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  1. Comparison of semantic and episodic memory BOLD fMRI activation in predicting cognitive decline in older adults.

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    Hantke, Nathan; Nielson, Kristy A; Woodard, John L; Breting, Leslie M Guidotti; Butts, Alissa; Seidenberg, Michael; Carson Smith, J; Durgerian, Sally; Lancaster, Melissa; Matthews, Monica; Sugarman, Michael A; Rao, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that task-activated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can predict future cognitive decline among healthy older adults. The present fMRI study examined the relative sensitivity of semantic memory (SM) versus episodic memory (EM) activation tasks for predicting cognitive decline. Seventy-eight cognitively intact elders underwent neuropsychological testing at entry and after an 18-month interval, with participants classified as cognitively "Stable" or "Declining" based on ≥ 1.0 SD decline in performance. Baseline fMRI scanning involved SM (famous name discrimination) and EM (name recognition) tasks. SM and EM fMRI activation, along with Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 status, served as predictors of cognitive outcome using a logistic regression analysis. Twenty-seven (34.6%) participants were classified as Declining and 51 (65.4%) as Stable. APOE ε4 status alone significantly predicted cognitive decline (R(2) = .106; C index = .642). Addition of SM activation significantly improved prediction accuracy (R(2) = .285; C index = .787), whereas the addition of EM did not (R(2) = .212; C index = .711). In combination with APOE status, SM task activation predicts future cognitive decline better than EM activation. These results have implications for use of fMRI in prevention clinical trials involving the identification of persons at-risk for age-associated memory loss and Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Predictive value of different conventional and non-conventional MRI-parameters for specific domains of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis

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    Daniela Pinter

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The predictive value of distinct MRI-parameters differs for specific domains of cognitive function, with a greater impact of cortical volume, focal and diffuse white matter abnormalities on overall cognitive function, an additional role of basal ganglia iron deposition on cognitive efficiency, and thalamic and hippocampal volume on memory function. This suggests the usefulness of using multiparametric MRI to assess (microstructural correlates of different cognitive constructs.

  3. Predicting Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Dementia Using Clinical, MRI, and Plasma Biomarkers via Probabilistic Pattern Classification

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    Korolev, Igor O.; Symonds, Laura L.; Bozoki, Andrea C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have a substantially increased risk of developing dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we developed a multivariate prognostic model for predicting MCI-to-dementia progression at the individual patient level. Methods Using baseline data from 259 MCI patients and a probabilistic, kernel-based pattern classification approach, we trained a classifier to distinguish between patients who progressed to AD-type dementia (n = 139) and those who did not (n = 120) during a three-year follow-up period. More than 750 variables across four data sources were considered as potential predictors of progression. These data sources included risk factors, cognitive and functional assessments, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, and plasma proteomic data. Predictive utility was assessed using a rigorous cross-validation framework. Results Cognitive and functional markers were most predictive of progression, while plasma proteomic markers had limited predictive utility. The best performing model incorporated a combination of cognitive/functional markers and morphometric MRI measures and predicted progression with 80% accuracy (83% sensitivity, 76% specificity, AUC = 0.87). Predictors of progression included scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Functional Activities Questionnaire, as well as volume/cortical thickness of three brain regions (left hippocampus, middle temporal gyrus, and inferior parietal cortex). Calibration analysis revealed that the model is capable of generating probabilistic predictions that reliably reflect the actual risk of progression. Finally, we found that the predictive accuracy of the model varied with patient demographic, genetic, and clinical characteristics and could be further improved by taking into account the confidence of the predictions. Conclusions We developed an accurate prognostic model for predicting

  4. Predicting Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Dementia Using Clinical, MRI, and Plasma Biomarkers via Probabilistic Pattern Classification.

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    Igor O Korolev

    Full Text Available Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI have a substantially increased risk of developing dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD. In this study, we developed a multivariate prognostic model for predicting MCI-to-dementia progression at the individual patient level.Using baseline data from 259 MCI patients and a probabilistic, kernel-based pattern classification approach, we trained a classifier to distinguish between patients who progressed to AD-type dementia (n = 139 and those who did not (n = 120 during a three-year follow-up period. More than 750 variables across four data sources were considered as potential predictors of progression. These data sources included risk factors, cognitive and functional assessments, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data, and plasma proteomic data. Predictive utility was assessed using a rigorous cross-validation framework.Cognitive and functional markers were most predictive of progression, while plasma proteomic markers had limited predictive utility. The best performing model incorporated a combination of cognitive/functional markers and morphometric MRI measures and predicted progression with 80% accuracy (83% sensitivity, 76% specificity, AUC = 0.87. Predictors of progression included scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Functional Activities Questionnaire, as well as volume/cortical thickness of three brain regions (left hippocampus, middle temporal gyrus, and inferior parietal cortex. Calibration analysis revealed that the model is capable of generating probabilistic predictions that reliably reflect the actual risk of progression. Finally, we found that the predictive accuracy of the model varied with patient demographic, genetic, and clinical characteristics and could be further improved by taking into account the confidence of the predictions.We developed an accurate prognostic model for predicting MCI-to-dementia progression

  5. Independent value added by diffusion MRI for prediction of cognitive function in older adults

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    Julia A Scott

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether white matter microstructure measured by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI provides independent information about baseline level or change in executive function (EF or memory (MEM in older adults with and without cognitive impairment. Longitudinal data was acquired from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI study from phases GO and 2 (2009–2015. ADNI participants included were diagnosed as cognitively normal (n = 46, early mild cognitive impairment (MCI (n = 48, late MCI (n = 29, and dementia (n = 39 at baseline. We modeled the association between dMRI-based global white matter mean diffusivity (MD and baseline level and change in EF and MEM composite scores, in models controlling for baseline bilateral hippocampal volume, regional cerebral FDG PET metabolism and global cerebral AV45 PET uptake. EF and MEM composite scores were measured at baseline, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. In the baseline late MCI and dementia groups, greater global MD was associated with lesser baseline EF, but not EF change nor MEM baseline or change. As expected, lesser hippocampal volume and lesser FDG PET metabolism was associated with greater rates of EF and MEM decline. In ADNI-GO/2 participants, white matter integrity provided independent information about current executive function, but was not sensitive to future cognitive change. Since individuals experiencing executive function declines progress to dementia more rapidly than those with only memory impairment, better biomarkers of future executive function decline are needed.

  6. Predictive value of different conventional and non-conventional MRI-parameters for specific domains of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis.

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    Pinter, Daniela; Khalil, Michael; Pichler, Alexander; Langkammer, Christian; Ropele, Stefan; Marschik, Peter B; Fuchs, Siegrid; Fazekas, Franz; Enzinger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    While many studies correlated cognitive function with changes in brain morphology in multiple sclerosis (MS), few of them used a multi-parametric approach in a single dataset so far. We thus here assessed the predictive value of different conventional and quantitative MRI-parameters both for overall and domain-specific cognitive performance in MS patients from a single center. 69 patients (17 clinically isolated syndrome, 47 relapsing-remitting MS, 5 secondary-progressive MS) underwent the "Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests" assessing overall cognition, cognitive efficiency and memory function as well as MRI at 3 Tesla to obtain T2-lesion load (T2-LL), normalized brain volume (global brain volume loss), normalized cortical volume (NCV), normalized thalamic volume (NTV), normalized hippocampal volume (NHV), normalized caudate nuclei volume (NCNV), basal ganglia R2* values (iron deposition) and magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs) for cortex and normal appearing brain tissue (NABT). Regression models including clinical, demographic variables and MRI-parameters explained 22-27% of variance of overall cognition, 17-26% of cognitive efficiency and 22-23% of memory. NCV, T2-LL and MTR of NABT were the strongest predictors of overall cognitive function. Cognitive efficiency was best predicted by NCV, T2-LL and iron deposition in the basal ganglia. NTV was the strongest predictor for memory function and NHV was particularly related to memory function. The predictive value of distinct MRI-parameters differs for specific domains of cognitive function, with a greater impact of cortical volume, focal and diffuse white matter abnormalities on overall cognitive function, an additional role of basal ganglia iron deposition on cognitive efficiency, and thalamic and hippocampal volume on memory function. This suggests the usefulness of using multiparametric MRI to assess (micro)structural correlates of different cognitive constructs.

  7. Predicting Long-Term Cognitive Outcome Following Breast Cancer with Pre-Treatment Resting State fMRI and Random Forest Machine Learning.

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    Kesler, Shelli R; Rao, Arvind; Blayney, Douglas W; Oakley-Girvan, Ingrid A; Karuturi, Meghan; Palesh, Oxana

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine if resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquired at pre-treatment baseline could accurately predict breast cancer-related cognitive impairment at long-term follow-up. We evaluated 31 patients with breast cancer (age 34-65) prior to any treatment, post-chemotherapy and 1 year later. Cognitive testing scores were normalized based on data obtained from 43 healthy female controls and then used to categorize patients as impaired or not based on longitudinal changes. We measured clustering coefficient, a measure of local connectivity, by applying graph theory to baseline resting state fMRI and entered these metrics along with relevant patient-related and medical variables into random forest classification. Incidence of cognitive impairment at 1 year follow-up was 55% and was predicted by classification algorithms with up to 100% accuracy ( p breast cancer. This information could inform treatment decision making by identifying patients at highest risk for long-term cognitive impairment.

  8. Structural MRI substrates of cognitive impairment in neuromyelitis optica

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    Liu, Y.; Fu, Y.; Schoonheim, M.M.; Zhang, N.; Fan, M.L.; Su, L.; Shen, Y.; Yan, Y.P.; Yang, L.; Wang, Q.H.; Zhang, N.N.N.; Yu, C.S.; Barkhof, F.; Shi, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the clinical and structural MRI markers for predicting cognitive impairment (CI) in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Methods: Fifty-four patients with NMO and 27 healthy controls underwent extensive neuropsychological testing and multimodal 3.0T MRI. The patient group

  9. Multi-modal MRI analysis with disease-specific spatial filtering: initial testing to predict mild cognitive impairment patients who convert to Alzheimer’s disease

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    Kenichi eOishi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alterations of the gray and white matter have been identified in Alzheimer’s disease (AD by structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. However, whether the combination of these modalities could increase the diagnostic performance is unknown.Methods: Participants included 19 AD patients, 22 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI patients, and 22 cognitively normal elderly (NC. The aMCI group was further divided into an aMCI-converter group (converted to AD dementia within three years, and an aMCI-stable group who did not convert in this time period. A T1-weighted image, a T2 map, and a DTI of each participant were normalized, and voxel-based comparisons between AD and NC groups were performed. Regions-of-interest, which defined the areas with significant differences between AD and NC, were created for each modality and named disease-specific spatial filters (DSF. Linear discriminant analysis was used to optimize the combination of multiple MRI measurements extracted by DSF to effectively differentiate AD from NC. The resultant DSF and the discriminant function were applied to the aMCI group to investigate the power to differentiate the aMCI-converters from the aMCI-stable patients. Results: The multi-modal approach with AD-specific filters led to a predictive model with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.93, in differentiating aMCI-converters from aMCI-stable patients. This AUC was better than that of a single-contrast-based approach, such as T1-based morphometry or diffusion anisotropy analysis. Conclusion: The multi-modal approach has the potential to increase the value of MRI in predicting conversion from aMCI to AD.

  10. Application of fMRI in the evaluation and prediction of progress to Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamczyk, M.; Biekiesinska-Figatowska, M.; Walecki, J.; Sklinda, K.; Pawlowska-Detko, A.; Glodzik-Sobanska, L.; Romaniuk-Doroszewska, A.; Bragoszewska, H.

    2006-01-01

    New treatment methods for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have recently been tested, making early diagnosis more important. Therapy should be started during the initial stage of the disease in order to achieve the best outcome. This article presents activation paradigms obtained during the fMRI examination of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and the results of fMRI studies done in persons at increased risk of developing AD and during its early stage. The possibility of differentiating AD from other types of dementias and the influence of drug therapy on brain activation in AD patients is also discussed. (author)

  11. Predicting long-term outcome of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder using fMRI and support vector machine learning

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    Mansson, K.N.T.; Frick, A.; Boraxbekk, C.J.; Marquand, A.F.; Williams, S.C.; Carlbring, P.; Andersson, G.; Furmark, T.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD), but many patients do not respond sufficiently and a substantial proportion relapse after treatment has ended. Predicting an individual's long-term clinical response therefore remains an important challenge.

  12. Cerebral microbleeds, cognitive impairment, and MRI in patients with diabetes mellitus.

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    Zhou, Hong; Yang, Juan; Xie, Peihan; Dong, Yulan; You, Yong; Liu, Jincai

    2017-07-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), a typical imaging manifestation marker of sporadic cerebral small vessel disease, play a critical role in vascular cognitive impairment, which is often accompanied by diabetes mellitus (DM). Hence, CMBs may, in part, be responsible for the occurrence and development of cognitive impairment in patients with diabetes. Novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, such as susceptibility-weighted imaging and T2*-weighted gradient-echo, have the capability of noninvasively revealing CMBs in the brain. Moreover, a correlation between CMBs and cognitive impairment in patients with diabetes has been suggested in applications of functional MRI (fMRI). Since pathological changes in the brain occur prior to observable decline in cognitive function, neuroimaging may help predict the progression of cognitive impairment in diabetic patients. In this article, we review the detection of CMBs using MRI in diabetic patients exhibiting cognitive impairment. Future studies should emphasize the development and establishment of a novel MRI protocol, including fMRI, for diabetic patients with cognitive impairment to detect CMBs. A reliable MRI protocol would also be helpful in understanding the pathological mechanisms of cognitive impairment in this important patient population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Cognitive impairment, clinical severity and MRI changes in MELAS syndrome.

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    Kraya, Torsten; Neumann, Lena; Paelecke-Habermann, Yvonne; Deschauer, Marcus; Stoevesandt, Dietrich; Zierz, Stephan; Watzke, Stefan

    2017-12-29

    To examine clinical severity, cognitive impairment, and MRI changes in patients with MELAS syndrome. Cognitive-mnestic functions, brain MRI (lesion load, cella media index) and clinical severity of ten patients with MELAS syndrome were examined. All patients carried the m.3243A>G mutation. The detailed neuropsychological assessment revealed cognitive deficits in attention, executive function, visuoperception, and -construction. There were significant correlations between these cognitive changes, lesion load in MRI, disturbances in everyday life (clinical scale), and high scores in NMDAS. Patients with MELAS syndrome showed no global neuropsychological deficit, but rather distinct cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

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    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  15. The value of structural MRI measurements of cerebral atrophy in predicting the rate of cognitive decline in the non-demented elderly: a GEE analysis based on data from the Vienna transdanube aging study

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    Roesel, M.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was the assessment of various structural measurements of cerebral atrophy at baseline and the evaluation of their potential value in predicting future cognitive decline in a longitudinal study design. Data were drawn from the Vienna Transdanube Aging (VITA) study. Magnetic resonance images of 532 subjects aged 75-76 years at baseline were analyzed to assess 8 different cerebral atrophy markers. A population averaged model with the corresponding analytical technique of generalized estimating equations (GEE) were applied to the birth-cohort to assess associations between the MRI-based atrophy markers and 6 cognitive test scores at baseline and two follow-up investigations. Cognitive tests were comprised of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Boston Naming Test (BNT), Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME), Verbal Fluency (VF) and the Trail Making Tests A and B (TMTA, TMTB). Vascular risk factors and several other covariates that were available in the VITA database were included as additional predictors in the longitudinal data analysis. Severity of right hippocampal head atrophy predicted the rate of cognitive decline in all 6 test scores. (MMSE: β =-0.507; p = 0.002, BNT: β = -1.090; p = 0.004, FOME: β = -0.291; p = 0.003, VF: β = 0.718; p = 0.025, TMTA: Exp(β) = 0.123; p [de

  16. Predicting long-term outcome of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder using fMRI and support vector machine learning.

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    Månsson, K N T; Frick, A; Boraxbekk, C-J; Marquand, A F; Williams, S C R; Carlbring, P; Andersson, G; Furmark, T

    2015-03-17

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD), but many patients do not respond sufficiently and a substantial proportion relapse after treatment has ended. Predicting an individual's long-term clinical response therefore remains an important challenge. This study aimed at assessing neural predictors of long-term treatment outcome in participants with SAD 1 year after completion of Internet-delivered CBT (iCBT). Twenty-six participants diagnosed with SAD underwent iCBT including attention bias modification for a total of 13 weeks. Support vector machines (SVMs), a supervised pattern recognition method allowing predictions at the individual level, were trained to separate long-term treatment responders from nonresponders based on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to self-referential criticism. The Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale was the main instrument to determine treatment response at the 1-year follow-up. Results showed that the proportion of long-term responders was 52% (12/23). From multivariate BOLD responses in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) together with the amygdala, we were able to predict long-term response rate of iCBT with an accuracy of 92% (confidence interval 95% 73.2-97.6). This activation pattern was, however, not predictive of improvement in the continuous Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-report version. Follow-up psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that lower dACC-amygdala coupling was associated with better long-term treatment response. Thus, BOLD response patterns in the fear-expressing dACC-amygdala regions were highly predictive of long-term treatment outcome of iCBT, and the initial coupling between these regions differentiated long-term responders from nonresponders. The SVM-neuroimaging approach could be of particular clinical value as it allows for accurate prediction of treatment outcome at the level of the individual.

  17. Cognition and brain abnormalities on MRI in pituitary patients

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    Brummelman, Pauline [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Sattler, Margriet G.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meiners, Linda C. [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Berg, Gerrit van den; Klauw, Melanie M. van der [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Elderson, Martin F. [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); LifeLines Cohort Study and Biobank, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Dullaart, Robin P.F. [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Koerts, Janneke [Department of Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Werumeus Buning, Jorien, E-mail: j.werumeus.buning@umcg.nl [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Tucha, Oliver [Department of Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); LifeLines Cohort Study and Biobank, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Beek, André P. van, E-mail: a.p.van.beek@umcg.nl [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Cognitive impairments are frequently observed in treated NFA patients. • NFA patients with cognitive impairments do not show brain abnormalities on MRI more frequently than patients without cognitive impairments. • The absence of brain abnormalities on brain MRI does not exclude impairments of cognition. - Abstract: Purpose: The extent to which cognitive dysfunction is related to specific brain abnormalities in patients treated for pituitary macroadenoma is unclear. Therefore, we compared brain abnormalities seen on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFA) with or without impairments in cognitive functioning. Methods: In this cross-sectional design, a cohort of 43 NFA patients was studied at the University Medical Center Groningen. White matter lesions (WMLs), cerebral atrophy, (silent) brain infarcts and abnormalities of the temporal lobes and hippocampi were assessed on pre-treatment and post-treatment MRI scans. Post-treatment cognitive examinations were performed using a verbal memory and executive functioning test. We compared our patient cohort with large reference populations representative of the Dutch population. Results: One or more impairments on both cognitive tests were frequently observed in treated NFA patients. No treatment effects were found with regard to the comparison between patients with and without impairments in executive functioning. Interestingly, in patients with one or more impairments on verbal memory function, treatment with radiotherapy had been given more frequently (74% in the impaired group versus 40% in the unimpaired group, P = 0.025). Patients with or without any brain abnormality on MRI did not differ in verbal memory or executive functioning. Conclusions: Brain abnormalities on MRI are not observed more frequently in treated NFA patients with impairments compared to NFA patients without impairments in verbal memory or executive functioning

  18. Cognition and brain abnormalities on MRI in pituitary patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummelman, Pauline; Sattler, Margriet G.A.; Meiners, Linda C.; Berg, Gerrit van den; Klauw, Melanie M. van der; Elderson, Martin F.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.; Koerts, Janneke; Werumeus Buning, Jorien; Tucha, Oliver; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den; Beek, André P. van

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cognitive impairments are frequently observed in treated NFA patients. • NFA patients with cognitive impairments do not show brain abnormalities on MRI more frequently than patients without cognitive impairments. • The absence of brain abnormalities on brain MRI does not exclude impairments of cognition. - Abstract: Purpose: The extent to which cognitive dysfunction is related to specific brain abnormalities in patients treated for pituitary macroadenoma is unclear. Therefore, we compared brain abnormalities seen on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFA) with or without impairments in cognitive functioning. Methods: In this cross-sectional design, a cohort of 43 NFA patients was studied at the University Medical Center Groningen. White matter lesions (WMLs), cerebral atrophy, (silent) brain infarcts and abnormalities of the temporal lobes and hippocampi were assessed on pre-treatment and post-treatment MRI scans. Post-treatment cognitive examinations were performed using a verbal memory and executive functioning test. We compared our patient cohort with large reference populations representative of the Dutch population. Results: One or more impairments on both cognitive tests were frequently observed in treated NFA patients. No treatment effects were found with regard to the comparison between patients with and without impairments in executive functioning. Interestingly, in patients with one or more impairments on verbal memory function, treatment with radiotherapy had been given more frequently (74% in the impaired group versus 40% in the unimpaired group, P = 0.025). Patients with or without any brain abnormality on MRI did not differ in verbal memory or executive functioning. Conclusions: Brain abnormalities on MRI are not observed more frequently in treated NFA patients with impairments compared to NFA patients without impairments in verbal memory or executive functioning

  19. Lifestyle Markers Predict Cognitive Function.

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    Masley, Steven C; Roetzheim, Richard; Clayton, Gwendolyn; Presby, Angela; Sundberg, Kelley; Masley, Lucas V

    2017-01-01

    Rates of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease are increasing rapidly. None of the current treatment regimens for Alzheimer's disease are effective in arresting progression. Lifestyle choices may prevent cognitive decline. This study aims to clarify which factors best predict cognitive function. This was a prospective cross-sectional analysis of 799 men and women undergoing health and cognitive testing every 1 to 3 years at an outpatient center. This study utilizes data collected from the first patient visit. Participant ages were 18 to 88 (mean = 50.7) years and the sample was 26.6% female and 73.4% male. Measurements were made of body composition, fasting laboratory and anthropometric measures, strength and aerobic fitness, nutrient and dietary intake, and carotid intimal media thickness (IMT). Each participant was tested with a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Cognitive outcomes were assessed in bivariate analyses using t-tests and correlation coefficients and in multivariable analysis (controlling for age) using multiple linear regression. The initial bivariate analyses showed better Neurocognitive Index (NCI) scores with lower age, greater fitness scores (push-up strength, VO 2 max, and exercise duration during treadmill testing), and lower fasting glucose levels. Better cognitive flexibility scores were also noted with younger age, lower systolic blood pressure, lower body fat, lower carotid IMT scores, greater fitness, and higher alcohol intake. After controlling for age, factors that remained associated with better NCI scores include no tobacco use, lower fasting glucose levels, and better fitness (aerobic and strength). Higher cognitive flexibility scores remained associated with greater aerobic and strength fitness, lower body fat, and higher intake of alcohol. Modifiable biomarkers that impact cognitive performance favorably include greater aerobic fitness and strength, lower blood sugar levels, greater alcohol intake, lower body

  20. Cognitive dysfunction, MRI findings and manganese levels in alcoholics

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    Itoh, Tsutomu; Nakane, Yoshibumi [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Takahashi, Katsurou; Shimanaga, Masaki [National Nagasaki Medical Center, Omura (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Alcoholic patients have been known to have brain atrophy and cognitive dysfunction. However, recent studies have reported bilateral signal hyperintensities of the globus pallidus on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in liver failure, findings that are typically associated with manganese intoxication. The present study compared brain atrophy on T1-weighted MRI, signal intensity ratios of the globus pallidus on T1-weighted MRI, whole blood manganese levels, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) IQ parameters between alcoholics with and without liver cirrhosis, to investigate cognitive dysfunction, MRI findings and manganese levels in alcoholics. Pallidal hyperintensity was visually identified in 80% of alcoholic patients with liver cirrhosis. In addition, a significant correlation was seen between pallidal signal intensity (P.S.I.) ratio and blood manganese level. However, no significant correlations were found between pallidal signal intensity ratio and any of the WAIS-R parameters. These findings suggest that no direct connection exists between cognitive dysfunction and pallidal hyperintensity in alcoholic patients with liver cirrhosis. We confirmed that brain MRI in alcoholics could detect pallidal signal hyperintensity, suggesting severe liver dysfunction. In addition to diagnosis, brain MRI is useful for therapeutic psychoeducation to alcoholic patients with liver cirrhosis, visualizing the severe liver dysfunction. (author)

  1. Cognitive dysfunction, MRI findings and manganese levels in alcoholics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Tsutomu; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    2002-01-01

    Alcoholic patients have been known to have brain atrophy and cognitive dysfunction. However, recent studies have reported bilateral signal hyperintensities of the globus pallidus on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in liver failure, findings that are typically associated with manganese intoxication. The present study compared brain atrophy on T1-weighted MRI, signal intensity ratios of the globus pallidus on T1-weighted MRI, whole blood manganese levels, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) IQ parameters between alcoholics with and without liver cirrhosis, to investigate cognitive dysfunction, MRI findings and manganese levels in alcoholics. Pallidal hyperintensity was visually identified in 80% of alcoholic patients with liver cirrhosis. In addition, a significant correlation was seen between pallidal signal intensity (P.S.I.) ratio and blood manganese level. However, no significant correlations were found between pallidal signal intensity ratio and any of the WAIS-R parameters. These findings suggest that no direct connection exists between cognitive dysfunction and pallidal hyperintensity in alcoholic patients with liver cirrhosis. We confirmed that brain MRI in alcoholics could detect pallidal signal hyperintensity, suggesting severe liver dysfunction. In addition to diagnosis, brain MRI is useful for therapeutic psychoeducation to alcoholic patients with liver cirrhosis, visualizing the severe liver dysfunction. (author)

  2. Neural activity predicts attitude change in cognitive dissonance.

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    van Veen, Vincent; Krug, Marie K; Schooler, Jonathan W; Carter, Cameron S

    2009-11-01

    When our actions conflict with our prior attitudes, we often change our attitudes to be more consistent with our actions. This phenomenon, known as cognitive dissonance, is considered to be one of the most influential theories in psychology. However, the neural basis of this phenomenon is unknown. Using a Solomon four-group design, we scanned participants with functional MRI while they argued that the uncomfortable scanner environment was nevertheless a pleasant experience. We found that cognitive dissonance engaged the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula; furthermore, we found that the activation of these regions tightly predicted participants' subsequent attitude change. These effects were not observed in a control group. Our findings elucidate the neural representation of cognitive dissonance, and support the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in detecting cognitive conflict and the neural prediction of attitude change.

  3. Incidental MRI Findings in Patients with Impaired Cognitive Function

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    Hwang, Yoon Joon

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the incidental findings on brain MRI of patients with cognitive function impairments. We analyzed magnetic resonance (MR) findings of 236 patients with decreased cognitive function. MR protocols include conventional T2 weighted axial images, fluid attenuated inversion recovery axial images, T1 weighted coronal 3-dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition of gradient echo and diffusion tensor images. We retrospectively evaluated the signal changes that suggest acute/subacute infarction and space occupying lesions which show mass effect. Incidental MR findings were seen in 16 patients. Nine patients (3.8%) showed increased signal intensity on trace map of diffusion tensor images suggesting acute/subacute infarctions. Space occupying lesions were detected in 7 patients, and 3 lesions (1.27%) had mass effect and edema and were considered clinically significant lesions that diminish cognitive functions. Several incidental MR findings were detected in patients with decreased cognitive function, and the incidence of aucte/subacute infarctions were higher. Proper evaluations of MRI in patients with impaired cognitive functions will be helpful in early detection and management of ischemic lesions and space occupying lesions.

  4. Early Conventional MRI for Prediction of Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Extremely-Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Laurel A; Bonfante-Mejia, Eliana; Hintz, Susan R; Dvorchik, Igor; Parikh, Nehal A

    2016-01-01

    Extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW; ≤1,000 g) infants are at high risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. Conventional brain MRI at term-equivalent age is increasingly used for prediction of outcomes. However, optimal prediction models remain to be determined, especially for cognitive outcomes. The aim was to evaluate the accuracy of a data-driven MRI scoring system to predict neurodevelopmental impairments. 122 ELBW infants had a brain MRI performed at term-equivalent age. Conventional MRI findings were scored with a standardized algorithm and tested using a multivariable regression model to predict neurodevelopmental impairment, defined as one or more of the following at 18-24 months' corrected age: cerebral palsy, bilateral blindness, bilateral deafness requiring amplification, and/or cognitive/language delay. Results were compared with a commonly cited scoring system. In multivariable analyses, only moderate-to-severe gyral maturational delay was a significant predictor of overall neurodevelopmental impairment (OR: 12.6, 95% CI: 2.6, 62.0; p neurodevelopmental impairment/death. Diffuse cystic abnormality was a significant predictor of cerebral palsy (OR: 33.6, 95% CI: 4.9, 229.7; p neurodevelopmental impairment. In our cohort, conventional MRI at term-equivalent age exhibited high specificity in predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, sensitivity was suboptimal, suggesting additional clinical factors and biomarkers are needed to enable accurate prognostication. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. MRI markers for mild cognitive impairment: comparisons between white matter integrity and gray matter volume measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of assessing white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI for classification of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and prediction of cognitive impairments in comparison to brain atrophy measurements using structural MRI. Fifty-one patients with MCI and 66 cognitive normal controls (CN underwent DTI and T1-weighted structural MRI. DTI measures included fractional anisotropy (FA and radial diffusivity (DR from 20 predetermined regions-of-interest (ROIs in the commissural, limbic and association tracts, which are thought to be involved in Alzheimer's disease; measures of regional gray matter (GM volume included 21 ROIs in medial temporal lobe, parietal cortex, and subcortical regions. Significant group differences between MCI and CN were detected by each MRI modality: In particular, reduced FA was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and fornix; increased DR was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and bilateral uncinate fasciculi; reduced GM volume was found in bilateral hippocampi, left entorhinal cortex, right amygdala and bilateral thalamus; and thinner cortex was found in the left entorhinal cortex. Group classifications based on FA or DR was significant and better than classifications based on GM volume. Using either DR or FA together with GM volume improved classification accuracy. Furthermore, all three measures, FA, DR and GM volume were similarly accurate in predicting cognitive performance in MCI patients. Taken together, the results imply that DTI measures are as accurate as measures of GM volume in detecting brain alterations that are associated with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, a combination of DTI and structural MRI measurements improves classification accuracy.

  6. Resting-state fMRI and social cognition: An opportunity to connect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruyter, Alex; Groenewold, Nynke A; Dupont, Patrick; Stein, Dan J; Warwick, James M

    2017-09-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by altered social cognition. The importance of social cognition has previously been recognized by the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria project, in which it features as a core domain. Social task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) currently offers the most direct insight into how the brain processes social information; however, resting-state fMRI may be just as important in understanding the biology and network nature of social processing. Resting-state fMRI allows researchers to investigate the functional relationships between brain regions in a neutral state: so-called resting functional connectivity (RFC). There is evidence that RFC is predictive of how the brain processes information during social tasks. This is important because it shifts the focus from possibly context-dependent aberrations to context-independent aberrations in functional network architecture. Rather than being analysed in isolation, the study of resting-state brain networks shows promise in linking results of task-based fMRI results, structural connectivity, molecular imaging findings, and performance measures of social cognition-which may prove crucial in furthering our understanding of the social brain. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Diffusion changes predict cognitive and functional outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Ropele, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) abnormalities in normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) and in white matter hyperintensities (WMH) predict longitudinal cognitive decline and disability in older individuals independently of the concomitant magnetic...

  8. Can we predict cognitive deficits based on cognitive complaints?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Małgorzata Szepietowska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether the intensity of cognitive complaints can, in conjunction with other selected variables, predict the general level of cognitive functions evaluated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA test. Current reports do not show clear conclusions on this subject. Some data indicate that cognitive complaints have a predictive value for low scores in standardised tasks, suggesting cognitive dysfunction (e.g. mild cognitive impairment. Other data, however, do not support the predictive role of complaints, and show no relationship to exist between the complaints and the results of cognitive tests. Material and methods: The study included 118 adults (58 women and 60 men. We used the MoCA test, a self-report questionnaire assessing the intensity of cognitive complaints (Patient-Reported Outcomes in Cognitive Impairment – PROCOG and Dysexecutive Questionnaire/Self – DEX-S, and selected subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R PL. On the basis of the results from the MoCA test, two separate groups were created, one comprising respondents with lower results, and one – those who obtained scores indicating a normal level of cognitive function. We compared these groups according to the severity of the complaints and the results obtained with the other methods. Logistic regression analysis was performed taking into account the independent variables (gender, age, result in PROCOG, DEX-S, and neurological condition and the dependent variable (dichotomized result in MoCA. Results: Groups with different levels of performance in MoCA differed in regards of some cognitive abilities and the severity of complaints related to semantic memory, anxiety associated with a sense of deficit and loss of skills, but provided similar self-assessments regarding the efficiency of episodic memory, long-term memory, social skills and executive functions. The severity of complaints does not allow

  9. Prediction of mechanical properties of trabecular bone using quantitative MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammentausta, E; Hakulinen, M A; Jurvelin, J S; Nieminen, M T

    2006-01-01

    Techniques for quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been developed for non-invasive estimation of the mineral density and structure of trabecular bone. The R* 2 relaxation rate (i.e. 1/T* 2 ) is sensitive to bone mineral density (BMD) via susceptibility differences between trabeculae and bone marrow, and by binarizing MRI images, structural variables, such as apparent bone volume fraction, can be assessed. In the present study, trabecular bone samples of human patellae were investigated in vitro at 1.5 T to determine the ability of MRI-derived variables (R* 2 and bone volume fraction) to predict the mechanical properties (Young's modulus, yield stress and ultimate strength). Further, the MRI variables were correlated with reference measurements of volumetric BMD and bone area fraction as determined with a clinical pQCT system. The MRI variables correlated significantly (p 2 and MRI-derived bone volume fraction further improved the prediction of yield stress and ultimate strength. Although pQCT showed a trend towards better prediction of the mechanical properties, current results demonstrate the feasibility of combined MR imaging of marrow susceptibility and bone volume fraction in predicting the mechanical strength of trabecular bone and bone mineral density

  10. Multi-center MRI prediction models : Predicting sex and illness course in first episode psychosis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Schnack, Hugo G.; van Haren, Neeltje E.; Kahn, René S.; Lappin, Julia; Dazzan, Paola; Morgan, Craig; Reinders, Antje A.; Gutierrez-Tordesillas, Diana; Gutierrez-Tordesillas, Diana; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Schaufelberger, Maristela S.; Rosa, Pedro G.; Zanetti, Marcus V.

    2017-01-01

    Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies have attempted to use brain measures obtained at the first-episode of psychosis to predict subsequent outcome, with inconsistent results. Thus, there is a real need to validate the utility of brain measures in the prediction of outcome using large datasets, from independent samples, obtained with different protocols and from different MRI scanners. This study had three main aims: 1) to investigate whether structural MRI data from multiple ce...

  11. Nucleus basalis of Meynert degeneration precedes and predicts cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jonathan; Pagano, Gennaro; Fernández Bonfante, Juan Alberto; Wilson, Heather; Politis, Marios

    2018-05-01

    Currently, no reliable predictors of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease exist. We hypothesized that microstructural changes at grey matter T1-weighted MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in the cholinergic system nuclei and associated limbic pathways underlie cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. We performed a cross-sectional comparison between patients with Parkinson's disease with and without cognitive impairment. We also performed a longitudinal 36-month follow-up study of cognitively intact Parkinson's disease patients, comparing patients who remained cognitively intact to those who developed cognitive impairment. Patients with Parkinson's disease with cognitive impairment showed lower grey matter volume and increased mean diffusivity in the nucleus basalis of Meynert, compared to patients with Parkinson's disease without cognitive impairment. These results were confirmed both with region of interest and voxel-based analyses, and after partial volume correction. Lower grey matter volume and increased mean diffusivity in the nucleus basalis of Meynert was predictive for developing cognitive impairment in cognitively intact patients with Parkinson's disease, independent of other clinical and non-clinical markers of the disease. Structural and microstructural alterations in entorhinal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, insula, and thalamus were not predictive for developing cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. Our findings provide evidence that degeneration of the nucleus basalis of Meynert precedes and predicts the onset of cognitive impairment, and might be used in a clinical setting as a reliable biomarker to stratify patients at higher risk of cognitive decline.

  12. Role of MRI in predicting meniscal tear reparability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felisaz, Paolo Florent [Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Istituto di Radiologia, Pavia (Italy); Alessandrino, Francesco; Perelli, Simone [Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Zanon, Giacomo; Benazzo, Francesco [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Clinica Ortopedica e Traumatologica, Pavia (Italy); Calliada, Fabrizio; Sammarchi, Luigi [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Radiologia, Diagnostica per Immagini-Istituto di Radiologia, Pavia (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    To elucidate the role of MRI in predicting meniscal tear reparability according to tear type and location in relation to vascular zones. In this retrospective study, two readers evaluated 79 pre-surgical MRIs of meniscal tears arthroscopically treated with meniscectomy or meniscal repair. Tears were classified according to type into vertical, horizontal, radial, complex, flaps and bucket handle and were considered reparable if the distance measured from the tear to the menisco-capsular junction was less than or equal to 5 mm. Predictions were compared with the surgical procedure performed in arthroscopy. We assessed the diagnostic performance of MRI, agreement between MRI and arthroscopy, and interrater agreement. Then, we conducted an ROC analysis on the distances measured by the first reader and built a multivariate logistic regression model. MRI had a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy, respectively, of 85%, 79%, 86%, 76% and 83% in predicting meniscal tear reparability. Correct predictions for the specific tear pattern were 76% for vertical, 84% for horizontal, 88% for radial, 86% for complex, 84% for flaps and 86% for bucket handle. Agreement between the two readers' predictions and arthroscopy was good (k = 0.65 and 0.61, respectively). Inter-rater agreement was almost excellent (k = 0.79). The ROC analysis revealed sensitivity and specificity of 73% and 83% with a cutoff value of <4 mm (p < 0.001). Anterior cruciate ligament injury and medial meniscal tear increased the likelihood of meniscal tear reparability. MRI can be a reliable and accurate tool to predict the reparability of meniscal tears, with higher prediction rates for bucket-handle tears. (orig.)

  13. Total Cerebral Small Vessel Disease MRI Score Is Associated With Cognitive Decline In Executive Function In Patients With Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske Uiterwijk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypertension is a major risk factor for white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds and perivascular spaces, which are MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD. Studies have shown associations between these individual MRI markers and cognitive functioning and decline. Recently, a total SVD score was proposed in which the different MRI markers were combined into one measure of SVD, to capture total SVD-related brain damage. We investigated if this SVD score was associated with cognitive decline over 4 years in patients with hypertension. Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study, 130 hypertensive patients (91 patients with uncomplicated hypertension and 39 hypertensive patients with a lacunar stroke were included. They underwent a neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 4 years. The presence of white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were rated on baseline MRI. Presence of each individual marker was added to calculate the total SVD score (range 0-4 in each patient. Results: Uncorrected linear regression analyses showed associations between SVD score and decline in overall cognition (p=0.017, executive functioning (p<0.001 and information processing speed (p=0.037, but not with memory (p=0.911. The association between SVD score and decline in overall cognition and executive function remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, education, anxiety and depression score, potential vascular risk factors, patient group and baseline cognitive performance.Conclusions: Our study shows that a total SVD score can predict cognitive decline, specifically in executive function, over 4 years in hypertensive patients. This emphasizes the importance of considering total brain damage due to SVD.

  14. Resting-State Functional Connectivity Predicts Cognitive Impairment Related to Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC is a promising neuromarker for cognitive decline in aging population, based on its ability to reveal functional differences associated with cognitive impairment across individuals, and because rs-fMRI may be less taxing for participants than task-based fMRI or neuropsychological tests. Here, we employ an approach that uses rs-FC to predict the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (11 items; ADAS11 scores, which measure overall cognitive functioning, in novel individuals. We applied this technique, connectome-based predictive modeling, to a heterogeneous sample of 59 subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, including normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and AD subjects. First, we built linear regression models to predict ADAS11 scores from rs-FC measured with Pearson's r correlation. The positive network model tested with leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV significantly predicted individual differences in cognitive function from rs-FC. In a second analysis, we considered other functional connectivity features, accordance and discordance, which disentangle the correlation and anticorrelation components of activity timecourses between brain areas. Using partial least square regression and LOOCV, we again built models to successfully predict ADAS11 scores in novel individuals. Our study provides promising evidence that rs-FC can reveal cognitive impairment in an aging population, although more development is needed for clinical application.

  15. Linearized and Kernelized Sparse Multitask Learning for Predicting Cognitive Outcomes in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD has been not only the substantial financial burden to the health care system but also the emotional burden to patients and their families. Predicting cognitive performance of subjects from their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI measures and identifying relevant imaging biomarkers are important research topics in the study of Alzheimer’s disease. Recently, the multitask learning (MTL methods with sparsity-inducing norm (e.g., l2,1-norm have been widely studied to select the discriminative feature subset from MRI features by incorporating inherent correlations among multiple clinical cognitive measures. However, these previous works formulate the prediction tasks as a linear regression problem. The major limitation is that they assumed a linear relationship between the MRI features and the cognitive outcomes. Some multikernel-based MTL methods have been proposed and shown better generalization ability due to the nonlinear advantage. We quantify the power of existing linear and nonlinear MTL methods by evaluating their performance on cognitive score prediction of Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover, we extend the traditional l2,1-norm to a more general lql1-norm (q≥1. Experiments on the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database showed that the nonlinear l2,1lq-MKMTL method not only achieved better prediction performance than the state-of-the-art competitive methods but also effectively fused the multimodality data.

  16. Local connectome phenotypes predict social, health, and cognitive factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Powell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The unique architecture of the human connectome is defined initially by genetics and subsequently sculpted over time with experience. Thus, similarities in predisposition and experience that lead to similarities in social, biological, and cognitive attributes should also be reflected in the local architecture of white matter fascicles. Here we employ a method known as local connectome fingerprinting that uses diffusion MRI to measure the fiber-wise characteristics of macroscopic white matter pathways throughout the brain. This fingerprinting approach was applied to a large sample (N = 841 of subjects from the Human Connectome Project, revealing a reliable degree of between-subject correlation in the local connectome fingerprints, with a relatively complex, low-dimensional substructure. Using a cross-validated, high-dimensional regression analysis approach, we derived local connectome phenotype (LCP maps that could reliably predict a subset of subject attributes measured, including demographic, health, and cognitive measures. These LCP maps were highly specific to the attribute being predicted but also sensitive to correlations between attributes. Collectively, these results indicate that the local architecture of white matter fascicles reflects a meaningful portion of the variability shared between subjects along several dimensions. The local connectome is the pattern of fiber systems (i.e., number of fibers, orientation, and size within a voxel, and it reflects the proximal characteristics of white matter fascicles distributed throughout the brain. Here we show how variability in the local connectome is correlated in a principled way across individuals. This intersubject correlation is reliable enough that unique phenotype maps can be learned to predict between-subject variability in a range of social, health, and cognitive attributes. This work shows, for the first time, how the local connectome has both the sensitivity and the specificity to

  17. Cognitive function and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Atsuko; Takagishi, Yuka; Takada, Satoru; Uetani, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nakamura, Hajime [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Inagaki, Yuko

    1996-07-01

    Twenty-two very low birth weight infants at preschool ages of 5-6 years were studied to clarify the correlation between cognitive function and MRI findings. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Frostig developmental test of visual perception. Ventricular enlargement, assessed by the bioccipital index (B.I.) measured on MRI, was correlated to cognitive disorders. Children with periventricular high intensity areas (T{sub 2}-weighted images) extending from the posterior periventricular region to the parietal lobe tend to highly suffer from cerebral palsy and visuoperceptual impairment. These results indicate that the disorders of cognitive function in very low birth weight infants were caused by a damage of association fibers in periventricular areas which was detectable by MRI. (author)

  18. Cognitive function and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Atsuko; Takagishi, Yuka; Takada, Satoru; Uetani, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nakamura, Hajime; Inagaki, Yuko.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-two very low birth weight infants at preschool ages of 5-6 years were studied to clarify the correlation between cognitive function and MRI findings. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Frostig developmental test of visual perception. Ventricular enlargement, assessed by the bioccipital index (B.I.) measured on MRI, was correlated to cognitive disorders. Children with periventricular high intensity areas (T 2 -weighted images) extending from the posterior periventricular region to the parietal lobe tend to highly suffer from cerebral palsy and visuoperceptual impairment. These results indicate that the disorders of cognitive function in very low birth weight infants were caused by a damage of association fibers in periventricular areas which was detectable by MRI. (author)

  19. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores can be predicted from whole brain MRI in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD, thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50 and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43 in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.

  20. Functional MRI in schizophrenia. Diagnostics and therapy monitoring of cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients by functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtner, J.; Prayer, D.; Sachs, G.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are core psychopathological components of the symptomatic of schizophrenic patients. These dysfunctions are generally related to attention, executive functions and memory. This report provides information on the importance of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnostics and therapy monitoring of the different subtypes of cognitive dysfunctions. Furthermore, it describes the typical differences in the activation of individual brain regions between schizophrenic patients and healthy control persons. This information should be helpful in identifying the deficit profile of each patient and create an individual therapy plan. (orig.) [de

  1. Cognitive capacity limitations and Need for Cognition differentially predict reward-induced cognitive effort expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra, Dasha A; Otto, A Ross

    2018-03-01

    While psychological, economic, and neuroscientific accounts of behavior broadly maintain that people minimize expenditure of cognitive effort, empirical work reveals how reward incentives can mobilize increased cognitive effort expenditure. Recent theories posit that the decision to expend effort is governed, in part, by a cost-benefit tradeoff whereby the potential benefits of mental effort can offset the perceived costs of effort exertion. Taking an individual differences approach, the present study examined whether one's executive function capacity, as measured by Stroop interference, predicts the extent to which reward incentives reduce switch costs in a task-switching paradigm, which indexes additional expenditure of cognitive effort. In accordance with the predictions of a cost-benefit account of effort, we found that a low executive function capacity-and, relatedly, a low intrinsic motivation to expend effort (measured by Need for Cognition)-predicted larger increase in cognitive effort expenditure in response to monetary reward incentives, while individuals with greater executive function capacity-and greater intrinsic motivation to expend effort-were less responsive to reward incentives. These findings suggest that an individual's cost-benefit tradeoff is constrained by the perceived costs of exerting cognitive effort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cortical phase changes measured using 7-T MRI in subjects with subjective cognitive impairment, and their association with cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooden, van Sanneke; Buijs, Mathijs; Vliet, van Marjolein E.; Versluis, Maarten J.; Webb, Andrew G.; Oleksik, Ania M.; Wiel, van de Lotte; Middelkoop, Huub A.M.; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W.E.; Goos, Jeroen D.C.; Flier, van der Wiesje M.; Koene, Ted; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Nieuwerth-van de Rest, Ondine; Slagboom, P.E.; Buchem, van Mark A.; Grond, van der Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Studies have suggested that, in subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like changes may occur in the brain. Recently, an in vivo study has indicated the potential of ultra-high-field MRI to visualize amyloid-beta (Aβ)-associated changes in the cortex in

  3. Hormone effects on fMRI and cognitive measures of encoding: importance of hormone preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, C E; Schmitz, T W; Hess, T; Koscik, R L; Trivedi, M A; Ries, M L; Carlsson, C M; Sager, M A; Asthana, S; Johnson, S C

    2006-12-12

    We compared fMRI and cognitive data from nine hormone therapy (HT)-naive women with data from women exposed to either opposed conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) (n = 10) or opposed estradiol (n = 4). Exposure to either form of HT was associated with healthier fMRI response; however, CEE-exposed women exhibited poorer memory performance than either HT-naive or estradiol-exposed subjects. These preliminary findings emphasize the need to characterize differential neural effects of various HTs.

  4. The relationship between MRI and PET changes and cognitive disturbances in MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Jønsson, Agnete; Kahr Mathiesen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) is present in approximately 50% of the patients. Only moderate correlations have been found between cognitive dysfunction and T2 lesion load, black holes or atrophy. Cognitive dysfunction in MS is probably related to the overall disease burden...... of the brain including abnormalities in normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and cortical grey matter, which is undetected with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Hence, imaging techniques that embrace such abnormalities are needed to achieve better correlation with cognitive dysfunction. MR...

  5. Cortical Cerebral Microinfarcts on 3 Tesla MRI in Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Doeschka A; van Veluw, Susanne J; Koek, Huiberdina L; Exalto, Lieza G; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) are small ischemic lesions that are a common neuropathological finding in patients with stroke or dementia. CMIs in the cortex can now be detected in vivo on 3 Tesla MRI. To determine the occurrence of CMIs and associated clinical features in patients with possible vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). 182 memory-clinic patients (mean age 71.4±10.6, 55% male) with vascular injury on brain MRI (i.e., possible VCI) underwent a standardized work-up including 3 Tesla MRI and cognitive assessment. A control group consisted of 70 cognitively normal subjects (mean age 70.6±4.7, 60% male). Cortical CMIs and other neuroimaging markers of vascular brain injury were rated according to established criteria. Occurrence of CMIs was higher (20%) in patients compared to controls (10%). Among patients, the presence of CMIs was associated with male sex, history of stroke, infarcts, and white matter hyperintensities. CMI presence was also associated with a diagnosis of vascular dementia and reduced performance in multiple cognitive domains. CMIs on 3 Tesla MRI are common in patients with possible VCI and co-occur with imaging markers of small and large vessel disease, likely reflecting a heterogeneous etiology. CMIs are associated with worse cognitive performance, independent of other markers of vascular brain injury.

  6. Multiple sclerosis, cannabis, and cognition: A structural MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Romero

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: These results suggest that cannabis use in MS results in more widespread cognitive deficits, which correlate with tissue volume in subcortical, medial temporal, and prefrontal regions. These are the first findings demonstrating an association between cannabis use, cognitive impairment and structural brain changes in MS patients.

  7. Cerebellar contribution to motor and cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: An MRI sub-regional volumetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Alessandro; Pagani, Elisabetta; Riccitelli, Gianna C; Colombo, Bruno; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the role of cerebellar sub-regions on motor and cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Whole and sub-regional cerebellar volumes, brain volumes, T2 hyperintense lesion volumes (LV), and motor performance scores were obtained from 95 relapse-onset MS patients and 32 healthy controls (HC). MS patients also underwent an evaluation of working memory and processing speed functions. Cerebellar anterior and posterior lobes were segmented using the Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial Toolbox (SUIT) from Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM12). Multivariate linear regression models assessed the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures and motor/cognitive scores. Compared to HC, only secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients had lower cerebellar volumes (total and posterior cerebellum). In MS patients, lower anterior cerebellar volume and brain T2 LV predicted worse motor performance, whereas lower posterior cerebellar volume and brain T2 LV predicted poor cognitive performance. Global measures of brain volume and infratentorial T2 LV were not selected by the final multivariate models. Cerebellar volumetric abnormalities are likely to play an important contribution to explain motor and cognitive performance in MS patients. Consistently with functional mapping studies, cerebellar posterior-inferior volume accounted for variance in cognitive measures, whereas anterior cerebellar volume accounted for variance in motor performance, supporting the assessment of cerebellar damage at sub-regional level.

  8. Multi-center MRI prediction models:Predicting sex and illness course in first episode psychosis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E; Lappin, Julia; Morgan, Craig; Reinders, Antje A; Gutierrez-Tordesillas, Diana; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Schaufelberger, Maristela S; Rosa, Pedro G; Zanetti, Marcus V; Busatto, Geraldo F; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; McGorry, Patrick D; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies have attempted to use brain measures obtained at the first-episode of psychosis to predict subsequent outcome, with inconsistent results. Thus, there is a real need to validate the utility of brain measures in the prediction of outcome using large datasets, from independent samples, obtained with different protocols and from different MRI scanners. This study had three main aims: 1) to investigate whether structural MRI data from multiple ce...

  9. Prediction of cerebrovascular reserve by the MRI and doppler ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hui Joong; Kim, Yong Sun [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    We investigated acute stroke patterns on diffusion weighted images and with doppler ultrasonography studies of ICA and MCA steno-occlusive diseases in order to predict the cerbrovascular reserve (CVR), as was measured by acetazolamide (ACZ)-challenged Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. A retrospective analysis was performed of 76 patients who underwent MRI/MRA, ACZ-challenged Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT, and carotid and vertebral artery Doppler sonography. After dividing these patients into four groups-MCA and ICA ateno-occlusions, we analyzed the relationship between the CVR and topologic MR patterns and the flow volume, as was measured by Doppler sonography. The CVRs were preserved in 26 of 76 patients. The CVRs were impaired in those cases of occlusion that were detected on MRA and also by the pattern of the territorial involvement on the diffusion weighted image ({rho} < 0.05, x{sup 2} test). Yet in cases of preserved CVRs, the flow volume of the contralateral ICA, the anterior circulation, and the total cerebral flow volume were increased, as was checked by Doppler sonography ({rho} < 0.05, t-test). As calculated by logistic regression analysis, the accuracy for predicting the preserved CVR by using the statistically significant variables was 78%. We believe that the MRI-SPECT correlation study was helpful for understanding the hemodynamics and topographic patterns of ischemia in patients with ICA and MCA steno-occlusive disease, and that the flow volume measurement, which was done by using duplex US, was useful for predicting the CVR.

  10. Morphometric connectivity analysis to distinguish normal, mild cognitive impaired, and Alzheimer subjects based on brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge; Mysling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates a novel way of looking at the regions in the brain and their relationship as possible markers to classify normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease (AD) subjects. MRI scans from a subset of 101 subjects from the ADNI study at baseline was used...

  11. Decoding Complex Cognitive States Online by Manifold Regularization in Real-Time fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Toke Jansen; Hansen, Lars Kai; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2011-01-01

    Human decision making is complex and influenced by many factors on multiple time scales, reflected in the numerous brain networks and connectivity patterns involved as revealed by fMRI. We address mislabeling issues in paradigms involving complex cognition, by considering a manifold regularizing...

  12. Multimodal MRI for early diabetic mild cognitive impairment: study protocol of a prospective diagnostic trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ying; Sun, Qian; Yan, Lin-Feng; Hu, Yu-Chuan; Nan, Hai-Yan; Yang, Yang; Liu, Zhi-Cheng; Wang, Wen; Cui, Guang-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for dementia. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an intermediary state between normal cognition and dementia, often occurs during the prodromal diabetic stage, making early diagnosis and intervention of MCI very important. Latest neuroimaging techniques revealed some underlying microstructure alterations for diabetic MCI, from certain aspects. But there still lacks an integrated multimodal MRI system to detect early neuroimaging changes in diabetic MCI patients. Thus, we intended to conduct a diagnostic trial using multimodal MRI techniques to detect early diabetic MCI that is determined by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). In this study, healthy controls, prodromal diabetes and diabetes subjects (53 subjects/group) aged 40-60 years will be recruited from the physical examination center of Tangdu Hospital. The neuroimaging and psychometric measurements will be repeated at a 0.5 year-interval for 2.5 years’ follow-up. The primary outcome measures are 1) Microstructural and functional alterations revealed with multimodal MRI scans including structure magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), and three-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (3D-pCASL); 2) Cognition evaluation with MoCA. The second outcome measures are obesity, metabolic characteristics, lifestyle and quality of life. The study will provide evidence for the potential use of multimodal MRI techniques with psychometric evaluation in diagnosing MCI at prodromal diabetic stage so as to help decision making in early intervention and improve the prognosis of T2DM. This study has been registered to ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02420470) on April 2, 2015 and published on July 29, 2015

  13. Cognitive emotion regulation enhances aversive prediction error activity while reducing emotional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulej Bratec, Satja; Xie, Xiyao; Schmid, Gabriele; Doll, Anselm; Schilbach, Leonhard; Zimmer, Claus; Wohlschläger, Afra; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive emotion regulation is a powerful way of modulating emotional responses. However, despite the vital role of emotions in learning, it is unknown whether the effect of cognitive emotion regulation also extends to the modulation of learning. Computational models indicate prediction error activity, typically observed in the striatum and ventral tegmental area, as a critical neural mechanism involved in associative learning. We used model-based fMRI during aversive conditioning with and without cognitive emotion regulation to test the hypothesis that emotion regulation would affect prediction error-related neural activity in the striatum and ventral tegmental area, reflecting an emotion regulation-related modulation of learning. Our results show that cognitive emotion regulation reduced emotion-related brain activity, but increased prediction error-related activity in a network involving ventral tegmental area, hippocampus, insula and ventral striatum. While the reduction of response activity was related to behavioral measures of emotion regulation success, the enhancement of prediction error-related neural activity was related to learning performance. Furthermore, functional connectivity between the ventral tegmental area and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, an area involved in regulation, was specifically increased during emotion regulation and likewise related to learning performance. Our data, therefore, provide first-time evidence that beyond reducing emotional responses, cognitive emotion regulation affects learning by enhancing prediction error-related activity, potentially via tegmental dopaminergic pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural MRI correlates of cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosa, Paolo; Rocca, Maria A; Pagani, Elisabetta; Stromillo, Maria Laura; Enzinger, Christian; Gallo, Antonio; Hulst, Hanneke E; Atzori, Matteo; Pareto, Deborah; Riccitelli, Gianna C; Copetti, Massimiliano; De Stefano, Nicola; Fazekas, Franz; Bisecco, Alvino; Barkhof, Frederik; Yousry, Tarek A; Arévalo, Maria J; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    In a multicenter setting, we applied voxel-based methods to different structural MR imaging modalities to define the relative contributions of focal lesions, normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), and gray matter (GM) damage and their regional distribution to cognitive deficits as well as impairment of specific cognitive domains in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Approval of the institutional review boards was obtained, together with written informed consent from all participants. Standardized neuropsychological assessment and conventional, diffusion tensor and volumetric brain MRI sequences were collected from 61 relapsing-remitting MS patients and 61 healthy controls (HC) from seven centers. Patients with ≥2 abnormal tests were considered cognitively impaired (CI). The distribution of focal lesions, GM and WM atrophy, and microstructural WM damage were assessed using voxel-wise approaches. A random forest analysis identified the best imaging predictors of global cognitive impairment and deficits of specific cognitive domains. Twenty-three (38%) MS patients were CI. Compared with cognitively preserved (CP), CI MS patients had GM atrophy of the left thalamus, right hippocampus and parietal regions. They also showed atrophy of several WM tracts, mainly located in posterior brain regions and widespread WM diffusivity abnormalities. WM diffusivity abnormalities in cognitive-relevant WM tracts followed by atrophy of cognitive-relevant GM regions explained global cognitive impairment. Variable patterns of NAWM and GM damage were associated with deficits in selected cognitive domains. Structural, multiparametric, voxel-wise MRI approaches are feasible in a multicenter setting. The combination of different imaging modalities is needed to assess and monitor cognitive impairment in MS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Vascular Cognitive Impairment: risk factors and brain MRI correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, Y.D.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular disease plays an important role in the development of dementia, also in patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Risk factors such as hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, are associated with a two-fold increased risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. The development of

  16. Predicting decisions in human social interactions using real-time fMRI and pattern classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Maurice; Rieger, Jochem W; Baecke, Sebastian; Lützkendorf, Ralf; Müller, Charles; Adolf, Daniela; Bernarding, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Negotiation and trade typically require a mutual interaction while simultaneously resting in uncertainty which decision the partner ultimately will make at the end of the process. Assessing already during the negotiation in which direction one's counterpart tends would provide a tremendous advantage. Recently, neuroimaging techniques combined with multivariate pattern classification of the acquired data have made it possible to discriminate subjective states of mind on the basis of their neuronal activation signature. However, to enable an online-assessment of the participant's mind state both approaches need to be extended to a real-time technique. By combining real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and online pattern classification techniques, we show that it is possible to predict human behavior during social interaction before the interacting partner communicates a specific decision. Average accuracy reached approximately 70% when we predicted online the decisions of volunteers playing the ultimatum game, a well-known paradigm in economic game theory. Our results demonstrate the successful online analysis of complex emotional and cognitive states using real-time fMRI, which will enable a major breakthrough for social fMRI by providing information about mental states of partners already during the mutual interaction. Interestingly, an additional whole brain classification across subjects confirmed the online results: anterior insula, ventral striatum, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex, known to act in emotional self-regulation and reward processing for adjustment of behavior, appeared to be strong determinants of later overt behavior in the ultimatum game. Using whole brain classification we were also able to discriminate between brain processes related to subjective emotional and motivational states and brain processes related to the evaluation of objective financial incentives.

  17. Predicting decisions in human social interactions using real-time fMRI and pattern classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Hollmann

    Full Text Available Negotiation and trade typically require a mutual interaction while simultaneously resting in uncertainty which decision the partner ultimately will make at the end of the process. Assessing already during the negotiation in which direction one's counterpart tends would provide a tremendous advantage. Recently, neuroimaging techniques combined with multivariate pattern classification of the acquired data have made it possible to discriminate subjective states of mind on the basis of their neuronal activation signature. However, to enable an online-assessment of the participant's mind state both approaches need to be extended to a real-time technique. By combining real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and online pattern classification techniques, we show that it is possible to predict human behavior during social interaction before the interacting partner communicates a specific decision. Average accuracy reached approximately 70% when we predicted online the decisions of volunteers playing the ultimatum game, a well-known paradigm in economic game theory. Our results demonstrate the successful online analysis of complex emotional and cognitive states using real-time fMRI, which will enable a major breakthrough for social fMRI by providing information about mental states of partners already during the mutual interaction. Interestingly, an additional whole brain classification across subjects confirmed the online results: anterior insula, ventral striatum, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex, known to act in emotional self-regulation and reward processing for adjustment of behavior, appeared to be strong determinants of later overt behavior in the ultimatum game. Using whole brain classification we were also able to discriminate between brain processes related to subjective emotional and motivational states and brain processes related to the evaluation of objective financial incentives.

  18. Mild cognitive impairment and fMRI studies of brain functional connectivity: the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farràs-Permanyer, Laia; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, many articles have studied brain connectivity in Mild Cognitive Impairment patients with fMRI techniques, seemingly using different connectivity statistical models in each investigation to identify complex connectivity structures so as to recognize typical behavior in this type of patient. This diversity in statistical approaches may cause problems in results comparison. This paper seeks to describe how researchers approached the study of brain connectivity in MCI patients using fMRI techniques from 2002 to 2014. The focus is on the statistical analysis proposed by each research group in reference to the limitations and possibilities of those techniques to identify some recommendations to improve the study of functional connectivity. The included articles came from a search of Web of Science and PsycINFO using the following keywords: f MRI, MCI, and functional connectivity. Eighty-one papers were found, but two of them were discarded because of the lack of statistical analysis. Accordingly, 79 articles were included in this review. We summarized some parts of the articles, including the goal of every investigation, the cognitive paradigm and methods used, brain regions involved, use of ROI analysis and statistical analysis, emphasizing on the connectivity estimation model used in each investigation. The present analysis allowed us to confirm the remarkable variability of the statistical analysis methods found. Additionally, the study of brain connectivity in this type of population is not providing, at the moment, any significant information or results related to clinical aspects relevant for prediction and treatment. We propose to follow guidelines for publishing fMRI data that would be a good solution to the problem of study replication. The latter aspect could be important for future publications because a higher homogeneity would benefit the comparison between publications and the generalization of results. PMID:26300802

  19. An fMRI investigation of cognitive stages in reasoning by analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Daniel C; McClelland, M Michelle; Donovan, Colin M; Tillman, Gail D; Maguire, Mandy J

    2010-06-25

    We compared reasoning about four-term analogy problems in the format (A:B::C: D) to semantic and perceptual control conditions that required matching without analogical mapping. We investigated distinct phases of the problem solving process divided into encoding, mapping/inference, and response. Using fMRI, we assessed the brain activation relevant to each of these phases with an emphasis on achieving a better understanding of analogical reasoning relative to these other matching conditions. We predicted that the analogical condition would involve the most cognitive effort in the encoding and mapping/inference phases, while the control conditions were expected to engage greater prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation at the response period. Results showed greater activation for the analogical condition relative to the control conditions at the encoding phase in several predominantly left lateralized and medial areas of the PFC. Similar results were observed for the mapping/inference phase, though this difference was limited to the left PFC and rostral PFC. The response phase resulted in the fastest and most accurate responses in the analogy condition relative to the control conditions. This was accompanied by greater processing within the left lateral and the medial PFC for the control conditions relative to the analogy condition, consistent with most of the cognitive processing of the analogy condition having occurred in the prior task phases. Overall we demonstrate that the left ventral and dorsal lateral, medial, and rostral PFC are important in both the encoding of relational information, mapping and inference processes, and verification of semantic and perceptual responses in four term analogical reasoning. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Neural correlates of cognitive control in gambling disorder: a systematic review of fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccia, Lorenzo; Pettorruso, Mauro; De Crescenzo, Franco; De Risio, Luisa; di Nuzzo, Luigi; Martinotti, Giovanni; Bifone, Angelo; Janiri, Luigi; Di Nicola, Marco

    2017-07-01

    Decreased cognitive control over the urge to be involved in gambling activities is a core feature of Gambling Disorder (GD). Cognitive control can be differentiated into several cognitive sub-processes pivotal in GD clinical phenomenology, such as response inhibition, conflict monitoring, decision-making, and cognitive flexibility. This article aims to systematically review fMRI studies, which investigated the neural mechanisms underlying diminished cognitive control in GD. We conducted a comprehensive literature search and collected neuropsychological and neuroimaging data investigating cognitive control in GD. We included a total of 14 studies comprising 499 individuals. Our results indicate that impaired activity in prefrontal cortex may account for decreased cognitive control in GD, contributing to the progressive loss of control over gambling urges. Among prefrontal regions, orbital and ventromedial areas seem to be a possible nexus for sensory integration, value-based decision-making and emotional processing, thus contributing to both motivational and affective aspects of cognitive control. Finally, we discussed possible therapeutic approaches aimed at the restoration of cognitive control in GD, including pharmacological and brain stimulation treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Positive Emotion Facilitates Cognitive Flexibility: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive flexibility is the ability to switch rapidly between multiple goals. By using a task-switching paradigm, the present study investigated how positive emotion affected cognitive flexibility and the underlying neural mechanisms. After viewing pictures of different emotional valence (positive, negative, or neutral, participants discriminated whether a target digit in a specific color was odd or even. After a series of trials, the color of target stimuli was changed, i.e., the switch condition. Switch costs were measured by the increase of reaction times (RTs in the switch trials compared to those in the repeat trials. Behavior results indicated that switch costs significantly decreased in the positive emotional condition, and increased in the negative emotional condition, compared with those in the neutral condition. Imaging data revealed enhanced activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC in switch trials than those in repeat trials. Moreover, the interaction between emotion (positive, negative, neutral and trial type (repeat vs. switch was significant. For switch trials, the activation of dACC decreased significantly in the positive condition, while increased significantly in the negative condition compared to neutral condition. By contrast, for repeat trials, no significant difference was observed for the activation of dACC among three emotional conditions. Our results showed that positive emotions could increase the cognitive flexibility and reduce the conflict by decreasing the activation of dACC.

  2. Ankle brachial index, MRI markers and cognition: The Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Muhammad Amin; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin; Vrooman, Henri; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Hilal, Saima; Chen, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies showed an independent association of low ankle-brachial index (ABI) with cognitive impairment. However, the association between low ABI and cognition in the presence of both cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) and neurodegeneration is lacking. We aimed at investigating a) the association of low ABI with markers of CeVD and cortical thickness, and b) whether the association of low ABI with cognition is influenced by these markers. Data was drawn from the Epidemiology of Dementia In Singapore (EDIS) study where all participants (n = 832) underwent neuropsychological tests and 3T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess CeVD markers as well as cortical thicknesses. Cognitive function was expressed as a global composite z-score and domain-specific z-scores of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Multivariate analyses showed low ABI to be independently associated with intracranial stenosis [odds ratios (OR): 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.23-1.87] and lacunar infarcts [OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.06-1.57]. A low ABI was also independently associated with smaller cortical thickness globally [β: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.27-0.16] as well as with the limbic [β: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.03-0.17], temporal [β: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02-0.15], parietal [β: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.02-0.15], and occipital [β: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.03-0.16] lobes. Low ABI was associated with worse performance in verbal memory [β: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01-0.12], which became attenuated in the presence of MRI markers. A low ABI is associated with MRI markers, and affects cognition in the presence of CeVD and neurodegeneration. Atherosclerosis should be targeted as a potentially modifiable risk factor to prevent cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Subjective cognitive impairment: functional MRI during a divided attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, J; Dannhauser, T; Cutinha, D J; Shergill, S S; Walker, Z

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) have persistent memory complaints but normal neurocognitive performance. For some, this may represent a pre-mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given that attentional deficits and associated brain activation changes are present early in the course of AD, we aimed to determine whether SCI is associated with brain activation changes during attentional processing. Eleven SCI subjects and 10 controls completed a divided attention task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. SCI and control groups did not differ in sociodemographic, neurocognitive or behavioural measures. When group activation during the divided attention task was compared, the SCI group demonstrated increased activation in left medial temporal lobe, bilateral thalamus, posterior cingulate and caudate. This pattern of increased activation is similar to the pattern of decreased activation reported during divided attention in AD and may indicate compensatory changes. These findings suggest the presence of early functional changes in SCI; longitudinal studies will help to further elucidate the relationship between SCI and AD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Lateral prefrontal cortex activity during cognitive control of emotion predicts response to social stress in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Tully, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LPFC dysfunction is a well-established neural impairment in schizophrenia and is associated with worse symptoms. However, how LPFC activation influences symptoms is unclear. Previous findings in healthy individuals demonstrate that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC activation during cognitive control of emotional information predicts mood and behavior in response to interpersonal conflict, thus impairments in these processes may contribute to symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia. We investigated whether schizophrenia participants show LPFC deficits during cognitive control of emotional information, and whether these LPFC deficits prospectively predict changes in mood and symptoms following real-world interpersonal conflict. During fMRI, 23 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 24 healthy controls completed the Multi-Source Interference Task superimposed on neutral and negative pictures. Afterwards, schizophrenia participants completed a 21-day online daily-diary in which they rated the extent to which they experienced mood and schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, as well as the occurrence and response to interpersonal conflict. Schizophrenia participants had lower dorsal LPFC activity (BA9 during cognitive control of task-irrelevant negative emotional information. Within schizophrenia participants, DLPFC activity during cognitive control of emotional information predicted changes in positive and negative mood on days following highly distressing interpersonal conflicts. Results have implications for understanding the specific role of LPFC in response to social stress in schizophrenia, and suggest that treatments targeting LPFC-mediated cognitive control of emotion could promote adaptive response to social stress in schizophrenia.

  5. Gender differences in the cognitive control of emotion: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kathrin; Pauly, Katharina; Kellermann, Thilo; Seiferth, Nina Y; Reske, Martina; Backes, Volker; Stöcker, Tony; Shah, N Jon; Amunts, Katrin; Kircher, Tilo; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2007-09-20

    The interaction of emotion and cognition has become a topic of major interest. However, the influence of gender on the interplay between the two processes, along with its neural correlates have not been fully analysed so far. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we induced negative emotion using negative olfactory stimulation while male (n=21) and female (n=19) participants performed an n-back verbal working memory task. Based on findings indicating increased emotional reactivity in women, we expected the female participants to exhibit stronger activation in characteristically emotion-associated areas during the interaction of emotional and cognitive processing in comparison to the male participants. Both groups were found to be significantly impaired in their working memory performance by negative emotion induction. However, fMRI analysis revealed distinct differences in neuronal activation between groups. In men, cognitive performance under negative emotion induction was associated with extended activation patterns in mainly prefrontal and superior parietal regions. In women, the interaction between emotion and working memory yielded a significantly stronger response in the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) compared to their male counterparts. Our data suggest that in women the interaction of verbal working memory and negative emotion is associated with relative hyperactivation in more emotion-associated areas whereas in men regions commonly regarded as important for cognition and cognitive control are activated. These results provide new insights in gender-specific cerebral mechanisms.

  6. Association between MRI structural features and cognitive measures in pediatric multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, N.; Bellotti, R.; Fanizzi, A.; Lombardi, A.; Monaco, A.; Liguori, M.; Margari, L.; Simone, M.; Viterbo, R. G.; Tangaro, S.

    2017-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and demyelinating disease associated with neurodegenerative processes that lead to brain structural changes. The disease affects mostly young adults, but 3-5% of cases has a pediatric onset (POMS). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is generally used for diagnosis and follow-up in MS patients, however the most common MRI measures (e.g. new or enlarging T2-weighted lesions, T1-weighted gadolinium- enhancing lesions) have often failed as surrogate markers of MS disability and progression. MS is clinically heterogenous with symptoms that can include both physical changes (such as visual loss or walking difficulties) and cognitive impairment. 30-50% of POMS experience prominent cognitive dysfunction. In order to investigate the association between cognitive measures and brain morphometry, in this work we present a fully automated pipeline for processing and analyzing MRI brain scans. Relevant anatomical structures are segmented with FreeSurfer; besides, statistical features are computed. Thus, we describe the data referred to 12 patients with early POMS (mean age at MRI: 15.5 +/- 2.7 years) with a set of 181 structural features. The major cognitive abilities measured are verbal and visuo-spatial learning, expressive language and complex attention. Data was collected at the Department of Basic Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, University of Bari, and exploring different abilities like the verbal and visuo-spatial learning, expressive language and complex attention. Different regression models and parameter configurations are explored to assess the robustness of the results, in particular Generalized Linear Models, Bayes Regression, Random Forests, Support Vector Regression and Artificial Neural Networks are discussed.

  7. The pattern of cognitive symptoms predicts time to dementia onset.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacuiu, S.; Gustafson, D.; Johansson, B.; Thorvaldsson, V.; Berg, S.; Sjogren, J.M.C.; Guo, X.; Ostling, S.; Skoog, I.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined whether cognitive symptom patterns differ by age and length of time before dementia onset. Our objective was to investigate whether different patterns of cognitive symptoms at ages 70, 75, and 79 years predict short-term (< or =5 years) and long-term (>5 years)

  8. Reading a suspenseful literary text activates brain areas related to social cognition and predictive inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Lehne

    Full Text Available Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc. is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's "The Sandman" subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus, lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference.

  9. Short-Term changes on MRI predict long-Term changes on radiography in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterfy, Charles; Strand, Vibeke; Tian, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Objective In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), MRI provides earlier detection of structural damage than radiography (X-ray) and more sensitive detection of intra-Articular inflammation than clinical examination. This analysis was designed to evaluate the ability of early MRI findings to predict subsequent...

  10. Individualized prediction of illness course at the first psychotic episode: a support vector machine MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mourao-Miranda, J

    2012-05-01

    To date, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made little impact on the diagnosis and monitoring of psychoses in individual patients. In this study, we used a support vector machine (SVM) whole-brain classification approach to predict future illness course at the individual level from MRI data obtained at the first psychotic episode.

  11. The resting state fMRI study of patients with Parkinson's disease associated with cognitive dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jieying; Huang Biao

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative cause of Parkinsonism, but the high morbidity of PD accompanied cognitive dysfunction hasn't drawn enough attention by the clinicians. With the rapid development of the resting state functional MRI (fMRI) technique, the cause of PD patients with cognitive dysfunction may be associated with the damage of functional connectivity of the motor networks and the cognitive networks. The relationship between neuropathologic mechanism of PD patients with cognitive dysfunction and impaired cognitive circuits will be disclosed by building the changes of brain topological structure in patients. The resting state fMRI study can provide the rationale for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of PD. (authors)

  12. PREDICTING APHASIA TYPE FROM BRAIN DAMAGE MEASURED WITH STRUCTURAL MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourganov, Grigori; Smith, Kimberly G.; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Chronic aphasia is a common consequence of a left-hemisphere stroke. Since the early insights by Broca and Wernicke, studying the relationship between the loci of cortical damage and patterns of language impairment has been one of the concerns of aphasiology. We utilized multivariate classification in a cross-validation framework to predict the type of chronic aphasia from the spatial pattern of brain damage. Our sample consisted of 98 patients with five types of aphasia (Broca’s, Wernicke’s, global, conduction, and anomic), classified based on scores on the Western Aphasia Battery. Binary lesion maps were obtained from structural MRI scans (obtained at least 6 months poststroke, and within 2 days of behavioural assessment); after spatial normalization, the lesions were parcellated into a disjoint set of brain areas. The proportion of damage to the brain areas was used to classify patients’ aphasia type. To create this parcellation, we relied on five brain atlases; our classifier (support vector machine) could differentiate between different kinds of aphasia using any of the five parcellations. In our sample, the best classification accuracy was obtained when using a novel parcellation that combined two previously published brain atlases, with the first atlas providing the segmentation of grey matter, and the second atlas used to segment the white matter. For each aphasia type, we computed the relative importance of different brain areas for distinguishing it from other aphasia types; our findings were consistent with previously published reports of lesion locations implicated in different types of aphasia. Overall, our results revealed that automated multivariate classification could distinguish between aphasia types based on damage to atlas-defined brain areas. PMID:26465238

  13. Predicting aphasia type from brain damage measured with structural MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourganov, Grigori; Smith, Kimberly G; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Chronic aphasia is a common consequence of a left-hemisphere stroke. Since the early insights by Broca and Wernicke, studying the relationship between the loci of cortical damage and patterns of language impairment has been one of the concerns of aphasiology. We utilized multivariate classification in a cross-validation framework to predict the type of chronic aphasia from the spatial pattern of brain damage. Our sample consisted of 98 patients with five types of aphasia (Broca's, Wernicke's, global, conduction, and anomic), classified based on scores on the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). Binary lesion maps were obtained from structural MRI scans (obtained at least 6 months poststroke, and within 2 days of behavioural assessment); after spatial normalization, the lesions were parcellated into a disjoint set of brain areas. The proportion of damage to the brain areas was used to classify patients' aphasia type. To create this parcellation, we relied on five brain atlases; our classifier (support vector machine - SVM) could differentiate between different kinds of aphasia using any of the five parcellations. In our sample, the best classification accuracy was obtained when using a novel parcellation that combined two previously published brain atlases, with the first atlas providing the segmentation of grey matter, and the second atlas used to segment the white matter. For each aphasia type, we computed the relative importance of different brain areas for distinguishing it from other aphasia types; our findings were consistent with previously published reports of lesion locations implicated in different types of aphasia. Overall, our results revealed that automated multivariate classification could distinguish between aphasia types based on damage to atlas-defined brain areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting Alzheimer's disease by classifying 3D-Brain MRI images using SVM and other well-defined classifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoug, S; Abdel-Dayem, A; Passi, K; Gross, W; Alqarni, M

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting seniors age 65 and over. When AD is suspected, the diagnosis is usually confirmed with behavioural assessments and cognitive tests, often followed by a brain scan. Advanced medical imaging and pattern recognition techniques are good tools to create a learning database in the first step and to predict the class label of incoming data in order to assess the development of the disease, i.e., the conversion from prodromal stages (mild cognitive impairment) to Alzheimer's disease, which is the most critical brain disease for the senior population. Advanced medical imaging such as the volumetric MRI can detect changes in the size of brain regions due to the loss of the brain tissues. Measuring regions that atrophy during the progress of Alzheimer's disease can help neurologists in detecting and staging the disease. In the present investigation, we present a pseudo-automatic scheme that reads volumetric MRI, extracts the middle slices of the brain region, performs segmentation in order to detect the region of brain's ventricle, generates a feature vector that characterizes this region, creates an SQL database that contains the generated data, and finally classifies the images based on the extracted features. For our results, we have used the MRI data sets from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database.

  15. Prediction of pork quality parameters by applying fractals and data mining on MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Daniel; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Caro, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    This work firstly investigates the use of MRI, fractal algorithms and data mining techniques to determine pork quality parameters non-destructively. The main objective was to evaluate the capability of fractal algorithms (Classical Fractal algorithm, CFA; Fractal Texture Algorithm, FTA and One...... Point Fractal Texture Algorithm, OPFTA) to analyse MRI in order to predict quality parameters of loin. In addition, the effect of the sequence acquisition of MRI (Gradient echo, GE; Spin echo, SE and Turbo 3D, T3D) and the predictive technique of data mining (Isotonic regression, IR and Multiple linear...... regression, MLR) were analysed. Both fractal algorithm, FTA and OPFTA are appropriate to analyse MRI of loins. The sequence acquisition, the fractal algorithm and the data mining technique seems to influence on the prediction results. For most physico-chemical parameters, prediction equations with moderate...

  16. Quantitative multi-modal MRI of the Hippocampus and cognitive ability in community-dwelling older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribisala, Benjamin S; Royle, Natalie A; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Murray, Catherine; Penke, Lars; Gow, Alan; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2014-04-01

    Hippocampal structural integrity is commonly quantified using volumetric measurements derived from brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Previously reported associations with cognitive decline have not been consistent. We investigate hippocampal integrity using quantitative MRI techniques and its association with cognitive abilities in older age. Participants from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 underwent brain MRI at mean age 73 years. Longitudinal relaxation time (T1), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured in the hippocampus. General factors of fluid-type intelligence (g), cognitive processing speed (speed) and memory were obtained at age 73 years, as well as childhood IQ test results at age 11 years. Amongst 565 older adults, multivariate linear regression showed that, after correcting for ICV, gender and age 11 IQ, larger left hippocampal volume was significantly associated with better memory ability (β = .11, p = .003), but not with speed or g. Using quantitative MRI and after correcting for multiple testing, higher T1 and MD were significantly associated with lower scores of g (β range = -.11 to -.14, p multi-modal MRI assessments were more sensitive at detecting cognition-hippocampal integrity associations than volumetric measurements, resulting in stronger associations between MRI biomarkers and age-related cognition changes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Analytic cognitive style predicts religious and paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J; Fugelsang, Jonathan A

    2012-06-01

    An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement (attendance at religious services, praying, etc.), conventional religious beliefs (heaven, miracles, etc.) and paranormal beliefs (extrasensory perception, levitation, etc.) with performance measures of cognitive ability and analytic cognitive style. An analytic cognitive style negatively predicted both religious and paranormal beliefs when controlling for cognitive ability as well as religious engagement, sex, age, political ideology, and education. Participants more willing to engage in analytic reasoning were less likely to endorse supernatural beliefs. Further, an association between analytic cognitive style and religious engagement was mediated by religious beliefs, suggesting that an analytic cognitive style negatively affects religious engagement via lower acceptance of conventional religious beliefs. Results for types of God belief indicate that the association between an analytic cognitive style and God beliefs is more nuanced than mere acceptance and rejection, but also includes adopting less conventional God beliefs, such as Pantheism or Deism. Our data are consistent with the idea that two people who share the same cognitive ability, education, political ideology, sex, age and level of religious engagement can acquire very different sets of beliefs about the world if they differ in their propensity to think analytically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Resting fMRI measures are associated with cognitive deficits in schizophrenia assessed by the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Bustillo, Juan; Du, Yuhui; Yu, Qingbao; Jones, Thomas R.; Jiang, Tianzi; Calhoun, Vince D.; Sui, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The cognitive deficits of schizophrenia are largely resistant to current treatment, and are thus a life-long burden to patients. The MATRICS consensus cognitive battery (MCCB) provides a reliable and valid assessment of cognition across a comprehensive set of cognitive domains for schizophrenia. In resting-state fMRI, functional connectivity associated with MCCB has not yet been examined. In this paper, the interrelationships between MCCB and the abnormalities seen in two types of functional measures from resting-state fMRI—fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and functional network connectivity (FNC) maps were investigated in data from 47 schizophrenia patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. First, the fALFF maps were generated and decomposed by independent component analysis (ICA), and then the component showing the highest correlation with MCCB composite scores was selected. Second, the whole brain was separated into functional networks by group ICA, and the FNC maps were calculated. The FNC strengths with most significant correlations with MCCB were displayed and spatially overlapped with the fALFF component of interest. It demonstrated increased cognitive performance associated with higher fALFF values (intensity of regional spontaneous brain activity) in prefrontal regions, inferior parietal lobe (IPL) but lower ALFF values in thalamus, striatum, and superior temporal gyrus (STG). Interestingly, the FNC showing significant correlations with MCCB were in well agreement with the activated regions with highest z-values in fALFF component. Our results support the view that functional deficits in distributed cortico-striato-thalamic circuits and inferior parietal lobe may account for several aspects of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

  19. Novel fMRI working memory paradigm accurately detects cognitive impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Flavia; Akhtar, Mohammad A.; Zúñiga, Edward; Perez, Carlos A.; Hasan, Khader M.; Wilken, Jeffrey; Wolinsky, Jerry S.; Narayana, Ponnada A.; Steinberg, Joel L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment (CI) cannot be diagnosed by MRI. Functional MRI (fMRI) paradigms such as the immediate/delayed memory task (I/DMT), detect varying degrees of working memory. Preliminary findings using I/DMT, showed differences in Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) activation between impaired (MSCI, n=12) and non-impaired (MSNI, n=9) MS patients. Objectives To confirm CI detection based on I/DMT’ BOLD activation in a larger cohort of MS patients. The role of T2 lesion volume (LV) and EDSS in magnitude of BOLD signal were also sought. Methods Fifty patients [EDSS mean (m) = 3.2, DD m =12 yr., age m =40yr.] underwent the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS) and the I/DMT. Working-memory activation (WMa) represents BOLD signal during DMT minus signal during IMT. CI was based on MACFIMS. Results 10 MSNI, 30 MSCI and 4 borderline patients were included in analyses. ANOVA showed MSNI had significantly greater WMa than MSCI, in the left (L) prefrontal cortex and L supplementary motor area (p = 0.032). Regression analysis showed significant inverse correlations between WMa and T2 LV/EDSS in similar areas (p = 0.005, 0.004 respectively). Conclusion I/DMT-based BOLD activation detects CI in MS, larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27613119

  20. Cognitive dissonance induction in everyday life: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jan; Byrne, Mark; Kehoe, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explored the neural substrates of cognitive dissonance during dissonance "induction." A novel task was developed based on the results of a separate item selection study (n = 125). Items were designed to generate dissonance by prompting participants to reflect on everyday personal experiences that were inconsistent with values they had expressed support for. One experimental condition (dissonance) and three control conditions (justification, consonance, and non-self-related inconsistency) were used for comparison. Items of all four types were presented to each participant (n = 14) in a randomized design. The fMRI analysis used a whole-brain approach focusing on the moments dissonance was induced. Results showed that in comparison with the control conditions the dissonance experience led to higher levels of activation in several brain regions. Specifically dissonance was associated with increased neural activation in key brain regions including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, and precuneus. This supports current perspectives that emphasize the role of anterior cingulate and insula in dissonance processing. Less extensive activation in the prefrontal cortex than in some previous studies is consistent with this study's emphasis on dissonance induction, rather than reduction. This article also contains a short review and comparison with other fMRI studies of cognitive dissonance.

  1. Changes in thalamus connectivity in mild cognitive impairment: Evidence from resting state fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiqun; Jia Xiuqin; Liang Peipeng; Qi Zhigang; Yang Yanhui; Zhou Weidong; Li Kuncheng

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The subcortical region such as thalamus was believed to have close relationship with many cerebral cortexes which made it especially interesting in the study of functional connectivity. Here, we used resting state functional MRI (fMRI) to examine changes in thalamus connectivity in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which presented a neuro-disconnection syndrome. Materials and methods: Data from 14 patients and 14 healthy age-matched controls were analyzed. Thalamus connectivity was investigated by examination of the correlation between low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in the thalamus and those in all other brain regions. Results: We found that functional connectivity between the left thalamus and a set of regions was decreased in MCI; these regions are: bilateral cuneus, middle occipital gyrus (MOG), superior frontal gyrus (SFG), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), precuneus, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and precentral gyrus (PreCG). There are also some regions showed reduced connectivity to right thalamus; these regions are bilateral cuneus, MOG, fusiform gyrus (FG), MPFC, paracentral lobe (PCL), precuneus, superior parietal lobe (SPL) and IFG. We also found increased functional connectivity between the left thalamus and the right thalamus in MCI. Conclusion: The decreased connectivity between the thalamus and the other brain regions might indicate reduced integrity of thalamus-related cortical networks in MCI. Furthermore, the increased connectivity between the left and right thalamus suggest compensation for the loss of cognitive function. Briefly, impairment and compensation of thalamus connectivity coexist in the MCI patients.

  2. Predicting conversion from MCI to AD using resting-state fMRI, graph theoretical approach and SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojjati, Seyed Hani; Ebrahimzadeh, Ata; Khazaee, Ali; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2017-04-15

    We investigated identifying patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD), MCI converter (MCI-C), from those with MCI who do not progress to AD, MCI non-converter (MCI-NC), based on resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). Graph theory and machine learning approach were utilized to predict progress of patients with MCI to AD using rs-fMRI. Eighteen MCI converts (average age 73.6 years; 11 male) and 62 age-matched MCI non-converters (average age 73.0 years, 28 male) were included in this study. We trained and tested a support vector machine (SVM) to classify MCI-C from MCI-NC using features constructed based on the local and global graph measures. A novel feature selection algorithm was developed and utilized to select an optimal subset of features. Using subset of optimal features in SVM, we classified MCI-C from MCI-NC with an accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 91.4%, 83.24%, 90.1%, and 0.95, respectively. Furthermore, results of our statistical analyses were used to identify the affected brain regions in AD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that combines the graph measures (constructed based on rs-fMRI) with machine learning approach and accurately classify MCI-C from MCI-NC. Results of this study demonstrate potential of the proposed approach for early AD diagnosis and demonstrate capability of rs-fMRI to predict conversion from MCI to AD by identifying affected brain regions underlying this conversion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lesion load may predict long-term cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Patti

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI techniques provided evidences into the understanding of cognitive impairment (CIm in Multiple Sclerosis (MS.To investigate the role of white matter (WM and gray matter (GM in predicting long-term CIm in a cohort of MS patients.303 out of 597 patients participating in a previous multicenter clinical-MRI study were enrolled (49.4% were lost at follow-up. The following MRI parameters, expressed as fraction (f of intracranial volume, were evaluated: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-f, WM-f, GM-f and abnormal WM (AWM-f, a measure of lesion load. Nine years later, cognitive status was assessed in 241 patients using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT, the Semantically Related Word List Test (SRWL, the Modified Card Sorting Test (MCST, and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT. In particular, being SRWL a memory test, both immediate recall and delayed recall were evaluated. MCST scoring was calculated based on the number of categories, number of perseverative and non-perseverative errors.AWM-f was predictive of an impaired performance 9 years ahead in SDMT (OR 1.49, CI 1.12-1.97 p = 0.006, PASAT (OR 1.43, CI 1.14-1.80 p = 0.002, SRWL-immediate recall (OR 1.72 CI 1.35-2.20 p<0.001, SRWL-delayed recall (OR 1.61 CI 1.28-2.03 p<0.001, MCST-category (OR 1.52, CI 1.2-1.9 p<0.001, MCST-perseverative error(OR 1.51 CI 1.2-1.9 p = 0.001, MCST-non perseverative error (OR 1.26 CI 1.02-1.55 p = 0.032.In our large MS cohort, focal WM damage appeared to be the most relevant predictor of the long-term cognitive outcome.

  4. Mapping of cognitive functions in chronic intractable epilepsy: Role of fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Kapil; Kumaran, S Senthil; Chandra, Sarat P; Wadhawan, Ashima Nehra; Tripathi, Manjari

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a non-invasive technique with high spatial resolution and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast, has been applied to localize and map cognitive functions in the clinical condition of chronic intractable epilepsy. fMRI was used to map the language and memory network in patients of chronic intractable epilepsy pre- and post-surgery. After obtaining approval from the institutional ethics committee, six patients with intractable epilepsy with an equal number of age-matched controls were recruited in the study. A 1.5 T MR scanner with 12-channel head coil, integrated with audio-visual fMRI accessories was used. Echo planar imaging sequence was used for BOLD studies. There were two sessions in TLE (pre- and post-surgery). In TLE patients, BOLD activation increased post-surgery in comparison of pre-surgery in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and superior temporal gyrus (STG), during semantic lexical, judgment, comprehension, and semantic memory tasks. Functional MRI is useful to study the basic concepts related to language and memory lateralization in TLE and guide surgeons for preservation of important brain areas during ATLR. This will help in understanding future directions for the diagnosis and treatment of such disease

  5. Mapping of cognitive functions in chronic intractable epilepsy: Role of fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Chaudhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, a non-invasive technique with high spatial resolution and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD contrast, has been applied to localize and map cognitive functions in the clinical condition of chronic intractable epilepsy. Purpose: fMRI was used to map the language and memory network in patients of chronic intractable epilepsy pre- and post-surgery. Materials and Methods: After obtaining approval from the institutional ethics committee, six patients with intractable epilepsy with an equal number of age-matched controls were recruited in the study. A 1.5 T MR scanner with 12-channel head coil, integrated with audio-visual fMRI accessories was used. Echo planar imaging sequence was used for BOLD studies. There were two sessions in TLE (pre- and post-surgery. Results: In TLE patients, BOLD activation increased post-surgery in comparison of pre-surgery in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, middle frontal gyrus (MFG, and superior temporal gyrus (STG, during semantic lexical, judgment, comprehension, and semantic memory tasks. Conclusion: Functional MRI is useful to study the basic concepts related to language and memory lateralization in TLE and guide surgeons for preservation of important brain areas during ATLR. This will help in understanding future directions for the diagnosis and treatment of such disease.

  6. Neighborhood Integration and Connectivity Predict Cognitive Performance and Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Watts PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neighborhood characteristics may be important for promoting walking, but little research has focused on older adults, especially those with cognitive impairment. We evaluated the role of neighborhood characteristics on cognitive function and decline over a 2-year period adjusting for measures of walking. Method: In a study of 64 older adults with and without mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD, we evaluated neighborhood integration and connectivity using geographical information systems data and space syntax analysis. In multiple regression analyses, we used these characteristics to predict 2-year declines in factor analytically derived cognitive scores (attention, verbal memory, mental status adjusting for age, sex, education, and self-reported walking. Results : Neighborhood integration and connectivity predicted cognitive performance at baseline, and changes in cognitive performance over 2 years. The relationships between neighborhood characteristics and cognitive performance were not fully explained by self-reported walking. Discussion : Clearer definitions of specific neighborhood characteristics associated with walkability are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which neighborhoods may impact cognitive outcomes. These results have implications for measuring neighborhood characteristics, design and maintenance of living spaces, and interventions to increase walking among older adults. We offer suggestions for future research measuring neighborhood characteristics and cognitive function.

  7. Spatial Topography of Individual-Specific Cortical Networks Predicts Human Cognition, Personality, and Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ru; Li, Jingwei; Orban, Csaba; Sabuncu, Mert R; Liu, Hesheng; Schaefer, Alexander; Sun, Nanbo; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Holmes, Avram J; Eickhoff, Simon B; Yeo, B T Thomas

    2018-06-06

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) offers the opportunity to delineate individual-specific brain networks. A major question is whether individual-specific network topography (i.e., location and spatial arrangement) is behaviorally relevant. Here, we propose a multi-session hierarchical Bayesian model (MS-HBM) for estimating individual-specific cortical networks and investigate whether individual-specific network topography can predict human behavior. The multiple layers of the MS-HBM explicitly differentiate intra-subject (within-subject) from inter-subject (between-subject) network variability. By ignoring intra-subject variability, previous network mappings might confuse intra-subject variability for inter-subject differences. Compared with other approaches, MS-HBM parcellations generalized better to new rs-fMRI and task-fMRI data from the same subjects. More specifically, MS-HBM parcellations estimated from a single rs-fMRI session (10 min) showed comparable generalizability as parcellations estimated by 2 state-of-the-art methods using 5 sessions (50 min). We also showed that behavioral phenotypes across cognition, personality, and emotion could be predicted by individual-specific network topography with modest accuracy, comparable to previous reports predicting phenotypes based on connectivity strength. Network topography estimated by MS-HBM was more effective for behavioral prediction than network size, as well as network topography estimated by other parcellation approaches. Thus, similar to connectivity strength, individual-specific network topography might also serve as a fingerprint of human behavior.

  8. Behavioral and fMRI evidence of the differing cognitive load of domain-specific assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, S J; Burianová, H; Ehrich, J; Kervin, L; Calleia, A; Barkus, E; Carmody, J; Humphry, S

    2015-06-25

    Standards-referenced educational reform has increased the prevalence of standardized testing; however, whether these tests accurately measure students' competencies has been questioned. This may be due to domain-specific assessments placing a differing domain-general cognitive load on test-takers. To investigate this possibility, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify and quantify the neural correlates of performance on current, international standardized methods of spelling assessment. Out-of-scanner testing was used to further examine differences in assessment results. Results provide converging evidence that: (a) the spelling assessments differed in the cognitive load placed on test-takers; (b) performance decreased with increasing cognitive load of the assessment; and (c) brain regions associated with working memory were more highly activated during performance of assessments that were higher in cognitive load. These findings suggest that assessment design should optimize the cognitive load placed on test-takers, to ensure students' results are an accurate reflection of their true levels of competency. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical and MRI models predicting amyloid deposition in progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitwell, Jennifer L; Weigand, Stephen D; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A; Machulda, Mary M; Senjem, Matthew L; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Lowe, Val J; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition can be observed in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and progressive apraxia of speech (PAOS). While it is typically associated with logopenic PPA, there are exceptions that make predicting Aβ status challenging based on clinical diagnosis alone. We aimed to determine whether MRI regional volumes or clinical data could help predict Aβ deposition. One hundred and thirty-nine PPA (n = 97; 15 agrammatic, 53 logopenic, 13 semantic and 16 unclassified) and PAOS (n = 42) subjects were prospectively recruited into a cross-sectional study and underwent speech/language assessments, 3.0 T MRI and C11-Pittsburgh Compound B PET. The presence of Aβ was determined using a 1.5 SUVR cut-point. Atlas-based parcellation was used to calculate gray matter volumes of 42 regions-of-interest across the brain. Penalized binary logistic regression was utilized to determine what combination of MRI regions, and what combination of speech and language tests, best predicts Aβ (+) status. The optimal MRI model and optimal clinical model both performed comparably in their ability to accurately classify subjects according to Aβ status. MRI accurately classified 81% of subjects using 14 regions. Small left superior temporal and inferior parietal volumes and large left Broca's area volumes were particularly predictive of Aβ (+) status. Clinical scores accurately classified 83% of subjects using 12 tests. Phonological errors and repetition deficits, and absence of agrammatism and motor speech deficits were particularly predictive of Aβ (+) status. In comparison, clinical diagnosis was able to accurately classify 89% of subjects. However, the MRI model performed well in predicting Aβ deposition in unclassified PPA. Clinical diagnosis provides optimum prediction of Aβ status at the group level, although regional MRI measurements and speech and language testing also performed well and could have advantages in predicting Aβ status in unclassified PPA subjects.

  10. Clinical and MRI models predicting amyloid deposition in progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Whitwell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta-amyloid (Aβ deposition can be observed in primary progressive aphasia (PPA and progressive apraxia of speech (PAOS. While it is typically associated with logopenic PPA, there are exceptions that make predicting Aβ status challenging based on clinical diagnosis alone. We aimed to determine whether MRI regional volumes or clinical data could help predict Aβ deposition. One hundred and thirty-nine PPA (n = 97; 15 agrammatic, 53 logopenic, 13 semantic and 16 unclassified and PAOS (n = 42 subjects were prospectively recruited into a cross-sectional study and underwent speech/language assessments, 3.0 T MRI and C11-Pittsburgh Compound B PET. The presence of Aβ was determined using a 1.5 SUVR cut-point. Atlas-based parcellation was used to calculate gray matter volumes of 42 regions-of-interest across the brain. Penalized binary logistic regression was utilized to determine what combination of MRI regions, and what combination of speech and language tests, best predicts Aβ (+ status. The optimal MRI model and optimal clinical model both performed comparably in their ability to accurately classify subjects according to Aβ status. MRI accurately classified 81% of subjects using 14 regions. Small left superior temporal and inferior parietal volumes and large left Broca's area volumes were particularly predictive of Aβ (+ status. Clinical scores accurately classified 83% of subjects using 12 tests. Phonological errors and repetition deficits, and absence of agrammatism and motor speech deficits were particularly predictive of Aβ (+ status. In comparison, clinical diagnosis was able to accurately classify 89% of subjects. However, the MRI model performed well in predicting Aβ deposition in unclassified PPA. Clinical diagnosis provides optimum prediction of Aβ status at the group level, although regional MRI measurements and speech and language testing also performed well and could have advantages in predicting Aβ status in unclassified

  11. MRI techniques and cognitive impairment in the early phase of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivadinov, R.; De Masi, R.; Nasuelli, D.; Monti Bragadin, L.; Cazzato, G.; Zorzon, M.; Ukmar, M.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.; Grop, A.

    2001-01-01

    Correlation studies between various conventional and non-conventional MRI parameters and cognitive impairment in the early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) are lacking, although it is known that a number of patients with early MS have mild cognitive impairment. Our aim was to explore whether this cognitive impairment is dependent on the extent and severity of the burden of disease, diffuse microscopic brain damage or both. We studied 63 patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS, duration of disease 1-10 years and Expanded disability status scale scores ≤ 5.0. Mean age was 35.4 years, mean duration of disease 5.8 years and median EDSS score 1.5. Neuropsychological performance, psychological function, neurological impairment and disability were assessed. The patients also underwent MRI, including magnetisation-transfer (MT) studies. We quantified the lesion load on T2- and T1-weighted images, the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) of normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) and the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF). No significant difference was found between lesion loads in patients with and without cognitive impairment. In 15 patients (23.8 %) with overall cognitive impairment, median BPF and average NABT MTR were significantly lower than those in patients without cognitive impairment (0.868 vs 0.892, P = 0.02 and 28.3 vs 29.7 P = 0.046, respectively). Multiple regression analysis models demonstrated that the only variables independently correlated with cognitive impairment were: BPF (R = 0.89, P = 0.001) and average NABT MTR (R = 0.76, P = 0.012). Our findings support the hypothesis that, cognitive decline in patients with MS, a low disability score and short duration of disease is directly associated with the extent and severity of diffuse brain damage. The loss of brain parenchyma did not correlate with the severity of microscopic damage in the NABT, indicating that the two processes could be distinct in the early stages of the disease. (orig.)

  12. MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeter, Aileen; Rudin, Markus; Gianolio, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and MRI followed by a survey on the major classes of MRI contrast agents (CA), their modes of action, and some of the most significative applications. The two more established classes of MRI-CA are represented by paramagnetic...... been attained that markedly increase the number and typology of systems with CEST properties. Currently much attention is also devoted to hyperpolarized molecules that display a sensitivity enhancement sufficient for their direct exploitation for the formation of the MR image. A real breakthrough...

  13. Early functional MRI activation predicts motor outcome after ischemic stroke: a longitudinal, multimodal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Jingze; Xu, Qiang; Hu, Jianping; Zeng, Fanyong; Lu, Guangming; Liu, Xinfeng

    2018-05-15

    An accurate prediction of long term outcome after stroke is urgently required to provide early individualized neurorehabilitation. This study aimed to examine the added value of early neuroimaging measures and identify the best approaches for predicting motor outcome after stroke. This prospective study involved 34 first-ever ischemic stroke patients (time since stroke: 1-14 days) with upper limb impairment. All patients underwent baseline multimodal assessments that included clinical (age, motor impairment), neurophysiological (motor-evoked potentials, MEP) and neuroimaging (diffusion tensor imaging and motor task-based fMRI) measures, and also underwent reassessment 3 months after stroke. Bivariate analysis and multivariate linear regression models were used to predict the motor scores (Fugl-Meyer assessment, FMA) at 3 months post-stroke. With bivariate analysis, better motor outcome significantly correlated with (1) less initial motor impairment and disability, (2) less corticospinal tract injury, (3) the initial presence of MEPs, (4) stronger baseline motor fMRI activations. In multivariate analysis, incorporating neuroimaging data improved the predictive accuracy relative to only clinical and neurophysiological assessments. Baseline fMRI activation in SMA was an independent predictor of motor outcome after stroke. A multimodal model incorporating fMRI and clinical measures best predicted the motor outcome following stroke. fMRI measures obtained early after stroke provided independent prediction of long-term motor outcome.

  14. Case-based fMRI analysis after cognitive rehabilitation in MS: A Novel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eHubacher

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive decline in Multiple Sclerosis (MS negatively impacts patients’ everyday functioning and quality of life. Since symptomatic pharmacological treatment is not yet available alternative treatment strategies such as cognitive rehabilitation are of particular interest. Objectives: To analyse the ways in which MS patients respond to cognitive training, by combining behavioural and fMRI data in a case-based triangulation approach.Methods: Ten relapsing-remitting (RR MS patients aged between 39 and 58 years and between one and eight years post MS diagnosis were included. EDSS ranged from 1 to 3.5. Participants had normal to high intelligence levels. Six patients were assigned to the training group (TG and four to the control group (CG without intervention. The training group received a 4-weeks computerized working memory (WM training, consisting of 16 training sessions of 45 minutes duration each. Before and after the training a neuropsychological examination and fMRI investigation by using an N-Back task of different complexity was applied. Results: Patients in the TG responded differently to cognitive training. Four participants did not meet the triangulation criteria for being treatment responders. The two responders showed two distinct changes regarding activation patterns after training: I decreased brain activation associated with increased processing speed and II increased brain activation associated with higher processing speed and WM performance. Conclusion: The occurrence of different and opposed response patterns after the same training indicates a risk in applying classical group statistics. Different and especially opposed patterns within the same sample may distort results of classical statistical comparisons. Thus, underlying processes may not be discovered and lead to misinterpretation of results.

  15. The predictive value of MRI in the syndesmotic instability of ankle fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Hwan; Choi, Won Seok; Kim, Hak Jun [Korea University Guro Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Min A.; Hong, Suk Joo [Korea University Guro Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Gi Won [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-04-15

    Although many types of ankle fracture can be combined with syndesmosis injury, preoperative imaging studies rarely reveal instability of the syndesmosis. This study assessed the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for syndesmotic instability in patients with unstable ankle fracture. A total of 74 patients who were treated for Lauge-Hansen supination external rotation/Weber B type fracture or pronation external rotation/Weber C type fracture and who underwent MRI for preoperative assessment were enrolled. The MRI findings of the syndesmotic ligament and the results of an intraoperative stress test were evaluated. Twenty-six patients had a positive result on the intraoperative stress test for syndesmotic instability. The MRI findings of the syndesmotic ligaments revealed that complete tear of the posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (PITFL) was the most reliable predictor of syndesmotic instability (sensitivity, 74%; specificity, 78%; positive predictive value, 54%). Interobserver agreement for the intraoperative stress test and MRI assessment was excellent, except for the MRI findings of the interosseous ligament (62% agreement; kappa, 0.3). Complete tear of the PITFL on MRI has additional diagnostic value for syndesmotic instability in ankle fracture. However, because the sensitivity might not be sufficient to justify the costs associated with MRI, cost-effectiveness should be considered. (orig.)

  16. The predictive value of MRI in the syndesmotic instability of ankle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Hwan; Choi, Won Seok; Kim, Hak Jun; Yoon, Min A.; Hong, Suk Joo; Choi, Gi Won

    2018-01-01

    Although many types of ankle fracture can be combined with syndesmosis injury, preoperative imaging studies rarely reveal instability of the syndesmosis. This study assessed the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for syndesmotic instability in patients with unstable ankle fracture. A total of 74 patients who were treated for Lauge-Hansen supination external rotation/Weber B type fracture or pronation external rotation/Weber C type fracture and who underwent MRI for preoperative assessment were enrolled. The MRI findings of the syndesmotic ligament and the results of an intraoperative stress test were evaluated. Twenty-six patients had a positive result on the intraoperative stress test for syndesmotic instability. The MRI findings of the syndesmotic ligaments revealed that complete tear of the posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (PITFL) was the most reliable predictor of syndesmotic instability (sensitivity, 74%; specificity, 78%; positive predictive value, 54%). Interobserver agreement for the intraoperative stress test and MRI assessment was excellent, except for the MRI findings of the interosseous ligament (62% agreement; kappa, 0.3). Complete tear of the PITFL on MRI has additional diagnostic value for syndesmotic instability in ankle fracture. However, because the sensitivity might not be sufficient to justify the costs associated with MRI, cost-effectiveness should be considered. (orig.)

  17. Cognitive load predicts point-of-care ultrasound simulator performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldekhyl, Sara; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B; Naismith, Laura M

    2018-02-01

    The ability to maintain good performance with low cognitive load is an important marker of expertise. Incorporating cognitive load measurements in the context of simulation training may help to inform judgements of competence. This exploratory study investigated relationships between demographic markers of expertise, cognitive load measures, and simulator performance in the context of point-of-care ultrasonography. Twenty-nine medical trainees and clinicians at the University of Toronto with a range of clinical ultrasound experience were recruited. Participants answered a demographic questionnaire then used an ultrasound simulator to perform targeted scanning tasks based on clinical vignettes. Participants were scored on their ability to both acquire and interpret ultrasound images. Cognitive load measures included participant self-report, eye-based physiological indices, and behavioural measures. Data were analyzed using a multilevel linear modelling approach, wherein observations were clustered by participants. Experienced participants outperformed novice participants on ultrasound image acquisition. Ultrasound image interpretation was comparable between the two groups. Ultrasound image acquisition performance was predicted by level of training, prior ultrasound training, and cognitive load. There was significant convergence between cognitive load measurement techniques. A marginal model of ultrasound image acquisition performance including prior ultrasound training and cognitive load as fixed effects provided the best overall fit for the observed data. In this proof-of-principle study, the combination of demographic and cognitive load measures provided more sensitive metrics to predict ultrasound simulator performance. Performance assessments which include cognitive load can help differentiate between levels of expertise in simulation environments, and may serve as better predictors of skill transfer to clinical practice.

  18. MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the room. Pins, hairpins, metal zippers, and similar metallic items can distort the images. Removable dental work ... an MRI can cause heart pacemakers and other implants not to work as well. The magnets can ...

  19. Incidental white-matter foci on MRI in ''healthy'' subjects: evidence of subtle cognitive dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, K.A.; Schulte, C.; Girke, W.; Reischies, F.M.; Felix, R.

    1996-01-01

    The clinical significance of incidental white-matter foci seen on MRI is controversial. Mainly using a computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, we tested the hypothesis that there is a clinical correlate of these foci. We studied 41 individuals aged 45-65 years with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorder, in whom no indication of central nervous system abnormalities was found on standardised neurological examination. A computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, with the advantage of precise measuring of both time and deviation (e. g. in position memory tests), and rating scales for emotional dysfunction were administered; selected soft neurological signs were assessed. In 16 subjects (39 %) MRI showed high-signal foci in the white matter on spin-echo sequences. White-matter foci not adjacent to the lateral ventricles were found to be related to performance on immediate visual memory/visuoperceptual skills, visuomotor tracking/psychomotor speed and, to a lesser degree, learning capacity and abstract and conceptual reasoning skills. Subtle cognitive dysfunction would appear to be a clinical correlate of punctate white-matter foci on MRI of otherwise ''healty'' individuals. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. A statistical approach for segregating cognitive task stages from multivariate fMRI BOLD time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine eDemanuele

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate pattern analysis can reveal new information from neuroimaging data to illuminate human cognition and its disturbances. Here, we develop a methodological approach, based on multivariate statistical/machine learning and time series analysis, to discern cognitive processing stages from fMRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD time series. We apply this method to data recorded from a group of healthy adults whilst performing a virtual reality version of the delayed win-shift radial arm maze task. This task has been frequently used to study working memory and decision making in rodents. Using linear classifiers and multivariate test statistics in conjunction with time series bootstraps, we show that different cognitive stages of the task, as defined by the experimenter, namely, the encoding/retrieval, choice, reward and delay stages, can be statistically discriminated from the BOLD time series in brain areas relevant for decision making and working memory. Discrimination of these task stages was significantly reduced during poor behavioral performance in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, but not in the primary visual cortex (V1. Experimenter-defined dissection of time series into class labels based on task structure was confirmed by an unsupervised, bottom-up approach based on Hidden Markov Models. Furthermore, we show that different groupings of recorded time points into cognitive event classes can be used to test hypotheses about the specific cognitive role of a given brain region during task execution. We found that whilst the DLPFC strongly differentiated between task stages associated with different memory loads, but not between different visual-spatial aspects, the reverse was true for V1. Our methodology illustrates how different aspects of cognitive information processing during one and the same task can be separated and attributed to specific brain regions based on information contained in multivariate patterns of voxel

  1. Prediction of compliance with MRI procedures among children of ages 3 years to 12 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahoon, Glenn D.; Davison, Tanya E.

    2014-01-01

    A number of children are unable to comply with an MRI procedure and require general anesthetic. However, we lack information about which factors are associated with MRI compliance in young children. To determine the strongest predictors of MRI compliance, focusing on variables that can be easily rated by patients' parents. A sample of 205 children ages 3-11 years (mean age 6.6 years) who were at risk of non-compliance were recruited from a children's hospital. Their parents completed a behavior assessment scale for children as well as a questionnaire that assessed their expectations of compliance and perception of their child's typical medical compliance. The children subsequently completed a mock MRI with an educational play therapist and a clinical MRI, with the quality of the scan scored by the MRI technologist. Overall, 88.3% of children complied with the clinical scan and achieved diagnostic images, with age unrelated to compliance in this well-prepared patient group. The strongest predictors of MRI compliance were parental expectations and ratings of how well the child typically copes with medical procedures. Non-compliance was related to child attention problems and to poor adaptability among children. A total of 64 preschool-age children (91.4%) and 110 school-age children (95.7%) were correctly classified as compliant or non-compliant based on these predictor variables. A child's temperament, medical experiences and parental expectations provide important information in predicting which children successfully comply with an MRI procedure and which require general anesthesia. Further study is needed to explore the utility of these variables in predicting compliance at sites that do not have access to an MRI simulator. (orig.)

  2. Prediction of compliance with MRI procedures among children of ages 3 years to 12 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, Glenn D. [The Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Parkville (Australia); Davison, Tanya E. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    A number of children are unable to comply with an MRI procedure and require general anesthetic. However, we lack information about which factors are associated with MRI compliance in young children. To determine the strongest predictors of MRI compliance, focusing on variables that can be easily rated by patients' parents. A sample of 205 children ages 3-11 years (mean age 6.6 years) who were at risk of non-compliance were recruited from a children's hospital. Their parents completed a behavior assessment scale for children as well as a questionnaire that assessed their expectations of compliance and perception of their child's typical medical compliance. The children subsequently completed a mock MRI with an educational play therapist and a clinical MRI, with the quality of the scan scored by the MRI technologist. Overall, 88.3% of children complied with the clinical scan and achieved diagnostic images, with age unrelated to compliance in this well-prepared patient group. The strongest predictors of MRI compliance were parental expectations and ratings of how well the child typically copes with medical procedures. Non-compliance was related to child attention problems and to poor adaptability among children. A total of 64 preschool-age children (91.4%) and 110 school-age children (95.7%) were correctly classified as compliant or non-compliant based on these predictor variables. A child's temperament, medical experiences and parental expectations provide important information in predicting which children successfully comply with an MRI procedure and which require general anesthesia. Further study is needed to explore the utility of these variables in predicting compliance at sites that do not have access to an MRI simulator. (orig.)

  3. Prediction of Alzheimer’s disease in mild cognitive impairment using sulcal morphology and cortical thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plocharski, Maciej; Østergaard, Lasse Riis

    2019-01-01

    converters, or MCIc). The purpose of this study was to predict future AD-conversion in patients with MCI using machine learning with sulcal morphology and cortical thickness measures as classification features. 32 sulci per subject were extracted from 1.5T T1-weighted ADNI database MRI scans of 90 MCIc......Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate condition between healthy ageing and dementia. The amnestic MCI is often a high risk factor for subsequent Alzheimer’s disease (AD) conversion. Some MCI patients never develop AD (MCI non-converters, or MCInc), but some do progress to AD (MCI...... subjects as future converters, (89.7% sensitivity, 84.4% specificity, 0.94 AUC), using 10-fold cross-validation. These results using sulcal and cortical features are superior to the state-of-the-art methods. The most discriminating predictive features were observed in the temporal and frontal lobes...

  4. Brain iron overload, insulin resistance, and cognitive performance in obese subjects: a preliminary MRI case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Gerard; Puig, Josep; Daunis-I-Estadella, Josep; Molina, Xavier; Xifra, Gemma; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Pedraza, Salvador; Ricart, Wifredo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2014-11-01

    The linkage among the tissue iron stores, insulin resistance (IR), and cognition remains unclear in the obese population. We aimed to identify the factors that contribute to increased hepatic iron concentration (HIC) and brain iron overload (BIO), as evaluated by MRI, and to evaluate their impact on cognitive performance in obese and nonobese subjects. We prospectively recruited 23 middle-aged obese subjects without diabetes (13 women; age 50.4 ± 7.7 years; BMI 43.7 ± 4.48 kg/m2) and 20 healthy nonobese volunteers (10 women; age 48.8 ± 9.5 years; BMI 24.3 ± 3.54 kg/m2) in whom iron load was assessed in white and gray matter and the liver by MRI. IR was measured from HOMA-IR and an oral glucose tolerance test. A battery of neuropsychological tests was used to evaluate the cognitive performance. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify the independent associations of BIO and cognitive performance. A significant increase in iron load was detected at the caudate nucleus (P cognitive performance. Obesity and IR may contribute to increased HIC and BIO being associated with worse cognitive performance. BIO could be a potentially useful MRI biomarker for IR and obesity-associated cognitive dysfunction. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  5. Building Bridges between Neuroscience, Cognition and Education with Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Steve; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    As the field of Mind, Brain, and Education seeks new ways to credibly bridge the gap between neuroscience, the cognitive sciences, and education, various connections are being developed and tested. This article presents a framework and offers examples of one approach, predictive modeling within a virtual educational system that can include…

  6. Three-dimensional evaluation of lumbar disc hernia and prediction of absorption by enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaji, Youichi; Uchiyama, Seiji; Yagi, Eiichi

    2001-01-01

    Both the spontaneous shrinkage and the disappearance of disc hernia have been confirmed through the use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is, however, no practical method to predict the likely absorption of the herniated mass. The objective of this study was to predict the spontaneous absorption of disc hernia by MRI, and to select the optimum treatment. The study involved 65 patients with lumbar disc hernias. Conservative treatment was carried out in 21 patients, while 44 patients underwent herniotomy. In the nonoperated patients, an MRI was taken both during the painful period, and shortly after pain remission. Hernial shrinkage was evaluated according to the decrease in the calculated volume, in addition to the decrease in hernial area, calculated by MRI. In the operated group, preoperative MRI enhancement, type of hernia, and invasion of granulation tissue in the histological specimens were studied. In the 21 nonoperated patients, the volume (mean ±SD) was 0.488±208 cm 3 (range, 0.197-0.931 cm 3 ) in the painful period and 0.214±0.181 cm 3 (range, 0.0-0.744 cm 3 ) in the remission period. This decrease in volume was statistically significant. There was also a greater decrease in hernias exhibiting positive enhancement by MRI. In the operated patients, hernias that penetrated the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) had high rates of preoperative enhancement, and these hernias showed invasion of granulation tissue with marked neovascularization. Positive enhancement by MRI confirms an ongoing absorption process. Enhanced MRI can be a good method for the prediction of spontaneous absorption of lumbar disc hernias. (author)

  7. Three-dimensional evaluation of lumbar disc hernia and prediction of absorption by enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaji, Youichi; Uchiyama, Seiji [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Yagi, Eiichi

    2001-07-01

    Both the spontaneous shrinkage and the disappearance of disc hernia have been confirmed through the use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is, however, no practical method to predict the likely absorption of the herniated mass. The objective of this study was to predict the spontaneous absorption of disc hernia by MRI, and to select the optimum treatment. The study involved 65 patients with lumbar disc hernias. Conservative treatment was carried out in 21 patients, while 44 patients underwent herniotomy. In the nonoperated patients, an MRI was taken both during the painful period, and shortly after pain remission. Hernial shrinkage was evaluated according to the decrease in the calculated volume, in addition to the decrease in hernial area, calculated by MRI. In the operated group, preoperative MRI enhancement, type of hernia, and invasion of granulation tissue in the histological specimens were studied. In the 21 nonoperated patients, the volume (mean {+-}SD) was 0.488{+-}208 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.197-0.931 cm{sup 3}) in the painful period and 0.214{+-}0.181 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.0-0.744 cm{sup 3}) in the remission period. This decrease in volume was statistically significant. There was also a greater decrease in hernias exhibiting positive enhancement by MRI. In the operated patients, hernias that penetrated the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) had high rates of preoperative enhancement, and these hernias showed invasion of granulation tissue with marked neovascularization. Positive enhancement by MRI confirms an ongoing absorption process. Enhanced MRI can be a good method for the prediction of spontaneous absorption of lumbar disc hernias. (author)

  8. Cognitive Slowing in Gulf War Illness Predicts Executive Network Hyperconnectivity: Study in a Population-Representative Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monroe P. Turner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive slowing is a prevalent symptom observed in Gulf War Illness (GWI. The present study assessed the extent to which functional connectivity between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and other task-relevant brain regions was predictive of GWI-related cognitive slowing. GWI patients (n = 54 and healthy veteran controls (n = 29 were assessed on performance of a processing speed task (the Digit Symbol Substitution Task; DSST while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. GWI patients were slower on the DSST relative to controls. Bilateral DLPFC connectivity with task-relevant nodes was altered in GWI patients compared to healthy controls during DSST performance. Moreover, hyperconnectivity in these networks predicted GWI-related increases in reaction time on the DSST, whereas hypoconnectivity did not. These results suggest that GWI-related cognitive slowing reflects reduced efficiency in cortical networks.

  9. A step-by-step tutorial on using the cognitive architecture ACT-R in combination with fMRI data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Jelmer P.; Anderson, John R.

    The cognitive architecture ACT-R is at the same time a psychological theory and a modeling framework for constructing cognitive models that adhere to the principles of the theory. ACT-R can be used in combination with fMRI data in two different ways: (1) fMRI data can be used to evaluate and

  10. Thickness in Entorhinal and Subicular Cortex Predicts Episodic Memory Decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Burggren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI most likely to decline in cognition over time is a major focus in Alzheimer's disease (AD research. Neuroimaging biomarkers that predict decline would have great potential for increasing the efficacy of early intervention. In this study, we used high-resolution MRI, combined with a cortical unfolding technique to increase visibility of the convoluted medial temporal lobe (MTL, to assess whether gray matter thickness in subjects with MCI correlated to decline in cognition over two years. We found that thickness in the entorhinal (ERC and subicular (Sub cortices of MCI subjects at initial assessment correlated to change in memory encoding over two years (ERC: r=0.34; P=.003 and Sub (r=0.26; P=.011 but not delayed recall performance. Our findings suggest that aspects of memory performance may be differentially affected in the early stages of AD. Given the MTL's involvement in early stages of neurodegeneration in AD, clarifying the relationship of these brain regions and the link to resultant cognitive decline is critical in understanding disease progression.

  11. Effect of Integrated Cognitive Therapy on Hippocampal Functional Connectivity Patterns in Stroke Patients with Cognitive Dysfunction: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanli Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to identify abnormal hippocampal functional connectivity (FC following ischemic stroke using resting-state fMRI. We also explored whether abnormal hippocampal FC could be modulated by integrated cognitive therapy and tested whether these alterations were associated with cognitive performance. Methods. 18 right-handed cognitively impaired ischemic stroke patients and 18 healty control (HC subjects were included in this study. Stroke subjects were scanned at baseline and after integrated cognitive therapy, while HCs were only scanned at baseline, to identify regions that show significant correlations with the seed region. Behavioral and cognitive assessments were obtained before each scan. Results. During the resting state, we found abnormal hippocampal FC associated with temporal regions, insular cortex, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortex in stroke patients compared to HCs. After integrated cognitive therapy, however, the stroke group showed increased hippocampal FC mainly located in the prefrontal gyrus and the default mode network (DMN. Altered hippocampal FC was associated with cognitive improvement. Conclusion. Resting-state fMRI may provide novel insight into the study of functional networks in the brain after stroke. Furthermore, altered hippocampal FC may be a compensatory mechanism for cognitive recovery after ischemic stroke.

  12. Exploring Cognitive Relations Between Prediction in Language and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aniruddh D; Morgan, Emily

    2017-03-01

    The online processing of both music and language involves making predictions about upcoming material, but the relationship between prediction in these two domains is not well understood. Electrophysiological methods for studying individual differences in prediction in language processing have opened the door to new questions. Specifically, we ask whether individuals with musical training predict upcoming linguistic material more strongly and/or more accurately than non-musicians. We propose two reasons why prediction in these two domains might be linked: (a) Musicians may have greater verbal short-term/working memory; (b) music may specifically reward predictions based on hierarchical structure. We provide suggestions as to how to expand upon recent work on individual differences in language processing to test these hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Gait Rather Than Cognition Predicts Decline in Specific Cognitive Domains in Early Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rosie; Lord, Sue; Lawson, Rachael A; Coleman, Shirley; Galna, Brook; Duncan, Gordon W; Khoo, Tien K; Yarnall, Alison J; Burn, David J; Rochester, Lynn

    2017-11-09

    Dementia is significant in Parkinson's disease (PD) with personal and socioeconomic impact. Early identification of risk is of upmost importance to optimize management. Gait precedes and predicts cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. We aimed to evaluate gait characteristics as predictors of cognitive decline in newly diagnosed PD. One hundred and nineteen participants recruited at diagnosis were assessed at baseline, 18 and 36 months. Baseline gait was characterized by variables that mapped to five domains: pace, rhythm, variability, asymmetry, and postural control. Cognitive assessment included attention, fluctuating attention, executive function, visual memory, and visuospatial function. Mixed-effects models tested independent gait predictors of cognitive decline. Gait characteristics of pace, variability, and postural control predicted decline in fluctuating attention and visual memory, whereas baseline neuropsychological assessment performance did not predict decline. This provides novel evidence for gait as a clinical biomarker for PD cognitive decline in early disease. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  14. Evaluating cognitive models of visual word recognition using fMRI: Effects of lexical and sublexical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Orfanidou, Eleni; Taylor, J S H; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Kapnoula, Efthymia C; Panagiotaropoulou, Georgia; Velonakis, Georgios; Poulou, Loukia S; Smyrnis, Nikolaos; Kelekis, Dimitrios

    2016-03-01

    In this study predictions of the dual-route cascaded (DRC) model of word reading were tested using fMRI. Specifically, patterns of co-localization were investigated: (a) between pseudoword length effects and a pseudowords vs. fixation contrast, to reveal the sublexical grapho-phonemic conversion (GPC) system; and (b) between word frequency effects and a words vs. pseudowords contrast, to reveal the orthographic and phonological lexicon. Forty four native speakers of Greek were scanned at 3T in an event-related lexical decision task with three event types: (a) 150 words in which frequency, length, bigram and syllable frequency, neighborhood, and orthographic consistency were decorrelated; (b) 150 matched pseudowords; and (c) fixation. Whole-brain analysis failed to reveal the predicted co-localizations. Further analysis with participant-specific regions of interest defined within masks from the group contrasts revealed length effects in left inferior parietal cortex and frequency effects in the left middle temporal gyrus. These findings could be interpreted as partially consistent with the existence of the GPC system and phonological lexicon of the model, respectively. However, there was no evidence in support of an orthographic lexicon, weakening overall support for the model. The results are discussed with respect to the prospect of using neuroimaging in cognitive model evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictive MRI correlates of lesser metatarsophalangeal joint plantar plate tear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, Rachel L. [Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Umans, Benjamin D. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Umans, Hilary [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, New York, NY (United States); Elsinger, Elisabeth [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2016-07-15

    To identify correlated signs on non-enhanced MRI that might improve diagnostic detection of plantar plate (PP) tear. We performed an IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective analysis of 100 non-contrast MRI (50 PP tear, 50 controls). All were anonymized, randomized, and reviewed; 20 were duplicated to assess consistency. One musculoskeletal radiologist evaluated qualitative variables. A trained non-physician performed measurements. Consistency and concordance were assessed. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to test the correlation between qualitative findings and PP tear status. Correlation between measurements and PP status was assessed using t tests and Wilcoxon's rank-sum test (p values < 0.05 considered significant). Classification and regression trees were utilized to identify attributes that, taken together, would consistently distinguish PP tear from controls. Quantitative measurements were highly reproducible (concordance 0.88-0.99). Elevated 2nd MT protrusion, lesser MT supination and rotational divergence of >45 between the 1st-2nd MT axis correlated with PP tear. Pericapsular soft tissue thickening correlated most strongly with PP tear, correctly classifying 95 % of cases and controls. Excluding pericapsular soft tissue thickening, sequential assessment of 2nd toe enthesitis, 2nd flexor tendon subluxation, and splaying of the second and third toes accurately classified PP status in 92 %. Pericapsular soft tissue thickening most strongly correlated with PP tear. For cases in which it might be difficult to distinguish pericapsular fibrosis from neuroma, sequential assessment of 2nd toe enthesitis, flexor tendon subluxation and splaying of the 2nd and 3rd toe is most helpful for optimizing accurate diagnosis of PP tear. (orig.)

  16. Predicting microscopic extrauterine spread of endometrial carcinoma with MRI to support less invasive therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi Tanaka, Yumiko; Nishida, Masato; Minami, Rie; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Yoshizako, Takeshi

    2000-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides precise staging of endometrial carcinoma. However, we have sometimes experienced patients with microscopic extrauterine extension in whom MRI showed the disease as being limited to the uterus. We studied indirect MRI signs for microscopic extrauterine spread of endometrial carcinoma which outwardly seemed to be limited to within the uterus. MRI studies and the clinical records of 100 patients with surgically proven endometrial carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated: MRI staging, tumor growing at the orifices of the fallopian tube in the uterine fundus, hydrosalpinx, and ascites, in each MRI study. Surgical specimens showed that 12 of the 100 patients had extrauterine spread, with 1 patient showing both ovarian extension and omental metastasis; there ovarian extension in 3, extension to the fallopian tubes in 3, omental metastasis in 1, and positive peritoneal cytology in 4. Tumor growing at the orifices of the fallopian tubes with deep myometrial invasion showed higher accuracy for predicting microscopic intrauterine spread (82.0%) although it was not significantly different from the accuracy of deep myometrial invasion anywhere within the uterus (75.0%). However, tumor growing at the orifices of the fallopian tubes in patients with stage Ia disease showed a high negative predictive value (89.7%). Hydrosalpinx had the highest specificity (98.9%) and accuracy (88.0%); however, it did not seem to be practical because it was observed in only 2 patients. Ascites in postmenopausal patients showed higher specificity (93.5%), although it was not considered to be useful in the premenopausal patients. Tumor extension at the orifices of the fallopian tubes in patients with stage Ia disease, and ascites in postmenopausal patients on MRI seemed to be predictive factors for microscopic extrauterine spread. (author)

  17. Mechanisms of cognitive impairment in cerebral small vessel disease: multimodal MRI results from the St George's cognition and neuroimaging in stroke (SCANS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Lawrence

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD is a common cause of vascular cognitive impairment. A number of disease features can be assessed on MRI including lacunar infarcts, T2 lesion volume, brain atrophy, and cerebral microbleeds. In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is sensitive to disruption of white matter ultrastructure, and recently it has been suggested that additional information on the pattern of damage may be obtained from axial diffusivity, a proposed marker of axonal damage, and radial diffusivity, an indicator of demyelination. We determined the contribution of these whole brain MRI markers to cognitive impairment in SVD. Consecutive patients with lacunar stroke and confluent leukoaraiosis were recruited into the ongoing SCANS study of cognitive impairment in SVD (n = 115, and underwent neuropsychological assessment and multimodal MRI. SVD subjects displayed poor performance on tests of executive function and processing speed. In the SVD group brain volume was lower, white matter hyperintensity volume higher and all diffusion characteristics differed significantly from control subjects (n = 50. On multi-predictor analysis independent predictors of executive function in SVD were lacunar infarct count and diffusivity of normal appearing white matter on DTI. Independent predictors of processing speed were lacunar infarct count and brain atrophy. Radial diffusivity was a stronger DTI predictor than axial diffusivity, suggesting ischaemic demyelination, seen neuropathologically in SVD, may be an important predictor of cognitive impairment in SVD. Our study provides information on the mechanism of cognitive impairment in SVD.

  18. Multi-parametric MRI in cervical cancer. Early prediction of response to concurrent chemoradiotherapy in combination with clinical prognostic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wei; Chen, Bing; Wang, Ai Jun; Zhao, Jian Guo [The General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Department of Radiology, Yinchuan (China); Qiang, Jin Wei [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Jinshan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Tian, Hai Ping [The General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Department of Pathology, Yinchuan (China)

    2018-01-15

    To investigate the prediction of response to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) through a combination of pretreatment multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with clinical prognostic factors (CPF) in cervical cancer patients. Sixty-five patients underwent conventional MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) before CCRT. The patients were divided into non- and residual tumour groups according to post-treatment MRI. Pretreatment MRI parameters and CPF between the two groups were compared and prognostic factors, optimal thresholds, and predictive performance for post-treatment residual tumour occurrence were estimated. The residual group showed a lower maximum slope of increase (MSI{sub L}) and signal enhancement ratio (SER{sub L}) in low-perfusion subregions, a higher apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, and a higher stage than the non-residual tumour group (p < 0.001, p = 0.003, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). MSI{sub L} and ADC were independent prognostic factors. The combination of both measures improved the diagnostic performance compared with individual MRI parameters. A further combination of these two factors with CPF exhibited the highest predictive performance. Pretreatment MSI{sub L} and ADC were independent prognostic factors for cervical cancer. The predictive capacity of multi-parametric MRI was superior to individual MRI parameters. The combination of multi-parametric MRI with CPF further improved the predictive performance. (orig.)

  19. Mothers' Depressive Symptoms and Children's Cognitive and Social Agency: Predicting First-Grade Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ni; Dix, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364), the present study supports an agentic perspective; it demonstrates that mothers' depressive symptoms in infancy predict children's poor first-grade cognitive functioning because depressive symptoms…

  20. Memory Binding Test Predicts Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrey, Wenzhu B; Lipton, Richard B; Katz, Mindy J; Ramratan, Wendy S; Loewenstein, David A; Zimmerman, Molly E; Buschke, Herman

    2016-07-14

    The Memory Binding Test (MBT), previously known as Memory Capacity Test, has demonstrated discriminative validity for distinguishing persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and dementia from cognitively normal elderly. We aimed to assess the predictive validity of the MBT for incident aMCI. In a longitudinal, community-based study of adults aged 70+, we administered the MBT to 246 cognitively normal elderly adults at baseline and followed them annually. Based on previous work, a subtle reduction in memory binding at baseline was defined by a Total Items in the Paired (TIP) condition score of ≤22 on the MBT. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the predictive validity of the MBT for incident aMCI accounting for the effects of covariates. The hazard ratio of incident aMCI was also assessed for different prediction time windows ranging from 4 to 7 years of follow-up, separately. Among 246 controls who were cognitively normal at baseline, 48 developed incident aMCI during follow-up. A baseline MBT reduction was associated with an increased risk for developing incident aMCI (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.30-4.56, p = 0.005). When varying the prediction window from 4-7 years, the MBT reduction remained significant for predicting incident aMCI (HR range: 2.33-3.12, p: 0.0007-0.04). Persons with poor performance on the MBT are at significantly greater risk for developing incident aMCI. High hazard ratios up to seven years of follow-up suggest that the MBT is sensitive to early disease.

  1. Cognitive control and unusual decisions about beauty: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert eFlexas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of visual aesthetic preference have shown that people without art training generally prefer representational paintings to abstract paintings. This, however, is not always the case: preferences can sometimes go against this usual tendency. We aimed to explore this issue, investigating the relationship between ‘unusual responses’ and reaction time in an aesthetic appreciation task. Results of a behavioural experiment confirmed the trend for laypeople to consider as beautiful mostly representational stimuli and as not beautiful mostly abstract ones (‘usual response’. Furthermore, when participants gave unusual responses, they needed longer time, especially when considering abstract stimuli as beautiful. We interpreted this longer time as greater involvement of the cognitive mastering and evaluation stages during the unusual responses. Results of an fMRI experiment indicated that the anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal cortex and insula were the main structures involved in this effect. We discuss the possible role of these areas in an aesthetic appreciation task.

  2. Monitoring the early signs of cognitive decline in elderly by computer games: an MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enikő Sirály

    Full Text Available It is anticipated that current and future preventive therapies will likely be more effective in the early stages of dementia, when everyday functioning is not affected. Accordingly the early identification of people at risk is particularly important. In most cases, when subjects visit an expert and are examined using neuropsychological tests, the disease has already been developed. Contrary to this cognitive games are played by healthy, well functioning elderly people, subjects who should be monitored for early signs. Further advantages of cognitive games are their accessibility and their cost-effectiveness.The aim of the investigation was to show that computer games can help to identify those who are at risk. In order to validate games analysis was completed which measured the correlations between results of the 'Find the Pairs' memory game and the volumes of the temporal brain regions previously found to be good predictors of later cognitive decline.34 healthy elderly subjects were enrolled in the study. The volume of the cerebral structures was measured by MRI. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were performed by Freesurfer.There was a correlation between the number of attempts and the time required to complete the memory game and the volume of the entorhinal cortex, the temporal pole, and the hippocampus. There was also a correlation between the results of the Paired Associates Learning (PAL test and the memory game.The results gathered support the initial hypothesis that healthy elderly subjects achieving lower scores in the memory game have increased level of atrophy in the temporal brain structures and showed a decreased performance in the PAL test. Based on these results it can be concluded that memory games may be useful in early screening for cognitive decline.

  3. Monitoring the early signs of cognitive decline in elderly by computer games: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirály, Enikő; Szabó, Ádám; Szita, Bernadett; Kovács, Vivienne; Fodor, Zsuzsanna; Marosi, Csilla; Salacz, Pál; Hidasi, Zoltán; Maros, Viktor; Hanák, Péter; Csibri, Éva; Csukly, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    It is anticipated that current and future preventive therapies will likely be more effective in the early stages of dementia, when everyday functioning is not affected. Accordingly the early identification of people at risk is particularly important. In most cases, when subjects visit an expert and are examined using neuropsychological tests, the disease has already been developed. Contrary to this cognitive games are played by healthy, well functioning elderly people, subjects who should be monitored for early signs. Further advantages of cognitive games are their accessibility and their cost-effectiveness. The aim of the investigation was to show that computer games can help to identify those who are at risk. In order to validate games analysis was completed which measured the correlations between results of the 'Find the Pairs' memory game and the volumes of the temporal brain regions previously found to be good predictors of later cognitive decline. 34 healthy elderly subjects were enrolled in the study. The volume of the cerebral structures was measured by MRI. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were performed by Freesurfer. There was a correlation between the number of attempts and the time required to complete the memory game and the volume of the entorhinal cortex, the temporal pole, and the hippocampus. There was also a correlation between the results of the Paired Associates Learning (PAL) test and the memory game. The results gathered support the initial hypothesis that healthy elderly subjects achieving lower scores in the memory game have increased level of atrophy in the temporal brain structures and showed a decreased performance in the PAL test. Based on these results it can be concluded that memory games may be useful in early screening for cognitive decline.

  4. Novel fMRI working memory paradigm accurately detects cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Flavia; Akhtar, Mohammad A; Zúñiga, Edward; Perez, Carlos A; Hasan, Khader M; Wilken, Jeffrey; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Narayana, Ponnada A; Steinberg, Joel L

    2017-05-01

    Cognitive impairment (CI) cannot be diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigms, such as the immediate/delayed memory task (I/DMT), detect varying degrees of working memory (WM). Preliminary findings using I/DMT showed differences in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation between impaired (MSCI, n = 12) and non-impaired (MSNI, n = 9) multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The aim of the study was to confirm CI detection based on I/DMT BOLD activation in a larger cohort of MS patients. The role of T2 lesion volume (LV) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) in magnitude of BOLD signal was also sought. A total of 50 patients (EDSS mean ( m) = 3.2, disease duration (DD) m = 12 years, and age m = 40 years) underwent the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis (MACFIMS) and I/DMT. Working memory activation (WMa) represents BOLD signal during DMT minus signal during IMT. CI was based on MACFIMS. A total of 10 MSNI, 30 MSCI, and 4 borderline patients were included in the analyses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed MSNI had significantly greater WMa than MSCI, in the left prefrontal cortex and left supplementary motor area ( p = 0.032). Regression analysis showed significant inverse correlations between WMa and T2 LV/EDSS in similar areas ( p = 0.005, 0.004, respectively). I/DMT-based BOLD activation detects CI in MS. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  5. Cognitive Functioning in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A BOLD-fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lili; Bai, Genji; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Daoyan; Zheng, Jiyong; Xu, Gang

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to analyze the association between resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (re-fMRI) and cognitive function (including language, executive, and memory functions) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, which will help to explore the mechanism of brain function in patients. 15 TLE patients and 15 non-TLE patients were recruited. All subjects underwent neuropsychological testing and memory functional evaluation. Changes in verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), performance intelligence quotient (PIQ), full intelligence quotient (FIQ), and memory quotient (MQ) were compared between two groups. Re-fMRI data were also collected from two groups to evaluate these changes. Each individual score of neuropsychological testing and memory functional evaluation were higher in control group, which was statistically different (all P temporal gyrus back, right superior temporal gyrus, left cerebellum, left angular gyrus, left wedge anterior lobe, and left central back; while the negatively activated brain regions were left prefrontal, right cerebellum, right corner back, and right anterior cingulate gyrus. During the language task, the activated brain regions of the TLE patients were right prefrontal lobe, the lateral temporal gyri, the left cerebellum, left cornu laterale gyrus, left precuneus, and the left postcentral gyrus, whereas the negatively activated brain areas were the left prefrontal cortex, the right cerebellum, right cornu laterale gyrus, and the right anterior cingulate gyrus. During the executive task, epilepsy patients showed activation difference in right prefrontal and right frontal lobe and right brain, left superior temporal gyrus, and right cerebellum anterior lobe compared with the control group; no negatively activated differences in brain areas. During the memory task, the difference lay in bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral wedge anterior lobe while the negatively activated brain areas were the left inferior frontal

  6. Cognitive deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors: Identification of predictive factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Ehrenfels, Susanne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2003-01-01

    To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors.......To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors....

  7. Preoperative MRI findings predict two-year postoperative clinical outcome in lumbar spinal stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Kuittinen

    Full Text Available To study the predictive value of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings for the two-year postoperative clinical outcome in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS.84 patients (mean age 63±11 years, male 43% with symptoms severe enough to indicate LSS surgery were included in this prospective observational single-center study. Preoperative MRI of the lumbar spine was performed with a 1.5-T unit. The imaging protocol conformed to the requirements of the American College of Radiology for the performance of MRI of the adult spine. Visual and quantitative assessment of MRI was performed by one experienced neuroradiologist. At the two-year postoperative follow-up, functional ability was assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI 0-100% and treadmill test (0-1000 m, pain symptoms with the overall Visual Analogue Scale (VAS 0-100 mm, and specific low back pain (LBP and specific leg pain (LP separately with a numeric rating scale from 0-10 (NRS-11. Satisfaction with the surgical outcome was also assessed.Preoperative severe central stenosis predicted postoperatively lower LP, LBP, and VAS when compared in patients with moderate central stenosis (p<0.05. Moreover, severe stenosis predicted higher postoperative satisfaction (p = 0.029. Preoperative scoliosis predicted an impaired outcome in the ODI (p = 0.031 and lowered the walking distance in the treadmill test (p = 0.001. The preoperative finding of only one stenotic level in visual assessment predicted less postoperative LBP when compared with patients having 2 or more stenotic levels (p = 0.026. No significant differences were detected between quantitative measurements and the patient outcome.Routine preoperative lumbar spine MRI can predict the patient outcome in a two-year follow up in patients with LSS surgery. Severe central stenosis and one-level central stenosis are predictors of good outcome. Preoperative finding of scoliosis may indicate worse functional ability.

  8. Prediction of prognosis in cervical myelopathy by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Sato, Koji; Iwata, Hisashi; Kameyama, Takashi; Kawakami, Noriaki; Hashizume, Yoshio

    1998-01-01

    In this study, 44 patients with the ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, 34 men and 10 women, ranging in age from 38 to 76 years (mean 61) were investigated. They were classified into three categories by the cervical MRI sectional image, Boomerang-type, Triangle-type and Tear-drop-type, and the relationship between these three types and clinical symptom or the results of the surgery was examined. The patients in the Triangle-type were suffered for long term and had many lesions extended over whole interspines. As a result, their spinal cords were in the decrease in the cervical cross-sectional area, so-called in atrophy, and was not expected to improve cross-sectional area or the symptom even in postoperation. On the other hand, the Boomerang-type and the Tear-drop-type were suffered for relatively short term, had the lesion on single spine and were expected, in the excellent reversibility, to improve the cross-sectional area of the spinal cord and the symptom. (K.H.)

  9. fMRI reveals reciprocal inhibition between social and physical cognitive domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Anthony I.; Dawson, Abigail; Begany, Katelyn; Leckie, Regina L.; Barry, Kevin; Ciccia, Angela; Snyder, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Two lines of evidence indicate that there exists a reciprocal inhibitory relationship between opposed brain networks. First, most attention-demanding cognitive tasks activate a stereotypical set of brain areas, known as the task-positive network and simultaneously deactivate a different set of brain regions, commonly referred to as the task negative or default mode network. Second, functional connectivity analyses show that these same opposed networks are anti-correlated in the resting state. We hypothesize that these reciprocally inhibitory effects reflect two incompatible cognitive modes, each of which is directed towards understanding the external world. Thus, engaging one mode activates one set of regions and suppresses activity in the other. We test this hypothesis by identifying two types of problem-solving task which, on the basis of prior work, have been consistently associated with the task positive and task negative regions: tasks requiring social cognition, i.e., reasoning about the mental states of other persons, and tasks requiring physical cognition, i.e., reasoning about the causal/mechanical properties of inanimate objects. Social and mechanical reasoning tasks were presented to neurologically normal participants during fMRI. Each task type was presented using both text and video clips. Regardless of presentation modality, we observed clear evidence of reciprocal suppression: social tasks deactivated regions associated with mechanical reasoning and mechanical tasks deactivated regions associated with social reasoning. These findings are not explained by self-referential processes, task engagement, mental simulation, mental time travel or external vs. internal attention, all factors previously hypothesized to explain default mode network activity. Analyses of resting state data revealed a close match between the regions our tasks identified as reciprocally inhibitory and regions of maximal anti-correlation in the resting state. These results indicate

  10. fMRI reveals reciprocal inhibition between social and physical cognitive domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Anthony I; Dawson, Abigail J; Begany, Katelyn L; Leckie, Regina L; Barry, Kevin P; Ciccia, Angela H; Snyder, Abraham Z

    2013-02-01

    Two lines of evidence indicate that there exists a reciprocal inhibitory relationship between opposed brain networks. First, most attention-demanding cognitive tasks activate a stereotypical set of brain areas, known as the task-positive network and simultaneously deactivate a different set of brain regions, commonly referred to as the task negative or default mode network. Second, functional connectivity analyses show that these same opposed networks are anti-correlated in the resting state. We hypothesize that these reciprocally inhibitory effects reflect two incompatible cognitive modes, each of which may be directed towards understanding the external world. Thus, engaging one mode activates one set of regions and suppresses activity in the other. We test this hypothesis by identifying two types of problem-solving task which, on the basis of prior work, have been consistently associated with the task positive and task negative regions: tasks requiring social cognition, i.e., reasoning about the mental states of other persons, and tasks requiring physical cognition, i.e., reasoning about the causal/mechanical properties of inanimate objects. Social and mechanical reasoning tasks were presented to neurologically normal participants during fMRI. Each task type was presented using both text and video clips. Regardless of presentation modality, we observed clear evidence of reciprocal suppression: social tasks deactivated regions associated with mechanical reasoning and mechanical tasks deactivated regions associated with social reasoning. These findings are not explained by self-referential processes, task engagement, mental simulation, mental time travel or external vs. internal attention, all factors previously hypothesized to explain default mode network activity. Analyses of resting state data revealed a close match between the regions our tasks identified as reciprocally inhibitory and regions of maximal anti-correlation in the resting state. These results

  11. External validation of the MRI-DRAGON score: early prediction of stroke outcome after intravenous thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turc, Guillaume; Aguettaz, Pierre; Ponchelle-Dequatre, Nelly; Hénon, Hilde; Naggara, Olivier; Leclerc, Xavier; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Leys, Didier; Mas, Jean-Louis; Oppenheim, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to validate in an independent cohort the MRI-DRAGON score, an adaptation of the (CT-) DRAGON score to predict 3-month outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing MRI before intravenous thrombolysis (IV-tPA). We reviewed consecutive (2009-2013) anterior circulation stroke patients treated within 4.5 hours by IV-tPA in the Lille stroke unit (France), where MRI is the first-line pretherapeutic work-up. We assessed the discrimination and calibration of the MRI-DRAGON score to predict poor 3-month outcome, defined as modified Rankin Score >2, using c-statistic and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, respectively. We included 230 patients (mean ±SD age 70.4±16.0 years, median [IQR] baseline NIHSS 8 [5]-[14]; poor outcome in 78(34%) patients). The c-statistic was 0.81 (95%CI 0.75-0.87), and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was not significant (p = 0.54). The MRI-DRAGON score showed good prognostic performance in the external validation cohort. It could therefore be used to inform the patient's relatives about long-term prognosis and help to identify poor responders to IV-tPA alone, who may be candidates for additional therapeutic strategies, if they are otherwise eligible for such procedures based on the institutional criteria.

  12. External validation of the MRI-DRAGON score: early prediction of stroke outcome after intravenous thrombolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Turc

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to validate in an independent cohort the MRI-DRAGON score, an adaptation of the (CT- DRAGON score to predict 3-month outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing MRI before intravenous thrombolysis (IV-tPA.We reviewed consecutive (2009-2013 anterior circulation stroke patients treated within 4.5 hours by IV-tPA in the Lille stroke unit (France, where MRI is the first-line pretherapeutic work-up. We assessed the discrimination and calibration of the MRI-DRAGON score to predict poor 3-month outcome, defined as modified Rankin Score >2, using c-statistic and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, respectively.We included 230 patients (mean ±SD age 70.4±16.0 years, median [IQR] baseline NIHSS 8 [5]-[14]; poor outcome in 78(34% patients. The c-statistic was 0.81 (95%CI 0.75-0.87, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was not significant (p = 0.54.The MRI-DRAGON score showed good prognostic performance in the external validation cohort. It could therefore be used to inform the patient's relatives about long-term prognosis and help to identify poor responders to IV-tPA alone, who may be candidates for additional therapeutic strategies, if they are otherwise eligible for such procedures based on the institutional criteria.

  13. [Predictive quality of the injury severity score in the systematic use of cranial MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woischneck, D; Lerch, K; Kapapa, T; Skalej, M; Firsching, R

    2010-09-01

    The ABBREVIATED INJURY SCORE (AIS) for the head is mostly coded on the basis of cranial computed tomography (CT). It defines, to a large extent, the predictive potency of the INJURY SEVERITY SCORE (ISS). The present study investigates whether the predictive capacity of the ISS can be improved by the systematic use of data from cranial MRI. 167 patients, who had been in a coma for at least 24 hours following trauma, underwent an MRI examination within 8 days. All had been found to have an intracranial injury on initial CT. 49 % had also suffered extracranial injuries. The GLASGOW OUTCOME SCALE (GOS) was determined 6 months post trauma. AIS, ISS and GOS values were rated as ordinal measurements. A contingency table was used as the statistical method of analysis, with a significance assumed as p RISC) score was improved by use of adapted MRI data. If visible brain stem lesions on MRI were coded according to the AIS guidelines, there was a significant increase in the ISS which correlated significantly to the GOS. If the AIS coding was adjusted to the prognostic significance of individual brain stem lesions, there was a further improvement in the prognostic potency of the ISS. The study encourages the inclusion of data obtained from MRI diagnostics in the ISS calculation. There are alternative ways. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection: Outcome of 5-year follow-up in men with negative findings on initial MRI studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itatani, R., E-mail: banguliao@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1, Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Namimoto, T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1, Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Atsuji, S.; Katahira, K.; Morishita, S. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Kitani, K.; Hamada, Y. [Department of Urology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Kitaoka, M. [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Nakaura, T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amakusa Medical Center, Kameba 854-1, Amakusa, Kumamoto 863-0046 (Japan); Yamashita, Y. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1, Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We assess the negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer. • Patients with positive prostate biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. • Patients with negative initial prostate biopsy findings were followed up for 5 years. • The negative predictive value was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. • MRI is a useful tool to rule out significant prostate cancer before biopsy. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the clinical negative predictive value (NPV) of multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) for prostate cancer in a 5-year follow-up. Materials and methods: One hundred ninety-three men suspected of harboring prostate cancer with negative MRI findings were included. Patients with positive transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. Patients with negative initial TRUS-guided biopsy findings were followed up and only patients with negative findings by digital rectal examination, MRI, and repeat biopsy and no increase in PSA at 5-year follow-up were defined as “clinically negative”. The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was calculated. For quantitative analysis, mean signal intensity on T2-weighted images and the mean apparent diffusion coefficient value on ADC maps of the initial MRI studies were compared between peripheral-zone (PZ) cancer and the normal PZ based on pathologic maps of patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Results: The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. Small cancers, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy masking prostate cancer returned false-negative results. Quantitative analysis showed that there was no significant difference between PZ cancer and the normal PZ. Conclusion: The mp-MRI revealed a high clinical NPV and is a useful tool to rule out clinically significant prostate cancer before biopsy.

  15. Negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection: Outcome of 5-year follow-up in men with negative findings on initial MRI studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itatani, R.; Namimoto, T.; Atsuji, S.; Katahira, K.; Morishita, S.; Kitani, K.; Hamada, Y.; Kitaoka, M.; Nakaura, T.; Yamashita, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer. • Patients with positive prostate biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. • Patients with negative initial prostate biopsy findings were followed up for 5 years. • The negative predictive value was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. • MRI is a useful tool to rule out significant prostate cancer before biopsy. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the clinical negative predictive value (NPV) of multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) for prostate cancer in a 5-year follow-up. Materials and methods: One hundred ninety-three men suspected of harboring prostate cancer with negative MRI findings were included. Patients with positive transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. Patients with negative initial TRUS-guided biopsy findings were followed up and only patients with negative findings by digital rectal examination, MRI, and repeat biopsy and no increase in PSA at 5-year follow-up were defined as “clinically negative”. The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was calculated. For quantitative analysis, mean signal intensity on T2-weighted images and the mean apparent diffusion coefficient value on ADC maps of the initial MRI studies were compared between peripheral-zone (PZ) cancer and the normal PZ based on pathologic maps of patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Results: The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. Small cancers, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy masking prostate cancer returned false-negative results. Quantitative analysis showed that there was no significant difference between PZ cancer and the normal PZ. Conclusion: The mp-MRI revealed a high clinical NPV and is a useful tool to rule out clinically significant prostate cancer before biopsy

  16. Frequency, probability, and prediction: easy solutions to cognitive illusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D; Buehler, R

    1999-02-01

    Many errors in probabilistic judgment have been attributed to people's inability to think in statistical terms when faced with information about a single case. Prior theoretical analyses and empirical results imply that the errors associated with case-specific reasoning may be reduced when people make frequentistic predictions about a set of cases. In studies of three previously identified cognitive biases, we find that frequency-based predictions are different from-but no better than-case-specific judgments of probability. First, in studies of the "planning fallacy, " we compare the accuracy of aggregate frequency and case-specific probability judgments in predictions of students' real-life projects. When aggregate and single-case predictions are collected from different respondents, there is little difference between the two: Both are overly optimistic and show little predictive validity. However, in within-subject comparisons, the aggregate judgments are significantly more conservative than the single-case predictions, though still optimistically biased. Results from studies of overconfidence in general knowledge and base rate neglect in categorical prediction underline a general conclusion. Frequentistic predictions made for sets of events are no more statistically sophisticated, nor more accurate, than predictions made for individual events using subjective probability. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. Predictive information processing in music cognition. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin A; Koelsch, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    Expectation and prediction constitute central mechanisms in the perception and cognition of music, which have been explored in theoretical and empirical accounts. We review the scope and limits of theoretical accounts of musical prediction with respect to feature-based and temporal prediction. While the concept of prediction is unproblematic for basic single-stream features such as melody, it is not straight-forward for polyphonic structures or higher-order features such as formal predictions. Behavioural results based on explicit and implicit (priming) paradigms provide evidence of priming in various domains that may reflect predictive behaviour. Computational learning models, including symbolic (fragment-based), probabilistic/graphical, or connectionist approaches, provide well-specified predictive models of specific features and feature combinations. While models match some experimental results, full-fledged music prediction cannot yet be modelled. Neuroscientific results regarding the early right-anterior negativity (ERAN) and mismatch negativity (MMN) reflect expectancy violations on different levels of processing complexity, and provide some neural evidence for different predictive mechanisms. At present, the combinations of neural and computational modelling methodologies are at early stages and require further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Large-Scale Brain Network Coupling Predicts Total Sleep Deprivation Effects on Cognitive Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lei

    Full Text Available Interactions between large-scale brain networks have received most attention in the study of cognitive dysfunction of human brain. In this paper, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the coupling strength of large-scale brain networks will reflect the pressure for sleep and will predict cognitive performance, referred to as sleep pressure index (SPI. Fourteen healthy subjects underwent this within-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study during rested wakefulness (RW and after 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD. Self-reported scores of sleepiness were higher for TSD than for RW. A subsequent working memory (WM task showed that WM performance was lower after 36 h of TSD. Moreover, SPI was developed based on the coupling strength of salience network (SN and default mode network (DMN. Significant increase of SPI was observed after 36 h of TSD, suggesting stronger pressure for sleep. In addition, SPI was significantly correlated with both the visual analogue scale score of sleepiness and the WM performance. These results showed that alterations in SN-DMN coupling might be critical in cognitive alterations that underlie the lapse after TSD. Further studies may validate the SPI as a potential clinical biomarker to assess the impact of sleep deprivation.

  19. Neonatal Pulmonary MRI of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Predicts Short-term Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higano, Nara S; Spielberg, David R; Fleck, Robert J; Schapiro, Andrew H; Walkup, Laura L; Hahn, Andrew D; Tkach, Jean A; Kingma, Paul S; Merhar, Stephanie L; Fain, Sean B; Woods, Jason C

    2018-05-23

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious neonatal pulmonary condition associated with premature birth, but the underlying parenchymal disease and trajectory are poorly characterized. The current NICHD/NHLBI definition of BPD severity is based on degree of prematurity and extent of oxygen requirement. However, no clear link exists between initial diagnosis and clinical outcomes. We hypothesized that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of structural parenchymal abnormalities will correlate with NICHD-defined BPD disease severity and predict short-term respiratory outcomes. Forty-two neonates (20 severe BPD, 6 moderate, 7 mild, 9 non-BPD controls; 40±3 weeks post-menstrual age) underwent quiet-breathing structural pulmonary MRI (ultrashort echo-time and gradient echo) in a NICU-sited, neonatal-sized 1.5T scanner, without sedation or respiratory support unless already clinically prescribed. Disease severity was scored independently by two radiologists. Mean scores were compared to clinical severity and short-term respiratory outcomes. Outcomes were predicted using univariate and multivariable models including clinical data and scores. MRI scores significantly correlated with severities and predicted respiratory support at NICU discharge (P<0.0001). In multivariable models, MRI scores were by far the strongest predictor of respiratory support duration over clinical data, including birth weight and gestational age. Notably, NICHD severity level was not predictive of discharge support. Quiet-breathing neonatal pulmonary MRI can independently assess structural abnormalities of BPD, describe disease severity, and predict short-term outcomes more accurately than any individual standard clinical measure. Importantly, this non-ionizing technique can be implemented to phenotype disease and has potential to serially assess efficacy of individualized therapies.

  20. Automated MR morphometry to predict Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsche, Klaus H.; Schlindwein, Sarah; Bruggen, Thomas van; Meinzer, Hans-Peter [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Medical and Biological Informatics, Heidelberg (Germany); Stieltjes, Bram; Essig, Marco [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Prediction of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is challenging but essential for early treatment. This study aims to investigate the use of hippocampal atrophy markers for the automatic detection of MCI converters and to compare the predictive value to manually obtained hippocampal volume and temporal horn width. A study was performed with 15 patients with Alzheimer and 18 patients with MCI (ten converted, eight remained stable in a 3-year follow-up) as well as 15 healthy subjects. MRI scans were obtained at baseline and evaluated with an automated system for scoring of hippocampal atrophy. The predictive value of the automated system was compared with manual measurements of hippocampal volume and temporal horn width in the same subjects. The conversion to AD was correctly predicted in 77.8% of the cases (sensitivity 70%, specificity 87.5%) in the MCI group using automated morphometry and a plain linear classifier that was trained on the AD and healthy groups. Classification was improved by limiting analysis to the left cerebral hemisphere (accuracy 83.3%, sensitivity 70%, specificity 100%). The manual linear and volumetric approaches reached rates of 66.7% (40/100%) and 72.2% (60/87.5%), respectively. The automatic approach fulfills many important preconditions for clinical application. Contrary to the manual approaches, it is not observer-dependent and reduces human resource requirements. Automated assessment may be useful for individual patient assessment and for predicting progression to dementia. (orig.)

  1. Automated MR morphometry to predict Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, Klaus H.; Schlindwein, Sarah; Bruggen, Thomas van; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Stieltjes, Bram; Essig, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Prediction of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is challenging but essential for early treatment. This study aims to investigate the use of hippocampal atrophy markers for the automatic detection of MCI converters and to compare the predictive value to manually obtained hippocampal volume and temporal horn width. A study was performed with 15 patients with Alzheimer and 18 patients with MCI (ten converted, eight remained stable in a 3-year follow-up) as well as 15 healthy subjects. MRI scans were obtained at baseline and evaluated with an automated system for scoring of hippocampal atrophy. The predictive value of the automated system was compared with manual measurements of hippocampal volume and temporal horn width in the same subjects. The conversion to AD was correctly predicted in 77.8% of the cases (sensitivity 70%, specificity 87.5%) in the MCI group using automated morphometry and a plain linear classifier that was trained on the AD and healthy groups. Classification was improved by limiting analysis to the left cerebral hemisphere (accuracy 83.3%, sensitivity 70%, specificity 100%). The manual linear and volumetric approaches reached rates of 66.7% (40/100%) and 72.2% (60/87.5%), respectively. The automatic approach fulfills many important preconditions for clinical application. Contrary to the manual approaches, it is not observer-dependent and reduces human resource requirements. Automated assessment may be useful for individual patient assessment and for predicting progression to dementia. (orig.)

  2. Early Prediction and Evaluation of Breast Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Using Quantitative DCE-MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Tudorica

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to compare quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI metrics with imaging tumor size for early prediction of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT and evaluation of residual cancer burden (RCB. Twenty-eight patients with 29 primary breast tumors underwent DCE-MRI exams before, after one cycle of, at midpoint of, and after NACT. MRI tumor size in the longest diameter (LD was measured according to the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors guidelines. Pharmacokinetic analyses of DCE-MRI data were performed with the standard Tofts and Shutter-Speed models (TM and SSM. After one NACT cycle the percent changes of DCE-MRI parameters Ktrans (contrast agent plasma/interstitium transfer rate constant, ve (extravascular and extracellular volume fraction, kep (intravasation rate constant, and SSM-unique τi (mean intracellular water lifetime are good to excellent early predictors of pathologic complete response (pCR vs. non-pCR, with univariate logistic regression C statistics value in the range of 0.804 to 0.967. ve values after one cycle and at NACT midpoint are also good predictors of response, with C ranging 0.845 to 0.897. However, RECIST LD changes are poor predictors with C = 0.609 and 0.673, respectively. Post-NACT Ktrans, τi, and RECIST LD show statistically significant (P < .05 correlations with RCB. The performances of TM and SSM analyses for early prediction of response and RCB evaluation are comparable. In conclusion, quantitative DCE-MRI parameters are superior to imaging tumor size for early prediction of therapy response. Both TM and SSM analyses are effective for therapy response evaluation. However, the τi parameter derived only with SSM analysis allows the unique opportunity to potentially quantify therapy-induced changes in tumor energetic metabolism.

  3. MRI Measures of Hippocampus in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağatay Öncel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to compare the hippocampal volumes of patients diagnosed as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, Minimal Cognitive Impairment (MCI and the healthy objects. We also tried to demonstrate whether there was a possible correlation between the cognitive tests and the hippocampal volumes. METHODS: Minimental State Examination, Adas-Cog and Global Deterioration Scale were administrated to the patients having Alzheimer’s Disease (n=20. We also performed Minimental State Examination, and Adas-Cog to MCI patients (n=20 and Minimental State Examination to the healthy control group (n=18. Both right and left hippocampal volumes were measured by a three dimensioned Surf Driver programm with the support of cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. RESULTS: Both right and left hippocampal volumes of the Alzheimer’s Disease group were significantly smaller than the MCI and the control groups. Bilaterally hippocampal volumes of MCI group were also smaller than the control group. (Hippocampal volumes; AD 0.05. CONCLUSION: : Surf Driver method succesfully demonstrated the relative hippocampal atrophy in the AD and the MCI groups when compared with the healthy controls

  4. MRI Measures of Hippocampus in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağatay Öncel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to compare the hippocampal volumes of patients diagnosed as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, Minimal Cognitive Impairment (MCI and the healthy objects. We also tried to demonstrate whether there was a possible correlation between the cognitive tests and the hippocampal volumes. METHODS: Minimental State Examination, Adas-Cog and Global Deterioration Scale were administrated to the patients having Alzheimer’s Disease (n=20. We also performed Minimental State Examination, and Adas-Cog to MCI patients (n=20 and Minimental State Examination to the healthy control group (n=18. Both right and left hippocampal volumes were measured by a three dimensioned Surf Driver programm with the support of cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. RESULTS: Both right and left hippocampal volumes of the Alzheimer’s Disease group were significantly smaller than the MCI and the control groups. Bilaterally hippocampal volumes of MCI group were also smaller than the control group. (Hippocampal volumes; AD 0.05. CONCLUSION: : Surf Driver method succesfully demonstrated the relative hippocampal atrophy in the AD and the MCI groups when compared with the healthy controls.

  5. Beyond dopamine: functional MRI predictors of responsiveness to cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Kumari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:Table Normal; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri,sans-serif; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Times New Roman; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Times New Roman; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Despite the favourable effects of antipsychotics on positive symptoms of schizophrenia, many patients continue to suffer from distressing symptoms. Additional benefi ts of cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis (CBTp have been reported for approximately 50% of such patients. Given the role of left hemisphere-based language processes in responsiveness to CBT for depression, and language pathway abnormalities in psychosis, this study examined whether pre-therapy brain activity during a verbal monitoring task predicts CBTp responsiveness in schizophrenia. Fifty-two outpatients, stable on antipsychotics with at least one persistent distressing positive symptom and wishing to receive CBTp adjunctive to their treatment-as-usual, and 20 healthy participants underwent fMRI during monitoring of self- and externally-generated (normal and distorted speech. Subsequently, 26 patients received CBTp for 6-8 months adjunctive to their treatment-as-usual (CBTp + TAU, 20 completers, and 26 continued with their treatment-as-usual (TAU-alone, 18 completers. Symptoms were assessed (blindly at entry and follow-up. The CBTp + TAU and TAU-alone groups had comparable

  6. Analysis of MRI by fractals for prediction of sensory attributes: A case study in loin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Daniel; Antequera, Teresa; Caro, Andrés

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the use of fractal algorithms to analyse MRI of meat products, specifically loin, in order to determine sensory parameters of loin. For that, the capability of different fractal algorithms was evaluated (Classical Fractal Algorithm, CFA; Fractal Texture Algorithm, FTA...... was analysed. Results on this study firstly demonstrate the capability of fractal algorithms to analyse MRI from meat product. Different combinations of the analysed techniques can be applied for predicting most sensory attributes of loins adequately (R > 0.5). However, the combination of SE, OPFTA and MLR...... offered the most appropriate results. Thus, it could be proposed as an alternative to the traditional food technology methods....

  7. Diffusion Weighted MRI as a predictive tool for effect of radiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Søren; Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars

    Diffusion weighted MRI has shown great potential in diagnostic cancer imaging and may also have value for monitoring tumor response during radiotherapy. Patients with advanced cervical cancer are treated with external beam radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy. This study evaluates the value of DW......-MRI for predicting outcome of patients with advanced cervical cancer at time of brachytherapy. Volume of hyper-intensity on highly diffusion sensitive images and resulting ADC value for treatment responders and non-responders is compared. The change of ADC and volume of hyper-intensity over time of BT is also...

  8. Correlation of MRI Visual Scales with Neuropsychological Profile in Mild Cognitive Impairment of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Vasconcellos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI visual scales in Parkinson’s disease-Mild Cognitive Impairment (PD-MCI. We selected 79 PD patients and 92 controls (CO to perform neurologic and neuropsychological evaluation. Brain MRI was performed to evaluate the following scales: Global Cortical Atrophy (GCA, Fazekas, and medial temporal atrophy (MTA. The analysis revealed that both PD groups (amnestic and nonamnestic showed worse performance on several tests when compared to CO. Memory, executive function, and attention impairment were more severe in amnestic PD-MCI group. Overall analysis of frequency of MRI visual scales by MCI subtype did not reveal any statistically significant result. Statistically significant inverse correlation was observed between GCA scale and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, semantic verbal fluency, Stroop test, figure memory test, trail making test (TMT B, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT. The MTA scale correlated with Stroop test and Fazekas scale with figure memory test, digit span, and Stroop test according to the subgroup evaluated. Visual scales by MRI in MCI should be evaluated by cognitive domain and might be more useful in more severely impaired MCI or dementia patients.

  9. Neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience in the fMRI era: A recapitulation of localizationist and connectionist views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterer, Matthew J; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    We highlight the past 25 years of cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, focusing on the impact to the field of the introduction in 1992 of functional MRI (fMRI). We reviewed the past 25 years of literature in cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, focusing on the relation and interplay of fMRI studies and studies utilizing the "lesion method" in human participants with focal brain damage. Our review highlights the state of localist/connectionist research debates in cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology circa 1992, and details how the introduction of fMRI into the field at that time catalyzed a new wave of efforts to map complex human behavior to specific brain regions. This, in turn, eventually evolved into many studies that focused on networks and connections between brain areas, culminating in recent years with large-scale investigations such as the Human Connectome Project. We argue that throughout the past 25 years, neuropsychology-and more precisely, the "lesion method" in humans-has continued to play a critical role in arbitrating conclusions and theories derived from inferred patterns of local brain activity or wide-spread connectivity from functional imaging approaches. We conclude by highlighting the future for neuropsychology in the context of an increasingly complex methodological armamentarium. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Role of MRI in osteosarcoma for evaluation and prediction of chemotherapy response: correlation with histological necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpai, Jyoti; Bakhshi, Sameer [Dr. B. R. A. Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Gamnagatti, Shivanand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Kumar, Rakesh; Malhotra, Arun [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Biostatistics, New Delhi (India); Sharma, Mehar Chand; Safaya, Rajni [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pathology, New Delhi (India); Khan, Shah Alam; Rastogi, Shishir [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Orthopedics, New Delhi (India)

    2011-04-15

    Histological necrosis, the current standard for response evaluation in osteosarcoma, is attainable after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. To establish the role of surrogate markers of response prediction and evaluation using MRI in the early phases of the disease. Thirty-one treatment-naive osteosarcoma patients received three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery during 2006-2008. All patients underwent baseline and post-chemotherapy conventional, diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Taking histological response (good response {>=}90% necrosis) as the reference standard, various parameters of MRI were compared to it. A tumor was considered ellipsoidal; volume, average tumor plane and its relative value (average tumor plane relative/body surface area) was calculated using the standard formula for ellipse. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to assess best threshold and predictability. After deriving thresholds for each parameter in univariable analysis, multivariable analysis was carried out. Both pre-and post-chemotherapy absolute and relative-size parameters correlated well with necrosis. Apparent diffusion coefficient did not correlate with necrosis; however, on adjusting for volume, significant correlation was found. Thus, we could derive a new parameter: diffusion per unit volume. In osteosarcoma, chemotherapy response can be predicted and evaluated by conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI early in the disease course and it correlates well with necrosis. Further, newly derived parameter diffusion per unit volume appears to be a sensitive substitute for response evaluation in osteosarcoma. (orig.)

  11. Role of MRI in osteosarcoma for evaluation and prediction of chemotherapy response: correlation with histological necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, Jyoti; Bakhshi, Sameer; Gamnagatti, Shivanand; Kumar, Rakesh; Malhotra, Arun; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Safaya, Rajni; Khan, Shah Alam; Rastogi, Shishir

    2011-01-01

    Histological necrosis, the current standard for response evaluation in osteosarcoma, is attainable after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. To establish the role of surrogate markers of response prediction and evaluation using MRI in the early phases of the disease. Thirty-one treatment-naive osteosarcoma patients received three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery during 2006-2008. All patients underwent baseline and post-chemotherapy conventional, diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Taking histological response (good response ≥90% necrosis) as the reference standard, various parameters of MRI were compared to it. A tumor was considered ellipsoidal; volume, average tumor plane and its relative value (average tumor plane relative/body surface area) was calculated using the standard formula for ellipse. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to assess best threshold and predictability. After deriving thresholds for each parameter in univariable analysis, multivariable analysis was carried out. Both pre-and post-chemotherapy absolute and relative-size parameters correlated well with necrosis. Apparent diffusion coefficient did not correlate with necrosis; however, on adjusting for volume, significant correlation was found. Thus, we could derive a new parameter: diffusion per unit volume. In osteosarcoma, chemotherapy response can be predicted and evaluated by conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI early in the disease course and it correlates well with necrosis. Further, newly derived parameter diffusion per unit volume appears to be a sensitive substitute for response evaluation in osteosarcoma. (orig.)

  12. T2 Relaxometry MRI Predicts Cerebral Palsy in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L-W; Wang, S-T; Huang, C-C; Tu, Y-F; Tsai, Y-S

    2018-01-18

    T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging enables objective measurement of brain maturation based on the water-macromolecule ratio in white matter, but the outcome correlation is not established in preterm infants. Our study aimed to predict neurodevelopment with T2-relaxation values of brain MR imaging among preterm infants. From January 1, 2012, to May 31, 2015, preterm infants who underwent both T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging and neurodevelopmental follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. T2-relaxation values were measured over the periventricular white matter, including sections through the frontal horns, midbody of the lateral ventricles, and centrum semiovale. Periventricular T2 relaxometry in relation to corrected age was analyzed with restricted cubic spline regression. Prediction of cerebral palsy was examined with the receiver operating characteristic curve. Thirty-eight preterm infants were enrolled for analysis. Twenty patients (52.6%) had neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including 8 (21%) with developmental delay without cerebral palsy and 12 (31.6%) with cerebral palsy. The periventricular T2-relaxation values in relation to age were curvilinear in preterm infants with normal development, linear in those with developmental delay without cerebral palsy, and flat in those with cerebral palsy. When MR imaging was performed at >1 month corrected age, cerebral palsy could be predicted with T2 relaxometry of the periventricular white matter on sections through the midbody of the lateral ventricles (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.738; cutoff value of >217.4 with 63.6% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity). T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging could provide prognostic prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes in premature infants. Age-dependent and area-selective interpretation in preterm brains should be emphasized. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  13. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steves, Claire J; Mehta, Mitul M; Jackson, Stephen H D; Spector, Tim D

    2016-01-01

    Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant twin analyses, where within

  14. Hip Inflammation MRI Scoring System (HIMRISS) to predict response to hyaluronic acid injection in hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deseyne, Nicolas; Conrozier, Thierry; Lellouche, Henri

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess predictors of response, according to hip MRI inflammatory scoring system (HIMRISS), in a sample of patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) treated by hyaluronic acid (HA) injection. METHOD: Sixty patients with hip OA were included. Clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline...... SP=0.97, sensitivity SN=0.39, and positive and negative predictive values of 0.91 and 0.64, respectively. CONCLUSION: HIMRISS is reliable for total scores and sub-domains. It permits identification of responders to HA injection in hip OA patients........64, 0.83 and 0.78. Associations between MRI features and clinical data were assessed. Logistic regression (univariate and multivariate) was used to explore associations between MRI features and response to HA injection, according to WOMAC50 response at three months. RESULTS: In total, 45.5% of patients...

  15. Effect of Task-Correlated Physiological Fluctuations and Motion in 2D and 3D Echo-Planar Imaging in a Higher Cognitive Level fMRI Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladstein, Jarle; Evensmoen, Hallvard R; Håberg, Asta K; Kristoffersen, Anders; Goa, Pål E

    2016-01-01

    To compare 2D and 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI) in a higher cognitive level fMRI paradigm. In particular, to study the link between the presence of task-correlated physiological fluctuations and motion and the fMRI contrast estimates from either 2D EPI or 3D EPI datasets, with and without adding nuisance regressors to the model. A signal model in the presence of partly task-correlated fluctuations is derived, and predictions for contrast estimates with and without nuisance regressors are made. Thirty-one healthy volunteers were scanned using 2D EPI and 3D EPI during a virtual environmental learning paradigm. In a subgroup of 7 subjects, heart rate and respiration were logged, and the correlation with the paradigm was evaluated. FMRI analysis was performed using models with and without nuisance regressors. Differences in the mean contrast estimates were investigated by analysis-of-variance using Subject, Sequence, Day, and Run as factors. The distributions of group level contrast estimates were compared. Partially task-correlated fluctuations in respiration, heart rate and motion were observed. Statistically significant differences were found in the mean contrast estimates between the 2D EPI and 3D EPI when using a model without nuisance regressors. The inclusion of nuisance regressors for cardiorespiratory effects and motion reduced the difference to a statistically non-significant level. Furthermore, the contrast estimate values shifted more when including nuisance regressors for 3D EPI compared to 2D EPI. The results are consistent with 3D EPI having a higher sensitivity to fluctuations compared to 2D EPI. In the presence partially task-correlated physiological fluctuations or motion, proper correction is necessary to get expectation correct contrast estimates when using 3D EPI. As such task-correlated physiological fluctuations or motion is difficult to avoid in paradigms exploring higher cognitive functions, 2D EPI seems to be the preferred choice for higher

  16. Children's biological responsivity to acute stress predicts concurrent cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Leslie E; Beauchamp, Kathryn G; Giuliano, Ryan; Zalewski, Maureen; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2018-04-10

    Although prior research has characterized stress system reactivity (i.e. hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, HPAA; autonomic nervous system, ANS) in children, it has yet to examine the extent to which biological reactivity predicts concurrent goal-directed behavior. Here, we employed a stressor paradigm that allowed concurrent assessment of both stress system reactivity and performance on a speeded-response task to investigate the links between biological reactivity and cognitive function under stress. We further investigated gender as a moderator given previous research suggesting that the ANS may be particularly predictive of behavior in males due to gender differences in socialization. In a sociodemographically diverse sample of young children (N = 58, M age = 5.38 yrs; 44% male), individual differences in sociodemographic covariates (age, household income), HPAA (i.e. cortisol), and ANS (i.e. respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA, indexing the parasympathetic branch; pre-ejection period, PEP, indexing the sympathetic branch) function were assessed as predictors of cognitive performance under stress. We hypothesized that higher income, older age, and greater cortisol reactivity would be associated with better performance overall, and flexible ANS responsivity (i.e. RSA withdrawal, PEP shortening) would be predictive of performance for males. Overall, females performed better than males. Two-group SEM analyses suggest that, for males, greater RSA withdrawal to the stressor was associated with better performance, while for females, older age, higher income, and greater cortisol reactivity were associated with better performance. Results highlight the relevance of stress system reactivity to cognitive performance under stress. Future research is needed to further elucidate for whom and in what situations biological reactivity predicts goal-directed behavior.

  17. MRI to predict prostate growth and development in children, adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing; Liu, Huijia; Wang, He; Wen, Didi; Huang, Xufang; Ren, Fang; Huan, Yi

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of MRI in predicting prostate growth and development. A total of 1,500 healthy male volunteers who underwent MRI of the pelvis were included in this prospective study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to age (group A, 2-5 years; group B, 6-10 years; group C, 11-15 years; group D, 16-20 years; group E, 21-25 years). Total prostate volume (TPV) as well as prostate central zone (CZ) and peripheral zone (PZ) were measured and evaluated on MRI. Data of the different groups were compared using variance analysis, Scheffé's method, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and Pearson's correlation. Statistical significance was inferred at P development scores were 0.08, 0.69, 1.56, 2.38, and 2.74, respectively. Both TPVs and zonal anatomy scores varied significantly among the five groups (P = 0.000). TPV and zonal anatomy score increased with increasing age. MRI provides a reliable quantitative reference for prostate growth and development. • When and how the prostate develops after birth remains unclear. • Prostate volume increases rapidly after the age of 10 years. • MRI provides a reliable objective and quantitative reference for prostate growth and development.

  18. An fMRI study on variation of visuospatial cognitive performance of young male due to highly concentrated oxygen administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soon Cheol; Kim, Ik Hyeon; Tack, Gye Rae; Sohn, Jin Hun

    2004-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of 30% oxygen administration on the visuospatial cognitive performance using fMRI. Eight college students (right-handed, average age 23.5) were selected as subjects for this study. Oxygen supply equipment which gives 21% and 30% oxygen at a constant rate of 8L/min was developed for this study. To measure the performance of visuospatial cognition, two questionnaires with similar difficulty containing 20 questions each were also developed. Experiment was designed as two runs: run for visuospatial cognition test with normal air (21% of oxygen) and run for visuospatial cognition test with highly concentrated air (30% of oxygen). Run consists of 4 blocks and each block has 8 control problems and 5 visuospatial problems. Functional brain images were taken from 3T MRI using single-shot EPI method. Activities of neural network due to performing visuospatial cognition test were identified using subtraction procedure, and activation areas while performing visuospatial cognition test were extracted using double subtraction procedure. Activities were observed at occipital lobe, parietal lobe, and frontal lobe when performing visuospatial cognition test following both 21% and 30% oxygen administration. But in case of only 30% oxygen administration there were more activities at left precuneus, left cuneus, right postcentral gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyri, right inferior frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, bilateral uvula, bilateral pyramis, and nodule compared with 21% oxygen administration. From results of visuospatial cognition test, accuracy rate increased in case of 30% oxygen administration. Thus it could be concluded that highly concentrated oxygen administration has positive effects on the visuospatial cognitive performance.

  19. MRI features can predict EGFR expression in lower grade gliomas. A voxel-based radiomic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yiming; Liu, Xing; Qian, Zenghui; Fan, Xing; Li, Shaowu; Jiang, Tao [Capital Medical University, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing (China); Xu, Kaibin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); Wang, Kai [Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing (China); Wang, Yinyan [Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing (China); Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing (China)

    2018-01-15

    To identify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features associated with epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression level in lower grade gliomas using radiomic analysis. 270 lower grade glioma patients with known EGFR expression status were randomly assigned into training (n=200) and validation (n=70) sets, and were subjected to feature extraction. Using a logistic regression model, a signature of MRI features was identified to be predictive of the EGFR expression level in lower grade gliomas in the training set, and the accuracy of prediction was assessed in the validation set. A signature of 41 MRI features achieved accuracies of 82.5% (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.90) in the training set and 90.0% (AUC = 0.95) in the validation set. This radiomic signature consisted of 25 first-order statistics or related wavelet features (including range, standard deviation, uniformity, variance), one shape and size-based feature (spherical disproportion), and 15 textural features or related wavelet features (including sum variance, sum entropy, run percentage). A radiomic signature allowing for the prediction of the EGFR expression level in patients with lower grade glioma was identified, suggesting that using tumour-derived radiological features for predicting genomic information is feasible. (orig.)

  20. Prediction of clinical course of glioblastomas by MRI during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitzen, Christina; Schild, Hans H.; Bungart, Birgitta; Luetter, Christiana; Muedder, Thomas; Wilhelm-Buchstab, Timo; Schueller, Heinrich; Herrlinger, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Determine the value of MR studies in patients undergoing radiotherapy for glioblastomas pre and during radiotherapy to predict the clinical course. Patients and Methods: MR follow-up studies were performed in 33 patients with glioblastomas before radiotherapy, after 30 Gy, after 60 Gy, and in the treatment follow-up. Findings on MR were categorized into: definite progress, questionable progress, status idem. Patients were followed clinically (median for 11 months). Results: After 30 Gy 23/33 (70%) of the MR examination showed status idem. 10/33 (30%) demonstrated definite (n = 6) or questionable (n = 4) progress. Further tumor progress was faster in these patients and patients succumb to their disease earlier (9 vs. 22 months). The 60 Gy study showed definite (n = 8) and questionable (n = 6) progress in 14/33 (42%) cases. All these tumors were progressing faster and were associated with a comparatively reduced life expectancy. Conclusion: MR follow-up studies after 30 Gy in patients undergoing radiotherapy for glioblastomas allow for prognostic appraisal, and potentially early modification of treatment. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) and MRI for prediction of circumferential resection margin (CRM) for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Catherine; Hague, Cameron; Xiong, Wei; Raval, Manoj; Karimuddin, Ahmer; Brown, Carl; Phang, P Terry

    2017-05-01

    ERUS and MRI are used for preoperative imaging of rectal cancer. Here, we compare ERUS and MRI for accuracy of CRM prediction at mid- and distal rectal locations. In retrospective review, 20 rectal cancer patients having TME surgery had both ERUS and MRI preoperatively: 8 mid rectum and 12 in distal rectum. Predicted CRM by ERUS and MRI were compared to TME pathology. Overall, predicted CRM was 6.5 ± 3.6 mm by ERUS, 7.7 ± 5.0 mm by MRI, and 6.0 ± 4.6 mm by pathology. Overall, correlation coefficients to pathology were 0.77 (p = 0.0004) for ERUS and 0.64 (p = 0.008) for MRI. In distal rectum, correlation coefficients were 0.71 (p = 0.02) for ERUS and -0.10 (p = 0.79) for MRI. In mid rectum, correlation coefficients were 0.92 (p = 0.01) for ERUS and 0.44 (p = 0.38) for MRI. While MRI is used routinely for preoperative rectal cancer imaging, ERUS can provide additional assessment of CRM for mid or distal rectal lesions. Further investigation is needed to support these preliminary ERUS CRM findings in mid and distal rectum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Informant-reported cognitive symptoms that predict amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek-Ahmadi Michael

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiating amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from normal cognition is difficult in clinical settings. Self-reported and informant-reported memory complaints occur often in both clinical groups, which then necessitates the use of a comprehensive neuropsychological examination to make a differential diagnosis. However, the ability to identify cognitive symptoms that are predictive of aMCI through informant-based information may provide some clinical utility in accurately identifying individuals who are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods The current study utilized a case-control design using data from an ongoing validation study of the Alzheimer's Questionnaire (AQ, an informant-based dementia assessment. Data from 51 cognitively normal (CN individuals participating in a brain donation program and 47 aMCI individuals seen in a neurology practice at the same institute were analyzed to determine which AQ items differentiated aMCI from CN individuals. Results Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis which controlled for age and education showed that 4 AQ items were strong indicators of aMCI which included: repetition of statements and/or questions [OR 13.20 (3.02, 57.66]; trouble knowing the day, date, month, year, and time [OR 17.97 (2.63, 122.77]; difficulty managing finances [OR 11.60 (2.10, 63.99]; and decreased sense of direction [OR 5.84 (1.09, 31.30]. Conclusions Overall, these data indicate that certain informant-reported cognitive symptoms may help clinicians differentiate individuals with aMCI from those with normal cognition. Items pertaining to repetition of statements, orientation, ability to manage finances, and visuospatial disorientation had high discriminatory power.

  3. Hazard Forecasting by MRI: A Prediction Algorithm of the First Kind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.

    2003-12-01

    Seismic gaps do not tell us when and where the next earthquake is due. We present new results on limited earthquake hazard prediction at plate boundaries. Our algorithm quantifies earthquake hazard in seismic gaps. The prediction window found for M7 is on the order of 50 km by 20 years (Lomnitz, 1996a). The earth is unstable with respect to small perturbations of the initial conditions. A prediction of the first kind is an estimate of the time evolution of a complex system with fixed boundary conditions in response to changes in the initial state, for example, weather prediction (Edward Lorenz, 1975; Hasselmann, 2002). We use the catalog of large world earthquakes as a proxy for the initial conditions. The MRI algorithm simulates the response of the system to updating the catalog. After a local stress transient dP the entropy decays as (grad dP)2 due to transient flows directed toward the epicenter. Healing is the thermodynamic process which resets the state of stress. It proceeds as a power law from the rupture boundary inwards, as in a wound. The half-life of a rupture is defined as the healing time which shrinks the size of a scar by half. Healed segments of plate boundary can rupture again. From observations in Chile, Mexico and Japan we find that the half-life of a seismic rupture is about 20 years, in agreement with seismic gap observations. The moment ratio MR is defined as the contrast between the cumulative regional moment release and the local moment deficiency at time t along the plate boundary. The procedure is called MRI. The findings: (1) MRI works; (2) major earthquakes match prominent peaks in the MRI graph; (3) important events (Central Chile 1985; Mexico 1985; Kobe 1995) match MRI peaks which began to emerge 10 to 20 years before the earthquake; (4) The emergence of peaks in MRI depends on earlier ruptures that occurred, not adjacent to but at 10 to 20 fault lengths from the epicentral region, in agreement with triggering effects. The hazard

  4. State Mindfulness During Meditation Predicts Enhanced Cognitive Reappraisal

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    Hanley, Adam; Farb, Norman A.; Froeliger, Brett E.

    2013-01-01

    Putatively, mindfulness meditation involves generation of a state of “nonappraisal”, yet, little is known about how mindfulness may influence appraisal processes. We investigated whether the state and practice of mindfulness could enhance cognitive reappraisal. Participants (N = 44; M age = 24.44, SD = 4.00, range 19 – 38, 82.2% female) were randomized to either 1) mindfulness, 2) suppression, or 3) mind-wandering induction training conditions. Cognitive reappraisal was assessed with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) prior to experimental induction, and state mindfulness was assessed immediately following induction using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS). Participants practiced their assigned strategy for one week and then were reassessed with the ERQ reappraisal subscale. Participants receiving mindfulness training reported significantly higher levels of state mindfulness than participants in the thought suppression and mind wandering conditions. Although brief mindfulness training did not lead to significantly greater increases in reappraisal than the other two conditions, state mindfulness during mindfulness meditation was prospectively associated with increases in reappraisal. Path analysis revealed that the indirect effect between mindfulness training and reappraisal was significant through state mindfulness. Degree of state mindfulness achieved during the act of mindfulness meditation significantly predicted increases in reappraisal over time, suggesting that mindfulness may promote emotion regulation by enhancing cognitive reappraisal. PMID:26085851

  5. Prediction of posterior ligamentous complex injury in thoracolumbar fractures using non-MRI imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Maheswaran, Anupama; Aiyer, Siddharth N; Kanna, Rishi; Dumpa, Srikanth Reddy; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to formulate a radiological index based on plain radiographs and computer tomography (CT) to reliably detect posterior ligamentous complex (PLC) injury without need for MRI. Sixty out of 148 consecutive thoracolumbar fractures with doubtful PLC were assessed with MRI, CT and radiographs. PLC injury was assessed with the following radiological parameters: superior-inferior end plate angle (SIEA), vertebral body height (BH), local kyphosis (LK), inter-spinous distance (ISD) and inter-pedicular distance (IPD) and correlated with MRI findings of PLC injury. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the predictive values for the parameters to identify PLC damage. MRI identified PLC injury in 25/60 cases. The ISD and LK were found to be significant predictors of PLC injury. On radiographs the mean LK with PLC damage was 25.86° compared to 21.02° with an intact PLC (p = 0.006). The ISD difference was 6.70 mm in cases with PLC damage compared to 2.86 mm with an intact PLC (p = 0.011). In CT images, the mean LK with PLC damage was 22.96° compared to 18.44° with an intact PLC ( p = 0.019). The ISD difference was 3.10 mm with PLC damage compared to 1.62 mm without PLC damage (p = 0.005). On plain radiographs the presence of LK greater than 20 °(CI 64-95) and ISD difference greater than 2 mm (CI 70-97) can predict PLC injury. These guidelines may be utilised in the emergency room especially when the associated cost, availability and time delay in performing MRI are a concern.

  6. Neural correlates of incidental memory in mild cognitive impairment: an fMRI study.

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    Mandzia, Jennifer L; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Grady, Cheryl L; Graham, Simon J; Black, Sandra E

    2009-05-01

    Behaviour and fMRI brain activation patterns were compared during encoding and recognition tasks in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=14) and normal controls (NC) (n=14). Deep (natural vs. man-made) and shallow (color vs. black and white) decisions were made at encoding and pictures from each condition were presented for yes/no recognition 20 min later. MCI showed less inferior frontal activation during deep (left only) and superficial encoding (bilaterally) and in both medial temporal lobes (MTL). When performance was equivalent (recognition of words encoded superficially), MTL activation was similar for the two groups, but during recognition testing of deeply encoded items NC showed more activation in both prefrontal and left MTL region. In a region of interest analysis, the extent of activation during deep encoding in the parahippocampi bilaterally and in left hippocampus correlated with subsequent recognition accuracy for those items in controls but not in MCI, which may reflect the heterogeneity of activation responses in conjunction with different degrees of pathology burden and progression status in the MCI group.

  7. MRI Markers of Neurodegenerative and Neurovascular Changes in Relation to Postoperative Delirium and Postoperative Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ilse M J; de Bresser, Jeroen; van Montfort, Simone J T; Slooter, Arjen J C; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    Postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) are common in elderly patients. The aim of the present review was to explore the association of neurodegenerative and neurovascular changes with the occurrence of POD and POCD. Fifteen MRI studies were identified by combining multiple search terms for POD, POCD, and brain imaging. These studies described a total of 1,422 patients and were all observational in design. Neurodegenerative changes (global and regional brain volumes) did not show a consistent association with the occurrence of POD (four studies) or POCD (two studies). In contrast, neurovascular changes (white matter hyperintensities and cerebral infarcts) were more consistently associated with the occurrence of POD (seven studies) and POCD (five studies). In conclusion, neurovascular changes appear to be consistently associated with the occurrence of POD and POCD, and may identify patients at increased risk of these conditions. Larger prospective studies are needed to study the consistency of these findings and to unravel the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A predictive coding account of bistable perception - a model-based fMRI study.

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    Veith Weilnhammer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In bistable vision, subjective perception wavers between two interpretations of a constant ambiguous stimulus. This dissociation between conscious perception and sensory stimulation has motivated various empirical studies on the neural correlates of bistable perception, but the neurocomputational mechanism behind endogenous perceptual transitions has remained elusive. Here, we recurred to a generic Bayesian framework of predictive coding and devised a model that casts endogenous perceptual transitions as a consequence of prediction errors emerging from residual evidence for the suppressed percept. Data simulations revealed close similarities between the model's predictions and key temporal characteristics of perceptual bistability, indicating that the model was able to reproduce bistable perception. Fitting the predictive coding model to behavioural data from an fMRI-experiment on bistable perception, we found a correlation across participants between the model parameter encoding perceptual stabilization and the behaviourally measured frequency of perceptual transitions, corroborating that the model successfully accounted for participants' perception. Formal model comparison with established models of bistable perception based on mutual inhibition and adaptation, noise or a combination of adaptation and noise was used for the validation of the predictive coding model against the established models. Most importantly, model-based analyses of the fMRI data revealed that prediction error time-courses derived from the predictive coding model correlated with neural signal time-courses in bilateral inferior frontal gyri and anterior insulae. Voxel-wise model selection indicated a superiority of the predictive coding model over conventional analysis approaches in explaining neural activity in these frontal areas, suggesting that frontal cortex encodes prediction errors that mediate endogenous perceptual transitions in bistable perception. Taken together

  9. A predictive coding account of bistable perception - a model-based fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilnhammer, Veith; Stuke, Heiner; Hesselmann, Guido; Sterzer, Philipp; Schmack, Katharina

    2017-05-01

    In bistable vision, subjective perception wavers between two interpretations of a constant ambiguous stimulus. This dissociation between conscious perception and sensory stimulation has motivated various empirical studies on the neural correlates of bistable perception, but the neurocomputational mechanism behind endogenous perceptual transitions has remained elusive. Here, we recurred to a generic Bayesian framework of predictive coding and devised a model that casts endogenous perceptual transitions as a consequence of prediction errors emerging from residual evidence for the suppressed percept. Data simulations revealed close similarities between the model's predictions and key temporal characteristics of perceptual bistability, indicating that the model was able to reproduce bistable perception. Fitting the predictive coding model to behavioural data from an fMRI-experiment on bistable perception, we found a correlation across participants between the model parameter encoding perceptual stabilization and the behaviourally measured frequency of perceptual transitions, corroborating that the model successfully accounted for participants' perception. Formal model comparison with established models of bistable perception based on mutual inhibition and adaptation, noise or a combination of adaptation and noise was used for the validation of the predictive coding model against the established models. Most importantly, model-based analyses of the fMRI data revealed that prediction error time-courses derived from the predictive coding model correlated with neural signal time-courses in bilateral inferior frontal gyri and anterior insulae. Voxel-wise model selection indicated a superiority of the predictive coding model over conventional analysis approaches in explaining neural activity in these frontal areas, suggesting that frontal cortex encodes prediction errors that mediate endogenous perceptual transitions in bistable perception. Taken together, our current work

  10. Fetal MRI for prediction of neonatal mortality following preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, Agnes; Sauer, Alexandra; Pollak, Arnold; Pataraia, Anna; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela; Helmer, Hanns; Brugger, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    Lung MRI volumetrics may be valuable for fetal assessment following early preterm premature rupture of the foetal membranes (pPROM). To evaluate the predictive value of MRI lung volumetrics after pPROM. Retrospective cohort study of 40 fetuses after pPROM in a large, tertiary, perinatal referral center. Fetuses underwent MRI lung volumetrics. Estimated lung volume was expressed as percentage of expected lung volume (our own normal references). Primary outcome was neonatal mortality due to respiratory distress before discharge from hospital. Gestational age range was 16-27 weeks. Estimated-to-expected lung volume was 73% in non-survivors and 102% in survivors (P < 0.05). There were no survivors with a lung volume less than 60% of expected. By logistic regression, mortality could be predicted with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 85%. Fetal MR lung volumetrics may be useful for predicting mortality due to respiratory distress in children with early gestational pPROM. (orig.)

  11. Fetal MRI for prediction of neonatal mortality following preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerschmidt, Agnes; Sauer, Alexandra; Pollak, Arnold [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Pataraia, Anna; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-11-15

    Lung MRI volumetrics may be valuable for fetal assessment following early preterm premature rupture of the foetal membranes (pPROM). To evaluate the predictive value of MRI lung volumetrics after pPROM. Retrospective cohort study of 40 fetuses after pPROM in a large, tertiary, perinatal referral center. Fetuses underwent MRI lung volumetrics. Estimated lung volume was expressed as percentage of expected lung volume (our own normal references). Primary outcome was neonatal mortality due to respiratory distress before discharge from hospital. Gestational age range was 16-27 weeks. Estimated-to-expected lung volume was 73% in non-survivors and 102% in survivors (P < 0.05). There were no survivors with a lung volume less than 60% of expected. By logistic regression, mortality could be predicted with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 85%. Fetal MR lung volumetrics may be useful for predicting mortality due to respiratory distress in children with early gestational pPROM. (orig.)

  12. Quantitative multiparametric MRI in uveal melanoma: increased tumor permeability may predict monosomy 3

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    Kamrava, Mitchell; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Roberts, Kristofer; Demanes, D.J. [University of California Los Angeles, Department of Radiation Oncology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sepahdari, Ali R.; Leu, Kevin; Ellingson, Benjamin M. [University of California Los Angeles, Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McCannel, Tara [University of California Los Angeles, Department of Ophthalmology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Uveal melanoma is a rare intraocular tumor with heterogeneous biological behavior, and additional noninvasive markers that may predict outcome are needed. Diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging may prove useful but have previously been limited in their ability to evaluate ocular tumors. Our purpose was to show the feasibility and potential value of a multiparametric (mp-) MRI protocol employing state of the art diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging techniques. Sixteen patients with uveal melanoma were imaged with mp-MRI. Multishot readout-segmented echoplanar diffusion-weighted imaging, quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR perfusion imaging, and anatomic sequences were obtained. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around tumors for calculation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and perfusion metrics (K{sup trans}, v{sub e}, k{sub ep}, and v{sub p}). A generalized linear fit model was used to compare various MRI values with the American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) tumor group and monosomy 3 status with significance set at P < 0.05. mp-MRI was performed successfully in all cases. MRI tumor height (mean [standard deviation]) was 6.5 mm (3.0). ROI volume was 278 mm{sup 3} (222). ADC was 1.07 (0.27) x 10-3 mm{sup 2}/s. DCE metrics were K{sup trans} 0.085/min (0.063), v{sub e} 0.060 (0.052), k{sub ep} 1.20/min (0.32), and v{sub p} 1.48 % (0.82). Patients with >33 % monosomy 3 had higher K{sup trans} and higher v{sub e} values than those with disomy 3 or ≤33 % monosomy (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences between ADC (P = 0.07), k{sub ep} (P = 0.37), and v{sub p} with respect to monosomy 3. mp-MRI for ocular tumor imaging using multishot EPI DWI and quantitative DCE perfusion is technically feasible. mp-MRI may help predict monosomy 3 in uveal melanoma. (orig.)

  13. Deep learning predictions of survival based on MRI in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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    van der Burgh, Hannelore K; Schmidt, Ruben; Westeneng, Henk-Jan; de Reus, Marcel A; van den Berg, Leonard H; van den Heuvel, Martijn P

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neuromuscular disease, with large variation in survival between patients. Currently, it remains rather difficult to predict survival based on clinical parameters alone. Here, we set out to use clinical characteristics in combination with MRI data to predict survival of ALS patients using deep learning, a machine learning technique highly effective in a broad range of big-data analyses. A group of 135 ALS patients was included from whom high-resolution diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted images were acquired at the first visit to the outpatient clinic. Next, each of the patients was monitored carefully and survival time to death was recorded. Patients were labeled as short, medium or long survivors, based on their recorded time to death as measured from the time of disease onset. In the deep learning procedure, the total group of 135 patients was split into a training set for deep learning (n = 83 patients), a validation set (n = 20) and an independent evaluation set (n = 32) to evaluate the performance of the obtained deep learning networks. Deep learning based on clinical characteristics predicted survival category correctly in 68.8% of the cases. Deep learning based on MRI predicted 62.5% correctly using structural connectivity and 62.5% using brain morphology data. Notably, when we combined the three sources of information, deep learning prediction accuracy increased to 84.4%. Taken together, our findings show the added value of MRI with respect to predicting survival in ALS, demonstrating the advantage of deep learning in disease prognostication.

  14. MRI to predict prostate growth and development in children, adolescents and young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Jing; Liu, Huijia; Wen, Didi; Huang, Xufang; Ren, Fang; Huan, Yi; Wang, He

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of MRI in predicting prostate growth and development. A total of 1,500 healthy male volunteers who underwent MRI of the pelvis were included in this prospective study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to age (group A, 2-5 years; group B, 6-10 years; group C, 11-15 years; group D, 16-20 years; group E, 21-25 years). Total prostate volume (TPV) as well as prostate central zone (CZ) and peripheral zone (PZ) were measured and evaluated on MRI. Data of the different groups were compared using variance analysis, Scheffe's method, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and Pearson's correlation. Statistical significance was inferred at P 3 , 0.05 cm 3 , 2.83 cm 3 , 8.32 cm 3, and 11.56 cm 3 , respectively, and the median prostate development scores were 0.08, 0.69, 1.56, 2.38, and 2.74, respectively. Both TPVs and zonal anatomy scores varied significantly among the five groups (P = 0.000). TPV and zonal anatomy score increased with increasing age. MRI provides a reliable quantitative reference for prostate growth and development. (orig.)

  15. High-resolution MRI predicts steroid injection response in carpal tunnel syndrome patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Takatoshi; Oki, Hodaka; Kinoshita, Shunsuke; Yamashita, Yoshiko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Hayashida, Yoshiko; Korogi, Yukunori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Oshige, Takahisa; Sakai, Akinori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kitakyushu (Japan); Matsuyama, Atsushi; Hisaoka, Masanori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Oncology, Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    To correlate median nerve T2 signal and shape at the carpal tunnel with steroid injection (SI) response in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients. One hundred and sixty-three CTS wrists of 92 consecutive patients who were scheduled to undergo SI were prospectively evaluated with 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a nerve conduction study. All patients underwent axial high-resolution T2-weighted MRI (in-plane resolution of 0.25 x 0.25 mm). The CTS wrists were classified into three groups according to the nerve T2 signal and the flattening ratio at the hook of hamate level: group 1, high and oval; group 2, high and flat; group 3, low and flat. Clinical response to SI was evaluated at 6 months after injection. One hundred and thirteen of the 163 wrists (69.3 %) responded well to SI. The percentage of improvement was 81.7 % (49/60) in group 1, 69.9 % (51/73) in group 2, and 43.3 % (13/30) in group 3 (P < 0.01). On stepwise logistic regression analysis high-resolution MRI was the only significant independent factor for SI response in CTS patients (P < 0.01). High-resolution MRI correlates well with SI response in CTS patients and seems useful for predicting SI response. (orig.)

  16. Perfusion MRI for the prediction of treatment response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Joon Seok; Baek, Song-Ee; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Suh, Jinsuk; Kim, Ki Whang; Kim, Daehong; Myoung, Sungmin; Choi, Junjeong; Shin, Sang Joon; Kim, Nam Kyu; Keum, Ki Chang

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of perfusion MRI as a potential biomarker for predicting response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer. Thirty-nine patients with primary rectal carcinoma who were scheduled for preoperative CRT were prospectively recruited. Perfusion MRI was performed with a 3.0-T MRI system in all patients before therapy, at the end of the 2nd week of therapy, and before surgery. The K trans (volume transfer constant) and V e (extracellular extravascular space fraction) were calculated. Before CRT, the mean tumour K trans in the downstaged group was significantly higher than that in the non-downstaged group (P = 0.0178), but there was no significant difference between tumour regression grade (TRG) responders and TRG non-responders (P = 0.1392). Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences for evolution of K trans values both between downstaged and non-downstaged groups (P = 0.0215) and between TRG responders and TRG non-responders (P = 0.0001). Regarding V e , no significant differences were observed both between downstaged and non-downstaged groups (P = 0.689) or between TRG responders and TRG non-responders (P = 0.887). Perfusion MRI of rectal cancer can be useful for assessing tumoural K trans changes by CRT. Tumours with high pre-CRT K trans values tended to respond favourably to CRT, particularly in terms of downstaging criteria. (orig.)

  17. Connectivity patterns in cognitive control networks predict naturalistic multitasking ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tanya; Liu, De-Cyuan; Hsieh, Shulan

    2018-06-01

    Multitasking is a fundamental aspect of everyday life activities. To achieve a complex, multi-component goal, the tasks must be subdivided into sub-tasks and component steps, a critical function of prefrontal networks. The prefrontal cortex is considered to be organized in a cascade of executive processes from the sensorimotor to anterior prefrontal cortex, which includes execution of specific goal-directed action, to encoding and maintaining task rules, and finally monitoring distal goals. In the current study, we used a virtual multitasking paradigm to tap into real-world performance and relate it to each individual's resting-state functional connectivity in fMRI. While did not find any correlation between global connectivity of any of the major networks with multitasking ability, global connectivity of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) was predictive of multitasking ability. Further analysis showed that multivariate connectivity patterns within the sensorimotor network (SMN), and between-network connectivity of the frontoparietal network (FPN) and dorsal attention network (DAN), predicted individual multitasking ability and could be generalized to novel individuals. Together, these results support previous research that prefrontal networks underlie multitasking abilities and show that connectivity patterns in the cascade of prefrontal networks may explain individual differences in performance. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Altered functional connectivity of fusiform gyrus in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a resting state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuPing eCai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual cognition such as face recognition requires a high level of functional interaction between distributed regions of a network. It has been reported that the fusiform gyrus (FG is an important brain area involved in facial cognition; altered connectivity of FG to some other regions may lead to a deficit in visual cognition especially face recognition. However, whether functional connectivity between the FG and other brain regions changes remains unclear during the resting state in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI subjects. Here, we employed a resting state functional MRI (fMRI to examine changes in functional connectivity of left/right FG comparing aMCI patients with age-matched control subjects. Forty-eight aMCI and thirty-eight control subjects from the Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI were analyzed. We focused on the correlation between low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in the FG and those in all other brain regions. Compared to the control group, we found some discrepant regions in the aMCI group which presented increased or decreased connectivity with the left/right FG including the left precuneus, left lingual gyrus, right thalamus, supramarginal gyrus, left supplementary motor area, left inferior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampus. More importantly, we also obtained that both left and right FG have increased functional connections with the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG and right anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC in aMCI patients. That was not a coincidence and might imply that the MOG and ACC also play a critical role in visual cognition, especially face recognition. These findings in a large part supported our hypothesis and provided a new insight in understanding the important subtype of MCI.

  19. Extrahepatic biliary atresia with choledochal cyst: Prenatal MRI predicted and post natally confirmed: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Nori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA is an uncommon cause of neonatal jaundice. Antenatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI diagnosis of EHBA has not been published to the best of our knowledge till date. EHBA with cystic component is likely to be mistaken for choledochal cyst. A case that was antenatally predicted and postnatally confirmed by surgery and histopathology is being reported. All imaging signs are analyzed herewith. Imaging helps in the prediction of EHBA and also helps in early postnatal surgical referral which in turn improves the results of Kasai′s portoenterostomy.

  20. Cognitive and neural strategies during control of the anterior cingulate cortex by fMRI neurofeedback in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S Cordes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive functioning is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, leading to significant disabilities in everyday functioning. Its improvement is an important treatment target. Neurofeedback (NF seems a promising method to address the neural dysfunctions underlying those cognitive impairments. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a central hub for cognitive processing, is one of the dysfunctional brain regions in schizophrenia. Here we conducted NF training based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in patients with schizophrenia to enable them to control their ACC activity. Training was performed over three days in a group of 11 patients with schizophrenia and 11 healthy controls. Social feedback was provided in accordance with the evoked activity in the selected region of interest (ROI. Neural and cognitive strategies were examined off-line. Both groups learned to control the activity of their ACC but used different neural strategies: Patients activated the dorsal and healthy controls the rostral subdivision. Patients mainly used imagination of music to elicit activity and the control group imagination of sports. However, the difference in neural control did not result from the differences in cognitive strategies but from diagnosis alone. Based on social reinforcers, schizophrenia patients can learn to regulate localized brain activity. Cognitive strategies and neural network location differ, however, from healthy controls. These data emphasize that for therapeutic interventions in schizophrenia compensatory strategies may emerge. Specific cognitive skills or specific dysfunctional networks should be addressed to train impaired skills. Social neurofeedback based on fMRI may be one method to accomplish precise learning targets.

  1. Response of the medial temporal lobe network in amnestic mild cognitive impairment to therapeutic intervention assessed by fMRI and memory task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Bakker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI have detected hyperactivity in the hippocampus during task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Such elevated activation has been localized to the hippocampal dentate gyrus/CA3 (DG/CA3 during performance of a task designed to detect the computational contributions of those hippocampal circuits to episodic memory. The current investigation was conducted to test the hypothesis that greater hippocampal activation in aMCI represents a dysfunctional shift in the normal computational balance of the DG/CA3 regions, augmenting CA3-driven pattern completion at the expense of pattern separation mediated by the dentate gyrus. We tested this hypothesis using an intervention based on animal research demonstrating a beneficial effect on cognition by reducing excess hippocampal neural activity with low doses of the atypical anti-epileptic levetiracetam. In a within-subject design we assessed the effects of levetiracetam in three cohorts of aMCI participants, each receiving a different dose of levetiracetam. Elevated activation in the DG/CA3 region, together with impaired task performance, was detected in each aMCI cohort relative to an aged control group. We observed significant improvement in memory task performance under drug treatment relative to placebo in the aMCI cohorts at the 62.5 and 125 mg BID doses of levetiracetam. Drug treatment in those cohorts increased accuracy dependent on pattern separation processes and reduced errors attributable to an over-riding effect of pattern completion while normalizing fMRI activation in the DG/CA3 and entorhinal cortex. Similar to findings in animal studies, higher dosing at 250 mg BID had no significant benefit on either task performance or fMRI activation. Consistent with predictions based on the computational functions of the DG/CA3 elucidated in basic animal research, these data support a dysfunctional encoding mechanism

  2. Effect of Imaging Parameter Thresholds on MRI Prediction of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Response in Breast Cancer Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ching Lo

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictive performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI markers in breast cancer patients by subtype. Sixty-four patients with locally advanced breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Each patient received a dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-MRI at baseline, after 1 cycle of chemotherapy and before surgery. Functional tumor volume (FTV, the imaging marker measured by DCE-MRI, was computed at various thresholds of percent enhancement (PEt and signal-enhancement ratio (SERt. Final FTV before surgery and percent changes of FTVs at the early and final treatment time points were used to predict patients' recurrence-free survival. The full cohort and each subtype defined by the status of hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HR+/HER2-, HER2+, triple negative were analyzed. Predictions were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazard model when PEt changed from 30% to 200% in steps of 10% and SERt changed from 0 to 2 in steps of 0.2. Predictions with high hazard ratios and low p-values were considered as strong. Different profiles of FTV as predictors for recurrence-free survival were observed in each breast cancer subtype and strong associations with survival were observed at different PEt/SERt combinations that resulted in different FTVs. Findings from this retrospective study suggest that the predictive performance of imaging markers based on FTV may be improved with enhancement thresholds being optimized separately for clinically-relevant subtypes defined by HR and HER2 receptor expression.

  3. Total variation regularization for fMRI-based prediction of behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Vincent; Gramfort, Alexandre; Varoquaux, Gaël; Eger, Evelyn; Thirion, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    While medical imaging typically provides massive amounts of data, the extraction of relevant information for predictive diagnosis remains a difficult challenge. Functional MRI (fMRI) data, that provide an indirect measure of task-related or spontaneous neuronal activity, are classically analyzed in a mass-univariate procedure yielding statistical parametric maps. This analysis framework disregards some important principles of brain organization: population coding, distributed and overlapping representations. Multivariate pattern analysis, i.e., the prediction of behavioural variables from brain activation patterns better captures this structure. To cope with the high dimensionality of the data, the learning method has to be regularized. However, the spatial structure of the image is not taken into account in standard regularization methods, so that the extracted features are often hard to interpret. More informative and interpretable results can be obtained with the ℓ1 norm of the image gradient, a.k.a. its Total Variation (TV), as regularization. We apply for the first time this method to fMRI data, and show that TV regularization is well suited to the purpose of brain mapping while being a powerful tool for brain decoding. Moreover, this article presents the first use of TV regularization for classification. PMID:21317080

  4. Predicting human decisions in socioeconomic interaction using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Maurice; Mönch, Tobias; Müller, Charles; Bernarding, Johannes

    2009-02-01

    A major field in cognitive neuroscience investigates neuronal correlates of human decision-making processes [1, 2]. Is it possible to predict a decision before it is actually revealed by the volunteer? In the presented manuscript we use a standard paradigm from economic behavioral research that proved emotional influences on human decision making: the Ultimatum Game (UG). In the UG, two players have the opportunity to split a sum of money. One player is deemed the proposer and the other, the responder. The proposer makes an offer as to how this money should be split between the two. The second player can either accept or reject this offer. If it is accepted, the money is split as proposed. If rejected, then neither player receives anything. In the presented study a real-time fMRI system was used to derive the brain activation of the responder. Using a Relevance-Vector-Machine classifier it was possible to predict if the responder will accept or reject an offer. The classification result was presented to the operator 1-2 seconds before the volunteer pressed a button to convey his decision. The classification accuracy reached about 70% averaged over six subjects.

  5. Are traditional cognitive tests useful in predicting clinical success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A; Deem, Lisa P; Straja, Sorin R

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the predictive value of the Dental Admission Test (DAT) for clinical success using Ackerman's theory of ability determinants of skilled performance. The Ackerman theory is a valid, reliable schema in the applied psychology literature used to predict complex skill acquisition. Inconsistent stimulus-response skill acquisition depends primarily on determinants of cognitive ability. Consistent information-processing tasks have been described as "automatic," in which stimuli and responses are mapped in a manner that allows for complete certainty once the relationships have been learned. It is theorized that the skills necessary for success in the clinical component of dental schools involve a significant amount of automatic processing demands and, as such, student performance in the clinics should begin to converge as task practice is realized and tasks become more consistent. Subtest scores of the DAT of four classes were correlated with final grades in nine clinical courses. Results showed that the DAT subtest scores played virtually no role with regard to the final clinical grades. Based on this information, the DAT scores were determined to be of no predictive value in clinical achievement.

  6. Framing From Experience: Cognitive Processes and Predictions of Risky Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Mehlhorn, Katja

    2016-07-01

    A framing bias shows risk aversion in problems framed as "gains" and risk seeking in problems framed as "losses," even when these are objectively equivalent and probabilities and outcomes values are explicitly provided. We test this framing bias in situations where decision makers rely on their own experience, sampling the problem's options (safe and risky) and seeing the outcomes before making a choice. In Experiment 1, we replicate the framing bias in description-based decisions and find risk indifference in gains and losses in experience-based decisions. Predictions of an Instance-Based Learning model suggest that objective probabilities as well as the number of samples taken are factors that contribute to the lack of framing effect. We test these two factors in Experiment 2 and find no framing effect when a few samples are taken but when large samples are taken, the framing effect appears regardless of the objective probability values. Implications of behavioral results and cognitive modeling are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Asymmetric predictability and cognitive competition in football penalty shootouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misirlisoy, Erman; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-08-18

    Sports provide powerful demonstrations of cognitive strategies underlying competitive behavior. Penalty shootouts in football (soccer) involve direct competition between elite players and absorb the attention of millions. The penalty shootout between Germany and England in the 1990 World Cup semifinal was viewed by an estimated 46.49% of the UK population. In a penalty shootout, a goalkeeper must defend their goal without teammate assistance while an opposing series of kickers aim to kick the ball past them into the net. As in many sports, the ball during a penalty kick often approaches too quickly for the goalkeeper to react to its direction of motion; instead, the goalkeeper must guess the likely direction of the kick, and dive in anticipation, if they are to have a chance of saving the shot. We examined all 361 kicks from the 37 penalty shootouts that occurred in World Cup and Euro Cup matches over a 36-year period from 1976 to 2012 and show that goalkeepers displayed a clear sequential bias. Following repeated kicks in the same direction, goalkeepers became increasingly likely to dive in the opposite direction on the next kick. Surprisingly, kickers failed to exploit these goalkeeper biases. Our findings highlight the importance of monitoring and predicting sequential behavior in real-world competition. Penalty shootouts pit one goalkeeper against several kickers in rapid succession. Asymmetries in the cognitive capacities of an individual versus a group could produce significant advantages over opponents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High field fMRI reveals thalamocortical integration of segregated cognitive and emotional processing in mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline Danielle Metzger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Thalamocortical loops, connecting functionally segregated, higher order cortical regions and basal ganglia, have been proposed not only for well described motor and sensory regions, but also for limbic and prefrontal areas relevant for affective and cognitive processes. These functions are, however, more specific to humans, rendering most invasive neuroanatomical approaches impossible and interspecies translations difficult. In contrast, non invasive imaging of functional neuroanatomy using fMRI allows for the development of elaborate task paradigms capable of testing the specific functionalities proposed for these circuits. Until recently, spatial resolution largely limited the anatomical definition of functional clusters at the level of distinct thalamic nuclei. Since their anatomical distinction seems crucial not only for the segregation of cognitive and limbic loops but also for the detection of their functional interaction during cognitive-emotional integration, we applied high resolution fMRI on 7 Tesla.Using an event related design, we could isolate thalamic effects for preceding attention as well as experience of erotic stimuli. We could demonstrate specific thalamic effects of general emotional arousal in mediodorsal nucleus and effects specific to preceding attention and expectancy in intralaminar centromedian/parafascicular complex (CM/PF. These thalamic effects were paralleled by specific coactivations in the head of caudate nucleus as well as segregated portions of rostral or caudal cingulate cortex and anterior insula supporting distinct thalamo-striato-cortical loops. In addition to predescribed effects of sexual arousal in hypothalamus and ventral striatum, high resolution fMRI could extent this network to paraventricular thalamus encompassing laterodorsal and parataenial nuclei. We could lend evidence to segregated subcortical loops which integrate cognitive and emotional aspects of basic human behaviour such as sexual

  9. Differentiating SCT and inattentive symptoms in ADHD using fMRI measures of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Catherine; Krafft, Cynthia E; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with different impairment profiles in the symptom domains of hyperactivity/impulsivity and/or inattention. An additional symptom domain of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) has also been proposed. Although there is a degree of correlation between the SCT symptom domain and inattention, it has been proposed as a distinct disorder independent of ADHD. The objective of this study was to examine the neural substrates of cue-related preparatory processes associated with SCT symptoms versus inattentive symptoms in a group of adolescents with ADHD. We also compared cue-related effects in the entire ADHD group compared with a group of typically developing (TD) peers. A modified cued flanker paradigm and fMRI examined brain activity associated with attention preparation and motor response preparation. Between group contrasts between the ADHD and TD group revealed significant hypoactivity in the ADHD group during general attention preparation in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and in the right superior parietal lobe (SPL) during response preparation. In the ADHD group, greater numbers of SCT symptoms were associated with hypoactivity in the left SPL to cues in general whereas greater numbers of inattentive symptoms were associated with greater activity in the SMA to cues that provided no information and less activity in the thalamus during response preparation. Hypoactivity in the SPL with increasing SCT symptoms may be associated with impaired reorienting or shifting of attention. Altered activity in the SMA and thalamus with increasing inattention may be associated with a general problem with response preparation, which may also reflect inefficient processing of the response preparation cue. Our results support a degree of differentiation between SCT and inattentive symptom profiles within adolescents with ADHD.

  10. Test-retest reliability of evoked BOLD signals from a cognitive-emotive fMRI test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plichta, Michael M; Schwarz, Adam J; Grimm, Oliver; Morgen, Katrin; Mier, Daniela; Haddad, Leila; Gerdes, Antje B M; Sauer, Carina; Tost, Heike; Esslinger, Christine; Colman, Peter; Wilson, Frederick; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2012-04-15

    Even more than in cognitive research applications, moving fMRI to the clinic and the drug development process requires the generation of stable and reliable signal changes. The performance characteristics of the fMRI paradigm constrain experimental power and may require different study designs (e.g., crossover vs. parallel groups), yet fMRI reliability characteristics can be strongly dependent on the nature of the fMRI task. The present study investigated both within-subject and group-level reliability of a combined three-task fMRI battery targeting three systems of wide applicability in clinical and cognitive neuroscience: an emotional (face matching), a motivational (monetary reward anticipation) and a cognitive (n-back working memory) task. A group of 25 young, healthy volunteers were scanned twice on a 3T MRI scanner with a mean test-retest interval of 14.6 days. FMRI reliability was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) applied at three different levels ranging from a global to a localized and fine spatial scale: (1) reliability of group-level activation maps over the whole brain and within targeted regions of interest (ROIs); (2) within-subject reliability of ROI-mean amplitudes and (3) within-subject reliability of individual voxels in the target ROIs. Results showed robust evoked activation of all three tasks in their respective target regions (emotional task=amygdala; motivational task=ventral striatum; cognitive task=right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortices) with high effect sizes (ES) of ROI-mean summary values (ES=1.11-1.44 for the faces task, 0.96-1.43 for the reward task, 0.83-2.58 for the n-back task). Reliability of group level activation was excellent for all three tasks with ICCs of 0.89-0.98 at the whole brain level and 0.66-0.97 within target ROIs. Within-subject reliability of ROI-mean amplitudes across sessions was fair to good for the reward task (ICCs=0.56-0.62) and, dependent on the particular ROI

  11. Predictive value of cognition for different domains of outcome in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthausen, Esther A E; Wiersma, Durk; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Dingemans, Peter M; Schene, Aart H; van den Bosch, Robert J

    2007-01-15

    The aim of this study was to see whether and how cognition predicts outcome in recent-onset schizophrenia in a large range of domains such as course of illness, self-care, interpersonal functioning, vocational functioning and need for care. At inclusion, 115 recent-onset patients were tested on a cognitive battery and 103 patients participated in the follow-up 2 years after inclusion. Differences in outcome between cognitively normal and cognitively impaired patients were also analysed. Cognitive measures at inclusion did not predict number of relapses, activities of daily living and interpersonal functioning. Time in psychosis or in full remission, as well as need for care, were partly predicted by specific cognitive measures. Although statistically significant, the predictive value of cognition with regard to clinical outcome was limited. There was a significant difference between patients with and without cognitive deficits in competitive employment status and vocational functioning. The predictive value of cognition for different social outcome domains varies. It seems that cognition most strongly predicts work performance, where having a cognitive deficit, regardless of the nature of the deficit, acts as a rate-limiting factor.

  12. MRI of the wrist and finger joints in inflammatory joint diseases at 1-year interval: MRI features to predict bone erosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savnik, Anette; Malmskov, Hanne; Graff, Lykke B.; Danneskiold-Samsoee, Bente; Bliddal, Henning; Thomsen, Henrik S.; Nielsen, Henrik; Boesen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of MRI determined synovial volumes and bone marrow oedema to predict progressions in bone erosions after 1 year in patients with different types of inflammatory joint diseases. Eighty-four patients underwent MRI, laboratory and clinical examination at baseline and 1 year later. Magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist and finger joints was performed in 22 patients with rheumatoid arthritis less than 3 years (group 1) who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, 18 patients with reactive arthritis or psoriatic arthritis (group 2), 22 patients with more than 3 years duration of rheumatoid arthritis, who fulfilled the ACR criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (group 3), and 20 patients with arthralgia (group 4). The volume of the synovial membrane was outlined manually before and after gadodiamide injection on the T1-weighted sequences in the finger joints. Bones with marrow oedema were summed up in the wrist and fingers on short-tau inversion recovery sequences. These MRI features was compared with the number of bone erosions 1 year later. The MR images were scored independently under masked conditions. The synovial volumes in the finger joints assessed on pre-contrast images was highly predictive of bone erosions 1 year later in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (groups 1 and 3). The strongest individual predictor of bone erosions at 1-year follow-up was bone marrow oedema, if present at the wrist at baseline. Bone erosions on baseline MRI were in few cases reversible at follow-up MRI. The total synovial volume in the finger joints, and the presence of bone oedema in the wrist bones, seems to be predictive for the number of bone erosions 1 year later and may be used in screening. The importance of very early bone changes on MRI and the importance of the reversibility of these findings remain to be clarified. (orig.)

  13. Early prediction of the response of breast tumors to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using quantitative MRI and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Subramani; Chen, Yukun; Arlinghaus, Lori R; Li, Xia; Chakravarthy, A Bapsi; Bhave, Sandeep R; Welch, E Brian; Levy, Mia A; Yankeelov, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    The ability to predict early in the course of treatment the response of breast tumors to neoadjuvant chemotherapy can stratify patients based on response for patient-specific treatment strategies. Currently response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is evaluated based on physical exam or breast imaging (mammogram, ultrasound or conventional breast MRI). There is a poor correlation among these measurements and with the actual tumor size when measured by the pathologist during definitive surgery. We tested the feasibility of using quantitative MRI as a tool for early prediction of tumor response. Between 2007 and 2010 twenty consecutive patients diagnosed with Stage II/III breast cancer and receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled on a prospective imaging study. Our study showed that quantitative MRI parameters along with routine clinical measures can predict responders from non-responders to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The best predictive model had an accuracy of 0.9, a positive predictive value of 0.91 and an AUC of 0.96.

  14. Stimulation site within the MRI-defined STN predicts postoperative motor outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarg, Fritz; Herzog, Jan; Reese, René; Falk, Daniela; Pinsker, Markus O; Steigerwald, Frank; Jansen, Olav; Deuschl, Günther; Mehdorn, H Maximillian; Volkmann, Jens

    2012-06-01

    High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-HFS) is highly effective in treating motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) and medication side effects as well as in improving quality of life. Despite preoperative screening for patients as eligible candidates for this treatment, electrode position may furthermore influence treatment quality. Here, we investigated the relationship between the anatomical site of stimulation within the MRI-defined STN and the outcome of PD patients after STN-HFS. In 30 PD patients with bilateral STN stimulation, we retrospectively defined the boundaries of the STN within the axial target plane of the stereotactic T2-weighted MRI and determined the position of the active electrode contact in relation to the border of the STN. The position of the active contact within the STN was the only variable to predict the outcome of STN stimulation. In contrast, covariates such as age, disease duration, symptom severity, and response to levodopa had no effect. The lateral position of the stimulation contact within the STN led to significantly better clinical improvement, lower stimulation parameters, and less need for postoperative dopaminergic medication. The outcome of patients with stimulation contacts within the medial region of the STN was significantly worse. Precise targeting of the lateral region of the STN is essential for achieving sufficient stimulation efficacy. Preoperative T2-weighted MRI might be a useful component of the targeting procedure to improve the outcome of PD patients. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Action video gaming and the brain: fMRI effects without behavioral effects in visual and verbal cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richlan, Fabio; Schubert, Juliane; Mayer, Rebecca; Hutzler, Florian; Kronbichler, Martin

    2018-01-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we compared task performance together with brain activation in a visuospatial task (VST) and a letter detection task (LDT) between longtime action video gamers ( N  =   14) and nongamers ( N  =   14) in order to investigate possible effects of gaming on cognitive and brain abilities. Based on previous research, we expected advantages in performance for experienced action video gamers accompanied by less activation (due to higher efficiency) as measured by fMRI in the frontoparietal attention network. Contrary to these expectations, we did not find differences in overall task performance, nor in brain activation during the VST. We identified, however, a significantly different increase in the BOLD signal from a baseline task to the LDT in action video gamers compared with nongamers. This increased activation was evident in a number of frontoparietal regions including the left middle paracingulate cortex, the left superior frontal sulcus, the opercular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left and right posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, we found increased activation in the triangular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus in gamers relative to nongamers when activation during the LDT was compared with activation during the VST. In sum, the expected positive relation between action video game experience and cognitive performance could not be confirmed. Despite their comparable task performance, however, gamers and nongamers exhibited clear-cut differences in brain activation patterns presumably reflecting differences in neural engagement, especially during verbal cognitive tasks.

  16. Self-supervised, mobile-application based cognitive training of auditory attention: A behavioral and fMRI evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef J. Bless

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence of the validity of collecting data in natural settings using smartphone applications has opened new possibilities for psychological assessment, treatment, and research. In this study we explored the feasibility and effectiveness of using a mobile application for self-supervised training of auditory attention. In addition, we investigated the neural underpinnings of the training procedure with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, as well as possible transfer effects to untrained cognitive interference tasks. Subjects in the training group performed the training task on an iPod touch two times a day (morning/evening for three weeks; subjects in the control group received no training, but were tested at the same time interval as the training group. Behavioral responses were measured before and after the training period in both groups, together with measures of task-related neural activations by fMRI. The results showed an expected performance increase after training that corresponded to activation decreases in brain regions associated with selective auditory processing (left posterior temporal gyrus and executive functions (right middle frontal gyrus, indicating more efficient processing in task-related neural networks after training. Our study suggests that cognitive training delivered via mobile applications is feasible and improves the ability to focus attention with corresponding effects on neural plasticity. Future research should focus on the clinical benefits of mobile cognitive training. Limitations of the study are discussed including reduced experimental control and lack of transfer effects.

  17. MRI to predict prostate growth and development in children, adolescents and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jing; Liu, Huijia; Wen, Didi; Huang, Xufang; Ren, Fang; Huan, Yi [Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an City (China); Wang, He [Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Urology, Tangdu Hospital, Xi' an City (China)

    2014-08-06

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of MRI in predicting prostate growth and development. A total of 1,500 healthy male volunteers who underwent MRI of the pelvis were included in this prospective study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to age (group A, 2-5 years; group B, 6-10 years; group C, 11-15 years; group D, 16-20 years; group E, 21-25 years). Total prostate volume (TPV) as well as prostate central zone (CZ) and peripheral zone (PZ) were measured and evaluated on MRI. Data of the different groups were compared using variance analysis, Scheffe's method, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and Pearson's correlation. Statistical significance was inferred at P < 0.05. In groups A and B, the prostates were barely visible. In group C, although TPV was measured, it was hard to distinguish CZ and PZ. In group D, 136 CZ and PZ were clearly visible. In group E, 377 CZ and PZ were clearly visible on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). The median TPVs of groups A, B, C, D, and E were 0.00 cm{sup 3}, 0.05 cm{sup 3}, 2.83 cm{sup 3}, 8.32 cm{sup 3,} and 11.56 cm{sup 3}, respectively, and the median prostate development scores were 0.08, 0.69, 1.56, 2.38, and 2.74, respectively. Both TPVs and zonal anatomy scores varied significantly among the five groups (P = 0.000). TPV and zonal anatomy score increased with increasing age. MRI provides a reliable quantitative reference for prostate growth and development. (orig.)

  18. Can the MRI signal of aggressive fibromatosis be used to predict its behavior?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellazzi, G.; Vanel, D.; Le Cesne, A.; Le Pechoux, C.; Caillet, H.; Perona, F.; Bonvalot, S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Aggressive fibromatosis is an invasive non-metastasizing soft-tissue tumor. Until recently, the standard treatment combined surgery and radiation therapy, but new studies reported that conservative strategies with or without medical treatment could be the best management. The aim of this study was to analyze and correlate the size and MR imaging signal features of aggressive fibromatosis with its behavior in order to choose the best treatment. Materials and methods: Between March 1985 and December 2005, 27 patients with at least 2 consecutive MRI examinations and no surgery or radiation therapy in between were recorded. There were 9 men and 18 women, and median age was 31 years. They underwent 107 MRI examinations of 47 lesions, 29 of which were medically treated, while the remaining 18 did not receive any drug administration. The size and signal changes of each lesion were studied over time on T2- and/or T1-weighted sequences after injection of contrast medium. RECIST criteria were used for size: only a 30% decrease or a 20% increase in the size of the main dimension was considered significant. We classified the appearance of the signal into six categories in order of increasing intensity and then we established the related variations over time. Results: The size of 79% of the lesions in the treated group and 82% in the untreated group remained stable. The initial signal of stable lesions or those exhibiting an increase in size was most frequently high. There was a high rate of signal stability over time, whatever the initial signal and size changes. Changes in size were not correlated with the initial MR signal. A decrease in size associated with a decreased signal was observed in three cases exclusively in the treated group. Conclusion: Fibromatoses are a group of soft-tissue tumors with variable characteristics on MRI, but it is not possible to predict their behavior based on the MRI signal

  19. SIGNATURES OF MRI-DRIVEN TURBULENCE IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: PREDICTIONS FOR ALMA OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Jacob B. [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Hughes, A. Meredith; Flaherty, Kevin M. [Astronomy Department, Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Dr., Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Bai, Xue-Ning [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Armitage, Philip J., E-mail: jbsimon.astro@gmail.com [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Spatially resolved observations of molecular line emission have the potential to yield unique constraints on the nature of turbulence within protoplanetary disks. Using a combination of local non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations and radiative transfer calculations, tailored to properties of the disk around HD 163296, we assess the ability of ALMA to detect turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Our local simulations show that the MRI produces small-scale turbulent velocity fluctuations that increase in strength with height above the mid-plane. For a set of simulations at different disk radii, we fit a Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution to the turbulent velocity and construct a turbulent broadening parameter as a function of radius and height. We input this broadening into radiative transfer calculations to quantify observational signatures of MRI-driven disk turbulence. We find that the ratio of the peak line flux to the flux at line center is a robust diagnostic of turbulence that is only mildly degenerate with systematic uncertainties in disk temperature. For the CO(3–2) line, which we expect to probe the most magnetically active slice of the disk column, variations in the predicted peak-to-trough ratio between our most and least turbulent models span a range of approximately 15%. Additional independent constraints can be derived from the morphology of spatially resolved line profiles, and we estimate the resolution required to detect turbulence on different spatial scales. We discuss the role of lower optical depth molecular tracers, which trace regions closer to the disk mid-plane where velocities in MRI-driven models are systematically lower.

  20. Increased engagement of the cognitive control network associated with music training in children during an fMRI Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Matthew; Kaplan, Jonas; Der Sarkissian, Alissa; Habibi, Assal

    2017-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument engages various sensorimotor processes and draws on cognitive capacities collectively termed executive functions. However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive function have yielded conflicting results. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on executive function using fMRI and several behavioral tasks, including the Color-Word Stroop task. Children involved in ongoing music training (N = 14, mean age = 8.67) were compared with two groups of comparable general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic status, one involved in sports ("sports" group, N = 13, mean age = 8.85) and another not involved in music or sports ("control" group, N = 17, mean age = 9.05). During the Color-Word Stroop task, children with music training showed significantly greater bilateral activation in the pre-SMA/SMA, ACC, IFG, and insula in trials that required cognitive control compared to the control group, despite no differences in performance on behavioral measures of executive function. No significant differences in brain activation or in task performance were found between the music and sports groups. The results suggest that systematic extracurricular training, particularly music-based training, is associated with changes in the cognitive control network in the brain even in the absence of changes in behavioral performance.

  1. Increased engagement of the cognitive control network associated with music training in children during an fMRI Stroop task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sachs

    Full Text Available Playing a musical instrument engages various sensorimotor processes and draws on cognitive capacities collectively termed executive functions. However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive function have yielded conflicting results. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on executive function using fMRI and several behavioral tasks, including the Color-Word Stroop task. Children involved in ongoing music training (N = 14, mean age = 8.67 were compared with two groups of comparable general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic status, one involved in sports ("sports" group, N = 13, mean age = 8.85 and another not involved in music or sports ("control" group, N = 17, mean age = 9.05. During the Color-Word Stroop task, children with music training showed significantly greater bilateral activation in the pre-SMA/SMA, ACC, IFG, and insula in trials that required cognitive control compared to the control group, despite no differences in performance on behavioral measures of executive function. No significant differences in brain activation or in task performance were found between the music and sports groups. The results suggest that systematic extracurricular training, particularly music-based training, is associated with changes in the cognitive control network in the brain even in the absence of changes in behavioral performance.

  2. High Field fMRI Reveals Thalamocortical Integration of Segregated Cognitive and Emotional Processing in Mediodorsal and Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, C. D.; Eckert, U.; Steiner, J.; Sartorius, A.; Buchmann, J. E.; Stadler, J.; Tempelmann, C.; Speck, O.; Bogerts, B.; Abler, B.; Walter, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thalamocortical loops, connecting functionally segregated, higher order cortical regions, and basal ganglia, have been proposed not only for well described motor and sensory regions, but also for limbic and prefrontal areas relevant for affective and cognitive processes. These functions are, however, more specific to humans, rendering most invasive neuroanatomical approaches impossible and interspecies translations difficult. In contrast, non-invasive imaging of functional neuroanatomy using fMRI allows for the development of elaborate task paradigms capable of testing the specific functionalities proposed for these circuits. Until recently, spatial resolution largely limited the anatomical definition of functional clusters at the level of distinct thalamic nuclei. Since their anatomical distinction seems crucial not only for the segregation of cognitive and limbic loops but also for the detection of their functional interaction during cognitive–emotional integration, we applied high resolution fMRI on 7 Tesla. Using an event-related design, we could isolate thalamic effects for preceding attention as well as experience of erotic stimuli. We could demonstrate specific thalamic effects of general emotional arousal in mediodorsal nucleus and effects specific to preceding attention and expectancy in intralaminar centromedian/parafascicular complex. These thalamic effects were paralleled by specific coactivations in the head of caudate nucleus as well as segregated portions of rostral or caudal cingulate cortex and anterior insula supporting distinct thalamo–striato–cortical loops. In addition to predescribed effects of sexual arousal in hypothalamus and ventral striatum, high resolution fMRI could extent this network to paraventricular thalamus encompassing laterodorsal and parataenial nuclei. We could lend evidence to segregated subcortical loops which integrate cognitive and emotional aspects of basic human behavior such as sexual processing. PMID:21088699

  3. Prediction of low birth weight: the placental T2* estimated by MRI versus the uterine artery pulsatility index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Marianne Munk; Peters, David Alberg; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum

    (MRI) variable T2* reflects the placental oxygenation and thereby placental function. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the performance of placental T2* in the prediction of low birth weight using the uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility index (PI) as gold standard. Methods: The study population......CONTROL ID: 2516296 ABSTRACT FINAL ID: P22.05 TITLE: Prediction of low birth weight: the placental T2* estimated by MRI versus the uterine artery pulsatility index AUTHORS (FIRST NAME, LAST NAME): Marianne Sinding1, David Peters2, Jens B. Frøkjær3, 4, Ole B. Christiansen1, 4, Astrid Petersen5...... had an EFW T2* was measured by MRI at 1.5T. A gradient recalled echo MRI sequence with readout at 16 echo times was used, and the placental T2* value was obtained by fitting the signal intensity as a function of the echo times...

  4. Accuracy of High-Resolution MRI with Lumen Distention in Rectal Cancer Staging and Circumferential Margin Involvement Prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannicelli, Elsa; Di Renzo, Sara; Ferri, Mario; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Di Girolamo, Marco; Sapori, Alessandra; Ziparo, Vincenzo; David, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with lumen distention for rectal cancer staging and circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement prediction. Seventy-three patients with primary rectal cancer underwent high-resolution MRI with a phased-array coil performed using 60-80 mL room air rectal distention, 1-3 weeks before surgery. MRI results were compared to postoperative histopathological findings. The overall MRI T staging accuracy was calculated. CRM involvement prediction and the N staging, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed for each T stage. The agreement between MRI and histological results was assessed using weighted-kappa statistics. The overall MRI accuracy for T staging was 93.6% (k = 0.85). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for each T stage were as follows: 91.8%, 86.2%, 95.5%, 92.6% and 91.3% for the group ≤ T2; 90.4%, 94.6%, 86.1%, 87.5% and 94% for T3; 98,6%, 85.7%, 100%, 100% and 98.5% for T4, respectively. The predictive CRM accuracy was 94.5% (k = 0.86); the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 89.5%, 96.3%, 89.5%, and 96.3% respectively. The N staging accuracy was 68.49% (k = 0.4). MRI performed with rectal lumen distention has proved to be an effective technique both for rectal cancer staging and involved CRM predicting

  5. Accuracy of High-Resolution MRI with Lumen Distention in Rectal Cancer Staging and Circumferential Margin Involvement Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannicelli, Elsa; Di Renzo, Sara [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Ferri, Mario [Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Pilozzi, Emanuela [Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Di Girolamo, Marco; Sapori, Alessandra [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Ziparo, Vincenzo [Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); David, Vincenzo [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with lumen distention for rectal cancer staging and circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement prediction. Seventy-three patients with primary rectal cancer underwent high-resolution MRI with a phased-array coil performed using 60-80 mL room air rectal distention, 1-3 weeks before surgery. MRI results were compared to postoperative histopathological findings. The overall MRI T staging accuracy was calculated. CRM involvement prediction and the N staging, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed for each T stage. The agreement between MRI and histological results was assessed using weighted-kappa statistics. The overall MRI accuracy for T staging was 93.6% (k = 0.85). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for each T stage were as follows: 91.8%, 86.2%, 95.5%, 92.6% and 91.3% for the group ≤ T2; 90.4%, 94.6%, 86.1%, 87.5% and 94% for T3; 98,6%, 85.7%, 100%, 100% and 98.5% for T4, respectively. The predictive CRM accuracy was 94.5% (k = 0.86); the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 89.5%, 96.3%, 89.5%, and 96.3% respectively. The N staging accuracy was 68.49% (k = 0.4). MRI performed with rectal lumen distention has proved to be an effective technique both for rectal cancer staging and involved CRM predicting.

  6. Predicting axillary lymph node metastasis from kinetic statistics of DCE-MRI breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Ahmed B.; Lin, Lilie; Gavenonis, Sara C.; Mies, Carolyn; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Kontos, Despina

    2012-03-01

    The presence of axillary lymph node metastases is the most important prognostic factor in breast cancer and can influence the selection of adjuvant therapy, both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this work we present a set of kinetic statistics derived from DCE-MRI for predicting axillary node status. Breast DCE-MRI images from 69 women with known nodal status were analyzed retrospectively under HIPAA and IRB approval. Axillary lymph nodes were positive in 12 patients while 57 patients had no axillary lymph node involvement. Kinetic curves for each pixel were computed and a pixel-wise map of time-to-peak (TTP) was obtained. Pixels were first partitioned according to the similarity of their kinetic behavior, based on TTP values. For every kinetic curve, the following pixel-wise features were computed: peak enhancement (PE), wash-in-slope (WIS), wash-out-slope (WOS). Partition-wise statistics for every feature map were calculated, resulting in a total of 21 kinetic statistic features. ANOVA analysis was done to select features that differ significantly between node positive and node negative women. Using the computed kinetic statistic features a leave-one-out SVM classifier was learned that performs with AUC=0.77 under the ROC curve, outperforming the conventional kinetic measures, including maximum peak enhancement (MPE) and signal enhancement ratio (SER), (AUCs of 0.61 and 0.57 respectively). These findings suggest that our DCE-MRI kinetic statistic features can be used to improve the prediction of axillary node status in breast cancer patients. Such features could ultimately be used as imaging biomarkers to guide personalized treatment choices for women diagnosed with breast cancer.

  7. Stress-Related Cognitive Interference Predicts Cognitive Function in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    Stawski, Robert S.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.; University, Syracuse

    2006-01-01

    Both subjective distress and cognitive interference have been proposed as mechanisms underlying the negative effects of stress on cognition. Studies of aging have shown that distress is associated with lower cognitive performance, but none have examined the effects of cognitive interference. One hundred eleven older adults (Mage = 80) completed measures of working memory, processing speed, and episodic memory as well as self-report measures of subjective distress and cognitive interference. C...

  8. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Physical Activity and Fitness in Underserved Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using…

  9. Symptoms and Cognitive Effects of Exposure to Magnetic Stray Fields of MRI Scanners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vocht, Frank Gérard de

    2006-01-01

    People working routinely with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems report a number of symptoms related to their presence in the inhomogeneous static magnetic fields (the stray field) surrounding these scanners. Experienced symptoms and neurobehavioral performance among engineers manufacturing

  10. Diffusion-weighted MRI characteristics of the cerebral metastasis to brain boundary predicts patient outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, Rasheed; Das, Kumar; Radon, Mark; Bhojak, Maneesh; Rudland, Philip R; Sluming, Vanessa; Jenkinson, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) has been used in neurosurgical practice mainly to distinguish cerebral metastases from abscess and glioma. There is evidence from other solid organ cancers and metastases that DWI may be used as a biomarker of prognosis and treatment response. We therefore investigated DWI characteristics of cerebral metastases and their peritumoral region recorded pre-operatively and related these to patient outcomes. Retrospective analysis of 76 cases operated upon at a single institution with DWI performed pre-operatively at 1.5T. Maps of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were generated using standard protocols. Readings were taken from the tumor, peritumoral region and across the brain-tumor interface. Patient outcomes were overall survival and time to local recurrence. A minimum ADC greater than 919.4 × 10 -6 mm 2 /s within a metastasis predicted longer overall survival regardless of adjuvant therapies. This was not simply due to differences between the types of primary cancer because the effect was observed even in a subgroup of 36 patients with the same primary, non-small cell lung cancer. The change in diffusion across the tumor border and into peritumoral brain was measured by the “ADC transition coefficient” or ATC and this was more strongly predictive than ADC readings alone. Metastases with a sharp change in diffusion across their border (ATC >0.279) showed shorter overall survival compared to those with a more diffuse edge. The ATC was the only imaging measurement which independently predicted overall survival in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 0.54, 95% CI 0.3 – 0.97, p = 0.04). DWI demonstrates changes in the tumor, across the tumor edge and in the peritumoral region which may not be visible on conventional MRI and this may be useful in predicting patient outcomes for operated cerebral metastases

  11. Post-anoxic quantitative MRI changes may predict emergence from coma and functional outcomes at discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Alexandra S; Guo, Xiaotao; Matthews, Elizabeth; Brodie, Daniel; Rabbani, Leroy E; Roh, David J; Park, Soojin; Claassen, Jan; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Zhao, Binsheng; Agarwal, Sachin

    2017-08-01

    Traditional predictors of neurological prognosis after cardiac arrest are unreliable after targeted temperature management. Absence of pupillary reflexes remains a reliable predictor of poor outcome. Diffusion-weighted imaging has emerged as a potential predictor of recovery, and here we compare imaging characteristics to pupillary exam. We identified 69 patients who had MRIs within seven days of arrest and used a semi-automated algorithm to perform quantitative volumetric analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) sequences at various thresholds. Area under receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC-AUC) were estimated to compare predictive values of quantitative MRI with pupillary exam at days 3, 5 and 7 post-arrest, for persistence of coma and functional outcomes at discharge. Cerebral Performance Category scores of 3-4 were considered poor outcome. Excluding patients where life support was withdrawn, ≥2.8% diffusion restriction of the entire brain at an ADC of ≤650×10 -6 m 2 /s was 100% specific and 68% sensitive for failure to wake up from coma before discharge. The ROC-AUC of ADC changes at ≤450×10 -6 mm 2 /s and ≤650×10 -6 mm 2 /s were significantly superior in predicting failure to wake up from coma compared to bilateral absence of pupillary reflexes. Among survivors, >0.01% of diffusion restriction of the entire brain at an ADC ≤450×10 -6 m 2 /s was 100% specific and 46% sensitive for poor functional outcome at discharge. The ROC curve predicting poor functional outcome at ADC ≤450×10 -6 mm 2 /s had an AUC of 0.737 (0.574-0.899, p=0.04). Post-anoxic diffusion changes using quantitative brain MRI may aid in predicting persistent coma and poor functional outcomes at hospital discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting the laterality of temporal lobe epilepsy from PET, MRI, and DTI: A multimodal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Pustina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-surgical evaluation of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE relies on information obtained from multiple neuroimaging modalities. The relationship between modalities and their combined power in predicting the seizure focus is currently unknown. We investigated asymmetries from three different modalities, PET (glucose metabolism, MRI (cortical thickness, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI; white matter anisotropy in 28 left and 30 right TLE patients (LTLE and RTLE. Stepwise logistic regression models were built from each modality separately and from all three combined, while bootstrapped methods and split-sample validation verified the robustness of predictions. Among all multimodal asymmetries, three PET asymmetries formed the best predictive model (100% success in full sample, >95% success in split-sample validation. The combinations of PET with other modalities did not perform better than PET alone. Probabilistic classifications were obtained for new clinical cases, which showed correct lateralization for 7/7 new TLE patients (100% and for 4/5 operated patients with discordant or non-informative PET reports (80%. Metabolism showed closer relationship with white matter in LTLE and closer relationship with gray matter in RTLE. Our data suggest that metabolism is a powerful modality that can predict seizure laterality with high accuracy, and offers high value for automated predictive models. The side of epileptogenic focus can affect the relationship of metabolism with brain structure. The data and tools necessary to obtain classifications for new TLE patients are made publicly available.

  13. Predictive saccades in children and adults: A combined fMRI and eye tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Lukasova

    Full Text Available Saccades were assessed in 21 adults (age 24 years, SD = 4 and 15 children (age 11 years, SD = 1, using combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and eye-tracking. Subjects visually tracked a point on a horizontal line in four conditions: time and position predictable task (PRED, position predictable (pPRED, time predictable (tPRED and visually guided saccades (SAC. Both groups in the PRED but not in pPRED, tPRED and SAC produced predictive saccades with latency below 80 ms. In task versus group comparisons, children's showed less efficient learning compared to adults for predictive saccades (adults = 48%, children = 34%, p = 0.05. In adults brain activation was found in the frontal and occipital regions in the PRED, in the intraparietal sulcus in pPRED and in the frontal eye field, posterior intraparietal sulcus and medial regions in the tPRED task. Group-task interaction was found in the supplementary eye field and visual cortex in the PRED task, and the frontal cortex including the right frontal eye field and left frontal pole, in the pPRED condition. These results indicate that, the basic visuomotor circuitry is present in both adults and children, but fine-tuning of the activation according to the task temporal and spatial demand mature late in child development.

  14. The effects of physical activity on functional MRI activation associated with cognitive control in children: a randomized controlled intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eChaddock-Heyman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine the influence of a 9-month physical activity program on task-evoked brain activation during childhood. The results demonstrated that 8- to 9-year-old children who participated in 60+ minutes of physical activity, 5 days per week, for 9 months, showed decreases in fMRI brain activation in the right anterior prefrontal cortex coupled with within-group improvements in performance on a task of attentional and interference control. Children assigned to a wait list control group did not show changes in brain function. Furthermore, at post-test, children in the physical activity group showed similar anterior frontal brain patterns and incongruent accuracy rates to a group of college-aged young adults. Children in the wait list control group still differed from the young adults in terms of anterior prefrontal activation and performance at post-test. There were no significant changes in fMRI activation in the anterior cingulate cortex for either group. These results suggest that physical activity during childhood may enhance specific elements of prefrontal cortex function involved in cognitive control.

  15. Mismatch Negativity Encoding of Prediction Errors Predicts S-ketamine-Induced Cognitive Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, André; Bachmann, Rosilla; Kometer, Michael; Csomor, Philipp A; Stephan, Klaas E; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-01-01

    Psychotomimetics like the N-methyl--aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine and the 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor (5-HT2AR) agonist psilocybin induce psychotic symptoms in healthy volunteers that resemble those of schizophrenia. Recent theories of psychosis posit that aberrant encoding of prediction errors (PE) may underlie the expression of psychotic symptoms. This study used a roving mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm to investigate whether the encoding of PE is affected by pharmacological manipulation of NMDAR or 5-HT2AR, and whether the encoding of PE under placebo can be used to predict drug-induced symptoms. Using a double-blind within-subject placebo-controlled design, S-ketamine and psilocybin, respectively, were administrated to two groups of healthy subjects. Psychological alterations were assessed using a revised version of the Altered States of Consciousness (ASC-R) questionnaire. As an index of PE, we computed changes in MMN amplitudes as a function of the number of preceding standards (MMN memory trace effect) during a roving paradigm. S-ketamine, but not psilocybin, disrupted PE processing as expressed by a frontally disrupted MMN memory trace effect. Although both drugs produced positive-like symptoms, the extent of PE processing under placebo only correlated significantly with the severity of cognitive impairments induced by S-ketamine. Our results suggest that the NMDAR, but not the 5-HT2AR system, is implicated in PE processing during the MMN paradigm, and that aberrant PE signaling may contribute to the formation of cognitive impairments. The assessment of the MMN memory trace in schizophrenia may allow detecting early phases of the illness and might also serve to assess the efficacy of novel pharmacological treatments, in particular of cognitive impairments. PMID:22030715

  16. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Mattioli

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up.

  17. Predicting cognitive function of the Malaysian elderly: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Hui Foh; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Haron, Sharifah Azizah; Shahar, Suzana

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of elderly's cognitive function based on biopsychosocial and cognitive reserve perspectives. The study included 2322 community-dwelling elderly in Malaysia, randomly selected through a multi-stage proportional cluster random sampling from Peninsular Malaysia. The elderly were surveyed on socio-demographic information, biomarkers, psychosocial status, disability, and cognitive function. A biopsychosocial model of cognitive function was developed to test variables' predictive power on cognitive function. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (version 15.0) in conjunction with Analysis of Moment Structures Graphics (AMOS 7.0). The estimated theoretical model fitted the data well. Psychosocial stress and metabolic syndrome (MetS) negatively predicted cognitive function and psychosocial stress appeared as a main predictor. Socio-demographic characteristics, except gender, also had significant effects on cognitive function. However, disability failed to predict cognitive function. Several factors together may predict cognitive function in the Malaysian elderly population, and the variance accounted for it is large enough to be considered substantial. Key factor associated with the elderly's cognitive function seems to be psychosocial well-being. Thus, psychosocial well-being should be included in the elderly assessment, apart from medical conditions, both in clinical and community setting.

  18. Athletic Pubalgia in Females: Predictive Value of MRI in Outcomes of Endoscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, Markku; Hermunen, Heikki; Paajanen, Hannu

    2017-08-01

    Athletic pubalgia is typically associated with male athletes participating in contact sports and less frequently with females. Endoscopic surgery may fully treat the patient with athletic pubalgia. To perform an outcomes analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic surgery in female patients with athletic pubalgia. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifteen physically active female patients (mean age, 37 years) with athletic pubalgia were treated surgically via placement of total extraperitoneal endoscopic polypropylene mesh behind the injured groin area. The presence of preoperative bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis seen on MRI was graded from 0 to 3 and correlated with pain scores after surgery. The outcome measures were pre- and postoperative pain scores and recovery to daily activity between 1 and 12 months after surgery. Results were compared with previously published scores from male athletes (n = 30). With the exception of lower body mass index, the females with (n = 8) and without (n = 7) pubic BME had similar patient characteristics to the corresponding males. Mean inguinal pain scores (0-10) before surgical treatment were greater in females than males (during exercise, 7.8 ± 1.1 vs 6.9 ± 1.1; P = .0131). One month after surgery, mean pain scores for females were still greater compared with males (2.9 ± 1.7 vs 1.3 ± 1.6; P = .0034). Compared with female athletes with normal MRI, pubic BME was related to increased mean preoperative pain scores (8.13 ± 0.99 vs 6.43 ± 1.2; P = .0122). After 1 year, surgical outcomes were excellent or good in 47% of women. Endoscopic surgery was helpful in half of the females with athletic pubalgia in this study. The presence of pubic BME may predict slightly prolonged recovery from surgery.

  19. 3 Tesla MRI-negative focal epilepsies: Presurgical evaluation, postoperative outcome and predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogias, Evangelos; Klingler, Jan-Helge; Urbach, Horst; Scheiwe, Christian; Schmeiser, Barbara; Doostkam, Soroush; Zentner, Josef; Altenmüller, Dirk-Matthias

    2017-12-01

    To investigate presurgical diagnostic modalities, clinical and seizure outcome as well as predictive factors after resective epilepsy surgery in 3 Tesla MRI-negative focal epilepsies. This retrospective study comprises 26 patients (11 males/15 females, mean age 34±12years, range 13-50 years) with 3 Tesla MRI-negative focal epilepsies who underwent resective epilepsy surgery. Non-invasive and invasive presurgical diagnostic modalities, type and localization of resection, clinical and epileptological outcome with a minimum follow-up of 1year (range 1-11 years, mean 2.5±2.3years) after surgery as well as outcome predictors were evaluated. All patients underwent invasive video-EEG monitoring after implantation of intracerebral depth and/or subdural electrodes. Ten patients received temporal and 16 extratemporal or multilobar (n=4) resections. There was no perioperative death or permanent morbidity. Overall, 12 of 26 patients (46%) were completely seizure-free (Engel IA) and 65% had a favorable outcome (Engel I-II). In particular, seizure-free ratio was 40% in the temporal and 50% in the extratemporal group. In the temporal group, long duration of epilepsy correlated with poor seizure outcome, whereas congruent unilateral FDG-PET hypometabolism correlated with a favorable outcome. In almost two thirds of temporal and extratemporal epilepsies defined as "non-lesional" by 3 Tesla MRI criteria, a favorable postoperative seizure outcome (Engel I-II) can be achieved with accurate multimodal presurgical evaluation including intracranial EEG recordings. In the temporal group, most favorable results were obtained when FDG-PET displayed congruent unilateral hypometabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Music of the 7Ts: Predicting and Decoding Multivoxel fMRI Responses with Acoustic, Schematic, and Categorical Music Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Underlying the experience of listening to music are parallel streams of auditory, categorical, and schematic qualia, whose representations and cortical organization remain largely unresolved. We collected high-field (7T) fMRI data in a music listening task, and analyzed the data using multivariate decoding and stimulus-encoding models. Twenty subjects participated in the experiment, which measured BOLD responses evoked by naturalistic listening to twenty-five music clips from five genres. Our first analysis applied machine classification to the multivoxel patterns that were evoked in temporal cortex. Results yielded above-chance levels for both stimulus identification and genre classification-cross-validated by holding out data from multiple of the stimuli during model training and then testing decoding performance on the held-out data. Genre model misclassifications were significantly correlated with those in a corresponding behavioral music categorization task, supporting the hypothesis that geometric properties of multivoxel pattern spaces underlie observed musical behavior. A second analysis employed a spherical searchlight regression analysis which predicted multivoxel pattern responses to music features representing melody and harmony across a large area of cortex. The resulting prediction-accuracy maps yielded significant clusters in the temporal, frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes, as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus and the cerebellum. These maps provide evidence in support of our hypothesis that geometric properties of music cognition are neurally encoded as multivoxel representational spaces. The maps also reveal a cortical topography that differentially encodes categorical and absolute-pitch information in distributed and overlapping networks, with smaller specialized regions that encode tonal music information in relative-pitch representations.

  1. Music of the 7Ts: Predicting and Decoding Multivoxel fMRI Responses with Acoustic, Schematic, and Categorical Music Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Underlying the experience of listening to music are parallel streams of auditory, categorical, and schematic qualia, whose representations and cortical organization remain largely unresolved. We collected high-field (7T) fMRI data in a music listening task, and analyzed the data using multivariate decoding and stimulus-encoding models. Twenty subjects participated in the experiment, which measured BOLD responses evoked by naturalistic listening to twenty-five music clips from five genres. Our first analysis applied machine classification to the multivoxel patterns that were evoked in temporal cortex. Results yielded above-chance levels for both stimulus identification and genre classification–cross-validated by holding out data from multiple of the stimuli during model training and then testing decoding performance on the held-out data. Genre model misclassifications were significantly correlated with those in a corresponding behavioral music categorization task, supporting the hypothesis that geometric properties of multivoxel pattern spaces underlie observed musical behavior. A second analysis employed a spherical searchlight regression analysis which predicted multivoxel pattern responses to music features representing melody and harmony across a large area of cortex. The resulting prediction-accuracy maps yielded significant clusters in the temporal, frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes, as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus and the cerebellum. These maps provide evidence in support of our hypothesis that geometric properties of music cognition are neurally encoded as multivoxel representational spaces. The maps also reveal a cortical topography that differentially encodes categorical and absolute-pitch information in distributed and overlapping networks, with smaller specialized regions that encode tonal music information in relative-pitch representations. PMID:28769835

  2. Predictive values of BI-RADS® magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badan, Gustavo Machado; Piato, Sebastião; Roveda, Décio; Faria Castro Fleury, Eduardo de

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate BI-RADS indicators in the detection of DCIS by MRI. Materials and methods: Prospective observational study that started in 2014 and lasted 24 months. A total of 110 consecutive patients were evaluated, who presented with suspicious or highly suspicious microcalcifications on screening mammography (BI-RADS categories 4 and 5) and underwent stereotactic-guided breast biopsy, having had an MRI scan performed prior to biopsy. Results: Altogether, 38 cases were characterized as positive for malignancy, of which 25 were DCIS and 13 were invasive ductal carcinoma cases. MRI had a sensitivity of 96%; specificity of 75.67%; positive predictive value (PPV) for DCIS detection of 57.14%; negative predictive value (NPV) in the detection of DCIS of 98.24%; and an accuracy of 80.80%. Conclusion: BI-RADS as a tool for the detection of DCIS by MRI is a powerful instrument whose sensitivity was higher when compared to that observed for mammography in the literature. Likewise, the PPV obtained by MRI was higher than that observed in the present study for mammography, and the high NPV obtained on MRI scans can provide early evidence to discourage breast biopsy in selected cases.

  3. Inefficient preparatory fMRI-BOLD network activations predict working memory dysfunctions in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eBaenninger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia show abnormal dynamics and structure of temporally coherent networks (TCNs assessed using fMRI, which undergo adaptive shifts in preparation for a cognitively demanding task. During working memory (WM tasks, patients with schizophrenia show persistent deficits in TCNs as well as EEG indices of WM. Studying their temporal relationship during WM tasks might provide novel insights into WM performance deficits seen in schizophrenia.Simultaneous EEG-fMRI data were acquired during the performance of a verbal Sternberg WM task with two load levels (load 2 & load 5 in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 17 matched healthy controls. Using covariance mapping, we investigated the relationship of the activity in the TCNs before the memoranda were encoded and EEG spectral power during the retention interval. We assessed four TCNs – default mode network (DMN, dorsal attention network (dAN, left and right working memory networks (WMNs – and three EEG bands – theta, alpha, and beta.In healthy controls, there was a load dependent inverse relation between DMN and frontal-midline theta power and an anti-correlation between DMN and dAN. Both effects were not significantly detectable in patients. In addition, healthy controls showed a left-lateralized load-dependent recruitment of the WMNs. Activation of the WMNs was bilateral in patients, suggesting more resources were recruited for successful performance on the WM task.Our findings support the notion of schizophrenia patients showing deviations in their neurophysiological responses before the retention of relevant information in a verbal WM task. Thus, treatment strategies as neurofeedback targeting pre-states could be beneficial as task performance relies on the preparatory state of the brain.

  4. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant) in Cognitively Impaired Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Eric R; Blum, Kenneth; Hussman, Karl L; Han, David; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Marin, Gabriela; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Smayda, Richard; Gold, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19-90 years) displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54), 57.14% central atrophy (N=88), and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69). A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III) scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740) was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115). Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787). In the centrum semiovale (CS), reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622). Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002). Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064). Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165). Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087). In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740); high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417); and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166). Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294): the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  5. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant in Cognitively Impaired Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Braverman

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19-90 years displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54, 57.14% central atrophy (N=88, and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69. A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740 was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115. Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787. In the centrum semiovale (CS, reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622. Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002. Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064. Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165. Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087. In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740; high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417; and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166. Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294: the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  6. Analytic Cognitive Style Predicts Religious and Paranormal Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined…

  7. Predicting cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease: an integrated analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Oscar L; Schwam, Elias; Cummings, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Numerous patient- and disease-related factors increase the risk of rapid cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ability of pharmacological treatment to attenuate this risk remains undefined.......Numerous patient- and disease-related factors increase the risk of rapid cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ability of pharmacological treatment to attenuate this risk remains undefined....

  8. Characteristics of MRI features in Alzheimer's disease patients predicting response to donepezil treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yuriko; Hanyu, Haruo; Sakurai, Hirofumi; Shimizu, Souichiro; Takasaki, Masaru

    2003-01-01

    We attempted to investigate whether morphological features as shown on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) predict response to donepezil treatment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sixty-three patients with AD were divided into responders (n=16) and non-responders (n=47) based on the changes in the mini mental state examinations (MMSE) score between baseline and endpoint. Atrophy of the substantia innominata was more pronounced in responders than non-responders. Although no significant difference in the medial temporal lobe atrophy between responders and non-responders was found, magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs) of the hippocampus and parahippocampus, indicators of structural damage, in the non-responder group were significantly reduced compared to those in the responder group. There were no significant differences in the severity of white matter lesions between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the overall discrimination rate was 81%, with 85% of non-responders and 69% of responders, through measurement of the thickness of the substantia innominata and MTR of the hippocampus and parahippocampus. These results suggest that AD patients who show more severe cholinergic dysfunction and less severe structural damage of the hippocampus and parahippocampus as shown on MRI are likely to respond to donepezil treatment. (author)

  9. Conservatism and liberalism predict performance in two nonideological cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabel, Rodolpho Talaisys; Oliveira, Amâncio

    2017-01-01

    Intuitive thinking would argue that political or ideological orientation does not correlate with nonpolitical decisions, and certainly not with nonideological cognitive tasks. However, that is what happens in some cases. Previous neuropolitics studies have found that liberals are more adept at dealing with novel information than conservatives. This finding suggests that conservatives and liberals possess different cognitive skills. For the purposes of this article, two studies were executed to test whether this difference remained in alternative environmental settings. To this end, two novel cognitive tasks were designed in which one type of ideology or another was privileged according to the cognitive environment created by the tasks. Experimental findings indicate that liberals committed fewer errors than conservatives in one kind of cognitive environment, while conservatives scored higher in another.

  10. Cognitive effects of head-movements in stray fields generated by a 7 Tesla whole-body MRI magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, F; Stevens, T; Glover, P; Sunderland, A; Gowland, P; Kromhout, H

    2007-05-01

    The study investigates the impact of exposure to the stray magnetic field of a whole-body 7 T MRI scanner on neurobehavioral performance and cognition. Twenty seven volunteers completed four sessions, which exposed them to approximately 1600 mT (twice), 800 mT and negligible static field exposure. The order of exposure was assigned at random and was masked by placing volunteers in a tent to hide their position relative to the magnet bore. Volunteers completed a test battery assessing auditory working memory, eye-hand co-ordination, and visual perception. During three sessions the volunteers were instructed to complete a series of standardized head movements to generate additional time-varying fields ( approximately 300 and approximately 150 mT.s(-1) r.m.s.). In one session, volunteers were instructed to keep their heads as stable as possible. Performance on a visual tracking task was negatively influenced (P<.01) by 1.3% per 100 mT exposure. Furthermore, there was a trend for performance on two cognitive-motor tests to be decreased (P<.10). No effects were observed on working memory. Taken together with results of earlier studies, these results suggest that there are effects on visual perception and hand-eye co-ordination, but these are weak and variable between studies. The magnitude of these effects may depend on the magnitude of time-varying fields and not so much on the static field. While this study did not include exposure above 1.6 T, it suggests that use of strong magnetic fields is not a significant confounder in fMRI studies of cognitive function. Future work should further assess whether ultra-high field may impair performance of employees working in the vicinity of these magnets. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Recent and past musical activity predicts cognitive aging variability: direct comparison with general lifestyle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Gajewski, Byron

    2012-01-01

    Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years) on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to non-musical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in general lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study controlled for general activity level in evaluating cognition between musicians and nomusicians. Also, the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent) was assessed in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (>10 years) and non-musicians (ages 59-80) were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and general lifestyle activities. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal working memory, verbal immediate recall, visuospatial judgment, and motor dexterity, but did not differ in other general leisure activities. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to determine aspects of musical training predictive of enhanced cognition. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted visuospatial functions in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (memory in musicians, while analyses for other measures were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not general lifestyle activities, predicted variability

  12. Emotional engagements predict and enhance social cognition in young chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Kim A; Bakeman, Roger; Boysen, Sarah T; Leavens, David A

    2014-09-01

    Social cognition in infancy is evident in coordinated triadic engagements, that is, infants attending jointly with social partners and objects. Current evolutionary theories of primate social cognition tend to highlight species differences in cognition based on human-unique cooperative motives. We consider a developmental model in which engagement experiences produce differential outcomes. We conducted a 10-year-long study in which two groups of laboratory-raised chimpanzee infants were given quantifiably different engagement experiences. Joint attention, cooperativeness, affect, and different levels of cognition were measured in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees, and compared to outcomes derived from a normative human database. We found that joint attention skills significantly improved across development for all infants, but by 12 months, the humans significantly surpassed the chimpanzees. We found that cooperativeness was stable in the humans, but by 12 months, the chimpanzee group given enriched engagement experiences significantly surpassed the humans. Past engagement experiences and concurrent affect were significant unique predictors of both joint attention and cooperativeness in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees. When engagement experiences and concurrent affect were statistically controlled, joint attention and cooperation were not associated. We explain differential social cognition outcomes in terms of the significant influences of previous engagement experiences and affect, in addition to cognition. Our study highlights developmental processes that underpin the emergence of social cognition in support of evolutionary continuity. © 2014 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Reward and Cognition: Integrating Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Drinking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasking, Penelope; Boyes, Mark; Mullan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Both Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and Social Cognitive Theory have been applied to understanding drinking behavior. We propose that theoretical relationships between these models support an integrated approach to understanding alcohol use and misuse. We aimed to test an integrated model in which the relationships between reward sensitivity and drinking behavior (alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and symptoms of dependence) were mediated by alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy. Online questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest were completed by 443 Australian adults (M age = 26.40, sd = 1.83) in 2013 and 2014. Path analysis revealed both direct and indirect effects and implicated two pathways to drinking behavior with differential outcomes. Drinking refusal self-efficacy both in social situations and for emotional relief was related to alcohol consumption. Sensitivity to reward was associated with alcohol-related problems, but operated through expectations of increased confidence and personal belief in the ability to limit drinking in social situations. Conversely, sensitivity to punishment operated through negative expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy for emotional relief to predict symptoms of dependence. Two pathways relating reward sensitivity, alcohol expectancies, and drinking refusal self-efficacy may underlie social and dependent drinking, which has implications for development of intervention to limit harmful drinking.

  14. Predicting CT Image From MRI Data Through Feature Matching With Learned Nonlinear Local Descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Zhong, Liming; Chen, Yang; Lin, Liyan; Lu, Zhentai; Liu, Shupeng; Wu, Yao; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2018-04-01

    Attenuation correction for positron-emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) hybrid imaging systems and dose planning for MR-based radiation therapy remain challenging due to insufficient high-energy photon attenuation information. We present a novel approach that uses the learned nonlinear local descriptors and feature matching to predict pseudo computed tomography (pCT) images from T1-weighted and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The nonlinear local descriptors are obtained by projecting the linear descriptors into the nonlinear high-dimensional space using an explicit feature map and low-rank approximation with supervised manifold regularization. The nearest neighbors of each local descriptor in the input MR images are searched in a constrained spatial range of the MR images among the training dataset. Then the pCT patches are estimated through k-nearest neighbor regression. The proposed method for pCT prediction is quantitatively analyzed on a dataset consisting of paired brain MRI and CT images from 13 subjects. Our method generates pCT images with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 75.25 ± 18.05 Hounsfield units, a peak signal-to-noise ratio of 30.87 ± 1.15 dB, a relative MAE of 1.56 ± 0.5% in PET attenuation correction, and a dose relative structure volume difference of 0.055 ± 0.107% in , as compared with true CT. The experimental results also show that our method outperforms four state-of-the-art methods.

  15. The natural history of partial rotator cuff tear evaluated by MRI. Can we predict the prognosis of partial rotator cuff tear by MRI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Koumei

    2010-01-01

    The cause and progress of the tear in the title are not fully understood and its treatment varies dependently on the injured site, depth, accompanied disease and symptom, and imaging profile. The author classified the tears in 4 types in MRI findings, followed their temporal progression and clinical symptom, and found that this classification in MRI finding was helpful to predict the prognosis, which is described in this paper. Subjects are 47 shoulders of 45 patients (M19/F26, av. age 71.0 y) who underwent conservative treatment of the disease during the time May, 2003-Oct. 2008, periodical MRI (2.7 times in av.) for 18.5 mo in av. and follow-up diagnosis until 24.9 mo in av. MRI is conducted with the machine 1.0 T Siemens harmonicdome to acquire the fast spin echo T1, T2 weighted images, and short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) coronal, axial and sagittal ones. Tears in MRI are classified in Type 1 (abnormal signal type) (25 shoulders), Type 2 (abnormal signal and swelling type) (7 shoulders), Type 3 (cut off end type) (10 shoulders) and Type 4 (tapered end type) (5 shoulders). The partial rotator cuff tear is suggested to be originated from the denaturation of the cuff with a subsequent certain injury or loading to become Type 1 to 2 and to progress to Type 3 to 4 by continuous acrominal impingement. It is suggested that at the first diagnosis the Type 1 does not have so much serious symptom, but which tends to last long while the symptom is serious in Type 2 and 3: the prognosis in Type 4 is good. (K.T)

  16. fMRI resting state networks and their association with cognitive fluctuations in dementia with Lewy bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Peraza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive fluctuations are a core symptom in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB and may relate to pathological alterations in distributed brain networks. To test this we analysed resting state fMRI changes in a cohort of fluctuating DLB patients (n = 16 compared with age matched controls (n = 17 with the aim of finding functional connectivity (FC differences between these two groups and whether these associate with cognitive fluctuations in DLB. Resting state networks (RSNs were estimated using independent component analysis and FC between the RSN maps and the entirety of the brain was assessed using dual regression. The default mode network (DMN appeared unaffected in DLB compared to controls but significant cluster differences between DLB and controls were found for the left fronto-parietal, temporal, and sensory–motor networks. Desynchronization of a number of cortical and subcortical areas related to the left fronto-parietal network was associated with the severity and frequency of cognitive fluctuations. Our findings provide empirical evidence for the potential role of attention–executive networks in the aetiology of this core symptom in DLB.

  17. In search of the functional neuroanatomy of sociality: MRI subdivisions of orbital frontal cortex and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Paul G; Nakamura, Motoaki; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Thompson, Elizabeth; Levitt, James J; Choate, Victoria; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    We examined social cognition in a sample of healthy participants who had prior magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gray matter volume studies of the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) that was parcellated into three regions: gyrus rectus, middle orbital gyrus and lateral orbital gyrus. These subjects also completed a self-report measure of Machiavelli personality traits, along with psychometric tests of social comprehension and declarative episodic memory, all of which we used as proxy measures to examine various features of social cognition. The data pointed to distinct functional-anatomical relationships highlighted by strong correlations of left lateral orbital gyrus and Machiavellian scores and right middle orbital gyrus with social comprehension and declarative episodic memory. In addition, hierarchical regression analyses revealed statistical evidence of a double dissociation between Machiavellian scores and left lateral orbital gyrus on one hand, and social comprehension with right middle orbital gyrus, on the other hand. To our knowledge, these findings are the first to show evidence linking normal variation in OFC subregions and different aspects of social cognition.

  18. Cognitive biases to healthy and unhealthy food words predict change in BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calitri, Raff; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Tapper, Katy; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    The current study explored the predictive value of cognitive biases to food cues (assessed by emotional Stroop and dot probe tasks) on weight change over a 1-year period. This was a longitudinal study with undergraduate students (N = 102) living in shared student accommodation. After controlling for the effects of variables associated with weight (e.g., physical activity, stress, restrained eating, external eating, and emotional eating), no effects of cognitive bias were found with the dot probe. However, for the emotional Stroop, cognitive bias to unhealthy foods predicted an increase in BMI whereas cognitive bias to healthy foods was associated with a decrease in BMI. Results parallel findings in substance abuse research; cognitive biases appear to predict behavior change. Accordingly, future research should consider strategies for attentional retraining, encouraging individuals to reorient attention away from unhealthy eating cues.

  19. Prediction and constancy of cognitive-motivational structures in mothers and their adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerstein, A J; Ahern, M M; Pulos, S; Arasteh, J D

    1995-01-01

    Three clinically-derived, cognitive-motivational structures were predicted in 68 adolescents from their caregiving situations as revealed in their mothers' interviews, elicited six years earlier. Basic to each structure is a motivational concern and its related social cognitive style, a style which corresponds to a Piagetian cognitive stage: concrete operational, intuitive or symbolic. Because these structure types parse a non-clinical population, current views of health and accordingly goals of treatment may need modification.

  20. State Mindfulness During Meditation Predicts Enhanced Cognitive Reappraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Garland, Eric L.; Hanley, Adam; Farb, Norman A.; Froeliger, Brett E.

    2013-01-01

    Putatively, mindfulness meditation involves generation of a state of “nonappraisal”, yet, little is known about how mindfulness may influence appraisal processes. We investigated whether the state and practice of mindfulness could enhance cognitive reappraisal. Participants (N = 44; M age = 24.44, SD = 4.00, range 19 – 38, 82.2% female) were randomized to either 1) mindfulness, 2) suppression, or 3) mind-wandering induction training conditions. Cognitive reappraisal was assessed with the Emot...

  1. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D predicts cognitive performance in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwish H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hala Darwish,1 Pia Zeinoun,2 Husam Ghusn,3,4 Brigitte Khoury,2 Hani Tamim,5 Samia J Khoury6 1Hariri School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Psychiatry Department, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Geriatrics Department, Ain Wazein Hospital, El Chouf, Lebanon; 5Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 6Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon Background: Vitamin D is an endogenous hormone known to regulate calcium levels in the body and plays a role in cognitive performance. Studies have shown an association between vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment in older adults. Lebanon has a high 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD deficiency prevalence across all age groups. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we explored the cognitive performance and serum 25(OHD levels using an electrochemoluminescent immunoassay in 254 older (>60 years as well as younger (30–60 years adults. Subjects’ characteristics, including age, years of education, wearing of veil, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical exercise, were collected. Participants were screened for depression prior to cognitive screening using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Arabic version. Visuospatial memory was tested using the Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial, and speed of processing was assessed using the Symbol Digit Modalities test. Results: Pearson’s correlation and stepwise linear regression analyses showed that a low vitamin D level was associated with greater risk of cognitive impairment in older as well as younger adults. Conclusion: These findings suggest that correction of vitamin D needs to be explored as an intervention to prevent cognitive impairment. Prospective

  2. Analytic cognitive style predicts religious and paranormal belief

    OpenAIRE

    Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement (attendance at religious services, praying, etc.), conventional religious beliefs (heaven, miracle...

  3. Retrospective lifetime dietary patterns predict cognitive performance in community-dwelling older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Diane E; Nettelbeck, Ted; Wilson, Carlene; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2014-07-28

    Dietary intake is a modifiable exposure that may have an impact on cognitive outcomes in older age. The long-term aetiology of cognitive decline and dementia, however, suggests that the relevance of dietary intake extends across the lifetime. In the present study, we tested whether retrospective dietary patterns from the life periods of childhood, early adulthood, adulthood and middle age predicted cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy sample of 352 older Australian adults >65 years. Participants completed the Lifetime Diet Questionnaire and a battery of cognitive tests designed to comprehensively assess multiple cognitive domains. In separate regression models, lifetime dietary patterns were the predictors of cognitive factor scores representing ten constructs derived by confirmatory factor analysis of the cognitive test battery. All regression models were progressively adjusted for the potential confounders of current diet, age, sex, years of education, English as native language, smoking history, income level, apoE ɛ4 status, physical activity, other past dietary patterns and health-related variables. In the adjusted models, lifetime dietary patterns predicted cognitive performance in this sample of older adults. In models additionally adjusted for intake from the other life periods and mechanistic health-related variables, dietary patterns from the childhood period alone reached significance. Higher consumption of the 'coffee and high-sugar, high-fat extras' pattern predicted poorer performance on simple/choice reaction time, working memory, retrieval fluency, short-term memory and reasoning. The 'vegetable and non-processed' pattern negatively predicted simple/choice reaction time, and the 'traditional Australian' pattern positively predicted perceptual speed and retrieval fluency. Identifying early-life dietary antecedents of older-age cognitive performance contributes to formulating strategies for delaying or preventing cognitive decline.

  4. Integration and relative value of biomarkers for prediction of MCI to AD progression: Spatial patterns of brain atrophy, cognitive scores, APOE genotype and CSF biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Da

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the individual, as well as relative and joint value of indices obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI patterns of brain atrophy (quantified by the SPARE-AD index, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers, APOE genotype, and cognitive performance (ADAS-Cog in progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI to Alzheimer's disease (AD within a variable follow-up period up to 6 years, using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1. SPARE-AD was first established as a highly sensitive and specific MRI-marker of AD vs. cognitively normal (CN subjects (AUC = 0.98. Baseline predictive values of all aforementioned indices were then compared using survival analysis on 381 MCI subjects. SPARE-AD and ADAS-Cog were found to have similar predictive value, and their combination was significantly better than their individual performance. APOE genotype did not significantly improve prediction, although the combination of SPARE-AD, ADAS-Cog and APOE ε4 provided the highest hazard ratio estimates of 17.8 (last vs. first quartile. In a subset of 192 MCI patients who also had CSF biomarkers, the addition of Aβ1–42, t-tau, and p-tau181p to the previous model did not improve predictive value significantly over SPARE-AD and ADAS-Cog combined. Importantly, in amyloid-negative patients with MCI, SPARE-AD had high predictive power of clinical progression. Our findings suggest that SPARE-AD and ADAS-Cog in combination offer the highest predictive power of conversion from MCI to AD, which is improved, albeit not significantly, by APOE genotype. The finding that SPARE-AD in amyloid-negative MCI patients was predictive of clinical progression is not expected under the amyloid hypothesis and merits further investigation.

  5. Dynamic fMRI networks predict success in a behavioral weight loss program among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Rejeski, W Jack; Zhu, Yingying; Wu, Guorong; Simpson, Sean L; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2018-06-01

    More than one-third of adults in the United States are obese, with a higher prevalence among older adults. Obesity among older adults is a major cause of physical dysfunction, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart diseases. Many people who engage in lifestyle weight loss interventions fail to reach targeted goals for weight loss, and most will regain what was lost within 1-2 years following cessation of treatment. This variability in treatment efficacy suggests that there are important phenotypes predictive of success with intentional weight loss that could lead to tailored treatment regimen, an idea that is consistent with the concept of precision-based medicine. Although the identification of biochemical and metabolic phenotypes are one potential direction of research, neurobiological measures may prove useful as substantial behavioral change is necessary to achieve success in a lifestyle intervention. In the present study, we use dynamic brain networks from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to prospectively identify individuals most likely to succeed in a behavioral weight loss intervention. Brain imaging was performed in overweight or obese older adults (age: 65-79 years) who participated in an 18-month lifestyle weight loss intervention. Machine learning and functional brain networks were combined to produce multivariate prediction models. The prediction accuracy exceeded 95%, suggesting that there exists a consistent pattern of connectivity which correctly predicts success with weight loss at the individual level. Connectivity patterns that contributed to the prediction consisted of complex multivariate network components that substantially overlapped with known brain networks that are associated with behavior emergence, self-regulation, body awareness, and the sensory features of food. Future work on independent datasets and diverse populations is needed to corroborate our findings. Additionally, we believe that efforts can begin to

  6. Personality Predicts Cognitive Function Over Seven Years in Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin; Duberstein, Paul; Tindle, Hilary A; Sink, Kaycee M; Robbins, John; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Franks, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether Neuroticism, as well as the less-studied dimensions the Five Factor Model of personality (Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) were associated with 7-year trajectories of cognitive functioning in older persons. Design Primary analysis of existing clinical trial data. Participants 602 persons of average age 79 at baseline. Measurements The NEO-Five Factor Inventory of personality, completed at baseline, and the modified Mini Mental Status Exam (3MSE) measured every 6 months for 7 years. Results Controlling for demographics, baseline morbidities including depression, health behaviors, Apolipoprotein E4 genotype, and self-rated health, higher Neuroticism was associated with worse average cognitive functioning and a steeper rate of decline over follow-up. Higher Extraversion and lower Openness were both associated with worse average cognitive functioning prospectively, while persons higher in Conscientiousness showed a slower rate of cognitive decline. Conclusions In addition to Neuroticism, other dispositional tendencies appear prognostically relevant for cognitive functioning in older persons. More work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which traits operate, as well as whether mitigation of certain dispositional tendencies can facilitate a better course of cognitive function. PMID:22735597

  7. Peer Victimization and Harsh Parenting Predict Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A.; Sinclair-McBride, Keneisha R.; Zelkowitz, Rachel; Bilsky, Sarah A.; Roeder, Kathryn; Spinelli, Tawny

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study examined peer victimization and harsh parenting as longitudinal predictors of broadband and narrowband cognitions associated with the etiology of depression in children and adolescents. Method The sample consisted of 214 elementary and middle school students. At the start of the study, their average age was 12.2 years (SD = 1.0). The sex ratio was 112 girls to 102 boys. The sample was ethnically diverse (58.9% Caucasian, 34.1% African American, 10.7% Hispanic, 3.3% Asian, and 5.2% other). Children and their parents completed measures of peer victimization and harsh parenting. At two waves one year apart, children also completed questionnaire measures of negative and positive broadband cognitive style (e.g., personal failure, global self-worth) and narrowband self-perceptions (e.g., perceived social threat, social acceptance). Results Every wave 2 cognitive variable was predicted by peer victimization or harsh parenting or both, even after controlling for a wave 1 measure of the same cognitive variable. Peer victimization more consistently predicted narrowband social/interpersonal cognitions, whereas harsh parenting more consistently predicted broadband positive and negative cognitions. Furthermore, controlling for positive and negative self-cognitions eliminated a statistically significant effect of harsh parenting and peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Conclusions Support emerged for the social learning of negative self-cognitions. Support also emerged for negative self-cognitions as a mediator of depressive symptoms. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:25751612

  8. Peer Victimization and Harsh Parenting Predict Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A; Sinclair-McBride, Keneisha R; Zelkowitz, Rachel; Bilsk, Sarah A; Roeder, Kathryn; Spinelli, Tawny

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined peer victimization and harsh parenting as longitudinal predictors of broadband and narrowband cognitions associated with the etiology of depression in children and adolescents. The sample consisted of 214 elementary and middle school students. At the start of the study, their average age was 12.2 years (SD = 1.0). The sex ratio was 112 girls to 102 boys. The sample was ethnically diverse (58.9% Caucasian, 34.1% African American, 10.7% Hispanic, 3.3% Asian, and 5.2% other). Children and their parents completed measures of peer victimization and harsh parenting. At two waves 1 year apart, children also completed questionnaire measures of negative and positive broadband cognitive style (e.g., personal failure, global self-worth) and narrowband self-perceptions (e.g., perceived social threat, social acceptance). Every Wave 2 cognitive variable was predicted by peer victimization or harsh parenting or both, even after controlling for a Wave 1 measure of the same cognitive variable. Peer victimization more consistently predicted narrowband social/interpersonal cognitions, whereas harsh parenting more consistently predicted broadband positive and negative cognitions. Furthermore, controlling for positive and negative self-cognitions eliminated a statistically significant effect of harsh parenting and peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Support emerged for the social learning of negative self-cognitions. Support also emerged for negative self-cognitions as a mediator of depressive symptoms. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  9. EEG Estimates of Cognitive Workload and Engagement Predict Math Problem Solving Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Carole R.; Galan, Federico Cirett

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors focused on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) data about cognitive workload and sustained attention to predict math problem solving outcomes. EEG data were recorded as students solved a series of easy and difficult math problems. Sequences of attention and cognitive workload estimates derived from the EEG…

  10. Utility of Clinical Parameters and Multiparametric MRI as Predictive Factors for Differentiating Uterine Sarcoma From Atypical Leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Qiu; Xiao, Zhibo; Lv, Fajin; Liu, Yao; Zou, Chunxia; Shen, Yiqing

    2018-02-05

    The objective of this study was to find clinical parameters and qualitative and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features for differentiating uterine sarcoma from atypical leiomyoma (ALM) preoperatively and to calculate predictive values for uterine sarcoma. Data from 60 patients with uterine sarcoma and 88 patients with ALM confirmed by surgery and pathology were collected. Clinical parameters, qualitative MRI features, diffusion-weighted imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient values, and quantitative parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of these two tumor types were compared. Predictive values for uterine sarcoma were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. Patient clinical manifestations, tumor locations, margins, T2-weighted imaging signals, mean apparent diffusion coefficient values, minimum apparent diffusion coefficient values, and time-signal intensity curves of solid tumor components were obvious significant parameters for distinguishing between uterine sarcoma and ALM (all P Abnormal vaginal bleeding, tumors located mainly in the uterine cavity, ill-defined tumor margins, and mean apparent diffusion coefficient values of uterine sarcoma. When the overall scores of these four predictors were greater than or equal to 7 points, the sensitivity, the specificity, the accuracy, and the positive and negative predictive values were 88.9%, 99.9%, 95.7%, 97.0%, and 95.1%, respectively. The use of clinical parameters and multiparametric MRI as predictive factors was beneficial for diagnosing uterine sarcoma preoperatively. These findings could be helpful for guiding treatment decisions. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical findings just after return to play predict hamstring re-injury, but baseline MRI findings do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Robert-Jan; Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert-Jan; Moen, Maarten H.; Weir, Adam; Tol, Johannes L.

    2014-01-01

    Acute hamstring re-injuries are common and hard to predict. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between clinical and imaging findings and the occurrence of hamstring re-injuries. We obtained baseline data (clinical and MRI findings) of athletes who sustained an acute hamstring

  12. Clinical findings just after return to play predict hamstring re-injury, but baseline MRI findings do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. de Vos (Robert-Jan); G. Reurink (Gustaaf); G.J. Goudswaard (Gert Jan); M.H. Moen (Maaike); A. Weir (Adam); J.L. Tol (Johannes)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background Acute hamstring re-injuries are common and hard to predict. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between clinical and imaging findings and the occurrence of hamstring re-injuries. Methods We obtained baseline data (clinical and MRI

  13. Integrated 18F-FDG PET/MRI in breast cancer. Early prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nariya; Im, Seock-Ah; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Tae-Yong; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Park, In-Ae; Kim, Young Seon; Kwon, Bo Ra; Lee, Jung Min; Suh, Hoon Young; Suh, Koung Jin

    2018-01-01

    To explore whether integrated 18 F-FDG PET/MRI can be used to predict pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with breast cancer. Between November 2014 and April 2016, 26 patients with breast cancer who had received NAC and subsequent surgery were prospectively enrolled. Each patient underwent 18 F-FDG PET/MRI examination before and after the first cycle of NAC. Qualitative MRI parameters, including morphological descriptors and the presence of peritumoral oedema were assessed. Quantitatively, PET parameters, including maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and MRI parameters, including washout proportion and signal enhancement ratio (SER), were measured. The performance of the imaging parameters singly and in combination in predicting a pathological incomplete response (non-pCR) was assessed. Of the 26 patients, 7 (26.9%) exhibited a pathological complete response (pCR), and 19 (73.1%) exhibited a non-pCR. No significant differences were found between the pCR and non-pCR groups in the qualitative MRI parameters. The mean percentage reductions in TLG 30% on PET and SER on MRI were significantly greater in the pCR group than in the non-pCR group (TLG 30% -64.8 ± 15.5% vs. -25.4 ± 48.7%, P = 0.005; SER -34.6 ± 19.7% vs. -8.7 ± 29.0%, P = 0.040). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the percentage change in TLG 30% (0.789, 95% CI 0.614 to 0.965) was similar to that for the percentage change in SER (0.789, 95% CI 0.552 to 1.000; P = 1.000). The specificity of TLG 30% in predicting pCR was 100% (7/7) and that of SER was 71.4% (5/7). The sensitivity of TLG 30% in predicting non-pCR was 63.2% (12/19) and that of SER was 84.2% (16/19). When the combined TLG 30% and SER criterion was applied, sensitivity was 100% (19/19), and specificity was 71.4% (5/7). 18 F-FDG PET/MRI can be used to predict non-pCR after the first cycle of NAC in patients with breast cancer

  14. Integrated {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI in breast cancer. Early prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nariya [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Seock-Ah; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Tae-Yong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Gi Jeong [Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Ae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Seon [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeungnam University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Bo Ra [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Min; Suh, Hoon Young [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Koung Jin [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-03-15

    To explore whether integrated {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI can be used to predict pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with breast cancer. Between November 2014 and April 2016, 26 patients with breast cancer who had received NAC and subsequent surgery were prospectively enrolled. Each patient underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI examination before and after the first cycle of NAC. Qualitative MRI parameters, including morphological descriptors and the presence of peritumoral oedema were assessed. Quantitatively, PET parameters, including maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and MRI parameters, including washout proportion and signal enhancement ratio (SER), were measured. The performance of the imaging parameters singly and in combination in predicting a pathological incomplete response (non-pCR) was assessed. Of the 26 patients, 7 (26.9%) exhibited a pathological complete response (pCR), and 19 (73.1%) exhibited a non-pCR. No significant differences were found between the pCR and non-pCR groups in the qualitative MRI parameters. The mean percentage reductions in TLG{sub 30%} on PET and SER on MRI were significantly greater in the pCR group than in the non-pCR group (TLG{sub 30%} -64.8 ± 15.5% vs. -25.4 ± 48.7%, P = 0.005; SER -34.6 ± 19.7% vs. -8.7 ± 29.0%, P = 0.040). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the percentage change in TLG{sub 30%} (0.789, 95% CI 0.614 to 0.965) was similar to that for the percentage change in SER (0.789, 95% CI 0.552 to 1.000; P = 1.000). The specificity of TLG{sub 30%} in predicting pCR was 100% (7/7) and that of SER was 71.4% (5/7). The sensitivity of TLG{sub 30%} in predicting non-pCR was 63.2% (12/19) and that of SER was 84.2% (16/19). When the combined TLG{sub 30%} and SER criterion was applied, sensitivity was 100% (19/19), and specificity was 71.4% (5/7). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI can be used to predict non-pCR after the first

  15. Allocentric spatial memory testing predicts conversion from mild cognitive impairment to dementia: an initial proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A Wood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is one of the first regions to exhibit neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and knowledge of its role in allocentric spatial memory may therefore aid early diagnosis of AD. The 4 Mountains Test (4MT is a short and easily administered test of spatial memory based on the cognitive map theory of hippocampal function as derived from rodent single cell and behavioral studies. The 4MT has been shown in previous cross-sectional studies to be sensitive and specific for mild cognitive impairment due to AD. This report describes the initial results of a longitudinal study testing the hypothesis that allocentric spatial memory is predictive of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to dementia.Fifteen patients with mild cognitive impairment underwent baseline testing on the 4MT in addition to CSF amyloid/tau biomarker studies, volumetric MRI and neuropsychological assessment including the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and Trail Making Test B (TMT-B. At 24 months, 9/15 patients had converted to AD dementia. The 4MT predicted conversion to AD with 93% accuracy (Cohen’s d = 2.52. The predictive accuracies of the comparator measures were as follows: CSF tau/β-amyloid1-42 ratio 92% (d = 1.81, RAVLT 64% (d = 0.41, TMT-B 78% (d = 1.56, and hippocampal volume 77% (d = 0.65. CSF tau levels were strongly negative correlated with 4MT scores (r = -0.71. This proof-of-concept study provides initial support for the hypothesis that allocentric spatial memory testing is a predictive cognitive marker of hippocampal neurodegeneration in pre-dementia AD. The 4MT is a brief, noninvasive, straightforward spatial memory test and is therefore ideally suited for use in routine clinical diagnostic practice. This is of particular importance given the current unmet need for simple accurate diagnostic tests for early AD and the ongoing development of potential disease-modifying therapeutic agents which may be more efficacious when given

  16. Spouse's subjective social status predicts older adults' prospective cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Fung, Helene; Kwok, Timothy

    2017-12-06

    The current study aims to investigate the association between subjective social status (SSS) and prospective cognitive functioning of older adults and their spouses, and to explore the potential mediating roles of health habits and physical activities in this association. Using the longitudinal data of 512 pairs of community-dwelling older couples aged 65-91 years (M = 72.2 ± 4.6), we tested the effects of SSS in cognitive functioning using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. SSS was measured by a self-anchoring social ladder, and cognitive functioning was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Socioeconomic status (i.e. education) was tested as a moderator, and physical activity (measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly) as well as health habits (i.e. tobacco and alcohol consumption) were included as potential mediators. A partner effect of SSS was found only in the low-education group, in which the wife's higher level of SSS in the community was associated with the husband's better cognitive functioning in the follow-up. A small proportion of this effect was found to be partially mediated by participation in housework, such that the wife's higher SSS was associated with the husband's increased housework activity, which was related to higher prospective cognitive functioning. By examining the dyadic effects of SSS with a longitudinal design, our findings extended the understanding on how subjective social status influenced older couples' cognitive health, and provided evidence-based insights for future studies on cognitive health in later life.

  17. Biological lifestyle factors in adult distance education: predicting cognitive and learning performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M. (2015, 20 October). Biological lifestyle factors in adult distance education: predicting cognitive and learning performance. Presentation given for the inter-faculty Data Science group at the Open University of the Netherlands, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  18. MRI T2 relaxometry of brain regions and cognitive dysfunction following electroconvulsive therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kunigiri, Girish; Jayakumar, P. N.; Janakiramaiah, N.; Gangadhar, B. N.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) causes no structural brain damage, recent studies reported altered brain perfusion acutely following ECT. This is in keeping with brain edema which was noted in animal experiments following electroconvulsive shock. Aim: This study examined alteration in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 relaxation time, a measure of brain edema, and its relation to therapeutic efficacy, orientation and memory impairment with ECT. Materials and Methods: Fi...

  19. PET Imaging of Tau Pathology and Relationship to Amyloid, Longitudinal MRI, and Cognitive Change in Down Syndrome: Results from the Down Syndrome Biomarker Initiative (DSBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Michael S; Lukic, Ana S; Andrews, Randolph D; Brewer, James; Rissman, Robert A; Strother, Stephen C; Wernick, Miles N; Pennington, Craig; Mobley, William C; Ness, Seth; Matthews, Dawn C

    2017-01-01

    Adults with Down syndrome (DS) represent an enriched population for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which could aid the study of therapeutic interventions, and in turn, could benefit from discoveries made in other AD populations. 1) Understand the relationship between tau pathology and age, amyloid deposition, neurodegeneration (MRI and FDG PET), and cognitive and functional performance; 2) detect and differentiate AD-specific changes from DS-specific brain changes in longitudinal MRI. Twelve non-demented adults, ages 30 to 60, with DS were enrolled in the Down Syndrome Biomarker Initiative (DSBI), a 3-year, observational, cohort study to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting AD intervention/prevention trials in adults with DS. We collected imaging data with 18F-AV-1451 tau PET, AV-45 amyloid PET, FDG PET, and volumetric MRI, as well as cognitive and functional measures and additional laboratory measures. All amyloid negative subjects imaged were tau-negative. Among the amyloid positive subjects, three had tau in regions associated with Braak stage VI, two at stage V, and one at stage II. Amyloid and tau burden correlated with age. The MRI analysis produced two distinct volumetric patterns. The first differentiated DS from normal (NL) and AD, did not correlate with age or amyloid, and was longitudinally stable. The second pattern reflected AD-like atrophy and differentiated NL from AD. Tau PET and MRI atrophy correlated with several cognitive and functional measures. Tau accumulation is associated with amyloid positivity and age, as well as with progressive neurodegeneration measurable using FDG and MRI. Tau correlates with cognitive decline, as do AD-specific hypometabolism and atrophy.

  20. Quantitative evaluation of fMRI retinotopic maps, from V1 to V4, for cognitive experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile eBordier

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available FMRI retinotopic mapping is a non-invasive technique for the delineation of low-level visual areas in individual subjects. It generally relies upon the analysis of functional responses to periodic visual stimuli that encode eccentricity or polar angle in the visual field. This technique is used in vision research when the precise assignation of brain activation to retinotopic areas is an issue. It involves processing steps computed with different algorithms and embedded in various software suites. Manual intervention may be needed for some steps. Although the diversity of the available processing suites and manual interventions may potentially introduce some differences in the final delineation of visual areas, no documented comparison between maps obtained with different procedures has been reported in the literature. To explore the effect of the processing steps on the quality of the maps obtained, we used two tools, BALC, which relies on a fully automated procedure, and BrainVoyager, where areas are delineated by hand on the brain surface. To focus on the mapping procedures specifically, we used the same SPM pipeline for pretreatment and the same tissue segmentation tool. We document the consistency and differences of the fMRI retinotopic maps obtained from routine retinotopy experiments on ten subjects. The maps obtained by skilled users are never fully identical. However, the agreement between the maps, around 80% for low-level areas, is probably sufficient for most applications. Our results also indicate that assigning cognitive activations, following a specific experiment (here, color perception, to individual retinotopic maps is not free of errors. We provide measurements of this error, that may help for the cautious interpretation of cognitive activation projection onto fMRI retinotopic maps. On average, the magnitude of the error is about 20%, with much larger differences in a few subjects.

  1. The effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in patients with bipolar disorder: a controlled functional MRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives-Deliperi, Victoria L; Howells, Fleur; Stein, Dan J; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Horn, Neil

    2013-09-25

    Preliminary research findings have shown that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy improves anxiety and depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder. In this study, we further investigated the effects of MBCT in bipolar disorder, in a controlled fMRI study. Twenty three patients with bipolar disorder underwent neuropsychological testing and functional MRI. Sixteen of these patients were tested before and after an eight-week MBCT intervention, and seven were wait listed for training and tested at the same intervals. The results were compared with 10 healthy controls. Prior to MBCT, bipolar patients reported significantly higher levels of anxiety and symptoms of stress, scored significantly lower on a test of working memory, and showed significant BOLD signal decrease in the medial PFC during a mindfulness task, compared to healthy controls. Following MBCT, there were significant improvements in the bipolar treatment group, in measures of mindfulness, anxiety and emotion regulation, and in tests of working memory, spatial memory and verbal fluency compared to the bipolar wait list group. BOLD signal increases were noted in the medial PFC and posterior parietal lobe, in a repeat mindfulness task. A region of interest analysis revealed strong correlation between signal changes in medial PFC and increases in mindfulness. The small control group is a limitation in the study. These data suggest that MBCT improves mindfulness and emotion regulation and reduces anxiety in bipolar disorder, corresponding to increased activations in the medial PFC, a region associated with cognitive flexibility and previously proposed as a key area of pathophysiology in the disorder. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High predictive value of brain MRI imaging in primary mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beaurepaire, Isaure; Grévent, David; Rio, Marlène; Desguerre, Isabelle; de Lonlay, Pascale; Levy, Raphaël; Dangouloff-Ros, Volodia; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Barcia, Giulia; Funalot, Benoit; Besmond, Claude; Metodiev, Metodi D; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Assouline, Zahra; Munnich, Arnold; Rötig, Agnès; Boddaert, Nathalie

    2018-06-01

    Because the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) is ubiquitous, its deficiency can theoretically give rise to any symptom in any organ or tissue at any age with any mode of inheritance, owing to the twofold genetic origin of respiratory enzyme machinery, that is, nuclear and mitochondrial. Not all respiratory enzyme deficiencies are primary and secondary or artefactual deficiency is frequently observed, leading to a number of misleading conclusions and inappropriate investigations in clinical practice. This study is aimed at investigating the potential role of brain MRI in distinguishing primary RC deficiency from phenocopies and other aetiologies. Starting from a large series of 189 patients (median age: 3.5 years (8 days-56 years), 58% males) showing signs of RC enzyme deficiency, for whom both brain MRIs and disease-causing mutations were available, we retrospectively studied the positive predictive value (PPV) and the positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of brain MRI imaging and its ability to discriminate between two groups: primary deficiency of the mitochondrial RC machinery and phenocopies. Detection of (1) brainstem hyperintensity with basal ganglia involvement (P≤0.001) and (2) lactate peak with either brainstem or basal ganglia hyperintensity was highly suggestive of primary RC deficiency (P≤0.01). Fourteen items had a PPV>95% and LR+ was greater than 9 for seven signs. Biallelic SLC19A3 mutations represented the main differential diagnosis. Non-significant differences between the two groups were found for cortical/subcortical atrophy, leucoencephalopathy and involvement of caudate nuclei, spinothalamic tract and corpus callosum. Based on these results and owing to invasiveness of skeletal muscle biopsies and cost of high-throughput DNA sequencing, we suggest giving consideration to brain MRI imaging as a diagnostic marker and an informative investigation to be performed in patients showing signs of RC enzyme deficiency. © Article author(s) (or their

  3. Investigating the Predictive Value of Functional MRI to Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli: A Pattern Classification Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara McCabe

    Full Text Available Dysfunctional neural responses to appetitive and aversive stimuli have been investigated as possible biomarkers for psychiatric disorders. However it is not clear to what degree these are separate processes across the brain or in fact overlapping systems. To help clarify this issue we used Gaussian process classifier (GPC analysis to examine appetitive and aversive processing in the brain.25 healthy controls underwent functional MRI whilst seeing pictures and receiving tastes of pleasant and unpleasant food. We applied GPCs to discriminate between the appetitive and aversive sights and tastes using functional activity patterns.The diagnostic accuracy of the GPC for the accuracy to discriminate appetitive taste from neutral condition was 86.5% (specificity = 81%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001. If a participant experienced neutral taste stimuli the probability of correct classification was 92. The accuracy to discriminate aversive from neutral taste stimuli was 82.5% (specificity = 73%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001 and appetitive from aversive taste stimuli was 73% (specificity = 77%, sensitivity = 69%, p = 0.001. In the sight modality, the accuracy to discriminate appetitive from neutral condition was 88.5% (specificity = 85%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001, to discriminate aversive from neutral sight stimuli was 92% (specificity = 92%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001, and to discriminate aversive from appetitive sight stimuli was 63.5% (specificity = 73%, sensitivity = 54%, p = 0.009.Our results demonstrate the predictive value of neurofunctional data in discriminating emotional and neutral networks of activity in the healthy human brain. It would be of interest to use pattern recognition techniques and fMRI to examine network dysfunction in the processing of appetitive, aversive and neutral stimuli in psychiatric disorders. Especially where problems with reward and punishment processing have been implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder.

  4. MRI texture features as biomarkers to predict MGMT methylation status in glioblastomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Kline, Timothy L.; Erickson, Bradley J., E-mail: bje@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Coufalova, Lucie [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery of First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Military University Hospital, Prague 128 21 (Czech Republic); International Clinical Research Center, St. Anne’s University Hospital Brno, Brno 656 91 (Czech Republic); Lachance, Daniel H. [Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Parney, Ian F. [Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Carter, Rickey E. [Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Buckner, Jan C. [Department of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Imaging biomarker research focuses on discovering relationships between radiological features and histological findings. In glioblastoma patients, methylation of the O{sup 6}-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter is positively correlated with an increased effectiveness of current standard of care. In this paper, the authors investigate texture features as potential imaging biomarkers for capturing the MGMT methylation status of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors when combined with supervised classification schemes. Methods: A retrospective study of 155 GBM patients with known MGMT methylation status was conducted. Co-occurrence and run length texture features were calculated, and both support vector machines (SVMs) and random forest classifiers were used to predict MGMT methylation status. Results: The best classification system (an SVM-based classifier) had a maximum area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.78–0.91) using four texture features (correlation, energy, entropy, and local intensity) originating from the T2-weighted images, yielding at the optimal threshold of the ROC curve, a sensitivity of 0.803 and a specificity of 0.813. Conclusions: Results show that supervised machine learning of MRI texture features can predict MGMT methylation status in preoperative GBM tumors, thus providing a new noninvasive imaging biomarker.

  5. MRI texture features as biomarkers to predict MGMT methylation status in glioblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Kline, Timothy L.; Erickson, Bradley J.; Coufalova, Lucie; Lachance, Daniel H.; Parney, Ian F.; Carter, Rickey E.; Buckner, Jan C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Imaging biomarker research focuses on discovering relationships between radiological features and histological findings. In glioblastoma patients, methylation of the O 6 -methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter is positively correlated with an increased effectiveness of current standard of care. In this paper, the authors investigate texture features as potential imaging biomarkers for capturing the MGMT methylation status of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors when combined with supervised classification schemes. Methods: A retrospective study of 155 GBM patients with known MGMT methylation status was conducted. Co-occurrence and run length texture features were calculated, and both support vector machines (SVMs) and random forest classifiers were used to predict MGMT methylation status. Results: The best classification system (an SVM-based classifier) had a maximum area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.78–0.91) using four texture features (correlation, energy, entropy, and local intensity) originating from the T2-weighted images, yielding at the optimal threshold of the ROC curve, a sensitivity of 0.803 and a specificity of 0.813. Conclusions: Results show that supervised machine learning of MRI texture features can predict MGMT methylation status in preoperative GBM tumors, thus providing a new noninvasive imaging biomarker.

  6. Bimanual coordination positively predicts episodic memory: A combined behavioral and MRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Keith B; Dombroski, Brynn A; Faul, Leonard; Hopkins, Robin F; Naaz, Farah; Switala, Andrew E; Depue, Brendan E

    2017-11-01

    Some people remember events more completely and accurately than other people, but the origins of individual differences in episodic memory are poorly understood. One way to advance understanding is by identifying characteristics of individuals that reliably covary with memory performance. Recent research suggests motor behavior is related to memory performance, with individuals who consistently use a single preferred hand for unimanual actions performing worse than individuals who make greater use of both hands. This research has relied on self-reports of behavior. It is unknown whether objective measures of motor behavior also predict memory performance. Here, we tested the predictive power of bimanual coordination, an important form of manual dexterity. Bimanual coordination, as measured objectively on the Purdue Pegboard Test, was positively related to correct recall on the California Verbal Learning Test-II and negatively related to false recall. Furthermore, MRI data revealed that cortical surface area in right lateral prefrontal regions was positively related to correct recall. In one of these regions, cortical thickness was negatively related to bimanual coordination. These results suggest that individual differences in episodic memory may partially reflect morphological variation in right lateral prefrontal cortex and suggest a relationship between neural correlates of episodic memory and motor behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Analytic cognitive style predicts paranormal explanations of anomalous experiences but not the experiences themselves: Implications for cognitive theories of delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert M; Hartig, Bjoern; McKay, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    It has been proposed that delusional beliefs are attempts to explain anomalous experiences. Why, then, do anomalous experiences induce delusions in some people but not in others? One possibility is that people with delusions have reasoning biases that result in them failing to reject implausible candidate explanations for anomalous experiences. We examine this hypothesis by studying paranormal interpretations of anomalous experiences. We examined whether analytic cognitive style (i.e. the willingness or disposition to critically evaluate outputs from intuitive processing and engage in effortful analytic processing) predicted anomalous experiences and paranormal explanations for these experiences after controlling for demographic variables and cognitive ability. Analytic cognitive style predicted paranormal explanations for anomalous experiences, but not the anomalous experiences themselves. We did not study clinical delusions. Our attempts to control for cognitive ability may have been inadequate. Our sample was predominantly students. Limited analytic cognitive style might contribute to the interpretation of anomalous experiences in terms of delusional beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Does the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale Predict Response to Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT has emerged as a viable treatment option for people diagnosed with schizophrenia presenting disabling cognitive deficits. However, it is important to determine which variables can influence response to CRT in order to provide cost-effective treatment. This study’s aim was to explore cognitive insight as a potential predictor of cognitive improvement after CRT. Twenty patients with schizophrenia completed a 24-session CRT program involving 18 hours of computer exercises and 6 hours of group discussion to encourage generalization of cognitive training to everyday activities. Pre- and posttest assessments included the CogState Research Battery and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS. Lower self-certainty on the BCIS at baseline was associated with greater improvement in speed of processing (rs=-0.48; p<0.05 and visual memory (rs=-0.46; p<0.05. The results of this study point out potential associations between self-certainty and cognitive improvement after CRT, a variable that can easily be measured in clinical settings to help evaluate which patients may benefit most from the intervention. They also underline the need to keep investigating the predictors of good CRT outcomes, which can vary widely between patients.

  9. Idea density measured in late life predicts subsequent cognitive trajectories: implications for the measurement of cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Chand, Vineeta; Bonnici, Lisa; Baynes, Kathleen; Harvey, Danielle; Mungas, Dan; Simon, Christa; Reed, Bruce

    2012-11-01

    The Nun Study showed that lower linguistic ability in young adulthood, measured by idea density (ID), increased the risk of dementia in late life. The present study examined whether ID measured in late life continues to predict the trajectory of cognitive change. ID was measured in 81 older adults who were followed longitudinally for an average of 4.3 years. Changes in global cognition and 4 specific neuropsychological domains (episodic memory, semantic memory, spatial abilities, and executive function) were examined as outcomes. Separate random effects models tested the effect of ID on longitudinal change in outcomes, adjusted for age and education. Lower ID was associated with greater subsequent decline in global cognition, semantic memory, episodic memory, and spatial abilities. When analysis was restricted to only participants without dementia at the time ID was collected, results were similar. Linguistic ability in young adulthood, as measured by ID, has been previously proposed as an index of neurocognitive development and/or cognitive reserve. The present study provides evidence that even when ID is measured in old age, it continues to be associated with subsequent cognitive decline and as such may continue to provide a marker of cognitive reserve.

  10. Prediction of prostate cancer extracapsular extension with high spatial resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced 3-T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, B.N.; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Costa, Daniel N.; Pedrosa, Ivan; Rofsky, Neil M.; Smith, Martin P.; Kressel, Herbert Y.; Ngo, Long; Sanda, Martin G.; DeWolf, William C.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the value of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) combined with T2-weighted (T2W) endorectal coil (ERC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 T for determining extracapsular extension (ECE) of prostate cancer. In this IRB-approved study, ERC 3-T MRI of the prostate was performed in 108 patients before radical prostatectomy. T2W fast spin-echo and DCE 3D gradient echo images were acquired. The interpretations of readers with varied experience were analysed. MRI-based staging results were compared with radical prostatectomy histology. Descriptive statistics were generated for prediction of ECE and staging accuracies were determined by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for ECE were 75 %, 92 %, 79 % and 91 %, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy for staging was 86 %, 80 % and 91 % for all readers, experienced and less experienced readers, respectively. ERC 3-T MRI of the prostate combining DCE and T2W imaging is an accurate pretherapeutic staging tool for assessment of ECE in clinical practice across varying levels of reader experience. (orig.)

  11. Exploring Cognitive Relations between Prediction in Language and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aniruddh D.; Morgan, Emily

    2017-01-01

    The online processing of both music and language involves making predictions about upcoming material, but the relationship between prediction in these two domains is not well understood. Electrophysiological methods for studying individual differences in prediction in language processing have opened the door to new questions. Specifically, we ask…

  12. Childhood Cognitive Ability Predicts Adult Financial Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Furnham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to investigate to what extent childhood cognitive ability, along with personality traits, education and occupational status, as well as marital status influence adult financial success. Data were drawn from a large, prospective birth cohort in the UK, the National Child Development Study (NCDS. The analytic sample was comprised of 4537 cohort members with data on parental social class (at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11, educational qualifications (at age 33, personality traits (at age 50, current marital status and occupational prestige, and salary/wage earning level (all measured at age 54. Correlational results showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, traits extraversion, emotional stability, conscientiousness, and openness, being married positively, being divorced or separated negatively, education and occupation as well as gender were all significantly associated with adult earning ability (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001. Effect sizes for the relationship between intelligence and income was moderate. Results of a multiple regression analysis showed that childhood cognitive ability, traits conscientiousness and openness, educational qualifications and occupational prestige were significant and independent predictors of adult earning ability accounting for 30% of the total variance. There was also a gender effect on the outcome variable. Numerous limitations are noted.

  13. Depressive symptoms predict slow cognitive decline in mild dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janzing, J.G.E.; Naarding, P.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Depression may be a prognostic marker of subsequent cognitive decline in patients with dementia. Earlier investigations did not find support for this hypothesis, but these considered mainly syndromal depression. In this prospective study, 32 subjects with mild dementia were followed up for 12

  14. Can positional MRI predict dynamic changes in the medial plantar arch?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Finn E; Hansen, Philip; Stallknecht, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Positional MRI (pMRI) allows for three-dimensional visual assessment of navicular position. In this exploratory pilot study pMRI was validated against a stretch sensor device, which measures movement of the medial plantar arch. We hypothesized that a combined pMRI measure incorporating...... and c) standing position with addition of 10 % body weight during static loading of the foot. Stretch sensor measurements were also performed during barefoot walking. RESULTS: The total change in navicular position measured by pMRI was 10.3 mm (CI: 7.0 to 13.5 mm). No further displacement occurred when.......08). CONCLUSIONS: Total navicular bone displacements determined by pMRI showed concurrent validity with stretch sensor measurements but only so under static loading conditions. Although assessment of total navicular displacement by combining concomitant vertical and medial navicular bone movements would appear...

  15. MRI Volumetry of Hippocampus and Amygdala in Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suphaphong, S.; Tritanon, O.; Laothamatas, J.; Sungkarat, W.

    2012-01-01

    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can affect memory and daily living. Non- invasive diagnostic tools such as MRI can be useful to discriminate the patients from normal group.This study aims to compare the relative volumes of hippocampus and amygdala, to suggest the relative normal volumes, and to evaluate MRI automatic volumetry as a diagnostic tool. The MRI images of 130 subjects were retrospectively studied (Turbo field echo (TFE), acquired with a 3-Tesla Philips scanner). The image data were processed with Free Surfer (automatic segmentation and volumetry). The resultant volumes were corrected for brain size differences with intracranial volumes (ICV), and then analysed with SPSS (v. 17.0). There are differences of hippocampus and amygdala relative volumes between normal, MCI, and AD subjects at p < 0.001. The volume reductions of hippocampus in MCI and AD groups compared to normal group are about 8 % and 28 %, while those of amygdala are about 10 % and 34 %, respectively. The relative volumes of hippocampus (compared to ICV) in normal aging are 0.002617 ± 0.000278 (right) and 0.002553 ± 0.000257 (left), while those of amygdala are 0.001231 ± 0.000165 (right) and 0.001096 ± 0.000144 (left). There are no differences of relative volumes affected by gender in normal, MCI, and AD. There is a highly significant difference of relative volume affected by brain side in normal group (p < 0.001) but not in MCI (p = 0.119 and 0.077) and AD (p = 0.713 and 0.250), for hippocampus and amygdala, respectively. These results demonstrate that there are volume losses of hippocampus and amygdala in both diseases. Automatically measured hippocampus and amygdala volumes can be used as a measure indicating MCI and AD. The abnormal disturbance of volume affected by brain side may indicate the progression of both diseases. The hippocampus and amygdala volumes can be used as one of diagnostic tools to confirm the diagnosis of MCI or AD. The volume

  16. Predicting recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke: differential modeling of logarithmic and linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Sugimura, Yuko; Yamada, Sumio; Omori, Yoshitsugu; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive disorders in the acute stage of stroke are common and are important independent predictors of adverse outcome in the long term. Despite the impact of cognitive disorders on both patients and their families, it is still difficult to predict the extent or duration of cognitive impairments. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to provide data on predicting the recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke by differential modeling with logarithmic and linear regression. This study included two rounds of data collection comprising 57 stroke patients enrolled in the first round for the purpose of identifying the time course of cognitive recovery in the early-phase group data, and 43 stroke patients in the second round for the purpose of ensuring that the correlation of the early-phase group data applied to the prediction of each individual's degree of cognitive recovery. In the first round, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were assessed 3 times during hospitalization, and the scores were regressed on the logarithm and linear of time. In the second round, calculations of MMSE scores were made for the first two scoring times after admission to tailor the structures of logarithmic and linear regression formulae to fit an individual's degree of functional recovery. The time course of early-phase recovery for cognitive functions resembled both logarithmic and linear functions. However, MMSE scores sampled at two baseline points based on logarithmic regression modeling could estimate prediction of cognitive recovery more accurately than could linear regression modeling (logarithmic modeling, R(2) = 0.676, PLogarithmic modeling based on MMSE scores could accurately predict the recovery of cognitive function soon after the occurrence of stroke. This logarithmic modeling with mathematical procedures is simple enough to be adopted in daily clinical practice.

  17. Personal contextual characteristics and cognitions: predicting child abuse potential and disciplinary style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-02-01

    According to Social Information Processing theory, parents' cognitive processes influence their decisions to engage in physical maltreatment, although cognitions occur in the context of other aspects of the parents' life. The present study investigated whether cognitive processes (external locus of control, inappropriate developmental expectations) predicted child abuse potential and overreactive disciplinary style beyond personal contextual factors characteristic of the parent (hostility, stress, and coping). 363 parents were recruited online. Results highlight the relative importance of the contextual characteristics (particularly stress, avoidant coping, and irritability) relative to cognitive processes in predicting abuse potential and overreactive discipline strategies, although an external locus of control also significantly contributed. Findings do not support that parents' developmental expectations uniquely predict elevated abuse risk. Results indicate stressed parents who utilize avoidance coping strategies are more likely to use overreactive discipline and report increased abuse potential. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention/intervention efforts.

  18. Abnormal brain functional connectivity leads to impaired mood and cognition in hyperthyroidism: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Zhi, Mengmeng; Hou, Zhenghua; Zhang, Yuqun; Yue, Yingying; Yuan, Yonggui

    2017-01-01

    Patients with hyperthyroidism frequently have neuropsychiatric complaints such as lack of concentration, poor memory, depression, anxiety, nervousness, and irritability, suggesting brain dysfunction. However, the underlying process of these symptoms remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we depicted the altered graph theoretical metric degree centrality (DC) and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in 33 hyperthyroid patients relative to 33 healthy controls. The peak points of significantly altered DC between the two groups were defined as the seed regions to calculate FC to the whole brain. Then, partial correlation analyses were performed between abnormal DC, FC and neuropsychological performances, as well as some clinical indexes. The decreased intrinsic functional connectivity in the posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC) and medial frontal gyrus (MeFG), as well as the abnormal seed-based FC anchored in default mode network (DMN), attention network, visual network and cognitive network in this study, possibly constitutes the latent mechanism for emotional and cognitive changes in hyperthyroidism, including anxiety and impaired processing speed. PMID:28009983

  19. Live face-to-face interaction during fMRI: a new tool for social cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Dodell-Feder, David; Pearrow, Mark J; Mavros, Penelope L; Kleiner, Mario; Gabrieli, John D E; Saxe, Rebecca

    2010-05-01

    Cooperative social interaction is critical for human social development and learning. Despite the importance of social interaction, previous neuroimaging studies lack two fundamental components of everyday face-to-face interactions: contingent responding and joint attention. In the current studies, functional MRI data were collected while participants interacted with a human experimenter face-to-face via live video feed as they engaged in simple cooperative games. In Experiment 1, participants engaged in a live interaction with the experimenter ("Live") or watched a video of the same interaction ("Recorded"). During the "Live" interaction, as compared to the Recorded conditions, greater activation was seen in brain regions involved in social cognition and reward, including the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right superior temporal sulcus (rSTS), ventral striatum, and amygdala. Experiment 2 isolated joint attention, a critical component of social interaction. Participants either followed the gaze of the live experimenter to a shared target of attention ("Joint Attention") or found the target of attention alone while the experimenter was visible but not sharing attention ("Solo Attention"). The right temporoparietal junction and right posterior STS were differentially recruited during Joint, as compared to Solo, attention. These findings suggest the rpSTS and rTPJ are key regions for both social interaction and joint attention. This method of allowing online, contingent social interactions in the scanner could open up new avenues of research in social cognitive neuroscience, both in typical and atypical populations. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Abnormal brain functional connectivity leads to impaired mood and cognition in hyperthyroidism: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Zhi, Mengmeng; Hou, Zhenghua; Zhang, Yuqun; Yue, Yingying; Yuan, Yonggui

    2017-01-24

    Patients with hyperthyroidism frequently have neuropsychiatric complaints such as lack of concentration, poor memory, depression, anxiety, nervousness, and irritability, suggesting brain dysfunction. However, the underlying process of these symptoms remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we depicted the altered graph theoretical metric degree centrality (DC) and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in 33 hyperthyroid patients relative to 33 healthy controls. The peak points of significantly altered DC between the two groups were defined as the seed regions to calculate FC to the whole brain. Then, partial correlation analyses were performed between abnormal DC, FC and neuropsychological performances, as well as some clinical indexes. The decreased intrinsic functional connectivity in the posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC) and medial frontal gyrus (MeFG), as well as the abnormal seed-based FC anchored in default mode network (DMN), attention network, visual network and cognitive network in this study, possibly constitutes the latent mechanism for emotional and cognitive changes in hyperthyroidism, including anxiety and impaired processing speed.

  1. Predicting early cognitive decline in newly-diagnosed Parkinson's patients: A practical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Olivia; Fernandez, Hubert H; Floden, Darlene P

    2018-06-19

    To create a multivariable model to predict early cognitive decline among de novo patients with Parkinson's disease, using brief, inexpensive assessments that are easily incorporated into clinical flow. Data for 351 drug-naïve patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were obtained from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. Baseline demographic, disease history, motor, and non-motor features were considered as candidate predictors. Best subsets selection was used to determine the multivariable baseline symptom profile that most accurately predicted individual cognitive decline within three years. Eleven per cent of the sample experienced cognitive decline. The final logistic regression model predicting decline included five baseline variables: verbal memory retention, right-sided bradykinesia, years of education, subjective report of cognitive impairment, and REM behavior disorder. Model discrimination was good (optimism-adjusted concordance index = .749). The associated nomogram provides a tool to determine individual patient risk of meaningful cognitive change in the early stages of the disease. Through the consideration of easily-implemented or routinely-gathered assessments, we have identified a multidimensional baseline profile and created a convenient, inexpensive tool to predict cognitive decline in the earliest stages of Parkinson's disease. The use of this tool would generate prediction at the individual level, allowing clinicians to tailor medical management for each patient and identify at-risk patients for clinical trials aimed at disease modifying therapies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Role of Spontaneous Brain Activity in Explicit and Implicit Aspects of Cognitive Flexibility under Socially Conflicting Situations: A Resting-state fMRI Study using Fractional Amplitude of Low-frequency Fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Junya; Tei, Shisei; Jankowski, Kathryn F; Kawada, Ryosaku; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2017-12-26

    We are constantly exposed to socially conflicting situations in everyday life, and cognitive flexibility is essential for adaptively coping with such difficulties. Flexible goal choice and pursuit are not exclusively conscious, and therefore cognitive flexibility involves both explicit and implicit forms of processing. However, it is unclear how individual differences in explicit and implicit aspects of flexibility are associated with neural activity in a resting state. Here, we measured intrinsic fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) as an indicator of regional brain spontaneous activity, together with explicit and implicit aspects of cognitive flexibility using the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFS) and Implicit Association Test (IAT). Consistent with the dual processing theory, there was a strong association between explicit aspects of flexibility (CFS score) and "rationalism" thinking style and between implicit aspects (IAT effect) and "experientialism." The level of explicit flexibility was also correlated with fALFF values in the left lateral prefrontal cortex, whereas the level of implicit flexibility was correlated with fALFF values in the right cerebellum. Furthermore, the fALFF values in both regions predicted individual preference for flexible decision-making strategy in a vignettes simulation task. These results add to our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying flexible decision-making for solving social conflicts. More generally, our findings highlight the utility of RS-fMRI combined with both explicit and implicit psychometric measures for better understanding individual differences in social cognition. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent and Past Musical Activity Predicts Cognitive Aging Variability: Direct Comparison with Leisure Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda eHanna-Pladdy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age . These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to nonmusical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study examined the type of leisure activity (musical versus other as well as the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (> 10 years and nonmusicians (ages 59-80 were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and life-style activities (AAP. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to explain performance variance in musicians. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal immediate recall, judgment of line orientation (JLO, and Letter Number Sequencing (LNS, but not the AAP. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted JLO in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (< 9 years predicted enhanced LNS in musicians, while analyses for AAP, verbal recall and fluency were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not leisure activity, predicted variability across verbal and visuospatial domains in aging. Early musical acquisition predicted auditory

  4. Cognitive impairment and MRI-findings in patients with HIV on antiretroviral treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, T.

    2017-01-01

    With combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated morbidity and mortality has decreased remarkably. Although life expectancy has increased, the frequently reported milder forms of HIV-associated cognitive impairment remain a concern and its pathogenesis is

  5. Support Vector Machine Analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Interoception Does Not Reliably Predict Individual Outcomes of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Sundermann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe approach to apply multivariate pattern analyses based on neuro imaging data for outcome prediction holds out the prospect to improve therapeutic decisions in mental disorders. Patients suffering from panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG often exhibit an increased perception of bodily sensations. The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether multivariate classification applied to a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI interoception paradigm can predict individual responses to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in PD/AG.MethodsThis analysis is based on pretreatment fMRI data during an interoceptive challenge from a multicenter trial of the German PANIC-NET. Patients with DSM-IV PD/AG were dichotomized as responders (n = 30 or non-responders (n = 29 based on the primary outcome (Hamilton Anxiety Scale Reduction ≥50% after 6 weeks of CBT (2 h/week. fMRI parametric maps were used as features for response classification with linear support vector machines (SVM with or without automated feature selection. Predictive accuracies were assessed using cross validation and permutation testing. The influence of methodological parameters and the predictive ability for specific interoception-related symptom reduction were further evaluated.ResultsSVM did not reach sufficient overall predictive accuracies (38.0–54.2% for anxiety reduction in the primary outcome. In the exploratory analyses, better accuracies (66.7% were achieved for predicting interoception-specific symptom relief as an alternative outcome domain. Subtle information regarding this alternative response criterion but not the primary outcome was revealed by post hoc univariate comparisons.ConclusionIn contrast to reports on other neurofunctional probes, SVM based on an interoception paradigm was not able to reliably predict individual response to CBT. Results speak against the clinical applicability of this technique.

  6. High-risk lesions diagnosed at MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: can underestimation be predicted?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crystal, Pavel [Mount Sinai Hospital, University Health Network, Division of Breast Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sadaf, Arifa; Bukhanov, Karina; Helbich, Thomas H. [Mount Sinai Hospital, University Health Network, Division of Breast Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); McCready, David [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Surgical Oncology, Toronto, ON (Canada); O' Malley, Frances [Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Pathology, Laboratory Medicine, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    To evaluate the frequency of diagnosis of high-risk lesions at MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (MRgVABB) and to determine whether underestimation may be predicted. Retrospective review of the medical records of 161 patients who underwent MRgVABB was performed. The underestimation rate was defined as an upgrade of a high-risk lesion at MRgVABB to malignancy at surgery. Clinical data, MRI features of the biopsied lesions, and histological diagnosis of cases with and those without underestimation were compared. Of 161 MRgVABB, histology revealed 31 (19%) high-risk lesions. Of 26 excised high-risk lesions, 13 (50%) were upgraded to malignancy. The underestimation rates of lobular neoplasia, atypical apocrine metaplasia, atypical ductal hyperplasia, and flat epithelial atypia were 50% (4/8), 100% (5/5), 50% (3/6) and 50% (1/2) respectively. There was no underestimation in the cases of benign papilloma without atypia (0/3), and radial scar (0/2). No statistically significant differences (p > 0.1) between the cases with and those without underestimation were seen in patient age, indications for breast MRI, size of lesion on MRI, morphological and kinetic features of biopsied lesions. Imaging and clinical features cannot be used reliably to predict underestimation at MRgVABB. All high-risk lesions diagnosed at MRgVABB require surgical excision. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of CT and MRI in patients with tibial plateau fracture: can CT findings predict ligament tear or meniscal injury?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mui, Leonora W.; Engelsohn, Eliyahu; Umans, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    (1) To determine the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of ligament tear and avulsion in patients with tibial plateau fracture. (2) To evaluate whether the presence or severity of fracture gap and articular depression can predict meniscal injury. A fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist retrospectively reviewed knee CT and MRI examinations of 41 consecutive patients presenting to a level 1 trauma center with tibial plateau fractures. Fracture gap, articular depression, ligament tear and footprint avulsions were assessed on CT examinations. The MRI studies were examined for osseous and soft tissue injuries, including meniscal tear, meniscal displacement, ligament tear, and ligament avulsion. CT demonstrated torn ligaments with 80% sensitivity and 98% specificity. Only 2% of ligaments deemed intact on careful CT evaluation had partial or complete tears on MRI. Although the degree of fracture gap and articular depression was significantly greater in patients with meniscal injury compared with those without meniscal injury, ROC analysis demonstrated no clear threshold for gap or depression that yielded a combination of high sensitivity and specificity. In the acute setting, CT offers high sensitivity and specificity for depicting osseous avulsions, as well as high negative predictive value for excluding ligament injury. However, MRI remains necessary for the preoperative detection of meniscal injury. (orig.)

  8. Resting-state fMRI activity predicts unsupervised learning and memory in an immersive virtual reality environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Wah Wong

    Full Text Available In the real world, learning often proceeds in an unsupervised manner without explicit instructions or feedback. In this study, we employed an experimental paradigm in which subjects explored an immersive virtual reality environment on each of two days. On day 1, subjects implicitly learned the location of 39 objects in an unsupervised fashion. On day 2, the locations of some of the objects were changed, and object location recall performance was assessed and found to vary across subjects. As prior work had shown that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI measures of resting-state brain activity can predict various measures of brain performance across individuals, we examined whether resting-state fMRI measures could be used to predict object location recall performance. We found a significant correlation between performance and the variability of the resting-state fMRI signal in the basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, insula, and regions in the frontal and temporal lobes, regions important for spatial exploration, learning, memory, and decision making. In addition, performance was significantly correlated with resting-state fMRI connectivity between the left caudate and the right fusiform gyrus, lateral occipital complex, and superior temporal gyrus. Given the basal ganglia's role in exploration, these findings suggest that tighter integration of the brain systems responsible for exploration and visuospatial processing may be critical for learning in a complex environment.

  9. Prediction of time trends in recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Kay; Ingebrigtsen, Tor; Wilsgaard, Tom

    2009-01-01

    . There was significant improvement of performance after 6 months. APOE-epsilon4 genotype was the only independent factor significantly predicting less improvement. CONCLUSION: The presence of the APOE-epsilon4 allele predicts less recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury....... change. RESULTS: A Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 15, traumatic brain injury demonstrated with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and serum S-100B greater than 0.14 microg/L predicted impaired cognitive performance both at baseline and after 6 months; APOE genotype did not...

  10. Resting States Are Resting Traits – An fMRI Study of Sex Differences and Menstrual Cycle Effects in Resting State Cognitive Control Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelmervik, Helene; Hausmann, Markus; Osnes, Berge; Westerhausen, René; Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    To what degree resting state fMRI is stable or susceptible to internal mind states of the individual is currently an issue of debate. To address this issue, the present study focuses on sex differences and investigates whether resting state fMRI is stable in men and women or changes within relative short-term periods (i.e., across the menstrual cycle). Due to the fact that we recently reported menstrual cycle effects on cognitive control based on data collected during the same sessions, the c...

  11. Does Older Adults’ Cognitive Function Disrupt the Malleability of Their Attitudes toward Outgroup Members?: An fMRI Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krendl, Anne C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study we examine how individual differences in older adults’ global cognitive function impacts the extent to which their attitudes toward stigmatized individuals are malleable. Because prior research has elucidated the neural processes that are involved in evaluating stigmatized individuals who are responsible or not responsible for their condition, a cognitive neuroscience approach may be well-suited to answer this question. In the current study, 36 older and 17 young adults underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating images of homeless people who were described as being responsible or not responsible for their condition. They also indicated how much pity they felt for each of the individuals in order to determine the extent to which their attitudes were malleable (e.g., more pity for not-responsible as compared to responsible individuals). Participants’ cognitive function and baseline measure of their attitudes toward stigmatized individuals (including homeless individuals) were assessed. Results revealed that although older adults’ attitudes were malleable, the extent to which this was true varied due to individual differences in their global cognitive function. Specifically, the difference in the magnitude of older adults’ self-reported pity for not-responsible as compared to responsible homeless individuals was predicted by their global cognitive function. Moreover, the difference in pity that older adults expressed toward not-responsible as compared to responsible homeless individuals was related to activity in the left insula and the anterior cingulate cortex (regions implicated in empathy). These results suggest that attitude malleability is affected by individual differences in global cognitive function. PMID:27074046

  12. Does Older Adults' Cognitive Function Disrupt the Malleability of Their Attitudes toward Outgroup Members?: An fMRI Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C Krendl

    Full Text Available In the current study we examine how individual differences in older adults' global cognitive function impacts the extent to which their attitudes toward stigmatized individuals are malleable. Because prior research has elucidated the neural processes that are involved in evaluating stigmatized individuals who are responsible or not responsible for their condition, a cognitive neuroscience approach may be well-suited to answer this question. In the current study, 36 older and 17 young adults underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating images of homeless people who were described as being responsible or not responsible for their condition. They also indicated how much pity they felt for each of the individuals in order to determine the extent to which their attitudes were malleable (e.g., more pity for not-responsible as compared to responsible individuals. Participants' cognitive function and baseline measure of their attitudes toward stigmatized individuals (including homeless individuals were assessed. Results revealed that although older adults' attitudes were malleable, the extent to which this was true varied due to individual differences in their global cognitive function. Specifically, the difference in the magnitude of older adults' self-reported pity for not-responsible as compared to responsible homeless individuals was predicted by their global cognitive function. Moreover, the difference in pity that older adults expressed toward not-responsible as compared to responsible homeless individuals was related to activity in the left insula and the anterior cingulate cortex (regions implicated in empathy. These results suggest that attitude malleability is affected by individual differences in global cognitive function.

  13. Development of a New Fractal Algorithm to Predict Quality Traits of MRI Loins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Daniel; Caro, Andrés; Amigo, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, the quality traits of meat products have been estimated by means of physico-chemical methods. Computer vision algorithms on MRI have also been presented as an alternative to these destructive methods since MRI is non-destructive, non-ionizing and innocuous. The use of fractals...

  14. In vivo placental MRI shape and textural features predict fetal growth restriction and postnatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Andescavage, Nickie; Yewale, Sayali; Yarish, Alexa; Lanham, Diane; Bulas, Dorothy; du Plessis, Adre J; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the ability of three-dimensional (3D) MRI placental shape and textural features to predict fetal growth restriction (FGR) and birth weight (BW) for both healthy and FGR fetuses. We recruited two groups of pregnant volunteers between 18 and 39 weeks of gestation; 46 healthy subjects and 34 FGR. Both groups underwent fetal MR imaging on a 1.5 Tesla GE scanner using an eight-channel receiver coil. We acquired T2-weighted images on either the coronal or the axial plane to obtain MR volumes with a slice thickness of either 4 or 8 mm covering the full placenta. Placental shape features (volume, thickness, elongation) were combined with textural features; first order textural features (mean, variance, kurtosis, and skewness of placental gray levels), as well as, textural features computed on the gray level co-occurrence and run-length matrices characterizing placental homogeneity, symmetry, and coarseness. The features were used in two machine learning frameworks to predict FGR and BW. The proposed machine-learning based method using shape and textural features identified FGR pregnancies with 86% accuracy, 77% precision and 86% recall. BW estimations were 0.3 ± 13.4% (mean percentage error ± standard error) for healthy fetuses and -2.6 ± 15.9% for FGR. The proposed FGR identification and BW estimation methods using in utero placental shape and textural features computed on 3D MR images demonstrated high accuracy in our healthy and high-risk cohorts. Future studies to assess the evolution of each feature with regard to placental development are currently underway. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:449-458. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Atrophy-specific MRI brain template for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonov, Vladimir; Coupe, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed

    Background Rapid brain loss is characteristic for the patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) [1]. Increase of the lateral ventricular volume is strongly correlated with the progression of the disease. High variability in the degree of atrophy for subjects with AD....... Alzheimer's and Dementia, 2010. 6(4, Supplement 1). [3] Fonov, V, et al. NeuroImage, 2011. 54(1).......Background Rapid brain loss is characteristic for the patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) [1]. Increase of the lateral ventricular volume is strongly correlated with the progression of the disease. High variability in the degree of atrophy for subjects with AD...... of the brain and the contrast between different tissue types for the given level of atrophy. Figure 1 shows images through 6 example values of increasing RLVV. Conclusions The proposed method and resulting template will be useful tools for the development of robust automatic image processing methods targeted...

  16. Dimensional schizotypy and social cognition: An fMRI imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Yi eWang; Wen-hua eLiu; Zhi eLi; Zhi eLi; Xin-hua eWei; Xin-qing eJiang; David eNeumann; David eShum; Eric FC Cheung; Raymond CK Chan

    2015-01-01

    Impairment in empathy has been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia and individuals with psychosis proneness. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates underlying theory of mind (ToM) and empathy and the relationships between these two social cognitive abilities with schizotypy. Fifty-six first-year college students (31 males, 25 females) between 17 and 21 years of age (M = 19.3, SD = 0.9) from a medical university in China participated. All participants undertook a comic...

  17. Dimensional schizotypy and social cognition: an fMRI imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Wen-hua; Li, Zhi; Wei, Xin-hua; Jiang, Xin-qing; Neumann, David L.; Shum, David H. K.; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2015-01-01

    Impairment in empathy has been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia and individuals with psychosis proneness. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates underlying theory of mind (ToM) and empathy and the relationships between these two social cognitive abilities with schizotypy. Fifty-six first-year college students (31 males, 25 females) between 17 and 21 years of age (M = 19.3, SD = 0.9) from a medical university in China participated. All participants undertook a comic...

  18. Dimensional schizotypy and social cognition: An fMRI imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eWang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Impairment in empathy has been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia and individuals with psychosis proneness. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates underlying theory of mind (ToM and empathy and the relationships between these two social cognitive abilities with schizotypy. Fifty-six first-year college students (31 males, 25 females between 17 and 21 years of age (M = 19.3, SD = 0.9 from a medical university in China participated. All participants undertook a comic strips functional imaging task that specifically examined both empathy and ToM. In addition, they completed two self-report scales: the Chapman Psychosis Proneness scale and the Interpersonal Responsivity Index (IRI. Results showed that both empathy and ToM conditions of the task were associated with brain activity in the middle temporal gyrus, the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, the precuneus, and the posterior cingulate gyrus. In addition, we found positive correlations between negative schizotypy and brain activity in regions involved in social cognition, namely, the middle temporal gyrus, the TPJ, as well as the medial prefrontal gyrus. These findings highlight that different dimensions of schizotypy may show different associations with brain regions involved in social cognitive abilities. More importantly, the positive correlation between brain activity and anhedonia suggests the presence of compensatory mechanisms in high-risk populations.

  19. Dimensional schizotypy and social cognition: an fMRI imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Wen-Hua; Li, Zhi; Wei, Xin-Hua; Jiang, Xin-Qing; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2015-01-01

    Impairment in empathy has been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia and individuals with psychosis proneness. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates underlying theory of mind (ToM) and empathy and the relationships between these two social cognitive abilities with schizotypy. Fifty-six first-year college students (31 males, 25 females) between 17 and 21 years of age (M = 19.3, SD = 0.9) from a medical university in China participated. All participants undertook a comic strips functional imaging task that specifically examined both empathy and ToM. In addition, they completed two self-report scales: the Chapman Psychosis Proneness scale and the Interpersonal Responsivity Index (IRI). Results showed that both empathy and ToM conditions of the task were associated with brain activity in the middle temporal gyrus, the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), the precuneus and the posterior cingulate gyrus. In addition, we found positive correlations between negative schizotypy and brain activity in regions involved in social cognition, namely, the middle temporal gyrus, the TPJ, as well as the medial prefrontal gyrus. These findings highlight that different dimensions of schizotypy may show different associations with brain regions involved in social cognitive abilities. More importantly, the positive correlation between brain activity and anhedonia suggests the presence of compensatory mechanisms in high-risk populations.

  20. Dysfunctional whole brain networks in mild cognitive impairment patients: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenyu; Bai, Lijun; Dai, Ruwei; Zhong, Chongguang; Xue, Ting; You, Youbo; Tian, Jie

    2012-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was recognized as the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent researches have shown that cognitive and memory decline in AD patients is coupled with losses of small-world attributes. However, few studies pay attention to the characteristics of the whole brain networks in MCI patients. In the present study, we investigated the topological properties of the whole brain networks utilizing graph theoretical approaches in 16 MCI patients, compared with 18 age-matched healthy subjects as a control. Both MCI patients and normal controls showed small-world architectures, with large clustering coefficients and short characteristic path lengths. We detected significantly longer characteristic path length in MCI patients compared with normal controls at the low sparsity. The longer characteristic path lengths in MCI indicated disrupted information processing among distant brain regions. Compared with normal controls, MCI patients showed decreased nodal centrality in the brain areas of the angular gyrus, heschl gyrus, hippocampus and superior parietal gyrus, while increased nodal centrality in the calcarine, inferior occipital gyrus and superior frontal gyrus. These changes in nodal centrality suggested a widespread rewiring in MCI patients, which may be an integrated reflection of reorganization of the brain networks accompanied with the cognitive decline. Our findings may be helpful for further understanding the pathological mechanisms of MCI.

  1. Fronto-temporal connectivity predicts cognitive empathy deficits and experiential negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Samantha V; Wisner, Krista M; Fox, Jaclyn M; Barch, Deanna M; Wang, Lei; Csernansky, John G; MacDonald, Angus W; Smith, Matthew J

    2017-03-01

    Impaired cognitive empathy is a core social cognitive deficit in schizophrenia associated with negative symptoms and social functioning. Cognitive empathy and negative symptoms have also been linked to medial prefrontal and temporal brain networks. While shared behavioral and neural underpinnings are suspected for cognitive empathy and negative symptoms, research is needed to test these hypotheses. In two studies, we evaluated whether resting-state functional connectivity between data-driven networks, or components (referred to as, inter-component connectivity), predicted cognitive empathy and experiential and expressive negative symptoms in schizophrenia subjects. Study 1: We examined associations between cognitive empathy and medial prefrontal and temporal inter-component connectivity at rest using a group-matched schizophrenia and control sample. We then assessed whether inter-component connectivity metrics associated with cognitive empathy were also related to negative symptoms. Study 2: We sought to replicate the connectivity-symptom associations observed in Study 1 using an independent schizophrenia sample. Study 1 results revealed that while the groups did not differ in average inter-component connectivity, a medial-fronto-temporal metric and an orbito-fronto-temporal metric were related to cognitive empathy. Moreover, the medial-fronto-temporal metric was associated with experiential negative symptoms in both schizophrenia samples. These findings support recent models that link social cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1111-1124, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Extrinsic Cognitive Load Impairs Spoken Word Recognition in High- and Low-Predictability Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Cynthia R; Pisoni, David B

    Listening effort (LE) induced by speech degradation reduces performance on concurrent cognitive tasks. However, a converse effect of extrinsic cognitive load on recognition of spoken words in sentences has not been shown. The aims of the present study were to (a) examine the impact of extrinsic cognitive load on spoken word recognition in a sentence recognition task and (b) determine whether cognitive load and/or LE needed to understand spectrally degraded speech would differentially affect word recognition in high- and low-predictability sentences. Downstream effects of speech degradation and sentence predictability on the cognitive load task were also examined. One hundred twenty young adults identified sentence-final spoken words in high- and low-predictability Speech Perception in Noise sentences. Cognitive load consisted of a preload of short (low-load) or long (high-load) sequences of digits, presented visually before each spoken sentence and reported either before or after identification of the sentence-final word. LE was varied by spectrally degrading sentences with four-, six-, or eight-channel noise vocoding. Level of spectral degradation and order of report (digits first or words first) were between-participants variables. Effects of cognitive load, sentence predictability, and speech degradation on accuracy of sentence-final word identification as well as recall of preload digit sequences were examined. In addition to anticipated main effects of sentence predictability and spectral degradation on word recognition, we found an effect of cognitive load, such that words were identified more accurately under low load than high load. However, load differentially affected word identification in high- and low-predictability sentences depending on the level of sentence degradation. Under severe spectral degradation (four-channel vocoding), the effect of cognitive load on word identification was present for high-predictability sentences but not for low-predictability

  3. Cognition and procedure representational requirements for predictive human performance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, K.

    1992-01-01

    Models and modeling environments for human performance are becoming significant contributors to early system design and analysis procedures. Issues of levels of automation, physical environment, informational environment, and manning requirements are being addressed by such man/machine analysis systems. The research reported here investigates the close interaction between models of human cognition and models that described procedural performance. We describe a methodology for the decomposition of aircrew procedures that supports interaction with models of cognition on the basis of procedures observed; that serves to identify cockpit/avionics information sources and crew information requirements; and that provides the structure to support methods for function allocation among crew and aiding systems. Our approach is to develop an object-oriented, modular, executable software representation of the aircrew, the aircraft, and the procedures necessary to satisfy flight-phase goals. We then encode in a time-based language, taxonomies of the conceptual, relational, and procedural constraints among the cockpit avionics and control system and the aircrew. We have designed and implemented a goals/procedures hierarchic representation sufficient to describe procedural flow in the cockpit. We then execute the procedural representation in simulation software and calculate the values of the flight instruments, aircraft state variables and crew resources using the constraints available from the relationship taxonomies. The system provides a flexible, extensible, manipulative and executable representation of aircrew and procedures that is generally applicable to crew/procedure task-analysis. The representation supports developed methods of intent inference, and is extensible to include issues of information requirements and functional allocation. We are attempting to link the procedural representation to models of cognitive functions to establish several intent inference methods

  4. Accumulation of MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease is associated with decreased cognitive function. A study in first-ever lacunar stroke and hypertensive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein eHuijts

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background – White matter lesions (WMLs, asymptomatic lacunar infarcts, brain microbleeds (BMBs and enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS have been identified as silent lesions due to cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD. All these markers have been individually linked to cognitive functioning, but are also strongly correlated with each other. The combined effect of these markers on cognitive function has never been studied and would possibly provide more useful information on the effect on cognitive function. Methods – Brain MRI and extensive neuropsychological assessment were performed in 189 patients at risk for cSVD (112 hypertensive patients and 77 first-ever lacunar stroke patients. We rated the presence of any asymptomatic lacunar infarct, extensive WMLs, any deep BMB, and moderate to extensive EPVS in the basal ganglia. The presence of each marker was summed to an ordinal score between 0 and 4. Associations with domains of cognitive function (memory, executive function, information processing speed and overall cognition were analyzed with correlation analyses. Results – Correlation analyses revealed significant associations between accumulating cSVD burden and decreased performance on all cognitive domains (all p≤.001. Results remained significant for information processing speed (r=-.181, p=.013 and overall cognition (r=-.178, p=.017, after correction for age and sex. Testing of trend using linear regression analyses revealed the same results. Discussion – We tested a new approach to capture total brain damage resulting from cSVD and found that accumulation of MRI burden of cSVD is associated with decreased performance on tests of information processing speed and overall cognition, implying that accumulating brain damage is accompanied by worse cognitive functioning.

  5. Cognitive Change Predicts Symptom Reduction with Cognitive Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Birgit; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W.; Stott, Richard; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.; Ehlers, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There is a growing body of evidence for the effectiveness of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies to date have investigated the mechanisms by which TF-CBT leads to therapeutic change. Models of PTSD suggest that a core treatment mechanism is the change in…

  6. Performance of Hippocampus Volumetry with FSL-FIRST for Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease Dementia in at Risk Subjects with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Per; Hampel, Harald; Kepp, Timo; Lange, Catharina; Spies, Lothar; Fiebach, Jochen B; Dubois, Bruno; Buchert, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    MRI-based hippocampus volume, a core feasible biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is not yet widely used in clinical patient care, partly due to lack of validation of software tools for hippocampal volumetry that are compatible with routine workflow. Here, we evaluate fully-automated and computationally efficient hippocampal volumetry with FSL-FIRST for prediction of AD dementia (ADD) in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from phase 1 of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of FSL-FIRST hippocampal volume (corrected for head size and age) revealed an area under the curve of 0.79, 0.70, and 0.70 for prediction of aMCI-to-ADD conversion within 12, 24, or 36 months, respectively. Thus, FSL-FIRST provides about the same power for prediction of progression to ADD in aMCI as other volumetry methods.

  7. Ex vivo MRI evaluation of prostate cancer: Localization and margin status prediction of prostate cancer in fresh radical prostatectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidkamp, Jan; Hoogenboom, Martijn; Kovacs, Iringo E; Veltien, Andor; Maat, Arie; Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A; Fütterer, Jurgen J

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the ability of high field ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to localize prostate cancer (PCa) and to predict the margin status in fresh radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens using histology as the reference standard. This Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved study had written informed consent. Patients with biopsy-proved PCa and a diagnostic multiparametric 3T MRI examination of the prostate prior to undergoing RP were prospectively included. A custom-made container provided reference between the 7T ex vivo MRI obtained from fresh RP specimens and histological slicing. On ex vivo MRI, PCa was localized and the presence of positive surgical margins was determined in a double-reading session. These findings were compared with histological findings obtained from completely cut, whole-mount embedded, prostate specimens. In 12 RP specimens, histopathology revealed 36 PCa lesions, of which 17 (47%) and 20 (56%) were correlated with the ex vivo MRI in the first and second reading session, respectively. Nine of 12 (75%) index lesions were localized in the first session, in the second 10 of 12 (83%). Seven and 8 lesions of 11 lesions with Gleason score >6 and >0.5 cc were localized in the first and second session, respectively. In the first session none of the four histologically positive surgical margins (sensitivity 0%) and 9 of 13 negative margins (specificity 69%) were detected. In second session the sensitivity and specificity were 25% and 88%, respectively. Ex vivo MRI enabled accurate localization of PCa in fresh RP specimens, and the technique provided information on the margin status with high specificity. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:439-448. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Can FDG PET predict verbal specific memory decline after surgery for left temporal lobe epilepsy when MRI is normal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagona, J.A.; Rowe, C.C.; Thomas, D.; Dickinson-Rowe, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Temporal lobectomy gives excellent control of seizures in over 80% of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The left temporal lobe, particularly the left hippocampus, is primarily responsible for verbal memory. In most patients, the hippocampus which lies in the medial temporal lobe is abnormal and can be removed without loss of memory function. However, removal of the left hippocampus when it appears normal on MRI, often causes a significant decline in verbal specific memory (VSM) function. This paper explores the significance of pre-operative FDG-PET asymmetry in temporal lobe metabolism in predicting the VSM outcome after left temporal lobectomy when MRI demonstrates a normal hippocampus. Fifteen patients between 1993 and 2000, underwent left temporal lobectomy including left hippocampal resection, Pre-operatively all patients underwent 1.5T MRI, FDG PET and neuropsychological assessment. Neuropsychological assessment was repeated post-operatively. The left hippocampus was normal on MRI in nine and demonstrated mild T2 signal change without atrophy in six. FDG PET demonstrated temporal lobe hypometabolism in 12 patients. Post-operatively, neuropsychological evaluation documented a decline in verbal specific memory function in six patients, three with normal MRI and three with mild T2 change. We found that all patients with normal FDG PET studies (n=3) demonstrated significant verbal memory deterioration post-operatively. Nine of twelve patients (75%) with left temporal lobe hypometabolism did not show new verbal memory deficits. FDG PET improves the risk stratification for verbal specific memory decline with left temporal lobectomy in patients with normal hippocampi on MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  9. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  10. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition During Math Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eBertrams

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158 completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition five months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  11. Comparison between target magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in-gantry and cognitively directed transperineal or transrectal-guided prostate biopsies for Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) 3-5 MRI lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaxley, Anna J; Yaxley, John W; Thangasamy, Isaac A; Ballard, Emma; Pokorny, Morgan R

    2017-11-01

    To compare the detection rates of prostate cancer (PCa) in men with Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) 3-5 abnormalities on 3-Tesla multiparametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using in-bore MRI-guided biopsy compared with cognitively directed transperineal (cTP) biopsy and transrectal ultrasonography (cTRUS) biopsy. This was a retrospective single-centre study of consecutive men attending the private practice clinic of an experienced urologist performing MRI-guided biopsy and an experienced urologist performing cTP and cTRUS biopsy techniques for PI-RADS 3-5 lesions identified on 3-Tesla mpMRI. There were 595 target mpMRI lesions from 482 men with PI-RADS 3-5 regions of interest during 483 episodes of biopsy. The abnormal mpMRI target lesion was biopsied using the MRI-guided method for 298 biopsies, the cTP method for 248 biopsies and the cTRUS method for 49 biopsies. There were no significant differences in PCa detection among the three biopsy methods in PI-RADS 3 (48.9%, 40.0% and 44.4%, respectively), PI-RADS 4 (73.2%, 81.0% and 85.0%, respectively) or PI-RADS 5 (95.2, 92.0% and 95.0%, respectively) lesions, and there was no significant difference in detection of significant PCa among the biopsy methods in PI-RADS 3 (42.2%, 30.0% and 33.3%, respectively), PI-RADS 4 (66.8%, 66.0% and 80.0%, respectively) or PI-RADS 5 (90.5%, 89.8% and 90.0%, respectively) lesions. There were also no differences in PCa or significant PCa detection based on lesion location or size among the methods. We found no significant difference in the ability to detect PCa or significant PCa using targeted MRI-guided, cTP or cTRUS biopsy methods. Identification of an abnormal area on mpMRI appears to be more important in increasing the detection of PCa than the technique used to biopsy an MRI abnormality. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cognitive function predicts 24-month weight loss success after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Alosco, Michael; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Paul, Robert; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Gunstad, John

    2013-01-01

    Clinically significant cognitive impairment, particularly in attention/executive and memory function, is found in many patients undergoing bariatric surgery. These difficulties have previously been linked to decreased weight loss 12 months after surgery, but more protracted examination of this relationship has not yet been conducted. The present study prospectively examined the independent contribution of cognitive function to weight loss 24 months after bariatric surgery. Given the rapid rate of cognitive improvement observed after surgery, postoperative cognitive function (i.e., cognition 12 weeks after surgery, controlling for baseline cognition) was expected to predict lower body mass index (BMI) and higher percent total weight loss (%WL) at 24-month follow-up. Data were collected by 3 sites of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) parent project. Fifty-seven individuals enrolled in the LABS project who were undergoing bariatric surgery completed cognitive evaluation at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 months. BMI and %WL were calculated for 24-month postoperative follow-up. Better cognitive function 12 weeks after surgery predicted higher %WL and lower BMI at 24 months, and specific domains of attention/executive and memory function were robustly related to decreased BMI and greater %WL at 24 months. Results show that cognitive performance shortly after bariatric surgery predicts greater long-term %WL and lower BMI 24 months after bariatric surgery. Further work is needed to clarify the degree to which this relationship is mediated by adherence to postoperative guidelines. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing a cognitive model to predict posttraumatic stress disorder following childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lydia; McKenzie-McHarg, Kirstie; Horsch, Antje

    2017-01-14

    One third of women describes their childbirth as traumatic and between 0.8 and 6.9% goes on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The cognitive model of PTSD has been shown to be applicable to a range of trauma samples. However, childbirth is qualitatively different to other trauma types and special consideration needs to be taken when applying it to this population. Previous studies have investigated some cognitive variables in isolation but no study has so far looked at all the key processes described in the cognitive model. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether theoretically-derived variables of the cognitive model explain unique variance in postnatal PTSD symptoms when key demographic, obstetric and clinical risk factors are controlled for. One-hundred and fifty-seven women who were between 1 and 12 months post-partum (M = 6.5 months) completed validated questionnaires assessing PTSD and depressive symptoms, childbirth experience, postnatal social support, trauma memory, peritraumatic processing, negative appraisals, dysfunctional cognitive and behavioural strategies and obstetric as well as demographic risk factors in an online survey. A PTSD screening questionnaire suggested that 5.7% of the sample might fulfil diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Overall, risk factors alone predicted 43% of variance in PTSD symptoms and cognitive behavioural factors alone predicted 72.7%. A final model including both risk factors and cognitive behavioural factors explained 73.7% of the variance in PTSD symptoms, 37.1% of which was unique variance predicted by cognitive factors. All variables derived from Ehlers and Clark's cognitive model significantly explained variance in PTSD symptoms following childbirth, even when clinical, demographic and obstetric were controlled for. Our findings suggest that the CBT model is applicable and useful as a way of understanding and informing the treatment of PTSD following childbirth.

  14. Reliability, Validity, and Predictive Utility of the 25-Item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS)

    OpenAIRE

    Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Furukawa, Emi; Kopelovich, Sarah; Meyer, Patrick; Cosby, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    Theory, research, and clinical reports suggest that moral cognitions play a role in initiating and sustaining criminal behavior. The 25 item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS) was designed to tap 5 dimensions: Notions of entitlement; Failure to Accept Responsibility; Short-Term Orientation; Insensitivity to Impact of Crime; and Negative Attitudes Toward Authority. Results from 552 jail inmates support the reliability, validity, and predictive utility of the measure. The CCS was linked to cri...

  15. Effect of breast cancer phenotype on diagnostic performance of MRI in the prediction to response to neoadjuvant treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bufi, Enida, E-mail: reagandus@alice.it [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Belli, Paolo; Di Matteo, Marialuisa [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Terribile, Daniela; Franceschini, Gianluca [Department of Surgery, Breast Unit, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Nardone, Luigia [Department of Radiotherapy, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Petrone, Gianluigi [Department of Pathology, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Bonomo, Lorenzo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University, Rome (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    Aim: The estimation of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is useful in the surgical decision in breast cancer. We addressed the diagnostic reliability of conventional MRI, of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and of a merged criterion coupling morphological MRI and DWI. Diagnostic performance was analysed separately in different tumor subtypes, including HER2+ (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)/HR+ (hormone receptor) (hybrid phenotype). Materials and methods: Two-hundred and twenty-five patients underwent MRI before and after NAC. The response to treatment was defined according to the RECIST classification and the evaluation of DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The complete pathological response – pCR was assessed (Mandard classification). Results: Tumor phenotypes were Luminal (63.6%), Triple Negative (16.4%), HER2+ (7.6%) or Hybrid (12.4%). After NAC, pCR was observed in 17.3% of cases. Average ADC was statistically higher after NAC (p < 0.001) among patients showing pCR vs. those who had not pCR. The RECIST classification showed adequate performance in predicting the pCR in Triple Negative (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, ROC AUC = 0.9) and in the HER2+ subgroup (AUC = 0.826). Lower performance was found in the Luminal and Hybrid subgroups (AUC 0.693 and 0.611, respectively), where the ADC criterion yielded an improved performance (AUC = 0.787 and 0.722). The coupling of morphological and DWI criteria yielded maximally improved performance in the Luminal and Hybrid subgroups (AUC = 0.797 and 0.761). Conclusion: The diagnostic reliability of MRI in predicting the pCR to NAC depends on the tumor phenotype, particularly in the Luminal and Hybrid subgroups. In these cases, the coupling of morphological MRI evaluation and DWI assessment may facilitate the diagnosis.

  16. Can the painDETECT Questionnaire score and MRI help predict treatment outcome in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rifbjerg-Madsen, Signe; Christensen, Anton Wulf; Boesen, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is performed. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: The painDETECT Questionnaire (PDQ), originally developed to screen for a neuropathic pain component, is applied to indicate the presence of central sensitisation. Adults diagnosed with RA are included when either (A) initiating disease......-inflammatory treatment, to explore the prognostic value of a screening questionnaire for central sensitisation, hand inflammation assessed by conventional MRI, and the interaction between them regarding treatment outcome evaluated by clinical status (DAS28-CRP). For the purpose of further exploratory analyses, dynamic...

  17. Enactivism, Radical Enactivism and Predictive Processing: What is Radical in Cognitive Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gärtner Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to Enactivism, cognition should be understood in terms of a dynamic interaction between an acting organism and its environment. Further, this view holds that organisms do not passively receive information from this environment, they rather selectively create this environment by engaging in interaction with the world. Radical Enactivism adds that basic cognition does so without entertaining representations and hence that representations are not an essential constituent of cognition. Some proponents think that getting rid of representations amounts to a revolutionary alternative to standard views about cognition. To emphasize the impact, they claim that this ‘radicalization’ should be applied to all enactivist friendly views, including, another current and potentially revolutionary approach to cognition: predictive processing. In this paper, we will show that this is not the case. After introducing the problem (section 2, we will argue (section 3 that ‘radicalizing’ predictive processing does not add any value to this approach. After this (section 4, we will analyze whether or not radical Enactivism can count as a revolution within cognitive science at all and conclude that it cannot. Finally, in section 5 we will claim that cognitive science is better off when embracing heterogeneity.

  18. Arterial spin labelling MRI for detecting pseudocapsule defects and predicting renal capsule invasion in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Wu, Y; Xue, W; Zuo, P; Oesingmann, N; Gan, Q; Huang, Z; Wu, M; Hu, F; Kuang, M; Song, B

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate prospectively the performance of combining morphological and arterial spin labelling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting pseudocapsule defects in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and to predict renal capsule invasion confirmed histopathologically. Twenty consecutive patients with suspicious renal tumours underwent MRI. Renal ASL imaging was performed and renal blood flow was measured quantitatively. The diagnostic performance of T2-weighted images alone, and a combination of T2-weighted and ASL images for predicting renal capsule invasion were assessed. Twenty renal lesions were evaluated in 20 patients. All lesions were clear cell RCCs (ccRCCs) confirmed at post-surgical histopathology. Fifteen ccRCCs showed pseudocapsule defects on T2-weighted images, of which 12 cases showed existing blood flow in defect areas on perfusion images. To predict renal capsule invasion, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 100%, 71.4%, 86.7%, 100%, respectively, for T2-weighted images alone, and 92.3%, 100%, 100%, 87.5%, respectively, for the combination of T2-weighted and ASL images. ASL images can reflect the perfusion of pseudocapsule defects and as such, the combination of T2-weighted and ASL images produces promising diagnostic accuracy for predicting renal capsule invasion. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Methylphenidate modulates activity within cognitive neural networks of patients with post-stroke major depression: A placebo-controlled fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamannar Ramasubbu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Rajamannar Ramasubbu1, Bradley G Goodyear21Departments of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences; 2Department of Radiology and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Calgary, AB, CanadaBackground: Methylphenidate (MP is a dopamine- and noradrenaline-enhancing agent beneficial for post-stroke depression (PSD and stroke recovery due to its therapeutic effects on cognition, motivation, and mood; however, the neural mechanisms underlying its clinical effects remain unknown. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate the effect of MP on brain activity in response to cognitive tasks in patients with PSD.Methods: Nine stroke outpatients with DSM IV defined major depression underwent fMRI during two cognitive tasks (2-back and serial subtraction on four occasions, on the first and third day of a three-day treatment of MP and placebo. Nine healthy control (HC subjects matched for age and sex scanned during a single session served as normative data for comparison. The main outcome measure was cognitive task-dependent brain activity.Results: For the 2-back task, left prefrontal, right parietal, posterior cingulate, and temporal and bilateral cerebellar regions exhibited significantly greater activity during the MP condition relative to placebo. Less activity was detected in rostral prefrontal and left parietal regions. For serial subtraction, greater activity was detected in medial prefrontal, biparietal, bitemporal, posterior cingulate, and bilateral cerebellar regions, as well as thalamus, putamen, and insula. Further, underactivation observed during the placebo condition relative to HC improved or reversed during MP treatment. No significant differences in behavioral measures were found between MP and placebo conditions or between patients and HC.Conclusions: Short-term MP treatment may improve and normalize activity in cognitive neuronal networks in patients with PSD

  20. Gender Differences in Emotion Regulation: An fMRI Study of Cognitive Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Kateri; Ochsner, Kevin N; Mauss, Iris B; Gabrieli, John J D; Gross, James J

    2008-04-01

    Despite strong popular conceptions of gender differences in emotionality and striking gender differences in the prevalence of disorders thought to involve emotion dysregulation, the literature on the neural bases of emotion regulation is nearly silent regarding gender differences (Gross, 2007; Ochsner & Gross, in press). The purpose of the present study was to address this gap in the literature. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we asked male and female participants to use a cognitive emotion regulation strategy (reappraisal) to down-regulate their emotional responses to negatively valenced pictures. Behaviorally, men and women evidenced comparable decreases in negative emotion experience. Neurally, however, gender differences emerged. Compared with women, men showed (a) lesser increases in prefrontal regions that are associated with reappraisal, (b) greater decreases in the amygdala, which is associated with emotional responding, and (c) lesser engagement of ventral striatal regions, which are associated with reward processing. We consider two non-competing explanations for these differences. First, men may expend less effort when using cognitive regulation, perhaps due to greater use of automatic emotion regulation. Second, women may use positive emotions in the service of reappraising negative emotions to a greater degree. We then consider the implications of gender differences in emotion regulation for understanding gender differences in emotional processing in general, and gender differences in affective disorders.

  1. The effect of breakfast versus no breakfast on brain activity in adolescents when performing cognitive tasks, as assessed by fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Jonathan; Varley-Campbell, Joanna L; Williams, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the feasibility of utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a group of adolescent boys and girls to assess modifications in cognitive function, dependent upon the nutritional state of the participants. Twenty children aged 12-14 years completed two cognitive trials, in a randomized counterbalanced order, one under fasting condition, one after consuming breakfast, during which continuous fMRI data were acquired. Although no statistically significant (P > 0.05) improvement in task performance was determined, significantly higher activation was recorded in the frontal, premotor, and primary visual cortex areas in the breakfast trial relative to the fasting condition. Such a finding may have important implications in the examination of the role of diet, and specifically breakfast, in determining children's performance within the school environment.

  2. Sparking interest in restaurant dishes? Cognitive and affective processes underlying dish design and ecological origin. An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leiva, Francisco; Gómez-Carmona, Diego

    2018-06-14

    The objective of the current paper is to verify to what extent the presentation of a restaurant dish and the origin of its food provoke reactions in the consumer's brain during the visualization and the decision-making process, from an exploratory approach. The two independent variables singled out for study were whether the presentation was well or poorly presented and if the ingredients were ecological or non-ecological. The results applying the functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) methodology reveal that well-presented dishes activate areas in the brain linked to the network of emotions indicating that the visualization in restaurant menus is not a purely cognitive and self-reflexive process but retains a strong affective component. Furthermore, the presence of this component is kept at the moment of choosing a dish, as observed by the activation of the gyrus cingulate, region linked to the regulatory processes of emotions. Hence, research ratifies the existence of an emotional factor during the entire process of decision-making carried out in a restaurant. Yet it is true that exposure to an ecological menu provokes activation of the medial frontal cortex, a region connected to higher reasoning and attention, suggesting that stimuli from well-presented dishes of ecological origin trigger neuronal responses related to high-level cognitive processes. The practical implications derived, along with its limitations and the future research opportunities, are interesting for both developing theory and also practice. Therefore, scholars are encouraged to further test some research proposals (e.g. moderating role of salubrity or simultaneously eye tracking method). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Analysis of large brain MRI databases for investigating the relationships between brain, cognitive, and genetic polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazoyer, B.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge for the years to come is the understanding of the brain-behaviour relationships, and in particular the investigation and quantification of the impact of genetic polymorphism on these relationships. In this framework, a promising experimental approach, which we will refer to as neuro-epidemiologic imaging, consists in acquiring multimodal (brain images, psychometric an d sociological data, genotypes) data in large (several hundreds or thousands ) cohorts of subjects. Processing of such large databases requires on first place the conception and implementation of automated 'pipelines', including image registration, spatial normalisation tissue segmentation, and multivariate statistical analysis. Given the number of images and data to be processed, such pipelines must be both fully automated and robust enough to be able to handle multi-center MRI data, e.g. having inhomogeneous characteristics in terms of resolution and contrast. This approach will be illustrated using two databases collected in aged healthy subjects, searching for the impact of genetic and environmental on two markers of brain aging, namely white matter hyper-signals, and grey matter atrophy. (author)

  4. Distinguishing the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes to improve prediction of food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendel, Olivier; Werle, Carolina O C

    2016-09-01

    Eating behaviors largely result from automatic processes. Yet, in existing research, automatic or implicit attitudes toward food often fail to predict eating behaviors. Applying findings in cognitive neuroscience research, we propose and find that a central reason why implicit attitudes toward food are not good predictors of eating behaviors is that implicit attitudes are driven by two distinct constructs that often have diverging evaluative consequences: the automatic affective reactions to food (e.g., tastiness; the affective basis of implicit attitudes) and the automatic cognitive reactions to food (e.g., healthiness; the cognitive basis of implicit attitudes). More importantly, we find that the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes directly and uniquely influence actual food choices under different conditions. While the affective basis of implicit attitude is the main driver of food choices, it is the only driver when cognitive resources during choice are limited. The cognitive basis of implicit attitudes uniquely influences food choices when cognitive resources during choice are plentiful but only for participants low in impulsivity. Researchers interested in automatic processes in eating behaviors could thus benefit by distinguishing between the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MRI texture heterogeneity in the optic nerve predicts visual recovery after acute optic neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Tissue heterogeneity may be a potential measure of functional outcome in ON patients and advanced analysis of the texture in standard MRI could provide insights into mechanisms of injury and recovery in patients with similar disorders.

  6. Predicting behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia with pattern classification in multi-center structural MRI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Meyer

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that MRI, a widespread imaging technology, can individually identify bvFTD with high accuracy in multi-center imaging data, paving the road to personalized diagnostic approaches in the future.

  7. CADrx for GBM Brain Tumors: Predicting Treatment Response from Changes in Diffusion-Weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Brown

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop a computer-aided therapeutic response (CADrx system for early prediction of drug treatment response for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM brain tumors with diffusion weighted (DW MR images. In conventional Macdonald assessment, tumor response is assessed nine weeks or more post-treatment. However, we will investigate the ability of DW-MRI to assess response earlier, at five weeks post treatment. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC map, calculated from DW images, has been shown to reveal changes in the tumor’s microenvironment preceding morphologic tumor changes. ADC values in treated brain tumors could theoretically both increase due to the cell kill (and thus reduced cell density and decrease due to inhibition of edema. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of features that quantify changes from pre- and post-treatment tumor ADC histograms to detect treatment response. There are three parts to this study: first, tumor regions were segmented on T1w contrast enhanced images by Otsu’s thresholding method, and mapped from T1w images onto ADC images by a 3D region of interest (ROI mapping tool using DICOM header information; second, ADC histograms of the tumor region were extracted from both pre- and five weeks post-treatment scans, and fitted by a two-component Gaussian mixture model (GMM. The GMM features as well as standard histogram-based features were extracted. Finally, supervised machine learning techniques were applied for classification of responders or non-responders. The approach was evaluated with a dataset of 85 patients with GBM under chemotherapy, in which 39 responded and 46 did not, based on tumor volume reduction. We compared adaBoost, random forest and support vector machine classification algorithms, using ten-fold cross validation, resulting in the best accuracy of 69.41% and the corresponding area under the curve (Az of 0.70.

  8. Identifying individuals at high risk of psychosis: predictive utility of Support Vector Machine using structural and functional MRI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel eValli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of individuals at high risk of developing psychosis is entirely based on clinical assessment, associated with limited predictive potential. There is therefore increasing interest in the development of biological markers that could be used in clinical practice for this purpose. We studied 25 individuals with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis and 25 healthy controls using structural MRI, and functional MRI in conjunction with a verbal memory task. Data were analysed using a standard univariate analysis, and with Support Vector Machine (SVM, a multivariate pattern recognition technique that enables statistical inferences to be made at the level of the individual, yielding results with high translational potential. The application of SVM to structural MRI data permitted the identification of individuals at high risk of psychosis with a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 76%, resulting in an accuracy of 72% (p<0.001. Univariate volumetric between-group differences did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, the univariate fMRI analysis identified between-group differences (p<0.05 corrected while the application of SVM to the same data did not. Since SVM is well suited at identifying the pattern of abnormality that distinguishes two groups, whereas univariate methods are more likely to identify regions that individually are most different between two groups, our results suggest the presence of focal functional abnormalities in the context of a diffuse pattern of structural abnormalities in individuals at high clinical risk of psychosis.

  9. Allocentric Spatial Memory Testing Predicts Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia: An Initial Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ruth A; Moodley, Kuven K; Lever, Colin; Minati, Ludovico; Chan, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is one of the first regions to exhibit neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and knowledge of its role in allocentric spatial memory may therefore aid early diagnosis of AD. The 4 Mountains Test (4MT) is a short and easily administered test of spatial memory based on the cognitive map theory of hippocampal function as derived from rodent single cell and behavioral studies. The 4MT has been shown in previous cross-sectional studies to be sensitive and specific for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD. This report describes the initial results of a longitudinal study testing the hypothesis that allocentric spatial memory is predictive of conversion from MCI to dementia. Fifteen patients with MCI underwent baseline testing on the 4MT in addition to CSF amyloid/tau biomarker studies, volumetric MRI and neuropsychological assessment including the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Trail Making Test "B" (TMT-B). At 24 months, 9/15 patients had converted to AD dementia. The 4MT predicted conversion to AD with 93% accuracy (Cohen's d  = 2.52). The predictive accuracies of the comparator measures were as follows: CSF tau/β-amyloid 1-42 ratio 92% ( d  = 1.81), RAVLT 64% ( d  = 0.41), TMT-B 78% ( d  = 1.56), and hippocampal volume 77% ( d  = 0.65). CSF tau levels were strongly negatively correlated with 4MT scores ( r  = -0.71). This proof-of-concept study provides initial support for the hypothesis that allocentric spatial memory testing is a predictive cognitive marker of hippocampal neurodegeneration in pre-dementia AD. The 4MT is a brief, non-invasive, straightforward spatial memory test and is therefore ideally suited for use in routine clinical diagnostic practice. This is of particular importance given the current unmet need for simple accurate diagnostic tests for early AD and the ongoing development of potential disease-modifying therapeutic agents, which may be more efficacious when given earlier in

  10. Multiparametric 3T MRI for the prediction of pathological downgrading after radical prostatectomy in patients with biopsy-proven Gleason score 3 + 4 prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondo, Tatsuo [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Urology Service, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Tokyo Medical University, Department of Urology, Tokyo (Japan); Hricak, Hedvig; Sala, Evis; Vargas, Hebert Alberto [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Zheng, Junting; Moskowitz, Chaya S. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States); Bernstein, Melanie; Eastham, James A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Urology Service, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of pre-treatment 3-Tesla (3T) multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for predicting Gleason score (GS) downgrading after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with GS 3 + 4 prostate cancer (PCa) on biopsy. We retrospectively reviewed 304 patients with biopsy-proven GS 3 + 4 PCa who underwent mpMRI before RP. On T2-weighted imaging and three mpMRI combinations (T2-weighted imaging + diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI], T2-weighted imaging + dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI [DCE-MRI], and T2-weighted imaging + DWI + DCE-MRI), two radiologists (R1/R2) scored the presence of a dominant tumour using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = definitely absent to 5 = definitely present). Diagnostic performance in identifying downgrading was evaluated via areas under the curves (AUCs). Predictive accuracies of multivariate models were calculated. In predicting downgrading, T2-weighted imaging + DWI (AUC = 0.89/0.85 for R1/R2) performed significantly better than T2-weighted imaging alone (AUC = 0.72/0.73; p < 0.001/p = 0.02 for R1/R2), while T2-weighted imaging + DWI + DCE-MRI (AUC = 0.89/0.84 for R1/R2) performed no better than T2-weighted imaging + DWI (p = 0.48/p > 0.99 for R1/R2). On multivariate analysis, the clinical + mpMRI model incorporating T2-weighted imaging + DWI (AUC = 0.92/0.88 for R1/R2) predicted downgrading significantly better than the clinical model (AUC = 0.73; p < 0.001 for R1/R2). mpMRI improves the ability to identify a subgroup of patients with Gleason 3 + 4 PCa on biopsy who are candidates for active surveillance. DCE-MRI (compared to T2 + DWI) offered no additional benefit to the prediction of downgrading. (orig.)

  11. Prediction of cognitive outcome based on the progression of auditory discrimination during coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Elsa; De Lucia, Marzia; Tzovara, Athina; Beaud, Valérie; Oddo, Mauro; Clarke, Stephanie; Rossetti, Andrea O

    2016-09-01

    To date, no clinical test is able to predict cognitive and functional outcome of cardiac arrest survivors. Improvement of auditory discrimination in acute coma indicates survival with high specificity. Whether the degree of this improvement is indicative of recovery remains unknown. Here we investigated if progression of auditory discrimination can predict cognitive and functional outcome. We prospectively recorded electroencephalography responses to auditory stimuli of post-anoxic comatose patients on the first and second day after admission. For each recording, auditory discrimination was quantified and its evolution over the two recordings was used to classify survivors as "predicted" when it increased vs. "other" if not. Cognitive functions were tested on awakening and functional outcome was assessed at 3 months using the Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC) scale. Thirty-two patients were included, 14 "predicted survivors" and 18 "other survivors". "Predicted survivors" were more likely to recover basic cognitive functions shortly after awakening (ability to follow a standardized neuropsychological battery: 86% vs. 44%; p=0.03 (Fisher)) and to show a very good functional outcome at 3 months (CPC 1: 86% vs. 33%; p=0.004 (Fisher)). Moreover, progression of auditory discrimination during coma was strongly correlated with cognitive performance on awakening (phonemic verbal fluency: rs=0.48; p=0.009 (Spearman)). Progression of auditory discrimination during coma provides early indication of future recovery of cognitive functions. The degree of improvement is informative of the degree of functional impairment. If confirmed in a larger cohort, this test would be the first to predict detailed outcome at the single-patient level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Learning to predict is spared in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rosalind; Bentham, Peter; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2015-10-01

    Learning the statistics of the environment is critical for predicting upcoming events. However, little is known about how we translate previous knowledge about scene regularities to sensory predictions. Here, we ask whether patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD) that are known to have spared implicit but impaired explicit recognition memory are able to learn temporal regularities and predict upcoming events. We tested the ability of MCI-AD patients and age-matched controls to predict the orientation of a test stimulus following exposure to sequences of leftwards or rightwards oriented gratings. Our results demonstrate that exposure to temporal sequences without feedback facilitates the ability to predict an upcoming stimulus in both MCI-AD patients and controls. Further, we show that executive cognitive control may account for individual variability in predictive learning. That is, we observed significant positive correlations of performance in attentional and working memory tasks with post-training performance in the prediction task. Taken together, these results suggest a mediating role of circuits involved in cognitive control (i.e. frontal circuits) that may support the ability for predictive learning in MCI-AD.

  13. Association between fully automated MRI-based volumetry of different brain regions and neuropsychological test performance in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Sönke; Buchert, Ralph; Spies, Lothar; Eichenlaub, Martin; Lehmbeck, Jan T; Jahn, Holger

    2013-06-01

    Fully automated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetry may serve as biomarker for the diagnosis in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. We aimed at investigating the relation between fully automated MRI-based volumetric measures and neuropsychological test performance in amnestic MCI and patients with mild dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. In order to assess a possible prognostic value of fully automated MRI-based volumetry for future cognitive performance, the rate of change of neuropsychological test performance over time was also tested for its correlation with fully automated MRI-based volumetry at baseline. In 50 subjects, 18 with amnestic MCI, 21 with mild AD, and 11 controls, neuropsychological testing and T1-weighted MRI were performed at baseline and at a mean follow-up interval of 2.1 ± 0.5 years (n = 19). Fully automated MRI volumetry of the grey matter volume (GMV) was performed using a combined stereotactic normalisation and segmentation approach as provided by SPM8 and a set of pre-defined binary lobe masks. Left and right hippocampus masks were derived from probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. Volumes of the inner and outer liquor space were also determined automatically from the MRI. Pearson's test was used for the correlation analyses. Left hippocampal GMV was significantly correlated with performance in memory tasks, and left temporal GMV was related to performance in language tasks. Bilateral frontal, parietal and occipital GMVs were correlated to performance in neuropsychological tests comprising multiple domains. Rate of GMV change in the left hippocampus was correlated with decline of performance in the Boston Naming Test (BNT), Mini-Mental Status Examination, and trail making test B (TMT-B). The decrease of BNT and TMT-A performance over time correlated with the loss of grey matter in multiple brain regions. We conclude that fully automated MRI

  14. Episodic Future Thinking in Semantic Dementia: A Cognitive and fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Armelle; Piolino, Pascale; Belliard, Serge; de La Sayette, Vincent; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by gradual loss of semantic memory. While episodic autobiographical memory seems relatively preserved, behavioral studies suggest that episodic future thinking is impaired. We used fMRI to measure brain activity in four SD patients (JPL, EP, LL, EG) while they envisioned future events and remembered personal past events. Twelve healthy elders served as controls. Episodic quality, emotion, mental imagery and level of consciousness (via remember/know judgements) were checked at debriefing. We analyzed the future compared to the past for each patient. All patients presented lateral temporal atrophy, but varied in terms of frontal and anterior hippocampal atrophy. Patient JPL presented atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and left anterior hippocampus and was unable to engage in episodic future thinking, despite hyperactivations in frontal and occipital regions. Patient EP presented no atrophy in the anterior hippocampus, but atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyrus and had difficulties to engage in episodic future thinking. Patient LL presented atrophy in left anterior hippocampus, but hyperactivated its right counterpart for future compared to past thinking, permitting her to project efficiently in the future in an episodic way. Patient EG presented no atrophy in the superior medial frontal gyri or anterior hippocampi and was able to engage in episodic future thinking. Altogether, patients' future projections differed depending on the severity and localization of their atrophy. The functional integrity of bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and anterior hippocampus appear crucial for episodic future thinking: atrophy of both structures strongly impairs future projection, while integrity of these structures or hyperactivation of residual tissue normalizes episodic future projection. PMID:25333997

  15. Predicting response before initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using new methods for the analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE MRI) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandchamp, Joseph B.; Whisenant, Jennifer G.; Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Abramson, V. G.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Julio

    2016-03-01

    The pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI have shown promise as biomarkers for tumor response to therapy. However, standard methods of analyzing DCE MRI data (Tofts model) require high temporal resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the Arterial Input Function (AIF). Such models produce reliable biomarkers of response only when a therapy has a large effect on the parameters. We recently reported a method that solves the limitations, the Linear Reference Region Model (LRRM). Similar to other reference region models, the LRRM needs no AIF. Additionally, the LRRM is more accurate and precise than standard methods at low SNR and slow temporal resolution, suggesting LRRM-derived biomarkers could be better predictors. Here, the LRRM, Non-linear Reference Region Model (NRRM), Linear Tofts model (LTM), and Non-linear Tofts Model (NLTM) were used to estimate the RKtrans between muscle and tumor (or the Ktrans for Tofts) and the tumor kep,TOI for 39 breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). These parameters and the receptor statuses of each patient were used to construct cross-validated predictive models to classify patients as complete pathological responders (pCR) or non-complete pathological responders (non-pCR) to NAC. Model performance was evaluated using area under the ROC curve (AUC). The AUC for receptor status alone was 0.62, while the best performance using predictors from the LRRM, NRRM, LTM, and NLTM were AUCs of 0.79, 0.55, 0.60, and 0.59 respectively. This suggests that the LRRM can be used to predict response to NAC in breast cancer.

  16. Changes in Predictive Task Switching with Age and with Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Tzedek, Shelly

    2017-01-01

    Predictive control of movement is more efficient than feedback-based control, and is an important skill in everyday life. We tested whether the ability to predictively control movements of the upper arm is affected by age and by cognitive load. A total of 63 participants were tested in two experiments. In both experiments participants were seated, and controlled a cursor on a computer screen by flexing and extending their dominant arm. In Experiment 1, 20 young adults and 20 older adults were asked to continuously change the frequency of their horizontal arm movements, with the goal of inducing an abrupt switch between discrete movements (at low frequencies) and rhythmic movements (at high frequencies). We tested whether that change was performed based on a feed-forward (predictive) or on a feedback (reactive) control. In Experiment 2, 23 young adults performed the same task, while being exposed to a cognitive load half of the time via a serial subtraction task. We found that both aging and cognitive load diminished, on average, the ability of participants to predictively control their movements. Five older adults and one young adult under a cognitive load were not able to perform the switch between rhythmic and discrete movement (or vice versa). In Experiment 1, 40% of the older participants were able to predictively control their movements, compared with 70% in the young group. In Experiment 2, 48% of the participants were able to predictively control their movements with a cognitively loading task, compared with 70% in the no-load condition. The ability to predictively change a motor plan in anticipation of upcoming changes may be an important component in performing everyday functions, such as safe driving and avoiding falls.

  17. Sleep spindles may predict response to cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Hatch, Benjamin; Salimi, Ali; Mograss, Melodee; Boucetta, Soufiane; O'Byrne, Jordan; Brandewinder, Marie; Berthomier, Christian; Gouin, Jean-Philippe

    2017-11-01

    While cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia constitutes the first-line treatment for chronic insomnia, only few reports have investigated how sleep architecture relates to response to this treatment. In this pilot study, we aimed to determine whether pre-treatment sleep spindle density predicts treatment response to cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia. Twenty-four participants with chronic primary insomnia participated in a 6-week cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia performed in groups of 4-6 participants. Treatment response was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index measured at pre- and post-treatment, and at 3- and 12-months' follow-up assessments. Secondary outcome measures were extracted from sleep diaries over 7 days and overnight polysomnography, obtained at pre- and post-treatment. Spindle density during stage N2-N3 sleep was extracted from polysomnography at pre-treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis assessed whether sleep spindle density predicted response to cognitive-behavioral therapy. After adjusting for age, sex, and education level, lower spindle density at pre-treatment predicted poorer response over the 12-month follow-up, as reflected by a smaller reduction in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index over time. Reduced spindle density also predicted lower improvements in sleep diary sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset immediately after treatment. There were no significant associations between spindle density and changes in the Insomnia Severity Index or polysomnography variables over time. These preliminary results suggest that inter-individual differences in sleep spindle density in insomnia may represent an endogenous biomarker predicting responsiveness to cognitive-behavioral therapy. Insomnia with altered spindle activity might constitute an insomnia subtype characterized by a neurophysiological vulnerability to sleep disruption associated with impaired responsiveness to

  18. Clinical usefulness of the clock drawing test applying rasch analysis in predicting of cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Doo Han; Lee, Jae Shin

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the clinical usefulness of the clock drawing test applying Rasch analysis for predicting the level of cognitive impairment. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 187 stroke patients with cognitive impairment were enrolled in this study. The 187 patients were evaluated by the clock drawing test developed through Rasch analysis along with the mini-mental state examination of cognitive evaluation tool. An analysis of the variance was performed to examine the significance of the mini-mental state examination and the clock drawing test according to the general characteristics of the subjects. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the cutoff point for cognitive impairment and to calculate the sensitivity and specificity values. [Results] The results of comparison of the clock drawing test with the mini-mental state showed significant differences in according to gender, age, education, and affected side. A total CDT of 10.5, which was selected as the cutoff point to identify cognitive impairement, showed a sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, positive predictive, and negative predicive values of 86.4%, 91.5%, 0.8, 95%, and 88.2%. [Conclusion] The clock drawing test is believed to be useful in assessments and interventions based on its excellent ability to identify cognitive disorders.

  19. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Cervical Cancers: Temporal Percentile Screening of Contrast Enhancement Identifies Parameters for Prediction of Chemoradioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Erlend K.F.; Hole, Knut Håkon; Lund, Kjersti V.; Sundfør, Kolbein; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Lyng, Heidi; Malinen, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically screen the tumor contrast enhancement of locally advanced cervical cancers to assess the prognostic value of two descriptive parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods and Materials: This study included a prospectively collected cohort of 81 patients who underwent DCE-MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine before chemoradiotherapy. The following descriptive DCE-MRI parameters were extracted voxel by voxel and presented as histograms for each time point in the dynamic series: normalized relative signal increase (nRSI) and normalized area under the curve (nAUC). The first to 100th percentiles of the histograms were included in a log-rank survival test, resulting in p value and relative risk maps of all percentile–time intervals for each DCE-MRI parameter. The maps were used to evaluate the robustness of the individual percentile–time pairs and to construct prognostic parameters. Clinical endpoints were locoregional control and progression-free survival. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results: The p value maps of nRSI and nAUC showed a large continuous region of percentile–time pairs that were significantly associated with locoregional control (p < 0.05). These parameters had prognostic impact independent of tumor stage, volume, and lymph node status on multivariate analysis. Only a small percentile–time interval of nRSI was associated with progression-free survival. Conclusions: The percentile–time screening identified DCE-MRI parameters that predict long-term locoregional control after chemoradiotherapy of cervical cancer.

  20. Predicting story goodness performance from cognitive measures following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê, Karen; Coelho, Carl; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the prediction of performance on measures of the Story Goodness Index (SGI; Lê, Coelho, Mozeiko, & Grafman, 2011) from executive function (EF) and memory measures following traumatic brain injury (TBI). It was hypothesized that EF and memory measures would significantly predict SGI outcomes. One hundred sixty-seven individuals with TBI participated in the study. Story retellings were analyzed using the SGI protocol. Three cognitive measures--Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001) Sorting Test, Wechsler Memory Scale--Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1997) Working Memory Primary Index (WMI), and WMS-III Immediate Memory Primary Index (IMI)--were entered into a multiple linear regression model for each discourse measure. Two sets of regression analyses were performed, the first with the Sorting Test as the first predictor and the second with it as the last. The first set of regression analyses identified the Sorting Test and IMI as the only significant predictors of performance on measures of the SGI. The second set identified all measures as significant predictors when evaluating each step of the regression function. The cognitive variables predicted performance on the SGI measures, although there were differences in the amount of explained variance. The results (a) suggest that storytelling ability draws on a number of underlying skills and (b) underscore the importance of using discrete cognitive tasks rather than broad cognitive indices to investigate the cognitive substrates of discourse.

  1. Interaction vs. observation: distinctive modes of social cognition in human brain and behavior? A combined fMRI and eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylén, Kristian; Allen, Micah; Hunter, Bjørk K; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Human cognition has usually been approached on the level of individual minds and brains, but social interaction is a challenging case. Is it best thought of as a self-contained individual cognitive process aiming at an "understanding of the other," or should it rather be approached as an collective, inter-personal process where individual cognitive components interact on a moment-to-moment basis to form coupled dynamics? In a combined fMRI and eye-tracking study we directly contrasted these models of social cognition. We found that the perception of situations affording social contingent responsiveness (e.g., someone offering or showing you an object) elicited activations in regions of the right posterior temporal sulcus and yielded greater pupil dilation corresponding to a model of coupled dynamics (joint action). In contrast, the social-cognitive perception of someone "privately" manipulating an object elicited activation in medial prefrontal cortex, the right inferior frontal gyrus and right inferior parietal lobus, regions normally associated with Theory of Mind and with the mirror neuron system. Our findings support a distinction in social cognition between social observation and social interaction, and demonstrate that simple ostensive cues may shift participants' experience, behavior, and brain activity between these modes. The identification of a distinct, interactive mode has implications for research on social cognition, both in everyday life and in clinical conditions.

  2. Interaction versus Observation: distinctive modes of social cognition in human brain and behavior? A combined fMRI and eye-tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian eTylen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human cognition has usually been approached on the level of individual minds and brains, but social interaction is a challenging case. Is it best thought of as a self-contained individual cognitive process aiming at an ‘understanding of the other’, or should it rather be approached as an collective, inter-personal process where individual cognitive components interact on a moment-to-moment basis to form coupled dynamics? In a combined fMRI and eye tracking study we directly contrasted these models of social cognition. We found that the perception of situations affording social contingent responsiveness (e.g. someone offering or showing you an object elicited activations in regions of the right posterior temporal sulcus and yielded greater pupil dilation corresponding to a model of coupled dynamics (joint action. In contrast, the social-cognitive perception of someone ‘privately’ manipulating an object elicited activation in medial prefrontal cortex, the right inferior frontal gyrus and right inferior parietal lobus, regions normally associated with Theory of Mind and with the mirror neuron system. Our findings support a distinction in social cognition between social observation and social interaction, and demonstrate that simple ostensive cues may shift participants’ experience, behavior and brain activity between these modes. The identification of a distinct, interactive mode has implications for research on social cognition, both in everyday life and in clinical conditions.

  3. An MRI-based classification scheme to predict passive access of 5 to 50-nm large nanoparticles to tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgis, Anastassia; Dufort, Sandrine; Sancey, Lucie; Henry, Maxime; Hirsjärvi, Samuli; Passirani, Catherine; Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Gravier, Julien; Texier, Isabelle; Montigon, Olivier; Benmerad, Mériem; Siroux, Valérie; Barbier, Emmanuel L; Coll, Jean-Luc

    2016-02-19

    Nanoparticles are useful tools in oncology because of their capacity to passively accumulate in tumors in particular via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, the importance and reliability of this effect remains controversial and quite often unpredictable. In this preclinical study, we used optical imaging to detect the accumulation of three types of fluorescent nanoparticles in eight different subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor models, and dynamic contrast-enhanced and vessel size index Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to measure the functional parameters of these tumors. The results demonstrate that the permeability and blood volume fraction determined by MRI are useful parameters for predicting the capacity of a tumor to accumulate nanoparticles. Translated to a clinical situation, this strategy could help anticipate the EPR effect of a particular tumor and thus its accessibility to nanomedicines.

  4. Intensity of Multilingual Language Use Predicts Cognitive Performance in Some Multilingual Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijzer, Merel; de Bot, Kees

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive advantages for bilinguals have inconsistently been observed in different populations, with different operationalisations of bilingualism, cognitive performance, and the process by which language control transfers to cognitive control. This calls for studies investigating which aspects of multilingualism drive a cognitive advantage, in which populations and under which conditions. This study reports on two cognitive tasks coupled with an extensive background questionnaire on health, wellbeing, personality, language knowledge and language use, administered to 387 older adults in the northern Netherlands, a small but highly multilingual area. Using linear mixed effects regression modeling, we find that when different languages are used frequently in different contexts, enhanced attentional control is observed. Subsequently, a PLS regression model targeting also other influential factors yielded a two-component solution whereby only more sensitive measures of language proficiency and language usage in different social contexts were predictive of cognitive performance above and beyond the contribution of age, gender, income and education. We discuss these findings in light of previous studies that try to uncover more about the nature of bilingualism and the cognitive processes that may drive an advantage. With an unusually large sample size our study advocates for a move away from dichotomous, knowledge-based operationalisations of multilingualism and offers new insights for future studies at the individual level. PMID:29783764

  5. A second study of the prediction of cognitive errors using the 'CREAM' technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Steve; Andresen, Gisle

    2000-03-01

    Some human errors, such as errors of commission and knowledge-based errors, are not adequately modelled in probabilistic safety assessments. Even qualitative methods for handling these sorts of errors are comparatively underdeveloped. The 'Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method' (CREAM) was recently developed for prediction of cognitive error modes. It has not yet been comprehensively established how reliable, valid and generally useful it could be to researchers and practitioners. A previous study of CREAM at Halden was promising, showing a relationship between errors predicted in advance and those that actually occurred in simulated fault scenarios. The present study continues this work. CREAM was used to make predictions of cognitive error modes throughout two rather difficult fault scenarios. Predictions were made of the most likely cognitive error mode, were one to occur at all, at several points throughout the expected scenarios, based upon the scenario design and description. Each scenario was then run 15 times with different operators. Error modes occurring during simulations were later scored using the task description for the scenario, videotapes of operator actions, eye-track recording, operators' verbal protocols and an expert's concurrent commentary. The scoring team had no previous substantive knowledge of the experiment or the techniques used, so as to provide a more stringent test of the data and knowledge needed for scoring. The scored error modes were then compared with the CREAM predictions to assess the degree of agreement. Some cognitive error modes were predicted successfully, but the results were generally not so encouraging as the previous study. Several problems were found with both the CREAM technique and the data needed to complete the analysis. It was felt that further development was needed before this kind of analysis can be reliable and valid, either in a research setting or as a practitioner's tool in a safety assessment

  6. Multiparametric 3T MRI for the prediction of pathological downgrading after radical prostatectomy in patients with biopsy-proven Gleason score 3 + 4 prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondo, Tatsuo; Hricak, Hedvig; Sala, Evis; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Zheng, Junting; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Bernstein, Melanie; Eastham, James A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of pre-treatment 3-Tesla (3T) multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for predicting Gleason score (GS) downgrading after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with GS 3 + 4 prostate cancer (PCa) on biopsy. We retrospectively reviewed 304 patients with biopsy-proven GS 3 + 4 PCa who underwent mpMRI before RP. On T2-weighted imaging and three mpMRI combinations (T2-weighted imaging + diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI], T2-weighted imaging + dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI [DCE-MRI], and T2-weighted imaging + DWI + DCE-MRI), two radiologists (R1/R2) scored the presence of a dominant tumour using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = definitely absent to 5 = definitely present). Diagnostic performance in identifying downgrading was evaluated via areas under the curves (AUCs). Predictive accuracies of multivariate models were calculated. In predicting downgrading, T2-weighted imaging + DWI (AUC = 0.89/0.85 for R1/R2) performed significantly better than T2-weighted imaging alone (AUC = 0.72/0.73; p 0.99 for R1/R2). On multivariate analysis, the clinical + mpMRI model incorporating T2-weighted imaging + DWI (AUC = 0.92/0.88 for R1/R2) predicted downgrading significantly better than the clinical model (AUC = 0.73; p < 0.001 for R1/R2). mpMRI improves the ability to identify a subgroup of patients with Gleason 3 + 4 PCa on biopsy who are candidates for active surveillance. DCE-MRI (compared to T2 + DWI) offered no additional benefit to the prediction of downgrading. (orig.)

  7. A deep learning classifier for prediction of pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy from baseline breast DCE-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Kavya; Braman, Nathaniel; Janowczyk, Andrew; Madabhushi, Anant

    2018-02-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is routinely used to treat breast tumors before surgery to reduce tumor size and improve outcome. However, no current clinical or imaging metrics can effectively predict before treatment which NAC recipients will achieve pathological complete response (pCR), the absence of residual invasive disease in the breast or lymph nodes following surgical resection. In this work, we developed and applied a convolu- tional neural network (CNN) to predict pCR from pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) scans on a per-voxel basis. In this study, DCE-MRI data for a total of 166 breast cancer pa- tients from the ISPY1 Clinical Trial were split into a training set of 133 patients and a testing set of 33 patients. A CNN consisting of 6 convolutional blocks was trained over 30 epochs. The pre-contrast and post-contrast DCE-MRI phases were considered in isolation and conjunction. A CNN utilizing a combination of both pre- and post-contrast images best distinguished responders, with an AUC of 0.77; 82% of the patients in the testing set were correctly classified based on their treatment response. Within the testing set, the CNN was able to produce probability heatmaps that visualized tumor regions that most strongly predicted therapeutic response. Multi- variate analysis with prognostic clinical variables (age, largest diameter, hormone receptor and HER2 status), revealed that the network was an independent predictor of response (p=0.05), and that the inclusion of HER2 status could further improve capability to predict response (AUC = 0.85, accuracy = 85%).

  8. Potential Predictability of ZPD of Children’s Cognitive Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Birjandi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining information on whether the child has the potential for growth is not an easy task. Research shows that using different matrix like Raven or different batteries in a static way cannot
    be indicative of children further development. This study attempts to probe the potential predictability of children’s performance during Dynamic Assessment of their Future development.
    41 children between ages 3 to 6 years old participated in this study. The data in pretest, ZPD, and posttest were converted into Rasch Measure. The results of different analysis indicate that relying on children’s actual performance cannot be an indicative factor of their development in the future.

  9. Rehabilitation after stroke: predictive power of Barthel Index versus a cognitive and a motor index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, A; Bentzen, L; Garde, B

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive power of ratings of Barthel Index at Day 40 post stroke, compared with and/or combined with simultaneous ratings from a mobility scale (EG motor index) and a rather simple cognitive test scale (CT50). The parameter to be individually...

  10. Brain-predicted age in Down syndrome is associated with beta amyloid deposition and cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James H; Annus, Tiina; Wilson, Liam R; Remtulla, Ridhaa; Hong, Young T; Fryer, Tim D; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Cardenas-Blanco, Arturo; Smith, Robert; Menon, David K; Zaman, Shahid H; Nestor, Peter J; Holland, Anthony J

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) are more likely to experience earlier onset of multiple facets of physiological aging. This includes brain atrophy, beta amyloid deposition, cognitive decline, and Alzheimer's disease-factors indicative of brain aging. Here, we employed a machine learning approach, using structural neuroimaging data to predict age (i.e., brain-predicted age) in people with DS (N = 46) and typically developing controls (N = 30). Chronological age was then subtracted from brain-predicted age to generate a brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD) score. DS participants also underwent [ 11 C]-PiB positron emission tomography (PET) scans to index the levels of cerebral beta amyloid deposition, and cognitive assessment. Mean brain-PAD in DS participants' was +2.49 years, significantly greater than controls (p brain-PAD was associated with the presence and the magnitude of PiB-binding and levels of cognitive performance. Our study indicates that DS is associated with premature structural brain aging, and that age-related alterations in brain structure are associated with individual differences in the rate of beta amyloid deposition and cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Who's afraid of red, yellow and blue? Need for cognitive closure predicts aesthetic preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersema, D.V.; van der Schalk, J.; van Kleef, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between need for cognitive closure (NFC), that is, the need for a clear, predictable and unambiguous world, and aesthetic preferences. Study 1, a correlational field study, reveals that individual differences in NFC are related to liking for a play with an open

  12. Cognitive Models of Risky Choice: Parameter Stability and Predictive Accuracy of Prospect Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glockner, Andreas; Pachur, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    In the behavioral sciences, a popular approach to describe and predict behavior is cognitive modeling with adjustable parameters (i.e., which can be fitted to data). Modeling with adjustable parameters allows, among other things, measuring differences between people. At the same time, parameter estimation also bears the risk of overfitting. Are…

  13. From the Perspective of Loneliness and Cognitive Absorption Internet Addiction as Predictor and Predicted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Vehbi; Yesilyurt, Etem; Korkmaz, Ozgen; Usta, Ertugrul

    2014-01-01

    In this research internet addiction has been dealt with as predictor and predicted variable, this situation has been analyzed from the perspectives of loneliness and cognitive absorption and a tangible model has been put forth. Participant group has been constituted by 338 teacher candidates. Research data were collected using loneliness scale…

  14. Machiavellian emotion regulation in a cognitive reappraisal task: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Anita; Bodrogi, Barbara; Biro, Brigitte; Perlaki, Gabor; Orsi, Gergely; Bereczkei, Tamas

    2017-06-01

    Affective coldness is one of the main features of Machiavellianism. Recent studies have revealed that Machiavellians are emotionally detached and that this "affective blunting" is associated with intense feelings, emotional instability, negative emotions, and difficulty in enduring distress. We used brain-imaging techniques to investigate emotion regulation in Machiavellianism at a neuropsychological level. We used situations in which participants were required to demonstrate emotional flexibility to explore the controversy surrounding the fact that Machiavellianism is associated with both cold-mindedness and emotional instability. Participants performed a reappraisal task in which emotionally evocative pictures (from the International Affective Picture System) were presented in different contexts (negative, positive, and neutral). They were asked to interpret a scenario according to its title and to reinterpret it according to another context created by a new title (e.g., negatively labeled pictures shifted to positively labeled ones). During task performance, Machiavellians showed increased activation of brain regions associated with emotion generation-for example, the amygdala and insula. This indicates that Machiavellian individuals are able to be involved emotionally in social situations. Increased activation in the temporal and parahippocampal regions during reappraisal suggests that Machiavellians use semantic-perceptual processes to construct alternative interpretations of the same situation and have enhanced memory for emotional stimuli. Furthermore, they seem to possess an intense awareness that leads them to shift attention from external to internal information to detect environmental changes. These cognitive processes may enable them to adjust their behavior quickly. This study supports the flexibility hypothesis of Machiavellianism and suggests that Machiavellians' approach to emotion regulation is linked to their rational mode of thinking.

  15. Derivation of a new ADAS-cog composite using tree-based multivariate analysis: prediction of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llano, Daniel A; Laforet, Genevieve; Devanarayan, Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    Model-based statistical approaches were used to compare the ability of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers to predict 12-month progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer disease (AD). Using the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) data set, properties of the 11-item ADAS-cog (ADAS.11), the 13-item ADAS-cog (ADAS.All) and novel composite scores were compared, using weighting schemes derived from the Random Forests (RF) tree-based multivariate model. Weighting subscores using the RF model of ADAS.All enhanced discrimination between elderly controls, MCI and AD patients. The ability of the RF-weighted ADAS-cog composite and individual scores, along with neuroimaging or biochemical biomarkers to predict MCI to AD conversion over 12 months was also assessed. Although originally optimized to discriminate across diagnostic categories, the ADAS. All, weighted according to the RF model, did nearly as well or better than individual or composite baseline neuroimaging or CSF biomarkers in prediction of 12-month conversion from MCI to AD. These suggest that a modified subscore weighting scheme applied to the 13-item ADAS-cog is comparable to imaging or CSF markers in prediction of conversion from MCI to AD at 12 months. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  16. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups—what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    OpenAIRE

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic lite...

  17. MRI findings and spreading patterns of necrotizing external otitis: Is a poor outcome predictable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, B.J. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, M.H. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) and Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hanmh@radcom.snu.ac.kr; Oh, S.H. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, J.J. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, K.-H. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    AIM: To evaluate spreading patterns of necrotizing external otitis (NEO) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to identify spreading patterns related to a poor outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients with NEO were divided into good and poor outcome groups according to their final clinical outcomes. Initial MRI images were retrospectively reviewed for regional abnormalities, and follow-up MRI images were reviewed for ICA flow void abnormality and for the following five spreading patterns: medial, crossed, anterior, intracranial, and combined. The frequencies of the abnormal flow void or spreading patterns were compared between the good and poor response groups. RESULTS: Seven (50%) and seven (50%) patients were respectively allocated to the good and poor outcome groups. Retrocondylar fat infiltration was the most commonest finding on initial MRI images (93%). The frequencies of the abnormal flow void and spreading patterns in the good and poor groups, respectively, were: abnormal flow void, 0 and four (57%); anterior, two (29%) and three (43%); medial, six (86%) and seven (100%); crossed, six (86%) and seven (100%); intracranial middle cranial fossa, one (14%) and four (57%); intracranial posterior cranial fossa, four (57%) and six (86%); intracranial foramen magnum, one (14%) and six (86%). CONCLUSIONS: NEO almost always involves the retrocondylar fat and spreads via various pathways to extracranial or intracranial spaces. The presence of an abnormal flow void and intracranial dural enhancement, particularly in the middle cranial fossa and foramen magnum, may indicate a poor prognosis.

  18. MRI findings and spreading patterns of necrotizing external otitis: Is a poor outcome predictable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, B.J.; Han, M.H.; Oh, S.H.; Song, J.J.; Chang, K.-H.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate spreading patterns of necrotizing external otitis (NEO) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to identify spreading patterns related to a poor outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients with NEO were divided into good and poor outcome groups according to their final clinical outcomes. Initial MRI images were retrospectively reviewed for regional abnormalities, and follow-up MRI images were reviewed for ICA flow void abnormality and for the following five spreading patterns: medial, crossed, anterior, intracranial, and combined. The frequencies of the abnormal flow void or spreading patterns were compared between the good and poor response groups. RESULTS: Seven (50%) and seven (50%) patients were respectively allocated to the good and poor outcome groups. Retrocondylar fat infiltration was the most commonest finding on initial MRI images (93%). The frequencies of the abnormal flow void and spreading patterns in the good and poor groups, respectively, were: abnormal flow void, 0 and four (57%); anterior, two (29%) and three (43%); medial, six (86%) and seven (100%); crossed, six (86%) and seven (100%); intracranial middle cranial fossa, one (14%) and four (57%); intracranial posterior cranial fossa, four (57%) and six (86%); intracranial foramen magnum, one (14%) and six (86%). CONCLUSIONS: NEO almost always involves the retrocondylar fat and spreads via various pathways to extracranial or intracranial spaces. The presence of an abnormal flow void and intracranial dural enhancement, particularly in the middle cranial fossa and foramen magnum, may indicate a poor prognosis

  19. Predicting Treatment Outcome in PTSD : A Longitudinal Functional MRI Study on Trauma-Unrelated Emotional Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooij, Sanne J H; Kennis, Mitzy; Vink, Matthijs; Geuze, Elbert

    2016-01-01

    In about 30-50% of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), symptoms persist after treatment. Although neurobiological research has advanced our understanding of PTSD, little is known about the neurobiology underlying persistence of PTSD. Two functional MRI scans were collected from 72

  20. Optimizing the fMRI data-processing pipeline using prediction and reproducibility performance metrics: I. A preliminary group analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strother, Stephen C.; Conte, Stephen La; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We argue that published results demonstrate that new insights into human brain function may be obscured by poor and/or limited choices in the data-processing pipeline, and review the work on performance metrics for optimizing pipelines: prediction, reproducibility, and related empirical Receiver......, temporal detrending, and between-subject alignment) in a group analysis of BOLD-fMRI scans from 16 subjects performing a block-design, parametric-static-force task. Large-scale brain networks were detected using a multivariate linear discriminant analysis (canonical variates analysis, CVA) that was tuned...... of baseline scans have constant, equal means, and this assumption was assessed with prediction metrics. Higher-order polynomial warps compared to affine alignment had only a minor impact on the performance metrics. We found that both prediction and reproducibility metrics were required for optimizing...

  1. A semiquantitative MRI-Score can predict loss of lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Juergen F.; Schmidt, Katharina; Teufel, Matthias; Fleischer, Sabrina; Gatidis, Sergios; Schaefer, Susanne; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Tsiflikas, Ilias [University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Hector, Andreas; Graepler-Mainka, Ute; Riethmueller, Joachim; Hartl, Dominik [University Children' s Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Paediatrics I, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate the applicability of a semiquantitative MRI scoring system (MR-CF-S) as a prognostic marker for clinical course of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. This observational study of a single-centre CF cohort included a group of 61 patients (mean age 12.9 ± 4.7 years) receiving morphological and functional pulmonary MRI, pulmonary function testing (PFT) and follow-up of 2 years. MRI was analysed by three raters using MR-CF-S. The inter-rater agreement, correlation of score categories with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) at baseline, and the predictive value of clinical parameters, and score categories was assessed for the whole cohort and a subgroup of 40 patients with moderately impaired lung function. The inter-rater agreement of MR-CF-S was sufficient (mean intraclass correlation coefficient 0.92). MR-CF-S (-0.62; p < 0.05) and most of the categories significantly correlated with FEV{sub 1}. Differences between patients with relevant loss of FEV{sub 1} (>3%/year) and normal course were only significant for MR-CF-S (p < 0.05) but not for clinical parameters. Centrilobular opacity (CO) was the most promising score category for prediction of a decline of FEV{sub 1} (area under curve: whole cohort 0.69; subgroup 0.86). MR-CF-S is promising to predict a loss of lung function. CO seems to be a particular finding in CF patients with an abnormal course. (orig.)

  2. Ear pain in patients with oropharynx carcinoma: how MRI contributes to the explanation of a prognostic and predictive symptom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoeny, Harriet C.; Vock, Peter [University of Bern, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Beer, Karl T.; Greiner, Richard H. [University of Bern, Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland)

    2004-12-01

    Reflex otalgia is a predictive and prognostic parameter for local control in patients with oropharynx carcinoma. Can a morphologic correlate of this important symptom be detected by MRI? Thirty-six patients were prospectively evaluated by MRI before radical radiotherapy. Sixteen patients had reflex otalgia; 20 did not. The oropharynx and adjacent regions were analyzed. Alteration was defined as effacement of anatomical structures, signal alteration or enhancement after contrast medium administration. The {chi}{sup 2}-test was used to compare categorical parameters. In patients with reflex otalgia, alteration of the following structures innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve were found significantly more often: nasopharynx, hard palate, superior constrictor pharyngis muscle, palatine tonsil, palatopharyngeus muscle, palatoglossus muscle, stylopharyngeus muscle, hyoglossus muscle and preepiglottic space. No difference was found for the muscles of mastication, levator and tensor veli palatini muscles, styloglossus muscle, genioglossus muscle, intrinsic muscles of the tongue, digastric muscles, mucosal surface of the lateral and posterior pharyngeal wall, uvula, valleculae, parapharyngeal space and larynx. An alteration of structures innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve was visualized on MRI significantly more often when reflex otalgia was present. Involvement of structures innervated by other cranial nerves did not show the same association with ear pain. (orig.)

  3. Ear pain in patients with oropharynx carcinoma: how MRI contributes to the explanation of a prognostic and predictive symptom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoeny, Harriet C.; Vock, Peter; Beer, Karl T.; Greiner, Richard H.

    2004-01-01

    Reflex otalgia is a predictive and prognostic parameter for local control in patients with oropharynx carcinoma. Can a morphologic correlate of this important symptom be detected by MRI? Thirty-six patients were prospectively evaluated by MRI before radical radiotherapy. Sixteen patients had reflex otalgia; 20 did not. The oropharynx and adjacent regions were analyzed. Alteration was defined as effacement of anatomical structures, signal alteration or enhancement after contrast medium administration. The χ 2 -test was used to compare categorical parameters. In patients with reflex otalgia, alteration of the following structures innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve were found significantly more often: nasopharynx, hard palate, superior constrictor pharyngis muscle, palatine tonsil, palatopharyngeus muscle, palatoglossus muscle, stylopharyngeus muscle, hyoglossus muscle and preepiglottic space. No difference was found for the muscles of mastication, levator and tensor veli palatini muscles, styloglossus muscle, genioglossus muscle, intrinsic muscles of the tongue, digastric muscles, mucosal surface of the lateral and posterior pharyngeal wall, uvula, valleculae, parapharyngeal space and larynx. An alteration of structures innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve was visualized on MRI significantly more often when reflex otalgia was present. Involvement of structures innervated by other cranial nerves did not show the same association with ear pain. (orig.)

  4. Cognitive Improvement and Brain Changes after Real-Time Functional MRI Neurofeedback Training in Healthy Elderly and Prodromal Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hohenfeld

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCognitive decline is characteristic for Alzheimer’s disease (AD and also for healthy ageing. As a proof-of-concept study, we examined whether this decline can be counteracted using real-time fMRI neurofeedback training. Visuospatial memory and the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG were targeted.MethodsSixteen healthy elderly subjects (mean age 63.5 years, SD = 6.663 and 10 patients with prodromal AD (mean age 66.2 years, SD = 8.930 completed the experiment. Four additional healthy subjects formed a sham-feedback condition to validate the paradigm. The protocol spanned five examination days (T1–T5. T1 contained a neuropsychological pre-test, the encoding of a real-world footpath, and an anatomical MRI scan of the brain. T2–T4 included the fMRI neurofeedback training paradigm, in which subjects learned to enhance activation of the left PHG while recalling the path encoded on T1. At T5, the neuropsychological post-test and another anatomical MRI brain scan were performed. The neuropsychological battery included the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA; the Visual and Verbal Memory Test (VVM; subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS; the Visual Patterns Test; and Trail Making Tests (TMT A and B.ResultsHealthy elderly and patients with prodromal AD showed improved visuospatial memory performance after neurofeedback training. Healthy subjects also performed better in a working-memory task (WMS backward digit-span and in the MoCA. Both groups were able to elicit parahippocampal activation during training, but no significant changes in brain activation were found over the course of the training. However, Granger-causality-analysis revealed changes in cerebral connectivity over the course of the training, involving the parahippocampus and identifying the precuneus as main driver of activation in both groups. Voxel-based morphometry showed increases in grey matter volumes in the precuneus and frontal cortex. Neither cognitive

  5. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder: access to treatment, prediction of long-term outcome with neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Neill J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Joseph O'Neill,1 Jamie D Feusner,2 1Division of Child Psychiatry, 2Division of Adult Psychiatry, UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: This article reviews issues related to a major challenge to the field for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD: improving access to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. Patient-related barriers to access include the stigma of OCD and reluctance to take on the demands of CBT. Patient-external factors include the shortage of trained CBT therapists and the high costs of CBT. The second half of the review focuses on one partial, yet plausible aid to improve access – prediction of long-term response to CBT, particularly using neuroimaging methods. Recent pilot data are presented revealing a potential for pretreatment resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to forecast OCD symptom severity up to 1 year after completing CBT. Keywords: follow-up, access to treatment, relapse, resting-state fMRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy

  6. Adiposity predicts cognitive decline in older persons with diabetes: a 2-year follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Marie Abbatecola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms related to cognitive impairment in older persons with Type 2 diabetes (DM remains unclear. We tested if adiposity parameters and body fat distribution could predict cognitive decline in older persons with DM vs. normal glucose tolerance (NGT. METHODOLOGY: 693 older persons with no dementia were enrolled: 253 with DM in good metabolic control; 440 with NGT (age range:65-85 years. Longitudinal study comparing DM and NGT individuals according to the association of baseline adiposity parameters (body mass index (BMI, waist-hip-ratio (WHR, waist circumference (WC and total body fat mass to cognitive change (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, a composite score of executive and attention functioning (CCS over time. FINDINGS: At baseline, in DM participants, MMSE correlated with WHR (beta = -0.240; p = 0.043, WC (beta = -0.264; p = 0.041 while CCS correlated with WHR (beta = -0.238; p = 0.041, WC (beta = -0.326; p = 0.013 after adjusting for confounders. In NGT subjects, no significant correlations were found among any adiposity parameters and MMSE, while CCS was associated with WHR (beta = -0.194; p = 0.036 and WC (beta = -0.210; p = 0.024. Participants with DM in the 3(rd tertile of total fat mass showed the greatest decline in cognitive performance compared to those in 1(st tertile (tests for trend: MMSE(p = 0.007, CCS(p = 0.003. Logistic regression models showed that 3(rd vs. 1(st tertile of total fat mass, WHR, and WC predicted an almost two-fold decline in cognitive function in DM subjects at 2(nd yr (OR 1.68, 95%IC 1.08-3.52. CONCLUSIONS: Total fat mass and central adiposity predict an increased risk for cognitive decline in older person with DM.

  7. MRI Characterizes the Progressive Course of AD and Predicts Conversion to Alzheimer’s Dementia 24 Months Before Probable Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Salvatore

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There is no disease-modifying treatment currently available for AD, one of the more impacting neurodegenerative diseases affecting more than 47.5 million people worldwide. The definition of new approaches for the design of proper clinical trials is highly demanded in order to achieve non-confounding results and assess more effective treatment. In this study, a cohort of 200 subjects was obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Subjects were followed-up for 24 months, and classified as AD (50, progressive-MCI to AD (50, stable-MCI (50, and cognitively normal (50. Structural T1-weighted MRI brain studies and neuropsychological measures of these subjects were used to train and optimize an artificial-intelligence classifier to distinguish mild-AD patients who need treatment (AD + pMCI from subjects who do not need treatment (sMCI + CN. The classifier was able to distinguish between the two groups 24 months before AD definite diagnosis using a combination of MRI brain studies and specific neuropsychological measures, with 85% accuracy, 83% sensitivity, and 87% specificity. The combined-approach model outperformed the classification using MRI data alone (72% classification accuracy, 69% sensitivity, and 75% specificity. The patterns of morphological abnormalities localized in the temporal pole and medial-temporal cortex might be considered as biomarkers of clinical progression and evolution. These regions can be already observed 24 months before AD definite diagnosis. The best neuropsychological predictors mainly included measures of functional abilities, memory and learning, working memory, language, visuoconstructional reasoning, and complex attention, with a particular focus on some of the sub-scores of the FAQ and AVLT tests.

  8. Rehabilitation after stroke: predictive power of Barthel Index versus a cognitive and a motor index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, A; Bentzen, L; Garde, B

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive power of ratings of Barthel Index at Day 40 post stroke, compared with and/or combined with simultaneous ratings from a mobility scale (EG motor index) and a rather simple cognitive test scale (CT50). The parameter to be individually...... predicted was the need for special living facilities and support at discharge from a rehabilitation hospital, as well as six months later; 53 stroke patients with age median 68 years were included in this prospective study. It was shown that a combination of Barthel Index and CT50 had a stronger predictive...

  9. Medial temporal lobe function during emotional memory in early Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment and healthy ageing: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A; Pattan, Vivek; Wong, Dichelle; Beaglehole, Anna; Lonie, Jane; Wan, Hong I; Honey, Garry; Hall, Jeremy; Whalley, Heather C; Lawrie, Stephen M

    2013-03-06

    Relative to intentional memory encoding, which quickly declines in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), incidental memory for emotional stimuli appears to deteriorate more slowly. We hypothesised that tests of incidental emotional memory may inform on different aspects of cognitive decline in MCI and AD. Patients with MCI, AD and Healthy Controls (HC) were asked to attend to emotional pictures (i.e., positive and neutral) sequentially presented during an fMRI session. Attention was monitored behaviourally. A surprise post-scan recognition test was then administered. The groups remained attentive within the scanner. The post-scan recognition pattern was in the form of (HC = MCI) > AD, with only the former group showing a clear benefit from emotional pictures. fMRI analysis of incidental encoding demonstrated clusters of activation in para-hippocampal regions and in the hippocampus in HC and MCI patients but not in AD patients. The pattern of activation observed in MCI patients tended to be greater than that found in HC. The results suggest that incidental emotional memory might offer a suitable platform to investigate, using behavioural and fMRI measures, subtle changes in the process of developing AD. These changes seem to differ from those found using standard episodic memory tests. The underpinnings of such differences and the potential clinical use of this methodology are discussed in depth.

  10. Early post-stroke cognition in stroke rehabilitation patients predicts functional outcome at 13 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, Jørgen; Farner, Lasse; Flekkøy, Kjell; Bruun Wyller, Torgeir; Sandvik, Leiv; Fure, Brynjar; Stensrød, Brynhild; Engedal, Knut

    2011-01-01

    To identify prognostic factors associated with functional outcome at 13 months in a sample of stroke rehabilitation patients. Specifically, we hypothesized that cognitive functioning early after stroke would predict long-term functional outcome independently of other factors. 163 stroke rehabilitation patients underwent a structured neuropsychological examination 2-3 weeks after hospital admittance, and their functional status was subsequently evaluated 13 months later with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) as outcome measure. Three predictive models were built using linear regression analyses: a biological model (sociodemographics, apolipoprotein E genotype, prestroke vascular factors, lesion characteristics and neurological stroke-related impairment); a functional model (pre- and early post-stroke cognitive functioning, personal and instrumental activities of daily living, ADL, and depressive symptoms), and a combined model (including significant variables, with p value Stroke Scale; β = 0.402, p stroke cognitive functioning (Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Status, RBANS; β = -0.248, p = 0.001) and prestroke personal ADL (Barthel Index; β = -0.217, p = 0.002). Further linear regression analyses of which RBANS indexes and subtests best predicted long-term functional outcome showed that Coding (β = -0.484, p stroke cognitive functioning as measured by the RBANS is a significant and independent predictor of long-term functional post-stroke outcome. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Longitudinal Alterations of Frontoparietal and Frontotemporal Networks Predict Future Creative Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qunlin; Beaty, Roger E; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Junyi; Sun, Jiangzhou; Liu, Wei; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Creative cognition is important to academic performance and career success during late adolescence and adulthood. However, there is a lack of longitudinal data on whether brain structural development could predict improvements in creative thinking, and how such changes interact with other cognitive abilities to support creative performance. Here we examined longitudinal alterations of brain structure and their relation to creative cognitive ability in a sample of 159 healthy young adults who were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging 2-3 times over the course of 3 years. The most robust predictor of future creative ability was the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which in conjunction with baseline creative capacity showed a 31% prediction rate. Longitudinal analysis revealed that slower decreases in gray matter density within left frontoparietal and right frontotemporal clusters predicted enhanced creative ability. Moreoever, the relationship between longitudinal alterations within frontal-related clusters and improved creative ability was moderated by the right DLPFC and working memory ability. We conclude that continuous goal-directed planning and accumulated knowledge are implemented in the right DLPFC and temporal areas, respectively, which in turn support longitudinal gains in creative cognitive ability. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Predicting and influencing voice therapy adherence using social-cognitive factors and mobile video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leer, Eva; Connor, Nadine P

    2015-05-01

    Patient adherence to voice therapy is an established challenge. The purpose of this study was (a) to examine whether adherence to treatment could be predicted from three social-cognitive factors measured at treatment onset: self-efficacy, goal commitment, and the therapeutic alliance, and (b) to test whether the provision of clinician, self-, and peer model mobile treatment videos on MP4 players would influence the same triad of social cognitive factors and the adherence behavior of patients. Forty adults with adducted hyperfunction with and without benign lesions were prospectively randomized to either 4 sessions of voice therapy enhanced by MP4 support or without MP4 support. Adherence between sessions was assessed through self-report. Social cognitive factors and voice outcomes were assessed at the beginning and end of therapy. Utility of MP4 support was assessed via interviews. Self-efficacy and the therapeutic alliance predicted a significant amount of adherence variance. MP4 support significantly increased generalization, self-efficacy for generalization, and the therapeutic alliance. An interaction effect demonstrated that MP4 support was particularly effective for patients who started therapy with poor self-efficacy for generalization. Adherence may be predicted and influenced via social-cognitive means. Mobile technology can extend therapy to extraclinical settings.

  13. Both Reaction Time and Accuracy Measures of Intraindividual Variability Predict Cognitive Performance in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn U. Christ

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dementia researchers around the world prioritize the urgent need for sensitive measurement tools that can detect cognitive and functional change at the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Sensitive indicators of underlying neural pathology assist in the early detection of cognitive change and are thus important for the evaluation of early-intervention clinical trials. One method that may be particularly well-suited to help achieve this goal involves the quantification of intraindividual variability (IIV in cognitive performance. The current study aimed to directly compare two methods of estimating IIV (fluctuations in accuracy-based scores vs. those in latency-based scores to predict cognitive performance in AD. Specifically, we directly compared the relative sensitivity of reaction time (RT—and accuracy-based estimates of IIV to cognitive compromise. The novelty of the present study, however, centered on the patients we tested [a group of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD] and the outcome measures we used (a measure of general cognitive function and a measure of episodic memory function. Hence, we compared intraindividual standard deviations (iSDs from two RT tasks and three accuracy-based memory tasks in patients with possible or probable Alzheimer's dementia (n = 23 and matched healthy controls (n = 25. The main analyses modeled the relative contributions of RT vs. accuracy-based measures of IIV toward the prediction of performance on measures of (a overall cognitive functioning, and (b episodic memory functioning. Results indicated that RT-based IIV measures are superior predictors of neurocognitive impairment (as indexed by overall cognitive and memory performance than accuracy-based IIV measures, even after adjusting for the timescale of measurement. However, one accuracy-based IIV measure (derived from a recognition memory test also differentiated patients with AD from controls, and significantly predicted episodic memory

  14. Predicting local recurrence following breast-conserving treatment: parenchymal signal enhancement ratio (SER) around the tumor on preoperative MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Nariya; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Yun, Bo La; Bae, Min Sun; Moon, Woo Kyung; Chie, Eui Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Background: The level of background parenchymal enhancement around tumor is known to be associated with breast cancer risk. However, there is no study investigating predictive power of parenchymal signal enhancement ratio (SER) around tumor for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). Purpose: To investigate whether the breast parenchymal SER around the tumor on preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with subsequent IBTR in breast cancer patients who had undergone breast-conserving treatment. Material and Methods: Nineteen consecutive women (mean age, 44 years; range, 34-63 years) with breast cancer who developed IBTR following breast-conserving treatment and 114 control women matched for age, as well as T and N stages were included. We compared the clinicopathologic features of the two groups including nuclear grade, histologic grade, hormonal receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) status, lymphovascular invasion, negative margin width, use of adjuvant therapy, and parenchymal SER around the tumor on preoperative DCE-MRI. The SER was measured on a slice showing the largest dimension of the tumor. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent factors associated with IBTR. Results: In univariate analysis, ER negativity (odds ratio [OR] = 4.7; P = 0.040), PR negativity (OR = 4.0; P = 0.013), HER-2 positivity (OR = 3.6; P = 0.026), and a parenchymal SER greater than 0.53 (OR = 23.3; P = 0.011) were associated with IBTR. In multivariate analysis, ER negativity (OR = 3.8; P = 0.015) and a parenchymal SER greater than 0.53 (OR = 13.2; P = 0.040) on preoperative MRI were independent factors associated with IBTR. Conclusion: In addition to ER negativity, a higher parenchymal SER on preoperative MRI was an independent factor associated with subsequent IBTR in patients with breast cancer who had undergone breast-conserving treatment

  15. Monitoring and predicting cognitive state and performance via physiological correlates of neuronal signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Michael B; Stetz, Melba C; Thomas, Maria L

    2005-07-01

    Judgment, decision making, and situational awareness are higher-order mental abilities critically important to operational cognitive performance. Higher-order mental abilities rely on intact functioning of multiple brain regions, including the prefrontal, thalamus, and parietal areas. Real-time monitoring of individuals for cognitive performance capacity via an approach based on sampling multiple neurophysiologic signals and integrating those signals with performance prediction models potentially provides a method of supporting warfighters' and commanders' decision making and other operationally relevant mental processes and is consistent with the goals of augmented cognition. Cognitive neurophysiological assessments that directly measure brain function and subsequent cognition include positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, mass spectroscopy, near-infrared spectroscopy, magnetoencephalography, and electroencephalography (EEG); however, most direct measures are not practical to use in operational environments. More practical, albeit indirect measures that are generated by, but removed from the actual neural sources, are movement activity, oculometrics, heart rate, and voice stress signals. The goal of the papers in this section is to describe advances in selected direct and indirect cognitive neurophysiologic monitoring techniques as applied for the ultimate purpose of preventing operational performance failures. These papers present data acquired in a wide variety of environments, including laboratory, simulator, and clinical arenas. The papers discuss cognitive neurophysiologic measures such as digital signal processing wrist-mounted actigraphy; oculometrics including blinks, saccadic eye movements, pupillary movements, the pupil light reflex; and high-frequency EEG. These neurophysiological indices are related to cognitive performance as measured through standard test batteries and simulators with conditions including sleep loss

  16. Resting Heart Rate Predicts Depression and Cognition Early after Ischemic Stroke: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Arnaud; Sibon, Igor; Poli, Mathilde; Audiffren, Michel; Allard, Michèle; Pfeuty, Micha

    2017-10-01

    Early detection of poststroke depression (PSD) and cognitive impairment (PSCI) remains challenging. It is well documented that the function of autonomic nervous system is associated with depression and cognition. However, their relationship has never been investigated in the early poststroke phase. This pilot study aimed at determining whether resting heart rate (HR) parameters measured in early poststroke phase (1) are associated with early-phase measures of depression and cognition and (2) could be used as new tools for early objective prediction of PSD or PSCI, which could be applicable to patients unable to answer usual questionnaires. Fifty-four patients with first-ever ischemic stroke, without cardiac arrhythmia, were assessed for resting HR and heart rate variability (HRV) within the first week after stroke and for depression and cognition during the first week and at 3 months after stroke. Multiple regression analyses controlled for age, gender, and stroke severity revealed that higher HR, lower HRV, and higher sympathovagal balance (low-frequency/high-frequency ratio of HRV) were associated with higher severity of depressive symptoms within the first week after stroke. Furthermore, higher sympathovagal balance in early phase predicted higher severity of depressive symptoms at the 3-month follow-up, whereas higher HR and lower HRV in early phase predicted lower global cognitive functioning at the 3-month follow-up. Resting HR measurements obtained in early poststroke phase could serve as an objective tool, applicable to patients unable to complete questionnaires, to help in the early prediction of PSD and PSCI. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of hippocampal function, volume and connectivity on posterior cingulate cortex functioning during episodic memory fMRI in mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papma, Janne M.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Swieten, John C. van; Smits, Marion; Lugt, Aad van der; Groot, Marius de; Vrooman, Henri A.; Mattace Raso, Francesco U.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Veen, Frederik M. van der; Prins, Niels D.

    2017-01-01

    Diminished function of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a typical finding in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is hypothesized that in early stage AD, PCC functioning relates to or reflects hippocampal dysfunction or atrophy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hippocampus function, volume and structural connectivity, and PCC activation during an episodic memory task-related fMRI study in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI patients (n = 27) underwent episodic memory task-related fMRI, 3D-T1w MRI, 2D T2-FLAIR MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between PCC activation and hippocampal activation, hippocampal volume and diffusion measures within the cingulum along the hippocampus. We found a significant relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during successful episodic memory encoding and correct recognition in MCI patients. We found no relationship between the PCC and structural hippocampal predictors. Our results indicate a relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during episodic memory engagement in MCI. This may suggest that during episodic memory, functional network deterioration is the most important predictor of PCC functioning in MCI. (orig.)

  18. The effect of hippocampal function, volume and connectivity on posterior cingulate cortex functioning during episodic memory fMRI in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papma, Janne M; Smits, Marion; de Groot, Marius; Mattace Raso, Francesco U; van der Lugt, Aad; Vrooman, Henri A; Niessen, Wiro J; Koudstaal, Peter J; van Swieten, John C; van der Veen, Frederik M; Prins, Niels D

    2017-09-01

    Diminished function of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a typical finding in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is hypothesized that in early stage AD, PCC functioning relates to or reflects hippocampal dysfunction or atrophy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hippocampus function, volume and structural connectivity, and PCC activation during an episodic memory task-related fMRI study in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI patients (n = 27) underwent episodic memory task-related fMRI, 3D-T1w MRI, 2D T2-FLAIR MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between PCC activation and hippocampal activation, hippocampal volume and diffusion measures within the cingulum along the hippocampus. We found a significant relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during successful episodic memory encoding and correct recognition in MCI patients. We found no relationship between the PCC and structural hippocampal predictors. Our results indicate a relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during episodic memory engagement in MCI. This may suggest that during episodic memory, functional network deterioration is the most important predictor of PCC functioning in MCI. • PCC functioning during episodic memory relates to hippocampal functioning in MCI. • PCC functioning during episodic memory does not relate to hippocampal structure in MCI. • Functional network changes are an important predictor of PCC functioning in MCI.

  19. The effect of hippocampal function, volume and connectivity on posterior cingulate cortex functioning during episodic memory fMRI in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papma, Janne M.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Swieten, John C. van [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Neurology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Smits, Marion; Lugt, Aad van der [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Groot, Marius de; Vrooman, Henri A. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Mattace Raso, Francesco U. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Geriatrics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Veen, Frederik M. van der [Erasmus University Rotterdam, Institute of Psychology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Prins, Niels D. [VU University Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-09-15

    Diminished function of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a typical finding in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is hypothesized that in early stage AD, PCC functioning relates to or reflects hippocampal dysfunction or atrophy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hippocampus function, volume and structural connectivity, and PCC activation during an episodic memory task-related fMRI study in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI patients (n = 27) underwent episodic memory task-related fMRI, 3D-T1w MRI, 2D T2-FLAIR MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between PCC activation and hippocampal activation, hippocampal volume and diffusion measures within the cingulum along the hippocampus. We found a significant relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during successful episodic memory encoding and correct recognition in MCI patients. We found no relationship between the PCC and structural hippocampal predictors. Our results indicate a relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during episodic memory engagement in MCI. This may suggest that during episodic memory, functional network deterioration is the most important predictor of PCC functioning in MCI. (orig.)

  20. APPLYING SPARSE CODING TO SURFACE MULTIVARIATE TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY TO PREDICT FUTURE COGNITIVE DECLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Stonnington, Cynthia; Li, Qingyang; Shi, Jie; Bauer, Robert J; Gutman, Boris A; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M; Thompson, Paul M; Ye, Jieping; Wang, Yalin

    2016-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disease. Accurate diagnosis of AD and its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment, is crucial for clinical trial design. There is also growing interests in identifying brain imaging biomarkers that help evaluate AD risk presymptomatically. Here, we applied a recently developed multivariate tensor-based morphometry (mTBM) method to extract features from hippocampal surfaces, derived from anatomical brain MRI. For such surface-based features, the feature dimension is usually much larger than the number of subjects. We used dictionary learning and sparse coding to effectively reduce the feature dimensions. With the new features, an Adaboost classifier was employed for binary group classification. In tests on publicly available data from the Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, the new framework outperformed several standard imaging measures in classifying different stages of AD. The new approach combines the efficiency of sparse coding with the sensitivity of surface mTBM, and boosts classification performance.

  1. Single-task fMRI overlap predicts concurrent multitasking interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Menno; Borst, Jelmer; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels

    2014-10-15

    There is no consensus regarding the origin of behavioral interference that occurs during concurrent multitasking. Some evidence points toward a multitasking locus in the brain, while other results imply that interference is the consequence of task interactions in several brain regions. To investigate this issue, we conducted a functional MRI (fMRI) study consisting of three component tasks, which were performed both separately and in combination. The results indicated that no specific multitasking area exists. Instead, different patterns of activation across conditions could be explained by assuming that the interference is a result of task interactions. Additionally, similarity in single-task activation patterns correlated with a decrease in accuracy during dual-task conditions. Taken together, these results support the view that multitasking interference is not due to a bottleneck in a single "multitasking" brain region, but is a result of interactions between concurrently running processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prediction for effectiveness of steroid pulse therapy by MRI in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masayuki; Hiromatsu, Yuji; Tanaka, Kiyoko; Nonaka, Kyohei; Kojima, Kazuyuki; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nishida, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) were treated with intravenous methylprednisolone (steroid pulse therapy, one g daily for 3 days a week, 2-4 times) and followed up by ophthalmological assessment and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The signal intensity of enlarged eye muscle and retrobulbar fat was examined with MRI at 0.5 T with short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. The signal intensity of eye muscle and retrobulbar fat tissue in STIR was evaluated as the ratio to cerebral substantia alba (signal intensity ratio). The thickness of enlarged eye muscle was measured by T1-weighted coronal images. The signal intensity ratios of enlarged eye muscle of GO patients were significantly higher than those of eight normal subjects. Although the signal intensity ratios of muscle and retrobulbar fat before therapy were not related to the severity of clinical findings of GO assessed by ophthalmopathy index, the initial signal intensity ratios of eye muscle and retrobulbar fat of ten patients with improved clinical findings of GO after steroid pulse therapy tended to be higher than those of five patients without improvement by the therapy. After the therapy the signal intensity ratios of muscle and retrobulbar fat were significantly decreased in ten patients with favorable response. Our data suggested that high signal intensity in STIR may reflect edema caused by acute inflammation associated with GO. In conclusion, MRI may be a useful tool for determining the indication and prognosis of steroid pulse therapy. We strongly recommend measuring the signal intensity of eye muscle as well as muscle thickness in MRI to evaluate the activity of GO. (author)

  3. Japan Meteorological Agency/Meteorological Research Institute-Coupled Prediction System version 2 (JMA/MRI-CPS2): atmosphere-land-ocean-sea ice coupled prediction system for operational seasonal forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Yuhei; Hirahara, Shoji; Yasuda, Tamaki; Matsueda, Satoko; Toyoda, Takahiro; Fujii, Yosuke; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Matsukawa, Chihiro; Ishikawa, Ichiro; Mori, Hirotoshi; Nagasawa, Ryoji; Kubo, Yutaro; Adachi, Noriyuki; Yamanaka, Goro; Kuragano, Tsurane; Shimpo, Akihiko; Maeda, Shuhei; Ose, Tomoaki

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the Japan Meteorological Agency/Meteorological Research Institute-Coupled Prediction System version 2 (JMA/MRI-CPS2), which was put into operation in June 2015 for the purpose of performing seasonal predictions. JMA/MRI-CPS2 has various upgrades from its predecessor, JMA/MRI-CPS1, including improved resolution and physics in its atmospheric and oceanic components, introduction of an interactive sea-ice model and realistic initialization of its land component. Verification of extensive re-forecasts covering a 30-year period (1981-2010) demonstrates that JMA/MRI-CPS2 possesses improved seasonal predictive skills for both atmospheric and oceanic interannual variability as well as key coupled variability such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). For ENSO prediction, the new system better represents the forecast uncertainty and transition/duration of ENSO phases. Our analysis suggests that the enhanced predictive skills are attributable to incremental improvements resulting from all of the changes, as is apparent in the beneficial effects of sea-ice coupling and land initialization on 2-m temperature predictions. JMA/MRI-CPS2 is capable of reasonably representing the seasonal cycle and secular trends of sea ice. The sea-ice coupling remarkably enhances the predictive capability for the Arctic 2-m temperature, indicating the importance of this factor, particularly for seasonal predictions in the Arctic region.

  4. Intraindividual variability in reaction time predicts cognitive outcomes 5 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielak, Allison A M; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther; Macdonald, Stuart W S; Hunter, Michael A

    2010-11-01

    Building on results suggesting that intraindividual variability in reaction time (inconsistency) is highly sensitive to even subtle changes in cognitive ability, this study addressed the capacity of inconsistency to predict change in cognitive status (i.e., cognitive impairment, no dementia [CIND] classification) and attrition 5 years later. Two hundred twelve community-dwelling older adults, initially aged 64-92 years, remained in the study after 5 years. Inconsistency was calculated from baseline reaction time performance. Participants were assigned to groups on the basis of their fluctuations in CIND classification over time. Logistic and Cox regressions were used. Baseline inconsistency significantly distinguished among those who remained or transitioned into CIND over the 5 years and those who were consistently intact (e.g., stable intact vs. stable CIND, Wald (1) = 7.91, p < .01, Exp(β) = 1.49). Average level of inconsistency over time was also predictive of study attrition, for example, Wald (1) = 11.31, p < .01, Exp(β) = 1.24. For both outcomes, greater inconsistency was associated with a greater likelihood of being in a maladaptive group 5 years later. Variability based on moderately cognitively challenging tasks appeared to be particularly sensitive to longitudinal changes in cognitive ability. Mean rate of responding was a comparable predictor of change in most instances, but individuals were at greater relative risk of being in a maladaptive outcome group if they were more inconsistent rather than if they were slower in responding. Implications for the potential utility of intraindividual variability in reaction time as an early marker of cognitive decline are discussed. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  5. White matter tract covariance patterns predict age-declining cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazes, Yunglin; Bowman, F DuBois; Razlighi, Qolamreza R; O'Shea, Deirdre; Stern, Yaakov; Habeck, Christian

    2016-01-15

    Previous studies investigating the relationship of white matter (WM) integrity to cognitive abilities and aging have either focused on a global measure or a few selected WM tracts. Ideally, contribution from all of the WM tracts should be evaluated at the same time. However, the high collinearity among WM tracts precludes systematic examination of WM tracts simultaneously without sacrificing statistical power due to stringent multiple-comparison corrections. Multivariate covariance techniques enable comprehensive simultaneous examination of all WM tracts without being penalized for high collinearity among observations. In this study, Scaled Subprofile Modeling (SSM) was applied to the mean integrity of 18 major WM tracts to extract covariance patterns that optimally predicted four cognitive abilities (perceptual speed, episodic memory, fluid reasoning, and vocabulary) in 346 participants across ages 20 to 79years old. Using expression of the covariance patterns, age-independent effects of white matter integrity on cognition and the indirect effect of WM integrity on age-related differences in cognition were tested separately, but inferences from the indirect analyses were cautiously made given that cross-sectional data set was used in the analysis. A separate covariance pattern was identified that significantly predicted each cognitive ability after controlling for age except for vocabulary, but the age by WM covariance pattern interaction was not significant for any of the three abilities. Furthermore, each of the patterns mediated the effect of age on the respective cognitive ability. A distinct set of WM tracts was most influential in each of the three patterns. The WM covariance pattern accounting for fluid reasoning showed the most number of influential WM tracts whereas the episodic memory pattern showed the least number. Specific patterns of WM tracts make significant contributions to the age-related differences in perceptual speed, episodic memory, and

  6. Predicting efficacy of robot-aided rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients using an MRI-compatible robotic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergi, Fabrizio; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Groissier, Benjamin; Rykman, Avrielle; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Volpe, Bruce T; Schaechter, Judith D

    2011-01-01

    We are investigating the neural correlates of motor recovery promoted by robot-mediated therapy in chronic stroke. This pilot study asked whether efficacy of robot-aided motor rehabilitation in chronic stroke could be predicted by a change in functional connectivity within the sensorimotor network in response to a bout of motor rehabilitation. To address this question, two stroke patients participated in a functional connectivity MRI study pre and post a 12-week robot-aided motor rehabilitation program. Functional connectivity was evaluated during three consecutive scans before the rehabilitation program: resting-state; point-to-point reaching movements executed by the paretic upper extremity (UE) using a newly developed MRI-compatible sensorized passive manipulandum; resting-state. A single resting-state scan was conducted after the rehabilitation program. Before the program, UE movement reduced functional connectivity between the ipsilesional and contralesional primary motor cortex. Reduced interhemispheric functional connectivity persisted during the second resting-state scan relative to the first and during the resting-state scan after the rehabilitation program. Greater reduction in interhemispheric functional connectivity during the resting-state was associated with greater gains in UE motor function induced by the 12-week robotic therapy program. These findings suggest that greater reduction in interhemispheric functional connectivity in response to a bout of motor rehabilitation may predict greater efficacy of the full rehabilitation program.

  7. Predicting Parent-Child Aggression Risk: Cognitive Factors and Their Interaction With Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2018-02-01

    Several cognitive elements have previously been proposed to elevate risk for physical child abuse. To predict parent-child aggression risk, the current study evaluated the role of approval of parent-child aggression, perceptions of children as poorly behaved, and discipline attributions. Several dimensions of attributions specifically tied to parents' discipline practices were targeted. In addition, anger experienced during discipline episodes was considered a potential moderator of these cognitive processes. Using a largely multiple-indicator approach, a sample of 110 mothers reported on these cognitive and affective aspects that may occur when disciplining their children as well as responding to measures of parent-child aggression risk. Findings suggest that greater approval of parent-child aggression, negative perceptions of their child's behavior, and discipline attributions independently predicted parent-child aggression risk, with anger significantly interacting with mothers' perception of their child as more poorly behaved to exacerbate their parent-child aggression risk. Of the discipline attribution dimensions evaluated, mothers' sense of external locus of control and believing their child deserved their discipline were related to increase parent-child aggression risk. Future work is encouraged to comprehensively evaluate how cognitive and affective components contribute and interact to increase risk for parent-child aggression.

  8. Toward an online cognitive and emotional battery to predict treatment remission in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon E

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Evian Gordon,1 A John Rush,2 Donna M Palmer,3,4 Taylor A Braund,3 William Rekshan1 1Brain Resource, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Duke-NUS, Singapore; 3Brain Resource, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Brain Dynamics Center, Sydney Medical School – Westmead and Westmead Millennium Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a cognitive and emotional test battery in a representative sample of depressed outpatients to inform likelihood of remission over 8 weeks of treatment with each of three common antidepressant medications. Patients and methods: Outpatients 18–65 years old with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder (17 sites were randomized to escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine-XR (extended release. Participants scored ≥12 on the baseline 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology – Self-Report and completed 8 weeks of treatment. The baseline test battery measured cognitive and emotional status. Exploratory multivariate logistic regression models predicting remission (16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology – Self-Report score ≤5 at 8 weeks were developed independently for each medication in subgroups stratified by age, sex, or cognitive and emotional test performance. The model with the highest cross-validated accuracy determined the participant proportion in each arm for whom remission could be predicted with an accuracy ≥10% above chance. The proportion for whom a prediction could be made with very high certainty (positive predictive value and negative predictive value exceeding 80% was calculated by incrementally increasing test battery thresholds to predict remission/non-remission. Results: The test battery, individually developed for each medication, improved identification of remitting and non-remitting participants by ≥10% beyond chance for 243 of 467 participants. The overall remission rates were escitalopram: 40.8%, sertraline: 30.3%, and

  9. Baseline Vascular Cognitive Impairment Predicts the Course of Apathetic Symptoms After Stroke: The CASPER Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douven, Elles; Köhler, Sebastian; Schievink, Syenna H J; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Staals, Julie; Verhey, Frans R J; Aalten, Pauline

    2018-03-01

    To examine the influence of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) on the course of poststroke depression (PSD) and poststroke apathy (PSA). Included were 250 stroke patients who underwent neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric assessment 3 months after stroke (baseline) and at a 6- and 12-month follow-up after baseline. Linear mixed models tested the influence of VCI in at least one cognitive domain (any VCI) or multidomain VCI (VCI in multiple cognitive domains) at baseline and domain-specific VCI at baseline on levels of depression and apathy over time, with random effects for intercept and slope. Almost half of the patients showed any VCI at baseline, and any VCI was associated with increasing apathy levels from baseline to the 12-month follow-up. Patients with multidomain VCI had higher apathy scores at the 6- and 12-month follow-up compared with patients with VCI in a single cognitive domain. Domain-specific analyses showed that impaired executive function and slowed information processing speed went together with increasing apathy levels from baseline to 6- and 12-month follow-up. None of the cognitive variables predicted the course of depressive symptoms. Baseline VCI is associated with increasing apathy levels from baseline to the chronic stroke phase, whereas no association was found between baseline VCI and the course of depressive symptoms. Health professionals should be aware that apathy might be absent early after stroke but may evolve over time in patients with VCI. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Emotion, working memory task demands and individual differences predict behavior, cognitive effort and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Davidson, Nicole A; Dahl, Chelsea F; Blass, Sara; Yung, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether positive and negative affect motivates verbal and spatial working memory processes, respectively, which have implications for the expenditure of mental effort. We argue that when emotion promotes cognitive tendencies that are goal incompatible with task demands, greater cognitive effort is required to perform well. We sought to investigate whether this increase in cognitive effort impairs behavioural control over a broad domain of self-control tasks. Moreover, we predicted that individuals with higher behavioural inhibition system (BIS) sensitivities would report more negative affect within the goal incompatible conditions because such individuals report higher negative affect during cognitive challenge. Positive or negative affective states were induced followed by completing a verbal or spatial 2-back working memory task. All participants then completed one of three self-control tasks. Overall, we observed that conditions of emotion and working memory incompatibility (positive/spatial and negative/verbal) performed worse on the self-control tasks, and within the incompatible conditions individuals with higher BIS sensitivities reported more negative affect at the end of the study. The combination of findings suggests that emotion and working memory compatibility reduces cognitive effort and impairs behavioural control.

  11. The application of cognitive models to the evaluation and prediction of human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.; Reason, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    The first section of the paper provides a brief overview of a number of important principles relevant to human reliability modeling that have emerged from cognitive models, and presents a synthesis of these approaches in the form of a Generic Error Modeling System (GEMS). The next section illustrates the application of GEMS to some well known nuclear power plant (NPP) incidents in which human error was a major contributor. The way in which design recommendations can emerge from analyses of this type is illustrated. The third section describes the use of cognitive models in the classification of human errors for prediction and data collection purposes. The final section addresses the predictive modeling of human error as part of human reliability assessment in Probabilistic Risk Assessment

  12. Reliability, Validity, and Predictive Utility of the 25-Item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Furukawa, Emi; Kopelovich, Sarah; Meyer, Patrick; Cosby, Brandon

    2012-10-01

    Theory, research, and clinical reports suggest that moral cognitions play a role in initiating and sustaining criminal behavior. The 25 item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS) was designed to tap 5 dimensions: Notions of entitlement; Failure to Accept Responsibility; Short-Term Orientation; Insensitivity to Impact of Crime; and Negative Attitudes Toward Authority. Results from 552 jail inmates support the reliability, validity, and predictive utility of the measure. The CCS was linked to criminal justice system involvement, self-report measures of aggression, impulsivity, and lack of empathy. Additionally, the CCS was associated with violent criminal history, antisocial personality, and clinicians' ratings of risk for future violence and psychopathy (PCL:SV). Furthermore, criminogenic thinking upon incarceration predicted subsequent official reports of inmate misconduct during incarceration. CCS scores varied somewhat by gender and race. Research and applied uses of CCS are discussed.

  13. Prediction of cognitive and motor development in preterm children using exhaustive feature selection and cross-validation of near-term white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadl, Kornél; Vassar, Rachel; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Yeom, Kristin W; Stevenson, David K; Rose, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Advanced neuroimaging and computational methods offer opportunities for more accurate prognosis. We hypothesized that near-term regional white matter (WM) microstructure, assessed on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), using exhaustive feature selection with cross-validation would predict neurodevelopment in preterm children. Near-term MRI and DTI obtained at 36.6 ± 1.8 weeks postmenstrual age in 66 very-low-birth-weight preterm neonates were assessed. 60/66 had follow-up neurodevelopmental evaluation with Bayley Scales of Infant-Toddler Development, 3rd-edition (BSID-III) at 18-22 months. Linear models with exhaustive feature selection and leave-one-out cross-validation computed based on DTI identified sets of three brain regions most predictive of cognitive and motor function; logistic regression models were computed to classify high-risk infants scoring one standard deviation below mean. Cognitive impairment was predicted (100% sensitivity, 100% specificity; AUC = 1) by near-term right middle-temporal gyrus MD, right cingulate-cingulum MD, left caudate MD. Motor impairment was predicted (90% sensitivity, 86% specificity; AUC = 0.912) by left precuneus FA, right superior occipital gyrus MD, right hippocampus FA. Cognitive score variance was explained (29.6%, cross-validated Rˆ2 = 0.296) by left posterior-limb-of-internal-capsule MD, Genu RD, right fusiform gyrus AD. Motor score variance was explained (31.7%, cross-validated Rˆ2 = 0.317) by left posterior-limb-of-internal-capsule MD, right parahippocampal gyrus AD, right middle-temporal gyrus AD. Search in large DTI feature space more accurately identified neonatal neuroimaging correlates of neurodevelopment.

  14. Depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline and dementia in older people independently of cerebral white matter changes: the LADIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Moleiro, Carla; Ferro, José M; O'Brien, John T; Poggesi, Anna; Pantoni, Leonardo; Fazekas, Franz; Scheltens, Philip; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Inzitari, Domenico

    2013-11-01

    Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC). The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis And DISability in the elderly) prospective study evaluated the impact of WMC on the transition of independent older subjects into disability. Subjects were evaluated annually over a 3 year period with a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Previous episodes of depression and current DS were assessed during each interview. Severity of DS was assessed using the self-rated 15 item Geriatric Depression Scale. A neuropsychological battery and clinical criteria for cognitive impairments were applied in all clinical visits, and cognitive compound measures were made based on neuropsychological results. MRI was performed at baseline and at year 3. 639 subjects were included (74.1 ± 5 years old, 55% women, 9.6 ± 3.8 years of schooling). Dementia was diagnosed in 90 patients and cognitive impairment not dementia in 147 patients at the last clinical evaluation. DS were an independent predictor of cognitive impairment (dementia and not dementia) during follow-up, independent of the effect of the severity of WMC, medial temporal lobe atrophy, age, education or global cognitive function at baseline. DS are associated with an increase risk of cognitive decline, independent of the effect of WMC, probably due to an additive or synergistic effect. In this context, DS probably represent a subtle ongoing organic dysfunction.

  15. Cognitive functioning differentially predicts different dimensions of older drivers' on-road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steve W; Dawson, Jeffrey; Uc, Ergun; Rizzo, Matthew

    2015-02-01

    The extent to which deficits in specific cognitive domains contribute to older drivers' safety risk in complex real-world driving tasks is not well understood. We selected 148 drivers older than 70 years of age both with and without neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer disease-AD and Parkinson disease-PD) from an existing driving database of older adults. Participant assessments included on-road driving safety and cognitive functioning in visuospatial construction, speed of processing, memory, and executive functioning. The standardized on-road drive test was designed to examine multiple facets of older driver safety including navigation performance (e.g., following a route, identifying landmarks), safety errors while concurrently performing secondary navigation tasks ("on-task" safety errors), and safety errors in the absence of any secondary navigation tasks ("baseline" safety errors). The inter-correlations of these outcome measures were fair to moderate supporting their distinctiveness. Participants with diseases performed worse than the healthy aging group on all driving measures and differences between those with AD and PD were minimal. In multivariate analyses, different domains of cognitive functioning predicted distinct facets of driver safety on road. Memory and set-shifting predicted performance in navigation-related secondary tasks, speed of processing predicted on-task safety errors, and visuospatial construction predicted baseline safety errors. These findings support broad assessments of cognitive functioning to inform decisions regarding older driver safety on the road and suggest navigation performance may be useful in evaluating older driver fitness and restrictions in licensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. fMRI as a Preimplant Objective Tool to Predict Postimplant Oral Language Outcomes in Children with Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Aniruddha K; Tan, Lirong; Lu, Long J; Altaye, Mekibib; Holland, Scott K

    2016-01-01

    Despite the positive effects of cochlear implantation, postimplant variability in speech perception and oral language outcomes is still difficult to predict. The aim of this study was to identify neuroimaging biomarkers of postimplant speech perception and oral language performance in children with hearing loss who receive a cochlear implant. The authors hypothesized positive correlations between blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in brain regions related to auditory language processing and attention and scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition (CELF-P2) and the Early Speech Perception Test for Profoundly Hearing-Impaired Children (ESP), in children with congenital hearing loss. Eleven children with congenital hearing loss were recruited for the present study based on referral for clinical MRI and other inclusion criteria. All participants were stimulation. A voxel-based analysis technique was utilized to generate z maps showing significant contrast in brain activation between auditory stimulation conditions (spoken narratives and narrow band noise). CELF-P2 and ESP were administered 2 years after implantation. Because most participants reached a ceiling on ESP, a voxel-wise regression analysis was performed between preimplant fMRI activation and postimplant CELF-P2 scores alone. Age at implantation and preimplant hearing thresholds were controlled in this regression analysis. Four brain regions were found to be significantly correlated with CELF-P2 scores. These clusters of positive correlation encompassed the temporo-parieto-occipital junction, areas in the prefrontal cortex and the cingulate gyrus. For the story versus silence contrast, CELF-P2 core language score demonstrated significant positive correlation with activation in the right angular gyrus (r = 0.95), left medial frontal gyrus (r = 0.94), and left cingulate gyrus (r = 0.96). For the narrow band noise versus

  17. Cognitive training with and without additional physical activity in healthy older adults: cognitive effects, neurobiological mechanisms, and prediction of training success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eRahe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Data is inconsistent concerning the question whether cognitive-physical training (CPT yields stronger cognitive gains than cognitive training (CT. Effects of additional counseling, neurobiological mechanisms, and predictors have scarcely been studied. Healthy older adults were trained with CT (n=20, CPT (n=25, or CPT with counseling (CPT+C; n=23. Cognition, physical fitness, BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF were assessed at pre- and posttest. No interaction effects were found except for one effect showing that CPT+C led to stronger gains in verbal fluency than CPT (p = .03. However, this superiority could not be assigned to additional physical training gains. Low baseline cognitive performance and BDNF, not carrying apoE4, gains in physical fitness and the moderation of gains in physical fitness x gains in BDNF predicted training success. Although all types of interventions seem successful to enhance cognition, our data do not support the hypotheses that CPT shows superior cognitive training gains compared to CT or that CPT+C adds merit to CPT. However, as CPT leads to additional gains in physical fitness which in turn is known to have positive impact on cognition in the long-term, CPT seems more beneficial. Training success can partly be predicted by neuropsychological, neurobiological, and genetic parameters.http://www.who.int/ictrp; ID: DRKS00005194

  18. Aggression, emotional self-regulation, attentional bias, and cognitive inhibition predict risky driving behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Susan Raouf Hadadi; Tabibi, Zahra; Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Stavrinos, Despina

    2017-12-01

    The present study explored whether aggression, emotional regulation, cognitive inhibition, and attentional bias towards emotional stimuli were related to risky driving behavior (driving errors, and driving violations). A total of 117 applicants for taxi driver positions (89% male, M age=36.59years, SD=9.39, age range 24-62years) participated in the study. Measures included the Ahwaz Aggression Inventory, the Difficulties in emotion regulation Questionnaire, the emotional Stroop task, the Go/No-go task, and the Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses showed that aggression and emotional regulation predicted risky driving behavior. Difficulties in emotion regulation, the obstinacy and revengeful component of aggression, attentional bias toward emotional stimuli, and cognitive inhibition predicted driving errors. Aggression was the only significant predictive factor for driving violations. In conclusion, aggression and difficulties in regulating emotions may exacerbate risky driving behaviors. Deficits in cognitive inhibition and attentional bias toward negative emotional stimuli can increase driving errors. Predisposition to aggression has strong effect on making one vulnerable to violation of traffic rules and crashes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Location Prediction-Based Data Dissemination Using Swarm Intelligence in Opportunistic Cognitive Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarm intelligence is widely used in the application of communication networks. In this paper we adopt a biologically inspired strategy to investigate the data dissemination problem in the opportunistic cognitive networks (OCNs. We model the system as a centralized and distributed hybrid system including a location prediction server and a pervasive environment deploying the large-scale human-centric devices. To exploit such environment, data gathering and dissemination are fundamentally based on the contact opportunities. To tackle the lack of contemporaneous end-to-end connectivity in opportunistic networks, we apply ant colony optimization as a cognitive heuristic technology to formulate a self-adaptive dissemination-based routing scheme in opportunistic cognitive networks. This routing strategy has attempted to find the most appropriate nodes conveying messages to the destination node based on the location prediction information and intimacy between nodes, which uses the online unsupervised learning on geographical locations and the biologically inspired algorithm on the relationship of nodes to estimate the delivery probability. Extensive simulation is carried out on the real-world traces to evaluate the accuracy of the location prediction and the proposed scheme in terms of transmission cost, delivery ratio, average hops, and delivery latency, which achieves better routing performances compared to the typical routing schemes in OCNs.

  20. An index predictive of cognitive outcome in retired professional American Football players with a history of sports concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mathew J; Woo, Ellen; Birath, J Brandon; Siders, Craig A; Kelly, Daniel F; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Romero, Elizabeth; Kernan, Claudia; Cantu, Robert C; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Various concussion characteristics and personal factors are associated with cognitive recovery in athletes. We developed an index based on concussion frequency, severity, and timeframe, as well as cognitive reserve (CR), and we assessed its predictive power regarding cognitive ability in retired professional football players. Data from 40 retired professional American football players were used in the current study. On average, participants had been retired from football for 20 years. Current neuropsychological performances, indicators of CR, concussion history, and play data were used to create an index for predicting cognitive outcome. The sample displayed a range of concussions, concussion severities, seasons played, CR, and cognitive ability. Many of the participants demonstrated cognitive deficits. The index strongly predicted global cognitive ability (R(2) = .31). The index also predicted the number of areas of neuropsychological deficit, which varied as a function of the deficit classification system used (Heaton: R(2) = .15; Wechsler: R(2) = .28). The current study demonstrated that a unique combination of CR, sports concussion, and game-related data can predict cognitive outcomes in participants who had been retired from professional American football for an average of 20 years. Such indices may prove to be useful for clinical decision making and research.

  1. CSF abnormalities can be predicted by VEP and MRI pathology in the examination of optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Matilda Degn; Nielsen, Signe Modvig; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2012-01-01

    be valuable in the evaluation of patients with ON. We analyzed CSF findings in patients referred with ON in the context of MRI and visual evoked potential (VEP) pathology. We assessed the possible contributory role of a lumbar puncture and weigh this against disadvantages of the procedure. Between February...... causes of their symptoms and patients with >3 months between onset and tests were excluded. All files were reviewed retrospectively. CSF leukocytes and the IgG index were elevated in 33 and 41 %, respectively, and OCBs were detected in 61 % of patients. CSF abnormalities correlated strongly with VEP...

  2. Gender Differences in Performance Predictions: Evidence from the Cognitive Reflection Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Patrick; Neyse, Levent; David-Barett, Tamas; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies performance predictions in the 7-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) and whether they differ by gender. After participants completed the CRT, they predicted their own (i), the other participants' (ii), men's (iii), and women's (iv) number of correct answers. In keeping with existing literature, men scored higher on the CRT than women and both men and women were too optimistic about their own performance. When we compare gender-specific predictions, we observe that men think they perform significantly better than other men and do so significantly more than women. The equality between women's predictions about their own performance and their female peers cannot be rejected. Our findings contribute to the growing literature on the underpinnings of behavior in economics and in psychology by uncovering gender differences in confidence about one's ability relative to same and opposite sex peers.

  3. Gender Differences in Performance Predictions: Evidence from the Cognitive Reflection Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ring

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies performance predictions in the 7-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT and whether they differ by gender. After participants completed the CRT, they predicted their own (i, the other participants’ (ii, men’s (iii, and women’s (iv number of correct answers. In keeping with existing literature, men scored higher on the CRT than women and both men and women were too optimistic about their own performance. When we compare gender-specific predictions, we observe that men think they perform significantly better than other men and do so significantly more than women. The equality between women’s predictions about their own performance and their female peers cannot be rejected. Our findings contribute to the growing literature on the underpinnings of behavior in economics and in psychology by uncovering gender differences in confidence about one’s ability relative to same and opposite sex peers.

  4. Predictive factors for new onset or progression of knee osteoarthritis one year after trauma: MRI follow-up in general practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, Ingrid M.; Oei, Edwin H.G.; Hunink, M.G.M.; Hensen, Jan-Hein J.; Vroegindeweij, Dammis; Boks, Simone S.; Koes, Bart W.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M.A.

    2011-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate prognostic factors for new onset or progression of degenerative change on follow-up MRI one year after knee trauma and the association with clinical outcome. Within a prospective observational cohort study in general practice, we studied a subgroup of 117 patients with acute knee trauma (mean age 41 years, 43% women). Degenerative change was scored on MRI at baseline and after one year follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for new onset or progressive degenerative change on follow-up MRI. Association between new or progressive degeneration and clinical outcome after one year was assessed. On follow-up MRI 15% of patients with pre-existing knee osteoarthritis showed progression and 26% of patients demonstrated new degenerative change. The only statistically significant prognostic variable in the multivariate analysis was bone marrow oedema on initial MRI (OR 5.29 (95% CI 1.64-17.1), p = 0.005). A significant association between new or progressive degenerative change and clinical outcome was found (p = 0.003). Bone marrow oedema on MRI for acute knee injury is strongly predictive of new onset or progression of degenerative change of the femorotibial joint on follow-up MRI one year after trauma, which is reflected in clinical outcome. (orig.)

  5. Predictive factors for new onset or progression of knee osteoarthritis one year after trauma: MRI follow-up in general practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koster, Ingrid M. [Maasstad Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Postbus 9100, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Oei, Edwin H.G.; Hunink, M.G.M. [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Program for the Assessment of Radiological Technology (ART Program), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Epidemiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hensen, Jan-Hein J.; Vroegindeweij, Dammis [Maasstad Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Postbus 9100, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Boks, Simone S. [Maasstad Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Postbus 9100, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Epidemiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Koes, Bart W.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M.A. [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Department of General Practice, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    To prospectively evaluate prognostic factors for new onset or progression of degenerative change on follow-up MRI one year after knee trauma and the association with clinical outcome. Within a prospective observational cohort study in general practice, we studied a subgroup of 117 patients with acute knee trauma (mean age 41 years, 43% women). Degenerative change was scored on MRI at baseline and after one year follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for new onset or progressive degenerative change on follow-up MRI. Association between new or progressive degeneration and clinical outcome after one year was assessed. On follow-up MRI 15% of patients with pre-existing knee osteoarthritis showed progression and 26% of patients demonstrated new degenerative change. The only statistically significant prognostic variable in the multivariate analysis was bone marrow oedema on initial MRI (OR 5.29 (95% CI 1.64-17.1), p = 0.005). A significant association between new or progressive degenerative change and clinical outcome was found (p = 0.003). Bone marrow oedema on MRI for acute knee injury is strongly predictive of new onset or progression of degenerative change of the femorotibial joint on follow-up MRI one year after trauma, which is reflected in clinical outcome. (orig.)

  6. Pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of cervical cancers predict chemoradiotherapy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Erlend K.F.; Hole, Knut Håkon; Lund, Kjersti V.; Sundfør, Kolbein; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Lyng, Heidi; Malinen, Eirik

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of pharmacokinetic parameters derived from pre-chemoradiotherapy dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) of cervical cancer patients. Materials and methods: Seventy-eight patients with locally advanced cervical cancer underwent DCE-MRI with Gd-DTPA before chemoradiotherapy. The pharmacokinetic Brix and Tofts models were fitted to contrast enhancement curves in all tumor voxels, providing histograms of several pharmacokinetic parameters (Brix: A Brix , k ep , k el , Tofts: K trans , ν e ). A percentile screening approach including log-rank survival tests was undertaken to identify the clinically most relevant part of the intratumoral parameter distribution. Clinical endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and locoregional control (LRC). Multivariate analysis including FIGO stage and tumor volume was used to assess the prognostic significance of the imaging parameters. Results: A Brix , k el , and K trans were significantly (P e was significantly positively correlated with PFS only. k ep showed no association with any endpoint. A Brix was positively correlated with K trans and ν e , and showed the strongest association with endpoint in the log-rank testing. k el and K trans were independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis with LRC as endpoint. Conclusions: Parameters estimated by pharmacokinetic analysis of DCE-MR images obtained prior to chemoradiotherapy may be used for identifying patients at risk of treatment failure

  7. Heart MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  8. Cognitive and social processes predicting partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Ostroff, Jamie; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Winkel, Gary

    2009-02-01

    The diagnosis and subsequent treatment for early stage breast cancer is stressful for partners. Little is known about the role of cognitive and social processes predicting the longitudinal course of partners' psychosocial adaptation. This study evaluated the role of cognitive and social processing in partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer, evaluating both main and moderator effect models. Moderating effects for meaning making, acceptance, and positive reappraisal on the predictive association of searching for meaning, emotional processing, and emotional expression on partner psychological distress were examined. Partners of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer were evaluated shortly after the ill partner's diagnosis (N=253), 9 (N=167), and 18 months (N=149) later. Partners completed measures of emotional expression, emotional processing, acceptance, meaning making, and general and cancer-specific distress at all time points. Lower satisfaction with partner support predicted greater global distress, and greater use of positive reappraisal was associated with greater distress. The predicted moderator effects for found meaning on the associations between the search for meaning and cancer-specific distress were found and similar moderating effects for positive reappraisal on the associations between emotional expression and global distress and for acceptance on the association between emotional processing and cancer-specific distress were found. Results indicate several cognitive-social processes directly predict partner distress. However, moderator effect models in which the effects of partners' processing depends upon whether these efforts result in changes in perceptions of the cancer experience may add to the understanding of partners' adaptation to cancer.

  9. Predictive values of BI-RADS{sup ®} magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badan, Gustavo Machado, E-mail: gustavobadan@hotmail.com [Breast Imaging Service of Radiology Depatment—Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Piato, Sebastião [Mastology Division—Gynecology and Obstetrics Department (Brazil); Roveda, Décio; Faria Castro Fleury, Eduardo de [Breast Imaging Service of Radiology Depatment—Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate BI-RADS indicators in the detection of DCIS by MRI. Materials and methods: Prospective observational study that started in 2014 and lasted 24 months. A total of 110 consecutive patients were evaluated, who presented with suspicious or highly suspicious microcalcifications on screening mammography (BI-RADS categories 4 and 5) and underwent stereotactic-guided breast biopsy, having had an MRI scan performed prior to biopsy. Results: Altogether, 38 cases were characterized as positive for malignancy, of which 25 were DCIS and 13 were invasive ductal carcinoma cases. MRI had a sensitivity of 96%; specificity of 75.67%; positive predictive value (PPV) for DCIS detection of 57.14%; negative predictive value (NPV) in the detection of DCIS of 98.24%; and an accuracy of 80.80%. Conclusion: BI-RADS as a tool for the detection of DCIS by MRI is a powerful instrument whose sensitivity was higher when compared to that observed for mammography in the literature. Likewise, the PPV obtained by MRI was higher than that observed in the present study for mammography, and the high NPV obtained on MRI scans can provide early evidence to discourage breast biopsy in selected cases.

  10. An Unobtrusive System to Measure, Assess, and Predict Cognitive Workload in Real-World Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bethany K.; Palmon, Noa; Elkin-Frankston, Seth; Irvin, Scott; Jenkins, Michael; Farry, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Across many careers, individuals face alternating periods of high and low attention and cognitive workload, which can result in impaired cognitive functioning and can be detrimental to job performance. For example, some professions (e.g., fire fighters, emergency medical personnel, doctors and nurses working in an emergency room, pilots) require long periods of low workload (boredom), followed by sudden, high-tempo operations during which they may be required to respond to an emergency and perform at peak cognitive levels. Conversely, other professions (e.g., air traffic controllers, market investors in financial industries, analysts) require long periods of high workload and multitasking during which the addition of just one more task results in cognitive overload resulting in mistakes. An unobtrusive system to measure, assess, and predict cognitive workload could warn individuals, their teammates, or their supervisors when steps should be taken to augment cognitive readiness. In this talk I will describe an approach to this problem that we have found to be successful across work domains including: (1) a suite of unobtrusive, field-ready neurophysiological, physiological, and behavioral sensors that are chosen to best suit the target environment; (2) custom algorithms and statistical techniques to process and time-align raw data originating from the sensor suite; (3) probabilistic and statistical models designed to interpret the data into the human state of interest (e.g., cognitive workload, attention, fatigue); (4) and machine-learning techniques to predict upcoming performance based on the current pattern of events, and (5) display of each piece of information depending on the needs of the target user who may or may not want to drill down into the functioning of the system to determine how conclusions about human state and performance are determined. I will then focus in on our experimental results from our custom functional near-infrared spectroscopy sensor

  11. Pretreatment Diffusion-Weighted MRI Can Predict the Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To explore the potential of diffusion-weighted (DW magnetic resonance imaging (MRI using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC for predicting the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. Methods and Materials. Ninety-two consecutive patients with NPC who underwent three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. DW and anatomical MRI were performed before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radiotherapy. Pretreatment ADCs and percentage increases in ADC after chemotherapy were calculated for the primary lesions and metastatic adenopathies. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to select optimal pretreatment ADCs. Results. Pretreatment mean ADCs were significantly lower for responders than for nonresponders (primary lesions, P=0.012; metastatic adenopathies, P=0.013. Mean percentage increases in ADC were higher for responders than for nonresponders (primary lesions, P=0.008; metastatic adenopathies, P<0.001. The optimal pretreatment primary lesion and metastatic adenopathy ADCs for differentiating responders from nonresponders were 0.897 × 10−3 mm2/sec and 1.031 × 10−3 mm2/sec, respectively. Conclusions. NPC patients with low pretreatment ADCs tend to respond better to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Pretreatment ADCs could be used as a new pretreatment imaging biomarker of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  12. The predictive value of measures of social cognition for community functioning in schizophrenia : Implications for neuropsychological assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G.H M; Withaar, F.K.; Evans, J.J; van den Bosch, R.J.; Timmerman, M.E.; Brouwer, W.H.

    The objective of this study was to examine the unique contribution of social cognition to the prediction of community functioning and to explore the relevance of social cognition for clinical practice. Forty-six schizophrenia patients and 53 healthy controls were assessed with tests of social

  13. The influence of combined cognitive plus social-cognitive training on amygdala response during face emotion recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I; Bruce, Lori; Fisher, Melissa; Verosky, Sara C; Miyakawa, Asako; D'Esposito, Mark; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2013-08-30

    Both cognitive and social-cognitive deficits impact functional outcome in schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation studies indicate that targeted cognitive and/or social-cognitive training improves behavioral performance on trained skills. However, the neural effects of training in schizophrenia and their relation to behavioral gains are largely unknown. This study tested whether a 50-h intervention which included both cognitive and social-cognitive training would influence neural mechanisms that support social ccognition. Schizophrenia participants completed a computer-based intervention of either auditory-based cognitive training (AT) plus social-cognition training (SCT) (N=11) or non-specific computer games (CG) (N=11). Assessments included a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task of facial emotion recognition, and behavioral measures of cognition, social cognition, and functional outcome. The fMRI results showed the predicted group-by-time interaction. Results were strongest for emotion recognition of happy, surprise and fear: relative to CG participants, AT+SCT participants showed a neural activity increase in bilateral amygdala, right putamen and right medial prefrontal cortex. Across all participants, pre-to-post intervention neural activity increase in these regions predicted behavioral improvement on an independent emotion perception measure (MSCEIT: Perceiving Emotions). Among AT+SCT participants alone, neural activity increase in right amygdala predicted behavioral improvement in emotion perception. The findings indicate that combined cognition and social-cognition training improves neural systems that support social-cognition skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. How coping styles, cognitive distortions, and attachment predict problem gambling among adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Filipa; Alexandre, Joana; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Recent research suggests that youth problem gambling is associated with several factors, but little is known how these factors might influence or interact each other in predicting this behavior. Consequently, this is the first study to examine the mediation effect of coping styles in the relationship between attachment to parental figures and problem gambling. Methods A total of 988 adolescents and emerging adults were recruited to participate. The first set of analyses tested the adequacy of a model comprising biological, cognitive, and family variables in predicting youth problem gambling. The second set of analyses explored the relationship between family and individual variables in problem gambling behavior. Results The results of the first set of analyses demonstrated that the individual factors of gender, cognitive distortions, and coping styles showed a significant predictive effect on youth problematic gambling, and the family factors of attachment and family structure did not reveal a significant influence on this behavior. The results of the second set of analyses demonstrated that the attachment dimension of angry distress exerted a more indirect influence on problematic gambling, through emotion-focused coping style. Discussion This study revealed that some family variables can have a more indirect effect on youth gambling behavior and provided some insights in how some factors interact in predicting problem gambling. Conclusion These findings suggest that youth gambling is a multifaceted phenomenon, and that the indirect effects of family variables are important in estimating the complex social forces that might influence adolescent decisions to gamble.

  15. Statistical learning and probabilistic prediction in music cognition: mechanisms of stylistic enculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Marcus T

    2018-05-11

    Music perception depends on internal psychological models derived through exposure to a musical culture. It is hypothesized that this musical enculturation depends on two cognitive processes: (1) statistical learning, in which listeners acquire internal cognitive models of statistical regularities present in the music to which they are exposed; and (2) probabilistic prediction based on these learned models that enables listeners to organize and process their mental representations of music. To corroborate these hypotheses, I review research that uses a computational model of probabilistic prediction based on statistical learning (the information dynamics of music (IDyOM) model) to simulate data from empirical studies of human listeners. The results show that a broad range of psychological processes involved in music perception-expectation, emotion, memory, similarity, segmentation, and meter-can be understood in terms of a single, underlying process of probabilistic prediction using learned statistical models. Furthermore, IDyOM simulations of listeners from different musical cultures demonstrate that statistical learning can plausibly predict causal effects of differential cultural exposure to musical styles, providing a quantitative model of cultural distance. Understanding the neural basis of musical enculturation will benefit from close coordination between empirical neuroimaging and computational modeling of underlying mechanisms, as outlined here. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Conflict adaptation is predicted by the cognitive, but not the affective alexithymia dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel ede Galan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stimulus-induced response conflict (e.g., in Simon or Stroop tasks is often reduced after conflict trials—the Gratton effect. It is generally assumed that this effect is due to a strengthening of the representation of the current intention or goal, which in turn increases the degree of stimulus and/or response control. Recent evidence suggests that the motivational signal driving the Gratton effect might be affective in nature. If so, individual differences in either the strength of affective signals and/or the ability to interpret such signals might explain individual differences in cognitive-control adjustments as reflected in the Gratton effect. We tested this hypothesis by relating individual sizes of the Gratton effect in a Simon task to scores on the affective and the cognitive dimension of the Bermond/Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ—which we assumed to assess individual differences in affective-signal strength and ability to interpret affective signals, respectively. Results show that the cognitive, but not the affective dimension predicted control adjustment, while the accuracy of heartbeat detection was only (and only weakly related to online control. This suggests that the motivation to fine-tune one’s cognitive-control operations is mediated by, and may depend on one’s ability to interpret one’s own affective signals.

  17. Cognitive declines precede and predict functional declines in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B Zahodne

    Full Text Available To investigate the temporal ordering of cognitive and functional declines separately in older adults with or without Alzheimer's disease (AD.A community-based longitudinal study of aging and dementia in Northern Manhattan (Washington Heights/Hamilton Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project and a multicenter, clinic-based longitudinal study of prevalent AD at Columbia University Medical Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Hôpital de la Salpêtrière in Paris, France (the Predictors Study.3,443 initially non-demented older adults (612 with eventual incident dementia and 517 patients with AD.Cognitive measures included the modified Mini-Mental State Exam and composite scores of memory and language derived from a standardized neuropsychological battery. Function was measured with the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, completed by the participant (in the sample of non-demented older adults or an informant (in the sample of prevalent AD patients. Data were analyzed with autoregressive cross-lagged panel analysis.Cognitive scores more consistently predicted subsequent functional abilities than vice versa in non-demented older adults, participants with eventual incident dementia, and patients with prevalent AD.Cognitive declines appear to precede and cause functional declines prior to and following dementia diagnosis. Standardized neuropsychological tests are valid predictors of later functional changes in both non-demented and demented older adults.

  18. Value of quantitative MRI parameters in predicting and evaluating clinical outcome in conservatively treated patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsehaie, J; Poot, D H J; Oei, E H G; Verhaar, J A N; de Vos, R J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate whether baseline MRI parameters provide prognostic value for clinical outcome, and to study correlation between MRI parameters and clinical outcome. Observational prospective cohort study. Patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy were included and performed a 16-week eccentric calf-muscle exercise program. Outcome measurements were the validated Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaire and MRI parameters at baseline and after 24 weeks. The following MRI parameters were assessed: tendon volume (Volume), tendon maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), tendon maximum anterior-posterior diameter (AP), and signal intensity (SI). Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and minimum detectable changes (MDCs) for each parameter were established in a reliability analysis. Twenty-five patients were included and complete follow-up was achieved in 20 patients. The average VISA-A scores increased significantly with 12.3 points (27.6%). The reliability was fair-good for all MRI-parameters with ICCs>0.50. Average tendon volume and CSA decreased significantly with 0.28cm 3 (5.2%) and 4.52mm 2 (4.6%) respectively. Other MRI parameters did not change significantly. None of the baseline MRI parameters were univariately associated with VISA-A change after 24 weeks. MRI SI increase over 24 weeks was positively correlated with the VISA-A score improvement (B=0.7, R 2 =0.490, p=0.02). Tendon volume and CSA decreased significantly after 24 weeks of conservative treatment. As these differences were within the MDC limits, they could be a result of a measurement error. Furthermore, MRI parameters at baseline did not predict the change in symptoms, and therefore have no added value in providing a prognosis in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive impairment as assessed by a short form of MMSE was predictive of mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Kreiner, Svend

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study explores the association between cognitive impairment and mortality in late senescence. A specific purpose was to validate the ability of a short form of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in predicting mortality. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The cognition-mortality link,...... chronic diseases and mortality. A short, valid MMSE subscale, which was a powerful predictor of mortality especially among men, is attractive for research and clinical practice......., as assessed by the original MMSE and D-MMSE (a subscale associated to dementia) was estimated on a community sample of 1,111 older people using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Impaired cognitive function as assessed by both the original MMSE and D-MMSE predicted mortality in older men and women over...... long intervals. The association persisted after controlling for sociodemographic variables, Body Mass Index, mobility, and comorbidity and was unaffected by self-reported specific chronic diseases in both men and women. In addition, disease related risk of mortality was substantially reduced...

  20. Future Cognitive Ability: US IQ Prediction until 2060 Based on NAEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The US National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) measures cognitive competences in reading and mathematics of US students (last 2012 survey N = 50,000). The long-term development based on results from 1971 to 2012 allows a prediction of future cognitive trends. For predicting US averages also demographic trends have to be considered. The largest groups’ (White) average of 1978/80 was set at M = 100 and SD = 15 and was used as a benchmark. Based on two past NAEP development periods for 17-year-old students, 1978/80 to 2012 (more optimistic) and 1992 to 2012 (more pessimistic), and demographic projections from the US Census Bureau, cognitive trends until 2060 for the entire age cohort and ethnic groups were estimated. Estimated population averages for 2060 are 103 (optimistic) or 102 (pessimistic). The average rise per decade is dec = 0.76 or 0.45 IQ points. White-Black and White-Hispanic gaps are declining by half, Asian-White gaps treble. The catch-up of minorities (their faster ability growth) contributes around 2 IQ to the general rise of 3 IQ; however, their larger demographic increase reduces the general rise at about the similar amount (-1.4 IQ). Because minorities with faster ability growth also rise in their population proportion the interactive term is positive (around 1 IQ). Consequences for economic and societal development are discussed. PMID:26460731

  1. Urinary Neurotransmitters Are Selectively Altered in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Predict Cognitive Morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; McManus, Corena J. T.; Kellermann, Gottfried H.; Samiei, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cognitive dysfunction, suggesting altered neurotransmitter function. We explored overnight changes in neurotransmitters in the urine of children with and without OSA. Methods: Urine samples were collected from children with OSA and from control subjects before and after sleep studies. A neurocognitive battery assessing general cognitive ability (GCA) was administered to a subset of children with OSA. Samples were subjected to multiple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for 12 neurotransmitters, and adjusted for creatinine concentrations. Results: The study comprised 50 children with OSA and 20 control subjects. Of the children with OSA, 20 had normal GCA score (mean ± SD) (101.2 ± 14.5) and 16 had a reduced GCA score (87.3 ± 13.9; P neurotransmitters enabled prediction of OSA (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.923; P neurotransmitters in urine may not only predict OSA but also the presence of cognitive deficits. Larger cohort studies appear warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:23306904

  2. The role of socio-cognitive variables in predicting learning satisfaction in smart schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Firoozi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the role of Socio-Cognitive variables in predicting learning satisfaction in Smart Schools. The population was all the primary school students studying in smart schools in the city of Shiraz in the school year 2014-2015. The sample, randomly chosen through multi-stage cluster sampling, was 383 primary school students studying in smart schools in Shiraz. The instruments were the Computer Self-Efficiency Questionnaire developed by Torkzadeh (2003, Performance Expectation Questionnaire developed by Compeau and Higgins (1995, System Functionality and Content Feature Questionnaire developed by Pituch and Lee (2006, Interaction Questionnaire developed by Johnston, Killion and Oomen (2005, Learning Climate Questionnaire developed by Chou` and Liu (2005 and Learning Satisfaction Questionnaire developed by Chou and Liu (2005. In order to determine the possible relationship between variables and to predict the changes in the degree of satisfaction, we made use of correlational procedures and step-wise regression analysis. The results indicated that all the socio-cognitive variables have a positive and significant correlation with learning satisfaction. Out of the socio-cognitive variables in question, Computer Self-Efficiency, Performance Expectation and Learning Climate significantly explained 53% of the variance of learning satisfaction.

  3. The Role of Socio-Cognitive Variables in Predicting Learning Satisfaction in Smart Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza FIROOZI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the role of Socio-Cognitive variables in predicting learning satisfaction in Smart Schools. The population was all the primary school students studying in smart schools in the city of Shiraz in the school year 2014-2015. The sample, randomly chosen through multi-stage cluster sampling, was 383 primary school students studying in smart schools in Shiraz. The instruments were the Computer Self-Efficiency Questionnaire developed by Torkzadeh (2003, Performance Expectation Questionnaire developed by Compeau and Higgins (1995, System Functionality and Content Feature Questionnaire developed by Pituch and Lee (2006, Interaction Questionnaire developed by Johnston, Killion and Oomen (2005, Learning Climate Questionnaire developed by Chou` and Liu (2005 and Learning Satisfaction Questionnaire developed by Chou and Liu (2005. In order to determine the possible relationship between variables and to predict the changes in the degree of satisfaction, we made use of correlational procedures and step-wise regression analysis. The results indicated that all the socio-cognitive variables have a positive and significant correlation with learning satisfaction. Out of the socio-cognitive variables in question, Computer Self-Efficiency, Performance Expectation and Learning Climate significantly explained 53% of the variance of learning satisfaction.

  4. Cognitive Components Predict Virtual Reality-Induced Analgesia: Repeated Measures in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naor Demeter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR is an advanced and useful technology in the distraction from pain. The efficacy of VR for reducing pain is well established. Yet, the literature analyzing the unique attributes of VR which impact pain reduction is scarce. The present study evaluated the effect of two VR environments on experimental pain levels. Both VR environments are games used with an EyeToy application which is part of the video capture VR family. The VR environments were analyzed by expert occupational therapists using a method of activity analysis, allowing for a thorough evaluation of the VR activity performance requirements. The VR environments were found to differ in the cognitive load (CL demands they apply upon subjects. Sixty-two healthy students underwent psychophysical thermal pain tests, followed by exposure to tonic heat stimulation under one of three conditions: Low CL (LCL VR, high CL (HCL VR, and control. In addition, following participation in VR, the subjects completed a self-feedback inventory evaluating their experience in VR. The results showed significantly greater pain reduction during both VR conditions compared to the control condition (p = 0.001. Hierarchical regression revealed cognitive components which were evaluated in the self-feedback inventory to be predictive factors for pain reduction only during the high cognitive load (HCL VR environment (20.2%. CL involved in VR may predict the extent of pain decrease, a finding that should be considered in future clinical and laboratory research.

  5. Temperament and parenting predicting anxiety change in cognitive behavioral therapy: The role of mothers, fathers, and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, H.; Hartman, C.A.; Hogendoorn, S.M.; de Haan, E.; Prins, P.J.M.; Reichart, C.G.; Moorlag, H.; Nauta, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A considerable amount of children with anxiety disorders do not benefit sufficiently from cognitive behavioral treatment. The present study examines the predictive role of child temperament, parent temperament and parenting style in the context of treatment outcome. Method: Participants

  6. Temperament and parenting predicting anxiety change in cognitive behavioral therapy : The role of mothers, fathers, and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, H.; Hartman, C.A.; Hogendoorn, S.; de Haan, E.; Prins, P.J.M.; Reichart, C.G.; Moorlag, H.; Nauta, M.H.

    Objective: A considerable amount of children with anxiety disorders do not benefit sufficiently from cognitive behavioral treatment. The present study examines the predictive role of child temperament, parent temperament and parenting style in the context of treatment outcome. Method: Participants

  7. Frontal responses during learning predict vulnerability to the psychotogenic effects of ketamine : Linking cognition, brain activity, and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corlett, Philip R.; Honey, Garry D.; Aitken, Michael R. F.; Dickinson, Anthony; Shanks, David R.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Lee, Michael; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Murray, Graham K.; McKenna, Peter J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    Context: Establishing a neurobiological account of delusion formation that links cognitive processes, brain activity, and symptoms is important to furthering our understanding of psychosis. Objective: To explore a theoretical model of delusion formation that implicates prediction error - dependent

  8. Predicting Cognitive, Functional, and Diagnostic Change over 4 Years Using Baseline Subjective Cognitive Complaints in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Melissa J; Sachdev, Perminder S; Kochan, Nicole A; Woolf, Claudia; Crawford, John D; Giskes, Katrina; Reppermund, Simone; Trollor, Julian N; Draper, Brian; Delbaere, Kim; Brodaty, Henry

    2015-09-01

    There is limited understanding of the usefulness of subjective cognitive complaint(s) (SCC) in predicting longitudinal outcome because most studies focus solely on memory (as opposed to nonmemory cognitive) complaints, do not collect data from both participants and informants, do not control for relevant covariates, and have limited outcome measures. Therefore the authors investigate the usefulness of participant and informant SCCs in predicting change in cognition, functional abilities, and diagnostic classification of mild cognitive impairment or dementia in a community-dwelling sample over 4 years. Nondemented participants (N = 620) in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study aged between 70 and 90 years completed 15 memory and 9 nonmemory SCC questions. An informant completed a baseline questionnaire that included 15 memory and 4 nonmemory SCC questions relating to the participant. Neuropsychological, functional, and diagnostic assessments were carried out at baseline and again at 4-year follow-up. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were carried out to determine the association between SCC indices and neuropsychological, functional, and diagnostic data while controlling for psychological measures. Once participant characteristics were controlled for, participant complaints were generally not predictive of cognitive or functional decline, although participant memory-specific complaints were predictive of diagnostic conversion. Informant-related memory questions were associated with global cognitive and functional decline and with diagnostic conversion over 4 years. Informant memory complaint questions were better than participant complaints in predicting cognitive and functional decline as well as diagnoses over 4 years. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between brain function (aEEG) and brain structure (MRI) and their predictive value for neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüning, Britta; Storbeck, Tobias; Bruns, Nora; Dransfeld, Frauke; Hobrecht, Julia; Karpienski, Julia; Sirin, Selma; Schweiger, Bernd; Weiss, Christel; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Müller, Hanna

    2018-05-22

    To improve the prediction of neurodevelopmental outcome in very preterm infants, this study used the combination of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) within the first 72 h of life and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term equivalent age. A single-center cohort of 38 infants born before 32 weeks of gestation was subjected to both investigations. Structural measurements were performed on MRI. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify independent factors including functional and structural brain measurements associated with outcome at a corrected age of 24 months. aEEG parameters significantly correlated with MRI measurements. Reduced deep gray matter volume was associated with low Burdjalov Score on day 3 (p neurodevelopmental outcome: intraventricular hemorrhage (p = 0.0060) and interhemispheric distance (p = 0.0052) for mental developmental index; Burdjalov Score day 1 (p = 0.0201) and interhemispheric distance (p = 0.0142) for psychomotor developmental index. Functional aEEG parameters were associated with altered brain maturation on MRI. The combination of aEEG and MRI contributes to the prediction of outcome at 24 months. What is Known: • Prematurity remains a risk factor for impaired neurodevelopment. • aEEG is used to measure brain activity in preterm infants and cranial MRI is performed to identify struc