed control, noise reduction and flexible design. - Abstract: Reduction of both pollutant emissions and fossil fuel dependency is an objective of energy policies worldwide. In many countries, governments promote the use of efficient vehicles like the hybrid electric vehicle. Incorporation of electric drives in tractor and agricultural machinery presents advantages in terms of increased energy efficiency and expanded functionalities. Higher efficiency means reduction in fuel consumption and subsequent decrease in CO_2 emission. New functionalities improve work quality and increase operator comfort. Tractor electrification takes advantage of decoupling loads and drives from the engine, which allows operating the latter at its highest efficiency point. Major advantages of machinery electrification are torque and speed control, noise reduction, and a more flexible design. In this paper, a review of the state-of-the-art of agricultural machinery high voltage electrification is presented.

  3. Energy-autonomous wireless vibration sensor for condition-based maintenance of machinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Bouwens, F.; Vullers, R.; Petré, F.; Devos, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of an energy-autonomous wireless vibration sensor for condition-based monitoring of machinery. Such technology plays an increasingly important role in modern manufacturing industry. In this work, energy harvesting is realized by resorting to a custom designed

  4. Prediction model for sound transmission from machinery in buildings: feasible approaches and problems to be solved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerretsen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Prediction models for the airborne and impact sound transmission in buildings have recently been established (EN 12354- 1&2:1999). However, these models do not cover technical installations and machinery as a source of sound in buildings. Yet these can cause unacceptable sound levels and it is

  5. 46 CFR 62.50-30 - Additional requirements for periodically unattended machinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... include machinery plants and spaces that are automated to the degree that they are self-regulating and... engineers' accommodations. Other than fire or flooding alarms, this may be accomplished by summarized visual... in § 111.103 of this chapter; and (7) Voice communications with the bridge. (i) Oil leakage. Leakages...

  6. 29 CFR 1918.98 - Qualifications of machinery operators and supervisory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Qualification of machinery operators. (1) Only an employee determined by the employer to be competent by reason...). Therefore, employers who act in accordance with the employment provisions (Title I) of the ADA (42 U.S.C... authority; elements of accidents prevention; attitudes, leadership and motivation; hazards of longshoring...

  7. Conflicting views on the membrane fusion machinery and the fusion pore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob B

    2009-01-01

    of the assembly of the fusogenic SNARE-complex. Here, I review conflicting views on the function of the core fusion machinery consisting of the SNAREs, Munc18, complexin, and synaptotagmin. Munc18 controls docking of vesicles to the plasma membrane and initial SNARE-complex assembly, whereas complexin...

  8. Industrial policy and technology diffusion : evidence from paper making machinery in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.; Szirmai, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the diffusion and adoption of paper making machinery in the Indonesian pulp and paper industry, from 1923 till 2000. The two main questions in this paper are: (1) What patterns of technology diffusion can be discerned in the Indonesian paper manufacturing sector? (2) What

  9. Industrial policy and technology diffusion : evidence from paper making machinery in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.; Szirmai, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the diffusion and adoption of paper making machinery in the Indonesian pulp and paper industry, from 1923 till 2000. We develop a machine level index of technological sophistication (mach), which measures the technological distance of each paper machine to the world

  10. Mechanical design handbook for elastomers. [the design of elastomer dampers for application in rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, M.; Zorzi, E.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive guide for the design of elastomer dampers for application in rotating machinery is presented. Theoretical discussions, a step by step procedure for the design of elastomer dampers, and detailed examples of actual elastomer damper applications are included. Dynamic and general physical properties of elastomers are discussed along with measurement techniques.

  11. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery Using Vibration Measurement Deep Statistical Feature Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Sánchez, René-Vinicio; Zurita, Grover; Cerrada, Mariela; Cabrera, Diego

    2016-06-17

    Fault diagnosis is important for the maintenance of rotating machinery. The detection of faults and fault patterns is a challenging part of machinery fault diagnosis. To tackle this problem, a model for deep statistical feature learning from vibration measurements of rotating machinery is presented in this paper. Vibration sensor signals collected from rotating mechanical systems are represented in the time, frequency, and time-frequency domains, each of which is then used to produce a statistical feature set. For learning statistical features, real-value Gaussian-Bernoulli restricted Boltzmann machines (GRBMs) are stacked to develop a Gaussian-Bernoulli deep Boltzmann machine (GDBM). The suggested approach is applied as a deep statistical feature learning tool for both gearbox and bearing systems. The fault classification performances in experiments using this approach are 95.17% for the gearbox, and 91.75% for the bearing system. The proposed approach is compared to such standard methods as a support vector machine, GRBM and a combination model. In experiments, the best fault classification rate was detected using the proposed model. The results show that deep learning with statistical feature extraction has an essential improvement potential for diagnosing rotating machinery faults.

  12. Machinery health prognostics: A systematic review from data acquisition to RUL prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yaguo; Li, Naipeng; Guo, Liang; Li, Ningbo; Yan, Tao; Lin, Jing

    2018-05-01

    Machinery prognostics is one of the major tasks in condition based maintenance (CBM), which aims to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of machinery based on condition information. A machinery prognostic program generally consists of four technical processes, i.e., data acquisition, health indicator (HI) construction, health stage (HS) division, and RUL prediction. Over recent years, a significant amount of research work has been undertaken in each of the four processes. And much literature has made an excellent overview on the last process, i.e., RUL prediction. However, there has not been a systematic review that covers the four technical processes comprehensively. To fill this gap, this paper provides a review on machinery prognostics following its whole program, i.e., from data acquisition to RUL prediction. First, in data acquisition, several prognostic datasets widely used in academic literature are introduced systematically. Then, commonly used HI construction approaches and metrics are discussed. After that, the HS division process is summarized by introducing its major tasks and existing approaches. Afterwards, the advancements of RUL prediction are reviewed including the popular approaches and metrics. Finally, the paper provides discussions on current situation, upcoming challenges as well as possible future trends for researchers in this field.

  13. 77 FR 64462 - Conference on International Trade Issues Facing U.S. Machinery Manufacturing Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... manufacturing is one of the largest and most competitive sectors of the American manufacturing economy. The... billion in 2011. The economic impact of machinery manufacturing extends throughout the American economy... service industries. Process control and other automation technologies enable end-users to maximize the...

  14. Assessment of the most significant causes of transportation and machinery accidents on collieries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholzer, JW

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify those areas, classified according to the SAMRASS data base system under the codes relating to underground transport and machinery type accidents that give cause to the greatest amount of accidents...

  15. Energy machineries on a manifold: Application to the construction of new energy representations of gauge groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, J.

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of the concepts of energy machinery and energy structure of a manifold allows to construct a large class of energy representations of gauge groups including, as a very particular case, the ones known up to now. A synthesis of earlier works allows to give a sufficient condition for the irreducibility of these representations. (orig./HSI)

  16. The central domain of yeast transcription factor Rpn4 facilitates degradation of reporter protein in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A V; Spasskaya, D S; Karpov, D S; Karpov, V L

    2014-10-16

    Despite high interest in the cellular degradation machinery and protein degradation signals (degrons), few degrons with universal activity along species have been identified. It has been shown that fusion of a target protein with a degradation signal from mammalian ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) induces fast proteasomal degradation of the chimera in both mammalian and yeast cells. However, no degrons from yeast-encoded proteins capable to function in mammalian cells were identified so far. Here, we demonstrate that the yeast transcription factor Rpn4 undergoes fast proteasomal degradation and its central domain can destabilize green fluorescent protein and Alpha-fetoprotein in human HEK 293T cells. Furthermore, we confirm the activity of this degron in yeast. Thus, the Rpn4 central domain is an effective interspecies degradation signal. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 46 CFR 182.460 - Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline. 182.460 Section 182.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., gasoline. (a) A space containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline must have a ventilation...

  18. [Effects of heavy machinery operation on the structural characters of cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, En-Heng; Chai, Ya-Fan; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2008-02-01

    With the cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China as test objects, this paper measured their structural characters such as soil strength, bulk density, and non-capillary porosity/capillary porosity (NCP/CP) ratio before and after heavy and medium-sized machinery operation, aimed to study the effects of machinery operation on the physical properties of test soils. The results showed that after machinery operation, there existed three distinct layers from top to bottom in the soil profiles, i.e., plowed layer, cumulative compacted layer, and non-affected layer, according to the changes of soil strength. Under medium-sized machinery operation, these three layers were shallower, and there was a new plow pan at the depth between 17.5 and 30 cm. Heavy machinery operation had significant positive effects on the improvement of topsoil structure (P heavy machinery, the bulk density of topsoil decreased by 7.2% and 3.5%, respectively, and NCP/CP increased by 556.6% after subsoiling, which would benefit water infiltration, reinforce water storage, and weaken the threat of soil erosion. The main action of heavy machinery operation was soil loosening, while that of medium-sized machinery operation was soil compacting.

  19. mRNA metabolism: nonsense mediated mRNA decay as a tool for gene therapy and the role of human DIS3L2 in transcript degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Gerson Leonel Asper

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado em Biologia Humana e Ambiente, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 A expressão génica nos eucariotas envolve uma série de passos interligados e acoplados entre si, tendo a molécula de RNA (ribonucleic acid) como mensageiro entre os grandes passos. Resumidamente, a mensagem codificada pelas bases nucleotídicas do ácido desoxirribonucleico (DNA) (deoxyribonucleic acid) é transferida para uma molécula de RNA (transcrição), que, após pr...

  20. Vibration Feature Extraction and Analysis for Fault Diagnosis of Rotating Machinery-A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Riaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Safety, reliability, efficiency and performance of rotating machinery in all industrial applications are the main concerns. Rotating machines are widely used in various industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery faults are very important and often complex and labor-intensive. Feature extraction techniques play a vital role for a reliable, effective and efficient feature extraction for the diagnosis of rotating machinery. Therefore, developing effective bearing fault diagnostic method using different fault features at different steps becomes more attractive. Bearings are widely used in medical applications, food processing industries, semi-conductor industries, paper making industries and aircraft components. This paper review has demonstrated that the latest reviews applied to rotating machinery on the available a variety of vibration feature extraction. Generally literature is classified into two main groups: frequency domain, time frequency analysis. However, fault detection and diagnosis of rotating machine vibration signal processing methods to present their own limitations. In practice, most healthy ingredients faulty vibration signal from background noise and mechanical vibration signals are buried. This paper also reviews that how the advanced signal processing methods, empirical mode decomposition and interference cancellation algorithm has been investigated and developed. The condition for rotating machines based rehabilitation, prevent failures increase the availability and reduce the cost of maintenance is becoming necessary too. Rotating machine fault detection and diagnostics in developing algorithms signal processing based on a key problem is the fault feature extraction or quantification. Currently, vibration signal, fault detection and diagnosis of rotating machinery based techniques most widely used techniques. Furthermore, the researchers are widely interested to make automatic

  1. Application of logical analysis of data to machinery-related accident prevention based on scarce data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jocelyn, Sabrina; Chinniah, Yuvin; Ouali, Mohamed-Salah; Yacout, Soumaya

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of Logical Analysis of Data (LAD) to machinery-related occupational accidents, using belt-conveyor-related accidents as an example. LAD is a pattern recognition and classification approach. It exploits the advancement in information technology and computational power in order to characterize the phenomenon under study. The application of LAD to machinery-related accident prevention is innovative. Ideally, accidents do not occur regularly, and as a result, companies have little data about them. The first objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of using LAD as an algorithm to characterize a small sample of machinery-related accidents with an adequate average classification accuracy. The second is to show that LAD can be used for prevention of machinery-related accidents. The results indicate that LAD is able to characterize different types of accidents with an average classification accuracy of 72–74%, which is satisfactory when compared with other studies dealing with large amounts of data where such a level of accuracy is considered adequate. The paper shows that the quantitative information provided by LAD about the patterns generated can be used as a logical way to prioritize risk factors. This prioritization helps safety practitioners make decisions regarding safety measures for machines. - Highlights: • LAD is presented as an innovative approach to prevent machinery-related accidents. • LAD is applied to a very small database of belt-conveyor-related accidents. • Despite scarce data, LAD generates patterns with adequate classification accuracy. • The patterns characterize different types of belt-conveyor-related accidents. • The patterns are useful to belt conveyor risk identification and risk estimation.

  2. Optimization Model for Machinery Selection of Multi-Crop Farms in Elsuki Agricultural Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysara Ahmed Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimization machinery model was developed to aid decision-makers and farm machinery managers in determining the optimal number of tractors, scheduling the agricultural operation and minimizing machinery total costs. For purpose of model verification, validation and application input data was collected from primary & secondary sources from Elsuki agricultural scheme for two seasons namely 2011-2012 and 2013-2014. Model verification was made by comparing the numbers of tractors of Elsuki agricultural scheme for season 2011-2012 with those estimated by the model. The model succeeded in reducing the number of tractors and operation total cost by 23%. The effect of optimization model on elements of direct cost saving indicated that the highest cost saving is reached with depreciation, repair and maintenance (23% and the minimum cost saving is attained with fuel cost (22%. Sensitivity analysis in terms of change in model input for each of cultivated area and total costs of operations showing that: Increasing the operation total cost by 10% decreased the total number of tractors after optimization by 23% and total cost of operations was also decreased by 23%. Increasing the cultivated area by 10%, decreased the total number of tractors after optimization by(12% and total cost of operations was also decreased by 12% (16669206 SDG(1111280 $ to 14636376 SDG(975758 $. For the case of multiple input effect of the area and operation total cost resulted in decrease maximum number of tractors by 12%, and the total cost of operations also decreased by 12%. It is recommended to apply the optimization model as pre-requisite for improving machinery management during implementation of machinery scheduling.

  3. The Design of High Reliability Magnetic Bearing Systems for Helium Cooled Reactor Machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swann, M.; Davies, N.; Jayawant, R.; Leung, R.; Shultz, R.; Gao, R.; Guo, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The requirements for magnetic bearing equipped machinery used in high temperature, helium cooled, graphite moderated reactor applications present a set of design considerations that are unlike most other applications of magnetic bearing technology in large industrial rotating equipment, for example as used in the oil and gas or other power generation applications. In particular, the bearings are typically immersed directly in the process gas in order to take advantage of the design simplicity that comes about from the elimination of ancillary lubrication and cooling systems for bearings and seals. Such duty means that the bearings will usually see high temperatures and pressures in service and will also typically be subject to graphite particulate and attendant radioactive contamination over time. In addition, unlike most industrial applications, seismic loading events become of paramount importance for the magnetic bearings system, both for actuators and controls. The auxiliary bearing design requirements, in particular, become especially demanding when one considers that the whole mechanical structure of the magnetic bearing system is located inside an inaccessible pressure vessel that should be rarely, if ever, disassembled over the service life of the power plant. Lastly, many machinery designs for gas cooled nuclear power plants utilize vertical orientation. This circumstance presents its own unique requirements for the machinery dynamics and bearing loads. Based on the authors’ experience with machine design and supply on several helium cooled reactor projects including Ft. St. Vrain (US), GT-MHR (Russia), PBMR (South Africa), GTHTR (Japan), and most recently HTR-PM (China), this paper addresses many of the design considerations for such machinery and how the application of magnetic bearings directly affects machinery reliability and availability, operability, and maintainability. Remote inspection and diagnostics are a key focus of this paper. (author)

  4. Integrating microRNA and mRNA expression profiles in response to radiation-induced injury in rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Ling; Zhou, Jundong; Zhang, Shuyu; Chen, Qing; Lai, Rensheng; Ding, Weiqun; Song, ChuanJun; Meng, XingJun; Wu, Jinchang

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to radiation provokes cellular responses, which are likely regulated by gene expression networks. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, which regulate gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting protein translation. The expression patterns of both mRNA and miRNA during the radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) remain less characterized and the role of miRNAs in the regulation of this process has not been studied. The present study sought to evaluate miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in the rat lung after irradiation. Male Wistar rats were subjected to single dose irradiation with 20 Gy using 6 MV x-rays to the right lung. (A dose rate of 5 Gy/min was applied). Rats were sacrificed at 3, 12 and 26 weeks after irradiation, and morphological changes in the lung were examined by haematoxylin and eosin. The miRNA and mRNA expression profiles were evaluated by microarrays and followed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. A cDNA microarray analysis found 2183 transcripts being up-regulated and 2917 transcripts down-regulated (P ≤ 0.05, ≥2.0 fold change) in the lung tissues after irradiation. Likewise, a miRNAs microarray analysis indicated 15 miRNA species being up-regulated and 8 down-regulated (P ≤ 0.05). Subsequent bioinformatics anal -yses of the differentially expressed mRNA and miRNAs revealed that alterations in mRNA expression following irradiation were negatively correlated with miRNAs expression. Our results provide evidence indicating that irradiation induces alterations of mRNA and miRNA expression in rat lung and that there is a negative correlation of mRNA and miRNA expression levels after irradiation. These findings significantly advance our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of radiation-induced lung injury. In summary, RILI does not develop gradually in a linear process. In fact, different cell types interact via cytokines in a very complex network. Furthermore, this study suggests that

  5. Snipper, an Eri1 homologue, affects histone mRNA abundance and is crucial for normal Drosophila melanogaster development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiadis, Anastasios; Delidakis, Christos; Kalantidis, Kriton

    2017-07-01

    The conserved 3'-5' RNA exonuclease ERI1 is implicated in RNA interference inhibition, 5.8S rRNA maturation and histone mRNA maturation and turnover. The single ERI1 homologue in Drosophila melanogaster Snipper (Snp) is a 3'-5' exonuclease, but its in vivo function remains elusive. Here, we report Snp requirement for normal Drosophila development, since its perturbation leads to larval arrest and tissue-specific downregulation results in abnormal tissue development. Additionally, Snp directly interacts with histone mRNA, and its depletion results in drastic reduction in histone transcript levels. We propose that Snp protects the 3'-ends of histone mRNAs and upon its absence, histone transcripts are readily degraded. This in turn may lead to cell cycle delay or arrest, causing growth arrest and developmental perturbations. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  6. Degradations and Rearrangement Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbo

    This section deals with recent reports concerning degradation and rearrangement reactions of free sugars as well as some glycosides. The transformations are classified in chemical and enzymatic ways. In addition, the Maillard reaction will be discussed as an example of degradation and rearrangement transformation and its application in current research in the fields of chemistry and biology.

  7. Comparison of Management-Operational Efficiency of Agricultural Machinery Operating Systems (Case Study Alborz Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Omidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Measuring the efficiency of operating systems in comparison with the methods of comparing the performance of systems explains the various dimensions of issues such as, the lack of full use of agricultural machinery capacity, improper selection of machine, incorrect use of machinery, ownership, etc.. Any improvement in operating system conditions reduces costs,, consumption of inputs, increases the efficiency of production factors and consequently reduces the price and increases agricultural profitability. The main objective of this research is to compare the operational-management efficiency of operating systems in Alborz province and comparison of managerial and operational efficiency of agricultural machinery farming systems by calculating the efficiency of its major components in agricultural machinery farming systems including efficiency, social, economic, technical-operational and managerial and ranking them in order to understand the optimal model of agricultural machinery systems. Materials and Methods This research is a survey study.The study population was beneficiaries of agricultural machinery in the Alborz province which in the multi-stage random sample was determined. Alborz province has 31,438 agricultural operations, of which 543 are exploited agricultural machinery. Cochran formula was used to determine sample size. Since, Cronbach's alpha coefficient greater than 0.7 was obtained by questionnaire, the reliability of the questionnaires was assessed as desirable. To calculate the efficiency the component data were extracted from 4 specialized questionnaires after the initial examination and encoding, then they were analyzed using the software SPSS, MCDM Engine. TOPSIS techniques were used for ranking managerial performance operating system for operating agricultural machinery Alborz province. Results and Discussion The results showed that social efficiency of dedicated-professional operation with an average of 6.6 had

  8. Heritability in the efficiency of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in humans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Seoighe, Cathal

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In eukaryotes mRNA transcripts of protein-coding genes in which an intron has been retained in the coding region normally result in premature stop codons and are therefore degraded through the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway. There is evidence in the form of selective pressure for in-frame stop codons in introns and a depletion of length three introns that this is an important and conserved quality-control mechanism. Yet recent reports have revealed that the efficiency of NMD varies across tissues and between individuals, with important clinical consequences. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using previously published Affymetrix exon microarray data from cell lines genotyped as part of the International HapMap project, we investigated whether there are heritable, inter-individual differences in the abundance of intron-containing transcripts, potentially reflecting differences in the efficiency of NMD. We identified intronic probesets using EST data and report evidence of heritability in the extent of intron expression in 56 HapMap trios. We also used a genome-wide association approach to identify genetic markers associated with intron expression. Among the top candidates was a SNP in the DCP1A gene, which forms part of the decapping complex, involved in NMD. CONCLUSIONS: While we caution that some of the apparent inter-individual difference in intron expression may be attributable to different handling or treatments of cell lines, we hypothesize that there is significant polymorphism in the process of NMD, resulting in heritable differences in the abundance of intronic mRNA. Part of this phenotype is likely to be due to a polymorphism in a decapping enzyme on human chromosome 3.

  9. Heritability in the efficiency of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in humans

    KAUST Repository

    Seoighe, Cathal

    2010-07-21

    Background: In eukaryotes mRNA transcripts of protein-coding genes in which an intron has been retained in the coding region normally result in premature stop codons and are therefore degraded through the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway. There is evidence in the form of selective pressure for in-frame stop codons in introns and a depletion of length three introns that this is an important and conserved quality-control mechanism. Yet recent reports have revealed that the efficiency of NMD varies across tissues and between individuals, with important clinical consequences. Principal Findings: Using previously published Affymetrix exon microarray data from cell lines genotyped as part of the International HapMap project, we investigated whether there are heritable, inter-individual differences in the abundance of intron-containing transcripts, potentially reflecting differences in the efficiency of NMD. We identified intronic probesets using EST data and report evidence of heritability in the extent of intron expression in 56 HapMap trios. We also used a genome-wide association approach to identify genetic markers associated with intron expression. Among the top candidates was a SNP in the DCP1A gene, which forms part of the decapping complex, involved in NMD. Conclusions: While we caution that some of the apparent inter-individual difference in intron expression may be attributable to different handling or treatments of cell lines, we hypothesize that there is significant polymorphism in the process of NMD, resulting in heritable differences in the abundance of intronic mRNA. Part of this phenotype is likely to be due to a polymorphism in a decapping enzyme on human chromosome 3. © 2010 Seoighe, Gehring.

  10. FOREWORD: The XXV IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems marks half a century tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan-Resiga, Romeo

    2010-05-01

    IAHR75_logoUPT90_logoARFT_logo International Association of Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research'Politehnica' University of TimisoaraRomanian Academy - Timisoara Branch The 25th edition of the IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, held in Timisoara, Romania, 20-24 September 2010, jointly organized by the 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara and the Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch, marks a half century tradition of these prestigious symposia. However, it is the first time that Romania hosts such a symposium, and for good reasons. The Romanian electrical power system has a total of 20,630 MW installed power, out of which 6,422 MW in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was in 2008 of 17,105 GWh from a total of 64,772 GWh electrical energy production. Moreover, for the period 2009-2015, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 2,157 MW installed power and an estimated 5,770 GWh/year energy production. Within the same period of time, the refurbishment, modernization and repair programs will increase the actual hydropower production with an estimated 349 GWh/year. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is proud to host the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, in the year of its 90th anniversary. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is one of the largest and most well-known technical universities from Central and Eastern Europe. It was founded in 1920, a short time after the union into one state of all the Romanian territories, following the end of the First World War, in order to respond to the need engineers felt by the Romanian society at that time, within the economical development framework. During its 90 years of existence, 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara educated over 100,000 engineers, greatly appreciated both in Romania and abroad, for their competence and seriousness. King Ferdinand I of Romania said while visiting the recently established

  11. The Clothes Make the mRNA: Past and Present Trends in mRNP Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Guramrit; Pratt, Gabriel; Yeo, Gene W; Moore, Melissa J

    2015-01-01

    Throughout their lifetimes, messenger RNAs (mRNAs) associate with proteins to form ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs). Since the discovery of the first mRNP component more than 40 years ago, what is known as the mRNA interactome now comprises >1,000 proteins. These proteins bind mRNAs in myriad ways with varying affinities and stoichiometries, with many assembling onto nascent RNAs in a highly ordered process during transcription and precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) processing. The nonrandom distribution of major mRNP proteins observed in transcriptome-wide studies leads us to propose that mRNPs are organized into three major domains loosely corresponding to 5' untranslated regions (UTRs), open reading frames, and 3' UTRs. Moving from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, mRNPs undergo extensive remodeling as they are first acted upon by the nuclear pore complex and then by the ribosome. When not being actively translated, cytoplasmic mRNPs can assemble into large multi-mRNP assemblies or be permanently disassembled and degraded. In this review, we aim to give the reader a thorough understanding of past and current eukaryotic mRNP research.

  12. mRNA localization mechanisms in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysangela R Alves

    Full Text Available Asymmetric mRNA localization is a sophisticated tool for regulating and optimizing protein synthesis and maintaining cell polarity. Molecular mechanisms involved in the regulated localization of transcripts are widespread in higher eukaryotes and fungi, but not in protozoa. Trypanosomes are ancient eukaryotes that branched off early in eukaryote evolution. We hypothesized that these organisms would have basic mechanisms of mRNA localization. FISH assays with probes against transcripts coding for proteins with restricted distributions showed a discrete localization of the mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Moreover, cruzipain mRNA was found inside reservosomes suggesting new unexpected functions for this vacuolar organelle. Individual mRNAs were also mobilized to RNA granules in response to nutritional stress. The cytoplasmic distribution of these transcripts changed with cell differentiation, suggesting that localization mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of stage-specific protein expression. Transfection assays with reporter genes showed that, as in higher eukaryotes, 3'UTRs were responsible for guiding mRNAs to their final location. Our results strongly suggest that Trypanosoma cruzi have a core, basic mechanism of mRNA localization. This kind of controlled mRNA transport is ancient, dating back to early eukaryote evolution.

  13. Identifying mRNA targets of microRNA dysregulated in cancer: with application to clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liou Louis S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA regulate mRNA levels in a tissue specific way, either by inducing degradation of the transcript or by inhibiting translation or transcription. Putative mRNA targets of microRNA identified from seed sequence matches are available in many databases. However, such matches have a high false positive rate and cannot identify tissue specificity of regulation. Results We describe a simple method to identify direct mRNA targets of microRNA dysregulated in cancers from expression level measurements in patient matched tumor/normal samples. The word "direct" is used here in a strict sense to: a represent mRNA which have an exact seed sequence match to the microRNA in their 3'UTR, b the seed sequence match is strictly conserved across mouse, human, rat and dog genomes, c the mRNA and microRNA expression levels can distinguish tumor from normal with high significance and d the microRNA/mRNA expression levels are strongly and significantly anti-correlated in tumor and/or normal samples. We apply and validate the method using clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC and matched normal kidney samples, limiting our analysis to mRNA targets which undergo degradation of the mRNA transcript because of a perfect seed sequence match. Dysregulated microRNA and mRNA are first identified by comparing their expression levels in tumor vs normal samples. Putative dysregulated microRNA/mRNA pairs are identified from these using seed sequence matches, requiring that the seed sequence be conserved in human/dog/rat/mouse genomes. These are further pruned by requiring a strong anti-correlation signature in tumor and/or normal samples. The method revealed many new regulations in ccRCC. For instance, loss of miR-149, miR-200c and mir-141 causes gain of function of oncogenes (KCNMA1, LOX, VEGFA and SEMA6A respectively and increased levels of miR-142-3p, miR-185, mir-34a, miR-224, miR-21 cause loss of function of tumor suppressors LRRC2, PTPN13, SFRP1

  14. Soil Degradation in India: Challenges and Potential Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Bhattacharyya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation in India is estimated to be occurring on 147 million hectares (Mha of land, including 94 Mha from water erosion, 16 Mha from acidification, 14 Mha from flooding, 9 Mha from wind erosion, 6 Mha from salinity, and 7 Mha from a combination of factors. This is extremely serious because India supports 18% of the world’s human population and 15% of the world’s livestock population, but has only 2.4% of the world’s land area. Despite its low proportional land area, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries account for 17% of the gross domestic product and employs about 50% of the total workforce of the country. Causes of soil degradation are both natural and human-induced. Natural causes include earthquakes, tsunamis, droughts, avalanches, landslides, volcanic eruptions, floods, tornadoes, and wildfires. Human-induced soil degradation results from land clearing and deforestation, inappropriate agricultural practices, improper management of industrial effluents and wastes, over-grazing, careless management of forests, surface mining, urban sprawl, and commercial/industrial development. Inappropriate agricultural practices include excessive tillage and use of heavy machinery, excessive and unbalanced use of inorganic fertilizers, poor irrigation and water management techniques, pesticide overuse, inadequate crop residue and/or organic carbon inputs, and poor crop cycle planning. Some underlying social causes of soil degradation in India are land shortage, decline in per capita land availability, economic pressure on land, land tenancy, poverty, and population increase. In this review of land degradation in India, we summarize (1 the main causes of soil degradation in different agro-climatic regions; (2 research results documenting both soil degradation and soil health improvement in various agricultural systems; and (3 potential solutions to improve soil health in different regions using a

  15. Intermittent degradation and schizotypy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Roché

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing schizotypy and psychological state variables (e.g., anxiety, depression, and their reaction times were recorded as they did so. Intermittent degradation was defined as the number of times a subject’s reaction time for questionnaire items met or exceeded three standard deviations from his or her mean reaction time after controlling for each item’s information processing load. Intermittent degradation scores were correlated with questionnaire scores. Our results indicate that intermittent degradation is associated with total scores on measures of positive and disorganized schizotypy, but unrelated to total scores on measures of negative schizotypy and psychological state variables. Intermittent degradation is interpreted as potentially derivative of schizotypy and a candidate endophenotypic marker worthy of continued research.

  16. Protein Structure and the Sequential Structure of mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunak, Søren; Engelbrecht, Jacob

    1996-01-01

    entries in the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank produced 719 protein chains with matching mRNA sequence, amino acid sequence, and secondary structure assignment, By neural network analysis, we found strong signals in mRNA sequence regions surrounding helices and sheets, These signals do not originate from......A direct comparison of experimentally determined protein structures and their corresponding protein coding mRNA sequences has been performed, We examine whether real world data support the hypothesis that clusters of rare codons correlate with the location of structural units in the resulting...... protein, The degeneracy of the genetic code allows for a biased selection of codons which may control the translational rate of the ribosome, and may thus in vivo have a catalyzing effect on the folding of the polypeptide chain, A complete search for GenBank nucleotide sequences coding for structural...

  17. Increased IL-10 mRNA and IL-23 mRNA expression in multiple sclerosis: interferon-beta treatment increases IL-10 mRNA expression while reducing IL-23 mRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, M.; Sorensen, P.; Khademi, M.

    2008-01-01

    volunteers served to confirm initial findings. mRNA was analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: We found elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-10 in untreated MS patients. IFN-beta therapy increased IL-10 and decreased IL-23 expression independently...... of the regulatory cytokine IL-10. The elevated IL-23 mRNA levels in MS patients are noteworthy in view of the newly discovered IL-23-driven Th17 T-cell subset, which is crucial in animal models of MS. Since IFN-beta therapy resulted in decreased IL-23 mRNA levels, the Th17 axis could be another target of IFN...

  18. Population density approach for discrete mRNA distributions in generalized switching models for stochastic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Adam R; Peskin, Charles S; Tranchina, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    We present a generalization of a population density approach for modeling and analysis of stochastic gene expression. In the model, the gene of interest fluctuates stochastically between an inactive state, in which transcription cannot occur, and an active state, in which discrete transcription events occur; and the individual mRNA molecules are degraded stochastically in an independent manner. This sort of model in simplest form with exponential dwell times has been used to explain experimental estimates of the discrete distribution of random mRNA copy number. In our generalization, the random dwell times in the inactive and active states, T_{0} and T_{1}, respectively, are independent random variables drawn from any specified distributions. Consequently, the probability per unit time of switching out of a state depends on the time since entering that state. Our method exploits a connection between the fully discrete random process and a related continuous process. We present numerical methods for computing steady-state mRNA distributions and an analytical derivation of the mRNA autocovariance function. We find that empirical estimates of the steady-state mRNA probability mass function from Monte Carlo simulations of laboratory data do not allow one to distinguish between underlying models with exponential and nonexponential dwell times in some relevant parameter regimes. However, in these parameter regimes and where the autocovariance function has negative lobes, the autocovariance function disambiguates the two types of models. Our results strongly suggest that temporal data beyond the autocovariance function is required in general to characterize gene switching.

  19. Complexity on Acute Myeloid Leukemia mRNA Transcript Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cattani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the sequence analysis of acute myeloid leukemia mRNA. Six transcript variants of mlf1 mRNA, with more than 2000 bps, are analyzed by focusing on the autocorrelation of each distribution. Through the correlation matrix, some patches and similarities are singled out and commented, with respect to similar distributions. The comparison of Kolmogorov fractal dimension will be also given in order to classify the six variants. The existence of a fractal shape, patterns, and symmetries are discussed as well.

  20. Detection of melatonin receptor mRNA in human muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lei

    2004-01-01

    To verify the expression of melatonin receptor mRNA in human, muscle, muscle beside vertebrae was collected to obtain total RNA and the mRNA of melatonin receptor was detected by RT-PCR method. The electrophoretic results of RT-PCR products by mt 1 and MT 2 primer were all positive and the sequence is corresponding with human melatonin receptor cDNA. It suggests that melatonin may act on the muscle beside vertebrae directly and regulate its growth and development. (authors)

  1. Proteasomal and lysosomal protein degradation and heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejun; Robbins, Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    In the cell, the proteasome and lysosomes represent the most important proteolytic machineries, responsible for the protein degradation in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy, respectively. Both the UPS and autophagy are essential to protein quality and quantity control. Alterations in cardiac proteasomal and lysosomal degradation are remarkably associated with most heart disease in humans and are implicated in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure. Studies carried out in animal models and in cell culture have begun to establish both sufficiency and, in some cases, the necessity of proteasomal functional insufficiency or lysosomal insufficiency as a major pathogenic factor in the heart. This review article highlights some recent advances in the research into proteasome and lysosome protein degradation in relation to cardiac pathology and examines the emerging evidence for enhancing degradative capacities of the proteasome and/or lysosome as a new therapeutic strategy for heart disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Protein Quality Control, the Ubiquitin Proteasome System, and Autophagy". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How do polymers degrade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Suping

    2011-03-01

    Materials derived from agricultural products such as cellulose, starch, polylactide, etc. are more sustainable and environmentally benign than those derived from petroleum. However, applications of these polymers are limited by their processing properties, chemical and thermal stabilities. For example, polyethylene terephthalate fabrics last for many years under normal use conditions, but polylactide fabrics cannot due to chemical degradation. There are two primary mechanisms through which these polymers degrade: via hydrolysis and via oxidation. Both of these two mechanisms are related to combined factors such as monomer chemistry, chain configuration, chain mobility, crystallinity, and permeation to water and oxygen, and product geometry. In this talk, we will discuss how these materials degrade and how the degradation depends on these factors under application conditions. Both experimental studies and mathematical modeling will be presented.

  3. Purex diluent degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; Mailen, J.C.; Pannell, K.D.

    1984-02-01

    The chemical degradation of normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) diluents both in the pure state and mixed with 30% tributyl phosphate (TBP) was investigated in a series of experiments. The results show that degradation of NPH in the TBP-NPH-HNO 3 system is consistent with the active chemical agent being a radical-like nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) molecule, not HNO 3 as such. Spectrophotometric, gas chromatographic, mass spectrographic, and titrimetric methods were used to identify the degradation products, which included alkane nitro and nitrate compounds, alcohols, unsaturated alcohols, nitro alcohols, nitro alkenes, ketones, and carboxylic acids. The degradation rate was found to increase with increases in the HNO 3 concentration and the temperature. The rate was decreased by argon sparging to remove NO 2 and by the addition of butanol, which probably acts as a NO 2 scavenger. 13 references, 11 figures

  4. Vibration Signal Forecasting on Rotating Machinery by means of Signal Decomposition and Neurofuzzy Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zurita-Millán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration monitoring plays a key role in the industrial machinery reliability since it allows enhancing the performance of the machinery under supervision through the detection of failure modes. Thus, vibration monitoring schemes that give information regarding future condition, that is, prognosis approaches, are of growing interest for the scientific and industrial communities. This work proposes a vibration signal prognosis methodology, applied to a rotating electromechanical system and its associated kinematic chain. The method combines the adaptability of neurofuzzy modeling with a signal decomposition strategy to model the patterns of the vibrations signal under different fault scenarios. The model tuning is performed by means of Genetic Algorithms along with a correlation based interval selection procedure. The performance and effectiveness of the proposed method are validated experimentally with an electromechanical test bench containing a kinematic chain. The results of the study indicate the suitability of the method for vibration forecasting in complex electromechanical systems and their associated kinematic chains.

  5. Research on monitoring technology of axial gap change about high-speed rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaochan; Liu Fanglei; Hu Shihua; Xie Qing; Li Zhen

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes that the only measuring point of high-speed rotating machinery (speed monitoring transducer) measuring the operation of the axial gap change and application. According to mechanism analysis the speed monitoring transducer's signal, prove its amplitude changes including the axial gap change information. To carry out the speed monitoring transducer qualitative and quantitative axial gap change research, Find the output signal amplitude and clearance change corresponding relationship formula of speed monitoring transducer, define the measurement method. Based on the above analsis, manufacture the single channel measurement devices and multiple unit measurement system, provide an important fault decision of high-speed rotating machinery, it can be applied to new equipment development and production. (authors)

  6. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF MACHINERY SECTORS TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the forward linkage, backward linkage and real benefit included the total environmental costs. The highest total environmental cost was railway equipment need to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources in carrying capacity, higher than standard environmental cost, and contribute to low real benefit. Electric accumulator & battery, secondary special industrial machinery, motorcycle, bicycle & other carriages, and engines and turbines need to monitor closely because they are able to link to other production sectors more than other production sector do and they have high environmental cost. In order to decide the sustainable development strategy of the country, there is a need to use this research to support decision-making.

  7. EXPLORING LINKS AMONG INVENTORY AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Folinas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate the effects of Inventory Turnover and Inventory Days on firm performance in the United Kingdom agricultural machinery industry by examining past literature reviews and empirical evidence of a primary research. Specific performance measures such as Earnings before Interest and Tax to Sales Ratio, Gross Profit to Sales Ratio, and Return on Assets are examined by conducting statistical analyses to determine the correlations between inventory and financial performance in agricultural machinery industry. The analysis of Inventory Turnover with financial performance measures doesn’t indicate any links between these variables. Furthermore, based on the results, Inventory Days plays a role in the financial performance of organisations however to varying degrees.

  8. Research on a Rotating Machinery Fault Prognosis Method Using Three-Dimensional Spatial Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoni Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Process models and parameters are two critical steps for fault prognosis in the operation of rotating machinery. Due to the requirement for a short and rapid response, it is important to study robust sensor data representation schemes. However, the conventional holospectrum defined by one-dimensional or two-dimensional methods does not sufficiently present this information in both the frequency and time domains. To supply a complete holospectrum model, a new three-dimensional spatial representation method is proposed. This method integrates improved three-dimensional (3D holospectra and 3D filtered orbits, leading to the integration of radial and axial vibration features in one bearing section. The results from simulation and experimental analysis on a complex compressor show that the proposed method can present the real operational status and clearly reveal early faults, thus demonstrating great potential for condition-based maintenance prediction in industrial machinery.

  9. Targeting apoptotic machinery as approach for anticancer therapy: Smac mimetics as anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevine M.Y. Elsayed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a chief regulator of cellular homeostasis. Impairment of apoptotic machinery is a main characteristic of several diseases such as cancer, where the evasion of apoptosis is a cardinal hallmark of cancer. Apoptosis is regulated by contribution of pro- and anti- apoptotic proteins, where caspases are the main executioners of the apoptotic machinery. IAP (inhibitors of apoptosis proteins is a family of endogenous inhibitors of apoptosis, which perform their function through interference with the function of caspases. Smac (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases is endogenous inhibitor of IAPs, thus it is one of the major proapoptotic endogenous proteins. Thus, the development of Smac mimetics has evolved as an approach for anticancer therapy. Several Smac mimetic agents have been introduced to clinical trial such as birinapanet 12. Herein, the history of development of Smac mimetics along with the recent development in this field is briefly discussed.

  10. CONTRIBUTIONS OF CAD / CAE TECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Ricci Martinez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to understand the contributions of CAD / CAE technology development projects Agricultural Machinery and Implements. The segment of Agricultural Machinery and Implements part of capital goods, which provides items that will be used to produce goods and services in other sectors and that is strategic in many economically and for innovation and technological diffusion in the country sector. To achieve the proposed objective a case study was conducted at a manufacturer of this type of product (combines, planters, tractors, etc. located in the region of Ribeirão Preto. Among the main contributions can excel found to reduce the time and costs of the project, the largest customer interaction, integration with the staff and the increased ability to test alternative solutions for solving problems.

  11. 4th International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Haddar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The book provides readers with a snapshot of recent research and technological trends in the field of condition monitoring of machinery working under a broad range of operating conditions. Each chapter, accepted after a rigorous peer-review process, reports on an original piece of work presented and discussed at the 4th International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-stationary Operations, CMMNO 2014, held on December 15-16, 2014, in Lyon, France. The contributions have been grouped into three different sections according to the main subfield (signal processing, data mining, or condition monitoring techniques) they are related to. The book includes both theoretical developments as well as a number of industrial case studies, in different areas including, but not limited to: noise and vibration; vibro-acoustic diagnosis; signal processing techniques; diagnostic data analysis; instantaneous speed identification; monitoring and diagnostic systems; and dynamic and fault modeling. This book no...

  12. Robust IFE Based Order Analysis of Rotating Machinery in Virtual Instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Y; Chi, Y L; Huang, Y Y; Qin, S R

    2006-01-01

    Character analysis plays an important role in fault-find and diagnosis of rotating machinery. Order analysis is one of the major methods in character analysis for the analysis of non-stationary vibration signals in run-up or coast down of rotating machinery. An order analysis method, which employs instantaneous frequency estimation based on time-frequency analysis, is introduced. In contrast with traditional order analysis methods, this method avoids the use of tachometer and other special hardware; hence it makes the application of order analysis simplified. The order analysis introduced in the paper with the character that only software is depended for order tracking makes it specially satisfy the requirement of Virtual Instruments. Corresponding order analysis items, such as order spectrum, order spectrum matrix and tracking order spectrum etc., which are applied in Virtual Instruments, are also introduced. A test example is provided to demonstrate the validity of the method presented

  13. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  14. Large-Scale Analysis Exploring Evolution of Catalytic Machineries and Mechanisms in Enzyme Superfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Nicholas; Dawson, Natalie L; Rahman, Syed A; Thornton, Janet M; Orengo, Christine A

    2016-01-29

    Enzymes, as biological catalysts, form the basis of all forms of life. How these proteins have evolved their functions remains a fundamental question in biology. Over 100 years of detailed biochemistry studies, combined with the large volumes of sequence and protein structural data now available, means that we are able to perform large-scale analyses to address this question. Using a range of computational tools and resources, we have compiled information on all experimentally annotated changes in enzyme function within 379 structurally defined protein domain superfamilies, linking the changes observed in functions during evolution to changes in reaction chemistry. Many superfamilies show changes in function at some level, although one function often dominates one superfamily. We use quantitative measures of changes in reaction chemistry to reveal the various types of chemical changes occurring during evolution and to exemplify these by detailed examples. Additionally, we use structural information of the enzymes active site to examine how different superfamilies have changed their catalytic machinery during evolution. Some superfamilies have changed the reactions they perform without changing catalytic machinery. In others, large changes of enzyme function, in terms of both overall chemistry and substrate specificity, have been brought about by significant changes in catalytic machinery. Interestingly, in some superfamilies, relatives perform similar functions but with different catalytic machineries. This analysis highlights characteristics of functional evolution across a wide range of superfamilies, providing insights that will be useful in predicting the function of uncharacterised sequences and the design of new synthetic enzymes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. OPTIMIZATION MODEL FOR VEHICLE ROUTING AND EQUIPMENT REPLACEMENT IN FARM MACHINERY

    OpenAIRE

    Grano, Carolina; Abensur, Eder

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: An equipment replacement decision takes into account economic engineering models based on discounted cash flow (DCF) such as the Annual Equivalent Cost (AEC). Despite a large number of researches on industrial assets replacement, there is a lack of studies applied to farm goods. This study aimed at assessing an alternative model for economic decision analysis on farm machinery replacement, with no restrictions on the number of replacements and assessed goods during a defined timelin...

  16. Electric machinery and drives in thermal power stations. Elektrische Maschinen und Antriebe in thermischen Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The following subjects were dealt with during the VDE meeting: 1) Requirements made by the electric network on the generators and their excitation equipment, and the influence thereof on their design; 2) requirements made by the power station process on the electric drives and the influence thereof on type and design; 3) requirements made on protective measures from the point of the electric power station machinery.

  17. INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF A FLEET OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND TRACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Korotchenya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An indicator for an integral assessment of efficiency of a fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors is proposed. Its calculating consists in multiplying partial efficiencies together: technical and price efficiency of agricultural production, and eco-efficiency of a fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors. Using an axiomatic method, the concept of efficiency of fleet was studied within broader category of productivity and in wider scales - within agriculture. The most general and obvious statements according to which efficiency of machine and tractor fleet is considered as indirectly settlement size counted proceeding from efficiency of agricultural production, were accepted as axioms. In general, efficiency is a ratio between productivity of an object in question and that of the theoretical ideal or an object with maximum productivity efficiency of which is accepted equal to unity or 100%. Technical efficiency of agricultural production characterizes the ability of an agricultural sector to produce the technically maximum output of agricultural produce obtained from the available resources (land, labor, machines, etc.. Price efficiency evaluates the ability of an agricultural sector to produce output of agricultural produce with regard to employing the optimal mix of resources given their prices. Because the theoretical ideal does not exist, efficiency of an agricultural sector, e.g. in Russia and of its fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors, is measured against agriculture of another country with maximum productivity efficiency of which is accepted as equal to unity or 100 percent. The calculation can be made on the basis of the Data Envelopment Analysis method. It is possible to calculate price and economic efficiency of Russian agriculture (fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors due to use its domestic prices.

  18. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF MACHINERY SECTORS TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THAILAND

    OpenAIRE

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the forward linkage, backward linkage and real benefit included the total environmental costs. The highest total environmental cost was railway equipment need to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources in carrying capacity, higher ...

  19. WAVELETS AND PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS METHOD FOR VIBRATION MONITORING OF ROTATING MACHINERY

    OpenAIRE

    Bendjama, Hocine; S. Boucherit, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Fault diagnosis is playing today a crucial role in industrial systems. To improve reliability, safety and efficiency advanced monitoring methods have become increasingly important for many systems. The vibration analysis method is essential in improving condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Effective utilization of vibration signals depends upon effectiveness of applied signal processing techniques. In this paper, fault diagnosis is performed using a com...

  20. The grouting handbook a step-by-step guide for foundation design and machinery installation

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Minimize loss of revenue and the downtime of critical assets by avoiding foundation cracking, poor bonds, and initial alignment changes. After their successful introduction as a maintenance material, machinery grouts are now being used for equipment placement in new construction. While certainly suitable for both markets and applications, a successful installation depends on proper grout selection, application, foundation preparation, and forming methods. Therefore, guidelines on their uses and limitations are needed for engineers and maintenance personnel. Based on 45 years of field experi

  1. Research Using Virtual Reality: Mobile Machinery Safety in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Dickey, James; Eger, Tammy; Frayne, Ryan; Delgado, Giselle; Ji, Xiaoxu

    2013-01-01

    Whole-body vibration is a significant health risk for between 4% and 7% of the work force in North America. In addition, many factors compound the health risks of heavy machinery operators. For example, twisted trunk and neck postures stiffen the spine and increase the transmission of vibration to the head. Similarly, workers adopt awkward postures in order to gain appropriate lines of sight for machine operations. Although the relative contribution of these various issues can be evaluated in...

  2. Automation of mining machinery at RAG; Automation von Bergbaumaschinen bei der RAG Deutsche Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabasch, Uwe [Zentralstab Kernbereich, RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany); Weiss, Hans-Juergen [Bergwerk Prosper-Haniel, RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Bottrop (Germany); Kotke, Frank [Elektrotechnik unter Tage, Zentralstab Kernbereich der RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany)

    2009-11-05

    The improvement of processes specific to mining in the collieries of RAG and the improvement of the ergonomic conditions in the deep coal mining deposits of Germany require a higher degree of automation and control of the processes in progress. A higher degree of automation is also re-quired here for the machinery and systems used. RAG will be consolidating its engineering and research activities in these areas over the coming years. (orig.)

  3. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  4. Acoustic Camera as a Fool for Identifying Machinery and Equipment Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Pavlikova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sound and noise are as old as humanity itself. They have accompanied civilization, evolution, and development for centuries. Music and speech represent not only the key elements of human life but also unpleasant feelings of noise that have always been an integral part of human existence. As industrial development has required more energy, powerful machinery, and equipment, there have been still noisier machines. Traffic has grown quickly due to the number and speed of vehicles. For that reason, an acoustic camera is used for the dynamic visualization of machinery and equipment noise as it analyses the sources of noise in details. Subsequently, qualified measures are introduced based on the results of the analysis. The paper considers launching another application. According to the proposed methodology, its use in identifying machinery and equipment failures and their maintenance is proved. The experiment was performed on a four-wheel lawn mower. The primary focus was on the identification of failures using an acoustic camera. The previous method allowed to quickly, precisely and efficiently identifying the failures in two out of five tested machines.

  5. Fault diagnosis of rotating machinery using an improved HHT based on EEMD and sensitive IMFs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Yaguo; Zuo, Ming J

    2009-01-01

    A Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) is a time–frequency technique and has been widely applied to analyzing vibration signals in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. It analyzes the vibration signals using intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) extracted using empirical mode decomposition (EMD). However, EMD sometimes cannot reveal the signal characteristics accurately because of the problem of mode mixing. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was developed recently to alleviate this problem. The IMFs generated by EEMD have different sensitivity to faults. Some IMFs are sensitive and closely related to the faults but others are irrelevant. To enhance the accuracy of the HHT in fault diagnosis of rotating machinery, an improved HHT based on EEMD and sensitive IMFs is proposed in this paper. Simulated signals demonstrate the effectiveness of the improved HHT in diagnosing the faults of rotating machinery. Finally, the improved HHT is applied to diagnosing an early rub-impact fault of a heavy oil catalytic cracking machine set, and the application results prove that the improved HHT is superior to the HHT based on all IMFs of EMD

  6. The adaptive response of lichens to mercury exposure involves changes in the photosynthetic machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolardi, Valentina; Cai, Giampiero; Parrotta, Luigi; Puglia, Michele; Bianchi, Laura; Bini, Luca; Gaggi, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Lichens are an excellent model to study the bioaccumulation of heavy metals but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms occurring during bioaccumulation. We investigated the changes of the lichen proteome during exposure to constant concentrations of mercury. We found that most of changes involves proteins of the photosynthetic pathway, such as the chloroplastic photosystem I reaction center subunit II, the oxygen-evolving protein and the chloroplastic ATP synthase β-subunit. This suggests that photosynthesis is a target of the toxic effects of mercury. These findings are also supported by changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b, and β-carotene). Alterations to the photosynthetic machinery also reflect on the structure of thylakoid membranes of algal cells. Response of lichens to mercury also involves stress-related proteins (such as Hsp70) but not cytoskeletal proteins. Results suggest that lichens adapt to mercury exposure by changing the metabolic production of energy. - Highlights: ► Lichens exposed to Hg° vapors accumulate this metal irreversibly. ► Hg° interferes with physiological processes of the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri. ► Hg° promotes changes in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments. ► Hg° treatment causes changes in the ultrastructure of the photobiont plastids. ► Hg° induces changes in the protein machinery involved in the photosynthesis pathway. - Mercury affects the photosynthetic protein machinery of lichens.

  7. The iron-sulfur cluster assembly machineries in plants: current knowledge and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Jérémy; Touraine, Brigitte; Briat, Jean-François; Gaymard, Frédéric; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Many metabolic pathways and cellular processes occurring in most sub-cellular compartments depend on the functioning of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins, whose cofactors are assembled through dedicated protein machineries. Recent advances have been made in the knowledge of the functions of individual components through a combination of genetic, biochemical and structural approaches, primarily in prokaryotes and non-plant eukaryotes. Whereas most of the components of these machineries are conserved between kingdoms, their complexity is likely increased in plants owing to the presence of additional assembly proteins and to the existence of expanded families for several assembly proteins. This review focuses on the new actors discovered in the past few years, such as glutaredoxin, BOLA and NEET proteins as well as MIP18, MMS19, TAH18, DRE2 for the cytosolic machinery, which are integrated into a model for the plant Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems. It also discusses a few issues currently subjected to an intense debate such as the role of the mitochondrial frataxin and of glutaredoxins, the functional separation between scaffold, carrier and iron-delivery proteins and the crosstalk existing between different organelles. PMID:23898337

  8. Control Systems of Rubber Dryer Machinery Components Using Programmable Logic Control (PLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendra; Yulianto, A. S.; Indriani, A.; Hernadewita; Hermiyetti

    2018-02-01

    Application of programmable logic control (PLC) is widely used on the control systems in the many field engineering such as automotive, aviation, food processing and other industries [1-2]. PLC is simply program to control many automatic activity, easy to use, flexible and others. PLC using the ladder program to solve and regulated the control system component. In previous research, PLC was used for control system of rotary dryer machine. In this paper PLC are used for control system of motion component in the rubber dryer machinery. Component of rubber dryer machine is motors, gearbox, sprocket, heater, drying chamber and bearing. Principle working of rubber dryer machinery is wet rubber moving into the drying chamber by sprocket. Sprocket is driven by motors that conducted by PLC to moving and set of wet rubber on the drying chamber. Drying system uses greenhouse effect by making hanger dryer design in the form of line path. In this paper focused on motion control system motors and sensors drying rubber using PLC. The results show that control system of rubber dryer machinery can work in accordance control input and the time required to dry the rubber.

  9. A Novel Fault Diagnosis Method for Rotating Machinery Based on a Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sheng; Yang, Tao; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Chen

    2018-05-04

    Fault diagnosis is critical to ensure the safety and reliable operation of rotating machinery. Most methods used in fault diagnosis of rotating machinery extract a few feature values from vibration signals for fault diagnosis, which is a dimensionality reduction from the original signal and may omit some important fault messages in the original signal. Thus, a novel diagnosis method is proposed involving the use of a convolutional neural network (CNN) to directly classify the continuous wavelet transform scalogram (CWTS), which is a time-frequency domain transform of the original signal and can contain most of the information of the vibration signals. In this method, CWTS is formed by discomposing vibration signals of rotating machinery in different scales using wavelet transform. Then the CNN is trained to diagnose faults, with CWTS as the input. A series of experiments is conducted on the rotor experiment platform using this method. The results indicate that the proposed method can diagnose the faults accurately. To verify the universality of this method, the trained CNN was also used to perform fault diagnosis for another piece of rotor equipment, and a good result was achieved.

  10. Vibration sensor data denoising using a time-frequency manifold for machinery fault diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingbo; Wang, Xiangxiang; Zhou, Qiang

    2013-12-27

    Vibration sensor data from a mechanical system are often associated with important measurement information useful for machinery fault diagnosis. However, in practice the existence of background noise makes it difficult to identify the fault signature from the sensing data. This paper introduces the time-frequency manifold (TFM) concept into sensor data denoising and proposes a novel denoising method for reliable machinery fault diagnosis. The TFM signature reflects the intrinsic time-frequency structure of a non-stationary signal. The proposed method intends to realize data denoising by synthesizing the TFM using time-frequency synthesis and phase space reconstruction (PSR) synthesis. Due to the merits of the TFM in noise suppression and resolution enhancement, the denoised signal would have satisfactory denoising effects, as well as inherent time-frequency structure keeping. Moreover, this paper presents a clustering-based statistical parameter to evaluate the proposed method, and also presents a new diagnostic approach, called frequency probability time series (FPTS) spectral analysis, to show its effectiveness in fault diagnosis. The proposed TFM-based data denoising method has been employed to deal with a set of vibration sensor data from defective bearings, and the results verify that for machinery fault diagnosis the method is superior to two traditional denoising methods.

  11. THE ROLE OF POSTHARVEST MACHINERIES AND PACKAGING IN MINIMIZING AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION IN PEANUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Paramawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a tropical country with relatively high humidity and temperature, Indonesia is struggling with aflatoxin which frequently contaminates peanut. Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic toxic substance that could cause liver cancer. Due to the increasing concern on food safety, the Indonesian Drugs and Foods Agency specifies the maximum aflatoxin allowed in peanut as much as 20 ppb. However, researches showed that aflatoxin contamination in peanut in Indonesia is much higher than the threshold. The study was carried out to observe the effect of using postharvest machineries and packaging  treatments on aflatoxin contamination in peanut. Reduction of postharvest processes was conducted by using series of machineries, e.g. thresher, dryer, and sheller. Packaging treatments, e.g. vacuum plastic pack, hermetic glass chamber, and polyethylene (PE plastic wrap were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (25-27°C. The results showed that using machineries in postharvest handling produced peanut free from aflatoxin contamination. However, without effective packaging, the aflatoxin level would increase during storage. Hermetic packaging could protect peanut from the mold as indicated by low level of aflatoxin contamination.

  12. New Fault Recognition Method for Rotary Machinery Based on Information Entropy and a Probabilistic Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quansheng; Shen, Yehu; Li, Hua; Xu, Fengyu

    2018-01-24

    Feature recognition and fault diagnosis plays an important role in equipment safety and stable operation of rotating machinery. In order to cope with the complexity problem of the vibration signal of rotating machinery, a feature fusion model based on information entropy and probabilistic neural network is proposed in this paper. The new method first uses information entropy theory to extract three kinds of characteristics entropy in vibration signals, namely, singular spectrum entropy, power spectrum entropy, and approximate entropy. Then the feature fusion model is constructed to classify and diagnose the fault signals. The proposed approach can combine comprehensive information from different aspects and is more sensitive to the fault features. The experimental results on simulated fault signals verified better performances of our proposed approach. In real two-span rotor data, the fault detection accuracy of the new method is more than 10% higher compared with the methods using three kinds of information entropy separately. The new approach is proved to be an effective fault recognition method for rotating machinery.

  13. Motion control of multi-actuator hydraulic systems for mobile machineries: Recent advancements and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Cheng, Min

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a survey of recent advancements and upcoming trends in motion control technologies employed in designing multi-actuator hydraulic systems for mobile machineries. Hydraulic systems have been extensively used in mobile machineries due to their superior power density and robustness. However, motion control technologies of multi-actuator hydraulic systems have faced increasing challenges due to stringent emission regulations. In this study, an overview of the evolution of existing throttling control technologies is presented, including open-center and load sensing controls. Recent advancements in energy-saving hydraulic technologies, such as individual metering, displacement, and hybrid controls, are briefly summarized. The impact of energy-saving hydraulic technologies on dynamic performance and control solutions are also discussed. Then, the advanced operation methods of multi-actuator mobile machineries are reviewed, including coordinated and haptic controls. Finally, challenges and opportunities of advanced motion control technologies are presented by providing an overall consideration of energy efficiency, controllability, cost, reliability, and other aspects.

  14. A sequential fuzzy diagnosis method for rotating machinery using ant colony optimization and possibility theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hao; Ping, Xueliang; Cao, Yi; Lie, Ke [Jiangnan University, Wuxi (China); Chen, Peng [Mie University, Mie (Japan); Wang, Huaqing [Beijing University, Beijing (China)

    2014-04-15

    This study proposes a novel intelligent fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery using ant colony optimization (ACO) and possibility theory. The non-dimensional symptom parameters (NSPs) in the frequency domain are defined to reflect the features of the vibration signals measured in each state. A sensitive evaluation method for selecting good symptom parameters using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed for detecting and distinguishing faults in rotating machinery. By using ACO clustering algorithm, the synthesizing symptom parameters (SSP) for condition diagnosis are obtained. A fuzzy diagnosis method using sequential inference and possibility theory is also proposed, by which the conditions of the machinery can be identified sequentially. Lastly, the proposed method is compared with a conventional neural networks (NN) method. Practical examples of diagnosis for a V-belt driving equipment used in a centrifugal fan are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results verify that the faults that often occur in V-belt driving equipment, such as a pulley defect state, a belt defect state and a belt looseness state, are effectively identified by the proposed method, while these faults are difficult to detect using conventional NN.

  15. Cloning and mRNA expression pattern analysis under low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research cloned endochitinase-antifreeze protein precursor (EAPP) gene of Dong-mu 70 rye (Secale cereale) by designing special primers according to Genbank's EAPP gene sequence, and analyzing the influence of low temperature stress on the expression of mRNA with RT-PCR. The results indicated that the ...

  16. Short-term calorie restriction feminizes the mRNA profiles of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in livers of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most effective anti-aging interventions in mammals. A modern theory suggests that aging results from a decline in detoxification capabilities and thus accumulation of damaged macromolecules. The present study aimed to determine how short-term CR alters mRNA profiles of genes that encode metabolism and detoxification machinery in the liver. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed CR (0, 15, 30, or 40%) diets for one month, followed by mRNA quantification of 98 xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in the liver, including 7 uptake transporters, 39 phase-I enzymes, 37 phase-II enzymes, 10 efflux transporters, and 5 transcription factors. In general, 15% CR did not alter mRNAs of most XPGs, whereas 30 and 40% CR altered over half of the XPGs (32 increased and 29 decreased). CR up-regulated some phase-I enzymes (fold increase), such as Cyp4a14 (12), Por (2.3), Nqo1 (1.4), Fmo2 (5.4), and Fmo3 (346), and numerous number of phase-II enzymes, such as Sult1a1 (1.2), Sult1d1 (2.0), Sult1e1 (33), Sult3a1 (2.2), Gsta4 (1.3), Gstm2 (1.3), Gstm3 (1.7), and Mgst3 (2.2). CR feminized the mRNA profiles of 32 XPGs in livers of male mice. For instance, CR decreased the male-predominantly expressed Oatp1a1 (97%) and increased the female-predominantly expressed Oatp1a4 (11). In conclusion, short-term CR alters the mRNA levels of over half of the 98 XPGs quantified in livers of male mice, and over half of these alterations appear to be due to feminization of the liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Chloroplast-to-Chromoplast Transition in Tomato Reveals Metabolic Shifts Coupled with Disrupted Thylakoid Biogenesis Machinery and Elevated Energy-Production Components1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsan, Cristina; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Bian, Wanping; Egea, Isabel; Rossignol, Michel; Bouyssie, David; Pichereaux, Carole; Purgatto, Eduardo; Bouzayen, Mondher; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    A comparative proteomic approach was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins in plastids at three stages of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening (mature-green, breaker, red). Stringent curation and processing of the data from three independent replicates identified 1,932 proteins among which 1,529 were quantified by spectral counting. The quantification procedures have been subsequently validated by immunoblot analysis of six proteins representative of distinct metabolic or regulatory pathways. Among the main features of the chloroplast-to-chromoplast transition revealed by the study, chromoplastogenesis appears to be associated with major metabolic shifts: (1) strong decrease in abundance of proteins of light reactions (photosynthesis, Calvin cycle, photorespiration) and carbohydrate metabolism (starch synthesis/degradation), mostly between breaker and red stages and (2) increase in terpenoid biosynthesis (including carotenoids) and stress-response proteins (ascorbate-glutathione cycle, abiotic stress, redox, heat shock). These metabolic shifts are preceded by the accumulation of plastid-encoded acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase D proteins accounting for the generation of a storage matrix that will accumulate carotenoids. Of particular note is the high abundance of proteins involved in providing energy and in metabolites import. Structural differentiation of the chromoplast is characterized by a sharp and continuous decrease of thylakoid proteins whereas envelope and stroma proteins remain remarkably stable. This is coincident with the disruption of the machinery for thylakoids and photosystem biogenesis (vesicular trafficking, provision of material for thylakoid biosynthesis, photosystems assembly) and the loss of the plastid division machinery. Altogether, the data provide new insights on the chromoplast differentiation process while enriching our knowledge of the plant plastid proteome. PMID:22908117

  18. Drift Degradation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Kicker

    2004-01-01

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA

  19. Drift Degradation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kicker

    2004-09-16

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal

  20. Present Situation and Activities of ISO 14000 series in Heavy Machinery Industries; Jukikai meka no taiou jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomisawa, Yukio. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Research Institute

    1999-01-15

    This paper shows the outline of the present situation and activities of ISO14000 series, environmental management system in heavy machinery industries. Today, main heavy machinery industries have already certified to ISO 14001 until this summer. The aim of the introduction of ISO 14001 are to establish the system improvement continuously by PDCA, to have essential elements in international trade and to keep up with the risk management. Some example of conducted ISO 14001 in heavy machinery industries are shown. The trend of heavy machinery industries will be able to predict to three key words, internationalization, network and opening information. The new role expected to environmental material engineer are indicated to research and develop ecomaterial by using LCA and to support the recycling, waste treatment and other technical basis of the environmental management system. (author)

  1. The National Shipbuilding Research Program, 1997 Ship Production Symposium, Paper No. 21: A Parametric Approach to Machinery Unitization in Shipbuilding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaquith, Peter E; Burns, Richard M; Duneclift, Lee A; Gaskari, Massood; Green, Thomas; Silveira, John L; Walsh, Anthony

    1997-01-01

    During the past ten years, both U.S. and foreign shipyards have developed advanced unitization concepts that include multi-level assemblies representing large vertical segments of ship machinery spaces...

  2. To Problem of Heat Load Distribution among Boilers with Various Systems for Regulation of Draught Machinery Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that while distributing loads among boilers an account of the power consumed by draught machinery with various regulation systems shifts an optimum point of load distribution by 2–5%.

  3. Analysis and prediction of translation rate based on sequence and functional features of the mRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    Full Text Available Protein concentrations depend not only on the mRNA level, but also on the translation rate and the degradation rate. Prediction of mRNA's translation rate would provide valuable information for in-depth understanding of the translation mechanism and dynamic proteome. In this study, we developed a new computational model to predict the translation rate, featured by (1 integrating various sequence-derived and functional features, (2 applying the maximum relevance & minimum redundancy method and incremental feature selection to select features to optimize the prediction model, and (3 being able to predict the translation rate of RNA into high or low translation rate category. The prediction accuracies under rich and starvation condition were 68.8% and 70.0%, respectively, evaluated by jackknife cross-validation. It was found that the following features were correlated with translation rate: codon usage frequency, some gene ontology enrichment scores, number of RNA binding proteins known to bind its mRNA product, coding sequence length, protein abundance and 5'UTR free energy. These findings might provide useful information for understanding the mechanisms of translation and dynamic proteome. Our translation rate prediction model might become a high throughput tool for annotating the translation rate of mRNAs in large-scale.

  4. Developments in polymer degradation - 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassie, N.

    1987-01-01

    A selection of topics which are representative of the continually expanding area of polymer degradation is presented. The aspects emphasised include the products of degradation of specific polymers, degradation by high energy radiation and mechanical forces, fire retardant studies and the special role of small radicals in degradation processes. (author)

  5. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  6. Degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, David A; Martin, Jonathan W; De Silva, Amila O

    2004-01-01

    Human and animal tissues collected in urban and remote global locations contain persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). The source of PFCAs was previously unknown. Here we present smog chamber studies that indicate fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) can degrade...... in the atmosphere to yield a homologous series of PFCAs. Atmospheric degradation of FTOHs is likely to contribute to the widespread dissemination of PFCAs. After their bioaccumulation potential is accounted for, the pattern of PFCAs yielded from FTOHs could account for the distinct contamination profile of PFCAs....... The significance of the gas-phase peroxy radical cross reactions that produce PFCAs has not been recognized previously. Such reactions are expected to occur during the atmospheric degradation of all polyfluorinated materials, necessitating a reexamination of the environmental fate and impact of this important...

  7. Motor degradation prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  8. Ecosystem degradation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental and ecosystem studies have assumed greater relevance in the last decade of the twentieth century than even before. The urban settlements are becoming over-crowded and industries are increasingly polluting the air, water and sound in our larger metropolises. Degradation of different types of ecosystem are discussed in this book, Ecosystem Degradation in India. The book has been divided into seven chapters: Introduction, Coastal and Delta Ecosystem, River Basin Ecosystem, Mountain Ecosystem, Forest Ecosystem, Urban Ecosystem and the last chapter deals with the Environmental Problems and Planning. In the introduction the environmental and ecosystem degradation problems in India is highlighted as a whole while in other chapters mostly case studies by experts who know their respective terrain very intimately are included. The case study papers cover most part of India and deal with local problems, stretching from east coast to west coast and from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. (author)

  9. PWR degraded core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1982-04-01

    A review is presented of the various phenomena involved in degraded core accidents and the ensuing transport of fission products from the fuel to the primary circuit and the containment. The dominant accident sequences found in the PWR risk studies published to date are briefly described. Then chapters deal with the following topics: the condition and behaviour of water reactor fuel during normal operation and at the commencement of degraded core accidents; the generation of hydrogen from the Zircaloy-steam and the steel-steam reactions; the way in which the core deforms and finally melts following loss of coolant; debris relocation analysis; containment integrity; fission product behaviour during a degraded core accident. (U.K.)

  10. Part-time farmers and accidents with agricultural machinery: a moderated mediated model on the role played by frequency of use and unsafe beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffaro, Federica; Roccato, Michele; Micheletti Cremasco, Margherita; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2018-01-25

    We aimed at testing a model of the direct and indirect effects of being a part-time farmer on the probability of being involved in an agricultural machinery-related accident, considering the role played by unsafe beliefs and the frequency of use of machinery. Two-hundred and fifty-two Italian men, regular users of agricultural machinery (age: Mean = 45.1 years, standard Deviation = 17.5), were administered a paper-and-pencil questionnaire addressing their relation with work, unsafe beliefs, and previous experience of machinery-related accidents. Being a part-time farmer showed a positive association with unsafe beliefs only among occasional machinery users. Unsafe beliefs in turn showed a positive association with accidents. The study gave a novel contribution to the knowledge of the chain of events connecting part-time farmers with machinery-related accidents. Preventive training interventions targeting part-timer farmers using agricultural machinery just occasionally should be developed.

  11. Regulation of mRNA Levels by Decay-Promoting Introns that Recruit the Exosome Specificity Factor Mmi1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Kilchert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, inefficient splicing is surprisingly common and leads to the degradation of transcripts with retained introns. How pre-mRNAs are committed to nuclear decay is unknown. Here, we uncover a mechanism by which specific intron-containing transcripts are targeted for nuclear degradation in fission yeast. Sequence elements within these “decay-promoting” introns co-transcriptionally recruit the exosome specificity factor Mmi1, which induces degradation of the unspliced precursor and leads to a reduction in the levels of the spliced mRNA. This mechanism negatively regulates levels of the RNA helicase DDX5/Dbp2 to promote cell survival in response to stress. In contrast, fast removal of decay-promoting introns by co-transcriptional splicing precludes Mmi1 recruitment and relieves negative expression regulation. We propose that decay-promoting introns facilitate the regulation of gene expression. Based on the identification of multiple additional Mmi1 targets, including mRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and sn/snoRNAs, we suggest a general role in RNA regulation for Mmi1 through transcript degradation.

  12. Selective nuclear export of specific classes of mRNA from mammalian nuclei is promoted by GANP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Vihandha O.; Andrews, Robert; Ellis, Peter; Langford, Cordelia; Gurdon, John B.; Stewart, Murray; Venkitaraman, Ashok R.; Laskey, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear phase of the gene expression pathway culminates in the export of mature messenger RNAs (mRNAs) to the cytoplasm through nuclear pore complexes. GANP (germinal- centre associated nuclear protein) promotes the transfer of mRNAs bound to the transport factor NXF1 to nuclear pore complexes. Here, we demonstrate that GANP, subunit of the TRanscription-EXport-2 (TREX-2) mRNA export complex, promotes selective nuclear export of a specific subset of mRNAs whose transport depends on NXF1. Genome-wide gene expression profiling showed that half of the transcripts whose nuclear export was impaired following NXF1 depletion also showed reduced export when GANP was depleted. GANP-dependent transcripts were highly expressed, yet short-lived, and were highly enriched in those encoding central components of the gene expression machinery such as RNA synthesis and processing factors. After injection into Xenopus oocyte nuclei, representative GANP-dependent transcripts showed faster nuclear export kinetics than representative transcripts that were not influenced by GANP depletion. We propose that GANP promotes the nuclear export of specific classes of mRNAs that may facilitate rapid changes in gene expression. PMID:24510098

  13. Antifoam degradation testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Newell, D. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL)

    2015-08-20

    This report describes the results of testing to quantify the degradation products resulting from the dilution and storage of Antifoam 747. Antifoam degradation is of concern to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) due to flammable decomposition products in the vapor phase of the Chemical Process Cell vessels, as well as the collection of flammable and organic species in the offgas condensate. The discovery that hexamethyldisiloxane is formed from the antifoam decomposition was the basis for a Potential Inadequacy in the Safety Analysis declaration by the DWPF.

  14. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. These can generally be classified as: Mechanical; Hydraulic; Tribological; Chemical; and Other (including those associated with the pump driver). Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump

  15. Short-term calorie restriction feminizes the mRNA profiles of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in livers of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most effective anti-aging interventions in mammals. A modern theory suggests that aging results from a decline in detoxification capabilities and thus accumulation of damaged macromolecules. The present study aimed to determine how short-term CR alters mRNA profiles of genes that encode metabolism and detoxification machinery in the liver. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed CR (0, 15, 30, or 40%) diets for one month, followed by mRNA quantification of 98 xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in the liver, including 7 uptake transporters, 39 phase-I enzymes, 37 phase-II enzymes, 10 efflux transporters, and 5 transcription factors. In general, 15% CR did not alter mRNAs of most XPGs, whereas 30 and 40% CR altered over half of the XPGs (32 increased and 29 decreased). CR up-regulated some phase-I enzymes (fold increase), such as Cyp4a14 (12), Por (2.3), Nqo1 (1.4), Fmo2 (5.4), and Fmo3 (346), and numerous number of phase-II enzymes, such as Sult1a1 (1.2), Sult1d1 (2.0), Sult1e1 (33), Sult3a1 (2.2), Gsta4 (1.3), Gstm2 (1.3), Gstm3 (1.7), and Mgst3 (2.2). CR feminized the mRNA profiles of 32 XPGs in livers of male mice. For instance, CR decreased the male-predominantly expressed Oatp1a1 (97%) and increased the female-predominantly expressed Oatp1a4 (11). In conclusion, short-term CR alters the mRNA levels of over half of the 98 XPGs quantified in livers of male mice, and over half of these alterations appear to be due to feminization of the liver. - Highlights: • Utilized a graded CR model in male mice • The mRNA profiles of xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in liver were investigated. • CR up-regulates many phase-II enzymes. • CR tends to feminize the mRNA profiles of XPGs

  16. Short-term calorie restriction feminizes the mRNA profiles of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in livers of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Zidong Donna [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most effective anti-aging interventions in mammals. A modern theory suggests that aging results from a decline in detoxification capabilities and thus accumulation of damaged macromolecules. The present study aimed to determine how short-term CR alters mRNA profiles of genes that encode metabolism and detoxification machinery in the liver. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed CR (0, 15, 30, or 40%) diets for one month, followed by mRNA quantification of 98 xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in the liver, including 7 uptake transporters, 39 phase-I enzymes, 37 phase-II enzymes, 10 efflux transporters, and 5 transcription factors. In general, 15% CR did not alter mRNAs of most XPGs, whereas 30 and 40% CR altered over half of the XPGs (32 increased and 29 decreased). CR up-regulated some phase-I enzymes (fold increase), such as Cyp4a14 (12), Por (2.3), Nqo1 (1.4), Fmo2 (5.4), and Fmo3 (346), and numerous number of phase-II enzymes, such as Sult1a1 (1.2), Sult1d1 (2.0), Sult1e1 (33), Sult3a1 (2.2), Gsta4 (1.3), Gstm2 (1.3), Gstm3 (1.7), and Mgst3 (2.2). CR feminized the mRNA profiles of 32 XPGs in livers of male mice. For instance, CR decreased the male-predominantly expressed Oatp1a1 (97%) and increased the female-predominantly expressed Oatp1a4 (11). In conclusion, short-term CR alters the mRNA levels of over half of the 98 XPGs quantified in livers of male mice, and over half of these alterations appear to be due to feminization of the liver. - Highlights: • Utilized a graded CR model in male mice • The mRNA profiles of xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in liver were investigated. • CR up-regulates many phase-II enzymes. • CR tends to feminize the mRNA profiles of XPGs.

  17. Interleukin-21 mRNA expression during virus infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Christian; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg; Paludan, Søren Riis

    2006-01-01

    and activational effects of IL-21 on different leukocytes come into play in vivo in an immune response has so far not been fully investigated. We show here for the first time in vivo, that IL-21 mRNA is produced in the spleen when mice are challenged with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or lymphocytic...... choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We show in HSV-2 challenged mice that this production takes place in CD4+ T cell fractions and is absent in CD4+ T cell-depleted fractions. We also show that the peak of IL-21 mRNA production in both the HSV-2 and LCMV-challenged mice coincides with the onset of the adaptive immune...

  18. Collagen mRNA levels changes during colorectal cancer carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Hanne; Anthonsen, Dorit; Lothe, Inger M B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Invasive growth of epithelial cancers is a complex multi-step process which involves dissolution of the basement membrane. Type IV collagen is a major component in most basement membranes. Type VII collagen is related to anchoring fibrils and is found primarily in the basement membrane...... zone of stratified epithelia. Immunohistochemical studies have previously reported changes in steady-state levels of different alpha(IV) chains in several epithelial cancer types. In the present study we aimed to quantitatively determine the mRNA levels of type IV collagen (alpha1/alpha 4/alpha 6......) and type VII collagen (alpha1) during colorectal cancer carcinogenesis. METHODS: Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have determined the mRNA levels for alpha1(IV), alpha 4(IV), alpha 6(IV), and alpha1(VII) in colorectal cancer tissue (n = 33), adenomas (n = 29) and in normal tissue from the same individuals...

  19. Peptide inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin by mRNA display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiadom, Kwabena P.A.B.; Muhie, Seid; Yang, David C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are extremely toxic. The metalloproteases associated with the toxins cleave proteins essential for neurotransmitter secretion. Inhibitors of the metalloprotease are currently sought to control the toxicity of BoNTs. Toward that goal, we produced a synthetic cDNA for the expression and purification of the metalloprotease of BoNT/A in Escherichia coli as a biotin-ubiquitin fusion protein, and constructed a combinatorial peptide library to screen for BoNT/A light chain inhibitors using mRNA display. A protease assay was developed using immobilized intact SNAP-25 as the substrate. The new peptide inhibitors showed a 10-fold increase in affinity to BoNT/A light chain than the parent peptide. Interestingly, the sequences of the new peptide inhibitors showed abundant hydrophobic residues but few hydrophilic residues. The results suggest that mRNA display may provide a general approach in developing peptide inhibitors of BoNTs

  20. Integrated microRNA and mRNA signatures associated with survival in triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascione, Luciano; Gasparini, Pierluigi; Lovat, Francesca; Carasi, Stefania; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Ferro, Alfredo; Alder, Hansjuerg; He, Gang; Vecchione, Andrea; Croce, Carlo M; Shapiro, Charles L; Huebner, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease at the molecular, pathologic and clinical levels. To stratify TNBCs, we determined microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles, as well as expression profiles of a cancer-focused mRNA panel, in tumor, adjacent non-tumor (normal) and lymph node metastatic lesion (mets) tissues, from 173 women with TNBCs; we linked specific miRNA signatures to patient survival and used miRNA/mRNA anti-correlations to identify clinically and genetically different TNBC subclasses. We also assessed miRNA signatures as potential regulators of TNBC subclass-specific gene expression networks defined by expression of canonical signal pathways.Tissue specific miRNAs and mRNAs were identified for normal vs tumor vs mets comparisons. miRNA signatures correlated with prognosis were identified and predicted anti-correlated targets within the mRNA profile were defined. Two miRNA signatures (miR-16, 155, 125b, 374a and miR-16, 125b, 374a, 374b, 421, 655, 497) predictive of overall survival (P = 0.05) and distant-disease free survival (P = 0.009), respectively, were identified for patients 50 yrs of age or younger. By multivariate analysis the risk signatures were independent predictors for overall survival and distant-disease free survival. mRNA expression profiling, using the cancer-focused mRNA panel, resulted in clustering of TNBCs into 4 molecular subclasses with different expression signatures anti-correlated with the prognostic miRNAs. Our findings suggest that miRNAs play a key role in triple negative breast cancer through their ability to regulate fundamental pathways such as: cellular growth and proliferation, cellular movement and migration, Extra Cellular Matrix degradation. The results define miRNA expression signatures that characterize and contribute to the phenotypic diversity of TNBC and its metastasis.

  1. Regulation of mRNA translation influences hypoxia tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koritzinsky, M.; Wouters, B.G.; Koumenis, C.

    2003-01-01

    Hypoxia is a heterogenous but common characteristic of human tumours and poor oxygenation is associated with poor prognosis. We believe that the presence of viable hypoxic tumor cells reflects in part an adaptation and tolerance of these cells to oxygen deficiency. Since oxidative phosphorylation is compromized during hypoxia, adaptation may involve both the upregulation of glycolysis as well as downregulation of energy consumption. mRNA translation is one of the most energy costly cellular processes, and we and others have shown that global mRNA translation is rapidly inhibited during hypoxia. However, some mRNAs, including those coding for HIF-1 α and VEGF, remain efficiently translated during hypoxia. Clearly, the mechanisms responsible for the overall inhibition of translation during hypoxia does not compromize the translation of certain hypoxia-induced mRNA species. We therefore hypothesize that the inhibition of mRNA translation serves to promote hypoxia tolerance in two ways: i) through conservation of energy and ii) through differential gene expression involved in hypoxia adaptation. We have recently identified two pathways that are responsible for the global inhibition of translation during hypoxia. The phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 α by the ER resident kinase PERK results in down-regulation of protein synthesis shortly after the onset of hypoxia. In addition, the initiation complex eIF4F is disrupted during long lasting hypoxic conditions. The identification of the molecular pathways responsible for the inhibition of overall translation during hypoxia has rendered it possible to investigate their importance for hypoxia tolerance. We have found that mouse embryo fibroblasts that are knockout for PERK and therefore not able to inhibit protein synthesis efficiently during oxygen deficiency are significantly less tolerant to hypoxia than their wildtype counterparts. We are currently also investigating the functional significance

  2. Cup regulates oskar mRNA stability during oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyer, Risa M; Monfort, Elena; Wilhelm, James E

    2017-01-01

    The proper regulation of the localization, translation, and stability of maternally deposited transcripts is essential for embryonic development in many organisms. These different forms of regulation are mediated by the various protein subunits of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes that assemble on maternal mRNAs. However, while many of the subunits that regulate the localization and translation of maternal transcripts have been identified, relatively little is known about how maternal mRNAs are stockpiled and stored in a stable form to support early development. One of the best characterized regulators of maternal transcripts is Cup - a broadly conserved component of the maternal RNP complex that in Drosophila acts as a translational repressor of the localized message oskar. In this study, we have found that loss of cup disrupts the localization of both the oskar mRNA and its associated proteins to the posterior pole of the developing oocyte. This defect is not due to a failure to specify the oocyte or to disruption of RNP transport. Rather, the localization defects are due to a drop in oskar mRNA levels in cup mutant egg chambers. Thus, in addition to its role in regulating oskar mRNA translation, Cup also plays a critical role in controlling the stability of the oskar transcript. This suggests that Cup is ideally positioned to coordinate the translational control function of the maternal RNP complex with its role in storing maternal transcripts in a stable form. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Drift Degradation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-01-01

    The outputs from the drift degradation analysis support scientific analyses, models, and design calculations, including the following: (1) Abstraction of Drift Seepage; (2) Seismic Consequence Abstraction; (3) Structural Stability of a Drip Shield Under Quasi-Static Pressure; and (4) Drip Shield Structural Response to Rock Fall. This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The drift degradation analysis includes the development and validation of rockfall models that approximate phenomenon associated with various components of rock mass behavior anticipated within the repository horizon. Two drift degradation rockfall models have been developed: the rockfall model for nonlithophysal rock and the rockfall model for lithophysal rock. These models reflect the two distinct types of tuffaceous rock at Yucca Mountain. The output of this modeling and analysis activity documents the expected drift deterioration for drifts constructed in accordance with the repository layout configuration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172801])

  4. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    could potentially improve bioremediation of BAM. An important prerequisite for bioaugmentation is the potential to produce the degrader strain at large quantities within reasonable time. The aim of manuscript II, was to optimize the growth medium for Aminobacter MSH1 and to elucidate optimal growth...

  5. Radiation degradation of silk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Kazushige; Kamiishi, Youichi [Textile Research Institute of Gunma, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Silk fibroin powder was prepared from irradiated silk fibroin fiber by means of only physical treatment. Silk fibroin fiber irradiated with an accelerated electron beam in the dose range of 250 - 1000 kGy was pulverized by using a ball mill. Unirradiated silk fibroin fiber was not pulverized at all. But the more irradiation was increased, the more the conversion efficiency from fiber to powder was increased. The conversion efficiency of silk fibroin fiber irradiated 1000 kGy in oxygen was 94%. Silk fibroin powder shows remarkable solubility, which dissolved 57% into water of ambient temperature. It is a very interesting phenomenon that silk fibroin which did not treat with chemicals gets solubility only being pulverized. In order to study mechanism of solubilization of silk fibroin powder, amino acid component of soluble part of silk fibroin powder was analyzed. The more irradiation dose up, the more glycine or alanine degraded, but degradation fraction reached bounds about 50%. Other amino acids were degraded only 20% even at the maximum. To consider crystal construction of silk fibroin, it is suggested that irradiation on silk fibroin fiber selectively degrades glycine and alanine in amorphous region, which makes it possible to pulverize and to dissolve silk fibroin powder. (author)

  6. Potyviral VPg enhances viral RNA Translation and inhibits reporter mRNA translation in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelin, Katri; Hafrén, Anders; Rantalainen, Kimmo I; Mäkinen, Kristiina

    2011-09-01

    Viral protein genome-linked (VPg) plays a central role in several stages of potyvirus infection. This study sought to answer questions about the role of Potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus) VPg in viral and host RNA expression. When expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves in trans, a dual role of VPg in translation is observed. It repressed the expression of monocistronic luciferase (luc) mRNA and simultaneously induced a significant upregulation in the expression of both replicating and nonreplicating PVA RNAs. This enhanced viral gene expression was due at least to the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of PVA RNA, eukaryotic initiation factors 4E and iso 4E [eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E], and the presence of a sufficient amount of VPg. Coexpression of VPg with viral RNA increased the viral RNA amount, which was not the case with the monocistronic mRNA. Both mutations at certain lysine residues in PVA VPg and eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E depletion reduced its ability to upregulate the viral RNA expression. These modifications were also involved in VPg-mediated downregulation of monocistronic luc expression. These results suggest that VPg can titrate eIF4Es from capped monocistronic RNAs. Because VPg-mediated enhancement of viral gene expression required eIF4Es, it is possible that VPg directs eIF4Es to promote viral RNA expression. From this study it is evident that VPg can serve as a specific regulator of PVA expression by boosting the viral RNA amounts as well as the accumulation of viral translation products. Such a mechanism could function to protect viral RNA from being degraded and to secure efficient production of coat protein (CP) for virion formation.

  7. Potyviral VPg Enhances Viral RNA Translation and Inhibits Reporter mRNA Translation In Planta▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelin, Katri; Hafrén, Anders; Rantalainen, Kimmo I.; Mäkinen, Kristiina

    2011-01-01

    Viral protein genome-linked (VPg) plays a central role in several stages of potyvirus infection. This study sought to answer questions about the role of Potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus) VPg in viral and host RNA expression. When expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves in trans, a dual role of VPg in translation is observed. It repressed the expression of monocistronic luciferase (luc) mRNA and simultaneously induced a significant upregulation in the expression of both replicating and nonreplicating PVA RNAs. This enhanced viral gene expression was due at least to the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of PVA RNA, eukaryotic initiation factors 4E and iso 4E [eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E], and the presence of a sufficient amount of VPg. Coexpression of VPg with viral RNA increased the viral RNA amount, which was not the case with the monocistronic mRNA. Both mutations at certain lysine residues in PVA VPg and eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E depletion reduced its ability to upregulate the viral RNA expression. These modifications were also involved in VPg-mediated downregulation of monocistronic luc expression. These results suggest that VPg can titrate eIF4Es from capped monocistronic RNAs. Because VPg-mediated enhancement of viral gene expression required eIF4Es, it is possible that VPg directs eIF4Es to promote viral RNA expression. From this study it is evident that VPg can serve as a specific regulator of PVA expression by boosting the viral RNA amounts as well as the accumulation of viral translation products. Such a mechanism could function to protect viral RNA from being degraded and to secure efficient production of coat protein (CP) for virion formation. PMID:21697470

  8. Construction of a Vibration Monitoring System for HANARO's Rotating Machinery and Analysis of Pump Vibration Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, Doo Byung

    2005-01-01

    HANARO is an open-tank-in-pool type research reactor with a thermal power of 30MW. In order to remove the heat generated by the reactor core and the reflector vessel, primary cooling pumps and reflector cooling pumps circulate coolant. These pumps are installed at the RCI(Reactor Concrete Island) which is covered by heavy concrete hatches. For the prevention of an abnormal operation of these pumps in the RCI, it is necessary to construct a vibration monitoring system that provides an alarm signal to the reactor control room when the rotating speed or the vibration level exceeds the allowable limit. The first objective of this work is to construct a vibration monitoring system for HANARO's rotating machinery. The second objective is to verify the possibility of condition monitoring of the rotating machinery. To construct a vibration monitoring system, as a first step, the standards and references related to the vibration monitoring system were investigated. In addition, to determine the number and the location of sensors that can effectively characterize the overall vibration of a pump, the vibration of the primary cooling pumps and the reflector cooling pumps were measured. Based on these results, detailed construction plans for the vibration monitoring system for HANARO were established. Then, in accordance with the construction plans, the vibration monitoring system for HANARO's rotating machinery was manufactured and installed at HANARO. To achieve the second objective, FFT analysis and bearing fault detection of the measured vibration signals were performed. The analysis results demonstrate that the accelerometers mounted at the bearing locations of the pumps can effectively monitor the pump condition

  9. The Machinery Of Climate Anti-Science, Its Efforts Against Education, Top To Bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashey, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    "There's always one every year" a fine local science teacher said after once again being hassled by a vocal parent for teaching appropriate climate science in school. How does that happen? The machinery of climate anti-science starts from the top with funders working through a maze of money paths, think tanks and front groups, employing spokespeople who can be portrayed as experts. While much of the money flows are still dark, some have been exposed over the last few years, and the effects finally filter down to the state and local levels of education. Among others, the Heartland Institute has a long history of trying to inject anti-science into K-12 and college education, having sent books, DVDs or brochures to teachers or school boards, as well as monthly newsletters to state legislators. Such are aimed at the top of the state or local organizations that affect education. For a vocal subset of the citizenry, a constant flow of misinformation from books, blogs, newsletters and some newspapers and magazines stirs action such as writing letters to editors, complaining to schools, calling on pseudo-experts and demanding equal time for pseudoscience. As the teacher said, it only takes one person to cause trouble at the local level. After a brief review of the overall machinery, this focuses on examples of anti-education tactics seen already, with some brief advice for climate scientists and educators who need to understand the machinery that supports such tactics. Some earlier history is included in http://www.desmogblog.com/2012/10/23/fakery-2-more-funny-finances-free-tax, but other attempts have surfaced in last few years, including state-wide efforts to reject Common Core Educational standard to avoid teaching climate science. Fortunately, school boards sometimes respond quite well, including one just recently in Pennsylvania.

  10. Investigation and Development of the Thermal Preparation System of the Trailbuilder Machinery Hydraulic Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konev, V.; Polovnikov, E.; Krut, O.; Merdanov, Sh; Zakirzakov, G.

    2017-07-01

    It’s determined that the main part of trailbuilders operated in the North is the technology equipped by the hydraulic actuator. Further development of the northern territories will demand using of various means and ways machinery thermal preparation, and also the machinery of the northern fulfillment. On this basis problems in equipment operation are defined. One of the main is efficiency supplying of a hydraulic actuator. On the basis of the operating conditions’ analysis of trailbuilder hydraulic actuator operation it is determined, that under low negative temperatures the means of thermal preparation are necessary. The existing systems warm up only a hydraulic tank or warming up of the hydro equipment before the machinery operation is carried out under loading with intensive wears. Thus, with the purpose to raise the efficiency of thermal hydraulic actuator, operated far from stationary bases autonomous, energy saving, not expensive in creation and operation systems are necessary. In accordance with the analysis of means and ways of the thermal preparation of the hydraulic actuator and the thermal balance calculations of the (internal) combustion engine the system of the hydraulic actuator heating is offered and is being investigated. It contains a local hydraulic actuator warming up and the system of internal combustion engine heat utilization. Within research operation conditions of the local hydraulic actuator heating are viewed and determined, taking into account constructive changes to the local hydraulic actuator heating. Mathematical modelling of the heat technical process in the modernized hydraulic actuator is considered. As a result temperature changes of the heat-transfer and the hydraulic cylinder in time are determined. To check the theoretical researches and to define dependences on hydraulic actuator warming up, the experimental installation is made. It contains the measuring equipment, a small tank with the heat exchanger of the burnt gases

  11. Performance of refrigerating machineries with new refrigerants; Performance des machines frigorifiques avec les nouveaux refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, A; Jurkowski, R [CIAT, 01 - Culoz (France)

    1998-12-31

    This paper reports on a comparative study of the thermal performances of different refrigerants like R-22, R-134a, R-404A and R-407C when used as possible substitutes for the HCFC22 refrigerant in a given refrigerating machinery equipped with compact high performance plate exchangers. Thermal performances are compared in identical operating conditions. The behaviour of the two-phase exchange coefficient is analyzed with respect to the different parameters. The composition of the mixture after one year of operation has been analyzed too and the influence of oil on the performances is studied. (J.S.)

  12. A comparison study of support vector machines and hidden Markov models in machinery condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Qiang; Huang, Hong Zhong; Fan, Xianfeng

    2007-01-01

    Condition classification is an important step in machinery fault detection, which is a problem of pattern recognition. Currently, there are a lot of techniques in this area and the purpose of this paper is to investigate two popular recognition techniques, namely hidden Markov model and support vector machine. At the beginning, we briefly introduced the procedure of feature extraction and the theoretical background of this paper. The comparison experiment was conducted for gearbox fault detection and the analysis results from this work showed that support vector machine has better classification performance in this area

  13. Biosynthetic machinery of ionophore polyether lasalocid: enzymatic construction of polyether skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Atsushi; Oguri, Hiroki; Watanabe, Kenji; Oikawa, Hideaki

    2013-08-01

    Diversity of natural polycyclic polyethers originated from very simple yet versatile strategy consisting of epoxidation of linear polyene followed by epoxide opening cascade. To understand two-step enzymatic transformations at molecular basis, a flavin containing monooxygenase (EPX) Lsd18 and an epoxide hydrolase (EH) Lsd19 were selected as model enzymes for extensive investigation on substrate specificity, catalytic mechanism, cofactor requirement and crystal structure. This pioneering study on prototypical lasalocid EPX and EH provides insight into detailed mechanism of ionophore polyether assembly machinery and clarified remaining issues for polyether biosynthesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance of refrigerating machineries with new refrigerants; Performance des machines frigorifiques avec les nouveaux refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, A.; Jurkowski, R. [CIAT, 01 - Culoz (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on a comparative study of the thermal performances of different refrigerants like R-22, R-134a, R-404A and R-407C when used as possible substitutes for the HCFC22 refrigerant in a given refrigerating machinery equipped with compact high performance plate exchangers. Thermal performances are compared in identical operating conditions. The behaviour of the two-phase exchange coefficient is analyzed with respect to the different parameters. The composition of the mixture after one year of operation has been analyzed too and the influence of oil on the performances is studied. (J.S.)

  15. INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR A SOCIETY FROM INDUSTRY OF MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa RĂDULESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper shows the importance that it has SMI in a society of the industry of machinery and equipment. An integrated management system is the mode to design, implement and certify two or more management systems: Quality - Environment, Quality -Environment - Safety and Occupational Health. By implementing the system, the society themselves hires in the development and continuous improvement of the system in accordance with the ones three standards and with objective of activity of the society. Also, in the paper themselves presents the advantages and disadvantages of implementing this integrated system.

  16. Optimization of advanced liquid natural gas-fuelled machineries for a high-speed ferry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveitaskog, Kari Anne; Haglind, Fredrik

    -based optimization routine are used. The top cycle is modeled as the aero-derivative gas turbine LM2500, while the following five options for bottoming cycles are modeled: ∙ Single pressure steam cycle ∙ Dual-pressure steam cycle ∙ ORC using Toluene as the working fluid with an intermediate oil loop ∙ ABC with inter......This report is aimed at designing and optimizing combined cycles in order to define the most suitable machinery system for the future high-speed Incat ferry operated by Mols-Linien. For this purpose, an in-house numerical simulation tool called DNA (Dynamic Network Analysis) and a genetic algorithm...

  17. Development of a quantitative analysis method for mRNA from Mycobacterium leprae and slow-growing acid-fast bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanaga, Kazue; Maeda Shinji; Matsuoka, Masanori; Kashiwabara, Yoshiko

    1999-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a specific method for detection and quantitative determination of mRNA that allows estimation of viable counts of M. leprae and other mycobacteria. Of heart-shock protein of 65 kDa (hsp65), mRNA was used as an indicator to discriminate the living cells and died ones. To compare mRNA detections by RNase protection assay (RPA) and Northern blot hybridization (NBH), labelled anti-sense RNA for hsp65 gene of M. leprae was synthesized using plasmid pUC8/N5. The anti-sense RNA synthesized from the template DNA containing about 580 bp (194 to 762) of hsp65 gene. When compared with NBH method, the amount of probe required for the detection by RPA method was 1/30 or less and the detection sensitivity of RPA was also 10 times higher. In addition, complicated procedures were needed to eliminate non-specific reactions in NBH method. These results indicated that RPA method is more convenient and superior for the mRNA detection. However, isotope degradation in the probe used for RPA method might affect the results. Therefore, 33 P of 35 P, of which degradation energy is less that 32 P should be used for labelling. Total RNA was effectively extracted from M. chelonae, M. marinum by AGPC method, but not from M. leprae. In conclusion, RPA is a very effective detection method for these mRNA, but it seems necessary to further improve the sensitivity of detection for a small amount of test materials. (M.N.)

  18. Tumor protein D52 expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by T-cell intercellular antigen (TIA) 1 and TIA-related protein via mRNA stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hiromi; Mukudai, Yoshiki; Ito, Chihiro; Kato, Kosuke; Shimane, Toshikazu; Kondo, Seiji; Shirota, Tatsuo

    2017-05-04

    Although tumor protein D52 (TPD52) family proteins were first identified nearly 20 years ago, their molecular regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the post-transcriptional regulation of TPD52 family genes. An RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay showed the potential binding ability of TPD52 family mRNAs to several RNA-binding proteins, and an RNA degradation assay revealed that TPD52 is subject to more prominent post-transcriptional regulation than are TPD53 and TPD54. We subsequently focused on the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of TPD52 as a cis -acting element in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Several deletion mutants of the 3'-UTR of TPD52 mRNA were constructed and ligated to the 3'-end of a reporter green fluorescence protein gene. An RNA degradation assay revealed that a minimal cis -acting region, located in the 78-280 region of the 5'-proximal region of the 3'-UTR, stabilized the reporter mRNA. Biotin pull-down and RIP assays revealed specific binding of the region to T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) and TIA-1-related protein (TIAR). Knockdown of TIA-1/TIAR decreased not only the expression, but also the stability of TPD52 mRNA; it also decreased the expression and stability of the reporter gene ligated to the 3'-end of the 78-280 fragment. Stimulation of transforming growth factor-β and epidermal growth factor decreased the binding ability of these factors, resulting in decreased mRNA stability. These results indicate that the 78-280 fragment and TIA-1/TIAR concordantly contribute to mRNA stability as a cis -acting element and trans -acting factor(s), respectively. Thus, we here report the specific interactions between these elements in the post-transcriptional regulation of the TPD52 gene. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  19. Development of a quantitative analysis method for mRNA from Mycobacterium leprae and slow-growing acid-fast bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanaga, Kazue; Maeda Shinji; Matsuoka, Masanori; Kashiwabara, Yoshiko [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a specific method for detection and quantitative determination of mRNA that allows estimation of viable counts of M. leprae and other mycobacteria. Of heart-shock protein of 65 kDa (hsp65), mRNA was used as an indicator to discriminate the living cells and died ones. To compare mRNA detections by RNase protection assay (RPA) and Northern blot hybridization (NBH), labelled anti-sense RNA for hsp65 gene of M. leprae was synthesized using plasmid pUC8/N5. The anti-sense RNA synthesized from the template DNA containing about 580 bp (194 to 762) of hsp65 gene. When compared with NBH method, the amount of probe required for the detection by RPA method was 1/30 or less and the detection sensitivity of RPA was also 10 times higher. In addition, complicated procedures were needed to eliminate non-specific reactions in NBH method. These results indicated that RPA method is more convenient and superior for the mRNA detection. However, isotope degradation in the probe used for RPA method might affect the results. Therefore, {sup 33}P of {sup 35}P, of which degradation energy is less that {sup 32}P should be used for labelling. Total RNA was effectively extracted from M. chelonae, M. marinum by AGPC method, but not from M. leprae. In conclusion, RPA is a very effective detection method for these mRNA, but it seems necessary to further improve the sensitivity of detection for a small amount of test materials. (M.N.)

  20. Natural selection and algorithmic design of mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barry; Skiena, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences serve as templates for proteins according to the triplet code, in which each of the 4(3) = 64 different codons (sequences of three consecutive nucleotide bases) in RNA either terminate transcription or map to one of the 20 different amino acids (or residues) which build up proteins. Because there are more codons than residues, there is inherent redundancy in the coding. Certain residues (e.g., tryptophan) have only a single corresponding codon, while other residues (e.g., arginine) have as many as six corresponding codons. This freedom implies that the number of possible RNA sequences coding for a given protein grows exponentially in the length of the protein. Thus nature has wide latitude to select among mRNA sequences which are informationally equivalent, but structurally and energetically divergent. In this paper, we explore how nature takes advantage of this freedom and how to algorithmically design structures more energetically favorable than have been built through natural selection. In particular: (1) Natural Selection--we perform the first large-scale computational experiment comparing the stability of mRNA sequences from a variety of organisms to random synonymous sequences which respect the codon preferences of the organism. This experiment was conducted on over 27,000 sequences from 34 microbial species with 36 genomic structures. We provide evidence that in all genomic structures highly stable sequences are disproportionately abundant, and in 19 of 36 cases highly unstable sequences are disproportionately abundant. This suggests that the stability of mRNA sequences is subject to natural selection. (2) Artificial Selection--motivated by these biological results, we examine the algorithmic problem of designing the most stable and unstable mRNA sequences which code for a target protein. We give a polynomial-time dynamic programming solution to the most stable sequence problem (MSSP), which is asymptotically no more complex

  1. Mutations in DCPS and EDC3 in autosomal recessive intellectual disability indicate a crucial role for mRNA decapping in neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Iltaf; Buchert, Rebecca; Zhou, Mi; Jiao, Xinfu; Mittal, Kirti; Sheikh, Taimoor I; Scheller, Ute; Vasli, Nasim; Rafiq, Muhammad Arshad; Brohi, M Qasim; Mikhailov, Anna; Ayaz, Muhammad; Bhatti, Attya; Sticht, Heinrich; Nasr, Tanveer; Carter, Melissa T; Uebe, Steffen; Reis, André; Ayub, Muhammad; John, Peter; Kiledjian, Megerditch; Vincent, John B; Jamra, Rami Abou

    2015-06-01

    There are two known mRNA degradation pathways, 3' to 5' and 5' to 3'. We identified likely pathogenic variants in two genes involved in these two pathways in individuals with intellectual disability. In a large family with multiple branches, we identified biallelic variants in DCPS in three affected individuals; a splice site variant (c.636+1G>A) that results in an in-frame insertion of 45 nucleotides and a missense variant (c.947C>T; p.Thr316Met). DCPS decaps the cap structure generated by 3' to 5' exonucleolytic degradation of mRNA. In vitro decapping assays showed an ablation of decapping function for both variants in DCPS. In another family, we identified a homozygous mutation (c.161T>C; p.Phe54Ser) in EDC3 in two affected children. EDC3 stimulates DCP2, which decaps mRNAs at the beginning of the 5' to 3' degradation pathway. In vitro decapping assays showed that altered EDC3 is unable to enhance DCP2 decapping at low concentrations and even inhibits DCP2 decapping at high concentration. We show that individuals with biallelic mutations in these genes of seemingly central functions are viable and that these possibly lead to impairment of neurological functions linking mRNA decapping to normal cognition. Our results further affirm an emerging theme linking aberrant mRNA metabolism to neurological defects. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. [Effects of lipopolysaccharides extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis on the expression of IL-1beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA in osteoblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Li, Ren; Qiu, Li-Hong; Li, Chen

    2009-04-01

    To quantify the IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA expression induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS)extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis(P.e) in osteoblasts, and to relate P.e-LPS to bone absorption pathogenesis in lesions of chronical apical periodontitis. MG63 was treated with different concentrations of P.e-LPS(0-50 microg/mL) for different hours(0-24h). The expression of IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Statistical analysis was performed using one- way ANOVA and Dunnett t test with SPSS11.0 software package. The level of IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA increased significantly after treatment with P.e-LPS at more than 5 microg/mL (P<0.01)and for more than 1 hour (P<0.01), which indicated that P.e-LPS induced osteoblasts to express IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA in dose and time dependent manners. P.e-LPS may promote bone resorption in lesions of chronical apical periodontitis by inducing IL-1 beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA expression in osteoblasts.

  3. Sequence features of E. coli mRNAs affect their degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Lenz

    Full Text Available Degradation of mRNA in bacteria is a regulatory mechanism, providing an efficient way to fine-tune protein abundance in response to environmental changes. While the mechanisms responsible for initiation and subsequent propagation of mRNA degradation are well studied, the mRNA features that affect its stability are yet to be elucidated. We calculated three properties for each mRNA in the E. coli transcriptome: G+C content, tRNA adaptation index (tAI and folding energy. Each of these properties were then correlated with the experimental transcript half life measured for each transcript and detected significant correlations. A sliding window analysis identified the regions that displayed the maximal signal. The correlation between transcript half life and both G+C content and folding energy was strongest at the 5' termini of the mRNAs. Partial correlations showed that each of the parameters contributes separately to mRNA half life. Notably, mRNAs of recently-acquired genes in the E. coli genome, which have a distinct nucleotide composition, tend to be highly stable. This high stability may aid the evolutionary fixation of horizontally acquired genes.

  4. MRP transporters as membrane machinery in the bradykinin-inducible export of ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yumei; Migita, Keisuke; Sun, Jing; Katsuragi, Takeshi

    2010-04-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays the role of an autocrine/paracrine signal molecule in a variety of cells. So far, however, the membrane machinery in the export of intracellular ATP remains poorly understood. Activation of B2-receptor with bradykinin-induced massive release of ATP from cultured taenia coli smooth muscle cells. The evoked release of ATP was unaffected by gap junction hemichannel blockers, such as 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid and Gap 26. Furthermore, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) coupled Cl(-) channel blockers, CFTR(inh)172, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid, Gd3(+) and glibenclamide, failed to suppress the export of ATP by bradykinin. On the other, the evoked release of ATP was greatly reduced by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporter inhibitors, MK-571, indomethacin, and benzbromarone. From western blotting analysis, blots of MRP 1 protein only, but not MRP 2 and MRP 3 protein, appeared at 190 kD. However, the MRP 1 protein expression was not enhanced after loading with 1 muM bradykinin for 5 min. Likewise, niflumic acid and fulfenamic acid, Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel blockers, largely abated the evoked release of ATP. The possibility that the MRP transporter system couples with Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel activities is discussed here. These findings suggest that MRP transporters, probably MRP 1, unlike CFTR-Cl(-) channels and gap junction hemichannels, may contribute as membrane machinery to the export of ATP induced by G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation.

  5. Adaptive Change Detection for Long-Term Machinery Monitoring Using Incremental Sliding-Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng; Lu, Guo-Liang; Liu, Jie; Yan, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Detection of structural changes from an operational process is a major goal in machine condition monitoring. Existing methods for this purpose are mainly based on retrospective analysis, resulting in a large detection delay that limits their usages in real applications. This paper presents a new adaptive real-time change detection algorithm, an extension of the recent research by combining with an incremental sliding-window strategy, to handle the multi-change detection in long-term monitoring of machine operations. In particular, in the framework, Hilbert space embedding of distribution is used to map the original data into the Re-producing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS) for change detection; then, a new adaptive threshold strategy can be developed when making change decision, in which a global factor (used to control the coarse-to-fine level of detection) is introduced to replace the fixed value of threshold. Through experiments on a range of real testing data which was collected from an experimental rotating machinery system, the excellent detection performances of the algorithm for engineering applications were demonstrated. Compared with state-of-the-art methods, the proposed algorithm can be more suitable for long-term machinery condition monitoring without any manual re-calibration, thus is promising in modern industries.

  6. Improvement of finishing antifriction treatment without abrasive of the rubbing parts surfaces of agricultural machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Shepelenk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wear of machines and mechanisms after rubbing is a major concern. The costs of manufacturing and restoration parts for agricultural machinery are enormous such as the trunnions pinions of hydraulic pumps. Finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive (FTAA is the existing method of manufacturing and restoration, but it has disadvantages like low work efficiency and the frequent replacement of the instrument. That is why a new method of FTAA parts type ''tree'' has been developed called vibratory finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive, (VFTAA method. The study was conducted at the laboratory of the State Technical University of Kirovograd (Ukraine where turn 16K20, the profilograph-profilometer "Talysurf-5", the scanning electron microscope REM-106I, friction machine MI-1M and the stand KI-28097-02M were used respectively for machining, study of micro relief before and after the VFTAA, microstructure, wear resistance and the determination of the break-in period of parts. The results showed that the VFTAA helped reduce the roughness Ra of the samples studied by half compared to the samples processed by polishing and 1.3 times compared to those treated with the FTAA, the break-in period has been reduced four times , this leads to an increase in the life of the hydraulic pump. This technology can be recommended for manufacturing and repair of hydraulic units of agricultural machineries.

  7. Accessing and operating agricultural machinery: Advancements in assistive technology for users with impaired mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Shawn G; Field, William E

    2018-02-14

    This research focused on the advancements made in enabling agricultural workers with impaired mobility to access and operate off-road agricultural machinery. Although not a new concept, technological advancements in remote-controlled lifts, electronic actuators, electric over hydraulic controllers, and various modes of hand controls have advanced significantly, allowing operators with limited mobility to resume a high level of productivity in agricultural-related enterprises. In the United States, approximately 1.7% of the population is living with some form of paralysis or significant mobility impairment. When paired with the 2012 USDA Agriculture Census of 3.2 million farmers, it can be extrapolated that these technologies could impact 54,000 agricultural workers who have encountered disabling injuries or disease, which inhibit their ability to access and operate tractors, combines, and other self-propelled agricultural machines. Advancements in agricultural-specific technologies can allow for many of these individuals to regain the ability to effectively operate machinery once more.

  8. Prognostics and health management design for rotary machinery systems—Reviews, methodology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jay; Wu, Fangji; Zhao, Wenyu; Ghaffari, Masoud; Liao, Linxia; Siegel, David

    2014-01-01

    Much research has been conducted in prognostics and health management (PHM), an emerging field in mechanical engineering that is gaining interest from both academia and industry. Most of these efforts have been in the area of machinery PHM, resulting in the development of many algorithms for this particular application. The majority of these algorithms concentrate on applications involving common rotary machinery components, such as bearings and gears. Knowledge of this prior work is a necessity for any future research efforts to be conducted; however, there has not been a comprehensive overview that details previous and on-going efforts in PHM. In addition, a systematic method for developing and deploying a PHM system has yet to be established. Such a method would enable rapid customization and integration of PHM systems for diverse applications. To address these gaps, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the PHM field, followed by an introduction of a systematic PHM design methodology, 5S methodology, for converting data to prognostics information. This methodology includes procedures for identifying critical components, as well as tools for selecting the most appropriate algorithms for specific applications. Visualization tools are presented for displaying prognostics information in an appropriate fashion for quick and accurate decision making. Industrial case studies are included in this paper to show how this methodology can help in the design of an effective PHM system.

  9. The development of natural circulation operation support program for ship nuclear power machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Jianli; Chen, Wenzhen; Chen, Zhiyun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The natural circulation under various ocean and ship motion conditions is studied. ► A natural circulation operation support computer program (NCOSP) is developed with Simulink. ► The NCOSP program has the merit of easy input preparation, fast and accurate simulation. ► The NCOSP is suitable for the fast parameter simulation of ship nuclear power machinery. -- Abstract: The existing simulation program of ship nuclear power machinery (SNPM) cannot adequately deal with the natural circulation (NC) operation and the effects of various ocean conditions and ship motion. Aiming at the problem, the natural circulation operation support computer program for SNPM is developed, in which the momentum conservation equation of the primary loop, some heat transfer and flow resistance models and equations are modified for the various ocean conditions and ship motion. The additional pressure loss model and effective height model for the control volume in the gyration movement, simple harmonic rolling and pitching movements are also discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the transient response to load change under NC conditions is analyzed by the developed program. The results are compared with those predicted by the modified RELAP5/mod3.2 code. It is shown that the natural circulation operation support program (NCOSP) is simple in the input preparation, runs fast and has a satisfactory precision, and is therefore very suitable for the operating field support of SNPM under the conditions of NC.

  10. An integrated multi-sensor fusion-based deep feature learning approach for rotating machinery diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Hu, Youmin; Wang, Yan; Wu, Bo; Fan, Jikai; Hu, Zhongxu

    2018-05-01

    The diagnosis of complicated fault severity problems in rotating machinery systems is an important issue that affects the productivity and quality of manufacturing processes and industrial applications. However, it usually suffers from several deficiencies. (1) A considerable degree of prior knowledge and expertise is required to not only extract and select specific features from raw sensor signals, and but also choose a suitable fusion for sensor information. (2) Traditional artificial neural networks with shallow architectures are usually adopted and they have a limited ability to learn the complex and variable operating conditions. In multi-sensor-based diagnosis applications in particular, massive high-dimensional and high-volume raw sensor signals need to be processed. In this paper, an integrated multi-sensor fusion-based deep feature learning (IMSFDFL) approach is developed to identify the fault severity in rotating machinery processes. First, traditional statistics and energy spectrum features are extracted from multiple sensors with multiple channels and combined. Then, a fused feature vector is constructed from all of the acquisition channels. Further, deep feature learning with stacked auto-encoders is used to obtain the deep features. Finally, the traditional softmax model is applied to identify the fault severity. The effectiveness of the proposed IMSFDFL approach is primarily verified by a one-stage gearbox experimental platform that uses several accelerometers under different operating conditions. This approach can identify fault severity more effectively than the traditional approaches.

  11. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Coat Protein II Transport Machinery Coordinates Cellular Lipid Secretion and Cholesterol Biosynthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Lee G. D.; Jones, Bethan; Duncan, Emma J.; Hutchison, Claire E.; Ozkan, Tozen; Williams, Paul A.; Alder, Olivia; Nieuwdorp, Max; Townley, Anna K.; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Stephens, David J.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Shoulders, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    Triglycerides and cholesterol are essential for life in most organisms. Triglycerides serve as the principal energy storage depot and, where vascular systems exist, as a means of energy transport. Cholesterol is essential for the functional integrity of all cellular membrane systems. The endoplasmic reticulum is the site of secretory lipoprotein production and de novo cholesterol synthesis, yet little is known about how these activities are coordinated with each other or with the activity of the COPII machinery, which transports endoplasmic reticulum cargo to the Golgi. The Sar1B component of this machinery is mutated in chylomicron retention disorder, indicating that this Sar1 isoform secures delivery of dietary lipids into the circulation. However, it is not known why some patients with chylomicron retention disorder develop hepatic steatosis, despite impaired intestinal fat malabsorption, and why very severe hypocholesterolemia develops in this condition. Here, we show that Sar1B also promotes hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) B lipoprotein secretion and that this promoting activity is coordinated with the processes regulating apoB expression and the transfer of triglycerides/cholesterol moieties onto this large lipid transport protein. We also show that although Sar1A antagonizes the lipoprotein secretion-promoting activity of Sar1B, both isoforms modulate the expression of genes encoding cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes and the synthesis of cholesterol de novo. These results not only establish that Sar1B promotes the secretion of hepatic lipids but also adds regulation of cholesterol synthesis to Sar1B's repertoire of transport functions. PMID:24338480

  12. A new structural framework for integrating replication protein A into DNA processing machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosey, Chris; Yan, Chunli; Tsutakawa, Susan; Heller, William; Rambo, Robert; Tainer, John; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Chazin, Walter

    2013-01-17

    By coupling the protection and organization of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with recruitment and alignment of DNA processing factors, replication protein A (RPA) lies at the heart of dynamic multi-protein DNA processing machinery. Nevertheless, how RPA coordinates biochemical functions of its eight domains remains unknown. We examined the structural biochemistry of RPA's DNA-binding activity, combining small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the architecture of RPA's DNA-binding core. The scattering data reveal compaction promoted by DNA binding; DNA-free RPA exists in an ensemble of states with inter-domain mobility and becomes progressively more condensed and less dynamic on binding ssDNA. Our results contrast with previous models proposing RPA initially binds ssDNA in a condensed state and becomes more extended as it fully engages the substrate. Moreover, the consensus view that RPA engages ssDNA in initial, intermediate and final stages conflicts with our data revealing that RPA undergoes two (not three) transitions as it binds ssDNA with no evidence for a discrete intermediate state. These results form a framework for understanding how RPA integrates the ssDNA substrate into DNA processing machinery, provides substrate access to its binding partners and promotes the progression and selection of DNA processing pathways.

  13. Restoration of GABA production machinery in Lactobacillus brevis by accessible carbohydrates, anaerobiosis and early acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2018-02-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is an efficient cell factory for producing bioactive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by its gad operon-encoded glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) system. However, little mechanistic insights have been reported on the effects of carbohydrate, oxygen and early acidification on GABA production machinery in Lb. brevis. In the present study, GABA production from Lb. brevis was enhanced by accessible carbohydrates. Fast growth of this organism was stimulated by maltose and xylose. However, its GABA production was highly suppressed by oxygen exposure, but was fully restored by anaerobiosis that up-regulated the expression of gad operon in Lb. brevis cells. Although the level of cytosolic acidity was suitable for the functioning of GadA and GadB, early acidification of the medium (ipH 5 and ipH 4) restored GABA synthesis strictly in aerated cells of Lb. brevis because the expression of gad operon was not up-regulated in them. We conclude that GABA production machinery in Lb. brevis could be restored by accessible carbohydrates, anaerobiosis and early acidification. This will be of interest for controlling fermentation for synthesis of GABA and manufacturing GABA-rich fermented vegetables. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Comparative study of tool machinery sliding systems; comparison between plane and cylindrical basic shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glăvan, D. O.; Babanatsas, T.; Babanatis Merce, R. M.; Glăvan, A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper brings in attention the importance that the sliding system of a tool machinery is having in the final precision of the manufacturing. We are basically comparing two type of slides, one constructed with plane surfaces and the other one with circular cross-sections (as known as cylindrical slides), analysing each solution from the point of view of its technology of manufacturing, of the precision that the particular slides are transferring to the tool machinery, cost of production, etc. Special attention is given to demonstrate theoretical and to confirm by experimental works what is happening with the stress distribution in the case of plane slides and cylindrical slides, both in longitudinal and in cross-over sections. Considering the results obtained for the stress distribution in the transversal and longitudinal cross sections, by composing them, we can obtain the stress distribution on the semicircular slide. Based on the results, special solutions for establishing the stress distribution between two surfaces without interact in the contact zone have been developed.

  15. Plant Virus Infection and the Ubiquitin Proteasome Machinery: Arms Race along the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verchot, Jeanmarie

    2016-11-19

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is central to plant virus replication, translation, maturation, and egress. Ubiquitin modification of ER associated cellular and viral proteins, alongside the actions of the 26S proteasome, are vital for the regulation of infection. Viruses can arrogate ER associated ubiquitination as well as cytosolic ubiquitin ligases with the purpose of directing the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) to new targets. Such targets include necessary modification of viral proteins which may stabilize certain complexes, or modification of Argonaute to suppress gene silencing. The UPS machinery also contributes to the regulation of effector triggered immunity pattern recognition receptor immunity. Combining the results of unrelated studies, many positive strand RNA plant viruses appear to interact with cytosolic Ub-ligases to provide novel avenues for controlling the deleterious consequences of disease. Viral interactions with the UPS serve to regulate virus infection in a manner that promotes replication and movement, but also modulates the levels of RNA accumulation to ensure successful biotrophic interactions. In other instances, the UPS plays a central role in cellular immunity. These opposing roles are made evident by contrasting studies where knockout mutations in the UPS can either hamper viruses or lead to more aggressive diseases. Understanding how viruses manipulate ER associated post-translational machineries to better manage virus-host interactions will provide new targets for crop improvement.

  16. Plant Virus Infection and the Ubiquitin Proteasome Machinery: Arms Race along the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanmarie Verchot

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is central to plant virus replication, translation, maturation, and egress. Ubiquitin modification of ER associated cellular and viral proteins, alongside the actions of the 26S proteasome, are vital for the regulation of infection. Viruses can arrogate ER associated ubiquitination as well as cytosolic ubiquitin ligases with the purpose of directing the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS to new targets. Such targets include necessary modification of viral proteins which may stabilize certain complexes, or modification of Argonaute to suppress gene silencing. The UPS machinery also contributes to the regulation of effector triggered immunity pattern recognition receptor immunity. Combining the results of unrelated studies, many positive strand RNA plant viruses appear to interact with cytosolic Ub-ligases to provide novel avenues for controlling the deleterious consequences of disease. Viral interactions with the UPS serve to regulate virus infection in a manner that promotes replication and movement, but also modulates the levels of RNA accumulation to ensure successful biotrophic interactions. In other instances, the UPS plays a central role in cellular immunity. These opposing roles are made evident by contrasting studies where knockout mutations in the UPS can either hamper viruses or lead to more aggressive diseases. Understanding how viruses manipulate ER associated post-translational machineries to better manage virus–host interactions will provide new targets for crop improvement.

  17. Research Using Virtual Reality: Mobile Machinery Safety in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle P. Delgado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body vibration is a significant health risk for between 4% and 7% of the work force in North America. In addition, many factors compound the health risks of heavy machinery operators. For example, twisted trunk and neck postures stiffen the spine and increase the transmission of vibration to the head. Similarly, workers adopt awkward postures in order to gain appropriate lines of sight for machine operations. Although the relative contribution of these various issues can be evaluated in field studies and models, we propose that virtual reality is a powerful medium for investigating issues related to health and safety in mining machine operators. We have collected field data of posture and vibration, as well as visual environment, for a forklift operating in a warehouse. This paper describes the process and outcome of this field data collection, and provides a discussion on the next steps to develop and test the virtual reality model to enable laboratory testing. Our ongoing studies will evaluate the interplay between posture and vibration under conditions replicating routine heavy machinery operations, such as underground mining.

  18. Transcriptional Response of Selenopolypeptide Genes and Selenocysteine Biosynthesis Machinery Genes in Escherichia coli during Selenite Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Antonia Y; Sun, Katherine H; Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Kittur, Farooqahmed S; Ibeanu, Gordon C; Williams, Daniel; Xie, Jiahua

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria can reduce toxic selenite into less toxic, elemental selenium (Se(0)), but the mechanism on how bacterial cells reduce selenite at molecular level is still not clear. We used Escherichia coli strain K12, a common bacterial strain, as a model to study its growth response to sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) treatment and then used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to quantify transcript levels of three E. coli selenopolypeptide genes and a set of machinery genes for selenocysteine (SeCys) biosynthesis and incorporation into polypeptides, whose involvements in the selenite reduction are largely unknown. We determined that 5 mM Na2SeO3 treatment inhibited growth by ∼ 50% while 0.001 to 0.01 mM treatments stimulated cell growth by ∼ 30%. Under 50% inhibitory or 30% stimulatory Na2SeO3 concentration, selenopolypeptide genes (fdnG, fdoG, and fdhF) whose products require SeCys but not SeCys biosynthesis machinery genes were found to be induced ≥2-fold. In addition, one sulfur (S) metabolic gene iscS and two previously reported selenite-responsive genes sodA and gutS were also induced ≥2-fold under 50% inhibitory concentration. Our findings provide insight about the detoxification of selenite in E. coli via induction of these genes involved in the selenite reduction process.

  19. Transcriptional Response of Selenopolypeptide Genes and Selenocysteine Biosynthesis Machinery Genes in Escherichia coli during Selenite Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Y. Tetteh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria can reduce toxic selenite into less toxic, elemental selenium (Se0, but the mechanism on how bacterial cells reduce selenite at molecular level is still not clear. We used Escherichia coli strain K12, a common bacterial strain, as a model to study its growth response to sodium selenite (Na2SeO3 treatment and then used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR to quantify transcript levels of three E. coli selenopolypeptide genes and a set of machinery genes for selenocysteine (SeCys biosynthesis and incorporation into polypeptides, whose involvements in the selenite reduction are largely unknown. We determined that 5 mM Na2SeO3 treatment inhibited growth by ∼50% while 0.001 to 0.01 mM treatments stimulated cell growth by ∼30%. Under 50% inhibitory or 30% stimulatory Na2SeO3 concentration, selenopolypeptide genes (fdnG, fdoG, and fdhF whose products require SeCys but not SeCys biosynthesis machinery genes were found to be induced ≥2-fold. In addition, one sulfur (S metabolic gene iscS and two previously reported selenite-responsive genes sodA and gutS were also induced ≥2-fold under 50% inhibitory concentration. Our findings provide insight about the detoxification of selenite in E. coli via induction of these genes involved in the selenite reduction process.

  20. Improved spectral kurtosis with adaptive redundant multiwavelet packet and its applications for rotating machinery fault detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jinglong; Zi, Yanyang; He, Zhengjia; Yuan, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Rotating machinery fault detection is significant to avoid serious accidents and huge economic losses effectively. However, due to the vibration signal with the character of non-stationarity and nonlinearity, the detection and extraction of the fault feature turn into a challenging task. Therefore, a novel method called improved spectral kurtosis (ISK) with adaptive redundant multiwavelet packet (ARMP) is proposed for this task. Spectral kurtosis (SK) has been proved to be a powerful tool to detect and characterize the non-stationary signal. To improve the SK in filter limitation and enhance the resolution of spectral analysis as well as match fault feature optimally, the ARMP is introduced into the SK. Moreover, since kurtosis does not reflect the actual trend of periodic impulses, the SK is improved by incorporating an evaluation index called envelope spectrum entropy as supplement. The proposed method is applied to the rolling element bearing and gear fault detection to validate its reliability and effectiveness. Compared with the conventional frequency spectrum, envelope spectrum, original SK and some single wavelet methods, the results indicate that it could improve the accuracy of frequency-band selection and enhance the ability of rotating machinery fault detection. (paper)

  1. Effects of high-gradient magnetic fields on living cell machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zablotskii, V; Lunov, O; Kubinova, S; Polyakova, T; Dejneka, A; Sykova, E

    2016-01-01

    A general interest in biomagnetic effects is related to fundamental studies of the influence of magnetic fields on living objects on the cellular and whole organism levels. Emerging technologies offer new directions for the use of high-gradient magnetic fields to control cell machinery and to understand the intracellular biological processes of the emerging field of nanomedicine. In this review we aim at highlighting recent advances made in identifying fundamental mechanisms by which magnetic gradient forces act on cell fate specification and cell differentiation. The review also provides an analysis of the currently available magnetic systems capable of generating magnetic fields with spatial gradients of up to 10 MT m −1 , with the focus on their suitability for use in cell therapy. Relationships between experimental factors and underlying biophysical mechanisms and assumptions that would ultimately lead to a deeper understanding of cell machinery and the development of more predictive models for the evaluation of the effects of magnetic fields on cells, tissue and organisms are comprehensively discussed. (topical review)

  2. Intelligent method for diagnosing structural faults of rotating machinery using ant colony optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Chen, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Structural faults, such as unbalance, misalignment and looseness, etc., often occur in the shafts of rotating machinery. These faults may cause serious machine accidents and lead to great production losses. This paper proposes an intelligent method for diagnosing structural faults of rotating machinery using ant colony optimization (ACO) and relative ratio symptom parameters (RRSPs) in order to detect faults and distinguish fault types at an early stage. New symptom parameters called "relative ratio symptom parameters" are defined for reflecting the features of vibration signals measured in each state. Synthetic detection index (SDI) using statistical theory has also been defined to evaluate the applicability of the RRSPs. The SDI can be used to indicate the fitness of a RRSP for ACO. Lastly, this paper also compares the proposed method with the conventional neural networks (NN) method. Practical examples of fault diagnosis for a centrifugal fan are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The verification results show that the structural faults often occurring in the centrifugal fan, such as unbalance, misalignment and looseness states are effectively identified by the proposed method, while these faults are difficult to detect using conventional neural networks.

  3. Young and Especially Senescent Endothelial Microvesicles Produce NADPH: The Fuel for Their Antioxidant Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Bodega

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we demonstrated that endothelial microvesicles (eMVs have a well-developed enzymatic team involved in reactive oxygen species detoxification. In the present paper, we demonstrate that eMVs can synthesize the reducing power (NAD(PH that nourishes this enzymatic team, especially those eMVs derived from senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the molecules that nourish the enzymatic machinery involved in NAD(PH synthesis are blood plasma metabolites: lactate, pyruvate, glucose, glycerol, and branched-chain amino acids. Drastic biochemical changes are observed in senescent eMVs to optimize the synthesis of reducing power. Mitochondrial activity is diminished and the glycolytic pathway is modified to increase the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. Different dehydrogenases involved in NADPH synthesis are also increased. Functional experiments have demonstrated that eMVs can synthesize NADPH. In addition, the existence of NADPH in eMVs was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Multiphoton confocal microscopy images corroborate the synthesis of reducing power in eMVs. In conclusion, our present and previous results demonstrate that eMVs can act as autonomous reactive oxygen species scavengers: they use blood metabolites to synthesize the NADPH that fuels their antioxidant machinery. Moreover, senescent eMVs have a stronger reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity than young eMVs.

  4. Manifold Learning with Self-Organizing Mapping for Feature Extraction of Nonlinear Faults in Rotating Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for extracting the low-dimensional feature automatically with self-organization mapping manifold is proposed for the detection of rotating mechanical nonlinear faults (such as rubbing, pedestal looseness. Under the phase space reconstructed by single vibration signal, the self-organization mapping (SOM with expectation maximization iteration algorithm is used to divide the local neighborhoods adaptively without manual intervention. After that, the local tangent space alignment algorithm is adopted to compress the high-dimensional phase space into low-dimensional feature space. The proposed method takes advantages of the manifold learning in low-dimensional feature extraction and adaptive neighborhood construction of SOM and can extract intrinsic fault features of interest in two dimensional projection space. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the Lorenz system was simulated and rotation machinery with nonlinear faults was obtained for test purposes. Compared with the holospectrum approaches, the results reveal that the proposed method is superior in identifying faults and effective for rotating machinery condition monitoring.

  5. TALSPEAK Solvent Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh R. Martin; Bruce J. Mincher

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the radiolytic degradation behavior of organic molecules involved in new or existing schemes for the recycle of used nuclear fuels is of significant interest for sustaining a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Here we have conducted several lines of investigation to begin understanding the effects of radiolysis on the aqueous phase of the TALSPEAK process for the separation of the trivalent lanthanides from the trivalent actinides. Using the 60-Co irradiator at the INL, we have begun to quantify the effects of radiation on the aqueous phase complexants used in this separation technique, and how this will affect the actinide lanthanide separation factor. In addition we have started to develop methodologies for stable product identification, a key element in determining the degradation pathways. We have also introduced a methodology to investigate the effects of alpha radiolysis that has previously received limited attention.

  6. Rapidly Degradable Pyrotechnic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    material system (structural polymer and degradation agent ) for producing a high strength, non-corroding, highly inert, environmentally safe, extended...polymer sites in the active enzyme center differs dramatically between alkyl and aromatic polyesters. More specifically, as the degree of backbone...capped and centrifuged at 3,000 g. This procedure was repeated twice. To the remaining biomass pellet 15 mL of 1 mg/mL solution of N-ethyl-N- nitrosourea

  7. Radiation degradation of chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norzita Yacob; Maznah Mahmud; Norhashidah Talip; Kamarudin Bahari; Kamaruddin Hashim; Khairul Zaman Dahlan

    2010-01-01

    In order to obtain an oligo chitosan, degradation of chitosan s were carried out in solid state and liquid state. The effects of an irradiation on the molecular weight and viscosity of the chitosan were investigated using Ubbelohde Capillary Viscometer and Brookfield Viscometer respectively. The molecular weight and viscosity of the chitosan s were decreased with an increase in the irradiation dose. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, the molecular weight of chitosan can be further decreased. (author)

  8. WEATHERABILITY OF ENHANCED DEGRADABLE PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of this study was to assess the performance and the asociated variability of several selected enhanced degradable plastic materials under a variety of different exposure conditions. Other objectives were to identify the major products formed during degradation ...

  9. Intergenic mRNA molecules resulting from trans-splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finta, Csaba; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G

    2002-02-22

    Accumulated recent evidence is indicating that alternative splicing represents a generalized process that increases the complexity of human gene expression. Here we show that mRNA production may not necessarily be limited to single genes, as human liver also has the potential to produce a variety of hybrid cytochrome P450 3A mRNA molecules. The four known cytochrome P450 3A genes in humans, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, and CYP3A43, share a high degree of similarity, consist of 13 exons with conserved exon-intron boundaries, and form a cluster on chromosome 7. The chimeric CYP3A mRNA molecules described herein are characterized by CYP3A43 exon 1 joined at canonical splice sites to distinct sets of CYP3A4 or CYP3A5 exons. Because the CYP3A43 gene is in a head-to-head orientation with the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes, bypassing transcriptional termination can not account for the formation of hybrid CYP3A mRNAs. Thus, the mechanism generating these molecules has to be an RNA processing event that joins exons of independent pre-mRNA molecules, i.e. trans-splicing. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the ratio of one CYP3A43/3A4 intergenic combination was estimated to be approximately 0.15% that of the CYP3A43 mRNAs. Moreover, trans-splicing has been found not to interfere with polyadenylation. Heterologous expression of the chimeric species composed of CYP3A43 exon 1 joined to exons 2-13 of CYP3A4 revealed catalytic activity toward testosterone.

  10. mRNA transfection of mouse and human neural stem cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    McLenachan, Samuel; Zhang, D.; Palomo, A.B.; Edel, Michael John; Chen, F.K.

    2013-01-01

    The use of synthetic mRNA as an alternative gene delivery vector to traditional DNA-based constructs provides an effective method for inducing transient gene expression in cell cultures without genetic modification. Delivery of mRNA has been proposed as a safer alternative to viral vectors in the induction of pluripotent cells for regenerative therapies. Although mRNA transfection of fibroblasts, dendritic and embryonic stem cells has been described, mRNA delivery to neurosphere cultures has ...

  11. Differential trypanosome surface coat regulation by a CCCH protein that co-associates with procyclin mRNA cis-elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegine Walrad

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The genome of Trypanosoma brucei is unusual in being regulated almost entirely at the post-transcriptional level. In terms of regulation, the best-studied genes are procyclins, which encode a family of major surface GPI-anchored glycoproteins (EP1, EP2, EP3, GPEET that show differential expression in the parasite's tsetse-fly vector. Although procyclin mRNA cis-regulatory sequences have provided the paradigm for post-transcriptional control in kinetoplastid parasites, trans-acting regulators of procyclin mRNAs are unidentified, despite intensive effort over 15 years. Here we identify the developmental regulator, TbZFP3, a CCCH-class predicted RNA binding protein, as an isoform-specific regulator of Procyclin surface coat expression in trypanosomes. We demonstrate (i that endogenous TbZFP3 shows sequence-specific co-precipitation of EP1 and GPEET, but not EP2 and EP3, procyclin mRNA isoforms, (ii that ectopic overexpression of TbZFP3 does not perturb the mRNA abundance of procyclin transcripts, but rather that (iii their protein expression is regulated in an isoform-specific manner, as evidenced by mass spectrometric analysis of the Procyclin expression signature in the transgenic cell lines. The TbZFP3 mRNA-protein complex (TbZFP3mRNP is identified as a trans-regulator of differential surface protein expression in trypanosomes. Moreover, its sequence-specific interactions with procyclin mRNAs are compatible with long-established predictions for Procyclin regulation. Combined with the known association of TbZFP3 with the translational apparatus, this study provides a long-sought missing link between surface protein cis-regulatory signals and the gene expression machinery in trypanosomes.

  12. The staphylococcal accessory regulator, SarA, is an RNA-binding protein that modulates the mRNA turnover properties of late-exponential and stationary phase Staphylococcus aureus cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Morrison

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The modulation of mRNA turnover is gaining recognition as a mechanism by which Staphylococcus aureus regulates gene expression, but the factors that orchestrate alterations in transcript degradation are poorly understood. In that regard, we previously found that 138 mRNA species, including the virulence factors protein A (spa and collagen binding protein (cna, are stabilized in a sarA-dependent manner during exponential phase growth, suggesting that SarA protein may directly or indirectly effect the RNA turnover properties of these transcripts. Herein, we expanded our characterization of the effects of sarA on mRNA turnover during late exponential and stationary phases of growth. Results revealed that the locus affects the RNA degradation properties of cells during both growth phases. Further, using gel mobility shift assays and RIP-ChIP, it was found that SarA protein is capable of binding mRNA species that it stabilizes both in vitro and within bacterial cells. Taken together, these results suggest that SarA post-transcriptionally regulates S. aureus gene expression in a manner that involves binding to and consequently altering the mRNA turnover properties of target transcripts.

  13. Nucleolin Mediates MicroRNA-directed CSF-1 mRNA Deadenylation but Increases Translation of CSF-1 mRNA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Ho-Hyung; Baker, Terri; Laszlo, Csaba; Chambers, Setsuko K.

    2013-01-01

    CSF-1 mRNA 3′UTR contains multiple unique motifs, including a common microRNA (miRNA) target in close proximity to a noncanonical G-quadruplex and AU-rich elements (AREs). Using a luciferase reporter system fused to CSF-1 mRNA 3′UTR, disruption of the miRNA target region, G-quadruplex, and AREs together dramatically increased reporter RNA levels, suggesting important roles for these cis-acting regulatory elements in the down-regulation of CSF-1 mRNA. We find that nucleolin, which binds both G-quadruplex and AREs, enhances deadenylation of CSF-1 mRNA, promoting CSF-1 mRNA decay, while having the capacity to increase translation of CSF-1 mRNA. Through interaction with the CSF-1 3′UTR miRNA common target, we find that miR-130a and miR-301a inhibit CSF-1 expression by enhancing mRNA decay. Silencing of nucleolin prevents the miRNA-directed mRNA decay, indicating a requirement for nucleolin in miRNA activity on CSF-1 mRNA. Downstream effects followed by miR-130a and miR-301a inhibition of directed cellular motility of ovarian cancer cells were found to be dependent on nucleolin. The paradoxical effects of nucleolin on miRNA-directed CSF-1 mRNA deadenylation and on translational activation were explored further. The nucleolin protein contains four acidic stretches, four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), and nine RGG repeats. All three domains in nucleolin regulate CSF-1 mRNA and protein levels. RRMs increase CSF-1 mRNA, whereas the acidic and RGG domains decrease CSF-1 protein levels. This suggests that nucleolin has the capacity to differentially regulate both CSF-1 RNA and protein levels. Our finding that nucleolin interacts with Ago2 indirectly via RNA and with poly(A)-binding protein C (PABPC) directly suggests a nucleolin-Ago2-PABPC complex formation on mRNA. This complex is in keeping with our suggestion that nucleolin may work with PABPC as a double-edged sword on both mRNA deadenylation and translational activation. Our findings underscore the complexity of

  14. A glimpse at mRNA dynamics reveals cellular domains and rapid trafficking through granules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, Alice Myriam Christi van

    2011-01-01

    mRNA transport and targeting are essential to gene expression regulation. Specific mRNA sequences can bind several proteins and together form RiboNucleoProtein particles (RNP). The various proteins within the RNP determine mRNA fate: translation, transport or decay. RNP composition varies with

  15. Bearing Performance Degradation Assessment Using Linear Discriminant Analysis and Coupled HMM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, T; Chen, J; Zhou, X N; Xiao, W B

    2012-01-01

    Bearing is one of the most important units in rotary machinery, its performance may vary significantly under different working stages. Thus it is critical to choose the most effective features for bearing performance degradation prediction. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is a useful method in finding few feature's dimensions that best discriminate a set of features extracted from original vibration signals. Another challenge in bearing performance degradation is how to build a model to recognize the different conditions with the data coming from different monitoring channels. In this paper, coupled hidden Markov models (CHMM) is presented to model interacting processes which can overcome the defections of the HMM. Because the input data in CHMM are collected by several sensors, and the interacting information can be fused by coupled modalities, it is more effective than HMM which used only one state chain. The model can be used in estimating the bearing performance degradation states according to several observation data. When becoming degradation pattern recognition, the new observation features should be input into the pre-trained CHMM and calculate the performance index (PI) of the outputs, the changing of PI could be used to describe the different degradation level of the bearings. The results show that PI will decline with the increase of the bearing degradation. Assessment results of the whole life time experimental bearing signals validate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.

  16. A Diagnosis Method for Rotation Machinery Faults Based on Dimensionless Indexes Combined with K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbin Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to well distinguish the dimensionless indexes between normal petrochemical rotating machinery equipment and those with complex faults. When the conflict of evidence is too big, it will result in uncertainty of diagnosis. This paper presents a diagnosis method for rotation machinery fault based on dimensionless indexes combined with K-nearest neighbor (KNN algorithm. This method uses a KNN algorithm and an evidence fusion theoretical formula to process fuzzy data, incomplete data, and accurate data. This method can transfer the signals from the petrochemical rotating machinery sensors to the reliability manners using dimensionless indexes and KNN algorithm. The input information is further integrated by an evidence synthesis formula to get the final data. The type of fault will be decided based on these data. The experimental results show that the proposed method can integrate data to provide a more reliable and reasonable result, thereby reducing the decision risk.

  17. mRNA Transcript abundance during plant growth and the influence of Li(+) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, M C; Kuhne, W W; Halverson, N V; Chang, C-S; Kitamura, E; Hawthorn, L; Martinez, N E; Stafford, C; Milliken, C E; Caldwell, E F; Stieve-Caldwell, E

    2014-12-01

    Lithium (Li) toxicity in plants is, at a minimum, a function of Li(+) concentration, exposure time, species and growth conditions. Most plant studies with Li(+) focus on short-term acute exposures. This study examines short- and long-term effects of Li(+) exposure in Arabidopsis with Li(+) uptake studies and measured shoot mRNA transcript abundance levels in treated and control plants. Stress, pathogen-response and arabinogalactan protein genes were typically more up-regulated in older (chronic, low level) Li(+)-treatment plants and in the much younger plants from acute high-level exposures. The gene regulation behavior of high-level Li(+) resembled prior studies due to its influence on: inositol synthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases and membrane ion transport. In contrast, chronically-exposed plants had gene regulation responses that were indicative of pathogen, cold, and heavy-metal stress, cell wall degradation, ethylene production, signal transduction, and calcium-release modulation. Acute Li(+) exposure phenocopies magnesium-deficiency symptoms and is associated with elevated expression of stress response genes that could lead to consumption of metabolic and transcriptional energy reserves and the dedication of more resources to cell development. In contrast, chronic Li(+) exposure increases expression signal transduction genes. The identification of new Li(+)-sensitive genes and a gene-based "response plan" for acute and chronic Li(+) exposure are delineated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of protein and mRNA oxidation in seed dormancy and germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hayat eel-maarouf-bouteau

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are key players in the regulation of seed germination and dormancy. Although their regulated accumulation is a prerequisite for germination, the cellular basis of their action remains unknown, but very challenging to elucidate due to the lack of specificity of these compounds that can potentially react with all biomolecules. Among these, nucleic acids and proteins are very prone to oxidative damage. RNA is highly sensitive to oxidation because of its single-stranded structure and the absence of a repair system. Oxidation of mRNAs induces their decay through processing bodies or results in the synthesis of aberrant proteins through altered translation. Depending on the oxidized amino acid, ROS damage of proteins can be irreversible (i.e. carbonylation thus triggering the degradation of the oxidized proteins by the cytosolic 20S proteasome or can be reversed through the action of thioredoxins, peroxiredoxins or glutaredoxins (cysteine oxidation or by methionine sulfoxide reductase (methionine oxidation. Seed dormancy alleviation in the dry state, referred to as after-ripening, requires both selective mRNA oxidation and protein carbonylation. Similarly, seed imbibition of non-dormant seeds is associated with targeted oxidation of a subset of proteins. Altogether, these specific features testify that such oxidative modifications play important role in commitment of the cellular functioning toward germination completion.

  19. Matrin 3 binds and stabilizes mRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Salton

    Full Text Available Matrin 3 (MATR3 is a highly conserved, inner nuclear matrix protein with two zinc finger domains and two RNA recognition motifs (RRM, whose function is largely unknown. Recently we found MATR3 to be phosphorylated by the protein kinase ATM, which activates the cellular response to double strand breaks in the DNA. Here, we show that MATR3 interacts in an RNA-dependent manner with several proteins with established roles in RNA processing, and maintains its interaction with RNA via its RRM2 domain. Deep sequencing of the bound RNA (RIP-seq identified several small noncoding RNA species. Using microarray analysis to explore MATR3's role in transcription, we identified 77 transcripts whose amounts depended on the presence of MATR3. We validated this finding with nine transcripts which were also bound to the MATR3 complex. Finally, we demonstrated the importance of MATR3 for maintaining the stability of several of these mRNA species and conclude that it has a role in mRNA stabilization. The data suggest that the cellular level of MATR3, known to be highly regulated, modulates the stability of a group of gene transcripts.

  20. HYDRAULIC UNITS FOR DRIVING SYSTEMS OF RUNNING EQUIPMENT IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ja. Kotlobai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational efficiency of multi-functional road construction machines depends on number of working bodies which are simultaneously performing technological operations. Systems for propulsion pto to the running equipment drive and active working bodies of road construction machines are developing in the way of using three-axis hydraulic drives. When designing a hydraulic system for road construction machinery dividing of power flow from propulsion to the running equipment drive and active working bodies is considered as rather essential problem. Leading companies do not pay attention to the development of flow divider designs, preferring to produce more expensive multi-flow pumps. One of the ways to increase efficiency of multi-functional road construction machinery is an implementation of running equipment hydraulic driving system based on a mono-aggregate pump unit which consists of a pump and a volumetric divider of power fluid flow. A principle of volumetric division and summing-up of power fluid flows, technical realization and methodology for calculation of key parameters of discrete flow distributors has been developed on the basis of discrete hydraulics regulations. The paper presents results of mathematical modeling of hydraulic systems equipped with the discrete flow distributor. Analysis of a dual-motor hydraulic drive operation has shown the following results: a discrete flow distributor ensures independent load mode of the current consumer circuit operation from the load mode of the second consumer circuit within a wide range of loads; rational value of working fluid flow discretization parameter is the following value interval k = 4–6, maximum value of parameter efficiency is reached when an angular velocity of a distributor rotor coincides with the angular velocity of a pump shaft; discrete flow distributor provides a possibility to change parameters of hydraulic flow feeding in consumers’ pressure lines within a wide range

  1. Towards improving the administrative machinery for health care in the Midwestern State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebie, J C

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the present machinery for the administration of health care facilities in the Midwestern State of Nigeria and makes suggestions for improvement. The multiplicity of autonomous authorities involved in the running of health care facilities and the compartmentalization of health care into 'preventive' aspects (managed by the State Ministry of Health and Local Authorities) and 'curative' aspects (managed by the State Hospitals Management Board) are seen as the main disadvantages of the present system. A new administrative set-up is suggested, the highlights of which include the creation of a number of Area Health Boards that will have responsibility for all State Government and Local Authority health care facilities in their respective geographically defined areas of jurisdiction (this will abolish the artificial division between the administrations of 'preventive' and 'curative' aspects of health care), more professional divisions in the state Ministry of Health (which will retain responsibility on behalf of government for policy matters and the provision of health care facilities) than at the moment, a State Health Service Commission and A State Health Advisory Committee. It is important for doctors and other personnel in the health care field to know something about the administrative machinery of the health care delivery system in which they work. Apart from doctors who are trained in certain postgraduate fields, most other doctors do not appear to have any formal training in or early exposure to medical administration and yet, some of them get called upon during their career to undertake administrative duties at a very high level. This paper describes the present system of administration of health care facilities in the Midwestern State and offers suggestions for consideration for improvement. It is a well known fact that the administration of health care facilities in the Midwestern State has improved considerably in recent years. The

  2. Statistical modeling for degradation data

    CERN Document Server

    Lio, Yuhlong; Ng, Hon; Tsai, Tzong-Ru

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the statistical aspects of the analysis of degradation data. In recent years, degradation data analysis has come to play an increasingly important role in different disciplines such as reliability, public health sciences, and finance. For example, information on products’ reliability can be obtained by analyzing degradation data. In addition, statistical modeling and inference techniques have been developed on the basis of different degradation measures. The book brings together experts engaged in statistical modeling and inference, presenting and discussing important recent advances in degradation data analysis and related applications. The topics covered are timely and have considerable potential to impact both statistics and reliability engineering.

  3. Radiation degradation of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.; Arnold, G.; Baer, M.; Langguth, H.; Gey, M.; Huebert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20% up to about 80%. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given. (author)

  4. Chemical degradation of pentachlorophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.S.; Shukla, A.; Chandrasekharaiah, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    Industry produces a large volume of hazardous wastes containing pentachlorophenol, a U.S. EPA priority hazardous organic material. The environmentally safe disposal of these PCP-contaminated wastes is a serious problem for the waste management authorities as the current treatment processes are unsatisfactory. In this paper, the results of a feasibility study of chemical degradation and/or solidification methods for PCP-containing wastes. The photochemical decomposition of the PCP in a microemulsion or in micellar media obtained with the help of SDS or CTAB show the greatest promise

  5. Radiation degradation of polymethacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of radiation on polymers have been studied for many years. When polymers are subjected to ultraviolet light or ionizing radiation, chain scission and crosslinking are possible. The radiation degradations of several methacrylate type polymers were investigated. The primary polymer studied was polymethacrylamide (PMAAm). Ultraviolet irradiated PMAAm yielded a five line ESR spectrum with 22 gauss splitting which is believed to arise from a polymeric radical ending with a methacrylamide unit. The results obtained indicate that polymethacrylamide is a polymer which undergoes main chain cleavage upon irradiation. As such this polymer may have potential applicability as a positive resist for fabrication of microelectronic devices

  6. Outer membrane targeting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins shows variable dependence on the components of Bam and Lol machineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Hanh H; Nickerson, Nicholas N; Lee, Vincent T; Kazimirova, Anastasia; Chami, Mohamed; Pugsley, Anthony P; Lory, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, the Lol and Bam machineries direct the targeting of lipidated and nonlipidated proteins, respectively, to the outer membrane (OM). Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with depleted levels of specific Bam and Lol proteins, we demonstrated a variable dependence of different OM proteins on these targeting pathways. Reduction in the level of BamA significantly affected the ability of the β-barrel membrane protein OprF to localize to the OM, while the targeting of three secretins that are functionally related OM proteins was less affected (PilQ and PscC) or not at all affected (XcpQ). Depletion of LolB affected all lipoproteins examined and had a variable effect on the nonlipidated proteins. While the levels of OprF, PilQ, and PscC were significantly reduced by LolB depletion, XcpQ was unaffected and was correctly localized to the OM. These results suggest that certain β-barrel proteins such as OprF primarily utilize the complete Bam machinery. The Lol machinery participates in the OM targeting of secretins to variable degrees, likely through its involvement in the assembly of lipidated Bam components. XcpQ, but not PilQ or PscC, was shown to assemble spontaneously into liposomes as multimers. This work raises the possibility that there is a gradient of utilization of Bam and Lol insertion and targeting machineries. Structural features of individual proteins, including their β-barrel content, may determine the propensity of these proteins for folding (or misfolding) during periplasmic transit and OM insertion, thereby influencing the extent of utilization of the Bam targeting machinery, respectively. Targeting of lipidated and nonlipidated proteins to the outer membrane (OM) compartment in Gram-negative bacteria involves the transfer across the periplasm utilizing the Lol and Bam machineries, respectively. We show that depletion of Bam and Lol components in Pseudomonas aeruginosa does not lead to a general OM protein translocation defect

  7. Land degradation in the Canyoles river watershed, Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Gonzalez Peñaloza, F. A.; Imeson, A. C.; Gimenez Morera, A.

    2012-04-01

    Human induced Land Degradation by actions that have a negative impact on the functioning of the environment (Imeson, 2012). Mediterranean arid lands have been intensely transformed by human activity through history, especially due to agricultural management. This intense use of the land resulted in a new man made landscape that is evolving as a consequence of the global change to a new situation that can trigger Land Degradation processes. Extensive areas of olive groves, fruit orchards and vineyards, many of them grown on marginal areas (e.g., terraced slopes) as well as non-sustainable land uses have induced different environmental problems in the Canyoles river watershed (Eastern Spain). The human and physical changes suffered by this region are being used as a representative area of the western Mediterranean basin to monitor how the responses to the Desertification and Land Degradation fit. The aim of this research is to evaluate socio-ecological systems as a part of the Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification Response Assessment (LEDDRA) project. This presentation will show the main Land Degradation processes that has been identified: [1] soil erosion as a consequence of agriculture, [2] soil compaction due to herbicide and heavy machinery use, [3] soil sealing on croplands due to heavy vehicles and asphalt and concrete application on roads, [4] soil/water pollution due to agrochemicals, [5] reduction of biodiversity in croplands due to herbicides and substitution of the traditional irrigation system, [6] urbanization processes of rural areas due to the development of urban areas and agricultural infrastructures, [7] monoculture of citrus plantations in the lower part of the watershed, [8] roads and railway construction, [9] aquifer depletion, [10] abandonment of industrial activities, [11] abandonment of local traditional practices for food production and other resources and [12] the effect of land abandonment and wildfires in the nearby mountainous

  8. A novel component of the mitochondrial genome segregation machinery in trypanosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneliese Hoffmann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We recently described a new component (TAC102 of the mitochondrial genome segregation machinery (mtGSM in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. T. brucei belongs to a group of organisms that contain a single mitochondrial organelle with a single mitochondrial genome (mt-genome per cell. The mt-genome consists of 5000 minicircles (1 kb and 25 maxicircles (23 kb that are catenated into a large network. After replication of the network its segregation is driven by the separating basal bodies, which are homologous structures to the centrioles organizing the spindle apparatus in many eukaryotes. The structure connecting the basal body to the mt-genome was named the Tripartite Attachment Complex (TAC owing its name to the distribution across three areas in the cell including the two mitochondrial membranes.

  9. Today's status of application of high power electron beam welding to heavy electric machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Hisanao; Okuni, Tetsuo; Sejima, Itsuhiko.

    1980-01-01

    The progress in high energy welding is remarkable in recent years, and electron beam welding is now widely used in heavy industries. However, there are number of problems to be solved in the application of high power electron beam welding to ultra thick steel plates (over 100 mm). The following matters are described: the economy of high power electron beam welding; the development of the welding machines; the problems in the actual application; the instances of the welding in a high-pressure spherical gas tank, non-magnetic steel structures and high-precision welded structures; weldor training; etc. For the future rise in the capacities of heavy electric machinery, the high efficiency by high power electron beam welding will be useful. The current status is its applications to the high-precision welding of large structures with 6 m diameter and the high-quality welding of heavy structures with 160 mm thickness. (J.P.N.)

  10. Verification of the machinery condition monitoring technology by fault simulation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maehara, Takafumi; Watanabe, Yukio; Osaki, Kenji; Higuma, Koji; Nakano, Tomohito

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows the test items and equipments introduced by Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization to establish the monitoring technique for machinery conditions. From the result of vertical pump simulation tests, it was confirmed that fault analysis was impossible by measuring the accelerations on both motor and pump column pipes, however, was possible by measuring of pump shaft vibrations. Because hydraulic whirls by bearing wear had significant influences over bearing misalignments and flow rates, the monitoring trends must be done under the same condition (on bearing alignments and flow rates). We have confirmed that malfunctions of vertical pumps can be diagnosed using measured shaft vibration by ultrasonic sensors from outer surface of pump casing on the floor. (author)

  11. 3rd International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Rubini, Riccardo; D'Elia, Gianluca; Cocconcelli, Marco; Chaari, Fakher; Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Haddar, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the processings of the third edition of the Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations (CMMNO13) which was held in Ferrara, Italy. This yearly event merges an international community of researchers who met – in 2011 in Wroclaw (Poland) and in 2012 in Hammamet (Tunisia) – to discuss issues of diagnostics of rotating machines operating in complex motion and/or load conditions. The growing interest of the industrial world on the topics covered by the CMMNO13 involves the fields of packaging, automotive, agricultural, mining, processing and wind machines in addition to that of the systems for data acquisition.The participation of speakers and visitors from industry makes the event an opportunity for immediate assessment of the potential applications of advanced methodologies for the signal analysis. Signals acquired from machines often contain contributions from several different components as well as noise. Therefore, the major challenge of condition monitoring is to po...

  12. Damage detection in rotating machinery by means of entropy-based parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocarciuc, Alexandru; Bereteu, Liviu; ǎgǎnescu, Gheorghe Eugen, Dr

    2014-11-01

    The paper is proposing two new entropy-based parameters, namely Renyi Entropy Index (REI) and Sharma-Mittal Entropy Index (SMEI), for detecting the presence of failures (or damages) in rotating machinery, namely: belt structural damage, belt wheels misalignment, failure of the fixing bolt of the machine to its baseplate and eccentricities (i.e.: due to detaching a small piece of material or bad mounting of the rotating components of the machine). The algorithms to obtain the proposed entropy-based parameters are described and test data is used in order to assess their sensitivity. A vibration test bench is used for measuring the levels of vibration while artificially inducing damage. The deviation of the two entropy-based parameters is compared in two states of the vibration test bench: not damaged and damaged. At the end of the study, their sensitivity is compared to Shannon Entropic Index.

  13. A methodology for determining and controlling the buffers before floating bottlenecks in heavy machinery production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lenort

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Heavy machinery industry is characterized by a number of specific features that cause significant variations in the processing time of products in the individual workplaces and frequent occurrence of floating bottlenecks, which change their positions. Depending on the product range being processed, a given workplace is the bottleneck only for some period of time. When the bottleneck moves to another workplace, it leads to unnecessary loss of capacity of the floating bottleneck. To maximize the utilization, it is necessary to protect those bottlenecks by creating special buffers. The objective of this article is to design a methodology used for the determination and control of buffers that are going to protect the floating bottlenecks from operating capacity losses caused by transfer of the constrain to another workplace. These buffers are referred to as „power buffers“. The designed methodology has been verified in the process of forged pieces machining.

  14. From DNA to proteins via the ribosome: Structural insights into the workings of the translation machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agirrezabala Xabier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Understanding protein synthesis in bacteria and humans is important for understanding the origin of many human diseases and devising treatments for them. Over the past decade, the field of structural biology has made significant advances in the visualisation of the molecular machinery involved in protein synthesis. It is now possible to discern, at least in outline, the way that interlocking ribosomal components and factors adapt their conformations throughout this process. The determination of structures in various functional contexts, along with the application of kinetic and fluorescent resonance energy transfer approaches to the problem, has given researchers the frame of reference for what remains as the greatest challenge: the complete dynamic portrait of protein synthesis in the cell.

  15. An Efficient Method of Vibration Diagnostics For Rotating Machinery Using a Decision Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Suk Yang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an efficient method to automatize vibration diagnosis for rotating machinery using a decision tree, which is applicable to vibration diagnosis expert system. Decision tree is a widely known formalism for expressing classification knowledge and has been used successfully in many diverse areas such as character recognition, medical diagnosis, and expert systems, etc. In order to build a decision tree for vibration diagnosis, we have to define classes and attributes. A set of cases based on past experiences is also needed. This training set is inducted using a result-cause matrix newly developed in the present work instead of using a conventionally implemented cause-result matrix. This method was applied to diagnostics for various cases taken from published work. It is found that the present method predicts causes of the abnormal vibration for test cases with high reliability.

  16. Real-time Monitoring System for Rotating Machinery with IoT-based Cloud Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Haedong; Kim, Suhyun; Woo, Sunhee; Kim, Songhyun; Lee, Seungchul [Ulsan Nat’l Institute Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The objective of this research is to improve the efficiency of data collection from many machine components on smart factory floors using IoT(Internet of things) techniques and cloud platform, and to make it easy to update outdated diagnostic schemes through online deployment methods from cloud resources. The short-term analysis is implemented by a micro-controller, and it includes machine-learning algorithms for inferring snapshot information of the machine components. For long-term analysis, time-series and high-dimension data are used for root cause analysis by combining a cloud platform and multivariate analysis techniques. The diagnostic results are visualized in a webbased display dashboard for an unconstrained user access. The implementation is demonstrated to identify its performance in data acquisition and analysis for rotating machinery.

  17. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  18. The Machinery of Authoritarian Care: Dramatising Breast Cancer Treatment in 1970s Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    This article examines the professional and public response to the television play Through the Night , which aired on BBC1 in December 1975. One of the first British mass media portrayals of a woman's experience being treated for breast cancer, this play attracted a large audience and considerable attention from both critics and everyday viewers. My analysis of the play draws on sources documenting expert responses to the play in its production stages, as well as critics' and viewers' responses to what the play said about breast cancer treatment in particular, and about Britons' experiences of medical institutions more broadly. Together, I argue, these sources help us see how Through the Night 's critique of what one expert called 'the machinery of authoritarian care' reverberated with and supported the efforts of professionals anxious to improve patient experience, and how it crystallised the concerns of activists and everyday viewers.

  19. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc.

  20. 10th International Conference on Vibration Engineering and Technology of Machinery

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The VETOMAC-X Conference covered a holistic plethora of relevant topics in vibration and engineering technology including condition monitoring, machinery and structural dynamics, rotor dynamics,  experimental techniques, finite element model updating, industrial case studies, vibration control and energy harvesting, and signal processing. These proceedings contain not only all of the nearly one-hundred peer-reviewed presentations from authors representing more than twenty countries, but also include six invited lectures from renowned experts: Professor K. Gupta, Mr W. Hahn, Professor A.W. Lees, Professor John Mottershead, Professor J.S. Rao, and Dr P. Russhard. This work is of interest to researchers and practitioners alike, and is an essential book for most of libraries of higher academic institutes.

  1. PRRT2 Is a Key Component of the Ca2+-Dependent Neurotransmitter Release Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Pierluigi; Castroflorio, Enrico; Rossi, Pia; Fadda, Manuela; Sterlini, Bruno; Cervigni, Romina Ines; Prestigio, Cosimo; Giovedì, Silvia; Onofri, Franco; Mura, Elisa; Guarnieri, Fabrizia C.; Marte, Antonella; Orlando, Marta; Zara, Federico; Fassio, Anna; Valtorta, Flavia; Baldelli, Pietro; Corradi, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Summary Heterozygous mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders, including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia, and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression, suggesting that loss of PRRT2 function may contribute to pathogenesis. We show that PRRT2 is enriched in presynaptic terminals and that its silencing decreases the number of synapses and increases the number of docked synaptic vesicles at rest. PRRT2-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of synchronous release, attributable to a sharp decrease in release probability and Ca2+ sensitivity and associated with a marked increase of the asynchronous/synchronous release ratio. PRRT2 interacts with the synaptic proteins SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin 1/2. The results indicate that PRRT2 is intimately connected with the Ca2+-sensing machinery and that it plays an important role in the final steps of neurotransmitter release. PMID:27052163

  2. Functional simulations of power electronics components in series-hybrid machinery for the needs of OEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liukkonen, M.; Hentunen, A.; Kyyrae, J. (Department of Electrical Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland)); Suomela, J. (Department of Automation and Systems, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    A method for rapid control prototyping of the series-hybrid transmission system is proposed in this paper. The rapid control prototyping needs simulation submodels from all system components in order to develop supervisory control software. The same simulation models can also be used to optimize the drive train. The target framework for the rapid control prototyping method is the original equipment manufacturer (OEM), where the objective is to build devices from subcontractor's components. The machinery industry, as a target group, uses high power ratings for the creation of motion, which leads to high voltage and current values used in the system. Therefore, prototyping is started with careful simulations. This paper also seeks to create a general idea about the structure of the series-hybrid power transmission and assists the start of the process for designing the supervisory control. (orig.)

  3. Real-time Monitoring System for Rotating Machinery with IoT-based Cloud Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Haedong; Kim, Suhyun; Woo, Sunhee; Kim, Songhyun; Lee, Seungchul

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve the efficiency of data collection from many machine components on smart factory floors using IoT(Internet of things) techniques and cloud platform, and to make it easy to update outdated diagnostic schemes through online deployment methods from cloud resources. The short-term analysis is implemented by a micro-controller, and it includes machine-learning algorithms for inferring snapshot information of the machine components. For long-term analysis, time-series and high-dimension data are used for root cause analysis by combining a cloud platform and multivariate analysis techniques. The diagnostic results are visualized in a webbased display dashboard for an unconstrained user access. The implementation is demonstrated to identify its performance in data acquisition and analysis for rotating machinery.

  4. [Investigation about prevention behavior for dust workers in machinery, ceramic, and metallurgy industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fu-hai; Ma, Qing-kun; Xiao, Shu-yu; Cui, Feng-tao; Meng, Qing-di; Yang, Xiu-qing; Qi, Hui-sheng; Fan, Xue-yun; Yao, San-qiao

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this thesis were to study the behavior about workers exposed to dust and provide scientific basis for health promotion. We designed a questionnaire and carry it on the 746 dust workers in the 3 representative corporations of Machinery, Ceramic, and Metallurgy Industry. All data were input into computer. And a database was established with Excel. SPSS11.5 statistical analysis software was used to analyze the influence on protecting behavioral between the application of qualifications, different jobs, training or protection, and other aspects etc. The rates were 94.4% and 75.3% about the regular physical examination and requirements for protective equipment. The rate of choosing an effective way of protection was generally low (15.4%). There was significant difference for among different educational background workers (P Metallurgy Industry. Those who were not educated had a lower using rate about the protection behavior, regular physical examination, and requirements for protective equipment than those educated.

  5. Conservation of proteo-lipid nuclear membrane fusion machinery during early embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Richard D; Veeriah, Selvaraju; Applebee, Christopher J; Larijani, Banafshé

    2014-01-01

    The fusogenic lipid diacylglycerol is essential for remodeling gamete and zygote nuclear envelopes (NE) during early embryogenesis. It is unclear whether upstream signaling molecules are likewise conserved. Here we demonstrate PLCγ and its activator SFK1, which co-operate during male pronuclear envelope formation, also promote the subsequent male and female pronuclear fusion. PLCγ and SFK1 interact directly at the fusion site leading to PLCγ activation. This is accompanied by a spatially restricted reduction of PtdIns(4,5)P2. Consequently, pronuclear fusion is blocked by PLCγ or SFK1 inhibition. These findings identify new regulators of events in the early embryo and suggest a conserved "toolkit" of fusion machinery drives successive NE fusion events during embryogenesis.

  6. PRRT2 Is a Key Component of the Ca2+-Dependent Neurotransmitter Release Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Valente

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heterozygous mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2 underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders, including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia, and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression, suggesting that loss of PRRT2 function may contribute to pathogenesis. We show that PRRT2 is enriched in presynaptic terminals and that its silencing decreases the number of synapses and increases the number of docked synaptic vesicles at rest. PRRT2-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of synchronous release, attributable to a sharp decrease in release probability and Ca2+ sensitivity and associated with a marked increase of the asynchronous/synchronous release ratio. PRRT2 interacts with the synaptic proteins SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin 1/2. The results indicate that PRRT2 is intimately connected with the Ca2+-sensing machinery and that it plays an important role in the final steps of neurotransmitter release.

  7. Polarized localization and borate-dependent degradation of the Arabidopsis borate transporter BOR1 in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Noboru; Gosho, Tadashi; Asatuma, Satoru; Toyooka, Kiminori; Fujiwara, Toru; Matsuoka, Ken

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis the borate transporter BOR1, which is located in the plasma membrane, is degraded in the presence of excess boron by an endocytosis-mediated mechanism. A similar mechanism was suggested in rice as excess boron decreased rice borate transporter levels, although in this case whether the decrease was dependent on an increase in degradation or a decrease in protein synthesis was not elucidated. To address whether the borate-dependent degradation mechanism is conserved among plant cells, we analyzed the fate of GFP-tagged BOR1 (BOR1-GFP) in transformed tobacco BY-2 cells. Cells expressing BOR1-GFP displayed GFP fluorescence at the plasma membrane, especially at the membrane between two attached cells. The plasma membrane signal was abolished when cells were incubated in medium with a high concentration of borate (3 to 5 mM). This decrease in BOR1-GFP signal was mediated by a specific degradation of the protein after internalization by endocytosis from the plasma membrane. Pharmacological analysis indicated that the decrease in BOR1-GFP largely depends on the increase in degradation rate and that the degradation was mediated by a tyrosine-motif and the actin cytoskeleton. Tyr mutants of BOR1-GFP, which has been shown to inhibit borate-dependent degradation in Arabidopsis root cells, did not show borate-dependent endocytosis in tobacco BY-2 cells. These findings indicate that the borate-dependent degradation machinery of the borate transporter is conserved among plant species.

  8. Whole Genome and Global Gene Expression Analyses of the Model Mushroom Flammulina velutipes Reveal a High Capacity for Lignocellulose Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Jin; Baek, Jeong Hun; Lee, Seonwook; Kim, Changhoon; Rhee, Hwanseok; Kim, Hyungtae; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Park, Hae-Ran; Yoon, Dae-Eun; Nam, Jae-Young; Kim, Hong-Il; Kim, Jong-Guk; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kang, Hee-Wan; Cho, Jae-Yong; Song, Eun-Sung; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yoo, Young-Bok; Lee, Chang-Soo; Lee, Byoung-Moo; Kong, Won-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Flammulina velutipes is a fungus with health and medicinal benefits that has been used for consumption and cultivation in East Asia. F. velutipes is also known to degrade lignocellulose and produce ethanol. The overlapping interests of mushroom production and wood bioconversion make F. velutipes an attractive new model for fungal wood related studies. Here, we present the complete sequence of the F. velutipes genome. This is the first sequenced genome for a commercially produced edible mushroom that also degrades wood. The 35.6-Mb genome contained 12,218 predicted protein-encoding genes and 287 tRNA genes assembled into 11 scaffolds corresponding with the 11 chromosomes of strain KACC42780. The 88.4-kb mitochondrial genome contained 35 genes. Well-developed wood degrading machinery with strong potential for lignin degradation (69 auxiliary activities, formerly FOLymes) and carbohydrate degradation (392 CAZymes), along with 58 alcohol dehydrogenase genes were highly expressed in the mycelium, demonstrating the potential application of this organism to bioethanol production. Thus, the newly uncovered wood degrading capacity and sequential nature of this process in F. velutipes, offer interesting possibilities for more detailed studies on either lignin or (hemi-) cellulose degradation in complex wood substrates. The mutual interest in wood degradation by the mushroom industry and (ligno-)cellulose biomass related industries further increase the significance of F. velutipes as a new model. PMID:24714189

  9. Hormone activities and the cell cycle machinery in immunity-triggered growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, M U; Gifford, M L; Schäfer, P

    2015-04-01

    Biotic stress and diseases caused by pathogen attack pose threats in crop production and significantly reduce crop yields. Enhancing immunity against pathogens is therefore of outstanding importance in crop breeding. However, this must be balanced, as immune activation inhibits plant growth. This immunity-coupled growth trade-off does not support resistance but is postulated to reflect the reallocation of resources to drive immunity. There is, however, increasing evidence that growth-immunity trade-offs are based on the reconfiguration of hormone pathways, shared by growth and immunity signalling. Studies in roots revealed the role of hormones in orchestrating growth across different cell types, with some hormones showing a defined cell type-specific activity. This is apparently highly relevant for the regulation of the cell cycle machinery and might be part of the growth-immunity cross-talk. Since plants are constantly exposed to Immuno-activating microbes under agricultural conditions, the transition from a growth to an immunity operating mode can significantly reduce crop yield and can conflict our efforts to generate next-generation crops with improved yield under climate change conditions. By focusing on roots, we outline the current knowledge of hormone signalling on the cell cycle machinery to explain growth trade-offs induced by immunity. By referring to abiotic stress studies, we further introduce how root cell type-specific hormone activities might contribute to growth under immunity and discuss the feasibility of uncoupling the growth-immunity cross-talk. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Architecture of the Human Mitochondrial Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly Machinery*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakh, Oleksandr; Ranatunga, Wasantha; Smith, Douglas Y.; Ahlgren, Eva-Christina; Al-Karadaghi, Salam; Thompson, James R.; Isaya, Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Fe-S clusters, essential cofactors needed for the activity of many different enzymes, are assembled by conserved protein machineries inside bacteria and mitochondria. As the architecture of the human machinery remains undefined, we co-expressed in Escherichia coli the following four proteins involved in the initial step of Fe-S cluster synthesis: FXN42–210 (iron donor); [NFS1]·[ISD11] (sulfur donor); and ISCU (scaffold upon which new clusters are assembled). We purified a stable, active complex consisting of all four proteins with 1:1:1:1 stoichiometry. Using negative staining transmission EM and single particle analysis, we obtained a three-dimensional model of the complex with ∼14 Å resolution. Molecular dynamics flexible fitting of protein structures docked into the EM map of the model revealed a [FXN42–210]24·[NFS1]24·[ISD11]24·[ISCU]24 complex, consistent with the measured 1:1:1:1 stoichiometry of its four components. The complex structure fulfills distance constraints obtained from chemical cross-linking of the complex at multiple recurring interfaces, involving hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, or hydrophobic interactions between conserved residues. The complex consists of a central roughly cubic [FXN42–210]24·[ISCU]24 sub-complex with one symmetric ISCU trimer bound on top of one symmetric FXN42–210 trimer at each of its eight vertices. Binding of 12 [NFS1]2·[ISD11]2 sub-complexes to the surface results in a globular macromolecule with a diameter of ∼15 nm and creates 24 Fe-S cluster assembly centers. The organization of each center recapitulates a previously proposed conserved mechanism for sulfur donation from NFS1 to ISCU and reveals, for the first time, a path for iron donation from FXN42–210 to ISCU. PMID:27519411

  11. Chronic clenbuterol treatment compromises force production without directly altering skeletal muscle contractile machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, G; Ramonatxo, C; Sirvent, P; Sanchez, A M J; Philippe, A G; Douillard, A; Galbès, O; Lionne, C; Bonnieu, A; Chopard, A; Cazorla, O; Lacampagne, A; Candau, R B

    2015-01-01

    Clenbuterol is a β2-adrenergic receptor agonist known to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy and a slow-to-fast phenotypic shift. The aim of the present study was to test the effects of chronic clenbuterol treatment on contractile efficiency and explore the underlying mechanisms, i.e. the muscle contractile machinery and calcium-handling ability. Forty-three 6-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to one of six groups that were treated with either subcutaneous equimolar doses of clenbuterol (4 mg kg−1 day−1) or saline solution for 9, 14 or 21 days. In addition to the muscle hypertrophy, although an 89% increase in absolute maximal tetanic force (Po) was noted, specific maximal tetanic force (sPo) was unchanged or even depressed in the slow twitch muscle of the clenbuterol-treated rats (P muscle contraction and relaxation force kinetics indicated that clenbuterol treatment significantly reduced the rate constant of force development and the slow and fast rate constants of relaxation in extensor digitorum longus muscle (P fast rate constant of relaxation in soleus muscle (P fibres (fast twitch fibres) from clenbuterol-treated animals demonstrated decreased amplitude after 14 days (−19%, P < 0.01) and 21 days (−25%, P < 0.01). In conclusion, we showed that chronic clenbuterol treatment reduces contractile efficiency, with altered contraction and relaxation kinetics, but without directly altering the contractile machinery. Lower Ca2+ release during contraction could partially explain these deleterious effects. PMID:25656230

  12. Exploiting immune cell metabolic machinery for functional HIV cure and the prevention of inflammaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Clovis S; Palchaudhuri, Riya; Albargy, Hassan; Abdel-Mohsen, Mohamed; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2018-01-01

    An emerging paradigm in immunology suggests that metabolic reprogramming and immune cell activation and functions are intricately linked. Viral infections, such as HIV infection, as well as cancer force immune cells to undergo major metabolic challenges. Cells must divert energy resources in order to mount an effective immune response. However, the fact that immune cells adopt specific metabolic programs to provide host defense against intracellular pathogens and how this metabolic shift impacts immune cell functions and the natural course of diseases have only recently been appreciated. A clearer insight into how these processes are inter-related will affect our understanding of several fundamental aspects of HIV persistence. Even in patients with long-term use of anti-retroviral therapies, HIV infection persists and continues to cause chronic immune activation and inflammation, ongoing and cumulative damage to multiple organs systems, and a reduction in life expectancy. HIV-associated fundamental changes to the metabolic machinery of the immune system can promote a state of "inflammaging", a chronic, low-grade inflammation with specific immune changes that characterize aging, and can also contribute to the persistence of HIV in its reservoirs. In this commentary, we will bring into focus evolving concepts on how HIV modulates the metabolic machinery of immune cells in order to persist in reservoirs and how metabolic reprogramming facilitates a chronic state of inflammation that underlies the development of age-related comorbidities. We will discuss how immunometabolism is facilitating the changing paradigms in HIV cure research and outline the novel therapeutic opportunities for preventing inflammaging and premature development of age-related conditions in HIV + individuals.

  13. The pathological consequences of impaired genome integrity in humans; disorders of the DNA replication machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and efficient replication of the human genome occurs in the context of an array of constitutional barriers, including regional topological constraints imposed by chromatin architecture and processes such as transcription, catenation of the helical polymer and spontaneously generated DNA lesions, including base modifications and strand breaks. DNA replication is fundamentally important for tissue development and homeostasis; differentiation programmes are intimately linked with stem cell division. Unsurprisingly, impairments of the DNA replication machinery can have catastrophic consequences for genome stability and cell division. Functional impacts on DNA replication and genome stability have long been known to play roles in malignant transformation through a variety of complex mechanisms, and significant further insights have been gained from studying model organisms in this context. Congenital hypomorphic defects in components of the DNA replication machinery have been and continue to be identified in humans. These disorders present with a wide range of clinical features. Indeed, in some instances, different mutations in the same gene underlie different clinical presentations. Understanding the origin and molecular basis of these features opens a window onto the range of developmental impacts of suboptimal DNA replication and genome instability in humans. Here, I will briefly overview the basic steps involved in DNA replication and the key concepts that have emerged from this area of research, before switching emphasis to the pathological consequences of defects within the DNA replication network; the human disorders. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Comparative study of the usability of directional commands for two different conceptions of agricultural machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kozoroski Veiga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Santa Catarina showed a significant increase in its fleet of agricultural machinery in the past 40 years. For the historical origins, the state experienced a strong farm household that grows in small portions of land. This small size of farms boosted the purchase of farm machinery such as small power tillers. It is estimated that in Santa Catarina there are more than 20,000 machines like these. The initial design of this machine its use is intended for operations on foot position for possessing it commands designed for the walking posture. But a large proportion of power tillers is used to transport cargo and personnel, by adapting implement that allows driving in the sitting position. This modification is incomplete because it does not allow the installation of steering wheel. Thus the inadequacy of command increases the difficulty in driving the vehicle and may potentiate human error, leading to the accident. To compare the usability and rate of errors in triggering commands power tiller and tractors, the work used two methods: analysis uses the model Usa-Design (U-D© and usability testing. A panel was positioned in front of the two agricultural machines simulated obstacles appearing on the right or left side of operator, in a position to rise or fall, and observed the reaction to the same stimulus. A sample of 53 volunteers showed that for all groups (experience levels the error was greater for the  power tiller. The tractor had 5.7 % error while the power tiller this value was 49.1 %. The results found by U-D© model was similar with the found in the test and pointed out serious deficiencies in functional and safety aspects of power tiller.

  15. Complex mutual regulation of facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) subunits on both mRNA and protein levels in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safina, Alfiya; Garcia, Henry; Commane, Mairead; Guryanova, Olga; Degan, Seamus; Kolesnikova, Kateryna; Gurova, Katerina V

    2013-08-01

    Facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) is a chromatin remodeling complex with two subunits: SSRP1 and SPT16. Mechanisms controlling FACT levels are of interest, since the complex is not expressed in most differentiated cells, but is frequently upregulated in cancer, particularly in poorly differentiated, aggressive tumors. Moreover, inhibition of FACT expression or function in tumor cells interferes with their survival. Here we demonstrate that SSRP1 and SPT16 protein levels decline upon induction of cellular differentiation or senescence in vitro and that similar declines in protein levels for both SSRP1 and SPT16 occur upon RNAi-mediated knockdown of either SSRP1 or SPT16. The interdependence of SSRP1 and SPT16 protein levels was found to be due to their association with SSRP1 and SPT16 mRNAs, which stabilizes the proteins. In particular, presence of SSRP1 mRNA is critical for SPT16 protein stability. In addition, binding of SSRP1 and SPT16 mRNAs to the FACT complex increases the stability and efficiency of translation of the mRNAs. These data support a model in which the FACT complex is stable when SSRP1 mRNA is present, but quickly degrades when SSRP1 mRNA levels drop. In the absence of FACT complex, SSRP1 and SPT16 mRNAs are unstable and inefficiently translated, making reactivation of FACT function unlikely in normal cells. Thus, we have described a complex and unusual mode of regulation controlling cellular FACT levels that results in amplified and stringent control of FACT activity. The FACT dependence of tumor cells suggests that mechanisms controlling FACT levels could be targeted for anticancer therapy.

  16. HTLV-1 Tax plugs and freezes UPF1 helicase leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Francesca; Robin, Jean-Philippe; Kanaan, Joanne; Borowiak, Malgorzata; Croquette, Vincent; Le Hir, Hervé; Jalinot, Pierre; Mocquet, Vincent

    2018-01-30

    Up-Frameshift Suppressor 1 Homolog (UPF1) is a key factor for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), a cellular process that can actively degrade mRNAs. Here, we study NMD inhibition during infection by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1) and characterise the influence of the retroviral Tax factor on UPF1 activity. Tax interacts with the central helicase core domain of UPF1 and might plug the RNA channel of UPF1, reducing its affinity for nucleic acids. Furthermore, using a single-molecule approach, we show that the sequential interaction of Tax with a RNA-bound UPF1 freezes UPF1: this latter is less sensitive to the presence of ATP and shows translocation defects, highlighting the importance of this feature for NMD. These mechanistic insights reveal how HTLV-1 hijacks the central component of NMD to ensure expression of its own genome.

  17. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1-based human RNA quantification to enhance mRNA profiling in forensic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA analysis offers many potential applications in forensic science, and molecular identification of body fluids by analysis of cell-specific RNA markers represents a new technique for use in forensic cases. However, due to the nature of forensic materials that often admixed with nonhuman cellular components, human-specific RNA quantification is required for the forensic RNA assays. Quantification assay for human RNA has been developed in the present study with respect to body fluid samples in forensic biology. The quantitative assay is based on real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of mitochondrial RNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and capable of RNA quantification with high reproducibility and a wide dynamic range. The human RNA quantification improves the quality of mRNA profiling in the identification of body fluids of saliva and semen because the quantification assay can exclude the influence of nonhuman components and reduce the adverse affection from degraded RNA fragments.

  18. Identification and characterization of protein interactions in the mammalian mRNA processing body using a novel two-hybrid assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, Donald B., E-mail: bloch@helix.mgh.harvard.edu; Nobre, Rita A.; Bernstein, Gillian A.; Yang, Wei-Hong

    2011-09-10

    Components of the mRNA processing body (P-body) regulate critical steps in mRNA storage, transport, translation and degradation. At the core of the P-body is the decapping complex, which removes the 5' cap from de-adenylated mRNAs and mediates an irreversible step in mRNA degradation. The assembly of P-bodies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster has been previously described. Less is known about the assembly of mammalian P-bodies. To investigate the interactions that occur between components of mammalian P-bodies, we developed a fluorescence-based, two-hybrid assay system. The assay depends on the ability of one P-body component, fused to an exogenous nuclear localization sequence (NLS), to recruit other P-body components to the nucleus. The assay was used to investigate interactions between P-body components Ge-1, DCP2, DCP1, EDC3, RAP55, and RCK. The results of this study show that the modified two-hybrid assay can be used to identify protein interactions that occur in a macromolecular complex. The assay can also be used to efficiently detect protein interaction domains. The results provide important insights into mammalian P-body assembly and demonstrate similarities, and critical differences, between P-body assembly in mammalian cells compared with that of other species. -- Research highlights: {yields} A two-hybrid assay was developed to study interactions in macromolecular complexes. {yields} The assay was applied to interactions between components of mRNA P-bodies. {yields} The assay effectively and efficiently identified protein interaction domains. {yields} P-body assembly in mammalian cells differs from that in other species.

  19. Identification and characterization of protein interactions in the mammalian mRNA processing body using a novel two-hybrid assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, Donald B.; Nobre, Rita A.; Bernstein, Gillian A.; Yang, Wei-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Components of the mRNA processing body (P-body) regulate critical steps in mRNA storage, transport, translation and degradation. At the core of the P-body is the decapping complex, which removes the 5' cap from de-adenylated mRNAs and mediates an irreversible step in mRNA degradation. The assembly of P-bodies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster has been previously described. Less is known about the assembly of mammalian P-bodies. To investigate the interactions that occur between components of mammalian P-bodies, we developed a fluorescence-based, two-hybrid assay system. The assay depends on the ability of one P-body component, fused to an exogenous nuclear localization sequence (NLS), to recruit other P-body components to the nucleus. The assay was used to investigate interactions between P-body components Ge-1, DCP2, DCP1, EDC3, RAP55, and RCK. The results of this study show that the modified two-hybrid assay can be used to identify protein interactions that occur in a macromolecular complex. The assay can also be used to efficiently detect protein interaction domains. The results provide important insights into mammalian P-body assembly and demonstrate similarities, and critical differences, between P-body assembly in mammalian cells compared with that of other species. -- Research highlights: → A two-hybrid assay was developed to study interactions in macromolecular complexes. → The assay was applied to interactions between components of mRNA P-bodies. → The assay effectively and efficiently identified protein interaction domains. → P-body assembly in mammalian cells differs from that in other species.

  20. Degradable polyphosphazene/poly(alpha-hydroxyester) blends: degradation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Archel M A; Allcock, Harry R; Katti, Dhirendra S; Laurencin, Cato T

    2002-04-01

    Biomaterials based on the polymers of lactic acid and glycolic acid and their copolymers are used or studied extensively as implantable devices for drug delivery, tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. Although these polymers have shown good biocompatibility, concerns have been raised regarding their acidic degradation products, which have important implications for long-term implantable systems. Therefore, we have designed a novel biodegradable polyphosphazene/poly(alpha-hydroxyester) blend whose degradation products are less acidic than those of the poly(alpha-hydroxyester) alone. In this study, the degradation characteristics of a blend of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (50:50 PLAGA) and poly[(50% ethyl glycinato)(50% p-methylphenoxy) phosphazene] (PPHOS-EG50) were qualitatively and quantitatively determined with comparisons made to the parent polymers. Circular matrices (14mm diameter) of the PLAGA, PPHOS-EG50 and PLAGA-PPHOS-EG50 blend were degraded in non-buffered solutions (pH 7.4). The degraded polymers were characterized for percentage mass loss and molecular weight and the degradation medium was characterized for acid released in non-buffered solutions. The amounts of neutralizing base necessary to bring about neutral pH were measured for each polymer or polymer blend during degradation. The poly(phosphazene)/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) blend required significantly less neutralizing base in order to bring about neutral solution pH during the degradation period studied. The results indicated that the blend degraded at a rate intermediate to that of the parent polymers and that the degradation products of the polyphosphazene neutralized the acidic degradation products of PLAGA. Thus, results from these in vitro degradation studies suggest that the PLAGA-PPHOS-EG50 blend may provide a viable improvement to biomaterials based on acid-releasing organic polymers.