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Sample records for mrc dash study

  1. DASH for asthma: A pilot study of the DASH diet in not-well-controlled adult asthma⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Strub, Peg; Lavori, Phillip W.; Buist, A. Sonia; Camargo, Carlos A.; Nadeau, Kari C.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Xiao, Lan

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study aims to provide effect size confidence intervals, clinical trial and intervention feasibility data, and procedural materials for a full-scale randomized controlled trial that will determine the efficacy of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) as adjunct therapy to standard care for adults with uncontrolled asthma. The DASH diet encompasses foods (e.g., fresh fruit, vegetables, and nuts) and antioxidant nutrients (e.g., vitamins A, C, E, and zinc) with potential benefits for persons with asthma, but it is unknown whether the whole diet is beneficial. Participants (n = 90) will be randomized to receive usual care alone or combined with a DASH intervention consisting of 8 group and 3 individual sessions during the first 3 months, followed by at least monthly phone consultations for another 3 months. Follow-up assessments will occur at 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome measure is the 7-item Juniper Asthma Control Questionnaire, a validated composite measure of daytime and nocturnal symptoms, activity limitations, rescue medication use, and percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second. We will explore changes in inflammatory markers important to asthma pathophysiology (e.g., fractional exhaled nitric oxide) and their potential to mediate the intervention effect on disease control. We will also conduct pre-specified subgroup analyses by genotype (e.g., polymorphisms on the glutathione S transferase gene) and phenotype (e.g., atopy, obesity). By evaluating a dietary pattern approach to improving asthma control, this study could advance the evidence base for refining clinical guidelines and public health recommendations regarding the role of dietary modifications in asthma management. PMID:23648395

  2. Comparative cytotoxicity study of nicotine and cotinine on MRC-5 cell line

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    Ana-Maria Vlasceanu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine has several health hazards regarding carcinogenic potential. It also imparts increased risk for respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal disorders. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the carcinogenic potential, including effects on cell proliferation, inducing oxidative stress, DNA mutation, or inhibition of apoptosis. The cotinine metabolite is generally thought to have effects similar to nicotine in some experimental systems. The purpose of this study was to assess the nicotine and cotinine cytotoxicity on MRC-5 lung fibroblasts. The pulmonary fibroblasts were treated with various concentrations of nicotine or cotinine (in the range 1 µM – 2 mM for 24 or 48 h and analyzed for cell viability by MTT test. The results indicated that high nicotine concentrations (2 mM induced marked cell death (about 50% in MRC-5 cell line. Cotinine showed lower toxicity than nicotine on the MRC-5 cells. In contrast to nicotine treatment, cells treated with cotinine continued to proliferate after the 48h incubation period.

  3. DASH Eating Plan

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    ... Approaches to Stop Hypertension. It is an eating plan that is based on research studies sponsored by ... risk of getting heart disease. The DASH eating plan Emphasizes vegetables, fruits, and whole-grains Includes fat- ...

  4. Attrition and bias in the MRC cognitive function and ageing study: an epidemiological investigation

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    Matthews Fiona E

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Any hypothesis in longitudinal studies may be affected by attrition and poor response rates. The MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing study (MRC CFAS is a population based longitudinal study in five centres with identical methodology in England and Wales each recruiting approximately 2,500 individuals. This paper aims to identify potential biases in the two-year follow-up interviews. Methods Initial non-response: Those not in the baseline interviews were compared in terms of mortality to those who were in the baseline interviews at the time of the second wave interviews (1993–1996. Longitudinal attrition: Logistic regression analysis was used to examine baseline differences between individuals who took part in the two-year longitudinal wave compared with those who did not. Results Initial non-response: Individuals who moved away after sampling but before baseline interview were 1.8 times more likely to die by two years (95% Confidence interval(CI 1.3–2.4 compared to respondents, after adjusting for age. The refusers had a slightly higher, but similar mortality pattern to responders (Odds ratio 1.2, 95%CI 1.1–1.4. Longitudinal attrition: Predictors for drop out due to death were being older, male, having impaired activities of daily living, poor self-perceived health, poor cognitive ability and smoking. Similarly individuals who refused were more likely to have poor cognitive ability, but had less years of full-time education and were more often living in their own home though less likely to be living alone. There was a higher refusal rate in the rural centres. Individuals who moved away or were uncontactable were more likely to be single, smokers, demented or depressed and were less likely to have moved if in warden-controlled accommodation at baseline. Conclusions Longitudinal estimation of factors mentioned above could be biased, particularly cognitive ability and estimates of movements from own home to residential homes

  5. Inflammation is associated with a worsening of presbycusis: evidence from the MRC national study of hearing.

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    Verschuur, Carl; Agyemang-Prempeh, Akosua; Newman, Tracey A

    2014-07-01

    Inflammaging, a state of chronic inflammation in the elderly, is now thought to be a key element of the ageing process and contributor to age-related disease. In a previously published study, we identified a significant association between inflammation levels and severity of presbycusis among individuals aged 63 to 73 ('younger old") within an available audiometric range 0.5 to 4 kHz. Our aim was to see if this association would be identified among participants in the MRC national study of hearing, and whether the strength of the association would increase with greater age, or for very low or very high audiometric frequencies. Cross-sectional analysis of cohort data. Three hundred and sixty community-dwelling adults age 60 years and over, representing all those with white blood cell count and audiometric data available. A significant independent association between (higher) WBC and (worse) hearing level was identified. This effect increased with age. The strongest association was among those over 75, for whom average hearing threshold levels among those with lower WBC was 17 dB better than those with higher WBC. The current findings support an association between inflammaging (a condition potentially amenable to pharmacological treatment or lifestyle management) and presbycusis.

  6. The Nutritional Characteristics of the Hypotensive WASHOKU-modified DASH Diet: A Sub-analysis of the DASH-JUMP Study.

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    Kawamura, Atsuko; Kajiya, Katsuko; Kishi, Hiroko; Inagaki, Junko; Mitarai, Makoto; Oda, Hiroshi; Umemoto, Seiji; Kobayashi, Sei

    2018-01-01

    We developed a WASHOKU-modified DASH diet named DASH-JUMP. We previously reported the hypotensive effect of the DASH-JUMP diet in Japanese participants with untreated high-normal Blood Pressure (BP) or stage 1 hypertension. We aim to introduce the DASH-JUMP diet worldwide as a new lifestyle medicine. Accordingly, we prospectively assessed the nutritional characteristics of the DASH-JUMP diet. Participants were treated with the DASH-JUMP diet for 2 months. Then, for 4 months after the intervention, they consumed their usual diets. We conducted a nutritional survey using the FFQg nutrient questionnaire at baseline and after 1, 2, 3, and 6 months. We received completed questionnaires from 55 participants (28 men and 27 women; mean age 54.2 ± 8.0 years) and analyzed them. The DASH-JUMP diet is rich in green-yellow vegetables, seaweed, milk, and mushrooms, while it has low contents of meat, eggs, confectionery, oils and fats, pickles, shellfish boiled in sweetened soy sauce, and fruits. Nutrients significantly associated with the observed change in systolic BP were niacin (P = 0.005) and carbohydrate (P = 0.033). The results of the FFQg questionnaire revealed that participants who had an increased BP at 1 month after ceasing the intervention had eating habits that broadly imitated the DASH-JUMP diet at 4 months after ceasing the intervention. Therefore, the systolic and diastolic BP values at 4 months after ceasing the intervention decreased significantly compared to those at baseline. The DASH-JUMP diet may represent a new lifestyle medicine for reducing hypertension. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. The Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH) study: Overview and early findings

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    Vedal, S.; Hannigan, M. P.; Dutton, S. J.; Miller, S. L.; Milford, J. B.; Rabinovitch, N.; Kim, S.-Y.; Sheppard, L.

    Improved understanding of the sources of air pollution that are most harmful could aid in developing more effective measures for protecting human health. The Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH) study was designed to identify the sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) that are most responsible for the adverse health effects of short-term exposure to PM 2.5. Daily 24-h PM 2.5 sampling began in July 2002 at a residential monitoring site in Denver, Colorado, using both Teflon and quartz filter samplers. Sampling is planned to continue through 2008. Chemical speciation is being carried out for mass, inorganic ionic compounds (sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), and carbonaceous components, including elemental carbon, organic carbon, temperature-resolved organic carbon fractions and a large array of organic compounds. In addition, water-soluble metals were measured daily for 12 months in 2003. A receptor-based source apportionment approach utilizing positive matrix factorization (PMF) will be used to identify PM 2.5 source contributions for each 24-h period. Based on a preliminary assessment using synthetic data, the proposed source apportionment should be able to identify many important sources on a daily basis, including secondary ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, diesel vehicle exhaust, road dust, wood combustion and vegetative debris. Meat cooking, gasoline vehicle exhaust and natural gas combustion were more challenging for PMF to accurately identify due to high detection limits for certain organic molecular marker compounds. Measurements of these compounds are being improved and supplemented with additional organic molecular marker compounds. The health study will investigate associations between daily source contributions and an array of health endpoints, including daily mortality and hospitalizations and measures of asthma control in asthmatic children. Findings from the DASH study, in addition to being of interest to policymakers, by

  8. Numerical study of flow, combustion and emissions characteristics in a 625 MWe tangentially fired boiler with composition of coal 70% LRC and 30% MRC

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    Sa'adiyah, Devy; Bangga, Galih; Widodo, Wawan; Ikhwan, Nur

    2017-08-01

    Tangential fired boiler is one of the methods that can produce more complete combustion. This method applied in Suralaya Power Plant, Indonesia. However, the boiler where supposed to use low rank coal (LRC), but at a given time must be mixed with medium rank coal (MRC) from another unit because of lack of LRC coal. Accordingly to the situation, the study about choosing the right position of LRC and MRC in the burner elevation must be investigated. The composition of coal is 70%LRC / 30%MRC where MRC will be placed at the lower (A & C - Case I)) or higher (E & G - Case II) elevation as the cases in this study. The study is carried out using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The simulation with original case (100%LRC) has a good agreement with the measurement data. As the results, MRC is more recommended at the burner elevation A & C rather than burner elevation E & G because it has closer temperature (880 K) compared with 100%LRC and has smaller local heating area between upper side wall and front wall with the range of temperature 1900 - 2000 K. For emissions, case I has smaller NOx and higher CO2 with 104 ppm and 15,6%. Moreover, it has samller O2 residue with 5,8% due to more complete combustion.

  9. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, Western diet, and risk of gout in men: prospective cohort study.

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    Rai, Sharan K; Fung, Teresa T; Lu, Na; Keller, Sarah F; Curhan, Gary C; Choi, Hyon K

    2017-05-09

    Objective  To prospectively examine the relation between the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Western diets and risk of gout (ie, the clinical endpoint of hyperuricemia) in men. Design  Prospective cohort study. Setting  The Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Participants  44 444 men with no history of gout at baseline. Using validated food frequency questionnaires, each participant was assigned a DASH dietary pattern score (based on high intake of fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes, low fat dairy products, and whole grains, and low intake of sodium, sweetened beverages, and red and processed meats) and a Western dietary pattern score (based on high intake of red and processed meats, French fries, refined grains, sweets, and desserts). Main outcome measure  Risk of incident gout meeting the preliminary American College of Rheumatology survey criteria for gout, adjusting for potential confounders, including age, body mass index, hypertension, diuretic use, and alcohol intake. Results  During 26 years of follow-up, 1731 confirmed cases of incident gout were documented. A higher DASH dietary pattern score was associated with a lower risk for gout (adjusted relative risk for extreme fifths 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.57 to 0.80, P value for trend dietary pattern score was associated with an increased risk for gout (1.42, 1.16 to 1.74, P=0.005). Conclusion  The DASH diet is associated with a lower risk of gout, suggesting that its effect of lowering uric acid levels in individuals with hyperuricemia translates to a lower risk of gout. Conversely, the Western diet is associated with a higher risk of gout. The DASH diet may provide an attractive preventive dietary approach for men at risk of gout. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. MRC chronic Dyspnea Scale: Relationships with cardiopulmonary exercise testing and 6-minute walk test in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients: a prospective study

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    Roussos Charis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exertional dyspnea is the most prominent and disabling feature in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. The Medical Research Chronic (MRC chronic dyspnea score as well as physiological measurements obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT are shown to provide information on the severity and survival of disease. Methods We prospectively recruited IPF patients and examined the relationship between the MRC score and either CPET or 6MWT parameters known to reflect physiologic derangements limiting exercise capacity in IPF patients Results Twenty-five patients with IPF were included in the study. Significant correlations were found between the MRC score and the distance (r = -.781, p 2 at the initiation and the end (r = -.542, p = 0.005 and r = -.713, p VO2 peak/kg (r = -.731, p 2 at peak exercise (r = -. 682, p 2 slope (r = .731, p 2 at AT (r = .630, p = 0.002 and the Borg scale at peak exercise (r = .50, p = 0.01 for the CPET. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the only variable independently related to the MRC is the distance walked at the 6MWT. Conclusion In this population of IPF patients a good correlation was found between the MRC chronic dyspnoea score and physiological parameters obtained during maximal and submaximal exercise testing known to reflect ventilatory impairment and exercise limitation as well as disease severity and survival. This finding is described for the first time in the literature in this group of patients as far as we know and could explain why a simple chronic dyspnea score provides reliable prognostic information on IPF.

  11. Effects of dietary sodium on metabolites: the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium Feeding Study.

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    Derkach, Andriy; Sampson, Joshua; Joseph, Justin; Playdon, Mary C; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z

    2017-10-01

    Background: High sodium intake is known to increase blood pressure and is difficult to measure in epidemiologic studies. Objective: We examined the effect of sodium intake on metabolites within the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial)-Sodium Trial to further our understanding of the biological effects of sodium intake beyond blood pressure. Design: The DASH-Sodium Trial randomly assigned individuals to either the DASH diet (low in fat and high in protein, low-fat dairy, and fruits and vegetables) or a control diet for 12 wk. Participants within each diet arm received, in random order, diets containing high (150 nmol or 3450 mg), medium (100 nmol or 2300 mg), and low (50 nmol or 1150 mg) amounts of sodium for 30 d (crossover design). Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of each sodium intervention. We measured 531 identified plasma metabolites in 73 participants at the end of their high- and low-sodium interventions and in 46 participants at the end of their high- and medium-sodium interventions ( N = 119). We used linear mixed-effects regression to model the relation between each log-transformed metabolite and sodium intake. We also combined the resulting P values with Fisher's method to estimate the association between sodium intake and 38 metabolic pathways or groups. Results: Six pathways were associated with sodium intake at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of 0.0013 (e.g., fatty acid, food component or plant, benzoate, γ-glutamyl amino acid, methionine, and tryptophan). Although 82 metabolites were associated with sodium intake at a false discovery rate ≤0.10, only 4-ethylphenylsufate, a xenobiotic related to benzoate metabolism, was significant at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold ( P Sodium intake is associated with changes in circulating metabolites, including gut microbial, tryptophan, plant component, and γ-glutamyl amino acid-related metabolites. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000608. © 2017

  12. Efficacy of systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer (MRC ASTEC trial): a randomised study.

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    Kitchener, H; Swart, A M C; Qian, Q; Amos, C; Parmar, M K B

    2009-01-10

    Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is the standard surgery for stage I endometrial cancer. Systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy has been used to establish whether there is extra-uterine disease and as a therapeutic procedure; however, randomised trials need to be done to assess therapeutic efficacy. The ASTEC surgical trial investigated whether pelvic lymphadenectomy could improve survival of women with endometrial cancer. From 85 centres in four countries, 1408 women with histologically proven endometrial carcinoma thought preoperatively to be confined to the corpus were randomly allocated by a minimisation method to standard surgery (hysterectomy and BSO, peritoneal washings, and palpation of para-aortic nodes; n=704) or standard surgery plus lymphadenectomy (n=704). The primary outcome measure was overall survival. To control for postsurgical treatment, women with early-stage disease at intermediate or high risk of recurrence were randomised (independent of lymph-node status) into the ASTEC radiotherapy trial. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN 16571884. After a median follow-up of 37 months (IQR 24-58), 191 women (88 standard surgery group, 103 lymphadenectomy group) had died, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.16 (95% CI 0.87-1.54; p=0.31) in favour of standard surgery and an absolute difference in 5-year overall survival of 1% (95% CI -4 to 6). 251 women died or had recurrent disease (107 standard surgery group, 144 lymphadenectomy group), with an HR of 1.35 (1.06-1.73; p=0.017) in favour of standard surgery and an absolute difference in 5-year recurrence-free survival of 6% (1-12). With adjustment for baseline characteristics and pathology details, the HR for overall survival was 1.04 (0.74-1.45; p=0.83) and for recurrence-free survival was 1.25 (0.93-1.66; p=0.14). Our results show no evidence of benefit in terms of overall or recurrence-free survival for pelvic lymphadenectomy in women with early

  13. Adherence to Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Dietary Pattern in Relation to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A Case-Control Study.

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    Ardestani, Mohammad Emami; Onvani, Shokouh; Esmailzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Azadbakht, Leila

    2017-01-01

    This case-control study was designed to investigate the association between adherences to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in comparison to subjects without COPD. This is a case-control study. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Lung function was evaluated with spirometry testing, and one of the researchers inquired about other respiratory symptoms, including chronic cough, sputum, and breathlessness. Adherence to the DASH dietary pattern was assessed according to the Fung method. This study was conducted at Alzahra University Hospital of Isfahan, Iran, in 2015. Eight-four patients with COPD and 80 subjects without a history of COPD participated in study. The mean age of participants was 57 years. Average smoking in the case group was about 27.5 pack-years. Spirometry tests including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV 1 /FVC were significantly lower in patients with COPD (p = 0.0001). Among COPD symptoms, cough was significantly decreased across tertiles of DASH score (p = 0.03). Significant differences were found for DASH score between patients with COPD and control subjects (19.82 + 3.63 vs 21.13 + 3.82, p = 0.02). Vitamin C, vitamin E, and dietary fiber intake were lower in patients with COPD (144.32 + 70.51 vs 166.97 + 71.88, p = 0.04, 7.49 + 3.91 vs 8.72 + 3.21, p = 0.02 and 19.34 + 7.05 vs 22.19 + 7.87, p = 0.01, respectively). We observed that adherence to a DASH dietary pattern among patients with COPD was significantly lower compared to the control group. Cough was significantly decreased by increments in adherence to a DASH dietary pattern.

  14. Scalable privacy-preserving data sharing methodology for genome-wide association studies: an application to iDASH healthcare privacy protection challenge.

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    Yu, Fei; Ji, Zhanglong

    2014-01-01

    In response to the growing interest in genome-wide association study (GWAS) data privacy, the Integrating Data for Analysis, Anonymization and SHaring (iDASH) center organized the iDASH Healthcare Privacy Protection Challenge, with the aim of investigating the effectiveness of applying privacy-preserving methodologies to human genetic data. This paper is based on a submission to the iDASH Healthcare Privacy Protection Challenge. We apply privacy-preserving methods that are adapted from Uhler et al. 2013 and Yu et al. 2014 to the challenge's data and analyze the data utility after the data are perturbed by the privacy-preserving methods. Major contributions of this paper include new interpretation of the χ2 statistic in a GWAS setting and new results about the Hamming distance score, a key component for one of the privacy-preserving methods.

  15. DASH Eating Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels declined in all three groups. The two groups that received counseling and followed a treatment plan had more weight loss than the advice-only group. However, participants who received counseling and followed the DASH diet had the greatest ...

  16. FleetDASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    FleetDASH helps federal fleet managers maximize their use of alternative fuel. This presentation explains how the dashboard works and demonstrates the newest capabilities added to the tool. It also reviews complementary online tools available to fleet managers on the Alternative Fuel Data Center.

  17. MRC ORACLE Children Study. Long term outcomes following prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with either spontaneous preterm labour or preterm rupture of the membranes

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    Salt Alison

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Research Council (MRC ORACLE trial evaluated the use of co-amoxiclav 375 mg and/or erythromycin 250 mg in women presenting with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM ORACLE I or in spontaneous preterm labour (SPL ORACLE II using a factorial design. The results showed that for women with a singleton baby with PROM the prescription of erythromycin is associated with improvements in short term neonatal outcomes, although co-amoxiclav is associated with prolongation of pregnancy, a significantly higher rate of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis was found in these babies. Prescription of erythromycin is now established practice for women with PROM. For women with SPL antibiotics demonstrated no improvements in short term neonatal outcomes and are not recommended treatment. There is evidence that both these conditions are associated with subclinical infection so perinatal antibiotic administration may reduce the risk of later disabilities, including cerebral palsy, although the risk may be increased through exposure to inflammatory cytokines, so assessment of longer term functional and educational outcomes is appropriate. Methods The MRC ORACLE Children's Study will follow up UK children at age 7 years born to 4809 women with PROM and the 4266 women with SPL enrolled in the earlier ORACLE trials. We will use a parental questionnaire including validated tools to assess disability and behaviour. We will collect the frequency of specific medical conditions: cerebral palsy, epilepsy, respiratory illness including asthma, diabetes, admission to hospital in last year and other diseases, as reported by parents. National standard test results will be collected to assess educational attainment at Key Stage 1 for children in England. Discussion This study is designed to investigate whether or not peripartum antibiotics improve health and disability for children at 7 years of age. Trial registration The ORACLE Trial and Children

  18. MRC ORACLE Children Study. Long term outcomes following prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with either spontaneous preterm labour or preterm rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Sara; Brocklehurst, Peter; Jones, David; Marlow, Neil; Salt, Alison; Taylor, David

    2008-04-24

    The Medical Research Council (MRC) ORACLE trial evaluated the use of co-amoxiclav 375 mg and/or erythromycin 250 mg in women presenting with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM) ORACLE I or in spontaneous preterm labour (SPL) ORACLE II using a factorial design. The results showed that for women with a singleton baby with PROM the prescription of erythromycin is associated with improvements in short term neonatal outcomes, although co-amoxiclav is associated with prolongation of pregnancy, a significantly higher rate of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis was found in these babies. Prescription of erythromycin is now established practice for women with PROM. For women with SPL antibiotics demonstrated no improvements in short term neonatal outcomes and are not recommended treatment. There is evidence that both these conditions are associated with subclinical infection so perinatal antibiotic administration may reduce the risk of later disabilities, including cerebral palsy, although the risk may be increased through exposure to inflammatory cytokines, so assessment of longer term functional and educational outcomes is appropriate. The MRC ORACLE Children's Study will follow up UK children at age 7 years born to 4809 women with PROM and the 4266 women with SPL enrolled in the earlier ORACLE trials. We will use a parental questionnaire including validated tools to assess disability and behaviour. We will collect the frequency of specific medical conditions: cerebral palsy, epilepsy, respiratory illness including asthma, diabetes, admission to hospital in last year and other diseases, as reported by parents. National standard test results will be collected to assess educational attainment at Key Stage 1 for children in England. This study is designed to investigate whether or not peripartum antibiotics improve health and disability for children at 7 years of age. The ORACLE Trial and Children Study is registered in the Current Controlled Trials registry. ISCRTN 52995660.

  19. Lo-Dash essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Boduch, Adam

    2015-01-01

    If you are a curious JavaScript developer interested simultaneously in tweaking the efficiency of your code, as well as improving the conciseness of it, and maintaining the readability of it, then this is the book for you. Ideally, the book is intended for readers already working on JavaScript projects and using frameworks such as jQuery and Backbone. Even if you're already using Lo-Dash, this book will show you how to use it efficiently. While extensive JavaScript experience isn't a requirement, you should have at least some prior programming experience in order to best understand the concept

  20. Compliance with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Wing-Man Kwan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet has been recognized as effective to lower blood pressure in feeding trials, but compliance with the diet must be persistent to maximize health benefits in clinical practice. This paper reports a systematic review of the latest evidence on the method to assess DASH compliance and the corresponding patients' compliance in interventional settings. METHODS: The databases including MEDLINE, EBM Reviews, EMBASE, and CINAHL Plus were searched for original research studies published in the period of January 1992-December 2012 that evaluated compliance with DASH diet. Studies written in English language, with DASH intervention, with complete documentation of the degree of DASH compliance and the assessment method used were included in this review. The search terms included: dietary approaches to stop hypertension, DASH, compliance, adherence, consistency, and concordance. RESULTS: Nine studies were included. Different types of interventions were identified, ranging from feeding trial to dietary counseling. These studies differed in the assessment methods used to evaluate DASH compliance, which included objective approaches like measurement of urinary excretion, and subjective approaches like dietary intake assessment for DASH target comparison and construction of DASH scoring systems. Compliance levels were lower in educational interventions than that of the original DASH feeding trial. CONCLUSIONS: To conclude, although no consensus existed regarding the best approach to assess DASH compliance, its suboptimal compliance warrants attention. This study implied a need to investigate effective approaches to sustain the DASH dietary pattern beyond counselling alone.

  1. Brazilian dietary patterns and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet-relationship with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the ELSA-Brasil study.

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    Drehmer, Michele; Odegaard, Andrew O; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Matos, Sheila M Alvim; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Pereira, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    Studies evaluating dietary patterns, including the DASH diet, and their relationship with the metabolic syndrome and diabetes may help to understand the role of dairy products (low fat or full fat) in these conditions. Our aim is to identify dietary patterns in Brazilian adults and compare them with the (DASH) diet quality score in terms of their associations with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-the ELSA-Brasil study. The ELSA-Brasil is a multicenter cohort study comprising 15,105 civil servants, aged 35-74 years at baseline (2008-2010). Standardized interviews and exams were carried out, including an OGTT. We analyzed baseline data for 10,010 subjects. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis. Multivariable logistic regression investigated associations of dietary patterns with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes and multivariable linear regression with components of metabolic syndrome. After controlling for potential confounders, we observed that greater adherence to the Common Brazilian meal pattern (white rice, beans, beer, processed and fresh meats), was associated with higher frequencies of newly diagnosed diabetes, metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except HDL-C. Participants with greater intake of a Common Brazilian fast foods/full fat dairy/milk based desserts pattern presented less newly diagnosed diabetes. An inverse association was also seen between the DASH Diet pattern and the metabolic syndrome, blood pressure and waist circumference. Diet, light foods and beverages/low fat dairy pattern was associated with more prevalence of both outcomes, and higher fasting glucose, HDL-C, waist circumference (among men) and lower blood pressure. Vegetables/fruit dietary pattern did not protect against metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes but was associated with lower waist circumference. The inverse associations found for the dietary pattern

  2. Treatment mechanism in the MRC preschool autism communication trial: implications for study design and parent-focussed therapy for children.

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    Pickles, Andrew; Harris, Victoria; Green, Jonathan; Aldred, Catherine; McConachie, Helen; Slonims, Vicky; Le Couteur, Ann; Hudry, Kristelle; Charman, Tony

    2015-02-01

    The PACT randomised-controlled trial evaluated a parent-mediated communication-focused treatment for children with autism, intended to reduce symptom severity as measured by a modified Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) algorithm score. The therapy targeted parental behaviour, with no direct interaction between therapist and child. While nonsignificant group differences were found on ADOS-G score, significant group differences were found for both parent and child intermediate outcomes. This study aimed to better understand the mechanism by which the PACT treatment influenced changes in child behaviour though the targeted parent behaviour. Mediation analysis was used to assess the direct and indirect effects of treatment via parent behaviour on child behaviour and via child behaviour on ADOS-G score. Alternative mediation was explored to study whether the treatment effect acted as hypothesised or via another plausible pathway. Mediation models typically assume no unobserved confounding between mediator and outcome and no measurement error in the mediator. We show how to better exploit the information often available within a trial to begin to address these issues, examining scope for instrumental variable and measurement error models. Estimates of mediation changed substantially when account was taken of the confounder effects of the baseline value of the mediator and of measurement error. Our best estimates that accounted for both suggested that the treatment effect on the ADOS-G score was very substantially mediated by parent synchrony and child initiations. The results highlighted the value of repeated measurement of mediators during trials. The theoretical model underlying the PACT treatment was supported. However, the substantial fall-off in treatment effect highlighted both the need for additional data and for additional target behaviours for therapy. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for

  3. DASH Diet: Reducing Hypertension through Diet and Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include soy beans, collard greens and calcium-fortified beverages such as almond milk. Limit Saturated Fat A DASH diet is low in saturated fats, sodium and total fat. Studies have shown that a diet low in saturated ...

  4. Decreasing adrenergic or sympathetic hyperactivity after severe traumatic brain injury using propranolol and clonidine (DASH After TBI Study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Mayur B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe TBI, defined as a Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8, increases intracranial pressure and activates the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic hyperactivity after TBI manifests as catecholamine excess, hypertension, abnormal heart rate variability, and agitation, and is associated with poor neuropsychological outcome. Propranolol and clonidine are centrally acting drugs that may decrease sympathetic outflow, brain edema, and agitation. However, there is no prospective randomized evidence available demonstrating the feasibility, outcome benefits, and safety for adrenergic blockade after TBI. Methods/Design The DASH after TBI study is an actively accruing, single-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, two-arm trial, where one group receives centrally acting sympatholytic drugs, propranolol (1 mg intravenously every 6 h for 7 days and clonidine (0.1 mg per tube every 12 h for 7 days, and the other group, double placebo, within 48 h of severe TBI. The study uses a weighted adaptive minimization randomization with categories of age and Marshall head CT classification. Feasibility will be assessed by ability to provide a neuroradiology read for randomization, by treatment contamination, and by treatment compliance. The primary endpoint is reduction in plasma norepinephrine level as measured on day 8. Secondary endpoints include comprehensive plasma and urine catecholamine levels, heart rate variability, arrhythmia occurrence, infections, agitation measures using the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and Agitated Behavior scale, medication use (anti-hypertensive, sedative, analgesic, and antipsychotic, coma-free days, ventilator-free days, length of stay, and mortality. Neuropsychological outcomes will be measured at hospital discharge and at 3 and 12 months. The domains tested will include global executive function, memory, processing speed, visual-spatial, and behavior. Other assessments include

  5. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  6. Performance of non-ideal OT-MRC with co-channel interference

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-12-01

    This paper studies the effect of non-ideal estimation of channel state information (CSI) on the performance of output-threshold maximal-ratio combining (OT-MRC) diversity scheme in the presence of co-channel interference as well as white noise. The channel fading envelopes are assumed to follow slowly varying flat Rayleigh model. New closed-form expressions for the combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) distribution and outage probability performance are presented. Performance comparisons between the conventional MRC and OT-MRC for the system model described above are provided. © 2010 IEEE.

  7. Intrinsic Dynamics of Quantum-Dash Lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Cheng; Djie, Hery Susanto; Hwang, James C. M.; Koch, Thomas L.; Lester, Luke F.; Ooi, Boon S.; Wang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Temperature-dependent intrinsic modulation response of InAs/InAlGaAs quantum-dash lasers was investigated by using pulse optical injection modulation to minimize the effects of parasitics and self-heating. Compared to typical quantum-well lasers, the quantum-dash lasers were found to have comparable differential gain but approximately twice the gain compression factor, probably due to carrier heating by free-carrier absorption, as opposed to stimulated transition. Therefore, the narrower modulation bandwidth of the quantum-dash lasers than that of quantum-well lasers was attributed to their higher gain compression factor. In addition, as expected, quantum-dash lasers with relatively long and uniform dashes exhibit higher temperature stability than quantum-well lasers. However, the lasers with relatively short and nonuniform dashes exhibit stronger temperature dependence, probably due to their higher surface-to-volume ratio and nonuniform dash sizes. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Intrinsic Dynamics of Quantum-Dash Lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Temperature-dependent intrinsic modulation response of InAs/InAlGaAs quantum-dash lasers was investigated by using pulse optical injection modulation to minimize the effects of parasitics and self-heating. Compared to typical quantum-well lasers, the quantum-dash lasers were found to have comparable differential gain but approximately twice the gain compression factor, probably due to carrier heating by free-carrier absorption, as opposed to stimulated transition. Therefore, the narrower modulation bandwidth of the quantum-dash lasers than that of quantum-well lasers was attributed to their higher gain compression factor. In addition, as expected, quantum-dash lasers with relatively long and uniform dashes exhibit higher temperature stability than quantum-well lasers. However, the lasers with relatively short and nonuniform dashes exhibit stronger temperature dependence, probably due to their higher surface-to-volume ratio and nonuniform dash sizes. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Characterization of SWIR cameras by MRC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, M.; Schlemmer, H.; Haan, Hubertus A.; Siemens, Christofer; Münzberg, M.

    2014-05-01

    Cameras for the SWIR wavelength range are becoming more and more important because of the better observation range for day-light operation under adverse weather conditions (haze, fog, rain). In order to choose the best suitable SWIR camera or to qualify a camera for a given application, characterization of the camera by means of the Minimum Resolvable Contrast MRC concept is favorable as the MRC comprises all relevant properties of the instrument. With the MRC known for a given camera device the achievable observation range can be calculated for every combination of target size, illumination level or weather conditions. MRC measurements in the SWIR wavelength band can be performed widely along the guidelines of the MRC measurements of a visual camera. Typically measurements are performed with a set of resolution targets (e.g. USAF 1951 target) manufactured with different contrast values from 50% down to less than 1%. For a given illumination level the achievable spatial resolution is then measured for each target. The resulting curve is showing the minimum contrast that is necessary to resolve the structure of a target as a function of spatial frequency. To perform MRC measurements for SWIR cameras at first the irradiation parameters have to be given in radiometric instead of photometric units which are limited in their use to the visible range. In order to do so, SWIR illumination levels for typical daylight and twilight conditions have to be defined. At second, a radiation source is necessary with appropriate emission in the SWIR range (e.g. incandescent lamp) and the irradiance has to be measured in W/m2 instead of Lux = Lumen/m2. At third, the contrast values of the targets have to be calibrated newly for the SWIR range because they typically differ from the values determined for the visual range. Measured MRC values of three cameras are compared to the specified performance data of the devices and the results of a multi-band in-house designed Vis-SWIR camera

  10. Understanding the DASH diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has been widely studied and has many health benefits. Following this diet plan may help: Lower high blood pressure Reduce the ... more expensive than prepared foods. The diet is flexible enough to follow if you are vegetarian , vegan, or gluten-free .

  11. Investigation of the bystander effect in MRC5 cells after acute and fractionated irradiation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE has been defined as radiation responses observed in nonirradiated cells. It has been the focus of investigators worldwide due to the deleterious effects it induces in nonirradiated cells. The present study was performed to investigate whether acute or fractionated irradiation will evoke a differential bystander response in MRC5 cells. A normal human cell line (MRC5, and a human lung tumor cell line (QU-DB were exposed to 0, 1, 2, and 4Gy of single acute or fractionated irradiation of equal fractions with a gap of 6 h. The MRC5 cells were supplemented with the media of irradiated cells and their micronucleus frequency was determined. The micronucleus frequency after single and fractionated irradiation did not vary significantly in the MRC5 cells conditioned with autologous or QU-DB cell-irradiated media, except for 4Gy where the frequency of micronucleated cells was lower in those MRC5 cells cultured in the media of QU-DB-exposed with a single dose of 4Gy. Our study demonstrates that the radiation-induced bystander effect was almost similar after single acute and fractionated exposure in MRC5 cells.

  12. Investigation of the bystander effect in MRC5 cells after acute and fractionated irradiation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Samani, Roghayeh Kamran; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been defined as radiation responses observed in nonirradiated cells. It has been the focus of investigators worldwide due to the deleterious effects it induces in nonirradiated cells. The present study was performed to investigate whether acute or fractionated irradiation will evoke a differential bystander response in MRC5 cells. A normal human cell line (MRC5), and a human lung tumor cell line (QU-DB) were exposed to 0, 1, 2, and 4Gy of single acute or fractionated irradiation of equal fractions with a gap of 6 h. The MRC5 cells were supplemented with the media of irradiated cells and their micronucleus frequency was determined. The micronucleus frequency after single and fractionated irradiation did not vary significantly in the MRC5 cells conditioned with autologous or QU-DB cell-irradiated media, except for 4Gy where the frequency of micronucleated cells was lower in those MRC5 cells cultured in the media of QU-DB-exposed with a single dose of 4Gy. Our study demonstrates that the radiation-induced bystander effect was almost similar after single acute and fractionated exposure in MRC5 cells. (author)

  13. DASH (disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand) evaluation of QOL for carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Akimasa; Kawamoto, Masataka; Fujisawa, Kouzou; Tsujii, Masaya; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    The questionnaire on the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand is a region-specific, self-administered outcome instrument that is developed as a measure of self-rate upper extremity disability and symptoms. Last year, the Japanese version of disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) was cross-culturally adapted. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between DASH and clinical assessment (findings of MRI and electrodiagnostic parameters). The subjects comprised 41 patients (6 males and 35 females) with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), except for cases with other upper extremity disorders. These subjects prospectively completed DASH 1 (disability module), DASH 2 (symptom module), and DASH (disability and symptom module) before the release of the open carpal tunnel. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on the symptom duration (A: shorter than 3 months, B: 4-11 months, C: longer than 12 months). All patients were preoperatively assessed with regard to sensory conduction velocity (SCV) and compound muscle action potential (CMAP). In addition, all patients underwent MRI in order to evaluate the flexor tenosynovial swelling represented by palmar bowing of the flexor retinaculum (PBFR). The relationships were estimated using the Spearman rank score, unpaired t tests, and Bonferroni tests. DASH 2 scores indicated greater responsiveness than DASH 1, which reflected the character of CTS. DASH 1 scores were higher in patients who were affected in their dominant hand than in those whose nondominant hand was affected. The DASH scores decreased significantly in groups A and B, with the exception of C. However, DASH did not show any correlation either with the parameters, age, or MRI assessment. DASH can be used for the research of preoperative outcomes related to CTS. It also has the advantage of being useful in assessing and comparing the outcome for various other hand disorders. (author)

  14. Weight, blood pressure, and dietary benefits after 12 months of a Web-based Nutrition Education Program (DASH for health): longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas J; Alsabeeh, Nour; Apovian, Caroline M; Murphy, Megan C; Coffman, Gerald A; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Jenkins, Mark; Cabral, Howard

    2008-12-12

    The dietary habits of Americans are creating serious health concerns, including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even some types of cancer. While considerable attention has been focused on calorie reduction and weight loss, approaches are needed that will not only help the population reduce calorie intake but also consume the type of healthy, well-balanced diet that would prevent this array of medical complications. To design an Internet-based nutrition education program and to explore its effect on weight, blood pressure, and eating habits after 12 months of participation. We designed the DASH for Health program to provide weekly articles about healthy nutrition via the Internet. Dietary advice was based on the DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension). The program was offered as a free benefit to the employees of EMC Corporation, and 2834 employees and spouses enrolled. Enrollees voluntarily entered information about themselves on the website (food intake), and we used these self-entered data to determine if the program had any effect. Analyses were based upon the change in weight, blood pressure, and food intake between the baseline period (before the DASH program began) and the 12th month. To be included in an outcome, a subject had to have provided both a baseline and 12th-month entry. After 12 months, 735 of 2834 original enrollees (26%) were still actively using the program. For subjects who were overweight/obese (body mass index > 25; n = 151), weight change at 12 months was -4.2 lbs (95% CI: -2.2, -6.2; P Internet, with no person-to-person contact with health professionals, is associated with significant weight loss, blood pressure lowering, and dietary improvements after 12 months. Effective programs like DASH for Health, delivered via the Internet, can provide benefit to large numbers of subjects at low cost and may help address the nutritional public health crisis.

  15. A DASH dietary pattern and the risk of colorectal cancer in Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-McLean, E; Hu, J; Greene-Finestone, L S; de Groh, M

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a high incidence cancer affecting many Canadian adults each year. Diet is important in the etiology of CRC with many dietary components identified as potential risk factors. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a well-established pattern to characterize overall eating. The purpose of this study was to characterize a DASH pattern within the Canadian context and to assess its relationship to the risk of CRC in Canadian adults. Unconditional multiple logistic regression with control for confounding variables was performed using data from the National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance Study. Dietary intake was captured for this case-control study through a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and categorized into a DASH score ranging from 0 to 10 representing a poor to a strong DASH pattern respectively. Consuming a strong DASH pattern of eating (score ≥ 8) was not common in the 3161 cases and 3097 controls. Overall, only 10.8% of men and 13.6% of women had a strong DASH pattern. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a trend for decreasing risk of CRC in men with increasing DASH scores (p value for trend = .007). Men with a strong DASH score had a 33% reduction in risk of CRC compared to those with a low DASH score. There were no significant trends for women for CRC or for colon or rectal cancers separately. Our findings are similar to other researchers suggesting a benefit with a strong DASH pattern associated with a decreased risk of CRC, especially in men. Research should further investigate our gender-based differences.

  16. A DASH dietary pattern and the risk of colorectal cancer in Canadian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jones-McLean

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC is a high incidence cancer affecting many Canadian adults each year. Diet is important in the etiology of CRC with many dietary components identified as potential risk factors. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet is a well-established pattern to characterize overall eating. The purpose of this study was to characterize a DASH pattern within the Canadian context and to assess its relationship to the risk of CRC in Canadian adults. Methods: Unconditional multiple logistic regression with control for confounding variables was performed using data from the National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance Study. Dietary intake was captured for this case-control study through a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and categorized into a DASH score ranging from 0 to 10 representing a poor to a strong DASH pattern respectively. Results: Consuming a strong DASH pattern of eating (score ≥ 8 was not common in the 3161 cases and 3097 controls. Overall, only 10.8 % of men and 13.6 % of women had a strong DASH pattern. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a trend for decreasing risk of CRC in men with increasing DASH scores (p value for trend = .007. Men with a strong DASH score had a 33% reduction in risk of CRC compared to those with a low DASH score. There were no significant trends for women for CRC or for colon or rectal cancers separately. Conclusion: Our findings are similar to other researchers suggesting a benefit with a strong DASH pattern associated with a decreased risk of CRC, especially in men. Research should further investigate our gender-based differences.

  17. The descriptive epidemiology of delirium symptoms in a large population-based cohort study: results from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H J; Barnes, Linda E; Stephan, Blossom C M; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Meagher, David; Copeland, John; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol

    2014-07-28

    In the general population, the epidemiological relationships between delirium and adverse outcomes are not well defined. The aims of this study were to: (1) construct an algorithm for the diagnosis of delirium using the Geriatric Mental State (GMS) examination; (2) test the criterion validity of this algorithm against mortality and dementia risk; (3) report the age-specific prevalence of delirium as determined by this algorithm. Participant and informant data in a randomly weighted subsample of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study were taken from a standardized assessment battery. The algorithmic definition of delirium was based on the DSM-IV classification. Outcomes were: proportional hazard ratios for death; odds ratios of dementia at 2-year follow-up. Data from 2197 persons (representative of 13,004) were used, median age 77 years, 64% women. Study-defined delirium was associated with a new dementia diagnosis at two years (OR 8.82, 95% CI 2.76 to 28.2) and death (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.60), even after adjustment for acute illness severity. Similar associations were seen for study-defined subsyndromal delirium. Age-specific prevalence as determined by the algorithm increased with age from 1.8% in the 65-69 year age group to 10.1% in the ≥85 age group (p delirium, age-specific period prevalence ranged from 8.2% (65-69 years) to 36.1% (≥85 years). These results demonstrate the possibility of constructing an algorithmic diagnosis for study-defined delirium using data from the GMS schedule, with predictive criterion validity for mortality and dementia risk. These are the first population-based analyses able to account prospectively for both illness severity and an earlier study diagnosis of dementia.

  18. Diagnostic status of hypertension on the adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kim, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet is a widely recommended diet for individuals with hypertension. Adherence to the DASH diet has been shown to be effective for controlling hypertension, but it is unclear whether a hypertension diagnosis has an impact on adherence to the diet and nutrient intake. This study examined the association between hypertension diagnosis and the DASH nutrient intake using the multivariate linear regression method. The sample was composed of individuals with hypertension in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 2007 to 2012. The outcome was the DASH accordance score (0 to 9 points, which measures the intake of nine nutrients compared to target amounts. Study findings indicate that a diagnostic status of hypertension was associated with increased consumption of sodium, saturated fat, total fat, and protein. Adherence to the DASH diet was more likely to be associated with health conditions such as obesity and heart diseases and lifestyle behaviors such as current smoking status and physical activity. Individuals diagnosed with hypertension showed less adherence to the DASH diet than those not diagnosed with hypertension, so a diagnosis of hypertension did not seem to provide an incentive to engage in healthy dietary behavior. Overall, regardless of diagnostic status, individuals with hypertension did not seem to follow the DASH guidelines.

  19. DASH Diet: Tips for Shopping and Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dash-in-brief-html. Accessed April 7, 2016. Essential kitchen equipment. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/HealthyCooking/Essential-Kitchen-Equipment_UCM_430098_Article.jsp. Accessed April 7, ...

  20. 3D magnetic-resonance-coupling (MRC) localization of wireless capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Yongming; Zhang, Lihui; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2016-01-01

    ) technique, which has been widely developed for efficient wireless power transfer, is introduced. It is proposed that the distance dependent signal strength in a MRC system can be beneficially used for 3D localization. The new 3D-MRC localization system consists of three orthogonal emitting coils which......Wireless Capsule Endoscope (WCE) enables developing actively controlled capsule for potential complex surgeries, imaging, and new medicine tests. These tasks of WCE need safe, efficient, and precise 3D localization techniques. In this paper, a new application of the magnetic resonance coupling (MRC...... are powered by a battery in the capsule, and three pairs of orthogonal receiving coils which are placed outside human body. The distances between the WCE and the receiving coils can be estimated with good accuracy by studying the signal strengths in individual receiving coils. The proposed new 3D...

  1. Transmit selection algorithms for imperfect threshold-based receive MRC in the presence of co-channel interference

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    The performance of transmit antenna selection for threshold-based maximal ratio combining (MRC) diversity receivers in the presence of multiple co-channel interfering signals is studied. The impact of imperfect channel estimation of desired user

  2. The PROMIS physical function correlates with the QuickDASH in patients with upper extremity illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Celeste L; Nota, Sjoerd P F T; Jayakumar, Prakash; Hageman, Michiel G; Ring, David

    2015-01-01

    not. The PROMIS Physical Function instrument may be used as an upper extremity disability measure, as it correlates with the QuickDASH questionnaire, and both instruments are influenced most strongly by the degree to which pain interferes with achieving goals. Level III, diagnostic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. An investigation of whether factors associated with short-term attrition change or persist over ten years: data from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatfield Mark

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors associated with the loss of participants in long-term longitudinal studies of ageing, due to refusal or moves, have been discussed less than those with short term follow-up. Methods In a population-based study of cognition and ageing (the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS, factors associated with dropout due to refusal and moving in the first follow-up period (over two years are compared with factors associated with dropout over ten years. Participants at 10-year follow-up are compared with their age-standardised baseline contemporaries. Results Some consistent trends are found over the longer term. Refusers tended to have poorer cognition, less years of education, not have a family history of dementia and be women. Characteristics of people who moved differed between waves, but the oldest and people in worse health moved more. When surviving and responding individuals at ten years are compared with those of the same age at baseline many differences are found. Individuals of lower social class, education, cognitive ability, in residential care, with sight/hearing problems and poor/fair self-reported health are less likely to be seen after 10 years of follow-up. Individuals report more health problems when they participate in multiple interviews. Conclusion The characteristics of refusers in the longer term are similar to those refusing to participate over the shorter term. Long-term follow-up studies will under represent the disadvantaged and disabled but represent full health status of participating individuals better. There are advantages and disadvantages to both short-term and long-term follow-up.

  4. Distinct Lasing Operation From Chirped InAs/InP Quantum-Dash Laser

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-08-01

    We study the enhanced inhomogeneity across the InAs quantum-dash (Qdash) layers by incorporating a chirped AlGaInAs barrier thickness in the InAs/InP laser structure. The lasing operation is investigated via Fabry-Pérot ridge-waveguide laser characterization, which shows a peculiar behavior under quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) operation. Continuous energy transfer between different dash ensembles initiated quenching of lasing action among certain dash groups, causing a reduced intensity gap in the lasing spectra. We discuss these characteristics in terms of the quasi-zero-dimensional density of states (DOS) of dashes and the active region inhomogeneity. © 2009-2012 IEEE.

  5. A DASH dietary pattern and the risk of colorectal cancer in Canadian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jones-McLean, E.; Hu, J.; Greene-Finestone, L. S.; de Groh, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a high incidence cancer affecting many Canadian adults each year. Diet is important in the etiology of CRC with many dietary components identified as potential risk factors. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a well-established pattern to characterize overall eating. The purpose of this study was to characterize a DASH pattern within the Canadian context and to assess its relationship to the risk of CRC in Canadian adults. Metho...

  6. Successfully recruiting a multicultural population: the DASH-Sodium experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Betty M; Conlin, Paul R; Ernst, Denise; Reams, Patrice; Charleston, Jeanne B; Appel, Lawrence J

    2005-01-01

    Recruiting practices employed by the four clinical centers participating in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium trial were examined to assess the most successful method of obtaining participants and to describe pertinent learning experiences gained as a result of the trial. The primary recruitment strategies employed by each center were mass mailing brochures (direct, coupon packs, or other) and mass media (advertisements in newspapers, radio, and television spots). Of 412 randomized participants, 265 (64%) were from mass distribution of brochures, 62 (15%) mass media, and 85 (21%) were prior study participants, referred by word-of-mouth, or reported coming from screening events and presentations. Although the most successful method of recruitment was mass mailing brochures, three times as many brochures were distributed to obtain similar success as in the initial DASH trial.

  7. Six key topics informal carers of patients with breathlessness in advanced disease want to learn about and why: MRC phase I study to inform an educational intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morag Farquhar

    Full Text Available Breathlessness is a common symptom of advanced disease placing a huge burden on patients, health systems and informal carers (families and friends providing daily help and support. It causes distress and isolation. Carers provide complex personal, practical and emotional support yet often feel ill-prepared to care. They lack knowledge and confidence in their caring role. The need to educate carers and families about breathlessness is established, yet we lack robustly developed carer-targeted educational interventions to meet their needs.We conducted a qualitative interview study with twenty five purposively-sampled patient-carer dyads living with breathlessness in advanced disease (half living with advanced cancer and half with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We sought to identify carers' educational needs (including what they wanted to learn about and explore differences by diagnostic group in order to inform an educational intervention for carers of patients with breathlessness in advanced disease.There was a strong desire among carers for an educational intervention on breathlessness. Six key topics emerged as salient for them: 1 understanding breathlessness, 2 managing anxiety, panic and breathlessness, 3 managing infections, 4 keeping active, 5 living positively and 6 knowing what to expect in the future. A cross-cutting theme was relationship management: there were tensions within dyads resulting from mismatched expectations related to most topics. Carers felt that knowledge-gains would not only help them to support the patient better, but also help them to manage their own frustrations, anxieties, and quality of life. Different drivers for education need were identified by diagnostic group, possibly related to differences in caring role duration and resulting impacts.Meeting the educational needs of carers requires robustly developed and evaluated interventions. This study provides the evidence-base for the content

  8. Adherence to the DASH and Mediterranean diets is associated with decreased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Vajihe; Tehrani, Hatav; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Dehghan, Atefeh; Surkan, Pamela J; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-10-01

    Few studies have examined the association between adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) or Mediterranean (MED) diets and prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between the two diets and GDM. In a case-control hospital-based study, pregnant women with (n = 200) and without (n = 260) GMD were recruited. An average of three 24-h dietary records were used to assess participants' dietary intakes. DASH scores were calculated based on the Fung method and MED scores were calculated using the Trichopoulou method. GDM was defined as fasting glucose >95 mg/dL or 1-h postprandial glucose >140 mg/dL for the first time in the pregnancy. The risk for GDM was assessed across tertiles of DASH and MED scores. DASH and MED diets were negatively related to fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and serum triacylglycerol concentrations. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly higher for those in the top tertile of the DASH diet but not the MED diet in comparison with the lowest tertile. Total serum cholesterol level was lower in the third tertile of the MED diet but not in the DASH diet. Participants in the highest tertile of the MED diet had 80% lower risk for GDM compared with those in the lowest tertile (Ptrend = 0.006). Greater adherence to the DASH eating plan was associated with 71% reduced risk for GDM (Ptrend = 0.006) after adjustment for potential confounders. Adherence to either the DASH or Mediterranean diet is associated with decreased risk for GDM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood Pressure-Lowering Mechanisms of the DASH Dietary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hwa Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential blood pressure- (BP- lowering mechanisms of the DASH dietary pattern were measured in 20 unmedicated hypertensive adults in a controlled feeding study. At screening, participants averaged 44.3±7.8 years, BMI 33.9±6.6 Kg/m2, and BP 144.2±9.38/88.5±6.03 mmHg. All consumed a control diet for one week, then were randomized to control or DASH for another two weeks (week one and two. With DASH, but not controls, SBP fell by 10.65±12.89 (=0.023 and 9.60±11.23 (=0.039 mmHg and DBP by 5.95±8.01 (=0.069 and 8.60±9.13 mmHg (=0.011 at the end of week one and two, respectively. Univariate regressions showed that changes in urinary sodium/potassium ratio (=1.99 and plasma renin activity (=−15.78 and percent change in plasma nitrite after hyperemia were associated with SBP changes at week one (all <0.05. Plasma nitrite following hyperemia showed a treatment effect (=0.014 and increased at week two (=0.001. Pulse wave velocity decreased over time with DASH (trend =0.019, and reached significance at week two (=0.026. This response may be mediated by an improvement in upregulation of nitric oxide bioavailability. Early natriuresis and reductions in oxidative stress cannot be ruled out. Future studies are needed to verify these findings, assess the possibility of earlier effects, and examine other potential mediators.

  10. Rapid Coeval Black Hole and Host Galaxy Growth in MRC 1138-262 : The Hungry Spider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seymour, N.; Altieri, B.; De Breuck, C.; Barthel, P.; Coia, D.; Conversi, L.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dey, A.; Dickinson, M.; Drouart, G.; Galametz, A.; Greve, T. R.; Haas, M.; Hatch, N.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R.; Jarvis, M.; Kovacs, A.; Kurk, J.; Lehnert, M.; Miley, G.; Nesvadba, N.; Rawlings, J. I.; Rettura, A.; Rottgering, H.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Santos, J. S.; Stern, D.; Stevens, J.; Valtchanov, I.; Vernet, J.; Wylezalek, D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the infrared spectral energy distribution of the high-redshift radio galaxy MRC 1138-26 at z = 2.156, also known as the Spiderweb Galaxy. By combining photometry from Spitzer, Herschel, and LABOCA we fit the rest-frame 5-300 mu m emission using a two-component,

  11. The subunits of the S-phase checkpoint complex Mrc1/Tof1/Csm3: dynamics and interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunova, Sonya Dimitrova; Zarkov, Alexander Stefanov; Ivanova, Anna Marianova; Stoynov, Stoyno Stefanov; Nedelcheva-Veleva, Marina Nedelcheva

    2014-01-01

    The S-phase checkpoint aims to prevent cells from generation of extensive single-stranded DNA that predisposes to genome instability. The S. cerevisiae complex Tof1/Csm3/Mrc1 acts to restrain the replicative MCM helicase when DNA synthesis is prohibited. Keeping the replication machinery intact allows restart of the replication fork when the block is relieved. Although the subunits of the Tof1/Csm3/Mrc1 complex are well studied, the impact of every single subunit on the triple complex formation and function needs to be established. This work studies the cellular localization and the chromatin binding of GFP-tagged subunits when the complex is intact and when a subunit is missing. We demonstrate that the complex is formed in cell nucleus, not the cytoplasm, as Tof1, Csm3 and Mrc1 enter the nucleus independently from one another. Via in situ chromatin binding assay we show that a Tof1-Csm3 dimer formation and chromatin binding is required to ensure the attachment of Mrc1 to chromatin. Our study indicates that the translocation into the nucleus is not the process to regulate the timing of chromatin association of Mrc1. We also studied the nuclear behavior of Mrc1 subunit in the process of adaptation to the presence hydroxyurea. Our results indicate that after prolonged HU incubation, cells bypass the S-phase checkpoint and proceed throughout the cell cycle. This process is accompanied by Mrc1 chromatin detachment and Rad53 dephosphorylation. In S. cerevisiae the subunits of the S-phase checkpoint complex Mrc1/Tof1/Csm3 independently enter the cell nucleus, where a Tof1-Csm3 dimer is formed to ensure the chromatin binding of Mrc1 and favor DNA replication and S-phase checkpoint fork arrest. In the process of adaptation to the presence of hydroxyurea Mrc1 is detached from chromatin and Rad53 checkpoint activity is diminished in order to allow S-phase checkpoint escape and completion of the cell cycle.

  12. Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet in relation to obesity among Iranian female nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Farzaneh; Falahi, Ebrahim; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Yazdannik, Ahmadreza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-03-01

    Limited observational studies have considered habitual consumption of the general population to examine the relationship between the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate adherence to the DASH diet in relation to general and central obesity among female nurses in Isfahan, Iran. Cross-sectional study carried out among 293 female nurses aged >30 years who were selected by a multistage, cluster random sampling method. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated FFQ. We constructed the DASH score based on foods and nutrients emphasized or minimized in the DASH diet, focusing on eight components: high intake of fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes, low-fat dairy products and whole grains and low intakes of sodium, sweetened beverages, and red and processed meats. General and abdominal obesity were defined as BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and waist circumference ≥ 88 cm, respectively. Isfahan, Iran. Female nurses (n 293) aged >30 years. Increased adherence to the DASH diet was associated with older age (Pobesity between extreme quartiles of the DASH diet score. After adjustment for age, energy intake and other confounding factors, DASH diet score was not significantly associated with obesity. However, with further controlling for other dietary factors, those in the highest quartile of DASH diet score were 71 % less likely to have general obesity compared with those in the lowest quartile. In addition, following a DASH diet was inversely associated with central obesity after adjustment for potential confounders (OR=0.37; 95 % CI 0.14, 0.96). We found that adherence to the DASH diet was inversely related to central obesity among Iranian adult females. This association remained significant even after adjustment for potential confounders.

  13. MPEG DASH SRD : Spatial Relationship Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niamut, O.A.; Thomas, E.D.R.; D'Acunto, L.; Concolato, C.; Denoual, F.; Yong Lim, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Spatial Representation Description (SRD)feature of the second amendment of MPEG DASH standard part 1, 23009-1:2014 [1]. SRD is an approach for streaming only spatial sub-parts of a video to display devices, in combination with the form of adaptive multi-rate streaming that is

  14. Asupan makan DASH-like diet untuk mencegah risiko hipertensi pada wanita prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Rahadiyanti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prediabetics have cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Unhealthy food intake can increase the risk of hypertension in prediabetes. Prediabetes hypertension has the impact on increasing prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A cohort study has shown that DASH diet is related to the lower incidence of hypertension in women (1. Objective: Of this study had the purpose to know that inappropriate DASH-like diet intake is associated with hypertension risk at prediabetes women in Puskesmas Tlogosari Kulon Semarang. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Puskesmas Tlogosari Kulon area on January – March 2014 among 117 prediabetes women. The subjects were selected using consecutive sampling. Independent variable in this study was DASH-like diet intake which assessed from FFQ and the dependent variable was hypertension risk. The subject was classified as at risk for hypertension if, in seated position, the mean of the two measurements was ≥120/80 mmHg. Chi-Square test and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean of DASH-like diet score in subjects who were not at hypertension risk (3.31 was higher than subjects who were at hypertension risk (3.23. There was 90,77% person with hypertension risk who did not consume DASH-like diet properly. But the association of DASH-like diet intake with hypertension risk was not significant (p=0.194. The multivariate result showed that there was association between family history (p=0.047, obesity (p=0.016, and fat intake (p=0.015 with hypertension risk. Conclusion: Inappropriate DASH-like diet intake may increase the risk of hypertension, but it is not statistically significant.

  15. Measurement properties of the QuickDASH (disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand) outcome measure and cross-cultural adaptations of the QuickDASH: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Carol A; Beaton, Dorcas E; Smith, Peter; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Tang, Kenneth; Inrig, Taucha; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Linton, Denise; Couban, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    To identify and synthesize evidence for the measurement properties of the QuickDASH, a shortened version of the 30-item DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) instrument. This systematic review used a best evidence synthesis approach to critically appraise the measurement properties [using COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN)] of the QuickDASH and cross-cultural adaptations. A standard search strategy was conducted between 2005 (year of first publication of QuickDASH) and March 2011 in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL. The search identified 14 studies to include in the best evidence synthesis of the QuickDASH. A further 11 studies were identified on eight cross-cultural adaptation versions. Many measurement properties of the QuickDASH have been evaluated in multiple studies and across most of the measurement properties. The best evidence synthesis of the QuickDASH English version suggests that this tool is performing well with strong positive evidence for reliability and validity (hypothesis testing), and moderate positive evidence for structural validity testing. Strong negative evidence was found for responsiveness due to lower correlations with global estimates of change. Information about the measurement properties of the cross-cultural adaptation versions is still lacking, or the available information is of poor overall methodological quality.

  16. The value of modified DASH questionnaire for evaluation of elbow function after supracondylar fractures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Hristina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH Outcome Questionnaire represents a region- specific instrument for functional outcome measurement of hand function. The aim of the study was to analyze the correlation between the values of modified DASH questionnaire and change of elbow function after supracondylar fracture (SCF of humerus and to analyze the effects of early rehabilitation. Methods. The study included 35 schoolaged children with flexion of SCF of humerus without lesion of nerves. The patients were divided into two groups: group A in which rehabilitation started up to 14 days after the removal of fixation (20 children, and group B in which rehabilitation started after 15 days and more (15 children. The effects of the applied rehabilitation procedures were analyzed by measuring the range of motion of elbow and using modified DASH questionnaire. Testing was performed during the first examination, on the first day of rehabilitation (retest and after the rehabilitation. Pearson's coefficient of liner correlation was applied. Results. Statistically significant negative correlation of DASH score and extension was verified in all three measurements. The values for the first test and for the final test were highly significant (p < 0.001, as well as negative correlation of DASH score and flexion on the first test and retest (p < 0.01, and at the end of rehabilitation (p < 0.001 in the group B. For all three tests in the group A negative correlation without significant differences for DASH score and flexion was found. Conclusion. A modified DASH questionnaire correlates with objective parameters of final status of elbow after SCF in children and it is applicable to small series of patients. A positive effect of early rehabilitation of children with SCF was found.

  17. Improved valve and dash-pot assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.C.

    1985-04-23

    A dash-pot valve comprises a cylinder submerged in the fluid of a housing and have a piston attached to a plunger projecting into the path of closing movement of a pivotal valve member. A vortex chamber in said cylinder is provided with targentially directed inlets to generate vortex flow upon retraction of said plunger and effect increasing resistance against said piston to progressively retard the closing rate of said valve member toward its seat.

  18. Valve and dash-pot assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Chih

    1986-01-01

    A dash-pot valve comprising a cylinder submerged in the fluid of a housing and having a piston attached to a plunger projecting into the path of closing movement of a pivotal valve member. A vortex chamber in said cylinder is provided with tangentially directed inlets to generate vortex flow upon retraction of said plunger and effect increasing resistance against said piston to progressively retard the closing rate of said valve member toward its seat.

  19. Revisiting the Observability of the WH and ZH, H → b(dash b) Channel in 14 TeV pp and 2 TeV pp Collisions (lb(dash b) and llb(dash b) Final States)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter-Was, E.; )

    2000-01-01

    A detailed study of the associated Standard Model Higgs boson production in 14 TeV pp (LHC) and 2 TeV p(anti p) (Tevatron) collisions, WH with W → lν and ZH with Z → ll, with Higgs boson decays to b(dash b) pair, is presented for Higgs masses of 100 and 120 GeV. Presently, WH with H → b(dash b) production is considered to be less promising than the t(dash t)H associated production for the Higgs searches at LHC. However, studies of Higgs searches at Tevatron indicate that this channel in combination with the WH/ZH channels leading to the E miss T + b(dash b) signature, offers good discovery potential in the mass range 90-140 GeV. The aim of this paper is to provide several details which lead to a quantitative comparison in a consistent framework of the physics potential for these channels in both colliding scenarios. The emphasis is put on the differences in the expected signal and background rates and compositions of the backgrounds. (author)

  20. DNA synthesis in permeabilized WI38 and MRC5 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, T.D.; Carpenter, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    DNA synthesis was examined in cultures of growing WI38 and MRC5 cells made permeable to deoxyribonucleotides. Cells from late passage cultures showed a reduced rate of deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) uptake as compared to cells from early- to mid-passage cultures. This reduction became evident earlier in WI38 cultures (passage 33) than in MRC5 cultures (passage 41). Although this reduced rate of incorporation appeared to be primarily due to a reduced percentage of replicating (S phase) cells in later passage cultures, some effect on the rate of DNA synthesis in replicating cells was also evident

  1. The presence of pMRC01 promotes greater cell permeability and autolysis in lactococcal starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallico, Vincenzo; McAuliffe, Olivia; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul

    2009-08-15

    Conjugative transfer of plasmid-associated properties is routinely used to generate food-grade derivatives of lactococcal starter strains with improved technological traits. However, the introduction of one or more plasmids in a single strain is likely to impose a burden on regular cell metabolism and may affect the growth characteristics of the transconjugant culture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the 60.2-kb plasmid pMRC01 (encoding for an abortive infection bacteriophage resistance system and production of the anti-microbial, lacticin 3147) on starter performance. Five lactococcal strains (L. lactis HP, 255A, SK1, 712 and IL1403) and their pMRC01-containing derivatives were compared in terms of technological properties, including analysis of growth, acidification and autolysis rates. The transconjugants exhibited lower specific growth rates and higher generation times compared to the parental strains when grown at 30 degrees C in glucose-M17, but the presence of pMRC01 did not significantly affect the acidification capacity of strains in 11% reconstituted skimmed milk and synthetic media. Levels of lactate dehydrogenase were two-fold higher in supernatants of transconjugants than in those of parental strains, after 24 and 72 h of growth at 30 degrees C in glucose-M17, suggesting that the presence of pMRC01 somehow accelerates and promotes cellular autolysis. Analysis by flow cytometry following live/dead staining confirmed this result by showing larger populations of injured and dead cells in pMRC01-carrying cultures compared to the parental strains. The results of this study reveal that the plasmid pMRC01 places a burden on lactococcal host metabolism, which is associated with an increased cell permeability and autolysis, without significantly affecting the acidification capacity of the starter. While the magnitude of these effects appears to be strain dependent, the production of the bacteriocin lacticin 3147 may not be involved.

  2. Enhancing MPEG DASH performance via server and network assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, E.D.R.; Deventer, M.O. van; Stockhammer, T.; Begen, A.C.; Famaey, J.

    2015-01-01

    MPEG DASH provides formats that are suitable to stream media content over HTTP. Typically, the DASH client adaptively requests small chunks of media based on the available bandwidth and other resources. This client-pull technology has proven to be more flexible, firewall-friendly and CDN-scalable

  3. Dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH: diet components may be related to lower prevalence of different kinds of cancer: A review on the related documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouh Onvani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH eating plan is a healthy dietary pattern. Our object is to review surveys in the field of major components of DASH diet and different kinds of cancers. Materials and Methods: Our search result from PubMed search engine recruited to find related articles. Results: Adherence to the DASH diet components was significantly related to lower prevalence of various cancers due to their high content of fiber, nutrients, vitamins, mineral, and antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: In this review, positive association of DASH diet components and different cancers were observed. However, the exact association of DASH with cancers should be clarified in future longitudinal studies due to potential interaction among foods and nutrients.

  4. Distinct Lasing Operation From Chirped InAs/InP Quantum-Dash Laser

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee; Lee, Chi-Sen; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    We study the enhanced inhomogeneity across the InAs quantum-dash (Qdash) layers by incorporating a chirped AlGaInAs barrier thickness in the InAs/InP laser structure. The lasing operation is investigated via Fabry-Pérot ridge-waveguide laser

  5. ADAPTIVE STREAMING OVER HTTP (DASH UNTUK APLIKASI VIDEO STREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Oka Widyantara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG-DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  6. DASH-FP, Multicomponent Time-Dependent Concentration Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apperson, C.E. Jr.; Carruthers, L.M.; Shinn, J.F.; Lee, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The program DASH-FP calculates the transient concentration of multiple diffusing species with radioactive decay. 2 - Method of solution: Uses finite difference and exponential operator techniques

  7. Integrating Data for Analysis, Anonymization, and Sharing (iDASH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — iDASH, the newest Common Fund National Center for Biomedical Computing, addresses fundamental challenges to research progress and enables global collaborations...

  8. Effects of dietary sodium and the DASH diet on the occurrence of headaches: results from randomised multicentre DASH-Sodium clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Muhammad; Woodward, Mark; Appel, Lawrence J

    2014-12-11

    Headaches are a common medical problem, yet few studies, particularly trials, have evaluated therapies that might prevent or control headaches. We, thus, investigated the effects on the occurrence of headaches of three levels of dietary sodium intake and two diet patterns (the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet (rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products with reduced saturated and total fat) and a control diet (typical of Western consumption patterns)). Randomised multicentre clinical trial. Post hoc analyses of the DASH-Sodium trial in the USA. In a multicentre feeding study with three 30 day periods, 390 participants were randomised to the DASH or control diet. On their assigned diet, participants ate food with high sodium during one period, intermediate sodium during another period and low sodium during another period, in random order. Occurrence and severity of headache were ascertained from self-administered questionnaires, completed at the end of each feeding period. The occurrence of headaches was similar in DASH versus control, at high (OR (95% CI)=0.65 (0.37 to 1.12); p=0.12), intermediate (0.57 (0.29 to 1.12); p=0.10) and low (0.64 (0.36 to 1.13); p=0.12) sodium levels. By contrast, there was a lower risk of headache on the low, compared with high, sodium level, both on the control (0.69 (0.49 to 0.99); p=0.05) and DASH (0.69 (0.49 to 0.98); p=0.04) diets. A reduced sodium intake was associated with a significantly lower risk of headache, while dietary patterns had no effect on the risk of headaches in adults. Reduced dietary sodium intake offers a novel approach to prevent headaches. NCT00000608. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Silica Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and Autophagy but Not Apoptosis in the MRC-5 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Nicoleta Petrache Voicu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro effects of 62.5 µg/mL silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs on MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells for 24, 48 and 72 h. The nanoparticles’ morphology, composition, and structure were investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. Our study showed a decreased cell viability and the induction of cellular oxidative stress as evidenced by an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS, carbonyl groups, and advanced oxidation protein products after 24, 48, and 72 h, as well as a decreased concentration of glutathione (GSH and protein sulfhydryl groups. The protein expression of Hsp27, Hsp60, and Hsp90 decreased at all time intervals, while the level of protein Hsp70 remained unchanged during the exposure. Similarly, the expression of p53, MDM2 and Bcl-2 was significantly decreased for all time intervals, while the expression of Bax, a marker for apoptosis, was insignificantly downregulated. These results correlated with the increase of pro-caspase 3 expression. The role of autophagy in cellular response to SiO2 NPs was demonstrated by a fluorescence-labeled method and by an increased level of LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Taken together, our data suggested that SiO2 NPs induced ROS-mediated autophagy in MRC-5 cells as a possible mechanism of cell survival.

  10. Response of Fibroblasts MRC-5 to Flufenamic Acid-Grafted MCM-41 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Gomes Lara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, flufenamic acid (FFA was discovered among fenamates as a free radical scavenger and gap junction blocker; however, its effects have only been studied in cancer cells. Normal cells in the surroundings of a tumor also respond to radiation, although they are not hit by it directly. This phenomenon is known as the bystander effect, where response molecules pass from tumor cells to normal ones, through communication channels called gap junctions. The use of the enhanced permeability and retention effect, through which drug-loaded nanoparticles smaller than 200 nm may accumulate around a tumor, can prevent the local side effect upon controlled release of the drug. The present work, aimed at functionalizing MCM-41 (Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41 silica nanoparticles with FFA and determining its biocompatibility with human fibroblasts MRC-5 (Medical Research Council cell strain 5. MCM-41, was synthesized and characterized structurally and chemically, with multiple techniques. The biocompatibility assay was performed by Live/Dead technique, with calcein and propidium–iodide. MRC-5 cells were treated with FFA-grafted MCM-41 for 48 h, and 98% of cells remained viable, without signs of necrosis or morphological changes. The results show the feasibility of MCM-41 functionalization with FFA, and its potential protection of normal cells, in comparison to the role of FFA in cancerous ones.

  11. Response of Fibroblasts MRC-5 to Flufenamic Acid-Grafted MCM-41 Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Giovanna Gomes; Cipreste, Marcelo Fernandes; Andrade, Gracielle Ferreira; Silva, Wellington Marcos da; Sousa, Edésia Martins Barros de

    2018-01-09

    Recently, flufenamic acid (FFA) was discovered among fenamates as a free radical scavenger and gap junction blocker; however, its effects have only been studied in cancer cells. Normal cells in the surroundings of a tumor also respond to radiation, although they are not hit by it directly. This phenomenon is known as the bystander effect, where response molecules pass from tumor cells to normal ones, through communication channels called gap junctions. The use of the enhanced permeability and retention effect, through which drug-loaded nanoparticles smaller than 200 nm may accumulate around a tumor, can prevent the local side effect upon controlled release of the drug. The present work, aimed at functionalizing MCM-41 (Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41) silica nanoparticles with FFA and determining its biocompatibility with human fibroblasts MRC-5 (Medical Research Council cell strain 5). MCM-41, was synthesized and characterized structurally and chemically, with multiple techniques. The biocompatibility assay was performed by Live/Dead technique, with calcein and propidium-iodide. MRC-5 cells were treated with FFA-grafted MCM-41 for 48 h, and 98% of cells remained viable, without signs of necrosis or morphological changes. The results show the feasibility of MCM-41 functionalization with FFA, and its potential protection of normal cells, in comparison to the role of FFA in cancerous ones.

  12. Protein oxidation and degradation during proliferative senescence of human MRC-5 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitte, N; Merker, K; von Zglinicki, T; Grune, T

    2000-03-01

    One of the highlights of age-related changes of cellular metabolism is the accumulation of oxidized proteins. The aging process on a cellular level can be treated either as the ongoing proliferation until a certain number of cell divisions is reached (the Hayflick limit) or as the aging of nondividing cells, that is, the age-related changes in cells without proliferation. The present investigation was undertaken to reveal the changes in protein turnover, proteasome activity, and protein oxidation status during proliferative senescence. We were able to demonstrate that the activity of the cytosolic proteasomal system declines dramatically during the proliferative senescence of human MRC-5 fibroblasts. Regardless of the loss in activity, it could be demonstrated that there are no changes in the transcription and translation of proteasomal subunits. This decline in proteasome activity was accompanied by an increased concentration of oxidized proteins. Cells at higher proliferation stages were no longer able to respond with increased degradation of endogenous [(35)S]-Met-radiolabeled proteins after hydrogen peroxide- or quinone-induced oxidative stress. It could be demonstrated that oxidized proteins in senescent human MRC-5 fibroblasts are not as quickly removed as they are in young cells. Therefore, our study demonstrates that the accumulation of oxidized proteins and decline in protein turnover and activity of the proteasomal system are not only a process of postmitotic aging but also occur during proliferative senescence and result in an increased half-life of oxidized proteins.

  13. Characteristics of quantum dash laser under the rate equation model framework

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2010-09-01

    The authors present a numerical model to study the carrier dynamics of InAs/InP quantum dash (QDash) lasers. The model is based on single-state rate equations, which incorporates both, the homogeneous and the inhomogeneous broadening of lasing spectra. The numerical technique also considers the unique features of the QDash gain medium. This model has been applied successfully to analyze the laser spectra of QDash laser. ©2010 IEEE.

  14. Asymptotic Analysis in MIMO MRT/MRC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Quan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of the probability density function of the squared largest singular value of a complex Gaussian matrix at the origin and tail, we obtain two asymptotic results related to the multi-input multi-output (MIMO maximum-ratio-transmission/maximum-ratio-combining (MRT/MRC systems. One is the asymptotic error performance (in terms of SNR in a single-user system, and the other is the asymptotic system capacity (in terms of the number of users in the multiuser scenario when multiuser diversity is exploited. Similar results are also obtained for two other MIMO diversity schemes, space-time block coding and selection combining. Our results reveal a simple connection with system parameters, providing good insights for the design of MIMO diversity systems.

  15. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Minh Hoang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  16. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-08-18

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  17. [Drug Addiction Self-Help Recovery scale (DASH-scale): an approach to the measurement of recovery from drug addiction in self-help program among drug addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimane, Takuya; Misago, Chizuru

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a scale for measuring the recovery in self-help program for drug addicts. Our study sites were fourteen self-help groups for drug addicts called "DARC: Drug Addiction Rehabilitation Center". DARC activities were based on Narcotics Anonymous types of self-help program. The 25-items DASH-scale questionnaire was developed using data, which were obtained through in-depth interview among DARC staff. A cross-sectional study among recovering addicts participating in "DARC" activities was implemented from Jan 2004 to Feb 2004. 164 subjects were responded to our questionnaire. Factor analysis was carried out and items with weaker or split loadings were removed. Factor analysis of DASH-scale results produced a surprisingly clean four-factor solution. 19-items were left to form the final DASH-scale; regular life-style (6 items), acceptance of drug addiction (5 items), sympathy with member (5 items), reborn (3 items). The internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha) of these scales was very high (0.87). Low but significant concurrent correlations were observed between the DASH-scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (0.22), Purpose in Life Test (0.35). Discriminant validity of the DASH-scale was supported by significant increase with exposed period of self-help program. Evidence supports the DASH-scale was possible to measure recovery in self-help program.

  18. Transmit selection for imperfect threshold-based receive MRC in Rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-01-01

    The performance of multiple-antenna diversity systems in which the receiver combines signal replicas per thresholdbased maximal ratio combining (MRC) and the transmitter uses only a single antenna according to receive combined signal strength is studied. The impact of imperfect channel estimation is considered when the received signal replicas undergo independent and flat multipath fading. The analysis is applicable for arbitrary transmit antenna selection when the multiple-antenna channels experience identically distributed and non-identically distributed Rayleigh fading conditions. New closed-form expressions for the combined SNR statistics and some performance measures are presented. The system models adopted herein and the presented analytical results can be used to study the performance of different system architectures under various channel conditions when the implementation complexity is of interest. © 2009 IEEE.

  19. The MRC dyspnoea scale by telephone interview to monitor health status in elderly COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladini, Luciana; Hodder, Rick; Cecchini, Isabella; Bellia, Vincenzo; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2010-07-01

    Dyspnoea is the most common symptom associated with poor quality of life in patients affected by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). While COPD severity is commonly staged by lung function, the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea scale has been proposed as a more clinically meaningful method of quantifying disease severity in COPD. We wished to assess whether this scale might also be useful during telephone surveys as a simple surrogate marker of perceived health status in elderly patients with COPD. We conducted a comprehensive health status assessment by telephone survey of 200 elderly patients who had a physician diagnosis of COPD. The telephone survey contained 71 items and explored such domains as educational level, financial status, living arrangements and social contacts, co-morbid illness, and the severity and the impact of COPD on health status. Patients were categorized according to the reported MRC score: mild dyspnoea (MRC scale of 1), moderate dyspnoea (MRC scale of 2 and 3), or severe dyspnoea (MRC of 4 and 5). Deterioration in most of the recorded indicators of health status correlated with an increasingly severe MRC score. This was most evident for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), perceived health and emotional status, pain-related limitations, limitations in social life, hospital admissions in preceding year and prevalence of most co-morbidities. The MRC dyspnoea scale is a reliable index of disease severity and health status in elderly COPD patients which should prove useful for remote monitoring of COPD and for rating health status for epidemiological purposes.

  20. Orientation dependent emission properties of columnar quantum dash laser structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, S.; Podemski, P.; Sek, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Ridha, P.; Fiore, A.; Patriarche, G.; Höfling, S.; Forchel, A.

    2009-01-01

    InAs columnar quantum dash (CQDash) structures on (100) InP have been realized by gas source molecular beam epitaxy for stacking numbers of up to 24. Laser devices show low threshold current densities between 0.73 and 3.5 kA/ cm2, dependent on the CQDash orientation within the cavity.

  1. Validity of the Mania Subscale of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Smiroldo, Brandi B.

    1997-01-01

    A study tested the validity of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II) for determining the presence of mania (bipolar disorder) in 22 individuals with severe mental retardation. Results found the mania subscale to be internally consistent and able to be used to classify manic and control subjects accurately. (Author/CR)

  2. Diagnostic imaging of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: preoperative evaluation of ERC, MRC and PTC in comparison with histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaneehsen, B.; Mainz Univ.; Otto, G.; Lohse, A.W.; Bittinger, F.; Herber, S.; Oberholzer, K.; Pitton, M.B.; Thelen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the results of the preoperative workup consisting of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC), and percutaneous resonance cholangiography (PTC) with the tumor extent of the surgical specimen in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (hilCC). Materials and Methods: Between 9/1997 and 12/2002. 59 patients with hilCC tumor underwent surgical resection. Preoperative ERC, MRC, and PTC were analyzed, blinded for the identity of the patient, and compared with the surgical specimen. For this retrospective analysis, 55 of the initial 59 ERCs, 39 of the initial 40 MRCs and 32 of the initial 38 PTCs were available. Most of the ERCs and MRCs had been performed at referring institutions by various investigators. In 20 patients, all three imaging modalities were available for direct comparison. Results: The mean scores of the visualization of the bile ducts and tumor differ considerably for ERC, MRC and PTC, with PTC visualizing the bile ducts better than ERC (p<0.001) and MRC (p=0.019). The tumor classification according to Bismuth and Corlette was correctly predicted by ERC in 29%, by MRC in 36% and by PTC in 53%. The tumor extent was overestimated in 40% (ERC), 41% (MRC) and 31% (PTC) and underestimated in less than 10% for all modalities. Twenty patients, who underwent all three imaging modalities, were included in an additional analysis for a direct comparison of ERC, MRC and PTC. PTC provided correct or acceptable information on tumor extent in 19 of 20 patients, MRC in 15 of 20 patients, and ERC in only 11 of 20 patients. The statistical analysis revealed a significant superiority of PTC to ERC (McNemar test: p<0.01) but not to MRC (p=0.22). (orig.)

  3. Sensitiveness of the Constant-Murley’s Shoulder and Quick DASH as an Outcome Measure for Midshaft Clavicle Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Magetsari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Quick DASH and Constant-Murley’s Shoulder are two valid measuring tools for health status and are useful for patients with a wide variety of upper-extremity complaints; it is sufficiently sensitive to reveal even small changes in function. Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity of Quick DASH and Constant-Murley’s Shoulder as an outcome measurement for midshaft clavicle fracture. METHOD: The study population consisted of 64 patients with a diagnosis of midshaft clavicle fracture based on clinical and radiological criteria. Study design was that of a classic prospective cohort study with measurements at 3 and 6 months following the injury. Evaluation was based on effect size (ES and standardized response means (SRM. RESULT: Both Quick DASH and Constant-Murley’s Shoulder showed high sensitivity (ES: 0.711; SRM: 1.46 and ES: 0.628; SRM: 1.45, respectively. CONCLUSION: Quick DASH was more sensitive than Constant-Murley’s Shoulder in detecting clinical changes on midshaft clavicle fractures at 3 and 6 month following treatment.

  4. Effects of Different Conditioning Activities on 100-m Dash Performance in High School Track and Field Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Júnior, João B; Guttierres, Ana P M; Encarnação, Irismar G A; Lima, Jorge R P; Borba, Diego A; Freitas, Eduardo D S; Bemben, Michael G; Vieira, Carlos A; Bottaro, Martim

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the effects of different conditioning activities on the 100-m dash performance of 11 male, high school track and field athletes (mean age = 16.3; SD = 1.2 years). Participants performed a 100-m dash seven minutes after each of four randomized conditioning protocols, with each condition and 100-m dash separated by 3-10 days. The conditioning protocols were (a) control, no conditioning activity; (b) weighted plyometric, three sets of 10 repetitions of alternate leg bounding with additional load of 10% of the body mass; (c) free sprint, two 20-m sprints; and (d) resisted sprint (RS), two 20-m resisted sprints using an elastic tubing tool. We obtained session ratings of perceived exertion (SRPE) immediately after each conditioning protocol. There were no significant differences between any of the three experimental conditioning activities on 100-m sprint time, but the RS protocol improved 100-m sprint time compared with the control (no conditioning) protocol ( p < .001). The RS also led to greater sprint velocity and higher SRPE compared with the control condition ( p < .01). There was no significant association between SRPE and 100-m performance ( p = .77, r = .05). These results suggest a benefit for young male track and field athletes to the elastic tubing warm-up activities prior to the 100-m dash.

  5. Semiconductor Quantum Dash Broadband Emitters: Modeling and Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-10-01

    Broadband light emitters operation, which covers multiple wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, has been established as an indispensable element to the human kind, continuously advancing the living standard by serving as sources in important multi-disciplinary field applications such as biomedical imaging and sensing, general lighting and internet and mobile phone connectivity. In general, most commercial broadband light sources relies on complex systems for broadband light generation which are bulky, and energy hungry. \\tRecent demonstration of ultra-broadband emission from semiconductor light sources in the form of superluminescent light emitting diodes (SLDs) has paved way in realization of broadband emitters on a completely novel platform, which offered compactness, cost effectiveness, and comparatively energy efficient, and are already serving as a key component in medical imaging systems. The low power-bandwidth product is inherent in SLDs operating in the amplified spontaneous emission regime. A quantum leap in the advancement of broadband emitters, in which high power and large bandwidth (in tens of nm) are in demand. Recently, the birth of a new class of broadband semiconductor laser diode (LDs) producing multiple wavelength light in stimulated emission regime was demonstrated. This very recent manifestation of a high power-bandwidth-product semiconductor broadband LDs relies on interband optical transitions via quantum confined dot/dash nanostructures and exploiting the natural inhomogeneity of the self-assembled growth technology. This concept is highly interesting and extending the broad spectrum of stimulated emission by novel device design forms the central focus of this dissertation. \\tIn this work, a simple rate equation numerical technique for modeling InAs/InP quantum dash laser incorporating the properties of inhomogeneous broadening effect on lasing spectra was developed and discussed, followed by a comprehensive experimental analysis

  6. Effect of the plane of surgery achieved on local recurrence in patients with operable rectal cancer: a prospective study using data from the MRC CR07 and NCIC-CTG CO16 randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, Phil; Steele, Robert; Monson, John; Grieve, Robert; Khanna, Subhash; Couture, Jean; O'Callaghan, Chris; Myint, Arthur Sun; Bessell, Eric; Thompson, Lindsay C; Parmar, Mahesh; Stephens, Richard J; Sebag-Montefiore, David

    2009-03-07

    Local recurrence rates in operable rectal cancer are improved by radiotherapy (with or without chemotherapy) and surgical techniques such as total mesorectal excision. However, the contributions of surgery and radiotherapy to outcomes are unclear. We assessed the effect of the involvement of the circumferential resection margin and the plane of surgery achieved. In this prospective study, the plane of surgery achieved and the involvement of the circumferential resection margin were assessed by local pathologists, using a standard pathological protocol in 1156 patients with operable rectal cancer from the CR07 and NCIC-CTG CO16 trial, which compared short-course (5 days) preoperative radiotherapy and selective postoperative chemoradiotherapy, between March, 1998, and August, 2005. All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN 28785842. 128 patients (11%) had involvement of the circumferential resection margin, and the plane of surgery achieved was classified as good (mesorectal) in 604 (52%), intermediate (intramesorectal) in 398 (34%), and poor (muscularis propria plane) in 154 (13%). We found that both a negative circumferential resection margin and a superior plane of surgery achieved were associated with low local recurrence rates. Hazard ratio (HR) was 0.32 (95% CI 0.16-0.63, p=0.0011) with 3-year local recurrence rates of 6% (5-8%) and 17% (10-26%) for patients who were negative and positive for circumferential resection margin, respectively. For plane of surgery achieved, HRs for mesorectal and intramesorectal groups compared with the muscularis propria group were 0.32 (0.16-0.64) and 0.48 (0.25-0.93), respectively. At 3 years, the estimated local recurrence rates were 4% (3-6%) for mesorectal, 7% (5-11%) for intramesorectal, and 13% (8-21%) for muscularis propria groups. The benefit of short-course preoperative radiotherapy did not differ in the three plane of surgery groups (p=0.30 for trend). Patients in the short

  7. Phenotypic and genomic analysis of serotype 3 Sabin poliovirus vaccine produced in MRC-5 cell substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alirezaie, Behnam; Taqavian, Mohammad; Aghaiypour, Khosrow; Esna-Ashari, Fatemeh; Shafyi, Abbas

    2011-05-01

    The cell substrate has a pivotal role in live virus vaccines production. It is necessary to evaluate the effects of the cell substrate on the properties of the propagated viruses, especially in the case of viruses which are unstable genetically such as polioviruses, by monitoring the molecular and phenotypical characteristics of harvested viruses. To investigate the presence/absence of mutation(s), the near full-length genomic sequence of different harvests of the type 3 Sabin strain of poliovirus propagated in MRC-5 cells were determined. The sequences were compared with genomic sequences of different virus seeds, vaccines, and OPV-like isolates. Nearly complete genomic sequencing results, however, revealed no detectable mutations throughout the genome RNA-plaque purified (RSO)-derived monopool of type 3 OPVs manufactured in MRC-5. Thirty-six years of experience in OPV production, trend analysis, and vaccine surveillance also suggest that: (i) different monopools of serotype 3 OPV produced in MRC-5 retained their phenotypic characteristics (temperature sensitivity and neuroattenuation), (ii) MRC-5 cells support the production of acceptable virus yields, (iii) OPV replicated in the MRC-5 cell substrate is a highly efficient and safe vaccine. These results confirm previous reports that MRC-5 is a desirable cell substrate for the production of OPV. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH Eating Plan on Inflammation and Liver Functional Tests among Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Azadbakht

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering that the new cardiovascular risk factors are important among type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH eating pattern on inflammation and novel cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients.Materials and Method: In this eight-weeks crossover randomized clinical trail, 31 type 2 diabetic patients were on a control diet or the DASH diet. Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products are consumed in high amounts in this diet. However, saturated fat, total fat, cholesterol, refined grains, and sweets are recommended in low amounts. DASH diet had a total of 2,400 mg sodium per day. There was a four week washout between two trial phases. C-reactive protein level, coagulation indices and hepatic function tests were measured at baseline and after each phase of trial.Results: The mean percent change for plasma C-reactive protein level was -26.9±3.5% after the DASH diet and-5.1±3.8% after the control diet (p=0.001. Both alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly reduced after consuming the DASH diet compared to the control diet (-14.8±3.0 % vs -6.6±3.4%; p=0.001, -29.4±3.7% vs -5.9±1.4%; p=0.001, respectively. The DASH diet reduced the plasma fibrinogen level compared to the control diet (-11.4±3.6% and 0.5±3.4%; p=0.03, respectively. Conclusion: Among diabetic patients, the DASH diet can play an important role in reducing inflammation, plasma levels of fibrinogen and liver aminotranferases. Future long-term studies are recommended.

  9. The association of the dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) diet with blood pressure, glucose and lipid profiles in Malaysian and Philippines populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, X T; Nursara Shahirah, A; Pun, V C; Wong, K Y; Fong, A Y Y; Sy, R G; Castillo-Carandang, N T; Nang, E E K; Woodward, M; van Dam, R M; Tai, E S; Venkataraman, K

    2018-05-07

    Despite a growing body of evidence from Western populations on the health benefits of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets, their applicability in South East Asian settings is not clear. We examined cross-sectional associations between DASH diet and cardio-metabolic risk factors among 1837 Malaysian and 2898 Philippines participants in a multi-national cohort. Blood pressures, fasting lipid profile and fasting glucose were measured, and DASH score was computed based on a 22-item food frequency questionnaire. Older individuals, women, those not consuming alcohol and those undertaking regular physical activity were more likely to have higher DASH scores. In the Malaysian cohort, while total DASH score was not significantly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors after adjusting for confounders, significant associations were observed for intake of green vegetable [0.011, standard error (SE): 0.004], and red and processed meat (-0.009, SE: 0.004) with total cholesterol. In the Philippines cohort, a 5-unit increase in total DASH score was significantly and inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (-1.41, SE: 0.40), diastolic blood pressure (-1.09, SE: 0.28), total cholesterol (-0.015, SE: 0.005), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.025, SE: 0.008), and triglyceride (-0.034, SE: 0.012) after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle groups. Intake of milk and dairy products, red and processed meat, and sugared drinks were found to significantly associated with most risk factors. Differential associations of DASH diet and dietary components with cardio-metabolic risk factors by country suggest the need for country-specific tailoring of dietary interventions to improve cardio-metabolic risk profiles. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by

  10. Dots and dashes: art, virtual reality, and the telegraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzanka, Silvia; Chang, Ben

    2009-02-01

    Dots and Dashes is a virtual reality artwork that explores online romance over the telegraph, based on Ella Cheever Thayer's novel Wired Love - a Romance in Dots and Dashes (an Old Story Told in a New Way)1. The uncanny similarities between this story and the world of today's virtual environments provides the springboard for an exploration of a wealth of anxieties and dreams, including the construction of identities in an electronically mediated environment, the shifting boundaries between the natural and machine worlds, and the spiritual dimensions of science and technology. In this paper we examine the parallels between the telegraph networks and our current conceptions of cyberspace, as well as unique social and cultural impacts specific to the telegraph. These include the new opportunities and roles available to women in the telegraph industry and the connection between the telegraph and the Spiritualist movement. We discuss the development of the artwork, its structure and aesthetics, and the technical development of the work.

  11. Radiation in MRC supported research in the 1950s and 1960s. Report of a committee inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    On 6 July 1995, a television documentary entitled 'Deadly Experiments' was broadcast on Channel 4 as part of the 'True Stories' series. The programme, produced by Twenty-Twenty Television, featured a number of research projects conducted between 1950 and 1970 in which either measurements were made of the amount of radiation absorbed by, or radioactive substances were administered to, human subjects in the UK and USA. The level of public concern generated by the broadcast and the implication of unethical practices in the conduct of some of the research sponsored by the MRC, has acted as the trigger for the MRC to establish this independent Committee of Inquiry. Its remit has been to clarify the facts surrounding the research and to examine issues of 'acceptability and consent in the context of the scientific and ethical standards of the period in, which the research was carried out. The following studies featured in the programme were funded by the MRC. The study measuring levels of Strontium 90 uptake, in which samples of bone were taken at autopsy (the programme featured a case in North Wales where the femora were removed from a deceased infant). The work carried out at University College London and reported in 1952 and 1958, in which radioiodine was administered to women in order to measure thyroid function throughout the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. The work carried out at the Hammersmith Hospital, London, in 1953, in which radioactive sodium was used to measure maternal placental blood flow in normal and hypertensive women. The studies at Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, which investigated iodine metabolism and maternal thyroid function during pregnancy, and the development of the human fetal thyroid. The Coventry study in which women from the Asian community were asked to consume specially prepared chapattis in order to measure levels of iron absorption, with a view to investigating the problem of anaemia

  12. iDASH: integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafna, Vineet; Boxwala, Aziz A; Chapman, Brian E; Chapman, Wendy W; Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Day, Michele E; Farcas, Claudiu; Heintzman, Nathaniel D; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Hyeoneui; Kim, Jihoon; Matheny, Michael E; Resnic, Frederic S; Vinterbo, Staal A

    2011-01-01

    iDASH (integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing) is the newest National Center for Biomedical Computing funded by the NIH. It focuses on algorithms and tools for sharing data in a privacy-preserving manner. Foundational privacy technology research performed within iDASH is coupled with innovative engineering for collaborative tool development and data-sharing capabilities in a private Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-certified cloud. Driving Biological Projects, which span different biological levels (from molecules to individuals to populations) and focus on various health conditions, help guide research and development within this Center. Furthermore, training and dissemination efforts connect the Center with its stakeholders and educate data owners and data consumers on how to share and use clinical and biological data. Through these various mechanisms, iDASH implements its goal of providing biomedical and behavioral researchers with access to data, software, and a high-performance computing environment, thus enabling them to generate and test new hypotheses. PMID:22081224

  13. Comparison of 4 established DASH diet indexes: examining associations of index scores and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Cross, Amanda J; Subar, Amy F; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Park, Yikyung; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany; Hollenbeck, Albert; Reedy, Jill

    2013-09-01

    Multiple diet indexes have been developed to capture the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and examine relations with health outcomes but have not been compared within the same study population to our knowledge. We compared 4 established DASH indexes and examined associations with colorectal cancer. Scores were generated from a food-frequency questionnaire in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 491,841). Separate indexes defined by Dixon (7 food groups, saturated fat, and alcohol), Mellen (9 nutrients), Fung (7 food groups and sodium), and Günther (8 food groups) were used. HRs and 95% CIs for colorectal cancer were generated by using Cox proportional hazard models. From 1995 through 2006, 6752 incident colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. In men, higher scores were associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence by comparing highest to lowest quintiles for all indexes as follows: Dixon (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.87), Mellen (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.86), Fung (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.83), and Günther (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.90). Higher scores in women were inversely associated with colorectal cancer incidence by using methods defined by Mellen (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.91), Fung (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and Günther (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73.0.97) but not Dixon (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.28). The consistency in findings, particularly in men, suggests that all indexes capture an underlying construct inherent in the DASH dietary pattern, although the specific index used can affect results.

  14. Comparison of 4 established DASH diet indexes: examining associations of index scores and colorectal cancer123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Amanda J; Subar, Amy F; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Park, Yikyung; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany; Hollenbeck, Albert; Reedy, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple diet indexes have been developed to capture the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and examine relations with health outcomes but have not been compared within the same study population to our knowledge. Objective: We compared 4 established DASH indexes and examined associations with colorectal cancer. Design: Scores were generated from a food-frequency questionnaire in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 491,841). Separate indexes defined by Dixon (7 food groups, saturated fat, and alcohol), Mellen (9 nutrients), Fung (7 food groups and sodium), and Günther (8 food groups) were used. HRs and 95% CIs for colorectal cancer were generated by using Cox proportional hazard models. Results: From 1995 through 2006, 6752 incident colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. In men, higher scores were associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence by comparing highest to lowest quintiles for all indexes as follows: Dixon (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.87), Mellen (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.86), Fung (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.83), and Günther (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.90). Higher scores in women were inversely associated with colorectal cancer incidence by using methods defined by Mellen (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.91), Fung (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and Günther (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73.0.97) but not Dixon (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.28). Conclusion: The consistency in findings, particularly in men, suggests that all indexes capture an underlying construct inherent in the DASH dietary pattern, although the specific index used can affect results. PMID:23864539

  15. Are the patient-rated wrist evaluation (PRWE) and the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire used in distal radial fractures truly valid and reliable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, R. G.; Bhandari, M.; Goslings, J. C.; Poolman, R. W.; Scholtes, V. A. B.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The patient-rated wrist evaluation (PRWE) and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire are patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) used for clinical and research purposes. Methodological high-quality clinimetric studies that determine the measurement properties of these PROMs when used in patients with a distal radial fracture are lacking. This study aimed to validate the PRWE and DASH in Dutch patients with a displaced distal radial fracture (DRF). Methods The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used for test-retest reliability, between PROMs completed twice with a two-week interval at six to eight months after DRF. Internal consistency was determined using Cronbach’s α for the dimensions found in the factor analysis. The measurement error was expressed by the smallest detectable change (SDC). A semi-structured interview was conducted between eight and 12 weeks after DRF to assess the content validity. Results A total of 119 patients (mean age 58 years (sd 15)), 74% female, completed PROMs at a mean time of six months (sd 1) post-fracture. One overall meaningful dimension was found for the PRWE and the DASH. Internal consistency was excellent for both PROMs (Cronbach’s α 0.96 (PRWE) and 0.97 (DASH)). Test-retest reliability was good for the PRWE (ICC 0.87) and excellent for the DASH (ICC 0.91). The SDC was 20 for the PRWE and 14 for the DASH. No floor or ceiling effects were found. The content validity was good for both questionnaires. Conclusion The PRWE and DASH are valid and reliable PROMs in assessing function and disability in Dutch patients with a displaced DRF. However, due to the high SDC, the PRWE and DASH are less useful for individual patients with a distal radial fracture in clinical practice. Cite this article: Y. V. Kleinlugtenbelt, R. G. Krol, M. Bhandari, J. C. Goslings, R. W. Poolman, V. A. B. Scholtes. Are the patient-rated wrist evaluation (PRWE) and the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and

  16. Debabrata Dash | Speakers | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For last three decades, he has been engaged in the study of platelet signalling, thrombus biology and biomedical applications of nanomaterials, results of which have been published in ACS Nano, Biosensors Bioelectronics, Nanomedicine, JBC, FASEB Journal and Molecular Medicine. He is a recipient of the Sun Pharma ...

  17. Supraclavicular scalenectomy for thoracic outlet syndrome--functional outcomes assessed using the DASH scoring system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Ronan W

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate supraclavicular scalenectomy ± cervical rib excision for thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS), employing Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scoring for functional assessment post-decompression.

  18. On the BER and capacity analysis of MIMO MRC systems with channel estimation error

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of channel estimation error on the capacity and bit-error rate (BER) of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit maximal ratio transmission (MRT) and receive maximal ratio combining (MRC) systems over uncorrelated Rayleigh fading channels. We first derive the ergodic (average) capacity expressions for such systems when power adaptation is applied at the transmitter. The exact capacity expression for the uniform power allocation case is also presented. Furthermore, to investigate the diversity order of MIMO MRT-MRC scheme, we derive the BER performance under a uniform power allocation policy. We also present an asymptotic BER performance analysis for the MIMO MRT-MRC system with multiuser diversity. The numerical results are given to illustrate the sensitivity of the main performance to the channel estimation error and the tightness of the approximate cutoff value. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. Partial PIC-MRC Receiver Design for Single Carrier Block Transmission System over Multipath Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juinn-Horng Deng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Single carrier block transmission (SCBT system has become one of the most popular modulation systems due to its low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR, and it is gradually considered to be used for uplink wireless communication systems. In this paper, a low complexity partial parallel interference cancellation (PIC with maximum ratio combining (MRC technology is proposed to use for receiver to combat the intersymbol interference (ISI problem over multipath fading channel. With the aid of MRC scheme, the proposed partial PIC technique can effectively perform the interference cancellation and acquire the benefit of time diversity gain. Finally, the proposed system can be extended to use for multiple antenna systems to provide excellent performance. Simulation results reveal that the proposed low complexity partial PIC-MRC SIMO system can provide robust performance and outperform the conventional PIC and the iterative frequency domain decision feedback equalizer (FD-DFE systems over multipath fading channel environment.

  20. MRC5 and QU-DB bystander cells can produce bystander factors and induce radiation bystander effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation damages initiated by radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE are not limited to the first or immediate neighbors of the irradiated cells, but the effects have been observed in the cells far from the irradiation site. It has been postulated that bystander cells, by producing bystander factors, are actively involved in the propagation of bystander effect in the regions beyond the initial irradiated site. Current study was planned to test the hypothesis. MRC5 and QU-DB cell lines were irradiated, and successive medium transfer technique was performed to induce bystander effects in two bystander cell groups. Conditioned medium extracted from the target cells was transferred to the bystander cells (first bystander cells. After one hour, conditioned medium was substituted by fresh medium. Two hours later, the fresh medium was transferred to a second group of non-irradiated cells (second bystander cells. Micronucleated cells (MC were counted to quantify damages induced in the first and second bystander cell groups. Radiation effect was observed in the second bystander cells as well as in the first ones. Statistical analyses revealed that the number of MC in second bystander subgroups was significantly more than the corresponding value observed in control groups, but in most cases it was equal to the number of MC observed in the first bystander cells. MRC5 and QU-DB bystander cells can produce and release bystander signals in the culture medium and affect non-irradiated cells. Therefore, they may contribute to the RIBE propagation.

  1. Factors Influencing Cryptocurrency Prices: Evidence from Bitcoin, Ethereum, Dash, Litcoin, and Monero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yhlas Sovbetov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines factors that influence prices of most common five cryptocurrencies such Bitcoin, Ethereum, Dash, Litecoin, and Monero over 2010-2018 using weekly data. The study employs ARDL technique and documents several findings. First, cryptomarket-related factors such as market beta, trading volume, and volatility appear to be significant determinant for all five cryptocurrencies both in short- and long-run. Second, attractiveness of cryptocurrencies also matters in terms of their price determination, but only in long-run. This indicates that formation (recognition of the attractiveness of cryptocurrencies are subjected to time factor. In other words, it travels slowly within the market. Third, SP500 index seems to have weak positive long-run impact on Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litcoin, while its sign turns to negative losing significance in short-run, except Bitcoin that generates an estimate of -0.20 at 10% significance level. Lastly, error-correction models for Bitcoin, Etherem, Dash, Litcoin, and Monero show that cointegrated series cannot drift too far apart, and converge to a long-run equilibrium at a speed of 23.68%, 12.76%, 10.20%, 22.91%, and 14.27% respectively.

  2. Predictive value of the DASH tool for predicting return to work of injured workers with musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Woodhouse, Linda J; Steenstra, Ivan A; Gross, Douglas P

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) tool added to the predictive ability of established prognostic factors, including patient demographic and clinical outcomes, to predict return to work (RTW) in injured workers with musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders of the upper extremity. A retrospective cohort study using a population-based database from the Workers' Compensation Board of Alberta (WCB-Alberta) that focused on claimants with upper extremity injuries was used. Besides the DASH, potential predictors included demographic, occupational, clinical and health usage variables. Outcome was receipt of compensation benefits after 3 months. To identify RTW predictors, a purposeful logistic modelling strategy was used. A series of receiver operating curve analyses were performed to determine which model provided the best discriminative ability. The sample included 3036 claimants with upper extremity injuries. The final model for predicting RTW included the total DASH score in addition to other established predictors. The area under the curve for this model was 0.77, which is interpreted as fair discrimination. This model was statistically significantly different than the model of established predictors alone (pmodels (p=0.34). The DASH tool together with other established predictors significantly helped predict RTW after 3 months in participants with upper extremity MSK disorders. An appealing result for clinicians and busy researchers is that DASH item 23 has equal predictive ability to the total DASH score. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Two Photon Induced Lasing in 1550 nm Quantum Dash Optical Gain Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capua, Amir; Saal, Abigael; Reithmaier, Johann Peter

    2011-01-01

    We report on a unique lasing mechanism observed in quantum dash Gain media. While the gain media is electrically pumped below lasing threshold, a strong optical pulse excites carriers by two photon absorption into high energy states of the quantum dashes and wetting layer. Fast inter band carrier...

  4. Absence of quantized energy-states local diffusion in semiconductor quantum-dash structures

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Cheeloon

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of InAs/InAlGaAs/InP quantum-dash structures utilizing different degrees of postgrowth-lattice-disordering. The observation of digital transitions among quantized states discards the origins of multiple excited states from a single group of dash ensembles.

  5. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH can measure the impairment, activity limitations and participation restriction constructs from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McQueen Margaret

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model of the consequences of disease identifies three health outcomes, impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions. However, few orthopaedic health outcome measures were developed with reference to the ICF. This study examined the ability of a valid and frequently used measure of upper limb function, namely the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH, to operationalise the ICF. Methods Twenty-four judges used the method of Discriminant Content Validation to allocate the 38 items of the DASH to the theoretical definition of one or more ICF outcome. One-sample t-tests classified each item as measuring, impairment, activity limitations, participation restrictions, or a combination thereof. Results The DASH contains items able to measure each of the three ICF outcomes with discriminant validity. The DASH contains five pure impairment items, 19 pure activity limitations items and three participation restriction items. In addition, seven items measured both activity limitations and participation restrictions. Conclusion The DASH can measure the three health outcomes identified by the ICF. Consequently the DASH could be used to examine the impact of trauma and subsequent interventions on each health outcome in the absence of measurement confound.

  6. On the BER and capacity analysis of MIMO MRC systems with channel estimation error

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of channel estimation error on the capacity and bit-error rate (BER) of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit maximal ratio transmission (MRT) and receive maximal ratio combining (MRC) systems over

  7. Inactivation of p16INK4a, with retention of pRB and p53/p21cip1 function, in human MRC5 fibroblasts that overcome a telomere-independent crisis during immortalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lisa M; James, Alexander; Schuller, Christine E; Brce, Jesena; Lock, Richard B; Mackenzie, Karen L

    2004-10-15

    Recent investigations, including our own, have shown that specific strains of fibroblasts expressing telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) have an extended lifespan, but are not immortal. We previously demonstrated that hTERT-transduced MRC5 fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC5hTERTs) bypassed senescence but eventually succumbed to a second mortality barrier (crisis). In the present study, 67 MRC5hTERT clones were established by limiting dilution of a mass culture. Whereas 39/67 clones had an extended lifespan, all 39 extended lifespan clones underwent crisis. 11 of 39 clones escaped crisis and were immortalized. There was no apparent relationship between the fate of clones at crisis and the level of telomerase activity. Telomeres were hyperextended in the majority of the clones analyzed. There was no difference in telomere length of pre-crisis compared with post-crisis and immortal clones, indicating that hyperextended telomeres were conducive for immortalization and confirming that crisis was independent of telomere length. Immortalization of MRC5hTERT cells was associated with repression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4a and up-regulation of pRB. However, the regulation of pRB phosphorylation and the response of the p53/p21cip1/waf1 pathway were normal in immortal cells subject to genotoxic stress. Overexpression of oncogenic ras failed to de-repress p16INK4a in immortal cells. Furthermore, expression of ras enforced senescent-like growth arrest in p16INK4a-positive, but not p16INK4a-negative MRC5hTERT cells. Immortal cells expressing ras formed small, infrequent colonies in soft agarose, but were non-tumorigenic. Overall, these results implicate the inactivation of p16INK4a as a critical event for overcoming telomere-independent crisis, immortalizing MRC5 fibroblasts and overcoming ras-induced premature senescence.

  8. Experimental investigation of the optical injection locking dynamics in single section quantum-dash Fabry-Pérot laser diode for packet based clock recovery applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maldonado-Basilio, R.; Parra-Cetina, J.; Latkowski, S.; Calabretta, N.; Landais, P.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study of the dynamics of a quantum-dash Fabry-Pérot passively mode-locked laser diode is presented. Firstly, the switching on and off characteristic times of the mode-locking mechanism with pulsed biasing current are assessed. Secondly, the locking and unlocking characteristic times

  9. Dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) diet and risk of renal function decline and all-cause mortality in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, M.C.J.; Gomes-neto, A.W.; Corpeleijn, E.; Gans, R.O.B.; De Borst, M.H.; Van Den Berg, E.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Kromhout, D.; Navis, G.J.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    Renal transplant recipients (RTR) are at risk of decline of graft function and premature mortality, with high blood pressure as important risk factor for both. To study the association of the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet with these adverse events, we conducted a prospective

  10. Transmit selection algorithms for imperfect threshold-based receive MRC in the presence of co-channel interference

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-01-01

    The performance of transmit antenna selection for threshold-based maximal ratio combining (MRC) diversity receivers in the presence of multiple co-channel interfering signals is studied. The impact of imperfect channel estimation of desired user signals is considered, and the effect of phase and time misalignments between desired and undesired signals is incorporated in the analysis. Precise formulation for Nakagami-m faded interfering signals is presented. The analysis is applicable for arbitrary transmit antenna selection, which is based on the receiver combined signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) or combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratios (SINRs) for different transmit channels. New expressions for the distribution of combined SINR and outage probability performance are derived considering SNR-based as well as SINR-based selection algorithms. The results can be used to study the performance of different system architectures under various channel conditions when the implementation complexity is of interest. ©2010 IEEE.

  11. MEKANISME SEGMENTASI LAJU BIT PADA DYNAMIC ADAPTIVE STREAMING OVER HTTP (DASH UNTUK APLIKASI VIDEO STREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Audy Bazly

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG- DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  12. The NCAR Digital Asset Services Hub (DASH): Implementing Unified Data Discovery and Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, D.; Worley, S. J.; Hou, C. Y.; Nienhouse, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Directorate created the Data Stewardship Engineering Team (DSET) to plan and implement an integrated single entry point for uniform digital asset discovery and access across the organization in order to improve the efficiency of access, reduce the costs, and establish the foundation for interoperability with other federated systems. This effort supports new policies included in federal funding mandates, NSF data management requirements, and journal citation recommendations. An inventory during the early planning stage identified diverse asset types across the organization that included publications, datasets, metadata, models, images, and software tools and code. The NCAR Digital Asset Services Hub (DASH) is being developed and phased in this year to improve the quality of users' experiences in finding and using these assets. DASH serves to provide engagement, training, search, and support through the following four nodes (see figure). DASH MetadataDASH provides resources for creating and cataloging metadata to the NCAR Dialect, a subset of ISO 19115. NMDEdit, an editor based on a European open source application, has been configured for manual entry of NCAR metadata. CKAN, an open source data portal platform, harvests these XML records (along with records output directly from databases) from a Web Accessible Folder (WAF) on GitHub for validation. DASH SearchThe NCAR Dialect metadata drives cross-organization search and discovery through CKAN, which provides the display interface of search results. DASH search will establish interoperability by facilitating metadata sharing with other federated systems. DASH ConsultingThe DASH Data Curation & Stewardship Coordinator assists with Data Management (DM) Plan preparation and advises on Digital Object Identifiers. The coordinator arranges training sessions on the DASH metadata tools and DM planning, and provides one-on-one assistance as requested. DASH Repository

  13. Outage and ser performance of spectrum sharing system with TAS/MRC

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    Capacity of the secondary network degrades due to the interference constraint from the primary network. The secondary network capacity can be enhanced by means of spatial diversity, that can be achieved by adding multiple antennas on the terminals. In this paper, the performance of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) secondary link with transmit antenna selection (TAS) at the transmitter and maximum ratio combining (MRC) at the receiver is analysed. A peak transmit power constraint is considered in addition to the interference power constraint. For a Rayleigh faded channel, closed-form expression for the outage probability of a MIMO cognitive system (MIMO-CS) with TAS/MRC is derived. In addition, closed-form expressions of the moment generating function and the symbol error rate are also obtained. The performance of this system is analyzed for asymptotic regimes and it is shown that TAS/MRC in a MIMO-CS achieves a generalized diversity order of nTnR, where nT and nR are the number of transmit and receive antennas, respectively. Numerical results are also presented to corroborate the derived analytical results. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Emission dynamics of InAs/InP quantum-dash laser

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The effect of current pulse width on the lasing spectra of chirp InAs/InP quantum-dash laser is presented. The spectra shows unusual splitting with increasing current injection which is correlated to the active region inhomogeneity.

  15. Measurements of gain and index dynamics in quantum dash semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Ultrafast gain and index recovery of a 1.5um quantum dash amplifier after short pulse amplification is measured using pump-probe spectroscopy. The major part of the gain reduction is found to recover within a few picoseconds....

  16. Influence of vertical coupling on the lasing operation of quantum-dash laser

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors numerically investigated the consequence of vertical coupling among multi-stack InAs quantum dash (Qdash) laser structure on the lasing bandwidth. The developed model is based on multi-population carrier-photon rate equation

  17. High performance mode locking characteristics of single section quantum dash lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Ricardo; Murdoch, S G; Watts, R T; Merghem, K; Martinez, Anthony; Lelarge, Francois; Accard, Alain; Barry, L P; Ramdane, Abderrahim

    2012-04-09

    Mode locking features of single section quantum dash based lasers are investigated. Particular interest is given to the static spectral phase profile determining the shape of the mode locked pulses. The phase profile dependence on cavity length and injection current is experimentally evaluated, demonstrating the possibility of efficiently using the wide spectral bandwidth exhibited by these quantum dash structures for the generation of high peak power sub-picosecond pulses with low radio frequency linewidths.

  18. Demonstrator of atmospheric reentry system with hyperbolic velocity—DASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Abe, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Among a wide variety of challenging projects planned for the coming decade is the MUSES-C mission designed by the ISAS of Japan. Despite huge amount of data collected by the previous interplanetary spacecraft and probes, the origin and evolution of the solar system still remains unveiled due to their limited information. Thus, our concern has been directed toward a sample return to carry sample from an asteroid back to the earth, which will contribute to better understanding of the system. One of the keys to success is considered the reentry technology with hyperbolic velocity, which has not been demonstrated yet. With this as background, the demonstrator of atmospheric reentry system with hyperbolic velocity, DASH, has been given a commitment to demonstrate the high-speed reentry technology, which will be launched in summer of next year by Japan's H-IIA rocket in a piggyback configuration. The spaceship, composed of a reentry capsule and its carrier, will be injected into a geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) and after several revolutions it will deorbit by burn of a solid propellant deorbit motor. The capsule, identical to that of the sample return mission, can experience the targeted level of thermal environment even from the GTO by tracing a specially designed reentry trajectory.

  19. ADAPTATION OF DASH OUTCOME MEASURES TO SLOVENIAN POPULATION - FUNCTIONALITY OF ARM, SHOULDER AND HAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Semprimožnik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACT BackgroundIn Slovenia, there is no test for upper limb function, which would be uniform for all institutions and would allow comparison of results of the therapy and upper limb rehabilitation with medical centers. MethodsAfter reviewing the existing hand function tests and current literature we decided to translate the DASH test - Disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand. Adaptation was tested on patient population in outpatient hand clinic, General hospital Celje and showed good validity, reliability and responsiveness. Results and discussionAdaptation of DASH test to Slovene population is a procedure, where language and cultural differences must be considered. Testing the adapted DASH in the general population shows good validity, reliability and responsiveness of adapted test. ConclusionTranslations DASH test, QuickDASH test and instructions for scoring the DASH outcome measures are approved by the Institute for Work and Health. Translations are published on their site and available for use.

  20. Radiation in MRC supported research in the 1950s and 1960s. Report of a committee inquiry[Medical research; Radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    On 6 July 1995, a television documentary entitled 'Deadly Experiments' was broadcast on Channel 4 as part of the 'True Stories' series. The programme, produced by Twenty-Twenty Television, featured a number of research projects conducted between 1950 and 1970 in which either measurements were made of the amount of radiation absorbed by, or radioactive substances were administered to, human subjects in the UK and USA. The level of public concern generated by the broadcast and the implication of unethical practices in the conduct of some of the research sponsored by the MRC, has acted as the trigger for the MRC to establish this independent Committee of Inquiry. Its remit has been to clarify the facts surrounding the research and to examine issues of 'acceptability and consent in the context of the scientific and ethical standards of the period in, which the research was carried out. The following studies featured in the programme were funded by the MRC. The study measuring levels of Strontium 90 uptake, in which samples of bone were taken at autopsy (the programme featured a case in North Wales where the femora were removed from a deceased infant). The work carried out at University College London and reported in 1952 and 1958, in which radioiodine was administered to women in order to measure thyroid function throughout the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. The work carried out at the Hammersmith Hospital, London, in 1953, in which radioactive sodium was used to measure maternal placental blood flow in normal and hypertensive women. The studies at Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, which investigated iodine metabolism and maternal thyroid function during pregnancy, and the development of the human fetal thyroid. The Coventry study in which women from the Asian community were asked to consume specially prepared chapattis in order to measure levels of iron absorption, with a view to investigating the problem of anaemia.

  1. Construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Thai version of the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (DASH-TH) in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntragulpoontawee, Montana; Phutrit, Suphatha; Tongprasert, Siam; Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Khunachiva, Jeeranan

    2018-03-27

    This study evaluated additional psychometric properties of the Thai version of the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (DASH-TH) which included, test-retest reliability, construct validity, internal consistency of in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. As for determining construct validity, the Thai EuroQOL questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) was also administered in order to examine convergent and divergent validity. Fifty patients completed both questionnaires. The DASH-TH showed excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.811) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.911). The exploratory factor analysis yielded a six-factor solution while the confirmatory factor analysis denoted that the hypothesized model adequately fit the data with a comparative fit index of 0.967 and a Tucker-Lewis index of 0.964. The related subscales between the DASH-TH and the Thai EQ-5D-5L were significantly correlated, indicating the DASH-TH's convergent and discriminant validity. The DASH-TH demonstrated good reliability, internal consistency construct validity, and multidimensionality, in assessing the upper extremity function in carpal tunnel syndrome patients.

  2. Performance Analysis of a Power Limited Spectrum Sharing System with TAS/MRC

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2014-02-01

    Capacity of the cognitive radio network degrades due to the interference constraint from the primary network. The secondary network capacity can be enhanced in a cost effective way by means of spatial diversity, that can be achieved by adding multiple antennas on the secondary network terminals and performing antenna selection. In this paper, the performance of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) secondary link with transmit antenna selection (TAS) at the transmitter and maximum ratio combining (MRC) at the receiver is analyzed. A peak transmit power constraint at the secondary transmitter is considered in addition to the interference power constraint and two scenarios are considered; 1) the MIMO cognitive system with TAS/MRC (MCS-TM) does not experience interference from the primary network (denote by MCS-TM-NI), and 2) MCS-TM does experience interference from the primary network (denote by MCS-TM-WI). The performance of both MCS-TM-NI and MCS-TM-WI is analyzed and, for a Rayleigh faded channel, closed-form expression for the outage probability is derived. In addition, closed-form expressions of the moment generating function, the symbol error rate and the ergodic capacity are obtained for the MCS-TM-NI. Asymptotic performance analysis of the MCS-TM-NI reveals that TAS/MRC in a MIMO cognitive system achieves a generalized diversity gain equal to the product of the number of transmit and receive antennas. Numerical results are also presented to corroborate the derived analytical results. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

  3. Galactic interaction as the trigger for the young radio galaxy MRC B1221-423

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Craig; Johnston, Helen; Hunstead, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Mergers between a massive galaxy and a small gas-rich companion (minor mergers) have been proposed as a viable mechanism for triggering radio emission in an active galaxy. Until now the problem has been catching this sequence of events as they occur. With MRC B1221$-$423 we have an active radio galaxy that has only recently been triggered, and a companion galaxy that provides the "smoking gun". Using spectroscopic data taken with the VIMOS Integral Field Unit detector on the European Southern...

  4. The Replisome-Coupled E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Rtt101Mms22 Counteracts Mrc1 Function to Tolerate Genotoxic Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Buser

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Faithful DNA replication and repair requires the activity of cullin 4-based E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL4, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The budding yeast Cul4 homologue, Rtt101, in complex with the linker Mms1 and the putative substrate adaptor Mms22 promotes progression of replication forks through damaged DNA. Here we characterized the interactome of Mms22 and found that the Rtt101(Mms22 ligase associates with the replisome progression complex during S-phase via the amino-terminal WD40 domain of Ctf4. Moreover, genetic screening for suppressors of the genotoxic sensitivity of rtt101Δ cells identified a cluster of replication proteins, among them a component of the fork protection complex, Mrc1. In contrast to rtt101Δ and mms22Δ cells, mrc1Δ rtt101Δ and mrc1Δ mms22Δ double mutants complete DNA replication upon replication stress by facilitating the repair/restart of stalled replication forks using a Rad52-dependent mechanism. Our results suggest that the Rtt101(Mms22 E3 ligase does not induce Mrc1 degradation, but specifically counteracts Mrc1's replicative function, possibly by modulating its interaction with the CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS complex at stalled forks.

  5. Emergency medicine task shifting: Quick dash outcome scores of upper extremity injury management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Frank*

    2013-12-01

    Results and conclusions: There were a total of 25 initial candidates, of which only 17 were able to complete the survey. Using the Quick DASH Outcome Measure, our 17 patients had a mean score of 29.5 (range 5.0– 56.8. When compared to the standardized Quick DASH outcomes (no work limitation at 27.5 vs. work limited by injury at 52.6 the non-physician clinicians appear to be performing upper extremity repairs with good outcomes. The key variable to successful repair was the initial injury type. Although accommodations needed to be made to the standard Quick DASH protocol, the tool appears to be usable in non-traditional settings.

  6. Recent progress in InAs/InP quantum dash nanostructures and devices

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, we will give an outline and introduction to the broad inter-band emission devices focusing on the InAs/InP quantum dash material system, device physics and establishment of ultrabroad stimulated emission behavior. In addition, technologies for growing these nanostructures as well as engineer the bandgap of quantum dash based system using epitaxy growth techniques and postgrowth intermixing methods will be presented. At device level, we will focus our discussion on our recent progress in extending the ultra-broad lasing emission from quantum dash lasers, and achievements in broad gain semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), mode locked lasers, comb-lasers, wide band superluminsect diodes fabricated on this material system. © 2015 IEEE.

  7. Recent progress in InAs/InP quantum dash nanostructures and devices

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-03-24

    In this talk, we will give an outline and introduction to the broad inter-band emission devices focusing on the InAs/InP quantum dash material system, device physics and establishment of ultrabroad stimulated emission behavior. In addition, technologies for growing these nanostructures as well as engineer the bandgap of quantum dash based system using epitaxy growth techniques and postgrowth intermixing methods will be presented. At device level, we will focus our discussion on our recent progress in extending the ultra-broad lasing emission from quantum dash lasers, and achievements in broad gain semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), mode locked lasers, comb-lasers, wide band superluminsect diodes fabricated on this material system. © 2015 IEEE.

  8. Stabilization of self-mode-locked quantum dash lasers by symmetric dual-loop optical feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Haroon; Wei, Wei; Kumar, Pramod; Sooudi, Ehsan; McInerney, John. G.

    2018-02-01

    We report experimental studies of the influence of symmetric dual-loop optical feedback on the RF linewidth and timing jitter of self-mode-locked two-section quantum dash lasers emitting at 1550 nm. Various feedback schemes were investigated and optimum levels determined for narrowest RF linewidth and low timing jitter, for single-loop and symmetric dual-loop feedback. Two symmetric dual-loop configurations, with balanced and unbalanced feedback ratios, were studied. We demonstrate that unbalanced symmetric dual loop feedback, with the inner cavity resonant and fine delay tuning of the outer loop, gives narrowest RF linewidth and reduced timing jitter over a wide range of delay, unlike single and balanced symmetric dual-loop configurations. This configuration with feedback lengths 80 and 140 m narrows the RF linewidth by 4-67x and 10-100x, respectively, across the widest delay range, compared to free-running. For symmetric dual-loop feedback, the influence of different power split ratios through the feedback loops was determined. Our results show that symmetric dual-loop feedback is markedly more effective than single-loop feedback in reducing RF linewidth and timing jitter, and is much less sensitive to delay phase, making this technique ideal for applications where robustness and alignment tolerance are essential.

  9. Simultaneous quantum dash-well emission in a chirped dash-in-well superluminescent diode with spectral bandwidth >700 nm

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-10-01

    We report on the quantitative evidence of simultaneous amplified spontaneous emission from the AlGaInAs/InAs/ InP-based quantum-well (Qwell) and quantum-dashes (Qdash) in a multistack dash-in-an-asymmetric-well superluminescent diode heterostructure. As a result, an emission bandwidth (full width at half-maximum) of 700 nm is achieved, covering entire O-E-S-C-L-U communication bands, and a maximum continuous wave output power of 1.3 mW, from this device structure. This demonstration paves a way to bridge entire telecommunication bands through proper optimization of device gain region, bringing significant advances and impact to a variety of cross-disciplinary field applications. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  10. Simultaneous quantum dash-well emission in a chirped dash-in-well superluminescent diode with spectral bandwidth >700 nm

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Cha, Dong Kyu; Majid, Mohammed Abdul; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the quantitative evidence of simultaneous amplified spontaneous emission from the AlGaInAs/InAs/ InP-based quantum-well (Qwell) and quantum-dashes (Qdash) in a multistack dash-in-an-asymmetric-well superluminescent diode heterostructure. As a result, an emission bandwidth (full width at half-maximum) of 700 nm is achieved, covering entire O-E-S-C-L-U communication bands, and a maximum continuous wave output power of 1.3 mW, from this device structure. This demonstration paves a way to bridge entire telecommunication bands through proper optimization of device gain region, bringing significant advances and impact to a variety of cross-disciplinary field applications. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  11. On the performance of arbitrary transmit selection for threshold-based receive MRC with and without co-channel interference

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2011-11-01

    The performance of multiple-antenna diversity systems in which the receiver combines signal replicas per threshold-based maximal ratio combining (MRC) and transmitter uses only a single antenna according to receive combined signal strength is studied. The impact of imperfect channel estimation and the effect of phase and time misalignments between desired and undesired signals are implicitly investigated. It is assumed that the desired signal replicas and interfering signals undergo statistically independent flat Rayleigh fading. The analysis is applicable for arbitrary transmit antenna selection, based either on receive combined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or receive combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). For the scenario of identical multiple-antenna channels, closed-form analytical results for the combined SNR statistics and some performance measures are first presented. The SNR-based and SINR-based selection algorithms are then employed to obtain expressions for the distribution of combined SINR and outage probability performance, which are applicable for different statistical models of interfering signals. The adopted system models herein as well as the analytical development add enhancements on many existing results, and can be used to study the performance of different architectures under various channel conditions when the implementation complexity is of interest. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. On the performance of arbitrary transmit selection for threshold-based receive MRC with and without co-channel interference

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    The performance of multiple-antenna diversity systems in which the receiver combines signal replicas per threshold-based maximal ratio combining (MRC) and transmitter uses only a single antenna according to receive combined signal strength is studied. The impact of imperfect channel estimation and the effect of phase and time misalignments between desired and undesired signals are implicitly investigated. It is assumed that the desired signal replicas and interfering signals undergo statistically independent flat Rayleigh fading. The analysis is applicable for arbitrary transmit antenna selection, based either on receive combined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or receive combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). For the scenario of identical multiple-antenna channels, closed-form analytical results for the combined SNR statistics and some performance measures are first presented. The SNR-based and SINR-based selection algorithms are then employed to obtain expressions for the distribution of combined SINR and outage probability performance, which are applicable for different statistical models of interfering signals. The adopted system models herein as well as the analytical development add enhancements on many existing results, and can be used to study the performance of different architectures under various channel conditions when the implementation complexity is of interest. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Ultrafast gain and index dynamics of quantum dash structures emitting at 1.55 mu m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Mørk, Jesper; Somers, A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors systematically characterize the ultrafast gain and index recovery of a quantum dash semiconductor optical amplifier after it has amplified a strong femtosecond pulse. The results show a recovery dominated by a fast time constant of 1.4 ps with an ultimate recovery taking place on a 150...

  14. Carrier relaxation dynamics in InAs/InGaAlAs quantum dashes

    KAUST Repository

    Ryasnyanskiy, A.I.; Biaggio, I.; Djie, Hery Susanto; Ooi, Boon S.; Tan, C.L.

    2011-01-01

    We characterize size-dependent carrier relaxation dynamics of partial laser structures containing quantum dashes by time-resolved degenerate four wave mixing between 1.2 and 1.6 ?m. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Carrier relaxation dynamics in InAs/InGaAlAs quantum dashes

    KAUST Repository

    Ryasnyanskiy, A.I.

    2011-03-01

    We characterize size-dependent carrier relaxation dynamics of partial laser structures containing quantum dashes by time-resolved degenerate four wave mixing between 1.2 and 1.6 ?m. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Delivering stable high-quality video: an SDN architecture with DASH assisting network elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.M. Kleinrouweler (Jan Willem); S. Cabrero Barros (Sergio); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH) is a simple, but effective, technology for video streaming over the Internet. It provides adaptive streaming while being highly scalable at the side of the content providers. However, the mismatch between TCP and the adaptive bursty nature of

  17. Dashed line relaxing retinotomy in the management of retinal detachment with anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsen CL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chui-Lien Tsen,1 Yu-Harn Horng,1 Shwu-Jiuan Sheu1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan Background: We describe the anatomical and functional outcomes of eyes that underwent a modified technique of relaxing retinotomy, dashed line relaxing retinotomy, in the management of retinal detachment with anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 54 consecutive eyes in 52 patients who received pars plana vitrectomy with relaxing retinotomy during retinal detachment repair. Perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL was used as a standard procedure to stabilize the retina during retinotomy to prevent slippage or inversion of the posterior flap. If PFCL was not available due to economic reasons, dashed line relaxing retinotomy was performed instead. Best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, lens status, and fundus examination were analyzed. We excluded patients who were followed up <4 months.Results: Regarding anatomical success rates and visual outcomes, we found no significant differences between patients treated with intraoperative PFCL and those treated with dashed line relaxing retinotomy without PFCL.Conclusion: Compared to the simple and efficient PFCL-assisted relaxing retinotomy, dashed relaxing retinotomy is not the first choice when PFCL is available. Based on our results, this modified technique may offer an alternative in patients with anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy for whom PFCL is not available. Keywords: perfluorocarbon liquid, PFCL 

  18. The effect of CTB on P53 protein acetylation and consequence apoptosis on MCF-7 and MRC-5 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nikbakht Dastjerdi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: CTB could induce acetylation of P53 protein through increasing expression of P300 and consequently induce the significant cell death in MCF-7 but it could be well tolerated in MRC-5. Therefore, CTB could be used as an anti-cancer agent.

  19. Influence of vertical coupling on the lasing operation of quantum-dash laser

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The authors numerically investigated the consequence of vertical coupling among multi-stack InAs quantum dash (Qdash) laser structure on the lasing bandwidth. The developed model is based on multi-population carrier-photon rate equation and incorporates inhomogeneous broadening due to dash size or composition fluctuation, homogeneous broadening of optical gain, and the multi-longitudinal photon modes. In addition, the effect of Qdash layers emitting at different wavelength, and the carrier coupling (tunneling) between adjacent stacks, are also accounted for. The results predict a direct relation between the lasing bandwidth and the barrier thickness and hence enhanced lasing bandwidth could be achieved by decoupling the Qdash layers (large barrier thickness). Moreover, the model further affirms the non-equilibrium distribution of carriers among Qdash layers in a multi-stack laser structure.

  20. The Increasing British Climate Ambitiousness: A Mere Reflection of ''The Dash for Gas''?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterstad, Joergen; Butenschoen, Siri Hals

    2000-01-01

    The authors ask three main questions: First, why were the initial British climate positions more on the reluctant side? Second, why did the British climate positions become more ambitious towards the mid-1990s? And third, why the rapid, seemingly doubling of reduction ambitiousness in the spring of 1997? These questions are addressed in turn: First, with regard to the initial British climate reluctance, although ''malign'' emissions projections and related high potential reduction costs played a significant role, political and cultural factors must clearly be drawn into the picture. Secondly, increasing ambitiousness from the mid-1990s was largely a reflection of the dash-for-gas factor. Thirdly, although the stepped-up ambitiousness in 1997 was, of course, underpinned by the dash-for-gas process, other factors, such as the new Labour Government coming into office, need also to be taken into account here. (author)

  1. Nanostructured Quantum Dots or Dashes in Photovoltaic Devices and Methods Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaele, Ryne P. (Inventor); Wilt, David M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A photovoltaic device includes one or more structures, an array of at least one of quantum dots and quantum dashes, at least one groove, and at least one conductor. Each of the structures comprises an intrinsic layer on one of an n type layer and a p type layer and the other one of the n type layer and the p type layer on the intrinsic layer. The array of at least one of quantum dots and quantum dashes is located in the intrinsic layer in at least one of the structures. The groove extends into at least one of the structures and the conductor is located along at least a portion of the groove.

  2. Theoretical observation of two state lasing from InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2011-09-01

    The effect of cavity length on the lasing wavelength of InAs/InP quantum dash (Qdash) laser is examined using the carrier-photon rate equation model including the carrier relaxation process from the Qdash ground state and excited state. Both, homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening has been incorporated in the model. We show that ground state lasing occurs with longer cavity lasers and excited state lasing occurs from relatively short cavity lasers. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV activity and/or structure homologues (DASH) in transformed neuroectodermal cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Radek; Bušek, P.; Mareš, Vladislav; Ševčík, J.; Kleibl, Z.; Šedo, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 524, - (2003), s. 95-102 ISSN 0065-2598. [International Conference on Dipeptidyl Aminopeptidases. Berlin, 26.09.2002-28.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/02/0962 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 7/2002/C Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : DASH molecules * DPP-IV activity * glioma cells Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology

  4. Low-Intensity Sprint Training With Blood Flow Restriction Improves 100-m Dash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Michael; Behlau, Daniel; Montag, Johannes C K; McCourt, Molly L; Mester, Joachim

    2017-09-01

    Behringer, M, Behlau, D, Montag, JCK, McCourt, ML, and Mester, J. Low-intensity sprint training with blood flow restriction improves 100-m dash. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2462-2472, 2017-We investigated the effects of practical blood flow restriction (pBFR) of leg muscles during sprint training on the 100-m dash time in well-trained sport students. Participants performed 6 × 100-m sprints at 60-70% of their maximal 100-m sprinting speed twice a week for 6 weeks, either with (intervention group [IG]; n = 12) or without pBFR (control group [CG]; n = 12). The 100-m dash time significantly decreased more in the IG (-0.38 ± 0.24 seconds) than in the CG (-0.16 ± 0.17 seconds). The muscle thickness of the rectus femoris increased only in the IG, whereas no group-by-time interactions were found for the muscle thickness of the biceps femoris and the biceps brachii. The maximal isometric force, measured using a leg press, did not change in either group. However, the rate of force development improved in the IG. Growth hormone, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, and cortisol concentrations did not significantly differ between both groups at any measurement time point (pre, 1 minute, 20 minutes, 120 minutes, and 24 hours after the 6 all-out sprints of the first training session). The muscle damage marker h-FABP increased significantly more in the CG than in the IG. The pBFR improved the 100-m dash time significantly more than low-intensity sprint interval training alone. Other noted benefits of training with pBFR were a decreased level of muscle damage, a greater increase of the rectus femoris muscle thickness, and a higher rate of force development. However, the tested hormones were unable to explain the additional beneficial effects.

  5. Holistic Evaluation of Novel Adaptation Logics for DASH and SVC

    OpenAIRE

    Sieber, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Streaming of videos has become the major traffic generator in today's Internet and the video traffic share is still increasing. According to Cisco's annual Visual Networking Index report, in 2012, 60% of the global Internet IP traffic was generated by video streaming services. Furthermore, the study predicts further increase to 73% by 2017. At the same time, advances in the fields of mobile communications and embedded devices lead to a widespread adoption of Internet video enabled mobile and ...

  6. The 59 meter dash - automatic rapid meter reading in Ronneby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Hans [Enersearch (Sweden); Selander, Lars [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden); Bergstroem, Ulrika [Sydkraft (Sweden)

    1999-02-01

    As a result of deregulation of the telecommunications and energy markets, the utilities in Sweden see opportunities to use power lines for additional profitable applications such as transmission of data; the technology is called Power Line Telecommunications (PLT). The potential advantages are said to be 'massive'. The potential applications include remote security, automatic meter reading, load management and 'smart' home automation. A small scale feasibility study has been carried out in Ronneby in Sweden where it was shown that load management and efficiency improvements can reduce the costs of supplying the town with heat and electricity by about 3%. The Ronneby trial is described in detail. Since Scandinavia makes use of weather-dependent renewables for much of its power generation, load management is an attractive potential application of PLT. (UK)

  7. Mediterranean diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) style diet, and metabolic health in U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Moon Mark; Steck, Susan E; Fung, Teresa T; Zhang, Jiajia; Hazlett, Linda J; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Merchant, Anwar T

    2017-10-01

    There is sparse evidence on the relationship between the Mediterranean diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) style diet, and metabolic health, especially comparing cardiometabolic phenotypes among in normal weight and obese populations. We aimed to investigate the association of the Mediterranean diet scores (MDS) and DASH index with metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically obese normal weight (MONW) phenotypes in a representative U.S. MDS and DASH index were calculated using dietary data from 2767 adults aged 20-90 years without any prior diagnosis of cancer or cardiovascular disease from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994. MHO and MONW individuals were identified using fasting glucose, insulin resistance, blood pressure, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Higher MDS was associated with higher odds of MHO phenotype (odds ratio (OR) T3 vs T1 , 2.57 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-6.35]; P trend = 0.04), and higher DASH index was associated with lower odds of MONW phenotype (OR T3 vs T1, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.38-0.93]; P trend = 0.03) only in the younger age group (Mediterranean diet or DASH style diet was favorably associated with MHO and MONW phenotypes only in the younger age group, suggesting that potential dietary intervention to prevent cardiometabolic disease differ by age group. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Modeling the lasing spectra of InAs/InP Quantum dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    We report a theoretical model for InAs/InP quantum-dash (Qdash) lasers incorporating a coupled set of rate equations taking into account the inhomogeneous broadening due to Qdash size fluctuation, the homogeneous broadening due to optical gain of a single Qdash, and the longitudinal cavity modes. The role of cavity length on the Qdash lasing characteristics, particularly the redshift in the peak lasing wavelength, is analyzed and compared with the experimental results by attributing it to the active region inhomogeneity.

  9. Effect of the number of stacking layers on the characteristics of quantum-dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical model is evaluated to investigate the characteristics of InAs/InP quantum dash (Qdash) lasers as a function of the stack number. The model is based on multimode carrier-photon rate equations and accounts for both inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadenings of the optical gain. The numerical results show a non monotonic increase in the threshold current density and a red shift in the lasing wavelength on increasing the stack number, which agrees well with reported experimental results. This observation may partly be attributed to an increase of inhomogeneity in the active region.

  10. Effect of the number of stacking layers on the characteristics of quantum-dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2011-06-27

    A theoretical model is evaluated to investigate the characteristics of InAs/InP quantum dash (Qdash) lasers as a function of the stack number. The model is based on multimode carrier-photon rate equations and accounts for both inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadenings of the optical gain. The numerical results show a non monotonic increase in the threshold current density and a red shift in the lasing wavelength on increasing the stack number, which agrees well with reported experimental results. This observation may partly be attributed to an increase of inhomogeneity in the active region.

  11. Modeling the lasing spectra of InAs/InP Quantum dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2011-03-09

    We report a theoretical model for InAs/InP quantum-dash (Qdash) lasers incorporating a coupled set of rate equations taking into account the inhomogeneous broadening due to Qdash size fluctuation, the homogeneous broadening due to optical gain of a single Qdash, and the longitudinal cavity modes. The role of cavity length on the Qdash lasing characteristics, particularly the redshift in the peak lasing wavelength, is analyzed and compared with the experimental results by attributing it to the active region inhomogeneity.

  12. Dashed hopes, dashed selves? A sociometer perspective on self-esteem change across the transition to secondary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorthuis, A.; Thomaes, S.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Orobio de Castro, B.

    2014-01-01

    The transition from primary to secondary school challenges children's psychological well-being. A cross-transitional longitudinal study (N = 306; mean age = 12.2 years) examined why some children's self-esteem decreases across the transition whereas other children's self-esteem does not. Children's

  13. The effect of prepartum antibiotics on the type of neonatal bacteraemia: insights from the MRC ORACLE trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, R E; Pike, K; Kenyon, S L; Tarnow-Mordi, W; Taylor, D J

    2005-06-01

    We analysed the type of bacteraemia before discharge from Neonatal Intensive Care Units in babies born to women randomised to the MRC ORACLE Trials. There was no evidence for an effect of oral antibiotics given prior to delivery on bacteraemia due to gram negative or enterococci bacteria, but Group B streptococcal (GBS) bacteraemia was significantly reduced in women with preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes (1.58% to 0.55%, relative risk 0.34; 95% CI: 0.17-0.70). There was no detectable effect in women in spontaneous preterm labour with intact membranes as the risk of GBS bacteraemia in their babies was very small regardless of treatment.

  14. Effect of the DASH Diet on Pre- and Stage 1 Hypertensive Individuals in a Free-Living Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Malloy-McFall

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH has been shown to successfully reduce systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP when evaluated in clinically controlled environments but there is a lack of information regarding the efficacy of the original DASH diet when it is applied in a free-living environment. Purpose To provide descriptive data as to the changes in blood pressure individuals could expect to achieve when following the DASH diet in a free-living environment for 4-weeks with no additional behavioral modifications. Methods Twenty, pre- and stage 1 hypertensive participants were randomly split into 2 groups; DASH (males N = 5, females N = 5, age = 38.5 ± 10.8 and control (males N = 7, females N = 3, age = 38.1 ± 11.1. The DASH group was instructed on how to follow the DASH diet on their own for 4-weeks while the control group continued their normal diet. SBP, DBP, body weight, 3-day food diaries and physical activity recall questionnaire data were collected pre and post intervention using a traditional person-to-person instructional technique. Results Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that there was a significant group (DASH, control by time (pre, post interaction for SBP ( P = 0.003 and no significant effects for DBP. The interaction was due to a significant reduction ( P < 0.001 in SBP in the DASH group (pre: 141.3 ± 11.3 mmHg vs. post: 130.7 ± 9.1 mmHg over the course of the intervention with no change in SBP in the control group (pre: 133.5 ± 6.6 mmHg vs. post: 131.9 ± 8.9 mmHg. Pearson's correlation analyses revealed that changes in potential moderators of blood pressure including body weight, BMI, sodium intake and total kilocalories were each not associated with changes in SBP (r ≤ 0.14, P ≥ 0.5 or DBP (r < 0.10, P ≥ 0.6 pre- to post-treatment. Chi-square demonstrated no significant differences in the number of participants per group (n = 4 DASH, n = 1 control who indicated increasing physical activity

  15. A Modification of the Fuzzy Logic Based DASH Adaptation Scheme for Performance Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jun Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a modification of the fuzzy logic based DASH adaptation scheme (FDASH for seamless media service in time-varying network conditions. The proposed scheme (mFDASH selects a more appropriate bit-rate for the next segment by modification of the Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC and estimates more accurate available bandwidth than FDASH scheme by using History-Based TCP Throughput Estimation. Moreover, mFDASH reduces the number of video bit-rate changes by applying Segment Bit-Rate Filtering Module (SBFM and employs Start Mechanism for clients to provide high-quality videos in the very beginning stage of the streaming service. Lastly, Sleeping Mechanism is applied to avoid any expected buffer overflow. We then use NS-3 Network Simulator to verify the performance of mFDASH. Upon the experimental results, mFDASH shows no buffer overflow within the limited buffer size, which is not guaranteed in FDASH. Also, we confirm that mFDASH provides the highest QoE to DASH clients among the three schemes (mFDASH, FDASH, and SVAA in Point-to-Point networks, Wi-Fi networks, and LTE networks, respectively.

  16. Pain in workers with shoulder impingement syndrome: an assessment using the DASH and McGill pain questionnaires Dor em trabalhadores portadores da síndrome do impacto do ombro: uma avaliação através dos questionários DASH e McGill de dor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PR Camargo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed physical function and pain in male and female workers with shoulder impingement syndrome using the Brazilian Portuguese versions of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH and McGill pain questionnaires. METHODS: Twenty-seven assembly line workers (18 men and 9 women; mean age of 33.26 ± 6.49 years in the school supply industry were evaluated. The duration of the shoulder impingement pain was 31.74 ± 32.92 months and the amount of time of the workers in this industry was 11.08 ± 6.41 years. The DASH questionnaire was used to evaluate functional status and symptoms of the upper limbs of the workers. Using the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the pain was quantified by the number of words chosen and by the pain rating index (PRI. RESULTS: The women presented higher scores (POBJETIVO: Este estudo avaliou função física e dor em trabalhadores com síndrome do impacto através das versões brasileiras dos questionários "Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand" (DASH e McGill de dor. MÉTODO: Vinte e sete trabalhadores (18 homens e 9 mulheres; idade média de 33,26 ± 6,49 anos de uma linha de produção de uma indústria de material escolar foram avaliados. O tempo de duração de dor no ombro era de 31,74 ± 32,92 meses e o tempo de trabalho na indústria era de 11,08 ± 6,41 anos. O questionário DASH foi utilizado para avaliar o estado funcional e os sintomas dos membros superiores dos trabalhadores. Através do questionário McGill de dor, a dor foi quantificada pelo número de palavras escolhidas e pelo índice de classificação da dor (ICD. RESULTADOS: As mulheres apresentaram maiores escores (P< 0,05 que os homens para ambos os módulos do DASH. As mulheres escolheram mais palavras (17,00 ± 2,59 que os homens (13,33 ± 3,16 e também apresentaram o maior ICD total (P< 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados obtidos neste grupo de trabalhadores brasileiros com síndrome do impacto do ombro identificam os

  17. The effect of multi active junctions on broadband emission from InAs/InGaAlAs quantum-dash structure

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Cheeloon; Djie, Hery Susanto; Tan, C. K.; Hongpinyo, V.; Ding, Yunhsiang; Ooi, Boon S.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the importance of multi active layer stacking in realizing a semiconductor broadband quantum-dash-in-well laser. The photoluminescence measurements show the negligible factor of largely localized inhomogeneous quantum-dash ensembles in producing ultra-wide envelope of emission. © 2009 IEEE.

  18. The effect of multi active junctions on broadband emission from InAs/InGaAlAs quantum-dash structure

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Cheeloon

    2009-10-01

    We demonstrate the importance of multi active layer stacking in realizing a semiconductor broadband quantum-dash-in-well laser. The photoluminescence measurements show the negligible factor of largely localized inhomogeneous quantum-dash ensembles in producing ultra-wide envelope of emission. © 2009 IEEE.

  19. Prospective associations of psychosocial adversity in childhood with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adulthood: the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma L; Caleyachetty, Rishi; Stafford, Mai; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Lawlor, Debbie A; Fraser, Abigail; Howe, Laura D

    2017-09-07

    Studies assessing associations of childhood psychosocial adversity (e.g. sexual abuse, physical neglect, parental death), as opposed to socioeconomic adversity, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood are scarce. We aimed to assess associations of various forms of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity in childhood, with multiple CVD risk factors in mid-life. Participants were from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Childhood psychosocial risk factors were reported prospectively by parents from 1950-1957, and retrospectively by participants at mean age 43 years in 1989. CVD risk factors were assessed at mean age 60-64 years in 2006-2011. Associations of a summary score of total psychosocial adversity and CVD risk in adulthood were assessed. There was no consistent evidence that cumulative psychosocial adversity, nor any specific form of psychosocial adversity in childhood, was associated with CVD risk factors in late adulthood. There was some evidence that parental death in the first 15 years was associated with higher SBP (Beta: 0.23, 95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 0.40, P=0.01) and DBP (Beta: 0.15, 95% confidence interval: -0.01 to 0.32, P=0.07). We found no evidence that exposure to greater psychosocial adversity, or specific forms of psychosocial adversity during childhood is associated with adult CVD risk factors. Further large population studies are needed to clarify whether parental death is associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

  20. Effect of active medium inhomogeneity on lasing characteristics of InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the effect of quantum-dash (Qdash) inhomogeneity on the characteristics of InAs/InP Qdash laser utilizing a single state rate equation model. The inhomogeneity is assumed to follow the Gaussian approximation. From our

  1. Unique lasing mechanism of localized dispersive nanostructures in InAs/InGaAlAs quantum dash broad interband laser

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, C. L.; Djie, H. S.; Tan, C. K.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the nanowires-like and nanodots-like lasing behaviors in addition to multiple-wavelength interband transitions from InAs/InAlGaAs quantum dash (Qdash) lasers in the range of ~1550 nm. The presence of lasing actions

  2. 10-GHz 1.59-μm quantum dash passively mode-locked two-section lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dontabactouny, Madhoussoudhana; Rosenberg, C.; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the fabrication and the characterisation of a 10 GHz two-section passively mode-locked quantum dash laser emitting at 1.59 μm. The potential of the device's mode-locking is investigated through an analytical model taking into account both the material parameters and the laser...

  3. Numerically investigating the cause of broadband lasing from InAs/InP quantum-dash laser

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors numerically investigated the origin of broadband lasing from multi-stack InAs/InP quantum dash (Qdash) laser. For this a model based on multi-population carrier-photon rate equation is developed which treats each Qdash stacking layer

  4. Effect of carrier relaxation lifetime on the performance of InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2011-12-01

    The effect of carrier relaxation process into the quantum dash (Qdash) ground state (GS) is examined theoretically by carrier-photon rate equation model incorporating the inhomogeneous broadening. Increase in the relaxation time and the inhomogeneous broadening degrades the threshold current density. Moreover, our results show that a relaxation time of less than 2 ps gives optimum laser performance. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Quantum dash based single section mode locked lasers for photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Siddharth; Calò, Cosimo; Chimot, Nicolas; Radziunas, Mindaugas; Arkhipov, Rostislav; Barbet, Sophie; Accard, Alain; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Lelarge, Francois

    2014-05-05

    We present the first demonstration of an InAs/InP Quantum Dash based single-section frequency comb generator designed for use in photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The laser cavity is closed using a specifically designed Bragg reflector without compromising the mode-locking performance of the self pulsating laser. This enables the integration of single-section mode-locked laser in photonic integrated circuits as on-chip frequency comb generators. We also investigate the relations between cavity modes in such a device and demonstrate how the dispersion of the complex mode frequencies induced by the Bragg grating implies a violation of the equi-distance between the adjacent mode frequencies and, therefore, forbids the locking of the modes in a classical Bragg Device. Finally we integrate such a Bragg Mirror based laser with Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) to demonstrate the monolithic integration of QDash based low phase noise sources in PICs.

  6. Binding of Substrate Locks the Electrochemistry of CRY-DASH into DNA Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindt, Yvonne M; Messyasz, Adriana; Jumbo, Pamela I

    2015-05-12

    VcCry1, a member of the CRY-DASH family, may serve two diverse roles in vivo, including blue-light signaling and repair of UV-damaged DNA. We have discovered that the electrochemistry of the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor of VcCry1 is locked to cycle only between the hydroquinone and neutral semiquinone states when UV-damaged DNA is present. Other potential substrates, including undamaged DNA and ATP, have no discernible effect on the electrochemistry, and the kinetics of the reduction is unaffected by damaged DNA. Binding of the damaged DNA substrate determines the role of the protein and prevents the presumed photochemistry required for blue-light signaling.

  7. Childhood Environment and Mental Wellbeing at Age 60-64 Years: Prospective Evidence from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Mai; Gale, Catharine R; Mishra, Gita; Richards, Marcus; Black, Stephanie; Kuh, Diana L

    2015-01-01

    Mental wellbeing, conceptualised as positive affect, life satisfaction and realisation of needs that contribute to psychological growth, captures more than the absence of mental ill health. Several nations now aim to monitor and improve mental wellbeing. Whilst many studies document associations between adverse childhood experiences and mental disorders in adulthood, possible links between childhood experiences and adult mental wellbeing have so far received less attention. Using data from 1976 men and women in the MRC National Survey for Health and Development, we investigated prospective associations between childhood socioeconomic and psychosocial environments and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, designed to capture both hedonic and eudaimonic facets of wellbeing, at age 60-64. Whilst there was no evidence that childhood socioeconomic circumstances were related to later wellbeing independently of other childhood experiences, elements of childrearing and parenting, parental health and adjustment, and childhood illness were related. More advantaged socioeconomic position was associated with greater wellbeing but this did not explain the links between these childhood exposures and adult wellbeing, suggesting alternative explanatory pathways should be considered. Childhood illness and family psychosocial environment are associated with mental wellbeing in early older age, with effects sizes that are larger or comparable to socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood. Initiatives to improve the nation's mental wellbeing that include programmes targeted to supporting families and children may additionally have benefits that continue into older age.

  8. Childhood Environment and Mental Wellbeing at Age 60-64 Years: Prospective Evidence from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Stafford

    Full Text Available Mental wellbeing, conceptualised as positive affect, life satisfaction and realisation of needs that contribute to psychological growth, captures more than the absence of mental ill health. Several nations now aim to monitor and improve mental wellbeing. Whilst many studies document associations between adverse childhood experiences and mental disorders in adulthood, possible links between childhood experiences and adult mental wellbeing have so far received less attention.Using data from 1976 men and women in the MRC National Survey for Health and Development, we investigated prospective associations between childhood socioeconomic and psychosocial environments and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, designed to capture both hedonic and eudaimonic facets of wellbeing, at age 60-64.Whilst there was no evidence that childhood socioeconomic circumstances were related to later wellbeing independently of other childhood experiences, elements of childrearing and parenting, parental health and adjustment, and childhood illness were related. More advantaged socioeconomic position was associated with greater wellbeing but this did not explain the links between these childhood exposures and adult wellbeing, suggesting alternative explanatory pathways should be considered.Childhood illness and family psychosocial environment are associated with mental wellbeing in early older age, with effects sizes that are larger or comparable to socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood. Initiatives to improve the nation's mental wellbeing that include programmes targeted to supporting families and children may additionally have benefits that continue into older age.

  9. Effects of Different Dietary Interventions on Calcitriol, Parathyroid Hormone, Calcium, and Phosphorus: Results from the DASH Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassoon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension” (DASH diet, rich in fiber and low-fat dairy, effectively lowers blood pressure. DASH’s effect on calcitriol and other markers of bone-mineral metabolism is unknown. This secondary analysis of the DASH trial aimed to determine the effect of dietary patterns on blood concentrations of calcitriol, parathyroid hormone (PTH, ionized calcium, and urinary excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Outcomes were available in 334 participants in the trial. After a 3-week run-in on the control diet, participants were randomized to control, fruits and vegetables (F&V, or DASH diets. Outcomes were assessed at the end of run-in, and during the last week of the intervention period. Mean age of participants was 45.7 ± 10.7 years, 46% female, and 57% African-American. Mean ± Standard Deviation(SD baseline serum concentrations of calcitriol, PTH, and ionized calcium were 37.8 ± 9.2 pg/mL, 46.1 ± 18.5 pg/mL and 5.2 ± 0.23 mg/dL, respectively. Mean (±SD urinary calcium and phosphorus excretions were 150.1 ± 77.8 and 708.0 ± 251.8 mg/24 h, respectively. Compared with control, DASH reduced calcitriol −3.32 pg/mL (p = 0.004. Otherwise, there was no significant effect on other biomarkers. DASH lowered serum calcitriol perhaps more among African-Americans. These results raise important questions about the interpretation and clinical significance of low calcitriol concentrations in the setting of recommended diets.

  10. Modification of an x-ray diffraction unit to comply with the NH and MRC code of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibbetson, V.J.; Young, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray analysis units are commonly used in research and industrial laboratories throughout Australia. Despite a well-established Code of Practice and working protocols for the safe use of such units, there are all too many stories of users by-passing safety features significantly increasing the risk of accidental exposure to the primary X-ray beam. Since the output of such units may be as high as 300 Gy x s 1 , such accidental exposures could have very serious consequences. Australian Radiation Services Pty Ltd undertook a compliance audit of an X-ray diffraction unit with respect to the NH and MRC Code of Practice for protection against ionising radiation emitted from X-ray analysis equipment. This paper discusses the findings from the initial inspection and the modifications recommended for the XRD unit to ensure compliance with the Code, without unnecessarily restricting its use. Copyright (2004) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  11. Dieta DASH na redução dos níveis de pressão arterial e prevenção do acidente vascular cerebral = DASH diet in reducing blood pressure and preventing stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper, Vanessa Alves

    2012-01-01

    Conclusões: As evidências disponíveis sugerem que modificações no estilo de vida, incluindo a adoção de uma dieta tipo DASH, são estratégias eficazes no controle da hipertensão arterial e na redução de eventos cardiovasculares, como o acidente vascular cerebral

  12. Spectral Analysis of Quantum-Dash Lasers: Effect of Inhomogeneous Broadening of the Active-Gain Region

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the active region inhomogeneity on the spectral characteristics of InAs/InP quantum-dash (Qdash) lasers is examined theoretically by solving the coupled set of carrier-photon rate equations. The inhomogeneity due to dash size or composition fluctuation is included in the model by considering dispersive energy states and characterized by a Gaussian envelope. In addition, the technique incorporates multilongitudinal photon modes and homogeneous broadening of the optical gain. The results predict a red shift in the central lasing wavelength of Qdash lasers on increasing the inhomogeneous broadening either explicitly or implicitly, which supports various experimental observations. The threshold current density and the lasing bandwidth are also found to increase. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Spectral Analysis of Quantum-Dash Lasers: Effect of Inhomogeneous Broadening of the Active-Gain Region

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2012-05-01

    The effect of the active region inhomogeneity on the spectral characteristics of InAs/InP quantum-dash (Qdash) lasers is examined theoretically by solving the coupled set of carrier-photon rate equations. The inhomogeneity due to dash size or composition fluctuation is included in the model by considering dispersive energy states and characterized by a Gaussian envelope. In addition, the technique incorporates multilongitudinal photon modes and homogeneous broadening of the optical gain. The results predict a red shift in the central lasing wavelength of Qdash lasers on increasing the inhomogeneous broadening either explicitly or implicitly, which supports various experimental observations. The threshold current density and the lasing bandwidth are also found to increase. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Numerically investigating the cause of broadband lasing from InAs/InP quantum-dash laser

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The authors numerically investigated the origin of broadband lasing from multi-stack InAs/InP quantum dash (Qdash) laser. For this a model based on multi-population carrier-photon rate equation is developed which treats each Qdash stacking layer separately. In addition, the coupling between the adjacent stacks is also accounted in the model apart from the inhomogeneous broadening due to dash size or composition fluctuation. Simulation results show that the effect of Qdash inhomogeneity on a single plane (in-plane or localized inhomogeneity) is negligible in broadening the lasing spectra compared to the inhomogeneity across the stacks that are emitting at different wavelength. Our results would help in further optimizing the wafer structure design and improve the lasing bandwidth.

  15. Investigation of Chirped InAs/InGaAlAs/InP Quantum Dash Lasers as Broadband Emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we assessed the effect of additionally broadened quantum dash (Qdash) optical transitions in the multi-stack dash-in-a-well laser structure at both, material and device level. A broad photoluminescence linewidth of ?150 nm demonstrates the formation of highly inhomogeneous InAs-dashes across the stacks. The transmission electron microscopy revealed small (large) average dash height from the Qdash stack with thick (thin) over grown barrier layer. The Fabry-Perot laser diodes fabricated from this chirped structure exhibits unique device physics under the short pulsewidth (SPW) and quasi-continuous wave (QCW) operation. Varying the ridge-width W from 2 to 4 ?rm showed quenching of ultrabroad lasing signature in the SPW operation, and consistent even for a wide 15 ?rm oxide strip laser diode. A lasing spectral split with reduced intensity gap in the center is observed in the QCW operation with the gap decreasing with increasing ridge-width. Such atypical lasing operation, influenced by the waveguiding mechanism is qualitatively realized by associating to the reduced vertical coupling effect of the Qdash stacks in the operation of small ridge-width lasers compared with large ridge-width and oxide stripe lasers, and leading to varying non-uniform distribution of carriers among the inhomogeneously broadened Qdash stacks in each case. Our chirped 2 × 830 ?rm ridge laser demonstrated marked improvement in the internal quantum efficiency (?80) and -3 dB lasing bandwidth, >50 nm centered at ?1.61 ?m. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  17. Carriers' localization and thermal redistribution in post growth voluntarily tuned quantum dashes' size/composition distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alouane, M.H. Hadj; Helali, A.; Morris, D.; Maaref, H.; Aimez, V.; Salem, B.; Gendry, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper treats the impact of post growth tuned InAs/InP quantum dashes' (QDas) size/composition distribution on carriers' localization and thermal redistribution. The spread of this distribution depends on the experimental conditions used for the phosphorus ion implantation enhanced intermixing process. Atypical temperature-dependent luminescence properties have been observed and found to be strongly dependent on the amount of QDas size/composition dispersion. The experimental results have been reproduced by a model that takes into account the width of the QDas localized states distribution and consequent thermally induced carriers' redistribution. This model gives critical temperature values marking the beginning and the end of carriers delocalization and thermal transfer processes via an intermixing induced carrier's transfer channel located below the wetting layer states. -- Highlights: • We examine optical properties of post growth tuned QDas size/composition distribution. • Carriers' localization and thermal redistribution within inhomogeneously intermixed QDas are the origin of the atypical temperature-dependent luminescence properties. • Localized states ensemble's model is successively used to interpret the experimental results. • The carriers thermal transfer processes occur via an intermixing induced channel located below the wetting layer states. • Intermixing degree strongly influence the critical temperatures marking the beginning and the end of the carriers thermal transfer processes

  18. 1-Methyl-tryptophan attenuates regulatory T cells differentiation due to the inhibition of estrogen-IDO1-MRC2 axis in endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chunyan; Mei, Jie; Tang, Lingli; Liu, Yukai; Li, Dajin; Li, Mingqing; Zhu, Xiaoyong

    2016-12-01

    Foxp3 + regulatory T (T reg ) cells contribute to the local dysfunctional immune environment in endometriosis, an estrogen-dependent gynecological disease, which affects the function of ectopic endometrial tissue clearance by the immune system. The reason for the high percentage of peritoneal T reg in endometriosis patients is unknown. Here, we show that the proportion of peritoneal T reg cells increases as endometriosis progresses. To determine the probable mechanism, we established a naive T cell-macrophage-endometrial stromal cell (ESC) co-culture system to mimic the peritoneal cavity microenvironment. After adding 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT), a specific inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1), to the co-culture system, we found that the differentiation of T reg cells, mainly IL-10 + T reg cells, decreased. Therefore, 1-MT-pretreated ESCs-educated T reg cells performed impaired suppressive function. Moreover, estrogen promoted the differentiation of T reg cells by elevating IDO1 expression in the ectopic lesion. Subsequently, we examined mannose receptor C, type 2 (MRC2), which is an up-stream molecule of IL-10, by bioinformatics analysis and real-time PCR validation. MRC2 expression in ectopic ESCs was notably lower than that in normal ESCs, which further negatively regulated the expression of IDO1 and Ki-67 in ESCs. Furthermore, MRC2 is required for T reg differentiation in the ectopic lesion, especially that for CD4 high T reg . Therefore, MRC2-silenced ESCs-educated T reg manifested a stronger suppressive function in vitro. Consistently, the percentage of T reg increased when MRC2-shRNA was administered in the peritoneal cavity of endometriosis-disease mice model. Besides, 1-MT improved the condition of endometriosis, in terms of reducing the number and weight of total ectopic lesions in vivo. These results indicate that the estrogen-IDO1-MRC2 axis participates in the differentiation and function of T reg and is involved in the development of

  19. Performance of Overlaid MIMO Cellular Networks with TAS/MRC under Hybrid-Access Small Cells and Poisson Field Interference

    KAUST Repository

    AbdelNabi, Amr A.

    2018-02-12

    This paper presents new approaches to characterize the achieved performance of hybrid control-access small cells in the context of two-tier multi-input multi-output (MIMO) cellular networks with random interference distributions. The hybrid scheme at small cells (such as femtocells) allows for sharing radio resources between the two network tiers according to the densities of small cells and their associated users, as well as the observed interference power levels in the two network tiers. The analysis considers MIMO transceivers at all nodes, for which antenna arrays can be utilized to implement transmit antenna selection (TAS) and receive maximal ratio combining (MRC) under MIMO point-to-point channels. Moreover, it tar-gets network-level models of interference sources inside each tier and between the two tiers, which are assumed to follow Poisson field processes. To fully capture the occasions for Poisson field distribution on MIMO spatial domain. Two practical scenarios of interference sources are addressed including highly-correlated or uncorrelated transmit antenna arrays of the serving macrocell base station. The analysis presents new analytical approaches that can characterize the downlink outage probability performance in any tier. Furthermore, the outage performance in high signal-to-noise (SNR) regime is also obtained, which can be useful to deduce diversity and/or coding gains.

  20. Performance of Overlaid MIMO Cellular Networks with TAS/MRC under Hybrid-Access Small Cells and Poisson Field Interference

    KAUST Repository

    AbdelNabi, Amr A.; Al-Qahtani, Fawaz S.; Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Manna, Raed F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents new approaches to characterize the achieved performance of hybrid control-access small cells in the context of two-tier multi-input multi-output (MIMO) cellular networks with random interference distributions. The hybrid scheme at small cells (such as femtocells) allows for sharing radio resources between the two network tiers according to the densities of small cells and their associated users, as well as the observed interference power levels in the two network tiers. The analysis considers MIMO transceivers at all nodes, for which antenna arrays can be utilized to implement transmit antenna selection (TAS) and receive maximal ratio combining (MRC) under MIMO point-to-point channels. Moreover, it tar-gets network-level models of interference sources inside each tier and between the two tiers, which are assumed to follow Poisson field processes. To fully capture the occasions for Poisson field distribution on MIMO spatial domain. Two practical scenarios of interference sources are addressed including highly-correlated or uncorrelated transmit antenna arrays of the serving macrocell base station. The analysis presents new analytical approaches that can characterize the downlink outage probability performance in any tier. Furthermore, the outage performance in high signal-to-noise (SNR) regime is also obtained, which can be useful to deduce diversity and/or coding gains.

  1. A method of coupling the Paternò-Büchi reaction with direct infusion ESI-MS/MS for locating the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond in glycerophospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Craig A; Xia, Yu

    2016-06-21

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled with soft ionization is established as an essential platform for lipid analysis; however, determining high order structural information, such as the carbon-carbon double bond (C[double bond, length as m-dash]C) location, remains challenging. Recently, our group demonstrated a method for sensitive and confident lipid C[double bond, length as m-dash]C location determination by coupling online the Paternò-Büchi (PB) reaction with nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI) and MS/MS. Herein, we aimed to expand the scope of the PB reaction for lipid analysis by enabling the reaction with infusion ESI-MS/MS at much higher flow rates than demonstrated in the nanoESI setup (∼20 nL min(-1)). In the new design, the PB reaction was effected in a fused silica capillary solution transfer line, which also served as a microflow UV reactor, prior to ESI. This setup allowed PB reaction optimization and kinetics studies. Under optimized conditions, a maximum of 50% PB reaction yield could be achieved for a standard glycerophosphocholine (PC) within 6 s of UV exposure over a wide flow rate range (0.1-10 μL min(-1)). A solvent composition of 7 : 3 acetone : H2O (with 1% acid or base modifier) allowed the highest PB yields and good lipid ionization, while lower yields were obtained with an addition of a variety of organic solvents. Radical induced lipid peroxidation was identified to induce undesirable side reactions, which could be effectively suppressed by eliminating trace oxygen in the solution via N2 purge. Finally, the utility of coupling the PB reaction with infusion ESI-MS/MS was demonstrated by analyzing a yeast polar lipid extract where C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond locations were revealed for 35 glycerophospholipids (GPs).

  2. Daughters of the Dust (Julie Dash, 1991, le récit d’esclave revisité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Letort

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Julie Dash dédie Daughters of the Dust aux femmes de la communauté noire, animée par le désir de lever le voile sur les secrets d’une histoire commune transformée en tabou par le silence qui entoure le concept de féminité à l’époque de l’esclavage. Le film se concentre sur la famille Peazant dont les membres sont divisés à la veille de migrer vers le nord : certains craignent l’éclatement de la famille (Nana tandis que d’autres l’envisagent comme un renouveau (Viola, Haagar. Julie Dash utilise la figure de la migration pour explorer les complexités de l’identité afro-américaine. Tout en permettant aux femmes de faire face aux dilemmes les plus intimes (viol, couleur de peau, grossesse, sexualité, rôles féminins/masculins, la réalisatrice s’efforce de faire mentir les stéréotypes hollywoodiens de femmes noires. Elle se tourne vers le passé non seulement pour y puiser une source d’inspiration et de création, mais elle évoque avec nostalgie une vie tribale idéalisée qui n’a jamais existé sinon dans l’imaginaire des Afrocentristes.Julie Dash dedica Daughters of the Dust a las mujeres de la comunidad negra, estimulada por el deseo de desvelar los secretos de una historia común, transformada en tabú por el silencio que rodea el concepto de feminidad en la época de la esclavitud. La película se articula en torno a la familia Peazant cuyos miembros están divididos entre ellos en vísperas de emigrar hacia el norte. Algunos temen la disgregación de la familia (Nana, mientras que para otros es una oportunidad de renovación (Viola, Haagar. Julie Dash utiliza la figura de la emigración para explorar la complejidad, en toda su diversidad, de la identidad afroamericana. La realizadora trata de desmentir los estereotipos hollywoodienses de mujeres negras y, de manera paralela, permite a las mujeres el enfrentarse a los dilemas más íntimos (violación, color de la piel, embarazo, sexualidad, roles

  3. Dash Cam videos on YouTube™ offer insights into factors related to moose-vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Roy V; Johnson, Chris J; Aitken, Daniel A; Child, Kenneth N; Hesse, Gayle

    2018-03-26

    To gain a better understanding of the dynamics of moose-vehicle collisions, we analyzed 96 videos of moose-vehicle interactions recorded by vehicle dash-mounted cameras (Dash Cams) that had been posted to the video-sharing website YouTube™. Our objective was to determine the effects of road conditions, season and weather, moose behavior, and driver response to actual collisions compared to near misses when the collision was avoided. We identified 11 variables that were consistently observable in each video and that we hypothesized would help to explain a collision or near miss. The most parsimonious logistic regression model contained variables for number of moose, sight time, vehicle slows, and vehicle swerves (AIC c w = 0.529). This model had good predictive accuracy (AUC = 0.860, SE = 0.041). The only statistically significant variable from this model that explained the difference between moose-vehicle collisions and near misses was 'Vehicle slows'. Our results provide no evidence that road surface conditions (dry, wet, ice or snow), roadside habitat type (forested or cleared), the extent to which roadside vegetation was cleared, natural light conditions (overcast, clear, twilight, dark), season (winter, spring and summer, fall), the presence of oncoming traffic, or the direction from which the moose entered the roadway had any influence on whether a motorist collided with a moose. Dash Cam videos posted to YouTube™ provide a unique source of data for road safety planners trying to understand what happens in the moments just before a moose-vehicle collision and how those factors may differ from moose-vehicle encounters that do not result in a collision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. GeoDash: Assisting Visual Image Interpretation in Collect Earth Online by Leveraging Big Data on Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, K. N.; Ashmall, W.; Johnson, G.; Saah, D. S.; Anderson, E.; Flores Cordova, A. I.; Díaz, A. S. P.; Mollicone, D.; Griffin, R.

    2017-12-01

    Collect Earth Online (CEO) is a free and open online implementation of the FAO Collect Earth system for collaboratively collecting environmental data through the visual interpretation of Earth observation imagery. The primary collection mechanism in CEO is human interpretation of land surface characteristics in imagery served via Web Map Services (WMS). However, interpreters may not have enough contextual information to classify samples by only viewing the imagery served via WMS, be they high resolution or otherwise. To assist in the interpretation and collection processes in CEO, SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID initiative that brings Earth observations to improve environmental decision making in developing countries, developed the GeoDash system, an embedded and critical component of CEO. GeoDash leverages Google Earth Engine (GEE) by allowing users to set up custom browser-based widgets that pull from GEE's massive public data catalog. These widgets can be quick looks of other satellite imagery, time series graphs of environmental variables, and statistics panels of the same. Users can customize widgets with any of GEE's image collections, such as the historical Landsat collection with data available since the 1970s, select date ranges, image stretch parameters, graph characteristics, and create custom layouts, all on-the-fly to support plot interpretation in CEO. This presentation focuses on the implementation and potential applications, including the back-end links to GEE and the user interface with custom widget building. GeoDash takes large data volumes and condenses them into meaningful, relevant information for interpreters. While designed initially with national and global forest resource assessments in mind, the system will complement disaster assessments, agriculture management, project monitoring and evaluation, and more.

  5. GeoDash: Assisting Visual Image Interpretation in Collect Earth Online by Leveraging Big Data on Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, Kel; Ashmall, William; Johnson, Gary; Saah, David; Mollicone, Danilo; Diaz, Alfonso Sanchez-Paus; Anderson, Eric; Flores, Africa; Griffin, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Collect Earth Online (CEO) is a free and open online implementation of the FAO Collect Earth system for collaboratively collecting environmental data through the visual interpretation of Earth observation imagery. The primary collection mechanism in CEO is human interpretation of land surface characteristics in imagery served via Web Map Services (WMS). However, interpreters may not have enough contextual information to classify samples by only viewing the imagery served via WMS, be they high resolution or otherwise. To assist in the interpretation and collection processes in CEO, SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID initiative that brings Earth observations to improve environmental decision making in developing countries, developed the GeoDash system, an embedded and critical component of CEO. GeoDash leverages Google Earth Engine (GEE) by allowing users to set up custom browser-based widgets that pull from GEE's massive public data catalog. These widgets can be quick looks of other satellite imagery, time series graphs of environmental variables, and statistics panels of the same. Users can customize widgets with any of GEE's image collections, such as the historical Landsat collection with data available since the 1970s, select date ranges, image stretch parameters, graph characteristics, and create custom layouts, all on-the-fly to support plot interpretation in CEO. This presentation focuses on the implementation and potential applications, including the back-end links to GEE and the user interface with custom widget building. GeoDash takes large data volumes and condenses them into meaningful, relevant information for interpreters. While designed initially with national and global forest resource assessments in mind, the system will complement disaster assessments, agriculture management, project monitoring and evaluation, and more.

  6. Unique lasing mechanism of localized dispersive nanostructures in InAs/InGaAlAs quantum dash broad interband laser

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, C. L.

    2010-02-11

    The authors report on the nanowires-like and nanodots-like lasing behaviors in addition to multiple-wavelength interband transitions from InAs/InAlGaAs quantum dash (Qdash) lasers in the range of ~1550 nm. The presence of lasing actions simultaneously from two different dash ensembles, after postgrowth intermixing for crystalline quality improvement, indicate the absence of optical phonon emission due to the small variation in quantized interband transition energies. This effect is reproducible and shows different lasing characteristics from its quantum dot and quantum wire laser counterparts. Furthermore, the small energy spacing of only 25 nm (at center lasing wavelength of ~1550 nm) and the subsequent quenching of higher energy transition states at higher bias level in Qdash lasers suggest the absence of excited-state transition in highly inhomogeneous self-assembled Qdash structures. However, the appearance of a second lasing line in a certain range of high injection level, which is due to the presence of different sizes of dash assembles, corresponds to the transition from smaller size of Qdash ensembles in different planar active medium. This unique transition mechanism will affect the carrier dynamics, relaxation process in particular and further indicates localized finite carrier lifetime in all sizes of Qdash ensembles. These phenomena will lead to important consequences for the ground-state lasing efficiency and frequency modulation response of Qdash devices. In addition, these imply that proper manipulation of the Qdash ensembles will potentially result in localized nanolasers from individual ensemble and thus contributing towards enormously large envelope lasing coverage from semiconductor devices.

  7. Weight loss in individuals with metabolic syndrome given DASH diet counseling when provided a low sodium vegetable juice: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Sonia F; Poston, Walker Sc; Reeves, Rebecca S; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Holt, Roberta R; Keen, Carl L; Chen, Hsin Ju; Haddock, C Keith; Winters, Barbara L; Khoo, Chor San H; Foreyt, John P

    2010-02-23

    Metabolic syndrome, a constellation of metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is one of the fastest growing disease entities in the world. Weight loss is thought to be a key to improving all aspects of metabolic syndrome. Research studies have suggested benefits from diets rich in vegetables and fruits in helping individuals reach and achieve healthy weights. To evaluate the effects of a ready to serve vegetable juice as part of a calorie-appropriate Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet in an ethnically diverse population of people with Metabolic Syndrome on weight loss and their ability to meet vegetable intake recommendations, and on their clinical characteristics of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, triglycerides, HDL, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure).A secondary goal was to examine the impact of the vegetable juice on associated parameters, including leptin, vascular adhesion markers, and markers of the oxidative defense system and of oxidative stress. A prospective 12 week, 3 group (0, 8, or 16 fluid ounces of low sodium vegetable juice) parallel arm randomized controlled trial. Participants were requested to limit their calorie intake to 1600 kcals for women and 1800 kcals for men and were educated on the DASH diet. A total of 81 (22 men & 59 women) participants with Metabolic Syndrome were enrolled into the study. Dietary nutrient and vegetable intake, weight, height, leptin, metabolic syndrome clinical characteristics and related markers of endothelial and cardiovascular health were measured at baseline, 6-, and 12-weeks. There were significant group by time interactions when aggregating both groups consuming vegetable juice (8 or 16 fluid ounces daily). Those consuming juice lost more weight, consumed more Vitamin C, potassium, and dietary vegetables than individuals who were in the group that only received diet counseling (p juice into the daily diet can be a simple and effective way to

  8. Weight loss in individuals with metabolic syndrome given DASH diet counseling when provided a low sodium vegetable juice: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hsin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome, a constellation of metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is one of the fastest growing disease entities in the world. Weight loss is thought to be a key to improving all aspects of metabolic syndrome. Research studies have suggested benefits from diets rich in vegetables and fruits in helping individuals reach and achieve healthy weights. Objective To evaluate the effects of a ready to serve vegetable juice as part of a calorie-appropriate Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet in an ethnically diverse population of people with Metabolic Syndrome on weight loss and their ability to meet vegetable intake recommendations, and on their clinical characteristics of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, triglycerides, HDL, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. A secondary goal was to examine the impact of the vegetable juice on associated parameters, including leptin, vascular adhesion markers, and markers of the oxidative defense system and of oxidative stress. Methods A prospective 12 week, 3 group (0, 8, or 16 fluid ounces of low sodium vegetable juice parallel arm randomized controlled trial. Participants were requested to limit their calorie intake to 1600 kcals for women and 1800 kcals for men and were educated on the DASH diet. A total of 81 (22 men & 59 women participants with Metabolic Syndrome were enrolled into the study. Dietary nutrient and vegetable intake, weight, height, leptin, metabolic syndrome clinical characteristics and related markers of endothelial and cardiovascular health were measured at baseline, 6-, and 12-weeks. Results There were significant group by time interactions when aggregating both groups consuming vegetable juice (8 or 16 fluid ounces daily. Those consuming juice lost more weight, consumed more Vitamin C, potassium, and dietary vegetables than individuals who were in the group that only received diet counseling (p

  9. Outage Performance Analysis of Cooperative Diversity with MRC and SC in Correlated Lognormal Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skraparlis D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of relaying systems has found renewed interest in the context of cooperative diversity for communication channels suffering from fading. This paper provides analytical expressions for the end-to-end SNR and outage probability of cooperative diversity in correlated lognormal channels, typically found in indoor and specific outdoor environments. The system under consideration utilizes decode-and-forward relaying and Selection Combining or Maximum Ratio Combining at the destination node. The provided expressions are used to evaluate the gains of cooperative diversity compared to noncooperation in correlated lognormal channels, taking into account the spectral and energy efficiency of the protocols and the half-duplex or full-duplex capability of the relay. Our analysis demonstrates that correlation and lognormal variances play a significant role on the performance gain of cooperative diversity against noncooperation.

  10. Terahertz-bandwidth coherence measurements of a quantum dash laser in passive and active mode-locking operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Eamonn; Watts, Regan; Bramerie, Laurent; Shen, Alexandre; Gariah, Harry; Blache, Fabrice; Lelarge, Francois; Barry, Liam

    2012-12-01

    This research carries out coherence measurements of a 42.7 GHz quantum dash (QDash) semiconductor laser when passively, electrically, and optically mode-locked. Coherence of the spectral lines from the mode-locked laser is determined by examining the radio frequency beat-tone linewidth as the mode spacing is increased up to 1.1 THz. Electric-field measurements of the QDash laser are also presented, from which a comparison between experimental results and accepted theory for coherence in passively mode-locked lasers has been performed.

  11. Chirped InAs/InP quantum-dash laser with enhanced broad spectrum of stimulated emission

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-03-01

    We report on the demonstration of 50 nm (full-width at half-maximum) broadband stimulated emission from a chirped AlGaInAs barrier thickness multi-stack InAs/InP quantum dash (Qdash) laser. The 2 ?m wide uncoated Fabry-Perot (FP) ridge-waveguide laser exhibits a total power of 0.18 W, corresponding to an average spectral power density of 3.5 mW/nm, under pulsed current conditions. Intentional extended inhomogeneity across the Qdash stacks have been attributed to the enhancement of broadband emission. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Chirped InAs/InP quantum-dash laser with enhanced broad spectrum of stimulated emission

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.; Lee, Chi-Sen; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the demonstration of 50 nm (full-width at half-maximum) broadband stimulated emission from a chirped AlGaInAs barrier thickness multi-stack InAs/InP quantum dash (Qdash) laser. The 2 ?m wide uncoated Fabry-Perot (FP) ridge-waveguide laser exhibits a total power of 0.18 W, corresponding to an average spectral power density of 3.5 mW/nm, under pulsed current conditions. Intentional extended inhomogeneity across the Qdash stacks have been attributed to the enhancement of broadband emission. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Gain and refractive index dynamics in p-doped InAs quantum dash semiconductor optical amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komolibus, Katarzyna; Piwonski, Tomasz; Joshi, Siddharth; Chimot, Nicolas; Lelarge, Francois; Houlihan, John; Huyet, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    The ultrafast carrier dynamics in a p-doped dash-in-a-well structure at 1.5 μm is experimentally investigated. An analysis of the timescales related to carrier relaxation and escape processes as well as the “dynamical” linewidth enhancement factor is presented and compared with results obtained from similar un-doped materials. Intentional p-doping of the active region results in an enhancement of the intermediate timescale of the gain dynamics associated with phonon-assisted electron capture and a reduction of the α-factor due to increased differential gain.

  14. Gain and refractive index dynamics in p-doped InAs quantum dash semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komolibus, Katarzyna [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Process Analysis, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork T12 P928 (Ireland); Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork T12 R5CP (Ireland); Piwonski, Tomasz, E-mail: tomasz.piwonski@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork T12 R5CP (Ireland); Joshi, Siddharth; Chimot, Nicolas; Lelarge, Francois [III-V Lab, Alcatel Lucent Bell Labs, Palaiseau F-91767 (France); Houlihan, John [Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford X91 K0EK (Ireland); Huyet, Guillaume [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Process Analysis, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork T12 P928 (Ireland); Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork T12 R5CP (Ireland); National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Saint Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-18

    The ultrafast carrier dynamics in a p-doped dash-in-a-well structure at 1.5 μm is experimentally investigated. An analysis of the timescales related to carrier relaxation and escape processes as well as the “dynamical” linewidth enhancement factor is presented and compared with results obtained from similar un-doped materials. Intentional p-doping of the active region results in an enhancement of the intermediate timescale of the gain dynamics associated with phonon-assisted electron capture and a reduction of the α-factor due to increased differential gain.

  15. Effect of active medium inhomogeneity on lasing characteristics of InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the effect of quantum-dash (Qdash) inhomogeneity on the characteristics of InAs/InP Qdash laser utilizing a single state rate equation model. The inhomogeneity is assumed to follow the Gaussian approximation. From our observation, an increased in Qdash inhomogeneity results in increasing of threshold current density and redshifting of the peak lasing wavelength. The lasing linewidth of the Qdash lasers has also found to increase under large injection current, attaining a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ~ 17 nm.

  16. Biopsy proportion of tumour predicts pathological tumour response and benefit from chemotherapy in resectable oesophageal carcinoma: results from the UK MRC OE02 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Matthew D; Nankivell, Matthew; Hutchins, Gordon G; Stenning, Sally P; Langley, Ruth E; Mueller, Wolfram; West, Nicholas P; Wright, Alexander I; Treanor, Darren; Hewitt, Lindsay C; Allum, William H; Cunningham, David; Hayden, Jeremy D; Grabsch, Heike I

    2016-11-22

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is the standard of care for UK patients with locally advanced resectable oesophageal carcinoma (OeC). However, not all patients benefit from multimodal treatment and there is a clinical need for biomarkers which can identify chemotherapy responders. This study investigated whether the proportion of tumour cells per tumour area (PoT) measured in the pre-treatment biopsy predicts chemotherapy benefit for OeC patients. PoT was quantified using digitized haematoxylin/eosin stained pre-treatment biopsy slides from 281 OeC patients from the UK MRC OE02 trial (141 treated by surgery alone (S); 140 treated by 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin followed by surgery (CS)). The relationship between PoT and clinicopathological data including tumour regression grade (TRG), overall survival and treatment interaction was investigated. PoT was associated with chemotherapy benefit in a non-linear fashion (test for interaction, P=0.006). Only patients with a biopsy PoT between 40% and 70% received a significant survival benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy (N=129; HR (95%CI):1.94 (1.39-2.71), unlike those with lower or higher PoT (PoT70% (N=28, HR:0.65 (0.36-1.18)). High pre-treatment PoT was related to lack of primary tumour regression (TRG 4 or 5), P=0.0402. This is the first study to identify in a representative subgroup of OeC patients from a large randomized phase III trial that the proportion of tumour in the pre-chemotherapy biopsy predicts benefit from chemotherapy and may be a clinically useful biomarker for patient treatment stratification.Proportion of tumour is a novel biomarker which can be measured in the pre-treatment diagnostic biopsy and which may enable the identification of chemotherapy responders and non-responders among patients with oesophageal carcinoma. Proportion of tumour could easily become part of the routine reporting of oesophageal cancer biopsies and may aid in managing patients with borderline resectable cancer.

  17. Tailoring the photoluminescence polarization anisotropy of a single InAs quantum dash by a post-growth modification of its dielectric environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrowiński, P.; Misiewicz, J.; Sęk, G. [Laboratory for Optical Spectroscopy of Nanostructures, Division of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wrocław (Poland); Tarnowski, K.; Olszewski, J.; Urbańczyk, W. [Division of Optics and Photonics, Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wrocław (Poland); Somers, A.; Kamp, M. [Technische Physik & W. C. Röntgen-Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Würzburg Germany (Germany); Reithmaier, J. P. [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics (INA), CINSaT, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany); Machnikowski, P. [Division of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wrocław (Poland)

    2016-08-21

    Excitonic emission from single InAs/InGaAlAs/InP quantum dashes has been investigated in terms of controlling the polarization anisotropy by altering the shape of the processed sub-micrometer mesa structures. Photoluminescence has been measured from exemplary single quantum dashes emitting around 1.3 and 1.55 μm and placed inside rectangular mesas of various orientation, asymmetry, and sizes. The detected degree of linear polarization of bright exciton emission ranges from −0.1 to ca. 0.55, compared to 0.25 for dashes in unaltered or isotropic in-plane dielectric surrounding. These results are interpreted by numerical simulations using an emitter coupled with a single optical mode in such a mesa and outgoing in the direction normal to the sample surface.

  18. Adherence to the USDA Food Guide, DASH Eating Plan, and Mediterranean dietary pattern reduces risk of colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L Beth; Subar, Amy F; Peters, Ulrike; Weissfeld, Joel L; Bresalier, Robert S; Risch, Adam; Schatzkin, Arthur; Hayes, Richard B

    2007-11-01

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include quantitative recommendations for 2 eating patterns, the USDA Food Guide and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan, to promote optimal health and reduce disease risk. A Mediterranean dietary pattern has also been promoted for health benefits. Our objective was to determine whether adherence to the USDA Food Guide recommendations, the DASH Eating Plan, or a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with reduced risk of distal colorectal adenoma. In the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, men and women aged 55-74 y were screened for colorectal cancer by sigmoidoscopy at 10 centers in the U.S. After adjusting for potential confounders, men who most complied with the USDA Food Guide recommendations had a 26% reduced risk of colorectal adenoma compared with men who least complied with the recommendations (OR USDA score >or= 5 vs. dietary pattern. Women who most complied with the USDA Food Guide recommendations had an 18% reduced risk for colorectal adenoma, but subgroup analyses revealed protective associations only for current smokers (OR USDA score >or= 5 vs. or= 5 vs. dietary recommendations or a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with reduced risk of colorectal adenoma, especially in men.

  19. Dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet and obesity: A cross-sectional study of Iranian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpour-Hamedani, Sahar; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Khosravi, Alireza; Feizi, Awat; Safavi, Sayyed Morteza

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the effects of dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet on obesity in children. The present study was conducted to examine adherence to the DASH diet in relation to obesity in children and adolescents, Isfahan, Iran. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 456 children aged 11-18 years who were selected by random cluster sampling method. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The DASH score was constructed based on food items emphasized or minimized in the DASH diet. Anthropometric measurements were conducted based on standard protocols. General and abdominal obesity were defined based on body mass index ≥ 95th percentiles and waist: height ratio of more than 0.5, respectively. Higher adherence to DASH diet was inversely associated with general obesity (odds ratioT1 vs. T3 3.34, 95% confidence interval 1.28-8.75); however, after controlling for confounding factors, this association disappeared. Furthermore, higher adherence to DASH diet was negatively associated with central obesity in children, but the relation was not statistically significant. We concluded that there was an inverse nonsignificant association between adherence to DASH diet and general obesity indices after adjustment for potential confounders. Further, well-designed randomized clinical trial studies are suggested to find out the effect of DASH diet on obesity obviously.

  20. Implementación de un sistema de streaming de contenidos multimedia con tecnología MPEG-DASH basado en la plataforma Gstreamer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Gómez (David)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this Master Thesis, an end-to-end media framework for the delivery of MPEG-DASH content has been developed. This framework includes and allows the configuration of all the required steps along the end-to-end media delivery chain, from the generation, encoding, segmentation and storage

  1. High performance superluminescent diode with InAs quantum-dashes and chirped AlGaInAs barriers active region

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Majid, Mohammed Abdul; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration of high power, ultra-low ripple superluminescent diode using multiple quantum-dash-in-a-well layers with variable barrier thickness is reported. The device exhibits >20 mW power, < 0.3dB ripple, and > 80 nm 3dB bandwidth at ~1.55 μm.

  2. Effect of optical waveguiding mechanism on the lasing action of chirped InAs/AlGaInAs/InP quantum dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee; Lee, C.-S.; Bhattacharya, P.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the atypical emission dynamics of InAs/AlGaInAs/InP quantum dash (Qdash) lasers employing varying AlGaInAs barrier thickness (multilayer-chirped structure). The analysis is carried out via fabry-perot (FP) ridge (RW) and stripe

  3. Triiodothyronine (T3)-associated upregulation and downregulation of nuclear T3 binding in the human fibroblast cell (MRC-5)--stimulation of malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase, and 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase by insulin, but not by T3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, L E; Kristensen, S R; Kvetny, J

    1991-01-01

    The specific nuclear binding of triiodothyronine (T3) (NBT3) and the activity of malic enzyme (ME), glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD), and 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase (6PGD) were studied in the human fibroblast cell (MRC-5). The overall apparent binding affinity (Ka) was 2.7 x 10(9) L.......mol-1 estimated from kinetic studies of nuclear T3 binding, and 2.5 x 10(9) L.mol-1 estimated from equilibrium studies. The scatchard plots were curvilinear and composed of a high-affinity binding site with Ka1 3.4 +/- 0.7 x 10(9) L.mol-1 and maximal binding capacity (MBC) MBC1 57.0 +/- 11.9 fmol/mg DNA...... and a low-affinity binding site with Ka2 2.9 +/- 1.1 x 10(8) L.mol-1 and MBC2 124.7 +/- 22.1 fmol/mg DNA (n = 6). Incubation of cells with 6 nmol/L T3 for 20 hours reduced NBT3 to 62.2% +/- 15.7% (P less than .01, n = 11). The Ka estimated from kinetic studies was reduced to 6.7 x 10(7) L.mol-1...

  4. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology Stew: Pinch of Microbes, Smidgen of UV, Touch of Organics, and Dash of Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session Astrobiology Stew: Pinch of Microbes, Smidgen of UV, Touch of Organics, and Dash of Meteorites includes the following topics: 1) Investigating the Impact of UV Radiation on High-Altitude Shallow Lake Habitats, Life Diversity, and Life Survival Strategies: Clues for Mars' Past Habitability Potential? 2) An Analysis of Potential Photosynthetic Life on Mars; 3) Radiation Inactivation of Bacterial spores on Mars; 4) Hydrophobic Surfaces of Spacecraft Components Enhance the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Higher Survival Rates of Bacteria on Mars Landers; 5) Optical Detection of Organic Chemical Biosignatures at Hydrothermal Vents; 6) Signs of Life in Meridiani Planum-What Might Opportunity See (or Miss)? 7) Isolation of PUrines and Pyrimidines from the Murchison Meteorite Using Sublimation; and 8) Relative Amino Acid Composition of CM1 Carbonaceous Chondrites.

  5. Comparison of the amount of bioaccessible fumonisin B1 and B2 in maize and rice inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826) and determined by in vitro digestion-preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó-Fodor, J; Bors, I; Szabó, A; Kovács, M

    2016-08-01

    In this study the occurrence of hidden fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) was analysed, on two cereal substrates (maize and rice), inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826), in order to determine the ratio of hidden FB1 and FB2. Two parallel methods were applied: an in vitro human digestion sample pre-treatment and the routine extraction procedure, in both cases with subsequent LC-MS analysis. It was found that all samples showed higher concentration of total fumonisin B1 after digestion, as compared to that of free fumonisin analysed only after extraction. The percentage of the hidden form by maize was 18.8 % (±2.4) for FB1 and 36.8 % (±3.8) for FB2, while for rice it was 32.3 % (±11.3) and 58.0 (±6.8), respectively, expressed as the proportion to total fumonisin B1, for the total dataset. Significant differences were found in the FB1 and FB2 concentration measured after the different digestion phases (saliva, gastric and duodenal) in case of both matrixes. The results are useful for human risk assessment, since both humans and animals may be exposed to markedly higher toxin load, as determined merely by conventional analytical methods.

  6. A versatile phantom for quality assurance in the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) RT01 trial (ISRCTN47772397) in conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollo Moore, A.; Jim Warrington, A.P.; Aird, Edwin G.A.; Margaret Bidmead, A.; Dearnaley, David P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the UK RT01 trial the MRC also funded a quality assurance (QA) programme. This included a planning and dosimetry audit at participating centres using a purpose built phantom. Geometrical setup was visually assessed via field shaping around the phantom GTV (to within the order of 1 mm). Within the phantom, ion chamber positional uncertainties were estimated as 0.6 mm (95% CL, k = 2). This was the basis for ion chamber measurements in a variety of dose gradients around the PTV closely simulating a patient case. The design provides a representative but reproducible system for QA in the prostate radiotherapy process, from CT scan to treatment. Setup errors are not eliminated, but minimised and estimated

  7. A pan-inhibitor of DASH family enzymes induces immune-mediated regression of murine sarcoma and is a potent adjuvant to dendritic cell vaccination and adoptive T-cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Brynn B; Highfill, Steven L; Qin, Haiying; Bouchkouj, Najat; Larabee, Shannon; Zhao, Peng; Woznica, Iwona; Liu, Yuxin; Li, Youhua; Wu, Wengen; Lai, Jack H; Jones, Barry; Mackall, Crystal L; Bachovchin, William W; Fry, Terry J

    2013-10-01

    Multimodality therapy consisting of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation will fail in approximately 40% of patients with pediatric sarcomas and result in substantial long-term morbidity in those who are cured. Immunotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of solid tumors typically generate antigen-specific responses too weak to overcome considerable tumor burden and tumor suppressive mechanisms and are in need of adjuvant assistance. Previous work suggests that inhibitors of DASH (dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity and/or structural homologs) enzymes can mediate tumor regression by immune-mediated mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that the DASH inhibitor, ARI-4175, can induce regression and eradication of well-established solid tumors, both as a single agent and as an adjuvant to a dendritic cell (DC) vaccine and adoptive cell therapy (ACT) in mice implanted with the M3-9-M rhabdomyosarcoma cell line. Treatment with effective doses of ARI-4175 correlated with recruitment of myeloid (CD11b) cells, particularly myeloid DCs, to secondary lymphoid tissues and with reduced frequency of intratumoral monocytic (CD11bLy6-CLy6-G) myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In immunocompetent mice, combining ARI-4175 with a DC vaccine or ACT with tumor-primed T cells produced significant improvements in tumor responses against well-established M3-9-M tumors. In M3-9-M-bearing immunodeficient (Rag1) mice, ACT combined with ARI-4175 produced greater tumor responses and significantly improved survival compared with either treatment alone. These studies warrant the clinical investigation of ARI-4175 for treatment of sarcomas and other malignancies, particularly as an adjuvant to tumor vaccines and ACT.

  8. Neuronal protein gene product 9.5 (IEF SSP 6104) is expressed in cultured human MRC-5 fibroblasts of normal origin and is strongly down-regulated in their SV40 transformed counterparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Rasmussen, H H; Vandekerckhove, J

    1991-01-01

    of proteins recovered from 2D gels we have identified PGP 9.5 UCH-L1 as polypeptide IEF SSP 6104 (Mr = 27,000, pI = 5.49) in the comprehensive 2D gel cellular protein database of human embryonal lung MRC-5 fibroblasts [(1989) Electrophoresis 10, 76 115; (1990) Electrophoresis 11, 1072 1113]. This protein...

  9. High-Performance 1.55-µm Superluminescent Diode Based on Broad Gain InAs/InGaAlAs/InP Quantum Dash Active Region

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2014-08-01

    We report on the high-performance characteristics from superluminescent diodes (SLDs) based on four-stack InAs/InGaAlAs chirped-barrier thickness quantum dash (Qdash) in a well structure. The active region exhibits a measured broad gain spectrum of 140 nm, with a peak modal gain of ~41 cm-1. The noncoated two-section gainabsorber broad-area and ridge-waveguide device configuration exhibits an output power of > 20 mW and > 12 mW, respectively. The corresponding -3-dB bandwidths span ~82 nm and ~72 nm, with a small spectral ripple of <; 0.2 dB, related largely to the contribution from dispersive height dash ensembles of the highly inhomogeneous active region. These C-L communication band devices will find applications in various cross-disciplinary fields of optical metrology, optical coherent tomography, etc.

  10. Utilisation of an eta(3)-allyl hydride complex, formed by UV irradiation, as a controlled source of 16-electron (eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))Rh(CH(2)[double bond, length as m-dash]CHMe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Catherine J; López-Serrano, Joaquín; Lledós, Agustí; Duckett, Simon B

    2008-10-21

    Low temperature UV irradiation of solutions of (eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))Rh(CH(2)[double bond, length as m-dash]CHMe)(2) yields (eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))Rh(eta(3)-CH(2)CHCH(2))(H), which provides controlled access to the 16-electron fragment (eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))Rh(CH(2)[double bond, length as m-dash]CHMe).

  11. Assessing physical function in adult acquired major upper-limb amputees by combining the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) Outcome Questionnaire and clinical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlie, Kristin; Franklin, Rosemary J; Skjeldal, Ola H; Skrondal, Anders; Magnus, Per

    2011-10-01

    To describe physical function in adult acquired major upper-limb amputees (ULAs) by combining self-assessed arm function and physical measures obtained by clinical examinations; to estimate associations between background factors and self-assessed arm function in ULAs; and to assess whether clinical examination findings may be used to detect reduced arm function in unilateral ULAs. postal questionnaires and clinical examinations. Norwegian ULA population. Clinical examinations performed at 3 clinics. Questionnaires: population-based sample (n=224; 57.4% response rate). Clinical examinations: combined referred sample and convenience sample of questionnaire responders (n=70; 83.3% of those invited). SURVEY inclusion criteria: adult acquired major upper-limb amputation, resident in Norway, mastering of spoken and written Norwegian. Not applicable. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) Outcome Questionnaire, and clinical examination of joint motion and muscle strength with and without prostheses. Mean DASH score was 22.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 20.3-25.0); in bilateral amputees, 35.7 (95% CI, 23.0-48.4); and in unilateral amputees, 22.1 (95% CI, 19.8-24.5). A lower unilateral DASH score (better function) was associated with paid employment (vs not in paid employment: adjusted regression coefficient [aB]=-5.40, P=.033; vs students: aB=-13.88, P=.022), increasing postamputation time (aB=-.27, P=.001), and Norwegian ethnicity (aB=-14.45, P<.001). At clinical examination, we found a high frequency of impaired neck mobility and varying frequencies of impaired joint motion and strength at the shoulder, elbow, and forearm level. Prosthesis wear was associated with impaired joint motion in all upper-limb joints (P<.006) and with reduced shoulder abduction strength (P=.002). Impaired without-prosthesis joint motion in shoulder flexion (ipsilateral: aB=12.19, P=.001) and shoulder abduction (ipsilateral: aB=12.01, P=.005; contralateral: aB=28.82, P=.004

  12. Two-photon Absorption In Quantum Dots,quantum Dashes And Related Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ravinder

    2009-08-31

    We have proposed the use of USQDs for various deep-tissue biological imaging applications, notably wavelength-multiplexed multicolor imaging and intra-nuclear studies such as those involving cell apoptosis, and have studied the issue of maximizing two-photon absorption-induced fluorescence (TPAF) signals from CdSe/ZnS USQDs to be used for this application. In particular, using 2 nm USQDs, we have shown that the TPAF signal at 780 nm is ~ 8 times that at 850 nm and 68 times that at 900 nm, two wavelengths that have been used in previous studies using CdSe/ZnS SQDs for deep-tissue imaging of biological studies via TPAF .

  13. Assessing the survival of MRC5 and a549 cell lines upon exposure to pyruvic Acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate - biomed 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ibrahim O; Lewis, Veshell L; Ayensu, Wellington K; Cameron, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is among the most prevalent and deadly cancers in United States. In general, cancer cells are known to exhibit higher rates of glycolysis in comparison to normal cells. In attempting to exploit this unique cancer-dependent ATP generation phenomenon, it was our hypothesis that upon exposure to organic inhibitors of glycolysis, cancer cells would not survive normally and that their growth and viability would be vastly decreased; essential glycolytic ATP production will be exhausted to the point of collapsing energy utilization. Furthermore, we hypothesize that no negative effect would be seen with exposures to organic inhibitors for normal lung cells. The human lung fibroblast MRC-5 and the human A549 alveolar epithelial cell lines were used as in vitro models of normal lung and lung cancers respectively. Using standard methods, both cell lines were maintained and exposed to pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate reagents at concentration levels ranging from 31.3-2,000 µg/ml in 96 well plates in quadruplets and experiments repeated at least three times using MTT, and cell counting (T4 Cellometer) assays as well as phase-contrast photo-imaging for parallel morphological displays of any changes in the course of their vitality and metabolic activities. Our results indicate that exposure of both cell lines to these organics resulted in concentration dependent cell destruction/cell survival depending on the cell line exposed. Pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate showed statistically significant (pcancer biotherapeutics.

  14. The impact of therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia on intelligence quotients; results of the risk-stratified randomized central nervous system treatment trial MRC UKALL XI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargha-Khadem Faraneh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MRC UKALLXI trial tested the efficacy of different central nervous system (CNS directed therapies in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL. To evaluate morbidity 555/1826 randomised children underwent prospective psychological evaluations. Full Scale, verbal and performance IQs were measured at 5 months, 3 years and 5 years. Scores were compared in; (1 all patients (n = 555 versus related controls (n = 311, (2 low-risk children (presenting white cell count (WCC 9/l randomised to intrathecal methotrexate (n = 197 versus intrathecal and high-dose intravenous methotrexate (HDM (n = 202, and (3 high-risk children (WCC ≥ 50 × 109/l, age ≥ 2 years randomised to HDM (n = 79 versus cranial irradiation (n = 77. Results There were no significant differences in IQ scores between the treatment arms in either low- or high-risk groups. Despite similar scores at baseline, results at 3 and 5 years showed a significant reduction of between 3.6 and 7.3 points in all three IQ scores in all patient groups compared to controls (P Conclusion Children with ALL are at risk of CNS morbidity, regardless of the mode of CNS-directed therapy. Further work needs to identify individuals at high-risk of adverse CNS outcomes. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN16757172

  15. Detecção da citotoxicidade de materiais biocompatíveis nas linhagens celulares MRC-5, HeLa e RC-IAL MRC-5, HeLa and RC-IAL cell lines sensitivity for detection of cytotoxicity of biocompatible materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea S. Cruz

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensibilidade de uma linhagem celular diplóide e duas heteroplóides, para a detecção de citotoxicidade através do método de difusão em camada de ágar sobre culturas celulares, foi avaliada experimentalmente com solução de ácido ascórbico em diferentes concentrações e, na prática, frente a 562 amostras de 21 diferentes materiais industriais enviados para análise na Seção de Culturas Celulares do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. A linhagem celular heteroplóide designada RC-IAL apresentou, em relação às linhagens MRC-5 e HeLa, maior sensibilidade porque revelou a presença de efeito citotóxico nas menores concentrações utilizadas (10 e 25 ug/ml do ácido ascórbico e apresentou maior diâmetro do halo citotóxico em 15 amostras e igual diâmetro em 16 das 43 amostras (7,6% que resultaram positivas. Nas 43 amostras positivas, a linhagem MRC-5 não revelou citotoxicidade em 3 amostras de espuma e 1 de resina acrílica. O polivinilcloreto (PVC e o polietileno, raramente revelaram positividade, enquanto plástico, algodão e resinas acrílicas revelaram citotoxicidade ao redor de 5%. Em vista dos resultados é discutida a proposta da utilização da linhagem RC-IAL e HeLa para a continuidade das futuras análises solicitadas ao Instituto Adolfo LutzThe sensitivity of diploid and heteroploid cell lines for detection of cytotoxicity using the agar diffusion method on cell culture, was tested with ascorbic acid solution of different concentrations. A total of 562 samples of 21 various materials were tested. The heteroploid cell line, RC-IAL, showed in relation to the MRC-5 and HeLa cell lines, greater sensitivity because it showed the presence of cytotoxic effect with the lowest concentration used (10 and 25ug/ml of ascorbic acid and showed greater diameter of cytotoxic halo in 15 samples and equal diameter in 16 of the 43 positive samples (7.6%. Out of 43 positive samples, the MRC-5 line did not show cytotoxicity in 3 sponge samples and

  16. The managerial flash sales dash: Is there advantage or disadvantage at the finish line?

    OpenAIRE

    Berezina, K.; Semrad, k.J.; Stepchenkova, S.; Cobanoglu, C.

    2016-01-01

    The central intent of this qualitative inquiry is to investigate the benefits, drawbacks, and performance measures of hotel room inventory distribution via flash sales websites. Key advantages and disadvantages of using such a distribution channel fall within the categories of inventory management, revenue management, brand marketing, customer relationships, and operational challenges. The significance of the study is in providing a comprehensive review of the flash sales phenomenon in the lo...

  17. Self-assembled InAs/InP quantum dots and quantum dashes: Material structures and devices

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2014-01-01

    The advances in lasers, electronic and photonic integrated circuits (EPIC), optical interconnects as well as the modulation techniques allow the present day society to embrace the convenience of broadband, high speed internet and mobile network connectivity. However, the steep increase in energy demand and bandwidth requirement calls for further innovation in ultra-compact EPIC technologies. In the optical domain, advancement in the laser technologies beyond the current quantum well (Qwell) based laser technologies are already taking place and presenting very promising results. Homogeneously grown quantum dot (Qdot) lasers and optical amplifiers, can serve in the future energy saving information and communication technologies (ICT) as the work-horse for transmitting and amplifying information through optical fiber. The encouraging results in the zero-dimensional (0D) structures emitting at 980 nm, in the form of vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), are already operational at low threshold current density and capable of 40 Gbps error-free transmission at 108 fJ/bit. Subsequent achievements for lasers and amplifiers operating in the O-, C-, L-, U-bands, and beyond will eventually lay the foundation for green ICT. On the hand, the inhomogeneously grown quasi 0D quantum dash (Qdash) lasers are brilliant solutions for potential broadband connectivity in server farms or access network. A single broadband Qdash laser operating in the stimulated emission mode can replace tens of discrete narrow-band lasers in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) transmission thereby further saving energy, cost and footprint. We herein reviewed the1 progress of both Qdots and Qdash devices, based on the InAs/InGaAlAs/InP and InAs/InGaAsP/InP material systems, from the angles of growth and device performance. In particular, we discussed the progress in lasers, semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), mode locked lasers, and superluminescent diodes, which are the building

  18. Self-assembled InAs/InP quantum dots and quantum dashes: Material structures and devices

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2014-11-01

    The advances in lasers, electronic and photonic integrated circuits (EPIC), optical interconnects as well as the modulation techniques allow the present day society to embrace the convenience of broadband, high speed internet and mobile network connectivity. However, the steep increase in energy demand and bandwidth requirement calls for further innovation in ultra-compact EPIC technologies. In the optical domain, advancement in the laser technologies beyond the current quantum well (Qwell) based laser technologies are already taking place and presenting very promising results. Homogeneously grown quantum dot (Qdot) lasers and optical amplifiers, can serve in the future energy saving information and communication technologies (ICT) as the work-horse for transmitting and amplifying information through optical fiber. The encouraging results in the zero-dimensional (0D) structures emitting at 980 nm, in the form of vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), are already operational at low threshold current density and capable of 40 Gbps error-free transmission at 108 fJ/bit. Subsequent achievements for lasers and amplifiers operating in the O-, C-, L-, U-bands, and beyond will eventually lay the foundation for green ICT. On the hand, the inhomogeneously grown quasi 0D quantum dash (Qdash) lasers are brilliant solutions for potential broadband connectivity in server farms or access network. A single broadband Qdash laser operating in the stimulated emission mode can replace tens of discrete narrow-band lasers in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) transmission thereby further saving energy, cost and footprint. We herein reviewed the1 progress of both Qdots and Qdash devices, based on the InAs/InGaAlAs/InP and InAs/InGaAsP/InP material systems, from the angles of growth and device performance. In particular, we discussed the progress in lasers, semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), mode locked lasers, and superluminescent diodes, which are the building

  19. Body mass index does not influence post-treatment survival in early stage endometrial cancer: results from the MRC ASTEC trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Emma J; Roberts, Chris; Qian, Wendi; Swart, Ann Marie; Kitchener, Henry C; Renehan, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a major risk factor for endometrial cancer incidence but its impact on post-treatment survival is unclear. We investigated the relationships of BMI (categorised using the WHO definitions) with clinico-pathological characteristics and outcome in women treated within the MRC ASTEC randomised trial, which provides data from patients who received standardised allocated treatments and therefore reduces biases. The impact of BMI on both recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) was analysed using the Cox regression models. An apriori framework of evaluating potential biases was explored. From 1408 participants, there were 1070 women with determinable BMI (median=29.1 kg/m(2)). Histological types were endometrioid (type 1) in 893 and non-endometrioid (type 2) in 146 women; the proportion of the latter decreasing with increasing BMI (8% versus 19% for obese III WHO category versus normal weight, p(trend)=0.003). For type 1 carcinomas, increasing BMI was associated with less aggressive histopathological features (depth of invasion, p=0.006; tumour grade, p=0.015). With a median follow-up of 34.3 months, there was no influence of BMI on RFS - adjusted HRs per 5 kg/m(2) were 0.98 (95% CI 0.86, 1.13) and 0.95 (0.74, 1.24), for type 1 and 2 carcinomas; and no influence on OS - adjusted HRs per 5 kg/m(2) were 0.96 (0.81, 1.14) and 0.92 (0.70, 1.23), respectively. These findings demonstrate an important principle: that an established link between an exposure (here, obesity) and increased incident cancer risk, does not necessarily translate into an inferior outcome following treatment for that cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of maintenance thalidomide therapy in multiple myeloma: MRC Myeloma IX results and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth J; Gregory, Walter M; Davies, Faith E; Bell, Sue E; Szubert, Alexander J; Brown, Julia M; Coy, Nuria N; Cook, Gordon; Russell, Nigel H; Rudin, Claudius; Roddie, Huw; Drayson, Mark T; Owen, Roger G; Ross, Fiona M; Jackson, Graham H; Child, J Anthony

    2012-01-05

    Thalidomide maintenance has the potential to modulate residual multiple myeloma (MM) after an initial response. This trial compared the effect of thalidomide maintenance and no maintenance on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in MM patients. After intensive or nonintensive induction therapy, 820 newly diagnosed MM patients were randomized to open-label thalidomide maintenance until progression, or no maintenance. Interphase FISH (iFISH) analysis was performed at study entry. Median PFS was significantly longer with thalidomide maintenance (log-rank P < .001). Median OS was similar between regimens (log-rank P = .40). Patients with favorable iFISH showed improved PFS (P = .004) and a trend toward a late survival benefit. Patients with adverse iFISH receiving thalidomide showed no significant PFS benefit and worse OS (P = .009). Effective relapse therapy enhanced survival after progression, translating into a significant OS benefit. Meta-analysis of this and other studies show a significant late OS benefit (P < .001, 7-year difference hazard ratio = 12.3; 95% confidence interval, 5.5-19.0). Thalidomide maintenance significantly improves PFS and can be associated with improved OS. iFISH testing is important in assessing the clinical impact of maintenance therapy. Overview analysis demonstrated that thalidomide maintenance was associated with a significant late OS benefit. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.org as #ISRCTN68454111.

  1. Effect of temperature and ridge-width on the lasing characteristics of InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers: A thermal analysis view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhazraji, E.; Khan, M. T. A.; Ragheb, A. M.; Fathallah, H.; Qureshi, K. K.; Alshebeili, S.; Khan, M. Z. M.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the thermal characteristics of multi-stack chirped barrier thickness InAs/InGaAlAs/InP quantum-dash-in-a-well lasers of different ridge widths 2, 3, 4 and 15 μm. The effect of varying this geometrical parameter on the extracted thermal resistance and characteristic temperature, and their stability with temperature are examined. The results show an inverse relation of ridge-width with junction temperature with 2 μm device exhibiting the largest junction temperature buildup owing to an associated high thermal resistance of ∼45 °C/W. Under the light of this thermal analysis, lasing behavior of different ridge-width quantum-dash (Qdash) lasers with injection currents and operating temperatures, is investigated. Thermionic carrier escape and phonon-assisted tunneling are found to be the dominant carrier transport mechanisms resulting in wide thermal spread of carriers across the available transition states of the chirped active region. An emission coverage of ∼75 nm and 3 dB bandwidth of ∼55 nm is exhibited by the 2 μm device, thus possibly exploiting the inhomogeneous optical transitions to the fullest. Furthermore, successful external modulation of a single Qdash Fabry-Perot laser mode via injection locking is demonstrated with eye diagrams at bit rates of 2-12 Gbit/s incorporating various modulation schemes. These devices are being considered as potential light sources for future high-speed wavelength-division multiplexed optical communication systems.

  2. EORTC 22972-26991/MRC BR10 trial: Fractionated stereotactic boost following conventional radiotherapy of high grade gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, Brigitta G.; Brada, Michael; Bernier, Jacques; Kortmann, Rolf D.; Dehing-Oberije, Cary; Collette, Laurence; Davis, J. Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The EORTC trial No. 22972 investigated the role of an additional fractionated stereotactic boost (fSRT) to conventional radiotherapy for patients with high grade gliomas. A quality-assurance (QA) programme was run in conjunction with the study and was the first within the EORTC addressing the quality of a supposedly highly accurate treatment technique such as stereotactic radiotherapy. A second aim was to investigate a possible relation between the clinical results of the stereotactic boost arm and the results of the QA. Materials and methods: The trial was closed in 2001 due to low accrual. In total, 25 patients were randomized: 14 into the experimental arm and 11 into the control arm. Six centres randomized patients, 8 centres had completed the dummy run (DR) for the stereotactic boost part. All participating centres (9) were asked to complete a quality-assurance questionnaire. The DR consisted of treatment planning according to the guidelines of the protocol on 3 different tumour volumes drawn on CT images of a humanized phantom. The SRT technique to be used was evaluated by the questionnaire. Clinical data from patients recruited to the boost arm from 6 participating centres were analysed. Results: There was a full compliance to the protocol requirements for 5 centres. Major and minor deviations in conformality were observed for 2 and 3 centres, respectively. Of the 8 centres which completed the DR, one centre did not comply with the requirements of stereotactic radiotherapy concerning accuracy, dosimetry and planning. Median follow-up and median overall survival were 39.2 and 21.4 months, respectively. Acute and late toxicities of the stereotactic boost were low. One radiation necrosis was seen for a patient who has not received the SRT boost. Three reported serious adverse events were all seizures and probably therapy-related. Conclusions: Overall compliance was good but not ideal from the point of view of this highly precise radiation

  3. Evaluating the relationship between erectile dysfunction and dose received by the penile bulb: Using data from a randomised controlled trial of conformal radiotherapy in prostate cancer (MRC RT01, ISRCTN47772397)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangar, Stephen A.; Sydes, Matthew R.; Tucker, Helen L.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between erectile function and the radiation dose to the penile bulb and other proximal penile structures in men receiving conformal radiotherapy (CFRT) for prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: The Medical Research Council (MRC) RT01 trial randomised 843 men who had localised PCa to receive either 64 or 74 Gy after 3-6 months neoadjuvant hormonal treatment. Fifty-one men were selected who were potent prior to hormonal treatment, having completed both pre-hormone and 2-year post-CFRT Quality of Life assessments, and on whom dose volume data were available for analysis. The men were divided into three groups according to 2-year follow-up: potent, reduced potency, and impotent. The bulb of the penis together with the crura, were outlined on restored treatment plans. Dose-volume histograms were generated and compared between the three groups. An ordered logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio of a range of dose-volume parameters to the penile bulb and effect on erectile dysfunction. The dose to the penile bulb was correlated to the dose received by the crura. Results: Of the 51 patients, 12 remained potent, 22 had reduced potency, and 17 were impotent at 2 years. No differences were seen in mean dose to the penile bulb by allocated treatment (t test = 1.61, p = 0.11). The mean doses to the penile bulb received by the potent, reduced potency, and impotent groups were 45.5 Gy (SD 17.1), 48 Gy (SD 16.1), and 59.2 Gy (SD 13.8), respectively. There was a strong correlation between the mean dose received by the penile bulb and dose to the crura (r = 0.82, p < 0.0001). 83.3% of impotent patients received a D90 ≥50 Gy to the penile bulb compared with 29.4% of patients who maintained potency at 2 years (p 0.006). Conclusion: There is evidence from this study to suggest a dose volume effect on the penile bulb and erectile dysfunction. A D90 ≥50 Gy is associated with a significant risk of erectile dysfunction and this should

  4. The MRC-5 human embryonal lung fibroblast two-dimensional gel cellular protein database: quantitative identification of polypeptides whose relative abundance differs between quiescent, proliferating and SV40 transformed cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J E; Dejgaard, K; Madsen, Peder

    1990-01-01

    interferon-induced proteins, were not detected in the master MRC-5 images. The identity of 36 of the transformation-sensitive proteins whose levels are up or down regulated by two times or more was determined and additional information can be transferred from the master transformed human epithelial amnion......, this comprehensive database will outline an integrated picture of the expression levels and properties of the thousands of protein components of organelles, pathways and cytoskeletal systems that may be directly or indirectly involved in properties associated with the transformed state. Udgivelsesdato: 1990-Dec...

  5. Asymmetric dual-loop feedback to suppress spurious tones and reduce timing jitter in self-mode-locked quantum-dash lasers emitting at 155 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Haroon; McInerney, John G.

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate an asymmetric dual-loop feedback scheme to suppress external cavity side-modes induced in self-mode-locked quantum-dash lasers with conventional single and dual-loop feedback. In this letter, we achieved optimal suppression of spurious tones by optimizing the length of second delay time. We observed that asymmetric dual-loop feedback, with large (~8x) disparity in cavity lengths, eliminates all external-cavity side-modes and produces flat RF spectra close to the main peak with low timing jitter compared to single-loop feedback. Significant reduction in RF linewidth and reduced timing jitter was also observed as a function of increased second feedback delay time. The experimental results based on this feedback configuration validate predictions of recently published numerical simulations. This interesting asymmetric dual-loop feedback scheme provides simplest, efficient and cost effective stabilization of side-band free optoelectronic oscillators based on mode-locked lasers.

  6. Relationship of Sodium Intake and Blood Pressure Varies With Energy Intake: Secondary Analysis of the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)-Sodium Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaugh, Maureen A; Beasley, Jeannette M; Appel, Lawrence J; Guenther, Patricia M; McFadden, Molly; Greene, Tom; Tooze, Janet A

    2018-05-01

    Dietary Na recommendations are expressed as absolute amounts (mg/d) rather than as Na density (mg/kcal). Our objective was to determine whether the strength of the relationship of Na intake with blood pressure (BP) varied with energy intake. The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)-Sodium trial was a randomized feeding trial comparing 2 diets (DASH and control) and 3 levels of Na density. Participants with pre- or stage 1 hypertension consumed diets for 30 days in random order; energy intake was controlled to maintain body weight. This secondary analysis of 379 non-Hispanic black and white participants used mixed-effects models to assess the association of Na and energy intakes with BP. The relationships between absolute Na and both systolic and diastolic BP varied with energy intake. BP rose more steeply with increasing Na at lower energy intake than at higher energy intake ( P interaction<0.001). On the control diet with 2300 mg Na, both systolic and diastolic BP were higher (3.0 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-5.8; and 2.7 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-4.5, respectively) among those with lower energy intake (higher Na density) than among those with higher energy intake (lower Na density). The association of Na with systolic BP was stronger at lower levels of energy intake in both blacks and whites ( P <0.001). The association of Na and diastolic BP varied with energy intake only among blacks ( P =0.001). Sodium density should be considered as a metric for expressing dietary Na recommendations. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. 41 GHz and 10.6 GHz low threshold and low noise InAs/InP quantum dash two-section mode-locked lasers in L band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dontabactouny, M.; Piron, R.; Klaime, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports recent results on InAs/InP quantum dash-based, two-section, passively mode-locked lasers pulsing at 41 GHz and 10.6 GHz and emitting at 1.59 mu m at 20 degrees C. The 41-GHz device (1 mm long) starts lasing at 25 mA under uniform injection and the 10.6 GHz (4 mm long) at 71 m...

  8. Laterally coupled distributed feedback lasers emitting at 2 μm with quantum dash active region and high-duty-cycle etched semiconductor gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatryfonos, Konstantinos; Saladukha, Dzianis; Merghem, Kamel; Joshi, Siddharth; Lelarge, Francois; Bouchoule, Sophie; Kazazis, Dimitrios; Guilet, Stephane; Le Gratiet, Luc; Ochalski, Tomasz J.; Huyet, Guillaume; Martinez, Anthony; Ramdane, Abderrahim

    2017-02-01

    Single-mode diode lasers on an InP(001) substrate have been developed using InAs/In0.53Ga0.47As quantum dash (Qdash) active regions and etched lateral Bragg gratings. The lasers have been designed to operate at wavelengths near 2 μm and exhibit a threshold current of 65 mA for a 600 μm long cavity, and a room temperature continuous wave output power per facet >5 mW. Using our novel growth approach based on the low ternary In0.53Ga0.47As barriers, we also demonstrate ridge-waveguide lasers emitting up to 2.1 μm and underline the possibilities for further pushing the emission wavelength out towards longer wavelengths with this material system. By introducing experimentally the concept of high-duty-cycle lateral Bragg gratings, a side mode suppression ratio of >37 dB has been achieved, owing to an appreciably increased grating coupling coefficient of κ ˜ 40 cm-1. These laterally coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) lasers combine the advantage of high and well-controlled coupling coefficients achieved in conventional DFB lasers, with the regrowth-free fabrication process of lateral gratings, and exhibit substantially lower optical losses compared to the conventional metal-based LC-DFB lasers.

  9. Demonstration of L-band DP-QPSK transmission over FSO and fiber channels employing InAs/InP quantum-dash laser source

    KAUST Repository

    Shemis, M.A.

    2017-11-23

    The next generation of optical access communication networks that support 100 Gbps and beyond, require advances in modulation schemes, spectrum utilization, new transmission bands, and efficient devices, particularly laser diodes. In this paper, we investigated the viability of new-class of InAs/InP Quantum-dash laser diode (Qdash-LD) exhibiting multiple longitudinal light modes in the L-band to carry high-speed data rate for access network applications. We exploited external and self injection-locking techniques on Qdash-LD to generate large number of stable and tunable locked modes, and compared them. To stem the capability of each locked mode as a potential subcarrier, data transmission is carried out over two mediums; single mode fiber (SMF) and free space optics (FSO) to emulate real deployment scenarios of optical networks. The results showed that with external-injection locking (EIL), an error-free transmission of 100 Gbps dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) signal is demonstrated over 10 km SMF and 4 m indoor FSO channels, with capability of reaching up to 128 Gbps, demonstrated under back-to-back (BTB) configuration. On the other hand, using self-injection locking (SIL) scheme, a successful data transmission of 64 Gbps and 128 Gbps DP-QPSK signal over 20 km SMF and 10 m indoor FSO links, respectively, is achieved.

  10. Demonstration of L-band DP-QPSK transmission over FSO and fiber channels employing InAs/InP quantum-dash laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemis, M. A.; Khan, M. T. A.; Alkhazraji, E.; Ragheb, A. M.; Esmail, M. A.; Fathallah, H.; Qureshi, K. K.; Alshebeili, S.; Khan, M. Z. M.

    2018-03-01

    The next generation of optical access communication networks that support 100 Gbps and beyond, require advances in modulation schemes, spectrum utilization, new transmission bands, and efficient devices, particularly laser diodes. In this paper, we investigated the viability of new-class of InAs/InP Quantum-dash laser diode (Qdash-LD) exhibiting multiple longitudinal light modes in the L-band to carry high-speed data rate for access network applications. We exploited external and self injection-locking techniques on Qdash-LD to generate large number of stable and tunable locked modes, and compared them. To stem the capability of each locked mode as a potential subcarrier, data transmission is carried out over two mediums; single mode fiber (SMF) and free space optics (FSO) to emulate real deployment scenarios of optical networks. The results showed that with external-injection locking (EIL), an error-free transmission of 100 Gbps dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) signal is demonstrated over 10 km SMF and 4 m indoor FSO channels, with capability of reaching up to 128 Gbps, demonstrated under back-to-back (BTB) configuration. On the other hand, using self-injection locking (SIL) scheme, a successful data transmission of 64 Gbps and 128 Gbps DP-QPSK signal over 20 km SMF and 10 m indoor FSO links, respectively, is achieved.

  11. Impact of ion-implantation-induced band gap engineering on the temperature-dependent photoluminescence properties of InAs/InP quantum dashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadj Alouane, M. H.; Ilahi, B.; Maaref, H.; Salem, B.; Aimez, V.; Morris, D.; Turala, A.; Regreny, P.; Gendry, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the effects of the As/P intermixing induced by phosphorus ion implantation in InAs/InP quantum dashes (QDas) on their photoluminescence (PL) properties. For nonintermixed QDas, usual temperature-dependent PL properties characterized by a monotonic redshift in the emission band and a continual broadening of the PL linewidth as the temperature increases, are observed. For intermediate ion implantation doses, the inhomogeneous intermixing enhances the QDas size dispersion and the enlarged distribution of carrier confining potential depths strongly affects the temperature-dependent PL properties below 180 K. An important redshift in the PL emission band occurs between 10 and 180 K which is explained by a redistribution of carriers among the different intermixed QDas of the ensemble. For higher implantation doses, the homogeneous intermixing reduces the broadening of the localized QDas state distribution and the measured linewidth temperature behavior matches that of the nonintermixed QDas. An anomalous temperature-dependent emission energy behavior has been observed for extremely high implantation doses, which is interpreted by a possible QDas dissolution.

  12. Simulation study of the second-generation MR-compatible SPECT system based on the inverted compound-eye gamma camera design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xiaochun; Meng, Ling-Jian

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present simulation studies for the second-generation MRI compatible SPECT system, MRC-SPECT-II, based on an inverted compound eye (ICE) gamma camera concept. The MRC-SPECT-II system consists of a total of 1536 independent micro-pinhole-camera-elements (MCEs) distributed in a ring with an inner diameter of 6 cm. This system provides a FOV of 1 cm diameter and a peak geometrical efficiency of approximately 1.3% (the typical levels of 0.1%-0.01% found in modern pre-clinical SPECT instrumentations), while maintaining a sub-500 μm spatial resolution. Compared to the first-generation MRC-SPECT system (MRC-SPECT-I) (Cai 2014 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 734 147-51) developed in our lab, the MRC-SPECT-II system offers a similar resolution with dramatically improved sensitivity and greatly reduced physical dimension. The latter should allow the system to be placed inside most clinical and pre-clinical MRI scanners for high-performance simultaneous MRI and SPECT imaging.

  13. Effect of optical waveguiding mechanism on the lasing action of chirped InAs/AlGaInAs/InP quantum dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-03-04

    We report on the atypical emission dynamics of InAs/AlGaInAs/InP quantum dash (Qdash) lasers employing varying AlGaInAs barrier thickness (multilayer-chirped structure). The analysis is carried out via fabry-perot (FP) ridge (RW) and stripe waveguide (SW) laser characterization corresponding to the index and gain guided waveguiding mechanisms, respectively, and at different current pulse width operations. The laser emissions are found to emerge from the size dispersion of the Qdash ensembles across the four Qdash-barrier stacks, and governed by their overlapping quasi-zero dimensional density of states (DOS). The spectral characteristics demonstrated prominent dependence on the waveguiding mechanism at quasi-continuous wave (QCW) operation (long pulse width). The RW geometry showed unusual spectral split in the emission spectra on increasing current injection while the SW geometry showed typical broadening of lasing spectra. These effects were attributed to the highly inhomogeneous active region, the nonequilibrium carrier distribution and the energy exchange between Qdash groups across the Qdash-barrier stacks. Furthermore, QCW operation showed a progressive red shift of emission spectra with injection current, resulted from active region heating and carrier depopulation, which was observed to be minimal in the short pulse width (SPW) operation. Our investigation sheds light on the device physics of chirped Qdash laser structure and provides guidelines for further optimization in obtaining broad-gain laser diodes. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  14. Study of the in vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of medicinal plants from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Massarani, Shaza; Matheeussen, An; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2012-09-25

    The present study investigated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity. The criterion for activity was an IC₅₀ Albizia lebbeck pericarp, Caralluma sinaica, Periploca aphylla and Prosopius juliflora. Activity against T. brucei was obtained in Prosopis juliflora. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC₅₀ < 10 μg/mL) and hence non-specific activities were observed for Conocarpus lancifolius.

  15. Stroke and nutrition: A review of studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Foroughi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : Adherence to Mediterranean diet or DASH diet and increasing the consumption of antioxidant, vitamins, potassium, calcium food sources, vegetables, fruits, and whole grains intake can lower the risk of stroke. Healthy diet is effective in reducing risk of stroke, however, more studies need to be carried out in this area.

  16. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of Amaranth dye on mesoporous anatase TiO2: evidence of C-N, N[double bond, length as m-dash]N bond cleavage and identification of new intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Amarja P; Salkar, Akshay V; Majik, Mahesh S; Morajkar, Pranay P

    2017-07-01

    The photocatalytic degradation mechanism of Amaranth, a recalcitrant carcinogenic azo dye, was investigated using mesoporous anatase TiO 2 under sunlight. Mesoporous anatase TiO 2 of a high photocatalytic activity has been synthesized using a sol-gel method and its photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Amaranth dye has been evaluated with respect to Degussa P25. The effect of bi-dentate complexing agents like oxalic acid, ethylene glycol and urea on the surface properties of TiO 2 catalyst has been investigated using TG-DTA, FTIR, HR-TEM, SAED, PXRD, EDS, UV-DRS, PL, BET N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm studies and BJH analysis. The influence of catalyst properties such as the mesoporous network, pore volume and surface area on the kinetics of degradation of Amaranth as a function of irradiation time under natural sunlight has been monitored using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The highest rate constant value of 0.069 min -1 was obtained for the photocatalytic degradation of Amaranth using TiO 2 synthesized via a urea assisted sol-gel synthesis method. The effect of the reaction conditions such as pH, TiO 2 concentration and Amaranth concentration on the photodegradation rate has been investigated. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of synthesized TiO 2 in comparison with P25 is attributed to the mesoporous nature of the catalyst leading to increased pore diameter, pore volume, surface area and enhanced charge carrier separation efficiency. New intermediates of photocatalytic degradation of Amaranth, namely, sodium-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulphonate, 3-hydroxynaphthalene, sodium-4-aminonaphthalenesulphonate and sodium-4-aminobenzenesulphonate have been identified using LC-ESI-MS for the very first time, providing direct evidence for simultaneous bond cleavage pathways (-C-N-) and (-N[double bond, length as m-dash]N-). A new plausible mechanism of TiO 2 catalysed photodegradation of Amaranth along with the comparison of its toxicity to that of its degradation

  17. Radioprotective Effects of Dihydroneopine-sterone Sulfate (Dash) Against ?-ray-Induction of Kidney and Adrenal Corticoids Disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Safi, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the possible protective impact of DHEAS oral administration (20 mg/100 g b. wt) against gamma-irradiation (7 Gy, at a dose rate 0.7 Gy/min) hazard on plasma level of adrenal steroids [corticosterone (CS) and aldosterone (ALD)], total cholesterol (CH), sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ) and Calcium (Ca 2+ ), kidney indices (plasma urea, creatinine, uric acid, total proteins, urine urea and creatinine and clearance % of urea and creatinine) and both of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content in adrenal and kidney tissues of female rats. Animals were divided into 4 groups: control (untreated), whole body gamma-irradiated, administered with DHEAS and orally administered with DHEAS 2 h prior to irradiation. Blood, urine and tissue samples of adrenal and kidney were taken at 3 time intervals: after 1 day, 1 week, and 2 weeks from irradiation (in groups 2 and 4) or DHEAS administration (in group 3). While, samples of urine were collected during the 24 h prior to animals anesthesia. Obtained results showed that DHEAS administration improved the disturbances induced in tested parameters after irradiation (i.e., the decrease in ALD, CS, K + , GSH, total proteins and clearance % of urea and creatinine, and the increase in total cholesterol, Na + , urea, uric acid, creatinine and TBARS. Taking into consideration the clinical aspects of the present findings, a prophylactic role of DHEAS against induction of renal and adrenal injury should be taken into account in radiotherapy

  18. The early toxicity of escalated versus standard dose conformal radiotherapy with neo-adjuvant androgen suppression for patients with localised prostate cancer: Results from the MRC RT01 trial (ISRCTN47772397)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, David P.; Sydes, Matthew R.; Langley, Ruth E.; Graham, John D.; Huddart, Robert A.; Syndikus, Isabel; Matthews, John H.L.; Scrase, Christopher D.; Jose, Chakiath C.; Logue, John; Stephens, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Five-year disease-free survival rates for localised prostate cancer following standard doses of conventional radical external beam radiotherapy are around 80%. Conformal radiotherapy (CFRT) raises the possibility that radiotherapy doses can be increased and long-term efficacy outcomes improved, with safety an important consideration. Methods: MRC RT01 is a randomised controlled trial of 862 men with localised prostate cancer comparing Standard CFRT (64 Gy/32 f) versus Escalated CFRT (74 Gy/37 f), both administered with neo-adjuvant androgen suppression. Early toxicity was measured using physician-reported instruments (RTOG, LENT/SOM, Royal Marsden Scales) and patient-reported questionnaires (MOS SF-36, UCLA Prostate Cancer Index, FACT-P). Results: Overall early radiotherapy toxicity was similar, apart from increased bladder, bowel and sexual toxicity, in the Escalated Group during a short immediate post-radiotherapy period. Toxicity in both groups had abated by week 12. Using RTOG Acute Toxicity scores, cumulative Grade ≥2 bladder and bowel toxicity was 38% and 30% for Standard Group and 39% and 33% in Escalated Group, respectively. Urinary frequency (Royal Marsden Scale) improved in both groups from pre-androgen suppression to 6 months post-radiotherapy (p < 0.001), but bowel and sexual functioning deteriorated. This pattern was supported by patient-completed assessments. Six months after starting radiotherapy the incidence of RTOG Grade ≥2 side-effects was low (<1%); but there were six reports of rectal ulceration (6 Escalated Group), six haematuria (5 Escalated Group) and eight urethral stricture (6 Escalated Group). Conclusions: The two CFRT schedules with neo-adjuvant androgen suppression have broadly similar early toxicity profiles except for the immediate post-RT period. At 6 months and compared to before hormone therapy, bladder symptoms improved, whereas bowel and sexual symptoms worsened. These assessments of early treatment safety will be

  19. Phenolic Profiling of Duchesnea indica Combining Macroporous Resin Chromatography (MRC with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and ESI-IT-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhi Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Duchesnea indica (D. indica is an important traditional Chinese medicine, and has long been clinically used to treat cancer in Asian countries. It has been described previously as a rich source of phenolic compounds with a broad array of diversified structures, which are the major active ingredients. However, an accurate and complete phenolic profiling has not been determined yet. In the present work, the total phenolic compounds in crude extracts from D. indica were enriched and fractionated over a macroporous resin column, then identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and ESI-IT-MS (ion trap MS. A total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in D. indica, of which 21 compounds were identified for the first time. These 27 phenolic compounds encompassing four phenolic groups, including ellagitannins, ellagic acid and ellagic acid glycosides, hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, and flavonols, were then successfully quantified using peak areas against those of the corresponding standards with good linearity (R2 > 0.998 in the range of the tested concentrations. As a result, the contents of individual phenolic compounds varied from 6.69 mg per 100 g dry weight (DW for ellagic acid to 71.36 mg per 100 g DW for brevifolin carboxylate. Not only did this study provide the first phenolic profiling of D. indica, but both the qualitative identification and the subsequent quantitative analysis of 27 phenolic compounds from D. indica should provide a good basis for future exploration of this valuable medicinal plant.

  20. Induction Chemotherapy and Continuous Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy (CHART) for Patients With Locally Advanced Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The MRC INCH Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, Matthew; Nankivell, Matthew; Lyn, Ethan; Falk, Stephen; Pugh, Cheryl; Navani, Neal; Stephens, Richard; Parmar, Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Recent clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown that both CHART (continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy) and induction chemotherapy offer a survival advantage over conventional radical radiotherapy for patients with inoperable non-small cell-lung cancer (NSCLC). This multicenter randomized controlled trial (INCH) was set up to assess the value of giving induction chemotherapy before CHART. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically confirmed, inoperable, Stage I-III NSCLC were randomized to induction chemotherapy (ICT) (three cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by CHART) or CHART alone. Results: Forty-six patients were randomized (23 in each treatment arm) from 9 UK centers. As a result of poor accrual, the trial was closed in December 2007. Twenty-eight patients were male, 28 had squamous cell histology, 34 were Stage IIIA or IIIB, and all baseline characteristics were well balanced between the two treatment arms. Seventeen (74%) of the 23 ICT patients completed the three cycles of chemotherapy. All 42 (22 CHART + 20 ICT) patients who received CHART completed the prescribed treatment. Median survival was 17 months in the CHART arm and 25 months in the ICT arm (hazard ratio of 0.60 [95% CI 0.31-1.16], p = 0.127). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events (mainly fatigue, dysphagia, breathlessness, and anorexia) were reported for 13 (57%) CHART and 13 (65%) ICT patients. Conclusions: This small randomized trial indicates that ICT followed by CHART is feasible and well tolerated. Despite closing early because of poor accrual, and so failing to show clear evidence of a survival benefit for the additional chemotherapy, the results suggest that CHART, and ICT before CHART, remain important options for the treatment of inoperable NSCLC and deserve further study.

  1. The Effects of Adult Day Services on Family Caregivers’ Daily Stress, Affect, and Health: Outcomes From the Daily Stress and Health (DaSH) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zarit, Steven H.; Kim, Kyungmin; Femia, Elia E.; Almeida, David M.; Klein, Laura C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We examine the effects of use of adult day service (ADS) by caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWD) on daily stressors, affect, and health symptoms. Participants were interviewed for 8 consecutive days. On some days, the IWD attended an ADS program and on the other days caregivers provide most or all of the care at home. Methods: Participants were 173 family caregivers of IWDs using an ADS program. Daily telephone interviews assessed care-related stressors, noncare stressors, p...

  2. The Effects of Adult Day Services on Family Caregivers’ Daily Stress, Affect, and Health: Outcomes From the Daily Stress and Health (DaSH) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarit, Steven H.; Kim, Kyungmin; Femia, Elia E.; Almeida, David M.; Klein, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We examine the effects of use of adult day service (ADS) by caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWD) on daily stressors, affect, and health symptoms. Participants were interviewed for 8 consecutive days. On some days, the IWD attended an ADS program and on the other days caregivers provide most or all of the care at home. Methods: Participants were 173 family caregivers of IWDs using an ADS program. Daily telephone interviews assessed care-related stressors, noncare stressors, positive events, affect, and health symptoms. Multilevel models with data nested within persons were used to examine effects of ADS use on daily stressor exposure, affect, and health symptoms. Results: Caregivers had lower exposure to care-related stressors on ADS days, more positive experiences, and more noncare stressors. ADS use lowered anger and reduced the impact of noncare stressors on depressive symptoms. Implications: The findings demonstrate that stressors on caregivers are partly lowered, and affect is improved on ADS days, which may provide protection against the effects of chronic stress associated with caregiving. PMID:23690056

  3. Effect of layer stacking and p-type doping on the performance of InAs/InP quantum-dash-in-a-well lasers emitting at 1.55 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, G.; Azouigui, S.; Cong, D.-Y.; Merghem, K.; Martinez, A.; Patriarche, G.; Ramdane, A.; Lelarge, F.; Rousseau, B.; Dagens, B.; Poingt, F.; Accard, A.; Pommereau, F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors report the growth of 6-, 9-, and 12-layer InAs/InP quantum-dash-in-a-well (DWELL) laser structures using gas source molecular beam epitaxy. Broad area laser performance has been investigated as a function of number of layers. The highest modal gain at 48 cm -1 is achieved for an optimized nine-DWELL layer structure. The effect of layer stacking and p-type doping on the characteristic temperature is also reported. Nine-DWELL layer single mode ridge waveguide lasers showed high slope efficiency (0.2 W/A per facet) and output power (P out =20 mW), close to those of conventional quantum well devices

  4. Absolute and relative-rate measurement of the rate coefficient for reaction of perfluoro ethyl vinyl ether (C2F5OCF[double bond, length as m-dash]CF2) with OH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasulu, G; Bunkan, A J C; Amedro, D; Crowley, J N

    2018-01-31

    The rate coefficient (k 1 ) for the reaction of OH radicals with perfluoro ethyl vinyl ether (PEVE, C 2 F 5 OCF[double bond, length as m-dash]CF 2 ) has been measured as a function of temperature (T = 207-300 K) using the technique of pulsed laser photolysis with detection of OH by laser-induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) at pressures of 50 or 100 Torr N 2 bath gas. In addition, the rate coefficient was measured at 298 K and in one atmosphere of air by the relative-rate technique with loss of PEVE and reference reactant monitored in situ by IR absorption spectroscopy. The rate coefficient has a negative temperature dependence which can be parameterized as: k 1 (T) = 6.0 × 10 -13  exp[(480 ± 38/T)] cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 and a room temperature value of k 1 (298 K) = (3.0 ± 0.3) × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 . Highly accurate rate coefficients from the PLP-LIF experiments were achieved by optical on-line measurements of PEVE and by performing the measurements at two different apparatuses. The large rate coefficient and the temperature dependence indicate that the reaction proceeds via OH addition to the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bond, the high pressure limit already being reached at 50 Torr N 2 . Based on the rate coefficient and average OH levels, the atmospheric lifetime of PEVE was estimated to be a few days.

  5. Development studies of captopril certified reference material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the studies performed with the candidate Certified Reference Material (CRM of captopril, the first CRM of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API in Brazil, including determination of impurities (organic, inorganic and volatiles, homogeneity testing, short- and long-term stability studies, calculation of captopril content using the mass balance approach, and estimation of the associated measurement uncertainty.Este artigo descreve os estudos realizados com o candidato a Material de Referência Certificado (MRC de captopril, primeiro MRC de fármacos no Brasil, incluindo a determinação de impurezas (orgânicas, inorgânicas e voláteis, testes de homogeneidade, testes de estabilidade de curta e longa duração, cálculo do teor de captopril por balanço de massa e estimativa da incerteza de medição associada ao valor certificado.

  6. CLINICAL OUTCOME AFTER OPERATIVE TREATMENT IN FLOATING SHOULDER- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabarun Saha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The ‘floating shoulder’ is a rare injury consisting of ipsilateral fractures of the clavicle and glenoid neck. Although it may appear to be bony injury, studies suggest that ligamentous disruption associated with ipsilateral clavicle fracture and scapular neck fracture contributes to such entity. More commonly floating shoulder is defined as double disruption of the superior shoulder suspensory complex. Open reduction and internal fixation of both the fractures is the treatment of choice. We have made this study to assess clinical outcome after operative treatment of floating shoulder by DASH score. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a study of 10 cases of floating shoulder injury operated in the same sitting by anterior approach for fracture clavicle and Judet’s posterior approach for scapula fracture from Jan 2014 to Oct 2016. All cases were assessed with DASH score at the end of six months. RESULTS Results of our study shows that majority of patients had excellent to good results with improvement in DASH score from 92.8 to 16.8 at final follow up. No major complications. All patients had radiological signs of union at the end of 1 year. CONCLUSION Surgical intervention should be considered for all floating shoulder injuries. open reduction and internal fixation not only increases stability but also to improves functional outcome of the patient. DASH score is an effective method to assess clinicofunctional outcome in post-operative cases of floating shoulder.

  7. Modelo de mercadeo de retención del cliente industrial de alto consumo de Enelven a través de servicios de agregación de valor (MRC-SAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migdalia Caridad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como propósito diseñar un Modelo de Mercadeo de Retención de Clientes a través de Servicios de Agregación de Valor (MRC-SAV, dirigido a clientes industriales de alto consumo de ENELVEN, que contribuya con la rentabilidad de la empresa. Se siguieron los modelos teóricos que sobre retención del clieent desarrollaron Salinas, Vavra y Menconi; además se revisaron otros autores especialistas tales como Pride y Ferrel, Bravo, Grande, Cravens y Woodruff. El tipo de investigación se definió como exploratoria, de campo, transversal, de diseño no experimental. La población estuvo conformado por 61 agentes, 50 correspondientes a las empresas de alto consumo eléctrico, y 11 pertenecientes a líderes de ENELVEN, tomando como muestra la totalidad de la población. Como instrumento de recolección de datos se aplicaron dos cuestionarios, uno dirigido a los clientes, conformado por cuatro secciones y cuarenta y nueve items, y el segundo a los líderes conformado por 17 items, ambos con preguntas abiertas y cerradas, de tipo dicotómicas y de selección múltiple los cuales fueron sometidos a evaluación de expertos y a la prueba de la confiabilidad mediante prueba piloto de cuyos datos se aplicó la fórmula para el coeficiente de la estabilidad, resultando un nivel de 0.90 como margen de confiabilidad. Entre lo resultados se obtuvo, a través de la técnica del análisis del contenido, que el 76% de los clientes opina que ENELVEN sólo ofrece lo básico del servicio, el 58% señala que la misma sólo conoce las necesidades básicas de sus clientes y el 40% opinó que cambiarían de empresa con la apertura del mercado eléctrico. Estos resultados sugieren la necesidad del Modelo de Retención de Clientes Industriales integrado por un Sistema de Información, canales interactivos de comunicación directa, como Internet y el Ejecutivo de Cuenta, y servicios de agregación de valor que incluyan asesoramiento, adiestramiento

  8. Implementation and effects of Movement-oriented Restorative Care in a nursing home - a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henskens, Marinda; Nauta, Ilse M; Scherder, Erik J A; Oosterveld, Frits G J; Vrijkotte, Susan

    2017-10-23

    The prevalence of dementia is expected to increase rapidly, and institutionalization is a common consequence of the disease. Dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) is a predictor for institutionalization and a determinant for the quality of life (QoL). A promising method to increase functional independence in nursing homes is a restorative care or function focused care (FFC) approach. Movement-oriented restorative care (MRC) is derived from the concept of FFC and restorative care and focuses on the integration of physical activity in the daily lives of nursing home residents with dementia using a multidisciplinary approach. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of MRC in preservation of ADL independence and QoL in nursing home residents with dementia. In this quasi-experimental 12-month study, the effects of MRC were compared to care as usual in 61 nursing home residents with moderate to severe dementia. The outcome measures were ADL independence and QoL. These outcomes were measured five times (i.e. at baseline, and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months). Additionally, data was collected regarding the degree of implementation, and the barriers to the implementation process. The effect of the intervention was analyzed using linear mixed model analyses. There was no significant overall intervention effect on ADL independence and QoL. A significant group-by-time interaction was found for the QoL subscale positive self-image: after a 12 month intervention period, the MRC group scored significantly better than the control group on positive self-image. Regarding the other subscales and the total score of the QoL, as well as ADL, no significant group-by-time interactions were found. MRC did not demonstrate significant improvements in ADL or QoL. After a 12-month intervention period, residents who received MRC showed higher scores on positive self-image compared to the control group. This study contributes to the limited research regarding the

  9. Marketing and clinical trials: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Entwistle Vikki A; Snowdon Claire; Garcia Jo; Knight Rosemary C; Shakur Haleema; Elbourne Diana R; Roberts Ian; Francis David; McDonald Alison M; Grant Adrian M; Campbell Marion K

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, o...

  10. Commentary on Kataoka et al. Palmar reconstruction of the triangular fibrocartilage complex for instability of the distal radioulnar joint: a biomechanical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentohami, A.; Bijlsma, T. S.; Goslings, J. C.; de Reuver, P.; Kaufmann, L.; Schep, N. W. L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association between arm-specific disability measured with the QuickDASH questionaire and radiological criteria in patients with extra-articular distal radial fractures. A consecutive series of 385 patients were initially treated non-operatively for an

  11. A Computational Study on the Magnetic Resonance Coupling Technique for Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria N.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-radiative wireless power transfer (WPT system using magnetic resonance coupling (MRC technique has recently been a topic of discussion among researchers. This technique discussed more scenarios in mid-range field of wireless power transmission reflected to the distance and efficiency. The WPT system efficiency varies when the coupling distance between two coils involved changes. This could lead to a decisive issue of high efficient power transfer. This paper presents case studies on the relationship of operating range with the efficiency of the MRC technique. Demonstrative WPT system operates at two different frequencies are projected in order to verify performance. The resonance frequencies used are less than 100MHz within range of 10cm to 20cm.

  12. A pilot clinical study on the Traditional Korean Medicine treatment of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sung-chul

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was to investigate the effect of Oriental medical treatment on ALS. Methods : We investigated 12 ALS patients which were admitted to Gwang-Ju O.M. hospital from Oct. 14, 2008 to Nov. 14, 2008. All patients were treated by SAAM-acupuncture, herb medication, Bee venom Pharmacopuncture therapy, Needle-embedding therapy, etc. We evaluated patients using the Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised(ALSFRS-R, Medical Research Council (MRC Scale. Results : After 30 days, mean ALSFRS-R score of patients was improved from 28.42±7.83 to 29.08 ±7.99, and mean MRC Scale of patients was improved from 24.79±8.37 to 25.34±8.45. But in both cases, the variation was not statistically significant. After 30 days, mean ALSFRS-R score and mean MRC Scale of patients was more improved in subjects with bulbar-onset, onset age: 51-60yrs., disease duration: 24-48mo. And the results showed partially significant difference. Conclusions : We think that the results of this case be a pilot study that proves the effect of Oriental Medical treatment on ALS.

  13. Corticospinal integrity and motor impairment predict outcomes after excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Jou; Wang, Chih-Pin; Tsai, Po-Yi; Chan, Rai-Chi; Lin, Shan-Hui; Lin, Fu-Gong; Hsieh, Chin-Yi

    2015-01-01

    To identify the effective predictors for therapeutic outcomes based on intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS). A sham-controlled, double-blind parallel study design. A tertiary hospital. People with stroke (N=72) who presented with unilateral hemiplegia. Ten consecutive sessions of real or sham iTBS were implemented with the aim of enhancing hand function. Patients were categorized into 4 groups according to the presence (MEP+) or absence (MEP-) of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and grip strength according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. Cortical excitability, Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), finger-tapping task (FT), and simple reaction time were performed before and after the sessions. MEPs and the MRC scale were predictive of iTBS therapeutic outcomes. Group A (MEP+, MRC>1) exhibited the greatest WMFT change (7.6±2.3, P1; 5.2±2.2 score change) and group C (MEP-, MRC=0; 2.3±1.5 score change). These improvements were correlated significantly with baseline motor function and ipsilesional maximum MEP amplitude. The effectiveness of iTBS modulation for poststroke motor enhancement depends on baseline hand grip strength and the presence of MEPs. Our findings indicate that establishing neurostimulation strategies based on the proposed electrophysiological and clinical criteria can allow iTBS to be executed with substantial precision. Effective neuromodulatory strategies can be formulated by using electrophysiological features and clinical presentation information as guidelines. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The dashed hope of nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustlein, Corentin

    2013-01-01

    The author first recalls the objectives of a programme defined by President Obama during his speech in Prague in April 2009. It comprised a ratification of the CTBT, an elaboration of the FMCT, and the implementation of securing measures for nuclear materials. The author indicates that the last issue displayed some advances whereas the two others haven't displayed any. He notably comments the effects the New START treaty, the persistence of proliferation problems (Iran and North Korea) which are also a result of the preservation of their own nuclear arsenals by nuclear powers, and the limited success of the NPT 2010 conference. The author then outlines the importance of strategic unbalances related to the role assigned to nuclear weapons in terms of postures, doctrines and organisations, and evokes the first efforts for nuclear disarmament made by Washington and Moscow. In a last part, the author discusses the influence which a better control of the budget awarded to nuclear weapons by the USA could have on disarmament

  15. Associations of diet quality with cognition in children - the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Eero A; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Venäläinen, Taisa; Schwab, Ursula; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2015-10-14

    Evidence on the associations of dietary patterns with cognition in children is limited. Therefore, we investigated the associations of the Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score with cognition in children. The present cross-sectional study sample included 428 children aged 6-8 years (216 boys and 212 girls). The BSDS and the DASH score were calculated using data from 4 d food records, higher scores indicating better diet quality. Cognition was assessed by the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) score, a higher score indicating better cognition. Among all children, the BSDS (standardised regression coefficient β = 0·122, P =0·012) and the DASH score (β = 0·121, P =0·015) were directly associated with the Raven's CPM score. Among boys, a lower BSDS (β = 0·244, Pcognition. In conclusion, a poorer diet quality was associated with worse cognition in children, and the relationship was stronger in boys than in girls.

  16. Rilonacept in the treatment of subacromial bursitis: A randomized, non-inferiority, unblinded study versus triamcinolone acetonide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Matthew B; Motley, Spencer A; Wohlford, Susanna; Ramsey, Bryan C

    2015-12-01

    Subacromial bursitis is caused by inflammation of the bursa that separates the superior surface of the supraspinatus tendon from the overlying coraco-acromial ligament and acromion. While multiple cytokines are implicated, interleukin-1 beta appears to play a prominent role. Rilonacept, an interleukin-1 trap, may be an alternative to corticosteroid injection for the management of this condition. This single center, randomized, non-inferiority, unblinded study recruited 33 subjects over 9 months. Twenty subjects received 160mg intrabursal injection of rilonacept and 13 received a 6mL mixture of lidocaine, bupivacaine, and 80mg triamcinolone acetonide. QuickDASH, subject reported pain, and adverse events were recorded at time of injection, 2 days later, 2 weeks later, and 4 weeks later. Primary outcome was improvement in QuickDASH 4 weeks post-injection. Secondary outcomes were improvement in subject reported pain and occurrence of adverse events at 4 weeks. Both study groups were equally matched for age, gender, ethnicity, and site of bursa injection. Both medications demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in QuickDASH 4 weeks post-injection, but triamcinolone acetonide injection offered greater improvement (P=0.004). Both medications demonstrated improvement in subject reported pain but between group comparison at 4 weeks showed that triamcinolone was superior (P=0.044). No statistically significant differences in adverse events were noted between groups, but subjects who received rilonacept experienced more episodes of diarrhea and headache. While improvement in QuickDASH and pain was noted with a single intrabursal injection of rilonacept at 4 weeks, injection with triamcinolone acetonide was more efficacious. This trial was registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01830699). Copyright © 2015 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Efeitos da adequação à dieta tipo DASH sobre os níveis plasmáticos de AGEs, marcadores de inflamação vascular e sistêmica em pacientes com pré-hipertensão e hipertensão arterial

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Mosele

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A dieta DASH [Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension] é uma das mais eficazes intervenções para o manejo e prevenção da hipertensão. Seu efeito é independente da restrição salina e calórica, sugerindo que mediadores nutricionais intermedeiem sua eficácia. Entre eles, produtos finais da glicação avançada (AGES) têm sido identificados como mediadores da inflamação endotelial e sistêmica envolvidas no processo de regulação arteriolar e pressão arterial. Não há estudos clínicos investi...

  18. Assessing correlations between the spatial distribution of the dose to the rectal wall and late rectal toxicity after prostate radiotherapy: an analysis of data from the MRC RT01 trial (ISRCTN 47772397)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, Florian; Gulliford, Sarah L; Webb, Steve; Partridge, Mike; Sydes, Matthew R; Dearnaley, David P

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have been performed to assess correlations between measures derived from dose-volume histograms and late rectal toxicities for radiotherapy of prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to quantify correlations between measures describing the shape and location of the dose distribution and different outcomes. The dose to the rectal wall was projected on a two-dimensional map. In order to characterize the dose distribution, its centre of mass, longitudinal and lateral extent, and eccentricity were calculated at different dose levels. Furthermore, the dose-surface histogram (DSH) was determined. Correlations between these measures and seven clinically relevant rectal-toxicity endpoints were quantified by maximally selected standardized Wilcoxon rank statistics. The analysis was performed using data from the RT01 prostate radiotherapy trial. For some endpoints, the shape of the dose distribution is more strongly correlated with the outcome than simple DSHs. Rectal bleeding was most strongly correlated with the lateral extent of the dose distribution. For loose stools, the strongest correlations were found for longitudinal extent; proctitis was most strongly correlated with DSH. For the other endpoints no statistically significant correlations could be found. The strengths of the correlations between the shape of the dose distribution and outcome differed considerably between the different endpoints. Due to these significant correlations, it is desirable to use shape-based tools in order to assess the quality of a dose distribution.

  19. HLA-DPβ1 Asp84-Lys69 antigen-binding signature predicts event-free survival in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results from the MRC UKALL XI childhood ALL trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G M; Wade, R; Hussain, A; Thompson, P; Hann, I; Gibson, B; Eden, T; Richards, S

    2012-07-01

    We previously reported that children in the UKALL XI ALL trial with HLA-DP 1 and -DP 3 supertypes had significantly worse event-free survival (EFS) than children with other DP supertypes. As DP 1 and DP 3 share two of four key antigen-binding amino-acid polymorphisms (aspartic acid84-lysine69), we asked whether Asp84-Lys69 or Asp84 alone were independent prognostic indicators in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We analysed EFS in 798 UKALL XI patients, stratified by Asp84-Lys69 vs non-Asp84-Lys69, for a median follow-up of 12.5 years. Asp84-Lys69 was associated with a significantly worse EFS than non-Asp84-Lys69 (5-year EFS: Asp84-Lys69: 58.8% (95% CI (confidence of interval): 52.7-64.9%); non-Asp84-Lys69: 67.3% (63.4-71.2%); 2P=0.007). Post-relapse EFS was 10% less in Asp84-Lys69 than non-Asp84-Lys69 patients. EFS was significantly worse (P=0.03) and post-relapse EFS marginally worse (P=0.06) in patients with Asp84 compared with Gly84. These results suggest that Asp84-Lys69 predicted adverse EFS in the context of UKALL XI because of Asp84, and may have influenced post-relapse EFS. We speculate that this may be due to the recruitment of Asp84-Lys69-restricted regulatory T cells in the context of this regimen, leading to the re-emergence of residual disease. However, functional and molecular studies of the prognostic value of this and other HLA molecular signatures in other childhood ALL trials are needed.

  20. How does the outcome of research training fellowships funded via the NHS compare with that from competitively funded fellowships from the MRC and other charities: a cross-sectional retrospective survey of trainees undertaking research training in the West Midlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybury, Charlotte; Morgan, Matthew David; Smith, Russell; Harper, Lorraine

    2018-01-23

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of research training funded via the National Health Service (NHS) on medical trainees compared with traditional clinical research training fellowships (CRTFs). Online survey of 221 clinical trainees who had completed a period of research during their clinical training between 2009 and 2015 in the West Midlands. Research outcomes. Overall response rate was 59%, of whom 72 participants were funded by CRTFs and 51 funded by the NHS. Although participants with CRTFs were more likely to be awarded a higher degree compared with those on NHS-administered funding (66/72 CRTFs and 37/51 NHS, P=0.005), similar proportions of NHS-funded and CRTF-funded participants entered clinical lecturer posts on completing initial research training (8/51 NHS and 16/72 CRTF, P=0.37). 77% of participants had three or more publications (CRTF 57 and NHS 39, P=0.72). 57 participants had completed clinical training; similar proportions of CRTF-funded and NHS-funded trainees had research included in their consultant contract (12/22 NHS and 14/26 CRTF, P=0.96) or were appointed to academic posts (3 of 25 NHS funded and 6 of 32 CRTF, P>0.05). 95% of participants would recommend to colleagues and 82% of participants felt the research experience improved their provision of clinical care with no difference between CRTF-funded and NHS-funded participants (P=0.49). Continuing to participate in clinical work during the research reduced reports of trainee difficulty on returning to clinical work (23/108 continued clinical work vs 12/22 no clinical work, P=0.001). Research training funded by the NHS provides a quality experience and contributes to the clinical academic capacity within the UK. More needs to be done to support NHS participants to successfully achieve a higher degree. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  1. A randomised phase 2 trial of intensive induction chemotherapy (CBOP/BEP) and standard BEP in poor-prognosis germ cell tumours (MRC TE23, CRUK 05/014, ISRCTN 53643604).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddart, Robert A; Gabe, Rhian; Cafferty, Fay H; Pollock, Philip; White, Jeff D; Shamash, Jonathan; Cullen, Michael H; Stenning, Sally P

    2015-03-01

    are promising but require confirmation in an international phase 3 trial. In this study we tested a new, more intensive way to deliver a combination of drugs often used to treat men with testicular cancer. We found that response rates were higher but that the CBOP/BEP regimen caused more short-term toxicity. Because most patients are diagnosed when their cancer is less advanced, it took twice as long to complete the trial as expected. Although we plan to carry out a larger trial, we will need international collaboration. ISRCTN53643604; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN53643604. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Autologous Conditioned Plasma Versus Placebo Injection Therapy in Lateral Epicondylitis of the Elbow: A Double Blind, Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, Volker; Willauschus, Wolfgang; Sauer, Felix; Küpper, Thomas; Schöffl, Isabelle; Lutter, Christoph; Gelse, Kolja; Dickschas, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Introduction  There are various therapeutic approaches to the treatment of lateral epicondylitis, a highly prevalent musculoskeletal disorder. Recently, injection therapy with autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) has shown promise as a new approach. Methods  Set up as a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial, this study involved 50 patients with lateral epicondylitis. Following external randomization, 25 patients received one round of injection therapy with ACP (platelet rich plasma, PRP), while the remaining 25 patients received a placebo of 0.9 % NaCl. All patients were re-evaluated with respect to lateral epicondylitis of the elbow at four-weeks and six-months post-injection. Results  Out of 50 patients, 36 qualified for reevaluation, 18 patients from the ACP therapy group and 18 from the placebo group. The initial Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score for all reevaluated patients was 36.4 in the ACP group, and 41.0 in the placebo group; both groups exhibited decreased DASH scores at the four-week and six-month post-injection follow-up (6 months: ACP 30.1, placebo 25.8). The decrease of the DASH score after 4 weeks was greater and qualified as statistically significant in the placebo group (p = 0.041), compared to the DASH score decrease in the ACP treatment group, which was statistically non-significant. Additionally, the difference between the DASH scores of the treatment and placebo groups was statistically non-significant four weeks and six months after treatment. Discussion  The results of this study suggest a therapeutic effect in both the ACP and placebo groups, with no evidence for a therapeutically significant difference between ACP and placebo treatments. It is hypothesized that, in accordance with the study protocols, injection with a local anaesthetic prior to ACP therapy may have an influence on the therapeutic effect of ACP. Future studies have to confirm recent findings that demonstrated a

  3. Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score, and health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Dietary patterns consider synergistic effects compared with isolated foods or nutrients on health outcomes. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the associations of diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality or incidence, cancer mortality or incidence, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and neurodegenerative diseases. A literature search was performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and EMBASE with an end date of May 10, 2014. Study-specific risk ratios were pooled using a random effect model by the Cochrane software package Review Manager 5.2. Fifteen cohort studies (34 reports), including 1,020,642 subjects, met the criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Diets of the highest quality, as assessed by the HEI, AHEI, and DASH score, resulted in a significant risk reduction (RR) for all-cause mortality (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.80; PDiets that score highly on the HEI, AHEI, and DASH are associated with a significant reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus by 22%, 22%, 15%, and 22%, respectively, and therefore is of high public health relevance. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cambridge glioma trial of misonidazole and radiation therapy with associated pharmacokinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleehen, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-five patients with grade 3 and 4 supratentorial astrocytomas, were randomized into a three-limb study. At 9 months after the last treatment there were no differences in survival between the treatment groups. No cases of peripheral neuropathy were seen. Investigations into the possible cause of this are presented. It is thought that microsomal enzyme induction by the anticonvulsants phenobarbitone and phenytoin resulted in increased 0-demethylation of the misonidazole. Clinical data to confirm this view are presented. Current MRC protocols of misonidazole studies on gliomas and carcinomas of the cervix and head and neck are summarized

  5. Involvement of consumers in studies run by the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit: Results of a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vale Claire L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to establish levels of consumer involvement in randomised controlled trials (RCTs, meta-analyses and other studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC Clinical Trials Unit across the range of research programs, predominantly in cancer and HIV. Methods Staff responsible for studies that were included in a Unit Progress Report (MRC CTU, April 2009 were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire survey regarding consumer involvement. This was defined as active involvement of consumers as partners in the research process and not as subjects of that research. The electronic questionnaires combined open and closed questions, intended to capture quantitative and qualitative information on whether studies had involved consumers; types of activities undertaken; recruitment and support; advantages and disadvantages of involvement and its perceived impact on aspects of the research. Results Between October 2009 and April 2010, 138 completed questionnaires (86% were returned. Studies had been conducted over a 20 year period from 1989, and around half were in cancer; 30% in HIV and 20% were in other disease areas including arthritis, tuberculosis and blood transfusion medicine. Forty-three studies (31% had some consumer involvement, most commonly as members of trial management groups (TMG [88%]. A number of positive impacts on both the research and the researcher were identified. Researchers generally felt involvement was worthwhile and some felt that consumer involvement had improved the credibility of the research. Benefits in design and quality, trial recruitment, dissemination and decision making were also perceived. Researchers felt they learned from consumer involvement, albeit that there were some barriers. Conclusions Whilst most researchers identified benefits of involving consumers, most of studies included in the survey had no involvement. Information from this survey will inform the development

  6. Involvement of consumers in studies run by the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit: results of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Claire L; Thompson, Lindsay C; Murphy, Claire; Forcat, Silvia; Hanley, Bec

    2012-01-13

    We aimed to establish levels of consumer involvement in randomised controlled trials (RCTs), meta-analyses and other studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) Clinical Trials Unit across the range of research programs, predominantly in cancer and HIV. Staff responsible for studies that were included in a Unit Progress Report (MRC CTU, April 2009) were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire survey regarding consumer involvement. This was defined as active involvement of consumers as partners in the research process and not as subjects of that research. The electronic questionnaires combined open and closed questions, intended to capture quantitative and qualitative information on whether studies had involved consumers; types of activities undertaken; recruitment and support; advantages and disadvantages of involvement and its perceived impact on aspects of the research. Between October 2009 and April 2010, 138 completed questionnaires (86%) were returned. Studies had been conducted over a 20 year period from 1989, and around half were in cancer; 30% in HIV and 20% were in other disease areas including arthritis, tuberculosis and blood transfusion medicine. Forty-three studies (31%) had some consumer involvement, most commonly as members of trial management groups (TMG) [88%]. A number of positive impacts on both the research and the researcher were identified. Researchers generally felt involvement was worthwhile and some felt that consumer involvement had improved the credibility of the research. Benefits in design and quality, trial recruitment, dissemination and decision making were also perceived. Researchers felt they learned from consumer involvement, albeit that there were some barriers. Whilst most researchers identified benefits of involving consumers, most of studies included in the survey had no involvement. Information from this survey will inform the development of a unit policy on consumer involvement, to guide future

  7. Comparative study of phrenic and intercostal nerve transfers for elbow flexion after global brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuzhou; Lao, Jie; Zhao, Xin

    2015-04-01

    Global brachial plexus injuries (BPIs) are devastating events frequently resulting in severe functional impairment. The widely used nerve transfer sources for elbow flexion in patients with global BPIs include intercostal and phrenic nerves. The aim of this study was to compare phrenic and intercostal nerve transfers for elbow flexion after global BPI. A retrospective review of 33 patients treated with phrenic and intercostal nerve transfer for elbow flexion in posttraumatic global root avulsion BPI was carried out. In the phrenic nerve transfer group, the phrenic nerve was transferred to the anterolateral bundle of the anterior division of the upper trunk (23 patients); in the intercostal nerve transfer group, three intercostal nerves were coapted to the anterolateral bundles of the musculocutaneous nerve. The British Medical Research Council (MRC) grading system, angle of elbow flexion, and electromyography (EMG) were used to evaluate the recovery of elbow flexion at least 3 years postoperatively. The efficiency of motor function in the phrenic nerve transfer group was 83%, while it was 70% in the intercostal nerve transfer group. The two groups were not statistically different in terms of the MRC grade (p=0.646) and EMG results (p=0.646). The outstanding rates of angle of elbow flexion were 48% and 40% in the phrenic and intercostal nerve transfer groups, respectively. There was no significant difference of outstanding rates in the angle of elbow flexion between the two groups. Phrenic nerve transfer had a higher proportion of good prognosis for elbow flexion than intercostal nerve transfer, but the effective and outstanding rate had no significant difference for biceps reinnervation between the two groups according to MRC grading, angle of elbow flexion, and EMG. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Avaliação do ganho funcional do cotovelo com a cirurgia de Steindler na lesão do plexo braquial Evaluation of functional gain of the elbow following Steindler surgery for brachial plexus injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rosa de Rezende

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar ganho de força e amplitude de movimento do cotovelo após cirurgia de Steindler Modificada em pacientes com lesão do tronco superior do plexo braquial. MÉTODO: Foram acompanhados de 1998 a 2007 onze pacientes com lesão traumática fechada do tronco superior do plexo braquial. Todos apresentavam evolução de pelo menos 1 ano da lesão e grau de força de flexão do cotovelo que variou de M1 a M3. Os pacientes foram submetidos à cirurgia de Steindler modificada e seguidos por período mínimo de 6 meses. Realizadas avaliações pré e pós-operatórias do ganho de força muscular, amplitude de movimento do cotovelo e pontuação conforme escala DASH. RESULTADOS: Dos onze pacientes analisados, nove (82% atingiram nível de força igual ou maior a M3 (MRC. Dois (18% chegaram ao nível de força M2(MRC. Observamos que os pacientes apresentaram ganho médio de amplitude de movimento do cotovelo pós-operatória de 43,45 graus. A média de flexão do cotovelo pós-operatória foi de 88 graus. Houve melhora da função do cotovelo demonstrada na Escala DASH em 81% dos pacientes do estudo. CONCLUSÃO: A cirurgia de Steindler Modificada mostrou-se eficaz no tratamento dos pacientes com lesão de tronco superior de plexo braquial, com ganho estatisticamente significativo de amplitude de movimento. Em todos os casos algum grau de ganho de força e amplitude de flexão do cotovelo, sendo tanto maior quanto maior a força muscular inicial. Nível de Evidência: Nível II, ensaio clínico prospective.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gain in strength and range of motion after modified Steindler surgery of the elbow in patients with lesions of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. METHOD: From 1998 to 2007, eleven patients with traumatic closed upper trunk lesion of the brachial plexus were studied. All the patients had development of at least 1 year of injury and degree of strength of elbow flexion ranging from M1 to M3. The patients

  9. Dietary patterns and risk of advanced colorectal neoplasms: A large population based screening study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erben, Vanessa; Carr, Prudence R; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann

    2018-06-01

    Specific components of the diet such as red and processed meat have been associated with the risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, evidence on the association of dietary patterns with colorectal neoplasms is sparse. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of dietary patterns with prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasms among older adults in Germany. A cross-sectional study was conducted among participants of screening colonoscopy in Saarland, Germany, who were enrolled in the KolosSal study (Effektivität der Früherkennungs-Koloskopie: eine Saarland-weite Studie) from 2005 to 2013. Information on diet and lifestyle factors was obtained through questionnaires and colonoscopy results were extracted from physicians' reports. Associations of a priori defined dietary patterns (vegetarian or adapted versions of the Healthy Eating Index [HEI] and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH] index) with the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasms were assessed by multiple logistic regression analyses with comprehensive adjustment for potential confounders. A total of 14,309 participants were included (1561 with advanced colorectal neoplasms). Healthier eating behavior was associated with lower prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasms in a dose-response manner. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest with the lowest categories of adapted HEI and DASH were 0.61 (0.50, 0.76) and 0.70 (0.55, 0.89), respectively. No significant associations were observed for a vegetarian eating pattern (adjusted OR 0.80 (0.55, 1.17)). Healthy dietary patterns, as described by a high HEI or DASH score, but not a vegetarian diet alone, are associated with reduced risk of advanced colorectal neoplasms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Epidemiological pathology of dementia: attributable-risks at death in the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona E Matthews

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dementia drug development aims to modulate pathological processes that cause clinical syndromes. Population data (epidemiological neuropathology will help to model and predict the potential impact of such therapies on dementia burden in older people. Presently this can only be explored through post mortem findings. We report the attributable risks (ARs for dementia at death for common age-related degenerative and vascular pathologies, and other factors, in the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS.A multicentre, prospective, longitudinal study of older people in the UK was linked to a brain donation programme. Neuropathology of 456 consecutive brain donations assessed degenerative and vascular pathologies. Logistic regression modelling, with bootstrapping and sensitivity analyses, was used to estimate AR at death for dementia for specific pathologies and other factors. The main contributors to AR at death for dementia in MRC CFAS were age (18%, small brain (12%, neocortical neuritic plaques (8% and neurofibrillary tangles (11%, small vessel disease (12%, multiple vascular pathologies (9%, and hippocampal atrophy (10%. Other significant factors include cerebral amyloid angiopathy (7% and Lewy bodies (3%.Such AR estimates cannot be derived from the living population; rather they estimate the relative contribution of specific pathologies to dementia at death. We found that multiple pathologies determine the overall burden of dementia. The impact of therapy targeted to a specific pathology may be profound when the dementia is relatively "pure," but may be less impressive for the majority with mixed disease, and in terms of the population. These data justify a range of strategies, and combination therapies, to combat the degenerative and vascular determinants of cognitive decline and dementia. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  11. Incidence and prognostic factors for postoperative frozen shoulder after shoulder surgery: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koorevaar, Rinco C T; Van't Riet, Esther; Ipskamp, Marcel; Bulstra, Sjoerd K

    2017-03-01

    Frozen shoulder is a potential complication after shoulder surgery. It is a clinical condition that is often associated with marked disability and can have a profound effect on the patient's quality of life. The incidence, etiology, pathology and prognostic factors of postoperative frozen shoulder after shoulder surgery are not known. The purpose of this explorative study was to determine the incidence of postoperative frozen shoulder after various operative shoulder procedures. A second aim was to identify prognostic factors for postoperative frozen shoulder after shoulder surgery. 505 consecutive patients undergoing elective shoulder surgery were included in this prospective cohort study. Follow-up was 6 months after surgery. A prediction model was developed to identify prognostic factors for postoperative frozen shoulder after shoulder surgery using the TRIPOD guidelines. We nominated five potential predictors: gender, diabetes mellitus, type of physiotherapy, arthroscopic surgery and DASH score. Frozen shoulder was identified in 11% of the patients after shoulder surgery and was more common in females (15%) than in males (8%). Frozen shoulder was encountered after all types of operative procedures. A prediction model based on four variables (diabetes mellitus, specialized shoulder physiotherapy, arthroscopic surgery and DASH score) discriminated reasonably well with an AUC of 0.712. Postoperative frozen shoulder is a serious complication after shoulder surgery, with an incidence of 11%. Four prognostic factors were identified for postoperative frozen shoulder: diabetes mellitus, arthroscopic surgery, specialized shoulder physiotherapy and DASH score. The combination of these four variables provided a prediction rule for postoperative frozen shoulder with reasonable fit. Level II, prospective cohort study.

  12. Healthy Dietary Patterns and Oxidative Stress as Measured by Fluorescent Oxidation Products in Nurses’ Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungyoun Jung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Healthy diets may lower oxidative stress and risk of chronic diseases. However, no previous studies examined associations between diet and fluorescent oxidation products (FlOP, a global marker of oxidative stress. We evaluated associations between healthy eating patterns (Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI, Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH, and Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED and FlOP, measured at three excitation/emission wavelengths (FlOP_360, FlOP_320, FlOP_400 from 2021 blood samples collected from 1688 women within the Nurses’ Health Study. AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were significantly positively associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320 concentrations (p-trend ≤ 0.04, but not associated with FlOP_400. Among specific food groups that contribute to these diet scores, significantly positive associations were observed with legumes and vegetables for FlOP_360, vegetables and fruits for FlOP_320, and legumes and alcohol for FlOP_400. Inverse associations were observed with nuts, sweets or desserts, and olive oil for FlOP_360, nuts for FlOP_320 and sweets or desserts for FlOP_400 (all p-trend ≤ 0.05. However, FlOP variation due to diet was small compared to overall FlOP variation. In conclusion, AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were unexpectedly positively, but weakly, associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously as the determinants of FlOP concentrations are not fully understood.

  13. Healthy Dietary Patterns and Oxidative Stress as Measured by Fluorescent Oxidation Products in Nurses' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seungyoun; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Willett, Walter C; Wang, Molin; Wu, Tianying; Jensen, Majken; Hankinson, Susan E; Eliassen, A Heather

    2016-09-21

    Healthy diets may lower oxidative stress and risk of chronic diseases. However, no previous studies examined associations between diet and fluorescent oxidation products (FlOP), a global marker of oxidative stress. We evaluated associations between healthy eating patterns (Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED)) and FlOP, measured at three excitation/emission wavelengths (FlOP_360, FlOP_320, FlOP_400) from 2021 blood samples collected from 1688 women within the Nurses' Health Study. AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were significantly positively associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320 concentrations ( p -trend ≤ 0.04), but not associated with FlOP_400. Among specific food groups that contribute to these diet scores, significantly positive associations were observed with legumes and vegetables for FlOP_360, vegetables and fruits for FlOP_320, and legumes and alcohol for FlOP_400. Inverse associations were observed with nuts, sweets or desserts, and olive oil for FlOP_360, nuts for FlOP_320 and sweets or desserts for FlOP_400 (all p -trend ≤ 0.05). However, FlOP variation due to diet was small compared to overall FlOP variation. In conclusion, AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were unexpectedly positively, but weakly, associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously as the determinants of FlOP concentrations are not fully understood.

  14. Marketing and clinical trials: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entwistle Vikki A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. Results The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in – hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. Conclusion The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors.

  15. Marketing and clinical trials: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David; Roberts, Ian; Elbourne, Diana R; Shakur, Haleema; Knight, Rosemary C; Garcia, Jo; Snowdon, Claire; Entwistle, Vikki A; McDonald, Alison M; Grant, Adrian M; Campbell, Marion K

    2007-11-20

    Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in - hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors.

  16. Dark-lumen magnetic resonance colonography in patients with suspected sigmoid diverticulitis: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Lauenstein, Thomas; Goehde, Susanne; Kuehle, Christiane; Herborn, Christoph U.; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Langhorst, Jost; Zoepf, Thomas; Gerken, Guido; Goyen, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    To assess dark-lumen magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) for the evaluation of patients with suspected sigmoid diverticulitis. Forty patients with suspected sigmoid diverticulitis underwent MRC within 72 h prior to conventional colonoscopy (CC). A three-dimensional T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination sequence was acquired after an aqueous enema and intravenous administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents. All MRC data were evaluated by two radiologists. Based on wall thickness and focal uptake of contrast material and pericolic reaction including mesenteric infiltration on T1-weighted sequence the sigmoid colon was assessed for the presence of diverticulitis. MRC classified 17 of the 40 patients as normal with regard to sigmoid diverticulitis. However, CC confirmed the presence of light inflammatory signs in four patients which were missed in MRC. MRC correctly identified wall thickness and contrast uptake of the sigmoid colon in the other 23 patients. In three of these patients false-positive findings were observed, and MRC classified the inflammation of the sigmoid colon as diverticulitis whereas CC and histopathology confirmed invasive carcinoma. MRC detected additionally relevant pathologies of the entire colon and could be performed in cases where CC was incomplete. MRC may be considered a promising alternative to CC for the detection of sigmoid diverticulitis. (orig.)

  17. Changes of extreme precipitation and nonlinear influence of climate variables over monsoon region in China

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Tao; Wang, Huixia Judy; Zhou, Tianjun

    2017-01-01

    of precipitation extremes over monsoon regions in China (MRC). However, research on monsoon extremes in China and their associations with climate variables is limited. In this study, we examine the space-time variations of extreme precipitation across the MRC

  18. Adherence to a healthy diet in relation to cardiovascular incidence and risk markers: evidence from the Caerphilly Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Elly; Markey, Oonagh; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Givens, D Ian

    2018-04-01

    Epidemiological findings indicate that higher adherence to a healthy diet may lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The present study aimed to investigate whether adherence to a healthy diet, assessed by the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), was associated with CVD incidence and risk markers. Included in the present analyses were data from 1867 middle-aged men, aged 56.7 ± 4.5 years at baseline, recruited into the Caerphilly Prospective Study. Adherence to a healthy diet was examined in relation to CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke incidence (Cox regression), and risk markers (linear regression) with adjustment for relevant confounders. The DASH score was inversely associated with CVD [hazard ratio (HR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66, 0.99], and stroke (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.42, 0.88) incidence, but not with CHD after an average of 16.6 year follow-up, and with diastolic blood pressure, after 12 year follow-up. The AHEI-2010 was inversely associated with stroke (HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.42, 0.88) incidence, aortic pulse wave velocity, and C-reactive protein. The HDI was not associated with any single outcome. Higher DASH and AHEI-2010 scores were associated with lower CVD and stroke risk, and favourable cardiovascular health outcomes, suggesting that encouraging middle-aged men to comply with the dietary recommendations for a healthy diet may have important implications for future vascular disease and population health.

  19. The Influence of Preoperative and Postoperative Psychological Symptoms on Clinical Outcome after Shoulder Surgery: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koorevaar, Rinco C T; van 't Riet, Esther; Gerritsen, Marleen J J; Madden, Kim; Bulstra, Sjoerd K

    2016-01-01

    Psychological symptoms are highly prevalent in patients with shoulder complaints. Psychological symptoms in patients with shoulder complaints might play a role in the aetiology, perceived disability and pain and clinical outcome of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether preoperative symptoms of distress, depression, anxiety and somatisation were associated with a change in function after shoulder surgery and postoperative patient perceived improvement of pain and function. In addition, the change of psychological symptoms after shoulder surgery was analyzed and the influence of postoperative symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery on the change in function after shoulder surgery and perceived postoperative improvement of pain and function. A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed in a general teaching hospital. 315 consecutive patients planned for elective shoulder surgery were included. Outcome measures included change of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and anchor questions about improvement in pain and function after surgery. Psychological symptoms were identified before and 12 months after surgery with the validated Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ). Psychological symptoms were encountered in all the various shoulder diagnoses. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders persisted after surgery in 56% of patients, 10% of patients with no symptoms of psychological disorders before surgery developed new psychological symptoms. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders were not associated with the change of DASH score and perceived improvement of pain and function after shoulder surgery. Patients with symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery were less likely to improve on the DASH score. Postoperative symptoms of distress and depression were associated with worse perceived improvement of pain. Postoperative symptoms of distress, depression and somatisation were

  20. Mobile phone use among Medical Reserve Corps coordinators and volunteers: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Amy; Peck, Megan; Olson, Debra K

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how mobile phones can be used during emergency response, this study identifies a) current mobile phone use among Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) volunteers and coordinators in their daily lives and during response; b) challenges for mobile phone use during response; and c) areas for capacity building. In 2012, 459 MRC volunteers and coordinators responded to a 35-question survey conducted online through SurveyMonkey. Respondents were asked how they use their mobile phones in their daily lives and during response, and how they would like to use them during response. Frequencies were calculated using SurveyMonkey and Excel. Respondents reported frequent and varied mobile phone use in their daily lives, with 99 percent of respondents owning a phone, 82 percent texting, and 87 percent of smartphone owners using apps. Although 80 percent of respondents who had been deployed used mobile phones during response, use of sophisticated mobile phone features was low; only 10 percent accessed emergency preparedness apps and 23 percent browsed the Internet for emergency response information. Respondents indicated a desire to use more features during response, such as emergency preparedness apps (72 percent) and e-mail to send or receive response instructions (80 percent). Results indicate that given access to mobile technology and training, emergency responders would like to increase their mobile phone use during response. Implications of these findings show a need for organizations to improve their support of mobile phone use.

  1. Analytical solution and numerical study on water hammer in a pipeline closed with an elastically attached valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henclik, Sławomir

    2018-03-01

    The influence of dynamic fluid-structure interaction (FSI) onto the course of water hammer (WH) can be significant in non-rigid pipeline systems. The essence of this effect is the dynamic transfer of liquid energy to the pipeline structure and back, which is important for elastic structures and can be negligible for rigid ones. In the paper a special model of such behavior is analyzed. A straight pipeline with a steady flow, fixed to the floor with several rigid supports is assumed. The transient is generated by a quickly closed valve installed at the end of the pipeline. FSI effects are assumed to be present mainly at the valve which is fixed with a spring dash-pot attachment. Analysis of WH runs, especially transient pressure changes, for various stiffness and damping parameters of the spring dash-pot valve attachment is presented in the paper. The solutions are found analytically and numerically. Numerical results have been computed with the use of an own computer program developed on the basis of the four equation model of WH-FSI and the specific boundary conditions formulated at the valve. Analytical solutions have been found with the separation of variables method for slightly simplified assumptions. Damping at the dash-pot is taken into account within the numerical study. The influence of valve attachment parameters onto the WH courses was discovered and it was found the transient amplitudes can be reduced. Such a system, elastically attached shut-off valve in a pipeline or other, equivalent design can be a real solution applicable in practice.

  2. 2006 Program of Study: Ice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balmforth, Neil J; Wettlaufer, John S; Worster, Grae

    2007-01-01

    .... Towards the end of Grae's lectures, we also held the 2006 GFD Public Lecture. This was given by Greg Dash of the University of Washington, on matters of ice physics and a well known popularization...

  3. [Characteristics of Dupuytren's disease in women. A study of 67 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, N; Lasserre, G; Pauchot, J; Lepage, D; Tropet, Y

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the clinical differences of the Dupuytren's disease in gender. Testosterone induces an increase of the Dupuytren's fibroblast proliferation via androgen's receptors. Testosterone rate increases during pregnancy and menopausis. We also reached a link between this factors and the clinical aspects of Dupuytren' disease in the women of our study. This retrospective, comparative study was about all women and a randomized number of men, who underwent surgery for Dupuytren' disease between 1980 and 2010. We analysed all the epidemiologic and clinical data, the surgery procedures and the complications. Pre- and postoperative measurements of the extension lack of all the joints were performed with a manual goniometer. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire was used to evaluate the patients function. This specific data of women were reached. Sixty-seven women and 69 men were compared. The complex regional pain syndrome was significantly more common in women and the correction of the proximal interphalangeal joint was significantly lower in women. Recurrence rate and mean follow up were not statistically different. Mean DASH score was higher in women. We have not found any association between menopausis, pregnancy and the average age at presentation of the disease, the recurrence rate or the extension rate. The prognosis of the Dupuytren's disease is worse in women than in men. Other studies are necessary to reach the link between the testosterone and the clinical history of the disease in women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Análisis del rendimiento en competición entre corredores de 100 metros lisos de diferente nivel. (Performance analysis in competition between athletes 100 meters dash athletes of different levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Floria Martín

    2011-10-01

    án hacer ajustes individuales en el entrenamiento con objeto de mejorar las desventajas que se producen en competición.AbstractIn the literature there are studies that compare the technique and performance of athletes of very different level, but these studies are not relevant for elite athletes. The well-trained athlete with good records who do not win competitions must know what needs to achieve to improve their record with respect to the champion. The purpose of this study was to conduct an analysis of well-trained athletes, finalists in the 100 meters of the national championship in order to obtain biomechanical criteria to compare faster athletes with slower athletes and thus determine in which section causes of disadvantage. Were analyzed 14 men, 100 m. finalists in two Spanish championships. Using two-dimensional photogrammetric technique carried out a kinematic analysis on sections of ten meters along the race 100 m. The results indicated that the time spent in sections 0-10 m and 20-30 m, in the acceleration phase, was higher in slower athletes (2.04 vs. 1.93 s, P = 0.003, and 1.01 vs. 0.98 s, P = 0.031, respectively. Similarly, slower athletes spent more time to travel the 80-90 m section of the deceleration phase (0.97 vs. 0.92 s, P = 0.014. The maximum speeds were reached between 40-50 m and 50-60 m sections no significant differences were found between athletes. These results support the hypothesis that to win in a 100 m. the acceleration should be increased in the first 10 meters of the race since the slower athletes run only 44.6% of their maximum speed, while the faster athletes do 47% of their maximum speed. In the section of 80-90 m slower athletes lost 5.6% of its maximum speed, while the fastest athletes lose only 2%. These data will make individual adjustments in training to improve the handicaps that occur in competition.

  5. Development of Application Software Hierarchy for Reuse (DASH’R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    yogurt on Wednesday afternoon, the scheduler may report that these cannot all be done, say, if there is only one vessel available for fermentation . The...34reactive" to mean a process that involves chemical reaction, such as composite curing or beer fermentation . This is distinguished from nonreactive...requirements will include a piece of plant equipment that the activity will need to have for its exclusive use. For example, when fermenting beer, one must

  6. Toward a Digital Resilience (with a Dash of Location Enlightenment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The AGU Earth and Space Science Informatics Focus Group addresses a compelling array of research questions and projects. This year's session topics range from large-scale data management within global cyberinfrastructures or virtual observatories, to intelligent systems theory, semantics, and handling of near-real-time data streams, to issues of "dark data," data transparency, reproducibility, and more. The aim of this lecture is to build in part on these themes but to consider more broadly how we might push the boundaries of informatics knowledge more along the lines of use-inspired science (responsive to the needs and perspectives of society while still being fundamental and cutting edge). To wit, as we contend with human impacts on the biosphere recent innovations in computational and data science are now facilitating community resilience to climate change (e.g., helping communities to monitoring air quality or drought, find available drinking water, determine habitat vulnerability, etc.). But not often discussed is a path toward digital resilience. If digital tools are to continue helping communities, it stands to reason that they must engender some resilience themselves. The capacity to deal effectively with change and threats, to recover quickly from challenges or difficulties, even to withstand stress and catastrophe, can apply to data too. As investments in digital data continue to rise, we find ourselves in new "digital world order" comprised of ubiquitous technologies from satellites to wristwatches to human biochip implants. And a significant proportion of these are geospatial, given the incredible power of maps to communicate, persuade, inspire, understand, and elicit action. Therefore, the lecture reviews and recommends seven fundamental digital research and communication practices. The aim is ensuring not only a modicum of resilience for our nascent discipline, but in prototyping and delivering repeatable solutions that all can use to help guide the planet towards a more resilient future.

  7. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  8. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): Middle School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. Middle School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  9. Nonlinear carrier dynamics in a quantum dash optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Ek, Sara; Yvind, Kresten

    2012-01-01

    dynamics. Thus, both enhancement as well as suppression of the transmission can be observed even when the amplifier is biased at transparency. A simple theoretical model taking into account two-photon absorption and free carrier absorption is presented that shows good agreement with the measurements....

  10. Semiconductor Quantum Dash Broadband Emitters: Modeling and Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    multi-disciplinary field applications such as biomedical imaging and sensing, general lighting and internet and mobile phone connectivity. In general, most commercial broadband light sources relies on complex systems for broadband light generation which

  11. Your Guide To Lowering Your Blood Pressure with DASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 tsp garlic, separated and peeled water red wine vinegar honey virgin olive oil black pepper 1. ... be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any ...

  12. Focal Muscle Vibration and Physical Exercise in Postmastectomy Recovery: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Celletti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical activity initiation and maintenance are particular challenges in the postmastectomy recovery and in particular Dragon Boat racing seems to be a useful sport activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of focal muscle vibration as a proprioceptive input to improve upper limb functioning in a group of “paddlers” patients. Methods. A group of paddlers has been evaluated before vibratory treatment (T0, immediately after therapy (T1, after one week (T2, and after one month (T3 with DASH questionnaire, Body Image Scale, McGill pain questionnaire, Constant Scale, and Short Form 36 questionnaire. Results. Fourteen patients showed a significant reduction in disability score (p=0,001 using DASH scale, an improvement of upper limb function (p=0,001 using the Constant scale, and a reduction of pain (p=0,007 at the McGill pain questionnaire. The Mental Composite Score of the Short Form 36 questionnaire showed significant results (p=0,04 while no significant results had been found regarding the physical mental score (p=0,08. Conclusion. Focal muscle vibration may be a useful treatment in a postmastectomy recovery of upper limb functionality.

  13. Novel Zinc(II Complexes [Zn(atc-Et2] and [Zn(atc-Ph2]: In Vitro and in Vivo Antiproliferative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica de O. Lopes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin and its derivatives are the main metallodrugs used in cancer therapy. However, low selectivity, toxicity and drug resistance are associated with their use. The zinc(II (ZnII thiosemicarbazone complexes [Zn(atc-Et2] (1 and [Zn(atc-Ph2] (2 (atc-R: monovalent anion of 2-acetylpyridine N4-R-thiosemicarbazone were synthesized and fully characterized in the solid state and in solution via elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy, conductometry and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The cytotoxicity of these complexes was evaluated in the HepG2, HeLa, MDA-MB-231, K-562, DU 145 and MRC-5 cancer cell lines. The strongest antiproliferative results were observed in MDA-MB-231 and HepG2 cells, in which these complexes displayed significant selective toxicity (3.1 and 3.6, respectively compared with their effects on normal MRC-5 cells. In vivo studies were performed using an alternative model (Artemia salina L. to assure the safety of these complexes, and the results were confirmed using a conventional model (BALB/c mice. Finally, tests of oral bioavailability showed maximum plasma concentrations of 3029.50 µg/L and 1191.95 µg/L for complexes 1 and 2, respectively. According to all obtained results, both compounds could be considered as prospective antiproliferative agents that warrant further research.

  14. Oxford Shoulder Score: A Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation Study of the Persian Version in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Birjandinejad, Ali; Razi, Shiva; Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Reza Kachooei, Amir

    2015-09-01

    Oxford shoulder score is a specific 12-item patient-reported tool for evaluation of patients with inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the shoulder. Since its introduction, it has been translated and culturally adapted in some Western and Eastern countries. The aim of this study was to translate the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) in Persian and to test its validity and reliability in Persian speaking population in Iran. One hundred patients with degenerative or inflammatory shoulder problem participated in the survey in 2012. All patients completed the Persian version of OSS, Persian DASH and the SF-36 for testing validity. Randomly, 37 patients filled out the Persian OSS again three days after the initial visit to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93. In terms of validity, there was a significant correlation between the Persian OSS and DASH and SF-36 scores (P Persian version of the OSS proved to be a valid, reliable, and reproducible tool as demonstrated by high Cronbach's alpha and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The Persian transcript of OSS is administrable to Persian speaking patients with shoulder condition and it is understandable by them.

  15. Effect of muscle strength and pain on hand function in patients with trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero-Téllez, Raquel; Martín-Valero, Rocío; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between muscle strength (Jama), and pain (VAS) levels with hand function (DASH) in patients with trapeziometarcapal osteoarthritis. Cross-sectional study. Sample of 72 patients with osteoarthritis stage 2-3 (Eaton) and trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis. Patients were recruited when they came to the Hand Surgery Unit. Grip strength, pinch, pain and hand function were measured, and correlation and regression coefficients between them were obtained. For function, the most significant model (R(2)=0.83) included pain and strength. But it is tip to tip pinch force which has a stronger relationship with DASH (Standardized B: -57) questionnaire. Pain also influenced strength measured with the dynamometer but it was tip to tip pinch force that was the most affected. Findings confirm that there is a significant correlation between function referred by the patient and variables that can be measured in the clinic such as grip strength and pinch. The correlation between pain intensity and function was also significant, but tip to tip pinch strength had the greatest impact on the function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  16. Results of the Total Evolutive Shoulder System (TESS): a single-centre study of 56 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadum, Bakir; Mafi, Nader; Norberg, Sigge; Sayed-Noor, Arkan S

    2011-12-01

    Shoulder arthroplasty surgery has undergone remarkable progress. New concepts like reverse and stemless shoulder prostheses have been widely used. The Total Evolutive Shoulder System (TESS) is a new innovative system that provides the surgeon with different prosthetic versions. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate our short-term results and complications of the TESS. 56 consecutive patients were operated with one of the two versions of TESS (anatomical or reverse) between October 2007 and December 2009. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation of the function and life quality was achieved by the Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) index and EQ-5D self-report questionnaire, respectively. Radiographic follow-up by anteroposterior, axillary and lateral views was done. The anterosuperior approach was used in all cases. We compared the outcome in fracture patients with other categories. 49 patients were available for 9-24 months (mean 14) clinical and radiographic postoperative follow-up. The mean of quick DASH improved from 56 preoperatively to 34 postoperatively (p TESS prosthesis showed promising short-term results with few complications. The reverse version could be implanted without stem if initial stability was adequate. Long-term follow-up is required to confirm the results of this innovative system in the long run.

  17. [Studies on the mechanical properties of the knee ligament].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubotera, D

    1987-04-01

    To study mechanical properties of the knee ligaments, tension tests at various speeds were performed on the knee of a dog with only the collateral ligament. The results showed that the tensile force was greater in high speed than in low speed test. The difference may be caused in a viscous property of the ligament. The mechanical properties of ligaments can therefore be treated as those of viscoelastic materials and expressed by a modified Voigt model consisting of a non-linear spring element and a dash pot component. Observations regarding the ultrastructure of human knee ligaments using an electron scanning microscope revealed wavy bundles of collagen fiber connected with coarse fibers like network running in parallel with the long axis as the main structure. The above structure and properties were considered to be the decisive factors in the mechanical actions of the knee ligament.

  18. Models and impact of patient and public involvement in studies carried out by the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit at University College London: findings from ten case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Annabelle; Hanley, Bec; Gafos, Mitzy; Cromarty, Ben; Stephens, Richard; Sturgeon, Kate; Scott, Karen; Cragg, William J; Tweed, Conor D; Teera, Jacqueline; Vale, Claire L

    2016-07-29

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) in studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit (MRC CTU) at University College London varies by research type and setting. We developed a series of case studies of PPI to document and share good practice. We used purposive sampling to identify studies representing the scope of research at the MRC CTU and different approaches to PPI. We carried out semi-structured interviews with staff and patient representatives. Interview notes were analysed descriptively to categorise the main aims and motivations for involvement; activities undertaken; their impact on the studies and lessons learned. We conducted 19 interviews about ten case studies, comprising one systematic review, one observational study and 8 randomised controlled trials in HIV and cancer. Studies were either open or completed, with start dates between 2003 and 2011. Interviews took place between March and November 2014 and were updated in summer 2015 where there had been significant developments in the study (i.e. if the study had presented results subsequent to the interview taking place). A wide range of PPI models, including representation on trial committees or management groups, community engagement, one-off task-focused activities, patient research partners and participant involvement had been used. Overall, interviewees felt that PPI had a positive impact, leading to improvements, for example in the research question; study design; communication with potential participants; study recruitment; confidence to carry out or complete a study; interpretation and communication of results; and influence on future research. A range of models of PPI can benefit clinical studies. Researchers should consider different approaches to PPI, based on the desired impact and the people they want to involve. Use of multiple models may increase the potential impacts of PPI in clinical research.

  19. Three-dimensional computer reconstruction of large tissue volumes based on composing series of high-resolution confocal images by GlueMRC and LinkMRC software

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karen, Petr; Jirkovská, M.; Tomori, Z.; Demjénová, E.; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 5 (2003), s. 415-422 ISSN 1059-910X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/01/0257 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/1146/21; CZ-SK GA MŠk(CZ) KONTAKT 126/184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : 3D reconstruction * confocal microscopy * image processing Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 2.307, year: 2003

  20. Cementless anatomical prosthesis for the treatment of 3-part and 4-part proximal humerus fractures: cadaver study and prospective clinical study with minimum 2 years followup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obert Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcomes of a cementless, trauma-specific locked stem for 3- and 4-part proximal humeral fractures. Materials and methods: This study consisted of two parts: a cadaver study with 22 shoulders and a multicenter prospective clinical study of 23 fracture patients evaluated at least 2 years after treatment. In the cadaver study, the locked stem (HumelockTM, FX Solutions and its instrumentation were evaluated. In the clinical study, five senior surgeons at four different hospitals performed the surgical procedures. An independent surgeon evaluated the patients using clinical (Constant score, QuickDASH and radiological (X-rays, CT scans outcome measures. Results: The cadaver study allowed us to validate the height landmarks relative to the pectoralis major tendon. In the clinical study, at the review, abduction was 95° (60–160, forward flexion was 108° (70–160, external rotation (elbow at body was 34° (0–55, the QuickDASH was 31 (4.5–59, the overall Constant score was 54 (27–75, and the weighted Constant score was 76 (31.5–109. Discussion: This preliminary study of hemiarthroplasty (HA with a locked stem found results that were at least equivalent to published series. As all patients had at least a 2-year follow-up, integration of the locked stem did not cause any specific complications. These results suggest that it is possible to avoid using cement when hemiarthroplasty is performed for the humeral stem. This implant makes height adjustment and transosseous suturing of the tuberosities more reproducible.

  1. A Comparison of Radiofrequency-Based Microtenotomy and Arthroscopic Release of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Tendon in Recalcitrant Lateral Epicondylitis: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hoo; Park, In; Hyun, Hwan-Sub; Shin, Sang-Jin

    2018-01-20

    To compare the clinical effects of radiofrequency (RF)-based microtenotomy and arthroscopic release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon in patients with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis through a prospective randomized controlled study. A total of 46 patients were randomly assigned to receive arthroscopic release (group A, 24 patients) or RF-based microtenotomy (group B, 22 patients). The visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain, flexion-extension arc, operation time, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH), Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), and grip power of groups A and B were compared during the recovery phases for up to 2 postoperative years. Both groups showed statistically significant functional improvement compared with their preoperative grip strength and DASH, VAS, and MEPS scores at 2 years after surgery (P lateral epicondylitis provided clinical outcomes comparable with those from arthroscopic release of ECRB tendon during the recovery phase. RF-based microtenotomy is considered as one of the surgical procedures for treating recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis, with the advantages of reliable elbow functional restoration and significantly shorter operation time. Level I, prospective randomized trial. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stability evaluation and chemical characterization of different vegetable oils viewing the search for candidates for certified reference materials for bio diesel; Avaliacao da estabilidade e caracterizacao quimica de diferentes oleos vegetais visando a busca de candidatos a materiais de referencia certificado (MRC) para biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Georgiana F. da; Fonseca, Mauricio G.; Goncalves, Lenise V.F.; Silva, Regina Celia F. da; Silva, Fernanda M.R. da; Rodrigues, Janaina M. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (LABOR/INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Analises Organicas; Leal, Rodrigo V.P. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (LAMBOC/INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Motores, Combustiveis e Lubrificantes], Email: rvleal@inmetro.gov.br; Cunha, Valnei S. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (DIMCI/INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Metrologia Cientifica e Industrial

    2009-07-01

    Viewing the characterization of the various vegetable oils aiming to obtain a data bank that allows the production of certified reference materials for bio diesel of different blends, a study of chemical-physical characterization of different oils and derivative of bio diesel.

  3. Wind farm development project in the regional municipality of Riviere-du-Loup. : public inquiry report; Projet d'amenagement d'un parc eolien dans la MRC de Riviere-du-Loup : rapport d'enquete et d'audience publique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafond, F.; Beland, P.; Bernier-Bourgault, I.; Hamel-Dufour, S.; Roberge, J.; Boutin, A.L.; Dumontier, C.; Hawey, D.

    2006-09-15

    This report stated the reasons why the proposed wind turbine array for Riviere-du-Loup in Quebec was not accepted. The project promoter, Terrawinds Resources Corporation, has proposed to install 134 wind turbines, each with 1.5 MW capacity, some of which would be located on private lands in an agricultural zone. The report was based on results of a public inquiry by Quebec's Commission on environmental inquiries. The Commission concluded that the project as presented cannot go ahead. The Commission stated that the environmental impact study will have to be expanded to include the human, biophysical and socio-economic impacts of the project on the local population. In consideration of the coastal landscape, tourism and historical aspects, the Commission does not approve the development of a wind turbine array, particularly between the Saint Lawrence River and Highways 20 and 132. The Commission noted the importance of migratory birds along the Saint Lawrence River, and stated the difficulty in anticipating the mortality rate of birds using this corridor. The Commission also suggested that inventories be made for amphibians, reptiles, bats and other rare species and that measures be proposed for their protection. It was also suggested that Terrawinds Resources should evaluate and determine acceptable noise levels at their own cost. The Commission also recommended that the Quebec Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks conduct an impact study of infrasonic vibrations together with the Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services. The socio-economic factors associated with the project were also addressed with reference to the value of any economic activity generated by the park as well as the potential losses in other economic sectors such as the tourism industry. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Imaging and estimation of the prognostic features of primary sclerosing cholangitis by ultrasonography and MR cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikarinen, H.; Paeaekkoe, E.; Suramo, I.; Paeivaensalo, M.; Tervonen, O.; Lehtola, J.; Aukee, J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the ability of US and MR cholangiography (MRC) to detect bile duct changes and prognostic signs of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) seen at endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). Material and Methods: In a prospective study, 9 patients with PSC underwent US, MRC, MR imaging and ERC of the bile ducts and the liver. Eight age- and sex-matched control patients were examined with MRC, MR imaging and ERC. A segmental comparison was performed to assess the ability of MRC-MR and US to reveal the accurate ductal involvement in different segments of the biliary tree and the specific criteria of poor prognostic outcome in PSC. The ability of MRC-MR to detect the presence of PSC in different patients was analysed blindly. Results: MRC-MR depicted changes of PSC correctly in 9 patients (radiologist 1) and in 8 patients with 1 false-positive finding (radiologist 2) in the blinded analysis. In the segmental comparison, MRC missed especially bile duct dilatation. MRC was too pessimistic in the evaluation of the outcome. US detected features suggestive of PSC in 8 patients (radiologist 3). US was unable to show the predictors of poor outcome. Conclusion: MRC and US seem to be useful in the detection of PSC. US is unable and MRC is too pessimistic to estimate the outcome of PSC

  5. Magnetic resonance cholangiography: comparison of two- and three-dimensional sequences for assessment of malignant biliary obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Se Hyung; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Kim, Ki Whang

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to retrospectively compare two-dimensional (2D) magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) including breath-hold single-shot rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) and multislice half-Fourier RARE versus navigator-triggered 3D-RARE MRC in the evaluation of biliary malignancy. MRC findings were evaluated in 31 patients with malignant biliary obstruction, including biliary malignancy, gallbladder carcinoma, and ampullary cancer. Two observers independently reviewed the images to assess the overall image quality, artifacts, ductal conspicuity, extent of disease, diagnostic confidence of tumor extent, and origin of tumor. The results were compared with surgical and histopathologic findings. Studies obtained with 3D-MRC were of significantly higher technical quality than those obtained with 2D-MRC. However, the accuracy between two sequences for classification of tumor showed no statistical significance. There was no significant difference between the Az values of 2D- and 3D-MRC for overall tumor extent in bilateral second order branch, intrapancreatic common bile duct (CBD) involvement (Az = 0.889, 0.881 for 2D and Az = 0.903, 0.864 for 3D). Nor was there a significant difference between two sequences in the assessment of the origin of tumor. Although 3D-MRC has superior image quality over 2D-MRC, 3D-MRC showed no statistically significant difference in accuracy compared with 2D-MRC for evaluating the extent of disease in malignant biliary obstructions. (orig.)

  6. Feasibility and safety of early lower limb robot-assisted training in sub-acute stroke patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Geroin, Christian; Tomelleri, Christopher; Maddalena, Isacco; Kirilova Dimitrova, Eleonora; Picelli, Alessandro; Smania, Nicola; Waldner, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    So far, the development of robotic devices for the early lower limb mobilization in the sub-acute phase after stroke has received limited attention. To explore the feasibility of a newly robotic-stationary gait training in sub-acute stroke patients. To report the training effects on lower limb function and muscle activation. A pilot study. Rehabilitation ward. Two sub-acute stroke inpatients and ten age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Healthy controls served as normative data. Patients underwent 10 robot-assisted training sessions (20 minutes, 5 days/week) in alternating stepping movements (500 repetitions/session) on a hospital bed in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Feasibility outcome measures were compliance, physiotherapist time, and responses to self-report questionnaires. Efficacy outcomes were bilateral lower limb muscle activation pattern as measured by surface electromyography (sEMG), Motricity Index (MI), Medical Research Council (MRC) grade, and Ashworth Scale (AS) scores before and after training. No adverse events occurred. No significant differences in sEMG activity between patients and healthy controls were observed. Post-training improvement in MI and MRC scores, but no significant changes in AS scores, were recorded. Post-treatment sEMG analysis of muscle activation patterns showed a significant delay in rectus femoris offset (P=0.02) and prolonged duration of biceps femoris (P=0.04) compared to pretreatment. The robot-assisted training with our device was feasible and safe. It induced physiological muscle activations pattern in both stroke patients and healthy controls. Full-scale studies are needed to explore its potential role in post-stroke recovery. This robotic device may enrich early rehabilitation in subacute stroke patients by inducing physiological muscle activation patterns. Future studies are warranted to evaluate its effects on promoting restorative mechanisms involved in lower limb recovery after stroke.

  7. Sexual maturation effect on physical fitness in girls: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Volver

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present longitudinal study was to find associations between sexual maturation dynamics and improvement in performance of fitness tests. 34 11- to 13- year-old girls performed standing long jump, 20 m dash, shuttle run 4 x is related to 9 m, trunk forward flexion, squats in 30 s, sit-ups in 30 s, and Cooper 12-min running test at the beginning of observation, a year later, and two years later. Sexual maturation was assessed with the aid of breast development stages. When during a year girls transferred from the sexual maturation stage 2 to the stage 3, standing long jump results improved significantly. Transfer from the stage 4 to the stage 5 associated with the improvement of the trunk forward flexion.

  8. Transmit selection for imperfect threshold-based receive MRC in Rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    experience identically distributed and non-identically distributed Rayleigh fading conditions. New closed-form expressions for the combined SNR statistics and some performance measures are presented. The system models adopted herein and the presented

  9. Modular Research-Based Composably Trustworthy Mission-Oriented Resilient Clouds (MRC2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    supports a portable bytecode and several native code targets (x86, ARM, PPC) as well as more exotic runtime targets such as 8-bit PICs and JavaScript ...provision of application-level quality of service. The most specialized output of the Mirage compiler is a unikernel, a standalone kernel with a...Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis (SC), Seattle, WA, 2011, article 26. 23. Farrington, Nathan et al., “Helios: A hybrid electrical

  10. The Aging Two MRC Force: An Alternative Approach to Force Modernization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tennant, John W

    1996-01-01

    .... In his cover letter introducing the 1995 National Military Strategy, General Shalikashvili emphasizes that "dramatic events comprising the end of the Cold War and the demise of the Soviet Union...

  11. Performance Analysis of a Power Limited Spectrum Sharing System with TAS/MRC

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed; Tourki, Kamel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2014-01-01

    multiple antennas on the secondary network terminals and performing antenna selection. In this paper, the performance of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) secondary link with transmit antenna selection (TAS) at the transmitter and maximum ratio

  12. Study of the in Vitro Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial and Antitrypanosomal Activities of Medicinal Plants from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal M. Al-Musayeib

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity. The criterion for activity was an IC50 < 10 µg/mL (4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts of Prosopis juliflora and Punica granatum. Antileishmanial activity against L. infantum was demonstrated in Caralluma sinaica and Periploca aphylla. Amastigotes of T. cruzi were affected by the methanol extract of Albizia lebbeck pericarp, Caralluma sinaica, Periploca aphylla and Prosopius juliflora. Activity against T. brucei was obtained in Prosopis juliflora. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 < 10 µg/mL and hence non-specific activities were observed for Conocarpus lancifolius.

  13. Characteristics of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease at the First Visit to a Pulmonary Medical Center in Korea: The KOrea COpd Subgroup Study Team Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Chon, Gyu Rak; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Jin Hwa; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Lee, Sang Haak; Lee, Sang Yeub; Kim, Tae-Eun; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Park, Yong Bum; Hwang, Yong Il; Kim, Young Sam; Jung, Ki Suck

    2016-04-01

    The Korea Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorders Subgroup Study Team (Korea COPD Subgroup Study team, KOCOSS) is a multicenter observational study that includes 956 patients (mean age 69.9 ± 7.8 years) who were enrolled from 45 tertiary and university-affiliated hospitals from December 2011 to October 2014. The initial evaluation for all patients included pulmonary function tests (PFT), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), COPD Assessment Test (CAT), modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale, and the COPD-specific version of St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ-C). Here, we report the comparison of baseline characteristics between patients with early- (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stage I and II/groups A and B) and late-stage COPD (GOLD stage III and IV/groups C and D). Among all patients, the mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 was 55.8% ± 16.7% of the predicted value, and most of the patients were in GOLD stage II (520, 56.9%) and group B (399, 42.0%). The number of exacerbations during one year prior to the first visit was significantly lower in patients with early COPD (0.4 vs. 0.9/0.1 vs. 1.2), as were the CAT score (13.9 vs. 18.3/13.5 vs. 18.1), mMRC (1.4 vs. 2.0/1.3 vs.1.9), and SGRQ-C total score (30.4 vs. 42.9/29.1 vs. 42.6) compared to late-stage COPD (all P COPD will provide important information towards early detection, proper initial management, and design of future studies.

  14. Measures and time points relevant for post-surgical follow-up in patients with inflammatory arthritis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tägil Magnus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatic diseases commonly affect joints and other structures in the hand. Surgery is a traditional way to treat hand problems in inflammatory rheumatic diseases with the purposes of pain relief, restore function and prevent progression. There are numerous measures to choose from, and a combination of outcome measures is recommended. This study evaluated if instruments commonly used in rheumatologic clinical practice are suitable to measure outcome of hand surgery and to identify time points relevant for follow-up. Methods Thirty-one patients (median age 56 years, median disease duration 15 years with inflammatory rheumatic disease and need for post-surgical occupational therapy intervention formed this pilot study group. Hand function was assessed regarding grip strength (Grippit, pain (VAS, range of motion (ROM (Signals of Functional Impairment (SOFI and grip ability (Grip Ability Test (GAT. Activities of daily life (ADL were assessed by means of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome (DASH and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM. The instruments were evaluated by responsiveness and feasibility; follow-up points were 0, 3, 6 and 12 months. Results All instruments showed significant change at one or more follow-up points. Satisfaction with activities (COPM showed the best responsiveness (SMR>0.8, while ROM measured with SOFI had low responsiveness at most follow-up time points. The responsiveness of the instruments was stable between 6 and 12 month follow-up which imply that 6 month is an appropriate time for evaluating short-term effect of hand surgery in rheumatic diseases. Conclusion We suggest a core set of instruments measuring pain, grip strength, grip ability, perceived symptoms and self-defined daily activities. This study has shown that VAS pain, the Grippit instrument, GAT, DASH symptom scale and COPM are suitable outcome instruments for hand surgery, while SOFI may be a more insensitive

  15. Frequency, location, and association with dental pathology of mucous retention cysts in the maxillary sinus. A radiographic study using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Andy Wai Kan; Tanaka, Ray; Khong, Pek-Lan; von Arx, Thomas; Bornstein, Michael M

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the frequency, locations, and dimensions of mucous retention cysts of the maxillary sinus and analyze potential associated dental pathology. A total of 156 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were included in the analysis, resulting in an evaluation of 310 maxillary sinuses. The presence of mucous retention cysts (MRC) manifesting as dome-shaped radiopacities in the sinus was diagnosed. Their locations were recorded, and dimensions (mm) were measured in coronal and sagittal/axial slices. The patients were grouped into (a) patients/sinuses with MRCs (test), and (b) patients/sinuses with healthy or any other changes (control) for further comparison and evaluation. There were 40 sinuses (12.9%) with a presence of a total of 56 MRCs. The mean age of involved patients was 29.0 years. The analysis showed that gender, age, sinus side, status of dentition, endodontic status, and periodontal status did not have a significant influence on the presence of MRCs when compared between test and control groups. Age and endodontic status exhibited a significant association with cyst location. Most of the sinuses analyzed (79.5%) did not present any MRC, and only 28.6% of the cysts diagnosed were found on the floor of the maxillary sinus. The mean dimension of the MRCs measured 6.28 ± 2.93 mm. No influencing factors on the presence or absence of MRCs were found in the present study. Most MRCs were not located on the floor of maxillary sinus. Future studies should assess their impact on surgical interventions in the sinus.

  16. Index-based dietary patterns and risk of lung cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anic, G M; Park, Y; Subar, A F; Schap, T E; Reedy, J

    2016-01-01

    Dietary pattern analysis considers combinations of food intake and may offer a better measure to assess diet-cancer associations than examining individual foods or nutrients. Although tobacco exposure is the major risk factor for lung cancer, few studies have examined whether dietary patterns, based on preexisting dietary guidelines, influence lung cancer risk. After controlling for smoking, we examined associations between four diet quality indices-Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet score (aMED) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-and lung cancer risk in the NIH-AARP (National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed in 460 770 participants. Over a median of 10.5 years of follow-up, 9272 incident lung cancer cases occurred. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs). Comparing highest to lowest quintiles, HRs (95% CIs) for lung cancer were as follows: HEI-2010=0.83 (0.77-0.89), AHEI-2010=0.86 (0.80-0.92), aMED=0.85 (0.79-0.91) and DASH=0.84 (0.78-0.90). Among the individual components of the dietary indices, higher consumption of whole grains and fruits was significantly inversely associated with lung cancer risk for several of the diet indices. Total index score analyses stratified by smoking status showed inverse associations with lung cancer for former smokers; however, only HEI-2010 was inversely associated in current smokers and no index score was inversely associated among never smokers. Although smoking is the factor most strongly associated with lung cancer, this study adds to a growing body of evidence that diet may have a modest role in reducing lung cancer risk, especially among former smokers.

  17. Developmental fate of hematopoietic stem cells: the study of individual hematopoietic clones at the level of antigen-responsive B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olovnikova, Natalia I; Drize, Nina J; Ershler, Maxim A; Nifontova, Irina N; Belkina, Elena V; Nikolaeva, Tatiana N; Proskurina, Natalia V; Chertkov, Joseph L

    2003-01-01

    We have shown previously that hematopoiesis in mice reconstituted with retrovirally marked hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is provided by multiple, mainly short-lived clones, as measured by retroviral insertion site analysis of individual spleen colony-forming unit (CFU-S)-derived colonies. However, the CFU-S is the relatively early progenitor and the contribution of each CFU-S in the steady-state hematopoiesis is uncertain. Here, we have studied the fate of individual mature B cells, as well as CFU-S, representing the progeny of retrovirally transduced marrow-repopulating cells (MRC). B-cells-generated hybridomas and CFU-S-derived colonies were used to determine the clonal composition of hematolymphopoiesis at the single-cell level. Bone marrow (BM) cells and splenocytes (approximately 1/3-1/2 of spleen at a time) from mice reconstituted with retrovirally marked syngeneic BM cells were repeatedly collected at 3, 10, and 16 months post-transplant. The percentage of retrovirally marked CFU-S and B-cell-produced hybridomas was about 50% at 3 months and decreased to 10-15% at 10 months after reconstitution in spite of stable degree of chimerism. The clonal origin of BM-derived CFU-S and spleen-derived B-cell hybridomas was detected by Southern blot analysis. Overall, DNA obtained from 159 retrovirally marked spleen colonies, 287 hybridomas and 43 BM samples were studied. Multiple simultaneously functioning clones of MRC-derived B cells were observed. The same individual clones among hybridomas and CFU-S were identified in three out of 11 mice. Thus, hematopoiesis is generated by multiple hematopoietic clones some of which can simultaneously contribute to both mature lymphoid cells and myeloid progenitors. These data establish that the stem cell compartment functions by continuously producing progeny, which fully but transiently repopulate all lineages.

  18. Transverse pinning versus intramedullary pinning in fifth metacarpal's neck fractures: A randomized controlled study with patient-reported outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Sherif; Safwat, Wael

    2017-01-01

    The 5th metacarpal fractures accounts for 38% of all hand fractures given that the neck is the weakest point in metacarpals, so neck fracture is the most common metacarpal fracture. Surgical fixation is also advocated for such fractures to prevent mal-rotation of the little finger which will lead to fingers overlap in a clenched fist. Various methods are available for fixation of such fractures, like intramedullary & transverse pinning. There are very few reports in the literature comparing both techniques. Authors wanted to compare outcomes and complications of transverse pinning versus intramedullary pinning in fifth metacarpal's neck fractures. A single-center, parallel group, prospective, randomized study was conducted at an academic Level 1 Trauma Center from October 2014 to December 2016. A total of 80 patients with 5th metacarpal's neck fractures were randomized to pinning using either transverse pinning (group A) or intramedullary pinning (group B). Patients were assessed clinically on range of motion, patient-reported outcome using the Quick-DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) questionnaire & radiographically. Two blinded observers assessed outcomes. At final follow up for each patient (12 months) the statistically significant differences were observed in operative time, the transverse pinning group showed shorter operative time, as well as complication rate as complications were observed only in intramedullary pinning group. No differences were found in range of motion or the Quick -DASH score. Both techniques are equally safe and effective treatment option for 5th metacarpal's neck fractures. The only difference was shorter operative time & less incidence of complications in transverse pinning group. Level II, Therapeutic study.

  19. Rationale and study design for a randomised controlled trial to reduce sedentary time in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: project stand (Sedentary Time ANd diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmot Emma G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM is a major public health problem. There is an urgent need for effective lifestyle interventions to prevent the development of T2DM. Sedentary behaviour (sitting time has recently been identified as a risk factor for diabetes, often independent of the time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Project STAND (Sedentary Time ANd Diabetes is a study which aims to reduce sedentary behaviour in younger adults at high risk of T2DM. Methods/Design A reduction in sedentary time is targeted using theory driven group structured education. The STAND programme is subject to piloting and process evaluation in line with the MRC framework for complex interventions. Participants are encouraged to self-monitor and self-regulate their behaviour. The intervention is being assessed in a randomised controlled trial with 12 month follow up. Inclusion criteria are a aged 18-40 years with a BMI in the obese range; b 18-40 years with a BMI in the overweight range plus an additional risk factor for T2DM. Participants are randomised to the intervention (n = 89 or control (n = 89 arm. The primary outcome is a reduction in sedentary behaviour at 12 months as measured by an accelerometer (count Conclusions This is the first UK trial to address sedentary behaviour change in a population of younger adults at risk of T2DM. The results will provide a platform for the development of a range of future multidisciplinary interventions in this rapidly expanding high-risk population. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN08434554, MRC project 91409.

  20. Functional and Psychosocial Outcomes of Hand Transplantation Compared with Prosthetic Fitting in Below-Elbow Amputees: A Multicenter Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Salminger

    Full Text Available Hand-transplantation and improvements in the field of prostheses opened new frontiers in restoring hand function in below-elbow amputees. Both concepts aim at restoring reliable hand function, however, the indications, advantages and limitations for each treatment must be carefully considered depending on level and extent of amputation. Here we report our findings of a multi-center cohort study comparing hand function and quality-of-life of people with transplanted versus prosthetic hands.Hand function in amputees with either transplant or prostheses was tested with Action Research Arm Test (ARAT, Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand measure (DASH. Quality-of-life was compared with the Short-Form 36 (SF-36.Transplanted patients (n = 5 achieved a mean ARAT score of 40.86 ± 8.07 and an average SHAP score of 75.00 ± 11.06. Prosthetic patients (n = 7 achieved a mean ARAT score of 39.00 ± 3.61 and an average SHAP score of 75.43 ± 10.81. There was no significant difference between transplanted and prosthetic hands in ARAT, SHAP or DASH. While quality-of-life metrics were equivocal for four scales of the SF-36, transplanted patients reported significantly higher scores in "role-physical" (p = 0.006, "vitality" (p = 0.008, "role-emotional" (p = 0.035 and "mental-health" (p = 0.003.The indications for hand transplantation or prosthetic fitting in below-elbow amputees require careful consideration. As functional outcomes were not significantly different between groups, patient's best interests and the route of least harm should guide treatment. Due to the immunosuppressive side-effects, the indication for allotransplantation must still be restrictive, the best being bilateral amputees.

  1. USG-guided injection of corticosteroid for lateral epicondylitis does not improve clinical outcomes: a prospective randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabi, Deniz; Uysal, Mehmet Ali; Akça, Ahmet; Colak, Ilker; Çeçen, Gultekin Sıtkı; Gumustas, Seyitali

    2017-05-01

    Corticosteroid injection used to be the treatment of choice for lateral epicondylitis. Most injections are performed blindly. In the blinded technique, it could be difficult to determine the exact pathological localisation. The purpose of this single-blinded, randomised controlled clinical study was to compare the clinical therapeutic effects of blinded and USG-guided corticosteroid injection therapy in lateral epicondylitis. Forty patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis were included in this clinical trial. The patients were randomly allocated to blinded group or USG-guided injection group according to a computer-generated randomisation list. All blinded injections were administered by an orthopaedic surgeon and all ultrasound-guided injections were made by a radiologist experienced in this technique. All patients were injected under aseptic conditions using 40 mg/2 mL methylprednisolone acetate. The outcomes of both treatments were assessed by an independent assessor at pre-injection, then at 6-week and 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments. The assessor evaluated the q-DASH, VAS, and grip strength scores. No statistically significant difference was determined between the groups in respect of the Q-DASH and grip strength scores preoperatively and at 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months post-injection. No statistically significant difference was determined between the groups in respect of the VAS scores preoperatively and at 6 weeks and 6 months. No systemic or local complications were reported during the treatment. There was no statistically significant difference compared to the blinded injection technique, and the mean score differences between the groups are of no clinical relevance.

  2. Early functional postoperative therapy of distal radius fracture with a dynamic orthosis: results of a prospective randomized cross-over comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian M Stuby

    Full Text Available This study was conducted according to GCP criteria as a prospective randomized cross-over study. The primary goal of the study was to determine clinical findings and patient satisfaction with postoperative treatment. 29 patients with a distal radius fracture that was surgically stabilized from volar and who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled over a 12-month period. Each patient randomly received either a dorsal plaster splint or a vacuum-fit flexible but blocked orthosis applied postoperatively in the operating theatre to achieve postoperative immobilization. After one week all patients were crossed over to the complementary device maintaining the immobilization until end of week 2. After week 2 both groups were allowed to exercise wrist mobility with a physiotherapist, in the orthosis group the device was deblocked, thus allowing limited wrist mobility. After week 4 the devices were removed in both groups. Follow-up exams were performed after postoperative weeks 1, 2, 4 and 12.Results were determined after week 1 and 2 using SF 36 and a personally compiled questionnaire; after weeks 4 and 12 with a clinical check-up, calculation of ROM and the DASH Score. Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference in ROM for volar flexion after 4 weeks, but no significant differences in DASH Score, duration of disability or x-ray findings. With regard to satisfaction with comfort and hygiene, patients were significantly more satisfied with the dynamic orthosis, and 23 of the 29 patients would prefer the flexible vacuum orthosis in future.German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS DRKS00006097.

  3. Ultrasonic and radiographic study of laxity in hip joints of young dogs Estudo ultra-sonográfico e radiográfico da frouxidão articular em cães jovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Rocha

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 22 hip joints of Whippet (four, Rottweiler (five and Labrador Retriever (two young dogs were evaluated with the aim of comparing the ultrasonic examination of coxofemoral joints with the radiographic evaluations, both distraction and conventional procedures, for the early diagnosis of passive laxity. The study was based on static ultrasonography, conventional radiography (CR and distraction radiography (DR methods. In order to quantify the relationship between the femur head and the acetabulum, the alpha (alpha and gamma (gamma angles were measured by ultrasonographic examination, the Norberg angle (NA was measured by CR, and the distraction index (DI was measured by DR. It was observed a negative correlation between angles alpha and gamma (r= -0,756; PAvaliaram-se 22 articulações coxofemorais de cães das raças Whippet (quatro cães, Rottweiler (cinco cães e Labrador Retriever (dois cães, com o objetivo de comparar o exame ultra-sonográfico da articulação coxofemoral de cães jovens com as avaliações radiográficas em distração e convencional, para a determinação precoce da frouxidão articular passiva. Utilizaram-se os métodos ultra-sonográfico estático, radiográfico convencional (MRC e radiográfico em distração (MRD. Para quantificar a relação entre a cabeça do fêmur e o acetábulo, foram medidos os ângulos alfa (alfa e gama (gama no exame ultra-sonográfico, o ângulo de Norberg (AN no MRC e o índice de distração (ID no MRD. Observou-se correlação negativa entre os ângulos alfa e gama (r= -0,756; P<0,001 e entre ID e AN (r= -0,474; P<0,026. Não se observou correlação entre os ângulos alfa e gama em relação ao ID e o AN (alfa e ID: r= -0,380; P<0,081; alfa e NA: r= 0,013; P<0,954; gama e ID: r= 0, 338; P<0,124; ângulo gama e AN: r= -0,192; P<0,391. O método ultra-sonográfico estático não se mostrou sensível para a detecção precoce da frouxidão passiva da articula

  4. The influence of quantum-dash height on the differential gain and linewidth enhancement factor of InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2010-12-01

    We present a rate equation model for the analysis of static and dynamic characteristics of InAs/InP quantumdash (Qdash) semiconductor laser. The model is applied to calculate the differential modal gain (DMG) and linewidth enhancement factor (LEF) of the Qdash laser. In addition, the effect of varying the Qdash height on these dynamic parameters is evaluated. The model predicts a decrease in the differential modal gain with increase in the Qdash height while the LEF value generally does not get affected. The LEF and DMG of the Qdash laser at peak gain attain a value of ∼1-1.5 and ∼0.6×10 -15 -1.0×10-15 cm2, respectively. © 2010 IEEE.

  5. The influence of quantum-dash height on the differential gain and linewidth enhancement factor of InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Ooi, Boon S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a rate equation model for the analysis of static and dynamic characteristics of InAs/InP quantumdash (Qdash) semiconductor laser. The model is applied to calculate the differential modal gain (DMG) and linewidth enhancement factor (LEF) of the Qdash laser. In addition, the effect of varying the Qdash height on these dynamic parameters is evaluated. The model predicts a decrease in the differential modal gain with increase in the Qdash height while the LEF value generally does not get affected. The LEF and DMG of the Qdash laser at peak gain attain a value of ∼1-1.5 and ∼0.6×10 -15 -1.0×10-15 cm2, respectively. © 2010 IEEE.

  6. The contributions of unhealthy lifestyle factors to apparent resistant hypertension: findings from the Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Daichi; Levitan, Emily B; Booth, John N; Calhoun, David A; Judd, Suzanne E; Lackland, Daniel T; Safford, Monika M; Oparil, Suzanne; Muntner, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle factors may contribute to apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH). We examined associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with aTRH in individuals taking antihypertensive medications from three or more classes. Participants (n = 2602) taking three or more antihypertensive medication classes were identified from the population-based REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. aTRH was defined as having SBP/DBP at least 140/90 mmHg despite the use of three or more antihypertensive medication classes or the use of four or more classes to achieve blood pressure control. Lifestyle factors included obesity, physical inactivity, current smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, a low Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score and high sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) intake. Among participants taking three or more antihypertensive medication classes, 1293 (49.7%) participants had aTRH. The prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle factors in participants with and without aTRH was 55.2 and 51.7%, respectively, for obesity, 42.2 and 40.5% for physical inactivity, 11.3 and 11.5% for current smoking, 3.1 and 4.0% for heavy alcohol consumption, 23.1 and 21.5% for low-DASH diet score, and 25.4 and 24.4% for high Na/K intake. After adjustment for age, sex, race, and geographic region of residence, none of the unhealthy lifestyle factors were associated with aTRH. The associations between each unhealthy lifestyle factor and aTRH remained nonsignificant after additional adjustment for education, income, depressive symptoms, total calorie intake, and comorbidities. Unhealthy lifestyle factors did not have independent associations with aTRH among individuals taking three or more antihypertensive medication classes.

  7. Equally good fixation of cemented and uncemented cups in total trapeziometacarpal joint prostheses. A randomized clinical RSA study with 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Torben Baek; Stilling, Maiken

    2013-02-01

    Cup failure is a recognized problem in total trapeziometacarpal (TM) joint prostheses; it may be related to poor fixation, which can be revealed by radiostereometric analysis (RSA). We compared the early implant migration of cemented trapezium cups to that of uncemented screw cups. In a prospective, parallel-group, randomized patient-blinded clinical trial, we included 32 hands in 28 patients (5 males) with a mean age of 58 (40-77) years and with Eaton stage-2 or -3 osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint. Patients were randomized to surgery with a cemented DLC all-polyethylene cup (C) (n = 16) or an uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated chrome-cobalt Elektra screw cup (UC) (n = 16). Uncemented cups were inserted without threading of the bone. Stereoradiographs for evaluation of cup migration (primary effect size) and DASH and pain scores were obtained during 2 years of follow-up. The 2-year total translation (TT) was similar (p = 0.2): 0.24 mm (SD 0.10) for the C (n = 11) and 0.19 mm (SD 0.16) for the UC (n = 11). Variances were similar (p = 0.4). Judged by RSA, 2 UC cups and 1 C cup became loose (TT > 1 mm). Both UC cups were found to be loose at revision. Grip strength, pain, and DASH scores were similar between groups at all measurement points. Early implant fixation and clinical outcome were equally good with both cup designs. This is the first clinical RSA study on trapezium cups, and the method appears to be clinically useful for detection of loose implants.

  8. Site-specific binding of a water molecule to the sulfa drugs sulfamethoxazole and sulfisoxazole: a laser-desorption isomer-specific UV and IR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, Thomas; Seidel, Sebastian; Müller, Christian W

    2018-03-07

    To determine the preferred water molecule binding sites of the polybasic sulfa drugs sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and sulfisoxazole (SIX), we have studied their monomers and monohydrated complexes through laser-desorption conformer-specific UV and IR spectroscopy. Both the SMX and SIX monomer adopt a single conformer in the molecular beam. On the basis of their conformer-specific IR spectra in the NH stretch region, these conformers were assigned to the SMX and SIX global minimum structures, both exhibiting a staggered sulfonamide group and an intramolecular C-HO[double bond, length as m-dash]S hydrogen bond. The SMX-H 2 O and SIX-H 2 O complexes each adopt a single isomer in the molecular beam. Their isomeric structures were determined based on their isomer-specific IR spectra in the NH/OH stretch region. Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules analysis of the calculated electron densities revealed that in the SMX-H 2 O complex the water molecule donates an O-HN hydrogen bond to the heterocycle nitrogen atom and accepts an N-HO hydrogen bond from the sulfonamide NH group. In the SIX-H 2 O complex, however, the water molecule does not bind to the heterocycle but instead donates an O-HO[double bond, length as m-dash]S hydrogen bond to the sulfonamide group and accepts an N-HO hydrogen bond from the sulfonamide NH group. Both water complexes are additionally stabilized by a C ph -HOH 2 hydrogen bond. Interacting Quantum Atoms analysis suggests that all intermolecular hydrogen bonds are dominated by the short-range exchange-correlation contribution.

  9. Attentional Demands on Motor-Respiratory Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Eric E.; Amazeen, Polemnia G.

    2009-01-01

    Athletic performance requires the pacing of breathing with exercise, known as motor-respiratory coordination (MRC). In this study, we added cognitive and physical constraints while participants intentionally controlled their breathing locations during rhythmic arm movement. This is the first study to examine a cognitive constraint on MRC.…

  10. A study of acute muscle dysfunction with particular reference to dengue myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute myopathy is a common cause of acute motor quadriparesis which has various etiologies with different courses of illness and prognosis depending on the cause. Understanding this diversity helps us in proper approach toward diagnosis, predicting the prognosis, and possible complications and in improving the treatments that are being provided. This study was planned to study the clinical, electrophysiological, and etiological profile of patients presenting with acute myopathy. We also studied how dengue-related acute myopathy differs from other causes and also difference between myopathy due to myositis and hypokalemia in cases of dengue. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, observational study involving all clinically suspected cases of acute myopathy of not more than 4 weeks duration with raised serum creatine kinase (CK level. They were subjected to detailed clinical evaluation along with hematological, biochemical, microbiological, and electrophysiological studies and followed-up for outcome at 1 and 3 months. Muscle biopsy and histopathological examination were done in selected patients after taking informed consent. Statistical analysis was performed by appropriate methods using SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago, IL, USA. Results: We evaluated thirty patients of acute myopathy with raised CK level. Seventeen patients had fever, 11 had myalgia, and 5 had skin lesions. All presented with symmetric weakness, 17 (56.7% patients having predominantly proximal weakness, neck or truncal weakness in 6 (20%, hyporeflexia in 12 (40%, with mean Medical Research Council (MRC sum score of 46.67 ± 6.0. Eight (mean modified Barthel index [MBI] at presentation - 15 ± 3.7 patients had poor functional status according to MBI and 15 according to modified Rankin scale (MRS (mean MRS score - 2.5 ± 1.2. Etiology was dengue viral infection in 14 patients; hypokalemia due to various causes other than dengue in 8; pyomyositis in 3

  11. Electrochemical impedance studies of capacity fading of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... low cost, and has a theoretical capacity of 978 mAh g. −1. , which is higher than that of ..... Projections of (a) 100 and (b) 110 crystal planes of wurtzite ZnO showing their non-polar nature. Dashed horizontal lines identify .... ernment of India, for financial support through the award of a Ramanna Fellowship to ...

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of MR colonography with fecal tagging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Michael Patrick; Løgager, Vibeke Berg; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2009-01-01

    : Between March 2006 and February 2007, consecutive patients who received first-time referrals to CC were asked to participate in the study. Two days prior to MRC, a new contrast mixture (barium/ferumoxsil) was ingested together with four meals each day. Standard bowel cleansing was performed before CC. MRC...

  13. Treatment of reducible unstable fractures of the distal radius: randomized clinical study comparing the locked volar plate and external fixator methods: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raduan Neto, Jorge; de Moraes, Vinicius Ynoe; Gomes Dos Santos, João B; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, João Carlos

    2014-03-05

    Various treatments are available for reducible unstable fractures of the distal radius, such as closed reduction combined with fixation by external fixator (EF), and rigid internal fixation using a locked volar plate (VP). Although there are studies comparing these methods, there is no conclusive evidence indicating which treatment is best. The hypothesis of this study is that surgical treatment with a VP is more effective than EF from the standpoint of functional outcome (patient-reported). The study is randomized clinical trial with parallel groups and a blinded evaluator and involves the surgical interventions EF and VP. Patients will be randomly assigned (assignment ratio 1:1) using sealed opaque envelopes. This trial will include consecutive adult patients with an acute (up to 15 days) displaced, unstable fracture of the distal end of the radius of type A2, A3, C1, C2 or C3 by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen-Association for the Study of Internal Fixation classification and type II or type III by the IDEAL32 classification, without previous surgical treatments of the wrist. The surgical intervention assigned will be performed by three surgical specialists familiar with the techniques described. Evaluations will be performed at 2, and 8 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months, with the primary outcomes being measured by the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and measurement of pain (Visual Analog Pain Scale and digital algometer). Secondary outcomes will include radiographic parameters, objective functional evaluation (goniometry and dynamometry), and the rate of complications and method failure according to the intention-to-treat principle. Final postoperative evaluations (6 and 12 months) will be performed by independent blinded evaluators. For the Student's t-test, a difference of 10 points in the DASH score, with a 95% confidence interval, a statistical power of 80%, and 20% sampling error results in 36 patients per group

  14. Effectiveness of case management in the prevention of COPD re-admissions: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeden, Annelies E; van de Poll, Ingrid; van Vulpen, Gertrud; Roldaan, Tim; Wagenaar, Wies; Boland, Melinde R S; Wolterbeek, Ron; Chavannes, Niels H

    2017-11-25

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are associated with high disease burden and costs, especially in the case of hospitalizations. The overall number of hospital admissions due to exacerbations of COPD has increased. It is remarkable that re-admissions account for a substantial part of these hospitalizations. This pilot study investigates the use of case management to reduce re-admissions due to COPD. COPD patients with more than one hospitalization per year due to an exacerbation were included. The participants (n = 10) were closely monitored and intensively coached for 20 weeks after hospitalization. The case manager provided care in a person-focused manner. The case manager informed and supported the patient, took action when relapse threatened, coordinated and connected primary and secondary care. Data of 12 months before and after start of the intervention were compared. Primary outcome was the difference in number of hospitalizations. Secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life (measured by the Clinical COPD Questionnaire, CCQ) and dyspnoea (measured by the MRC Dyspnoea Scale). The incidence rate of hospitalizations was found to be 2.25 times higher (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-3.9; P = 0.004) 12 months before compared with 12 months after the start of case management. COPD patients had a mean CCQ score of 3.3 (95% CI 2.8-3.8) before and 2.4 (95% CI 1.9-2.8) after 20 weeks of case management; a difference of 1.0 (95% CI 0.4-1.6; P = 0.001). The mean MRC scores showed no significant differences before (4.3; 95% CI 3.7-4.9) and after the case management period (3.9; 95% CI 3.2-4.6); a difference of 0.4 (95% CI - 0.1 to 0.9; P = 0.114). This pilot study shows that the number of COPD hospital re-admissions decreased significantly after the introduction of a case manager. Moreover, there was an improvement in patient-reported health-related quality of life.

  15. The Value of Median Nerve Sonography as a Predictor for Short- and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Prospective Long-Term Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Marschall

    Full Text Available To investigate the prognostic value of B-mode and Power Doppler (PD ultrasound of the median nerve for the short- and long-term clinical outcomes of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS.Prospective study of 135 patients with suspected CTS seen 3 times: at baseline, then at short-term (3 months and long-term (15-36 months follow-up. At baseline, the cross-sectional area (CSA of the median nerve was measured with ultrasound at 4 levels on the forearm and wrist. PD signals were graded semi-quantitatively (0-3. Clinical outcomes were evaluated at each visit with the Boston Questionnaire (BQ and the DASH Questionnaire, as well as visual analogue scales for the patient's assessment of pain (painVAS and physician's global assessment (physVAS. The predictive values of baseline CSA and PD for clinical outcomes were determined with multivariate logistic regression models.Short-term and long-term follow-up data were available for 111 (82.2% and 105 (77.8% patients, respectively. There was a final diagnosis of CTS in 84 patients (125 wrists. Regression analysis revealed that the CSA, measured at the carpal tunnel inlet, predicted short-term clinical improvement according to BQ in CTS patients undergoing carpal tunnel surgery (OR 1.8, p = 0.05, but not in patients treated conservatively. Neither CSA nor PD assessments predicted short-term improvement of painVAS, physVAS or DASH, nor was any of the ultrasound parameters useful for the prediction of long-term clinical outcomes.Ultrasound assessment of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel inlet may predict short-term clinical improvement in CTS patients undergoing carpal tunnel release, but long-term outcomes are unrelated to ultrasound findings.

  16. Dark-lumen MR colonography with fecal tagging: a comparison of water enema and air methods of colonic distension for detecting colonic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Gomez, Sonia; Pages Llinas, Mario; Juan Garcia, Carmen de; Rimola Gibert, Jordi; Ayuso Colella, Juan R.; Ayuso Colella, Carmen; Castells Garangou, Antoni; Bordas Alsina, Josep M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate MR colonography (MRC) with barium fecal tagging in detecting colorectal pathology and to determine how air-based and water-based colonic distension influences MRC. We studied 83 patients with high risk of colonic neoplasms. All received oral barium sulfate for colonic preparation before unenhanced and enhanced T1-weighted gradient-echo MRC using either water (n=54) or air (n=29) for colonic distension. Fecal tagging, distension, and artifacts were recorded. All patients underwent conventional colonoscopy within 2 weeks of MRC; the techniques were compared for detection of malignant neoplasms and polyps ≥1 cm, 6-9 mm, and ≤5 mm. Fecal tagging was ''good'' in 76% of the colonic segments in water-distended patients and 46% of air-distended patients. The degree of distension was ''good'' in 90.7% of water-distended patients and 44% of air-distended patients. Severe artifacts were present in 15% air-distended patients and 0.3% of water-distended patients. Both water-distended and air-distended MRC detected all malignant neoplasms and polyps ≥1 cm, but more air-distended MRC were excluded for poor quality. MRC with fecal tagging is useful for detecting lesions ≥1 cm. Air distension was inferior to water distension in most aspects. Water-based colonic distension should be used for barium-tagging MRC. (orig.)

  17. Relationship between dietary approaches to stop hypertension score and presence or absence of coronary heart diseases in patients referring to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Mokhtari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH dietary pattern reduces blood pressure. However, there is little information about the relationship between DASH and coronary heart diseases. This study aimed to assess the relationship between a DASH-style diet adherence score and coronary heart diseases (CHD in patients referring for coronary angiography. METHODS: In this study, 201 adults (102 males, 99 females within the age range of 40-80 years who referred for coronary angiography were selected. Diet was evaluated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. DASH score was calculated based on 8 food components (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and legumes, low fat dairy, red/processed meats, soft drinks/sweets, and sodium. The relationship between DASH score and CHD was assessed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Mean of DASH score was 23.99 ± 4.41. Individuals in the highest quartile of DASH score were less likely to have CHD [odds ratio (OR = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.16-0.86]. However, after adjustment for gender or smoking, there was little evidence that coronary heart disease was associated with DASH diet score. There was a significant negative correlation between DASH score and diastolic blood pressure (P ≤ 0.05. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, having a diet similar to DASH plan was not independently related to CHD in this study. This might indicate that having a healthy dietary pattern, such as DASH pattern, is highly related to gender (dietary pattern is healthier in women than men or smoking habit (non-smokers have healthier dietary pattern compared to smokers.   Keywords: Coronary Heart Disease, Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension, Blood Pressure 

  18. Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy for chronic elbow tendinosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Darryl E; Beckley, James M; Smith, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Elbow tendinopathy is the most common cause of elbow pain affecting active populations. Surgical excision is reserved for patients with refractory symptoms. Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy performed under local anesthesia also removes degenerated tissue and therefore provides an alternative treatment option to surgical excision. This investigation prospectively documented the safety and 1-year efficacy of ultrasonic percutaneous tenotomy performed by a single operator. Nineteen patients, aged 38 to 67 years, in whom >6 months of conservative management for medial (7) or lateral (12) elbow tendinopathy had failed were prospectively studied. All patients were treated with percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy of the elbow by a single operator. Visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the 11-item version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick DASH) index, and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) were assessed by an independent observer before treatment and at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after treatment. No procedural complications occurred. Total treatment time was elbow tendinopathy up to 1 year after the procedure. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preoperative evaluation of synchronous colorectal cancer using MR colonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Michael P; Holst Andersen, Lars P; Klein, Mads

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: It is well known that synchronous cancers (incidence, 2%-11%) and polyps (incidence, 12%-58%) occur in patients with colorectal cancer. Magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) seems like the obvious choice as a diagnostic tool in preoperative evaluation, because...... a full conventional colonoscopy or in whom full conventional colonoscopy was not possible. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a 13-month period, 47 patients diagnosed with rectal or sigmoid colon cancer scheduled for operation were included in the study. MRC was performed with bowel purgation either the night...... before surgery or as ambulatory MRC the week before surgery. RESULTS: Full MRC was performed in 98% of the patients. In four patients, 12 synchronous lesions (one cancer, two plaques of carcinosis, and nine adenomas) were found. One flat adenoma and five small polyps were missed by MRC and perioperative...

  20. The effect of environmental pollution on the respiratory system of lignite miners: a diachronic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichletidis, L; Tsiotsios, I; Chloros, D; Daskalopoulou, E; Ziomas, I; Michailidis, K; Kottakis, I; Konstantinidis, T H; Palladas, P

    2004-01-01

    It is not known whether working in surface lignite mines can cause x-ray lesions or disorders of respiratory function. The aim of the study was to investigate the diachronic impact of environmental pollution on the respiratory system of lignite miners at mines in Eordea, Greece. Cases of 199 workers (Group A) residing permanently in the Eordea valley and 151 (Group B) living outside the Eordea valley were studied during Phase I and then re-examined after three years (Phase II). These cases were compared to those of 71 office workers living in Eordea valley (Group C) and to 96 living in Grevena, a region without pollution (Group D). The study included the completion of the MRC questionnaire for the detection of respiratory diseases, pulmonary function tests, measurement of diffusion capacity, otorhinolaryngologic examination, rhinomanonetry as well as chest and paranasal cavity X-rays. Chronic bronchitis was reported by 26.8%, 24.8%, 17.9% and 10.6% respectively of the subjects of groups A, B, C and D according to the answers of the questionnaire (pmines under conditions of excessive pollution by airborne contaminants have a high prevalence of atrophic rhinitis and, in addition to other standard examinations, should undergo rhinomanometry testing and X-ray imaging of the paranasal cavities.

  1. Developing the clinical components of a complex intervention for a glaucoma screening trial: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma is a leading cause of avoidable blindness worldwide. Open angle glaucoma is the most common type of glaucoma. No randomised controlled trials have been conducted evaluating the effectiveness of glaucoma screening for reducing sight loss. It is unclear what the most appropriate intervention to be evaluated in any glaucoma screening trial would be. The purpose of this study was to develop the clinical components of an intervention for evaluation in a glaucoma (open angle screening trial that would be feasible and acceptable in a UK eye-care service. Methods A mixed-methods study, based on the Medical Research Council (MRC framework for complex interventions, integrating qualitative (semi-structured interviews with 46 UK eye-care providers, policy makers and health service commissioners, and quantitative (economic modelling methods. Interview data were synthesised and used to revise the screening interventions compared within an existing economic model. Results The qualitative data indicated broad based support for a glaucoma screening trial to take place in primary care, using ophthalmic trained technical assistants supported by optometry input. The precise location should be tailored to local circumstances. There was variability in opinion around the choice of screening test and target population. Integrating the interview findings with cost-effectiveness criteria reduced 189 potential components to a two test intervention including either optic nerve photography or screening mode perimetry (a measure of visual field sensitivity with or without tonometry (a measure of intraocular pressure. It would be more cost-effective, and thus acceptable in a policy context, to target screening for open angle glaucoma to those at highest risk but for both practicality and equity arguments the optimal strategy was screening a general population cohort beginning at age forty. Conclusions Interventions for screening for open angle

  2. Supporting Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP in Wireless Meshed Networks using Random Linear Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøll, Martin; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    This work studies the potential and impact of the FRANC network coding protocol for delivering high quality Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) in wireless networks. Although DASH aims to tailor the video quality rate based on the available throughput to the destination, it relies...

  3. DASH-based network performance-aware solution for personalised video delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rovcanin, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Video content is an increasingly prevalent contributor of Internet traffic. The proliferation of available video content has been fuelled by both Internet expansion and the growing power and affordability of viewing devices. Such content can be consumed anywhere and anytime, using a variety of technologies. The high data rates required for streaming video content and the large volume of requests for such content degrade network performance when devices compete for finite network bandwidth. Th...

  4. Improving Translational Accuracy between Dash-Wedge Diagrams and Newman Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, John M.

    2017-01-01

    The use of structural representations to convey spatial and chemical information is an integral part of organic chemistry. As a result, students must acquire skills to interpret and translate between the various diagrammatic forms. This article summarizes the skills sets, problem-solving strategies, and identified student difficulties in…

  5. Climate and pollution agency #En Dash# International projects and partnerships 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-01

    The report describes the agency's work with partners, mainly authorities in other countries, to implement regional and bilateral programs and projects that reduce the impacts on the environment.(Author)

  6. Downstream natural gas in Europe - high hopes dashed for upstream oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikeland, P.O.

    2007-01-01

    Access for independents to retail gas markets was a central concern in European policy reform efforts in the 1990s. Upstream oil and gas companies reacted with strategic intentions of forward integration. By late 2004, forward integration was still weak, however. An important explanation of the gap between announced strategic re-orientation and actual strategy implementation lies in the political failure of EU member states to dismantle market barriers to entry for independents. Variations between companies in downstream strategy implementation are explained by variations in business opportunities and internal company factors. [Author

  7. Downstream natural gas in Europe-High hopes dashed for upstream oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikeland, Per Ove

    2007-01-01

    Access for independents to retail gas markets was a central concern in European policy reform efforts in the 1990s. Upstream oil and gas companies reacted with strategic intentions of forward integration. By late 2004, forward integration was still weak, however. An important explanation of the gap between announced strategic re-orientation and actual strategy implementation lies in the political failure of EU member states to dismantle market barriers to entry for independents. Variations between companies in downstream strategy implementation are explained by variations in business opportunities and internal company factors

  8. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School - Excluding Sexual Identity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  9. Comparative study of phrenic nerve transfers with and without nerve graft for elbow flexion after global brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuzhou; Lao, Jie; Gao, Kaiming; Gu, Yudong; Zhao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Nerve transfer is a valuable surgical technique in peripheral nerve reconstruction, especially in brachial plexus injuries. Phrenic nerve transfer for elbow flexion was proved to be one of the optimal procedures in the treatment of brachial plexus injuries in the study of Gu et al. The aim of this study was to compare phrenic nerve transfers with and without nerve graft for elbow flexion after brachial plexus injury. A retrospective review of 33 patients treated with phrenic nerve transfer for elbow flexion in posttraumatic global root avulsion brachial plexus injury was carried out. All the 33 patients were confirmed to have global root avulsion brachial plexus injury by preoperative and intraoperative electromyography (EMG), physical examination and especially by intraoperative exploration. There were two types of phrenic nerve transfers: type1 - the phrenic nerve to anterolateral bundle of anterior division of upper trunk (14 patients); type 2 - the phrenic nerve via nerve graft to anterolateral bundle of musculocutaneous nerve (19 patients). Motor function and EMG evaluation were performed at least 3 years after surgery. The efficiency of motor function in type 1 was 86%, while it was 84% in type 2. The two groups were not statistically different in terms of Medical Research Council (MRC) grade (p=1.000) and EMG results (p=1.000). There were seven patients with more than 4 month's delay of surgery, among whom only three patients regained biceps power to M3 strength or above (43%). A total of 26 patients had reconstruction done within 4 months, among whom 25 patients recovered to M3 strength or above (96%). There was a statistically significant difference of motor function between the delay of surgery within 4 months and more than 4 months (p=0.008). Phrenic nerve transfers with and without nerve graft for elbow flexion after brachial plexus injury had no significant difference for biceps reinnervation according to MRC grading and EMG. A delay of the surgery

  10. Long-term follow-up of MRI changes in thigh muscles of patients with Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: A quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Farzad; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Le Troter, Arnaud; Lareau-Trudel, Emilie; Bydder, Mark; Fouré, Alexandre; Guye, Maxime; Bendahan, David; Attarian, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most common hereditary muscular disorders. Currently FSHD has no known effective treatment and detailed data on the natural history are lacking. Determination of the efficacy of a given therapeutic approach might be difficult in FSHD given the slow and highly variable disease progression. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate in vivo the muscle alterations in various neuromuscular disorders. The main aim of the present study was to investigate longitudinally the time-dependent changes occurring in thigh muscles of FSHD patients using quantitative MRI and to assess the potential relationships with the clinical findings. Thirty-five FSHD1 patients (17 females) were enrolled. Clinical assessment tools including manual muscle testing using medical research council score (MRC), and motor function measure (MFM) were recorded each year for a period ranging from 1 to 2 years. For the MRI measurements, we used a new quantitative index, i.e., the mean pixel intensity (MPI) calculated from the pixel-intensity distribution in T1 weighted images. The corresponding MPI scores were calculated for each thigh, for each compartment and for both thighs totally (MPItotal). The total mean pixel intensity (MPItotal) refers to the sum of each pixel signal intensity divided by the corresponding number of pixels. An increased MPItotal indicates both a raised fat infiltration together with a reduced muscle volume thereby illustrating disease progression. Clinical scores did not change significantly over time whereas MPItotal increased significantly from an initial averaged value of 39.6 to 41.1 with a corresponding rate of 0.62/year. While clinical scores and MPItotal measured at the start of the study were significantly related, no correlation was found between the rate of MPItotal and MRC sum score changes, MFMtotal and MFM subscores. The relative rate of MPItotal

  11. Long-term follow-up of MRI changes in thigh muscles of patients with Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: A quantitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Fatehi

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is one of the most common hereditary muscular disorders. Currently FSHD has no known effective treatment and detailed data on the natural history are lacking. Determination of the efficacy of a given therapeutic approach might be difficult in FSHD given the slow and highly variable disease progression. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been widely used to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate in vivo the muscle alterations in various neuromuscular disorders. The main aim of the present study was to investigate longitudinally the time-dependent changes occurring in thigh muscles of FSHD patients using quantitative MRI and to assess the potential relationships with the clinical findings. Thirty-five FSHD1 patients (17 females were enrolled. Clinical assessment tools including manual muscle testing using medical research council score (MRC, and motor function measure (MFM were recorded each year for a period ranging from 1 to 2 years. For the MRI measurements, we used a new quantitative index, i.e., the mean pixel intensity (MPI calculated from the pixel-intensity distribution in T1 weighted images. The corresponding MPI scores were calculated for each thigh, for each compartment and for both thighs totally (MPItotal. The total mean pixel intensity (MPItotal refers to the sum of each pixel signal intensity divided by the corresponding number of pixels. An increased MPItotal indicates both a raised fat infiltration together with a reduced muscle volume thereby illustrating disease progression. Clinical scores did not change significantly over time whereas MPItotal increased significantly from an initial averaged value of 39.6 to 41.1 with a corresponding rate of 0.62/year. While clinical scores and MPItotal measured at the start of the study were significantly related, no correlation was found between the rate of MPItotal and MRC sum score changes, MFMtotal and MFM subscores. The relative rate of

  12. Intravenous, contrast-enhanced MR colonography using air as endoluminal contrast agent: Impact on colorectal polyp detection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To compare diagnostic accuracy and patient tolerance of MR colonography with intravenous contrast and luminal air (MRC) to conventional colonoscopy (CC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: IRB approval and written informed consent were obtained. Forty-six patients, both screening and symptomatic, underwent MRC followed by CC. The MRC technique employed 3D T1W spoiled gradient echo sequences performed after the administration of gadopenetate dimeglumine, with parallel imaging. The diagnostic accuracy and tolerance of patients for MRC was compared to CC. RESULTS: Twenty-four polyps were detected in eighteen patients with CC (5 polyps >\\/=10mm, 4 polyps 6-9mm, 15 polyps <\\/=5mm). MRC was 66.7% (12\\/18) sensitive and 96.4% (27\\/28) specific for polyp detection on a per-patient basis. When analyzed by polyp size, sensitivity and specificity of MRC was 100% (5\\/5) and 100% (19\\/19), respectively, for lesions greater than 10mm, 100% (4\\/4) and 100% (20\\/20) for lesions 6-9mm, and sensitivity of 20% (3\\/15) lesions less than 5mm. The sensitivity and specificity of MRC for detecting significant lesions (>6mm) was 100% (9\\/9) and 100% (15\\/15), respectively. Regarding tolerance of the exams, there were no significant differences between MRC and CC. Thirty-five percent (n=16) of patients preferred MRC as a future screening test compared to 33% (n=15) for CC. CONCLUSION: MRC using air as an intraluminal contrast agent is a feasible and well-tolerated technique for detecting colonic polyps >\\/=6mm in size. Further studies are warranted.

  13. Intravenous, contrast-enhanced MR colonography using air as endoluminal contrast agent: Impact on colorectal polyp detection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2010-12-03

    PURPOSE: To compare diagnostic accuracy and patient tolerance of MR colonography with intravenous contrast and luminal air (MRC) to conventional colonoscopy (CC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: IRB approval and written informed consent were obtained. Forty-six patients, both screening and symptomatic, underwent MRC followed by CC. The MRC technique employed 3D T1W spoiled gradient echo sequences performed after the administration of gadopenetate dimeglumine, with parallel imaging. The diagnostic accuracy and tolerance of patients for MRC was compared to CC. RESULTS: Twenty-four polyps were detected in eighteen patients with CC (5 polyps ≥10mm, 4 polyps 6-9mm, 15 polyps ≤5mm). MRC was 66.7% (12\\/18) sensitive and 96.4% (27\\/28) specific for polyp detection on a per-patient basis. When analyzed by polyp size, sensitivity and specificity of MRC was 100% (5\\/5) and 100% (19\\/19), respectively, for lesions greater than 10mm, 100% (4\\/4) and 100% (20\\/20) for lesions 6-9mm, and sensitivity of 20% (3\\/15) lesions less than 5mm. The sensitivity and specificity of MRC for detecting significant lesions (>6mm) was 100% (9\\/9) and 100% (15\\/15), respectively. Regarding tolerance of the exams, there were no significant differences between MRC and CC. Thirty-five percent (n=16) of patients preferred MRC as a future screening test compared to 33% (n=15) for CC. CONCLUSION: MRC using air as an intraluminal contrast agent is a feasible and well-tolerated technique for detecting colonic polyps ≥6mm in size. Further studies are warranted.

  14. Adolescent mental health and subsequent parenting: a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byford, M; Abbott, R A; Maughan, B; Kuh, D; Richards, M

    2014-05-01

    Adolescent mental health problems are associated with a range of adverse outcomes in adulthood but little is known about the effects on adult parenting practices. This study aimed to examine prospective associations between adolescent conduct and emotional problems and subsequent parenting behaviours in adulthood. The study sample comprised 1110 members from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Prospective data were collected from teacher reports of conduct and emotional problems at age 13 and 15 years and adult outcome measures of parenting included intellectual environment, cognitive stimulation, coercive discipline, parental interest and parental aspiration. In regression models adjusted for the confounding effects of social background, cognition and education, adolescent conduct problems predicted coercive parenting behaviours in adulthood. The effects of adolescent emotional problems on the development of coercive discipline practices were explained by covariates. Likewise, the inability of parents who displayed conduct problems in adolescence to provide an intellectually stimulating home environment was fully explained by the adjustment for education. Adolescents who exhibit conduct problems are more likely to develop coercive styles of parenting.

  15. FORESEE: Fully Outsourced secuRe gEnome Study basEd on homomorphic Encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Dai, Wenrui; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Xiong, Hongkai; Wang, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    The increasing availability of genome data motivates massive research studies in personalized treatment and precision medicine. Public cloud services provide a flexible way to mitigate the storage and computation burden in conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, data privacy has been widely concerned when sharing the sensitive information in a cloud environment. We presented a novel framework (FORESEE: Fully Outsourced secuRe gEnome Study basEd on homomorphic Encryption) to fully outsource GWAS (i.e., chi-square statistic computation) using homomorphic encryption. The proposed framework enables secure divisions over encrypted data. We introduced two division protocols (i.e., secure errorless division and secure approximation division) with a trade-off between complexity and accuracy in computing chi-square statistics. The proposed framework was evaluated for the task of chi-square statistic computation with two case-control datasets from the 2015 iDASH genome privacy protection challenge. Experimental results show that the performance of FORESEE can be significantly improved through algorithmic optimization and parallel computation. Remarkably, the secure approximation division provides significant performance gain, but without missing any significance SNPs in the chi-square association test using the aforementioned datasets. Unlike many existing HME based studies, in which final results need to be computed by the data owner due to the lack of the secure division operation, the proposed FORESEE framework support complete outsourcing to the cloud and output the final encrypted chi-square statistics.

  16. Measures of upper limb function for people with neck pain. A systematic review of measurement and practical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alreni, Ahmad Salah Eldin; Harrop, Deborah; Lowe, Anna; Tanzila Potia; Kilner, Karen; McLean, Sionnadh Mairi

    2017-06-01

    There is a strong relationship between neck pain (NP) and upper limb disability (ULD). Optimal management of NP should incorporate upper limb rehabilitation and therefore include the use of an ULD measure in the assessment and management process. Clear guidance regarding the suitability of available measures does not exist. The aim of this study was to identify all available measures of ULD for populations with NP, critically evaluate their measurement properties and finally recommend a list of suitable measures. This two-phase systematic review is reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Phase one identified clearly reproducible measures of ULD for patients with NP. Phase two identified evidence of their measurement properties. In total, 11 papers evaluating the measurement properties of five instruments were included in this review. The instruments identified were the DASH questionnaire, the QuickDASH questionnaire, the NULI questionnaire, the SFA and the SAMP test. There was limited positive evidence of validity of the DASH, QuickDASH, NULI, SFA and SAMP. There was limited positive evidence of reliability of the NULI, SFA and SAMP. There was unknown evidence of responsiveness of the DASH and QuickDASH. Although all measures are supported by a limited amount of low quality evidence, the DASH, QuickDASH, NULI questionnaires, and the SAMP test are promising measures, but they require further robust evaluation. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidants, Phytochemicals, and Cytotoxicity Studies on Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Ma Ma; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Banisalam, Behrooz; Mohajer, Sadegh; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the utilization of certain medicinal plants as therapeutic agents has drastically increased. Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl is frequently used in traditional medicine. The present investigation was undertaken with the purpose of developing pharmacopoeial standards for this species. Nutritional values such as ash, fiber, protein, fat, and carbohydrate contents were investigated, and phytochemical screenings with different reagents showed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, saponin glycosides, phenolic compounds, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Our results also revealed that the water fraction had the highest antioxidant activity compared to the methanol extract and other fractions. The methanol and the fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water) of P. macrocarpa seeds were also investigated for their cytotoxic effects on selected human cancer cells lines (MCF-7, HT-29, MDA-MB231, Ca Ski, and SKOV-3) and a normal human fibroblast lung cell line (MRC-5). Information from this study can be applied for future pharmacological and therapeutic evaluations of the species, and may assist in the standardization for quality, purity, and sample identification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the phytochemical screening and cytotoxic effect of the crude and fractionated extracts of P. macrocarpa seeds on selected cells lines. PMID:24818141

  18. Comparative studies of biological activity of cadmium-based quantum dots with different surface modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowska, D.; Grabowska-Jadach, I.; Drozd, M.; Pietrzak, M.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a modification of the surface of CdS/ZnS and CdSe x S1-x /ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with 3-mercaptopropionic and 6-mercaptohexanoic acid. The obtained QDs were characterized using TEM, DLS, UV-Vis, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Flow cytometry was applied to evaluate the cytotoxicity of QDs and examine the type of death caused by the tested nanoparticles. In addition, the generation of reactive oxygen species after incubation of the tested cells with CdSe x S1-x /ZnS-MPA and CdSe x S1-x /ZnS-MHA QDs was evaluated. The study was conducted on three cell lines: adherent (A549 and MRC-5) and suspension ones (K562). The conducted research demonstrated that the tested nanoparticles exhibit concentration-dependent toxicity. It was observed that the surface modification influences the toxicity level of the examined QDs, and modification of their surface with the use of the ligand of longer carbon chain (MHA) reduces the toxicity in comparison with QDs-MPA. It was also found that all tested QDs caused the death of cells in the course of necrosis. Based on obtained results, it was concluded that the cytotoxicity of QDs is to a large extent related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.

  19. Dose-Volume Constraints to Reduce Rectal Side Effects From Prostate Radiotherapy: Evidence From MRC RT01 Trial ISRCTN 47772397

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliford, Sarah L.; Foo, Kerwyn; Morgan, Rachel C.; Aird, Edwin G.; Bidmead, A. Margaret; Critchley, Helen; Evans, Philip M. D.Phil.; Gianolini, Stefano; Mayles, W. Philip; Moore, A. Rollo; Sanchez-Nieto, Beatriz; Partridge, Mike; Sydes, Matthew R. C.Stat; Webb, Steve; Dearnaley, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer is effective but dose limited because of the proximity of normal tissues. Comprehensive dose-volume analysis of the incidence of clinically relevant late rectal toxicities could indicate how the dose to the rectum should be constrained. Previous emphasis has been on constraining the mid-to-high dose range (≥50 Gy). Evidence is emerging that lower doses could also be important. Methods and Materials: Data from a large multicenter randomized trial were used to investigate the correlation between seven clinically relevant rectal toxicity endpoints (including patient- and clinician-reported outcomes) and an absolute 5% increase in the volume of rectum receiving the specified doses. The results were quantified using odds ratios. Rectal dose-volume constraints were applied retrospectively to investigate the association of constraints with the incidence of late rectal toxicity. Results: A statistically significant dose-volume response was observed for six of the seven endpoints for at least one of the dose levels tested in the range of 30-70 Gy. Statistically significant reductions in the incidence of these late rectal toxicities were observed for the group of patients whose treatment plans met specific proposed dose-volume constraints. The incidence of moderate/severe toxicity (any endpoint) decreased incrementally for patients whose treatment plans met increasing numbers of dose-volume constraints from the set of V30≤80%, V40≤65%, V50≤55%, V60≤40%, V65≤30%, V70≤15%, and V75≤3%. Conclusion: Considering the entire dose distribution to the rectum by applying dose-volume constraints such as those tested here in the present will reduce the incidence of late rectal toxicity.

  20. Multi-Hop Link Capacity of Multi-Route Multi-Hop MRC Diversity for a Virtual Cellular Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Imane; Kudoh, Eisuke; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    In virtual cellular network (VCN), proposed for high-speed mobile communications, the signal transmitted from a mobile terminal is received by some wireless ports distributed in each virtual cell and relayed to the central port that acts as a gateway to the core network. In this paper, we apply the multi-route MHMRC diversity in order to decrease the transmit power and increase the multi-hop link capacity. The transmit power, the interference power and the link capacity are evaluated for DS-CDMA multi-hop VCN by computer simulation. The multi-route MHMRC diversity can be applied to not only DS-CDMA but also other access schemes (i. e. MC-CDMA, OFDM, etc.).

  1. Work-Family Life Courses and Metabolic Markers in the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Rebecca E; Kumari, Meena; Sacker, Amanda; Stafford, Mai; Kuh, Diana; McMunn, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate whether the combined work-family life courses of British men and women were associated with differences in metabolic markers-waist circumference, blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and glycated haemoglobin-in mid-life. We used data from the Medical Research Council's National Survey of Health and Development-the 1946 British birth cohort. Multi-channel sequence analysis was used to create a typology of eight work-family life course types combining information on work, partnerships and parenthood between ages 16-51. Linear regression tested associations between work-family types and metabolic outcomes at age 53 on multiply imputed data (20 imputations) of >2,400 participants. Compared with men with strong ties to employment and early transitions to family life, men who made later transitions to parenthood and maintained strong ties to paid work had smaller waist circumferences (-2.16cm, 95% CI: -3.73, -0.59), lower triglycerides (9.78% lower, 95% CI: 0.81, 17.94) and lower blood pressure (systolic: -4.03mmHg, 95% CI: -6.93, -1.13; diastolic: -2.34mmHg, 95% CI: -4.15, -0.53). Married men and women who didn't have children had increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (7.23% higher, 95% CI: 0.68, 14.21) and lower waist circumferences (-4.67cm, 95% CI: -8.37, -0.97), respectively. For men later transitions to parenthood combined with strong ties to paid work were linked to reduced metabolic risk in mid-life. Fewer differences between work-family types and metabolic markers were seen for women.

  2. New Exact and Asymptotic Results of Dual-Branch MRC over Correlated Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa

    2015-05-01

    We present in this paper a new performance analysis results of dual-branch maximal-ratio combining over correlated Nakagami-m fading channels with arbitrary fading parameter. In particular, we derive exact closed-form expressions of the outage probability, the average bit error rate, and the ergodic capacity in terms of the extended generalized bivariate Meijer G- function. Moreover, we also provide simple closed- form asymptotic expressions in the high signal-to- noise ratio regime of these three fundamental performance measures. © 2015 IEEE.

  3. New Exact and Asymptotic Results of Dual-Branch MRC over Correlated Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    We present in this paper a new performance analysis results of dual-branch maximal-ratio combining over correlated Nakagami-m fading channels with arbitrary fading parameter. In particular, we derive exact closed-form expressions of the outage probability, the average bit error rate, and the ergodic capacity in terms of the extended generalized bivariate Meijer G- function. Moreover, we also provide simple closed- form asymptotic expressions in the high signal-to- noise ratio regime of these three fundamental performance measures. © 2015 IEEE.

  4. Target volume definition in conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer: quality assurance in the MRC RT-01 trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, B.S.; Wilson, J.; Khoo, V.; Dearnaley, D.; Bidmead, M.

    2000-01-01

    Prior to randomization of patients into the UK Medical Research Council multicentre randomized trial (RT-01) of conformal radiotherapy (CFRT) in prostate cancer, clinicians at participating centres were required to complete a quality assurance (QA) clinical planning exercise to enable an investigation of inter-observer variability in gross target volume (GTV) and normal structure outlining. Thirteen participating centres and two investigators completed the clinical planning exercise of three practice planning cases. Clinicians were asked to draw outlines of the GTV, rectum and bladder on hard-copy computerized tomography (CT) films of the pelvis, which were transferred onto the Cadplan computer planning system by a single investigator. Centre, inferior and superior CT levels of GTV, rectum and bladder were noted, and volume calculations performed. Planning target volumes (PTV) were generated using automatic volume expansion of GTVs by a 1 cm margin. Anterior, right and left lateral beam eye views (BEV) of the PTVs were generated. Using a common central point, the BEV PTVs were superimposed for each beam direction of each case. Radial PTV variation was investigated by measurement of a novel parameter, termed the radial line measurement variation (RLMV). GTV central slice and length were defined with reasonable consistency. The RLMV analysis showed that the main part of the prostate gland, bladder and inferior rectum were outlined with good consistency among clinicians. However, the outlining of the prostatic apex, superior aspect of the prostate projecting into the bladder, seminal vesicles, the base of seminal vesicles and superior rectum were more variable. This exercise has demonstrated adequate consistency of GTV definition. The RLMV method of analysis indicates particular regions of clinician uncertainty. Appropriate feedback has been given to all participating clinicians, and the final RT-01 trial protocol has been modified to accommodate these findings. (author)

  5. Clinical evidence of traditional vs fast track recovery methodologies after total arthroplasty for osteoarthritic knee treatment. A retrospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorina, Sergio; Guglielmino, Claudia; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Ioppolo, Francesco; Massimino, Paolo; Leonardi, Pietro; Maci, Christian; Iannuzzi, Maurizio; Di Giunta, Angelo; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background During the last years, programs to enhance postoperative recovery and decrease morbidity after total knee arthroplasty, have been developed across a variety of surgical procedures and referred to as “Fast-Track Surgery”. In this study we aimed to find some answers in the management of osteoarthritic patients subjected to total knee arthroplasty, by using the Fast-Track methodology. To this purpose we evaluated parameters such as early mobilization of patients, better pain management, bleeding, possible complications, reduced hospitalization time, an overall improved recovery and patient satisfaction. Methods 132 patients were selected, of which, 95 treated with “Fast Track” method and 37 treated with traditional method (control group). All the patients were hospitalized and underwent the same rehabilitation program for the first three days after surgery. Results In both groups, the parameters of pain and deformity demonstrated the most rapid improvement, while those of function and movement were normalized as gradual and progressive improvement over the next 2 months. The different functional test used (Barthel, MRC, VAS) showed that the mean values were significantly greater in Fast Track group when compared to the control. Conclusion The results of the study confirm that the application of the Fast Track protocol in orthopaedics after total knee replacement results in rapid post-surgery recovery. Level of evidence IV. Case series, low-quality cohort or case-control studies. PMID:29387645

  6. Effect of dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet plan on pregnancy outcome patients with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to test the effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet plan on pregnancy outcomes patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. This randomized controlled clinical trial was performed among 33 women diagnosed with gestational diabetes. These patients were randomly distributed to the control group (n = 16 or DASH diet group (n = 17 for 4 weeks. Whereas 47.1% of women in the DASH diet needed to have a cesarean section, this percentage of mean gestational age in control diet was 81.3% (p<0.01. Approximately 23.5% of women in the DASH diet and 75% of women in control diet needed to commence insulin therapy after intervention (p<0.01. In conclusion, the effect of DASH diet improved pregnancy outcomes patients with gestational diabetes.

  7. Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum Zahir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties like density, viscosity, boiling point, saponification value (SV, iodine value (IV,and peroxide value (PV of Corn and Mustard oils were studied to evaluate the compositional quality of oils and also to investigate the effect on the use of same oil for repeated frying as it ultimately changes the physicochemical, nutritional and sensory properties of the oil. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to evaluate the degree of oxidation after heating and frying processes. Results revealed that due to the temperature change in the oil there is a notable difference in the spectral band which showed that the proportions of the fatty acids were changed. The spectra of Corn oil at the boiling point and at multiple frying times with a piece of potato showed frequencies in range of 2852.7–2926.0 cm−1 while in Mustard oil an additional peak was observed at 3633.8 cm−1 which exhibits the secondary oxidized product formation.

  8. A Lebanese dietary pattern promotes better diet quality among older adults: findings from a national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Itani, Leila; Chamieh, Marie Claire; Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Naja, Farah

    2016-04-19

    Proper nutrition is critical for healthy aging and maintaining functional independence. Limited research has been done on the assessment of dietary patterns of older adults and their association with diet quality indices. This study was conducted to identify, characterize, and evaluate the dietary patterns and diet quality of older adults in Lebanon, a middle-income country undergoing nutrition transition. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults aged >50 years (n = 525). Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables were collected through interviews, and dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Five commonly used diet quality indices (DQIs) were calculated, including the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMed), the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) style diet score, and the Lebanese Mediterranean Diet index. Dietary patterns (DPs) were derived using exploratory factor analysis. Associations of identified DPs with energy, energy-adjusted nutrients, and DQIs were evaluated by Pearson's correlations. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine correlates of DPs. Three DPs were derived: Lebanese, Western, and High Protein/Alcohol patterns. The Lebanese pattern had highest correlations with fiber, folate, vitamin C, and all five DQIs. The Western was positively associated with energy and sodium and was inversely correlated with fiber, most vitamins, and a number of DQIs, namely AHEI, aMED, and DASH-style diet score. Highest correlations with intakes of proteins and fat were observed for the High Protein/Alcohol pattern. The Lebanese pattern was associated with female gender, education, nonsmoking and physical activity, whereas the Western pattern was associated with adverse health behaviors, including smoking, skipping breakfast, and physical inactivity

  9. [Asu(1,7)E-CT, an analog of eel calcitonin. A comparative study in man with reference to other synthetic calcitonins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniggia, A; Nuti, R; Vattimo, A; Galli, M; Turchetti, V; Franci, B; Martorelli, T; Righi, G

    1983-04-28

    (Asu) E-CT is a deaminodicarba-analog of the synthetic eel-calcitonin (E-CT) that shows specific activity and the potency reasonably high in comparison with that of the most potent natural hormone. The structure of its molecule indicates that the disulphide bond in calcitonins is not essential for the biological activity but only for the maintenance of the specific conformation by forming an intramolecular bridge. The instability of calcitonins should mainly be attributed to the presence of the disulfide bond and (Asu)E-CT proved to be more stable "in vitro" than native calcitonins. The more prolonged hypocalcemic effect of E-CT and its aminosuberic analog (Asu)E-CT has been accounted for to a greater stability of and persistence at the receptor site. (Asu) E-CT has been largely studied in Japan on experimental animals and successfully used in the treatment of hypercalcemia in man. On the contrary investigations on human administration of this analog are very scarce. The present paper reports studies carried out in normal subjects and Paget's disease patients to investigate the effects of (Asu)E-CT in man in comparison with the effects of synthetic human calcitonin (H-CT) and synthetic salmon calcitonin (S-CT). Two different experimental procedures have been used: 1) rapid intravenous injection of (Asu)E-CT (80 MRC. U.) or respectively of H-CT and S-CT (100 MRC. U.) in 15 subjects (7 normals and 8 with Paget's disease); 2) slow 7 days continuous subcutaneous infusion of similar daily amounts of (Asu)E-CT, H-CT and S-CT administered by a microjet pump device in 21 subjects (7 normals and 14 with Paget's disease). The intravenous administration of (Asu)E-CT induced a rapid and persistent decrease in total plasma calcium, ionized calcium and plasma phosphate that was more evident in Paget's disease patients than in normal subjects. No clearly cut differences have been observed with the hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic effect of H-CT and S-CT administered

  10. Etiology of genital ulcer disease. A prospective study of 278 cases seen in an STD clinic in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope-Rapp, Emilie; Anyfantakis, Vassili; Fouéré, Sebastien; Bonhomme, Philippe; Louison, Jean B; de Marsac, Thibault Tandeau; Chaine, Benedicte; Vallee, Pascale; Casin, Isabelle; Scieux, Catherine; Lassau, François; Janier, Michel

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the causes and factors associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD) among patients attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Paris. This study was a prospective investigation of GUD cases. Data were collected from 1995 to 2005. In each case, a Dark Field Examination (DFE), Gram stain, inoculation onto Thayer Martin agar, Columbia agar and chocolate agar with 1% isovitalex and 20% fetal calf serum, PCR Chlamydia trachomatis (Amplicor Roche), culture for herpes simplex virus (HSV) on MRC 5 cells and PCR HSV (Argene Biosoft) were obtained from the ulceration. First Catch Urine (FCU) PCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and syphilis, HIV, HSV, and HBV serologies were also performed. A total 278 cases of GUD were investigated, 244 (88%) in men and 34 (12%) in women. Primary syphilis accounted for 98 cases (35%), genital herpes for 74 (27%), chancroid for 8 (3%), other infections for 12 (5%). In 91 (32%) patients, no identifiable microorganism was documented. Primary syphilis was more prevalent in MSMs (P chancroid were significantly associated with heterosexuality (both P 10 mm (OR: 9.2 [95% CI: 2.9-30.7], P chancroid and reemergence of infectious syphilis have led to a new distribution of pathogens, genital herpes, primary syphilis and GUD from unknown origin, accounting each for one third of cases. No clinical characteristic is predictive of the etiology, underlining the importance of performing a thorough microbiologic evaluation. Close association with HIV is still a major public health problem.

  11. Patient acceptance of MR colonography with improved fecal tagging versus conventional colonoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achiam, M.P.; Logager, V.; Chabanova, E.; Thomsen, H.S.; Rosenberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Conventional colonoscopy (CC) is the gold standard for colonic examinations. However, patient acceptance is not high. Patient acceptance is influenced by several factors, notably anticipation and experience. This has led to the assumption that patient acceptance would be higher in non-invasive examinations such as MR/CT colonography (MRC/CTC) and perhaps even higher without bowel preparation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient acceptance of MRC with fecal tagging versus CC. Materials and methods: In a 14-month period, all patients first-time referred to our department for CC were asked to participate in the study. Two days prior to MRC, patients ingested an oral contrast mixture (barium/ferumoxsil) together with four meals each day. Standard bowel purgation was performed before CC. Before and after MRC and CC a number of questions were addressed. Results: Sixty-four (34 men, 30 women) patients referred for CC participated in the study. 27% had some discomfort ingesting the contrast mixture, and 49% had some discomfort with the bowel purgation. As a future colonic examination preference, 71% preferred MRC, 13% preferred CC and 15% had no preference. If MRC was to be performed with bowel purgation, 75% would prefer MRC, 12% would prefer CC and 12% had no preference. Conclusion: This study shows that there is a potential gain in patient acceptance by using MRC for colonic examination, since MRC is considered less painful and less unpleasant than CC. In addition, the results indicate that patients in this study prefer fecal tagging instead of bowel purgation.

  12. Greater accordance with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern is associated with lower diet-related greenhouse gas production but higher dietary costs in the United Kingdom12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Scarborough, Peter; Lloyd, Tina; Mizdrak, Anja; Luben, Robert; Mulligan, Angela A; Wareham, Nicholas J; Woodcock, James

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a proven way to prevent and control hypertension and other chronic disease. Because the DASH diet emphasizes plant-based foods, including vegetables and grains, adhering to this diet might also bring about environmental benefits, including lower associated production of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Objective: The objective was to examine the interrelation between dietary accordance with the DASH diet and associated GHGs. A secondary aim was to examine the retail cost of diets by level of DASH accordance. Design: In this cross-sectional study of adults aged 39–79 y from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Norfolk, United Kingdom cohort (n = 24,293), dietary intakes estimated from food-frequency questionnaires were analyzed for their accordance with the 8 DASH food and nutrient-based targets. Associations between DASH accordance, GHGs, and dietary costs were evaluated in regression analyses. Dietary GHGs were estimated with United Kingdom-specific data on carbon dioxide equivalents associated with commodities and foods. Dietary costs were estimated by using national food prices from a United Kingdom–based supermarket comparison website. Results: Greater accordance with the DASH dietary targets was associated with lower GHGs. Diets in the highest quintile of accordance had a GHG impact of 5.60 compared with 6.71 kg carbon dioxide equivalents/d for least-accordant diets (P dietary costs, with the mean cost of diets in the top quintile of DASH scores 18% higher than that of diets in the lowest quintile (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Promoting wider uptake of the DASH diet in the United Kingdom may improve population health and reduce diet-related GHGs. However, to make the DASH diet more accessible, food affordability, particularly for lower income groups, will have to be addressed. PMID:25926505

  13. Greater accordance with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern is associated with lower diet-related greenhouse gas production but higher dietary costs in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Scarborough, Peter; Lloyd, Tina; Mizdrak, Anja; Luben, Robert; Mulligan, Angela A; Wareham, Nicholas J; Woodcock, James

    2015-07-01

    The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a proven way to prevent and control hypertension and other chronic disease. Because the DASH diet emphasizes plant-based foods, including vegetables and grains, adhering to this diet might also bring about environmental benefits, including lower associated production of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The objective was to examine the interrelation between dietary accordance with the DASH diet and associated GHGs. A secondary aim was to examine the retail cost of diets by level of DASH accordance. In this cross-sectional study of adults aged 39-79 y from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk, United Kingdom cohort (n = 24,293), dietary intakes estimated from food-frequency questionnaires were analyzed for their accordance with the 8 DASH food and nutrient-based targets. Associations between DASH accordance, GHGs, and dietary costs were evaluated in regression analyses. Dietary GHGs were estimated with United Kingdom-specific data on carbon dioxide equivalents associated with commodities and foods. Dietary costs were estimated by using national food prices from a United Kingdom-based supermarket comparison website. Greater accordance with the DASH dietary targets was associated with lower GHGs. Diets in the highest quintile of accordance had a GHG impact of 5.60 compared with 6.71 kg carbon dioxide equivalents/d for least-accordant diets (P dietary costs, with the mean cost of diets in the top quintile of DASH scores 18% higher than that of diets in the lowest quintile (P < 0.0001). Promoting wider uptake of the DASH diet in the United Kingdom may improve population health and reduce diet-related GHGs. However, to make the DASH diet more accessible, food affordability, particularly for lower income groups, will have to be addressed.

  14. A Study of Sympathetic Flaring Using a Full-Sun Event Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P. A.; Schrijver, C. J.; Title, A. M.; Bloomfield, D.; Gallagher, P.

    2013-12-01

    There has been a trove of papers published on the statistics of flare occurrence. These studies are trying to answer the question of whether or not subsequent solar flares are related. The majority of these works have not included both flare location information and the physical properties of the regions responsible for the eruptions, and none have taken advantage of full-Sun event coverage. Now that SDO/AIA is available and the STEREO spacecraft have progressed past 90 degrees from Earth's heliographic longitude, this new information is available to us. This work aims to quantify how common sympathetic events are, and how important they are in the forecasting of solar flares. A 3D plot of detected and clustered flare events for a full solar rotation, including the Valentine's Day Event of 2011. A full-Sun image in the EUV (304A) including both STEREO view points and AIA. The GOES X-ray light curves during the February period of 2011 are shown in the bottom panel. Detected flare events are indicated by the green dashed lines and the time stamp of this image is denoted by the red line.

  15. Investigation of bone and mineral metabolism in hyperthyroidism before and after treatment using calcitonin, /sup 47/Ca and balance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, J Th.A.M. [Department of Internal Medicine, St. Franciscus Hospital, 4708 AE Roosendaal, The Netherlands; Smeenk, D [Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital, 2333 AA Leiden, The Netherlands

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen normocalcaemic patients with severe hyperthyroidism were examined before therapy was initiated; 9 were re-examined about 1 year later. Studies with /sup 47/Ca under balance conditions and with calcitonin demonstrated a high rate of bone resorption in untreated patients. As a result of the increased bone turnover, the reaction to 6 MRC units of porcine calcitonin iv was more marked in the untreated than in the treated patients, or the control group. In contrast to the normal diurnal pattern for PO/sub 4/, it was found that during fasting the plasma PO/sub 4/ level increases in the morning in patients with hyperthyroidism. This increase which was not suppressed by the administered dose of calcitonin developed in spite of an elevated urinary PO/sub 4/ excretion. After treatment, the serum Ca concentration as well as the urinary and faecal Ca excretion was decreased. The Ca balance improved; the rapidly-exchangeable Ca pool returned to normal. The slowly-exchangeable and the total Ca pools, however, remained enlarged. The rate of bone resorption normalized. The accretion rate on the other hand remained elevated. This is attributed to continued enhancement of bone formation to compensate for the previous loss of bony tissue.

  16. Investigation of bone and mineral metabolism in hyperthyroidism before and after treatment using calcitonin, 47Ca and balance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, J.Th.A.M.; Smeenk, D.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen normocalcaemic patients with severe hyperthyroidism were examined before therapy was initiated; 9 were re-examined about 1 year later. Studies with 47 Ca under balance conditions and with calcitonin demonstrated a high rate of bone resorption in untreated patients. As a result of the increased bone turnover, the reaction to 6 MRC units of porcine calcitonin iv was more marked in the untreated than in the treated patients, or the control group. In contrast to the normal diurnal pattern for PO 4 , it was found that during fasting the plasma PO 4 level increases in the morning in patients with hyperthyroidism. This increase which was not suppressed by the administered dose of calcitonin developed in spite of an elevated urinary PO 4 excretion. After treatment, the serum Ca concentration as well as the urinary and faecal Ca excretion was decreased. The Ca balance improved; the rapidly-exchangeable Ca pool returned to normal. The slowly-exchangeable and the total Ca pools, however, remained enlarged. The rate of bone resorption normalized. The accretion rate on the other hand remained elevated. This is attributed to continued enhancement of bone formation to compensate for the previous loss of bony tissue. (author)

  17. Lifestyle in progression from hypertensive disorders of pregnancy to chronic hypertension in Nurses' Health Study II: observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Simon; Stuart, Jennifer J; Tanz, Lauren J; Rimm, Eric B; Franks, Paul W; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2017-07-12

    Objectives  To study the association between lifestyle risk factors and chronic hypertension by history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP: gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia) and investigate the extent to which these risk factors modify the association between HDP and chronic hypertension. Design  Prospective cohort study. Setting  Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2013). Participants  54 588 parous women aged 32 to 59 years with data on reproductive history and without previous chronic hypertension, stroke, or myocardial infarction. Main outcome measure  Chronic hypertension diagnosed by a physician and indicated through nurse participant self report. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the development of chronic hypertension contingent on history of HDP and four lifestyle risk factors: post-pregnancy body mass index, physical activity, adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and dietary sodium/potassium intake. Potential effect modification (interaction) between each lifestyle factor and previous HDP was evaluated with the relative excess risk due to interaction. Results  10% (n=5520) of women had a history of HDP at baseline. 13 971 cases of chronic hypertension occurred during 689 988 person years of follow-up. Being overweight or obese was the only lifestyle factor consistently associated with higher risk of chronic hypertension. Higher body mass index, in particular, also increased the risk of chronic hypertension associated with history of HDP (relative excess risk due to interaction Psodium/potassium intake on the association between HDP and chronic hypertension. Conclusion  This study suggests that the risk of chronic hypertension after HDP might be markedly reduced by adherence to a beneficial lifestyle. Compared with women without a history of HDP, keeping a healthy weight seems to be especially important with such a history.

  18. Frequency of eating home cooked meals and potential benefits for diet and health: cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susanna; Brown, Heather; Wrieden, Wendy; White, Martin; Adams, Jean

    2017-08-17

    Reported associations between preparing and eating home cooked food, and both diet and health, are inconsistent. Most previous research has focused on preparing, rather than eating, home cooked food; used small, non-population based samples; and studied markers of nutrient intake, rather than overall diet quality or health. We aimed to assess whether frequency of consuming home cooked meals was cross-sectionally associated with diet quality and cardio-metabolic health. We used baseline data from a United Kingdom population-based cohort study of adults aged 29 to 64 years (n = 11,396). Participants self-reported frequency of consuming home cooked main meals. Diet quality was assessed using the Mediterranean Diet Score, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, fruit and vegetable intake calculated from a 130-item food frequency questionnaire, and plasma vitamin C. Markers of cardio-metabolic health were researcher-measured body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ), cholesterol and hypertension. Differences across the three exposure categories were assessed using linear regression (diet variables) and logistic regression (health variables). Eating home cooked meals more frequently was associated with greater adherence to DASH and Mediterranean diets, greater fruit and vegetable intakes and higher plasma vitamin C, in adjusted models. Those eating home cooked meals more than five times, compared with less than three times per week, consumed 62.3 g more fruit (99% CI 43.2 to 81.5) and 97.8 g more vegetables (99% CI 84.4 to 111.2) daily. More frequent consumption of home cooked meals was associated with greater likelihood of having normal range BMI and normal percentage body fat. Associations with HbA 1c , cholesterol and hypertension were not significant in adjusted models. Those consuming home cooked meals more than five times, compared with less than three times per week, were 28% less likely to have overweight BMI (99

  19. Single-arm open-label study of Durolane (NASHA nonanimal hyaluronic acid for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the thumb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco E

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Eloisa Velasco,1 Mª Victoria Ribera,2 Joan Pi3 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital de Sant Joan Despí Moisés Broggi, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Vall d’Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Parc Taulí University Hospital, Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain Introduction: Osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal (TMC joint of the thumb – also known as rhizarthrosis – is painful and has a significant impact on quality of life. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid may potentially meet the need for effective, minimally invasive intervention in patients not responding adequately to initial treatment. We aimed to confirm the safety and effectiveness of viscosupplementation with Durolane (NASHA nonanimal hyaluronic acid in rhizarthrosis.Patients and methods: This was a prospective, single-arm, multicenter, open-label study with a 6-month follow-up period. Eligible patients had Eaton–Littler grade II–III rhizarthrosis in one TMC joint with pain and visual analog scale (VAS pain score ≥4 (scale: 0–10. A single injection of NASHA was administered to the affected TMC joint. The primary effectiveness variable was change from baseline in VAS pain score.Results: Thirty-five patients (mean age 60.8 years; 85.7% female received NASHA and completed the study. The least-squares mean change from baseline in VAS pain score over 6 months was –2.00, a reduction of 27.8% (p<0.001. The reduction in pain exceeded 25% as early as month 1 (26.5%, and gradual improvement was observed throughout the 6-month follow-up period. Secondary effectiveness parameters included QuickDASH (shortened version of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand [DASH], Kapandji thumb opposition test, radial abduction, metacarpophalangeal (MCP joint flexion, and pinch (clamp strength. Most of these measurements showed statistically significant improvements from baseline over 6 months. Five

  20. Using 4+ to grade near-normal muscle strength does not improve agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Søren; Jaszczak, Sofie Louise Thomsen; Steffensen, Anne Katrine Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    of the six grades. It is not necessarily obvious how to convert a manual muscle test finding into an MRC grade. Several modifications which include intermediate grades have been suggested to improve the MRC scale and the current study examines whether agreement improves and variation in ratings decrease......Manual assessment of muscle strength is often graded using the ordinal Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. The scale has a number of inherent weaknesses, including poorly defined limits between grades `4' and `5' and very large differences in the span of muscle strength encompassed by each...

  1. Using 4+ to grade near-normal muscle strength does not improve agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Søren; Jaszczak, Sofie Louise Thomsen; Steffensen, Anne Katrine Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    Manual assessment of muscle strength is often graded using the ordinal Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. The scale has a number of inherent weaknesses, including poorly defined limits between grades `4' and `5' and very large differences in the span of muscle strength encompassed by each...... of the six grades. It is not necessarily obvious how to convert a manual muscle test finding into an MRC grade. Several modifications which include intermediate grades have been suggested to improve the MRC scale and the current study examines whether agreement improves and variation in ratings decrease...

  2. The role of hepatobiliary scintigraphy and MR cholangiography in the assessment of bile duct obstruction after biliary surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Moon Gyu; Lee, Sung Gyu; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1998-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the role of MR cholangiography (MRC) and hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) in the assessemtn of recurrent bile duct obstruction after biliary surgery. Twenty-three patients (15 men and 8 women: mean age 49.8) with post-biliary operation state (16 biliary-enteric anastomoses and seven cholecystectomy) underwent a total of 28 MRC and 28 HBS using Tc-99m DISIDA within 3 days of each other. Interval between surgery and MRC or HBS ranged from 2 wk to 15 yr (median: 14 mon). MRC and HBS were analyzed for the presence of bile duct obstruction. The final diagnoses were cofirmed by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage or surgical operation in 11 of 28 cases and by the follow-up clinical course in the rests. Of 14 instances with bile duct obstruction (13 intrahepatic bile duct obstruction and 1 common bile duct obstruction), HBS showed complete intrahepatic bile duct (IHD) obstruction in 7, incomplete IHD obstruction in 5, parenchymal dysfuction in 1, and IHD dilation without obstructon in 1, resulting in sensitivity of 86% (12/14). MRC showed stone in 6, stricture in 4, IHD dilatation in 3, and normal in 1. The sensitivity of MRC was 71% (10/14). Fourteen instances were without obstruction. HBS showed no evidence of obstruction in all 14 instances (specificity 100%). However, stricture on MRC was found in 4 instances, resulting in specificity of 71% (10/14). HBS is useful in the diagnosis of recurrent bile duct obstruction after surgery. MRC is a useful modality for assessing the diagnosis of obstruction itself as well as the cause and location of bile duct obstruction. However, the specificity of MRC appears to be lower because of possible overestimation of stricture

  3. Diagnostic value of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR cholangiography in non-invasive detection of postoperative bile leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Melahat; Erden, Ayşe; Düşünceli Atman, Ebru

    2017-04-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of dynamic T 1 weighted (T1w) gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MR cholangiography (MRC) for the detection of active bile leaks. A total of 28 patients with suspected biliary leakage who underwent routine T 2 weighted (T2w) MRC and T1w GD-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRC at our institution from February 2013 to June 2016 were included in this study. The image sets were retrospectively analyzed in consensus by three radiologists. T1w Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRC findings were correlated with clinical data, follow-up examinations and findings of invasive/surgical procedures. Patients with positive bile leak findings in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRC were divided into hepatobiliary phase (HBP) (20-30 min) and delayed phase (DP) (60-390 min) group according to elapsed time between Gd-EOB-DTPA injection and initial bile leak findings in MRC images. These groups were compared in terms of laboratory test results (total bilirubin, liver enzymes) and the presence of bile duct dilatation in T2w MRC images. In each patient, visualization of bile ducts was sufficient in the HBP. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of dynamic Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1w MRC in the detection of biliary leaks were 92.9%, 90.5% and 100%, respectively (p  0.05). Three patients, each of them in DP group, showed normal laboratory test results and bile duct diameters. Dynamic T1w Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRC is a useful non-invasive diagnostic tool to detect bile leak. Advances in knowledge: Prolonged DP imaging may be required for bile leak detection even if visualization of biliary tree is sufficient in HBP and liver function tests, total bilirubin levels and bile duct diameters are normal.

  4. Accelerated rehabilitation compared with a standard protocol after distal radial fractures treated with volar open reduction and internal fixation: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, Jess L; Husband, Jeffrey B

    2014-10-01

    There are relatively few studies in the literature that specifically evaluate accelerated rehabilitation protocols for distal radial fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). The purpose of this study was to compare the early postoperative outcomes (at zero to twelve weeks postoperatively) of patients enrolled in an accelerated rehabilitation protocol with those of patients enrolled in a standard rehabilitation protocol following ORIF for a distal radial fracture. We hypothesized that patients with accelerated rehabilitation after volar ORIF for a distal radial fracture would have an earlier return to function compared with patients who followed a standard protocol. From November 2007 to November 2010, eighty-one patients with an unstable distal radial fracture were prospectively randomized to follow either an accelerated or a standard rehabilitation protocol after undergoing ORIF with a volar plate for a distal radial fracture. Both groups began with gentle active range of motion at three to five days postoperatively. At two weeks, the accelerated group initiated wrist/forearm passive range of motion and strengthening exercises, whereas the standard group initiated passive range of motion and strengthening at six weeks postoperatively. Patients were assessed at three to five days, two weeks, three weeks, four weeks, six weeks, eight weeks, twelve weeks, and six months postoperatively. Outcomes included Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores (primary outcome) and measurements of wrist flexion/extension, supination, pronation, grip strength, and palmar pinch. The patients in the accelerated group had better mobility, strength, and DASH scores at the early postoperative time points (zero to eight weeks postoperatively) compared with the patients in the standard rehabilitation group. The difference between the groups was both clinically relevant and statistically significant. Patients who follow an accelerated rehabilitation

  5. MAVIDOS Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. The MAVIDOS Study Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Nicholas C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MAVIDOS is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ISRCTN82927713, registered 2008 Apr 11, funded by Arthritis Research UK, MRC, Bupa Foundation and NIHR. Background Osteoporosis is a major public health problem as a result of associated fragility fractures. Skeletal strength increases from birth to a peak in early adulthood. This peak predicts osteoporosis risk in later life. Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnancy is common (31% in a recent Southampton cohort and predicts reduced bone mass in the offspring. In this study we aim to test whether offspring of mothers supplemented with vitamin D in pregnancy have higher bone mass at birth than those whose mothers were not supplemented. Methods/Design Women have their vitamin D status assessed after ultrasound scanning in the twelfth week of pregnancy at 3 trial centres (Southampton, Sheffield, Oxford. Women with circulating 25(OH-vitamin D levels 25-100 nmol/l are randomised in a double-blind design to either oral vitamin D supplement (1000 IU cholecalciferol/day, n = 477 or placebo at 14 weeks (n = 477. Questionnaire data include parity, sunlight exposure, dietary information, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. At 19 and 34 weeks maternal anthropometry is assessed and blood samples taken to measure 25(OH-vitamin D, PTH and biochemistry. At delivery venous umbilical cord blood is collected, together with umbilical cord and placental tissue. The babies undergo DXA assessment of bone mass within the first 14 days after birth, with the primary outcome being whole body bone mineral content adjusted for gestational age and age. Children are then followed up with yearly assessment of health, diet, physical activity and anthropometric measures, with repeat assessment of bone mass by DXA at age 4 years. Discussion As far as we are aware, this randomised trial is one of the first ever tests of the early life origins hypothesis in human participants and has the potential to inform

  6. MAVIDOS Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. The MAVIDOS Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Nicholas C; Javaid, Kassim; Bishop, Nicholas; Kennedy, Stephen; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Fraser, Robert; Gandhi, Saurabh V; Schoenmakers, Inez; Prentice, Ann; Cooper, Cyrus

    2012-02-07

    MAVIDOS is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ISRCTN82927713, registered 2008 Apr 11), funded by Arthritis Research UK, MRC, Bupa Foundation and NIHR. Osteoporosis is a major public health problem as a result of associated fragility fractures. Skeletal strength increases from birth to a peak in early adulthood. This peak predicts osteoporosis risk in later life. Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnancy is common (31% in a recent Southampton cohort) and predicts reduced bone mass in the offspring. In this study we aim to test whether offspring of mothers supplemented with vitamin D in pregnancy have higher bone mass at birth than those whose mothers were not supplemented. Women have their vitamin D status assessed after ultrasound scanning in the twelfth week of pregnancy at 3 trial centres (Southampton, Sheffield, Oxford). Women with circulating 25(OH)-vitamin D levels 25-100 nmol/l are randomised in a double-blind design to either oral vitamin D supplement (1000 IU cholecalciferol/day, n = 477) or placebo at 14 weeks (n = 477). Questionnaire data include parity, sunlight exposure, dietary information, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. At 19 and 34 weeks maternal anthropometry is assessed and blood samples taken to measure 25(OH)-vitamin D, PTH and biochemistry. At delivery venous umbilical cord blood is collected, together with umbilical cord and placental tissue. The babies undergo DXA assessment of bone mass within the first 14 days after birth, with the primary outcome being whole body bone mineral content adjusted for gestational age and age. Children are then followed up with yearly assessment of health, diet, physical activity and anthropometric measures, with repeat assessment of bone mass by DXA at age 4 years. As far as we are aware, this randomised trial is one of the first ever tests of the early life origins hypothesis in human participants and has the potential to inform public health policy regarding vitamin D supplementation in

  7. Low Vision Rehabilitation Plans Comparing Two Intake Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijning, J.E.; van Nispen, R.M.A.; Knol, D.L.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. This qualitative study investigates possible differences in identified rehabilitation needs indicated by the usual intake procedures at a Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Center (MRC) for visually impaired persons compared with those indicated by the use of a structured Dutch version [based

  8. Standardized Training to Improve Readiness of the Medical Reserve Corps: A Department of Health and Human Services Program under the Direction of the Office of the Surgeon General

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, Cynthia A

    2006-01-01

    .... According to recent studies and surveys, disaster operations are an unfamiliar role for most MRC volunteers and the public health workforce in general, and few volunteers receive this important preparedness training...

  9. The role of physical activity during pregnancy in determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa. 2 MRC/WITS Developmental ..... attitudes and perceptions towards PA in pregnancy. Despite the .... Findings from a Chinese urban pregnant women cohort study. Int J Behav.

  10. Maximising the value of combining qualitative research and randomised controlled trials in health research: the QUAlitative Research in Trials (QUART) study--a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J; Drabble, Sarah J; Rudolph, Anne; Goode, Jackie; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-01

    Researchers sometimes undertake qualitative research with randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of health interventions. To systematically explore how qualitative research is being used with trials and identify ways of maximising its value to the trial aim of providing evidence of effectiveness of health interventions. A sequential mixed methods study with four components. (1) Database search of peer-reviewed journals between January 2008 and September 2010 for articles reporting the qualitative research undertaken with specific trials, (2) systematic search of database of registered trials to identify studies combining qualitative research and trials, (3) survey of 200 lead investigators of trials with no apparent qualitative research and (4) semistructured telephone interviews with 18 researchers purposively sampled from the first three methods. Qualitative research was undertaken with at least 12% of trials. A large number of articles reporting qualitative research undertaken with trials (n=296) were published between 2008 and 2010. A total of 28% (82/296) of articles reported qualitative research undertaken at the pre-trial stage and around one-quarter concerned drugs or devices. The articles focused on 22 aspects of the trial within five broad categories. Some focused on more than one aspect of the trial, totalling 356 examples. The qualitative research focused on the intervention being trialled (71%, 254/356), the design and conduct of the trial (15%, 54/356), the outcomes of the trial (1%, 5/356), the measures used in the trial (3%, 10/356), and the health condition in the trial (9%, 33/356). The potential value of the qualitative research to the trial endeavour included improving the external validity of trials and facilitating interpretation of trial findings. This value could be maximised by using qualitative research more at the pre-trial stage and reporting findings with explicit attention to the implications for the trial endeavour. During interviews

  11. Custom-made silicone hand prosthesis: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, S; Lenka, P K; Equebal, A; Biswas, A

    2016-09-01

    Up to now, a cosmetic glove was the most common method for managing transmetacarpal (TMC) and carpometacarpal (CMC) amputations, but it is devoid of markings and body color. At this amputation level, it is very difficult to fit a functional prosthesis because of the short available length, unsightly shape, grafted skin, contracture and lack of functional prosthetic options. A 30-year-old male came to our clinic with amputation at the 1st to 4th carpometacarpal level and a 5th metacarpal that was projected laterally and fused with the carpal bone. The stump had grafted skin, redness, and an unhealed suture line. He complained of pain projected over the metacarpal and suture area. The clinical team members decided to fabricate a custom-made silicone hand prosthesis to accommodate the stump, protect the grafted skin, improve the hand's appearance and provide some passive function. The custom silicone hand prosthesis was fabricated with modified flexible wires to provide passive interphalangeal movement. Basic training, care and maintenance instructions for the prosthesis were given to the patient. The silicone hand prosthesis was able to restore the appearance of the lost digits and provide some passive function. His pain (VAS score) was reduced. Improvement in activities of daily living was found in the DASH questionnaire and Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function test. A silicone glove is a good option for more distal amputations, as it can accommodate any deformity, protect the skin, enhance the appearance and provide functional assistance. This case study provides a simple method to get passively movable fingers after proximal hand amputation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Development and Pilot Study of Group-Based Dietary Self-Management Program for Community Dwellers with Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfiza Ridwan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most countries worldwide, hypertension is considered as an important problem. Moreover, an increasing trend in the prevalence and incidence has been reported in most countries. This increasing trend requires an innovative approach to improve the lifestyle modification of hypertensive sufferers including their dietary behaviors. Objective: This developmental research aims to develop a program for improving the dietary behaviors of community dwellers with hypertension. Method: The process of this program development includes a literature review related to the self-management programs for hypertension, and dietary behavior outcomes, expert validation, and pilot testing. Result: The setting, strategies, duration, and outcome measurement from the literature review were taken into consideration to develop the new program. The newly developed group-based self-management program consists of: 1 the sharing and reflecting of individual current dietary behavior, 2 group educational session, 3 individual comparison of behavior and reflection of obstacles, 4 individual goal setting, and 5 follow up. In the educational session, the DASH eating plan is used as the reference as it is commonly used in studies about diet for hypertension. Key words: hypertension, self-management, group based program, dietary behaviors.

  13. Labelling in the Dictionnaire Français-Mpongwé : A Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wat

    Français–Mpongwé: un cas à l'étude. Les dictionnaires .... words for deceitful people, (5) Labelling for words for sexual orientation, (6). Labelling for some ..... used the tilde ~ or the dash — to substitute the lemma in the illustrative exam- ples.

  14. Associations between skeletal growth in childhood and cognitive function in mid-life in a 53-year prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Stewart

    Full Text Available Several studies have found that shorter stature (height and limb length in late life is associated with dementia and cognitive impairment. The extent to which childhood environment and early life cognitive function accounts for these associations is not clear.We investigated associations of adult trunk height and leg length with cognitive function in middle age, analysing data from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development: a cohort followed from birth to age 53, 1677 of whom had data on all covariates. The four cognitive tests measured verbal ability, word list memory, verbal fluency and speed/concentration. Early life environmental measures included parental education, poverty, parental divorce, physical health, cognitive ability at age 15, own education and own adult social class.After adjusting for gender, shorter trunk length was associated with lower cognitive function on all four tests and shorter leg length with lower verbal intelligence and word list memory. These associations were only partially attenuated following adjustment for childhood adversity/health but were substantially accounted for by cognitive ability at age 15.Shorter stature was associated with lower cognitive function at age 53, the majority of this association being accounted for by cognitive function at age 15. Reduced cognitive reserve may well account for later associations between anthropometric measures and dementia.

  15. Associations between skeletal growth in childhood and cognitive function in mid-life in a 53-year prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert; Hardy, Rebecca; Richards, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have found that shorter stature (height and limb length) in late life is associated with dementia and cognitive impairment. The extent to which childhood environment and early life cognitive function accounts for these associations is not clear. We investigated associations of adult trunk height and leg length with cognitive function in middle age, analysing data from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development: a cohort followed from birth to age 53, 1677 of whom had data on all covariates. The four cognitive tests measured verbal ability, word list memory, verbal fluency and speed/concentration. Early life environmental measures included parental education, poverty, parental divorce, physical health, cognitive ability at age 15, own education and own adult social class. After adjusting for gender, shorter trunk length was associated with lower cognitive function on all four tests and shorter leg length with lower verbal intelligence and word list memory. These associations were only partially attenuated following adjustment for childhood adversity/health but were substantially accounted for by cognitive ability at age 15. Shorter stature was associated with lower cognitive function at age 53, the majority of this association being accounted for by cognitive function at age 15. Reduced cognitive reserve may well account for later associations between anthropometric measures and dementia.

  16. Comparative study of biological activities and phytochemical composition of two rose hips and their preserves: Rosa canina L. and Rosa arvensis Huds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nađpal, Jelena D; Lesjak, Marija M; Šibul, Filip S; Anačkov, Goran T; Četojević-Simin, Dragana D; Mimica-Dukić, Neda M; Beara, Ivana N

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare phenolic profile, vitamin C content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of rose hips and the preserves (purée and jam) of two Rosa species: renowned Rosa canina L. and unexplored Rosa arvensis Huds. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 45 phenolics resulted in quantification of 14 compounds, with quercitrin, gallic and protocatechuic acids as the most dominant. High antioxidant potential of R. canina and a moderate activity of R. arvensis extracts were determined through several assays. Purée of both species and methanol extract of air-dried R. canina hips showed some anti-inflammatory (cyclooxygenase-1 and 12-lipooxygense inhibition potency) activity. Purée of R. canina exerted cytotoxic activity only against the HeLa cell line among several others (HeLa, MCF7, HT-29 and MRC-5). The presented results support traditional use of rose hips and their fruit preserves as food with health and nutritional benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A pilot study to monitor changes in spirometry and lung volume, following an exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), as part of a supported discharge program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushen, Breda; McCormack, Niamh; Hennigan, Kerrie; Sulaiman, Imran; Costello, Richard W; Deering, Brenda

    2016-10-01

    One-third of patients with an exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD) are re-hospitalised at 90 days. Exacerbation recovery is associated with reductions in lung hyperinflation and improvements in symptoms and physical activity. We assessed the feasibility of monitoring these clinical parameters in the home. We hypothesised that the degree of change in spirometry and lung volumes differs between those who had an uneventful recovery and those who experienced a further exacerbation. Hospitalised patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD referred for a supported discharge program participated in the study. Spirometry and Inspiratory Vital Capacity(IVC) were measured in the home at Days 1, 14 and 42 post-discharge. Patients also completed Medical Research Council(MRC), Borg and COPD Assessment Test(CAT) scores and were provided with a tri-axial accelerometer. Any new exacerbation events were recorded. Sixty-five patients with 72 exacerbation episodes were recruited. Fifty percent experienced a second exacerbation. Adequate IVC measurements were achieved by 90%, while only 70% completed spirometry. Uneventful recovery was accompanied by significant improvements in physiological measurements at day14, improved symptom scores and step count, p volumes, symptoms and step count following a COPD exacerbation may help to identify patients at risk of re-exacerbation. It is feasible to carry out these assessments in the home as part of a supported discharge programme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical Activity Producing Low, but Not Medium or Higher, Vertical Impacts Is Inversely Related to BMI in Older Adults: Findings From a Multicohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhakeem, Ahmed; Hannam, Kimberly; Deere, Kevin C; Hartley, April; Clark, Emma M; Moss, Charlotte; Edwards, Mark H; Dennison, Elaine; Gaysin, Tim; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Rachel; Tobias, Jon H

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background High impact physical activity (PA) is thought to improve skeletal health, but its relation to other health outcomes are unclear. We investigated associations between PA impact magnitude and body mass index (BMI) in older adults. Methods Data were taken from the Cohort for Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon (COSHIBA), Hertfordshire Cohort Study, and MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Vertical acceleration peaks from 7-day hip-worn accelerometer recordings were used to classify PA as low (0.5 impact. Cohort-specific associations of low, medium, and higher impact PA with BMI were examined using linear regressions and estimates combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Results A total of 1182 participants (mean age = 72.7 years, 68% female) were included. Low, medium, and higher impact PA were inversely related to BMI in initial models. After adjustment for confounders and other impacts, low, but not medium or higher, impacts were inversely related to BMI (−0.31, p impacts). In adjusted analyses of body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in COSHIBA, low, but not medium or higher, impacts were inversely related to total body fat mass (−0.19, p impact PA was weakly and positively associated with lean mass (0.05, p = .06). Conclusions Greater exposure to PA producing low magnitude vertical impacts was associated with lower BMI and fat mass at older age. Low impact PA may help reduce obesity risk in older adults. PMID:29028919

  19. The case study about Polymyositis patient with respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-su Lee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This is a clinical report about the 77-years-old man patient with polymyositis treated by oriental medicine. Methods : The paitent was treated by acupuncture and herb medication. The improvement of the patient was judged by MRC scale and CPK, LDH. Results & Conclusions : 1. Patient's symptoms(paraplegia rapidly improved. 2. The level of CPK, LDH and Potassium are recovered to the normal range. 3. Associated with respiratory symptoms are getting better.

  20. Childhood socioeconomic position and adult mental wellbeing: Evidence from four British birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Natasha; Bann, David; Hardy, Rebecca; Gale, Catharine; Goodman, Alissa; Crawford, Claire; Stafford, Mai

    2017-01-01

    There is much evidence showing that childhood socioeconomic position is associated with physical health in adulthood; however existing evidence on how early life disadvantage is associated with adult mental wellbeing is inconsistent. This paper investigated whether childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with adult mental wellbeing and to what extent any association is explained by adult SEP using harmonised data from four British birth cohort studies. The sample comprised 20,717 participants with mental wellbeing data in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS), the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD), the National Child Development Study (NCDS), and the British Cohort Study (BCS70). Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) scores at age 73 (HCS), 60-64 (NSHD), 50 (NCDS), or 42 (BCS70) were used. Harmonised socioeconomic position (Registrar General's Social Classification) was ascertained in childhood (age 10/11) and adulthood (age 42/43). Associations between childhood SEP, adult SEP, and wellbeing were tested using linear regression and multi-group structural equation models. More advantaged father's social class was associated with better adult mental wellbeing in the BCS70 and the NCDS. This association was independent of adult SEP in the BCS70 but fully mediated by adult SEP in the NCDS. There was no evidence of an association between father's social class and adult mental wellbeing in the HCS or the NSHD. Socioeconomic conditions in childhood are directly and indirectly, through adult socioeconomic pathways, associated with adult mental wellbeing, but findings from these harmonised data suggest this association may depend on cohort or age.

  1. Magnetic resonance colonography versus colonoscopy as a diagnostic investigation for colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkayastha, S.; Tekkis, P.P.; Athanasiou, T.; Aziz, O.; Negus, R.; Gedroyc, W.; Darzi, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: Magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) is emerging as a potential complementary investigation for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and also for benign pathology such as diverticular disease. A meta-analysis reporting the use of MRC is yet to be performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MRC compared with the gold-standard investigation, conventional colonoscopy (CC). METHODS: A literature search was carried out to identify studies containing comparative data between MRC findings and CC findings. Quantitative meta-analysis for diagnostic tests was performed, which included the calculation of independent sensitivities, specificities, diagnostic odds ratios, the construction of summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves, pooled analysis and sensitivity analysis. The study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Q-test using a random-effect model to accommodate the cluster of outcomes between individual studies. RESULTS: In all, 8 comparative studies were identified, involving 563 patients. The calculated pooled sensitivity for all lesions was 75% (95% CI: 47% to 91%), the specificity was 96% (95% CI: 86% to 98%) and the area under the ROC curve was 90% (weighted). On sensitivity analysis, MRC had a better diagnostic accuracy for CRC than for polyps, with a sensitivity of 91% (95% CI: 97% to 91%), a specificity of 98% (95% CI: 66% to 99%) and an area under the ROC curve of 92%. There was no significant heterogeneity between the studies with regard to the diagnostic accuracy of MRC for CRC. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that MRC is an imaging technique with high discrimination for cases presenting with colorectal cancer. The exact diagnostic role of MRC needs to be clarified (e.g. suitable for an elderly person with suspected CRC). Further evaluation is necessary to refine its applicability and diagnostic accuracy in comparison with other imaging methods such as computed tomography colonography

  2. Psychometric properties of two questionnaires in the context of total wrist arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeckstyns, Michel E H; Merser, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Disabilites of Arm Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) and Patient-rated Wrist Evaluation questionnaires in patients with total wrist arthroplasty. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of 102 cases, we evaluated the QuickDASH. Furthermore, in a cross-sectional study and a test-retest on a subgroup of the patients, we...... patients scored significantly higher on the QuickDASH than other patients did. The scores of both questionnaires were very closely related. CONCLUSION: Both questionnaires are valid and equivalent for use in patients with total wrist arthroplasty. FUNDING: This research received no specific grant from any...

  3. Under-diagnosis of mental disorder in people with intellectual disabilities: study of prevalence in population with different degrees of intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos PEÑA SALAZAR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are a few studies in the literature analyzing the prevalence of mental illness in people with intellectual disabilities (ID. This study explores the prevalence of mental disorders in adults without previous mental disorder and different degrees of ID. We assessed 142 individuals with varying degrees of ID and with unknown previous psychiatric disorder. We applied the diagnostic battery PAS-ADD based on criteria ICD-10 and DSM-IV TR to analyzed the prevalence of mental disorders in people with mild / moderate ID. We applied the Spanish version of the scale DASH-II to analyze the prevalence of mental disorders in people with severe and profound ID. We found a psychiatric disorder previously undiagnosed in 29.57% of our sample. In people with mild/ moderate ID the most common psychiatric disorder was depressive disorder (33.3%, but in people with severe and profound ID was the anxiety disorder. The most prevalent medical comorbidity was epilepsy (22.5% of the total sample and 39.2% in the population with severe / profound intellectual disabilities. Psychiatric disorders seem to be more common in the population with ID than in the general population, increasing their prevalence and medical comorbidity in severe and profound ID.

  4. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I of the upper limb - treatment based on Stress Loading Program: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sarturi Ponte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The daily life of an individual suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CPRS I becomes limited, because this syndrome causes signs and symptoms located in the affected limb, and may occur in other parts. From this premise, this study aims to present the contributions of Occupational Therapy and the Rehabilitation Stress Loading Program for a subject with CRPS I in the upper limb, attended by the Group of Pain from the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM, Rio Grande do Sul state. This research is characterized as a case study, experimental, which deals with pre and post occupational therapy intervention. The instruments used for data collection were the protocols of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH, the International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health (ICF, the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM, the Visual Analogue Scale, and goniometry (EVA. After assessment, the subject was exposed to the treatment of compressive active resistive exercises; after this treatment was completed, the subject was reassessed. It was observed that the treatment applied has contributed to the reduction of the pain and to the improvement in the Range of Motion (ROM of the subject. The use of the stress protocol and active compression contributed significantly to the reduction of pain, ADM gain and occupational performance improvement.

  5. Clinical and radiological outcome of the Total Evolutive Shoulder System (TESS®) reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a prospective comparative non-randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadum, Bakir; Mukka, Sebastian; Englund, Erling; Sayed-Noor, Arkan; Sjödén, Göran

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the function and quality of life after the Total Evolutive Shoulder System (TESS) reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA), to evaluate the radiological stability of the stemless version and to address the effect of arm lengthening and scapular notching (SN) on the outcome. This was a prospective comparative non-randomised study. A total of 37 consecutive patients (40 shoulders) underwent TESS RSA between October 2007 and January 2012; 16 were stemless and 26 were stemmed. At a mean follow-up of 39 months (15-66), we evaluated range of motion (ROM), pain and functional outcome with QuickDASH and quality of life with EQ-5D score. Radiologically, component positioning, signs of loosening, SN and arm length difference were documented. We found a significant improvement in functional outcome and reduction of pain in both stemmed and stemless groups. No humeral loosening was evident, but there were four glenoid loosenings. In 12 shoulders that developed SN, seven already had scapular bone impression (SBI) evident on initial post-operative radiographs. Glenoid overhang seemed to decrease the risk of SN. Arm lengthening was associated with better EQ-5D but did not influence ROM or functional outcome. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty markedly improved shoulder function. SN is of concern in RSA, but proper positioning of the glenoid component may prevent its development.

  6. Anomalous scales of Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. (Bromeliaceae) exposed in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, SP, Brazil as air pollution markers

    OpenAIRE

    Giampaoli, Patrícia; Capelli, Natalie do Valle; Tavares, Armando Reis; Fernandes, Francine Faia; Domingos, Marisa; Alves, Edenise Segala

    2015-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides is an epiphytic bromeliad that has been used as a universal bioindicator. The species accumulates metals and presents foliar scale variations when exposed to air pollutants. This study aimed to use the variations in foliar scales as microscopic markers of pollutant effects in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (MRC), São Paulo State, Brazil. T. usneoides plants were exposed for 12 weeks during dry and wet seasons, totaling four exposures, at five sites in the MRC. Sample...

  7. Epidemiology of cancer in young persons in West Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snee, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    A brief report is given of a lecture by Professor Gardner of the MRC in which some of the epidemiological evidence of cancer in young persons in the vicinity of the Sellafield site was reviewed. The studies that the MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit at Southampton were currently undertaking in relation to Recommendations 1,2 and 3 of the Black Committee 1984 Report were also outlined. Some of the questions put to Professor Gardner after his lecture are briefly discussed. (UK)

  8. Identification and H(D)-bond energies of C-H(D)Cl interactions in chloride-haloalkane clusters: a combined X-ray crystallographic, spectroscopic, and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryanskaya, Tatiyana V; Novikov, Alexander S; Gushchin, Pavel V; Haukka, Matti; Asfin, Ruslan E; Tolstoy, Peter M; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu

    2016-05-18

    The cationic (1,3,5-triazapentadiene)Pt(II) complex [Pt{NH[double bond, length as m-dash]C(N(CH2)5)N(Ph)C(NH2)[double bond, length as m-dash]NPh}2]Cl2 ([]Cl2) was crystallized from four haloalkane solvents giving [][Cl2(CDCl3)4], [][Cl2(CHBr3)4], [][Cl2(CH2Cl2)2], and [][Cl2(C2H4Cl2)2] solvates that were studied by X-ray diffraction. In the crystal structures of [][Cl2(CDCl3)4] and [][Cl2(CHBr3)4], the Cl(-) ion interacts with two haloform molecules via C-DCl(-) and C-HCl(-) contacts, thus forming the negatively charged isostructural clusters [Cl(CDCl3)2](-) and [Cl(CHBr3)2](-). In the structures of [][Cl2(CH2Cl2)2] and [][Cl2(C2H4Cl2)2], cations [](2+) are linked to a 3D-network by a system of H-bondings including one formed by each Cl(-) ion with CH2Cl2 or C2H4Cl2 molecules. The lengths and energies of these H-bonds in the chloride-haloalkane clusters were analyzed by DFT calculations (M06 functional) including AIM analysis. The crystal packing noticeably affected the geometry of the clusters, and energy of C-HCl(-) hydrogen bonds ranged from 1 to 6 kcal mol(-1). An exponential correlation (R(2) > 0.98) between the calculated Cl(-)H distances and the energies of the corresponding contacts was found and used to calculate hydrogen bond energies from the experimental Cl(-)H distances. Predicted energy values (3.3-3.9 kcal mol(-1) for the [Cl(CHCl3)2](-) cluster) are in a reasonable agreement with the energy of the Cl3C-HCl(-) bond estimated using ATRFTIR spectroscopy (2.7 kcal mol(-1)).

  9. Vaginal progesterone prophylaxis for preterm birth (the OPPTIMUM study): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Jane Elizabeth; Marlow, Neil; Messow, Claudia-Martina; Shennan, Andrew; Bennett, Phillip R; Thornton, Steven; Robson, Stephen C; McConnachie, Alex; Petrou, Stavros; Sebire, Neil J; Lavender, Tina; Whyte, Sonia; Norrie, John

    2016-05-21

    Progesterone administration has been shown to reduce the risk of preterm birth and neonatal morbidity in women at high risk, but there is uncertainty about longer term effects on the child. We did a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of vaginal progesterone, 200 mg daily taken from 22-24 to 34 weeks of gestation, on pregnancy and infant outcomes in women at risk of preterm birth (because of previous spontaneous birth at ≤34 weeks and 0 days of gestation, or a cervical length ≤25 mm, or because of a positive fetal fibronectin test combined with other clinical risk factors for preterm birth [any one of a history in a previous pregnancy of preterm birth, second trimester loss, preterm premature fetal membrane rupture, or a history of a cervical procedure to treat abnormal smears]). The objective of the study was to determine whether vaginal progesterone prophylaxis given to reduce the risk of preterm birth affects neonatal and childhood outcomes. We defined three primary outcomes: fetal death or birth before 34 weeks and 0 days gestation (obstetric), a composite of death, brain injury, or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (neonatal), and a standardised cognitive score at 2 years of age (childhood), imputing values for deaths. Randomisation was done through a web portal, with participants, investigators, and others involved in giving the intervention, assessing outcomes, or analysing data masked to treatment allocation until the end of the study. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered at ISRCTN.com, number ISRCTN14568373. Between Feb 2, 2009, and April 12, 2013, we randomly assigned 1228 women to the placebo group (n=610) and the progesterone group (n=618). In the placebo group, data from 597, 587, and 439 women or babies were available for analysis of obstetric, neonatal, and childhood outcomes, respectively; in the progesterone group the corresponding numbers were 600, 589, and 430. After correction for multiple outcomes

  10. Contribution to the study of screw dislocations; Contribution a l'etude des dislocations helicoidales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grilhe, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    The aim of this work is to study the germination, growth and properties of screw dislocations. In the introduction (first chapter), we describe briefly the main experimental results obtained by various authors (observations of screws by Amelinckx and Bontinck in ionic crystals, by Dash in silicon crystals and by Thomas and Whelan in aluminium based alloys). We then make a few considerations concerning characteristic geometry of screws and the various methods used for calculating the energy of a dislocation. In the second chapter we study the problems involving only slip of the screw around its cylinder. We calculate the equilibrium step as a function of the forces acting on the extremities. We determine the critical stress required to disrupt the screw and study the interactions between the screw and other dislocations of the lattice. In the third chapter we consider the problem of the stability when the dislocation can climb by absorption or emission of vacancies. We study separately the stability of the size which only involves volume diffusion and the stability of the shape which depends only on the rearrangement of the vacancies along the dislocation. In chapter four we put forward a germination model for the screws: since the vacancies are not absorbed by the screw dislocations, they form clusters which take up a spiral form. The formation of these spirals is studied from the geometrical point of view in face-centered cubic systems. In chapter five we make use of the results obtained in chapters two and three for studying the growth of the spirals. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail est d'etudier la germination, la croissance et les proprietes des dislocations helico ales. Dans l'introduction (premier chapitre), nous exposons brievement les principaux resultats experimentaux obtenus par differents auteurs (observations d'helice par Amelinckx et Bontinck dans les cristaux ioniques, par Dash dans des cristaux de silicium et par Thomas et Whelan dans des

  11. Bile duct evaluation of potential living liver donors with Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR cholangiography: Single-dose, double dose or half-dose contrast enhanced imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinner, Sonja, E-mail: Sonja.Kinner@uni-due.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Steinweg, Verena [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Maderwald, Stefan [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Radtke, Arnold; Sotiropoulos, Georgios [Department of General Surgery, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Forsting, Michael; Schroeder, Tobias [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Introduction: Detailed knowledge of the biliary anatomy is essential to avoid complications in living donor liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal dosage of Gd-EOB-DTPA for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (ce-MRC) with reference to contrast-enhanced CT cholangiography (ce-CTC). Materials and methods: 30 potential living liver donors (PLLD) underwent both ce-CTC and ce-MRC. Ten candidates each received single, double or half-dose Gd-EOB-DTPA. Ce-MRC images with and without inversion recovery pulses (T1w ± IR) were acquired 20–30 min after intravenous contrast injection. Image data was quantitatively and qualitatively reviewed by two radiologists based on a on a 5-point scale. Data sets were compared using a Mann–Whitney-U-test or Wilcoxon-rank-sum-test. Kappa values were also calculated. Results: All image series provided sufficient diagnostic information both showing normal biliary anatomy and variant bile ducts. Ce-CTC showed statistically significant better results compared to all ce-MRC data sets. T1w MRC with single dose Gd-EOB-DTPA proved to be superior to half and double dose in subjective and objective evaluation without a statistically significant difference. Conclusions: Ce-MRC is at any dosage inferior to ce-CTC. As far as preoperative planning of bile duct surgery is focused on the central biliary anatomy, ce-MRC can replace harmful ce-CTC strategies, anyway. Best results were seen with single dose GD-EOB-DTPA on T1w MRC+IR.

  12. The Apoptotic Effects of the P300 Activator on Breast Cancer and Lung Fibroblast Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salahshoor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: P300 is an enzyme that acetylates histones during stress. It alsoacetylates several non-histone proteins, including P53 which is the most important tumorsuppressor gene. P53 plays an important role in the apoptosis of tumor cells. Hereby,this study describes the potency of cholera toxin B subunit as a P300 activator to induceapoptosis in a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 and a lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5as a non-tumorigenic control sample. Methods: MCF-7 and MRC-5 were cultured in RPMI-1640 and treated with orwithout cholera toxin B subunit at the concentration of 85.43 μmol/L, based on the half-maximal inhibitory concentration index at different times (24, 48 and 72 h. Thepercentage of apoptotic cells was measured by flow cytometry. Real-time quantitativeRT-PCR was performed to estimate the mRNA expression of P300 in MCF-7 and MRC-5 with cholera toxin B subunit at different times. We used the ELISA and Bradford proteintechniques to detect levels of total and acetylated P53 protein generated in MCF-7 andMRC-5. Results: Our findings indicated that the cholera toxin B subunit effectively andsignificantly induced more apoptosis in MCF-7 compared to MRC-5. We showed thatexpression of P300 up-regulated by increasing the time of the cholera toxin B subunittreatment in MCF-7 but not in MRC-5. In addition, the acetylated and total P53protein levels increased more in MCF-7 cells than in MRC-5 cells.Conclusion: Cholera toxin B subunit induced significant cell death in MCF-7, butit could be well tolerated in MRC-5. Therefore, cholera toxin B subunit can besuggested as an anti-cancer agent.

  13. TOIB Study. Are topical or oral ibuprofen equally effective for the treatment of chronic knee pain presenting in primary care: a randomised controlled trial with patient preference study. [ISRCTN79353052

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Suzanne

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many older people have chronic knee pain. Both topical and oral non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are commonly used to treat this. Oral NSAIDS are effective, at least in the short term, but can have severe adverse effects. Topical NSAIDs also appear to be effective, at least in the short term. One might expect topical NSAIDs both to be less effective and to have fewer adverse effects than oral NSAIDs. If topical NSAIDs have fewer adverse effects this may outweigh both the reduction in effectiveness and the higher cost of topical compared to oral treatment. Patient preferences may influence the comparative effectiveness of drugs delivered via different routes. Methods TOIB is a randomised trial comparing topical and oral ibuprofen, with a parallel patient preference study. We are recruiting people aged 50 or over with chronic knee pain, from 27 MRC General Practice Research Framework practices across the UK. We are seeking to recruit 283 participants to the RCT and 379 to the PPS. Participants will be followed up for up to two years (with the majority reaching one year. Outcomes will be assessed by postal questionnaire, nurse examination, laboratory tests and medical record searches at one and two years or the end of the study. Discussion This study will provide new evidence on the overall costs and benefits of treating chronic knee pain with either oral or topical ibuprofen. The use of a patient preference design is unusual, but will allow us to explore how preference influences response to a medication. In addition, it will provide more information on adverse events. This study will provide evidence to inform primary care practitioners, and possibly influence practice.

  14. Which surgery should be offered for carpal tunnel syndrome in a patient who was previously treated for recurrence on the contralateral side? Preliminary study of 13 patients with the Canaletto® implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, I; Seigle-Murandi, F; Gouzou, S; Fabacher, T; Facca, S; Hidalgo Diaz, J J; Liverneaux, P

    2017-12-01

    There are no published studies on the management of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients who have already been operated for recurrent CTS on the contralateral side. The aim of this study was to evaluate 13 patients with CTS who underwent primary release using a Canaletto ® implant. The 13 patients had all been operated for recurrent CTS previously. On the contralateral side, they all had subjective signs, and two of them already had complications. All were operated with the Canaletto ® implant according to Duché's technique, in a mean of 20minutes. After a mean 19.3-month follow-up, paresthesia, pain, and QuickDASH scores were significantly improved, even in one patient who underwent revision at another facility. This preliminary study suggests that use of a Canaletto ® implant as first-line treatment for CTS in patients who already underwent revision surgery on the other side is a simple and safe technique, without worsening of symptoms. These findings should be assessed with a prospective randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Managing mobility outcomes in vulnerable seniors ( MMOVeS): a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Sabrina; Morais, Jose A; Mayo, Nancy

    2017-12-01

    To estimate feasibility and potential for efficacy of an individualized, exercise-focused, self-management program (i.e. Managing Mobility Outcomes In Vulnerable Seniors ( MMOVeS)), in comparison to exercise information in improving mobility after six months among seniors recently discharged from hospital. Randomized pilot study. Two McGill University-teaching hospitals. Community dwelling seniors, aged 70 years and older, recently discharged from either participating hospitals. The physiotherapy-facilitated intervention consisted of (1) evaluation of mobility capacity, (2) setting short- and long-term goals, (3) delineation of an exercise treatment plan, (4) an educational booklet to enhance mobility self-management skills, and (5) six monthly telephone calls. Control group received a booklet with information on exercises targeting mobility limitations in seniors. Mobility, pain, and health status were assessed at baseline and at six months using multiple indicators drawn from Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Score, Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and Short-Form (SF)-36. In all, 26 people were randomized to the intervention (mean age: 81 ± 8; 39% women), and 23 were randomized to the control (mean age: 79 ± 7; 33% women). The odds ratio for the mobility outcomes combined was 3.08 and the 95% confidence interval excluded 1 (1.65-5.77). The odds ratio for pain and health perception favored the MMOVeS group, but the 95% confidence interval included the null value. This feasibility study highlights the potential for efficacy of an individualized, exercise-focused, self-management program in comparison to exercise information in improving mobility outcome for seniors. Furthermore, a home-program combining self-management skills and exercise taught with minimal supervision prove to be feasible. Finally, data from this study can be used to estimate sample size for a confirmatory trial.

  16. Combat Casualty Hand Burns: Evaluating Impairment and Disability during Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    impairment guidelines would correlate with disability as mea- sured by the DASH. However, a study by Mink van der Molen et al. found only a weak correlation (r...Mink van der Molen AB, Ettema AM, Hovius SER. Outcome of hand trauma: the hand injury severity scoring system (HISS) and subsequent impairment and...0.38) between AMA and DASH scores at six months after hand trauma.16 In another study, van Oosterom et al. reported no statistically significant

  17. Diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis: prospective comparison of MR cholangiography with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberholzer, K.; Mildenberger, P.; Grebe, P.; Bantelmann, M.; Thelen, M.; Lohse, A.W.; Schadeck, T.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of MR cholangiography (MRC) in the diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) in comparison to endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). Method: 20 patients with PSC were examined by ERC and MRC (1.0 T. HASTE sequence). Visualization and pathologic changes of the extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts were evaluated with both methods. Results: Mural irregularities of the common bile duct were seen with MRC in 6/7 cases, stenoses and dilatation of the common bile duct were detected correctly in all patients. Diffuse, multifocal strictures of the intrahepatic bile duct were the most common intrahepatic findings and correctly diagnosed in all patients. Mural irregularities of the intrahepatic ducts in early stages may be missed by MRC because of the limited spatial resolution. MRC is superior to ERC in visualization of nonopacified intrahepatic ducts. Conclusions: MRC is a reliable, non-invasive method to detect typical diagnostic features of PSC. It should be considered as an adjunct to ERC in patients with suspected PSC for primary diagnosis and as an alternate method for follow-up studies. (orig.) [de

  18. Simple and versatile molecular method of copy-number measurement using cloned competitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Kyoung Kim

    Full Text Available Variations and alterations of copy numbers (CNVs and CNAs carry disease susceptibility and drug responsiveness implications. Although there are many molecular methods to measure copy numbers, sensitivity, reproducibility, cost, and time issues remain. In the present study, we were able to solve those problems utilizing our modified real competitive PCR method with cloned competitors (mrcPCR. First, the mrcPCR for ERBB2 copy number was established, and the results were comparable to current standard methods but with a shorter assay time and a lower cost. Second, the mrcPCR assays for 24 drug-target genes were established, and the results in a panel of NCI-60 cells were comparable to those from real-time PCR and microarray. Third, the mrcPCR results for FCGR3A and the FCGR3B CNVs were comparable to those by the paralog ratio test (PRT, but without PRT's limitations. These results suggest that mrcPCR is comparable to the currently available standard or the most sensitive methods. In addition, mrcPCR would be invaluable for measurement of CNVs in genes with variants of similar structures, because combination of the other methods is not necessary, along with its other advantages such as short assay time, small sample amount requirement, and applicability to all sequences and genes.

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With α1 Antitrypsin Deficency: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Redondo, Margarida; Campoa, Elsa; Ruano, Luis; Sucena, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Measures of health related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with α1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) can help to determine the impact of the disease and provide an important insight into the intervention outcomes. There is few data regarding this issue in the literature. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between HRQoL and gender, functional parameters and history of hospitalizations in patients with AATD. This is a cross-sectional study of 26 patients with severe AATD recruited in the pulmonology outpatient clinic at a tertiary care medical center. Social-demographic, clinical and functional parameters were recorded and HRQoL was assessed with the Portuguese version of the medical outcome study short form-36 (SF-36) self-administered questionnaire. Older patients, females and patients with at least one hospitalization in the previous year due to respiratory disease had statistical lower scores in some dimensions of the SF-36 questionnaire. Superior FEV1 and higher distance mark in the 6-min walking test distance influenced positively several dimensions of the questionnaire. Higher scores in the mMRC scale influenced negatively the HRQoL. These data suggests that older and female patients with AATD have worse HRQoL. Hospitalizations and functional markers of respiratory disease progression influenced negatively the HRQoL, suggesting that the SF-36 questionnaire could be useful as an outcome for AATD patients with lung involvement. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Electronic communication in phosphine substituted bridged dirhenium complexes - clarifying ambiguities raised by the redox non-innocence of the C4H2- and C4-bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Blacque, Olivier; Fox, Thomas; Luber, Sandra; Polit, Walther; Winter, Rainer F; Venkatesan, Koushik; Berke, Heinz

    2016-04-07

    dicationic trans-[(Me3SiC[triple bond, length as m-dash]C)(PMe3)4Re[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]Re(PMe3)4(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CSiMe3)][PF6]2 (7[PF6]2) complex, attributed a butynedi(triyl) bridge structure, was obtained by deprotonation of E-6[PF6]2 with KOtBu followed by oxidation with 2 equiv. of [Cp2Fe][PF6]. The neutral complex 7 could be accessed best by reduction of 7[PF6]2 with KH in the presence of 18-crown-6. According to DFT calculations 7 possesses two equilibrating electronic states: diamagnetic 7(S) and triplet 7(F) with ferromagnetically coupled spins. The latter is calculated to be 5.2 kcal mol(-1) lower in energy than 7(S). There is experimental evidence that 7(S) prevails in solution. 7 could not be isolated in the crystalline state and is unstable transforming mainly by H-abstraction to give E-6(S). UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy for the dinuclear rhenium complexes E-6(S), E-6[PF6] and E-6[PF6]2, as well as EPR spectroscopic and variable-temperature magnetization measurements for the MV complex E-6[PF6] were also conducted. Spectro-electrochemical reduction studies on 7[PF6]2 allowed the characterization of the mono- and direduced forms of 7(+) and 7 by means of IR- and UV-Vis-NIR-spectroscopy and revealed the chemical fate of the higher reduced form.

  1. Smoking status is inversely associated with overall diet quality: Findings from the ORISCAV-LUX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Baydarlioglu, Burcu; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Stranges, Saverio; Lemmens, Paul; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R

    2017-10-01

    Relationships between food consumption/nutrient intake and tobacco smoking have been described in the literature. However, little is known about the association between smoking and overall diet quality. This study examined the associations between eight diet quality indices, namely, the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), Recommendation Compliance Index (RCI), Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, Energy Density Score (EDS), Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), Recommended Food Score (RFS), non-Recommended Food Score (non-RFS), and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), and smoking status with a focus on smoking intensity. Analyses were based on a sample of 1352 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) survey, a nationwide population-based cross-sectional study of adults aged 18-69 years. Nutritional data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to compute selected diet quality indices. Participants were classified as never smoker, former smoker (≥12 months cessation period), occasional or light smokers (≤1 cig/d), moderate smokers (≤20 cig/d) and heavy smokers (>20 cig/d). Descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed, after adjustment for several potential covariates. Compared to the other groups, heavy smokers had significantly higher prevalence of dyslipidemia (83%), obesity (34%), and elevated glycemic biomarkers. About 50% of former smokers had hypertension. Diet quality of heavy smokers was significantly poorer than those who never smoked independent of several socioeconomic, lifestyle, and biologic confounding factors (all p diet, as expressed by higher DII scores (P diet quality. The implication is that efforts aimed at tobacco control should target heavy smokers and intervention on smoking cessation should take into account diet quality of smokers and their nutritional habits, to increase effectiveness and relevance of public health messages. Copyright © 2016

  2. Blood-feeding Behaviors of Anopheles stephensi But Not Phlebotomus papatasi are Influenced by Actively Warming Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) Under General Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    differential biting behaviors on warmed or unwarmed guinea pig hosts. (A) Warmed (dashed line with square time points) and control (solid line with circle time ...Fig. 2. Sand flies do not display differential biting behaviors on warmed or unwarmed guinea pig hosts. (A) Warmed (dashed line with square time ...books/NBK54050/ Peterson D, Brown A. 1951. Studies of the responses of the female Aedes mosquito. Part III. The response of Aedes aegypti (L.) to a warm

  3. Highlights of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki 2004, and a dash of horizon scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ell, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine represents the major scientific and professional event in the field of nuclear medicine in Europe. Specialists from all allied professions meet to discuss the latest findings and discoveries. A very large industrial exhibition demonstrates the latest technological innovations and developments. This Highlights Lecture summarises the scientific and medical advances discussed at this important gathering. The lecture covers a significant proportion of the data presented and/or discussed in up-to-date reviews, and places some of the trends encountered in the context of the evolution of the field as a whole. There is much food for thought in most areas of nuclear medicine: advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in known areas of clinical application such as neurology and psychiatry, cardiology, oncology, endocrine disorders, paediatrics, nephro-urology and musculoskeletal disorders. This Highlights Lecture is, however, only a brief resume of the vast amount of data discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the Congress Proceedings, published as volume 31, supplement 2 of Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imagingin August 2004. (orig.)

  4. 'Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV activity and/or structure homologs' (DASH) in growth-modulated glioma cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedo, Aleksi; Bušek, P.; Scholzová, E.; Malík, Radek; Vlašicová, K.; Janáčková, S.; Mareš, Vladislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 385, č. 6 (2004), s. 557-559 ISSN 1431-6730 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/02/0962 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : brain tumors * glioma cells * DPP-IV Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 3.598, year: 2004

  5. Investigation of Chirped InAs/InGaAlAs/InP Quantum Dash Lasers as Broadband Emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.; Lee, Chi-Sen; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2014-01-01

    by the waveguiding mechanism is qualitatively realized by associating to the reduced vertical coupling effect of the Qdash stacks in the operation of small ridge-width lasers compared with large ridge-width and oxide stripe lasers, and leading to varying non

  6. Financial considerations in the conduct of multi-centre randomised controlled trials: evidence from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Claire; Elbourne, Diana R; Garcia, Jo; Campbell, Marion K; Entwistle, Vikki A; Francis, David; Grant, Adrian M; Knight, Rosemary C; McDonald, Alison M; Roberts, Ian

    2006-12-21

    Securing and managing finances for multicentre randomised controlled trials is a highly complex activity which is rarely considered in the research literature. This paper describes the process of financial negotiation and the impact of financial considerations in four UK multicentre trials. These trials had met, or were on schedule to meet, recruitment targets agreed with their public-sector funders. The trials were considered within a larger study examining factors which might be associated with trial recruitment (STEPS). In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted in 2003-04 with 45 individuals with various responsibilities to one of the four trials. Interviewees were recruited through purposive and then snowball sampling. Interview transcripts were analysed with the assistance of the qualitative package Atlas-ti. The data suggest that the UK system of dividing funds into research, treatment and NHS support costs brought the trial teams into complicated negotiations with multiple funders. The divisions were somewhat malleable and the funding system was used differently in each trial. The fact that all funders had the potential to influence and shape the trials considered here was an important issue as the perspectives of applicants and funders could diverge. The extent and range of industry involvement in non-industry-led trials was striking. Three broad periods of financial work (foundation, maintenance, and resourcing completion) were identified. From development to completion of a trial, the trialists had to be resourceful and flexible, adapting to changing internal and external circumstances. In each period, trialists and collaborators could face changing costs and challenges. Each trial extended the recruitment period; three required funding extensions from MRC or HTA. This study highlights complex financial aspects of planning and conducting trials, especially where multiple funders are involved. Recognition of the importance of financial

  7. Accordance to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet pattern and cardiovascular disease in a British, population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicholas R V; Forouhi, Nita G; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2018-02-01

    The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet could be an important population-level strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the UK, but there is little UK-based evidence on this diet pattern in relation to CVD risk. We tested whether dietary accordance with DASH was associated with risk of CVD in a population-based sample of 23,655 UK adults. This prospective analysis of the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study analysed dietary intake (assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire) to measure accordance with DASH, based on intakes of eight food groups and nutrients, ranking the sample into quintiles. Cox proportional hazards regression models tested for association between DASH accordance and incident stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD) and total incident CVD (stroke and IHD only), as well as CVD mortality, non-CVD mortality and total mortality. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated adjusting for age, sex, behavioral and clinical risk factors and socioeconomic status. Over an average of 12.4 years follow-up, we ascertained 4129 incident CVD events, of which stroke accounted for 1011. Compared to participants with the least DASH-accordant diets, those with the most DASH-accordant diets had 20% lower risk of incident stroke (HR, 95% CI 0.80, 0.65-0.99) and 13% lower risk of total incident CVD (0.88, 0.79-0.99) but no lower risk of CHD (0.90, 0.79-1.02). CVD-related mortality also showed strong inverse associations with DASH accordance (0.72, 0.60-0.85). This study provides evidence for the cardioprotective effects of DASH diet in a UK context.

  8. Polyunsaturated fats, carbohydrates and carotid disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Carotid MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, Jennifer L; Qiao, Ye; Guallar, Eliseo; Steffen, Lyn M; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Zhang, Yiyi; Wasserman, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Carbohydrates and fat intake have both been linked to development of atherosclerosis. We examined associations between glycemic index (GI) and fat intake with carotid atherosclerosis. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort enrolled participants during the period 1987-1989 and the Carotid MRI sub-study occurred between 2004 and 2006 (1672 participants attending both visits). Measures of carbohydrate quality (usual GI), fat intake (total, polyunsaturated and saturated) and overall dietary quality index (DASH Diet Score) were derived from a 66-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Trained readers measured lipid core presence and maximum wall thickness. Using multivariate logistic regression, we determined the odds of lipid core presence by quintile (Q) of energy-adjusted dietary components. Restricted cubic spline models were used to examine non-linear associations between dietary components and maximum wall thickness. Mean daily polyunsaturated fat intake was 5 g (SD 1.4). GI and polyunsaturated fat intake had a nonlinear relationship with maximum wall thickness. Low (1-4 g) and high (6-12 g) polyunsaturated fat intake were associated with a statistically significant decreased odds of lipid core presence compared to intake in a majority of participants (OR Q5 vs. Q2-4: 0.64, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.98; OR Q1 vs. Q2-4: 0.64, 95% CI 0.42, 0.96), however, the association with lipid core was attenuated by adjustment for maximum wall thickness, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. GI and polyunsaturated fat intake were not associated with high-risk plaque features, such as lipid core presence, independent of traditional vascular risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. FTIR Study of the Photoactivation Process of Xenopus (6-4) Photolyase†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Daichi; Zhang, Yu; Iwata, Tatsuya; Hitomi, Kenichi; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.; Kandori, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    Photolyases (PHRs) are blue-light activated DNA repair enzymes that maintain genetic integrity by reverting UV-induced photoproducts into normal bases. The FAD chromophore of PHRs has four different redox states: oxidized (FADox), anion radical (FAD•−), neutral radical (FADH•) and fully reduced (FADH−). We combined difference Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with UV-visible spectroscopy to study the detailed photoactivation process of Xenopus (6-4) PHR. Two photons produce the enzymatically active, fully reduced PHR from oxidized FAD: FADox is converted to semiquinone via light-induced one-electron and one-proton transfers, and then to FADH− by light-induced one-electron transfer. We successfully trapped FAD•− at 200 K, where electron transfer occurs, but proton transfer does not. UV-visible spectroscopy following 450-nm illumination of FADox at 277 K defined the FADH•/FADH− mixture and allowed calculation of difference FTIR spectra among the four redox states. The absence of a characteristic C=O stretching vibration indicated that the proton donor is not a protonated carboxylic acid. Structural changes in Trp and Tyr are suggested from UV-visible and FTIR analysis of FAD•− at 200 K. Spectral analysis of amide-I vibrations revealed structural perturbation of the protein’s β-sheet during initial electron transfer (FAD•− formation), transient increase in α-helicity during proton transfer (FADH• formation) and reversion to the initial amide-I signal following subsequent electron transfer (FADH− formation). Consequently, in (6-4) PHR, unlike cryptochrome-DASH, formation of enzymatically active FADH− did not perturb α-helicity. Protein structural changes in the photoactivation of (6-4) PHR are discussed on the basis of the present FTIR observations. PMID:22747528

  10. Relation between the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score and Muscle Strength in Post-Cardiac Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Kasahara, Yusuke; Hiraki, Koji; Hirano, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2017-11-27

    Background: The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is a valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measure. DASH can be assessed by self-reported upper extremity disability and symptoms. We aimed to examine the relationship between the physiological outcome of muscle strength and the DASH score after cardiac surgery. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed 50 consecutive cardiac patients that were undergoing cardiac surgery. Physiological outcomes of handgrip strength and knee extensor muscle strength and the DASH score were measured at one month after cardiac surgery and were assessed. Results were analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficients. Results: The final analysis comprised 43 patients (men: 32, women: 11; age: 62.1 ± 9.1 years; body mass index: 22.1 ± 4.7 kg/m²; left ventricular ejection fraction: 53.5 ± 13.7%). Respective handgrip strength, knee extensor muscle strength, and DASH score were 27.4 ± 8.3 kgf, 1.6 ± 0.4 Nm/kg, and 13.3 ± 12.3, respectively. The DASH score correlated negatively with handgrip strength ( r = -0.38, p = 0.01) and with knee extensor muscle strength ( r = -0.32, p = 0.04). Conclusion: Physiological outcomes of both handgrip strength and knee extensor muscle strength correlated negatively with the DASH score. The DASH score appears to be a valuable tool with which to assess cardiac patients with poor physiological outcomes, particularly handgrip strength as a measure of upper extremity function, which is probably easier to follow over time than lower extremity function after patients complete cardiac rehabilitation.

  11. Relation between the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score and Muscle Strength in Post-Cardiac Surgery Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro P. Izawa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH questionnaire is a valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measure. DASH can be assessed by self-reported upper extremity disability and symptoms. We aimed to examine the relationship between the physiological outcome of muscle strength and the DASH score after cardiac surgery. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed 50 consecutive cardiac patients that were undergoing cardiac surgery. Physiological outcomes of handgrip strength and knee extensor muscle strength and the DASH score were measured at one month after cardiac surgery and were assessed. Results were analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficients. Results: The final analysis comprised 43 patients (men: 32, women: 11; age: 62.1 ± 9.1 years; body mass index: 22.1 ± 4.7 kg/m2; left ventricular ejection fraction: 53.5 ± 13.7%. Respective handgrip strength, knee extensor muscle strength, and DASH score were 27.4 ± 8.3 kgf, 1.6 ± 0.4 Nm/kg, and 13.3 ± 12.3, respectively. The DASH score correlated negatively with handgrip strength (r = −0.38, p = 0.01 and with knee extensor muscle strength (r = −0.32, p = 0.04. Conclusion: Physiological outcomes of both handgrip strength and knee extensor muscle strength correlated negatively with the DASH score. The DASH score appears to be a valuable tool with which to assess cardiac patients with poor physiological outcomes, particularly handgrip strength as a measure of upper extremity function, which is probably easier to follow over time than lower extremity function after patients complete cardiac rehabilitation.

  12. The acceptability to patients of PhysioDirect telephone assessment and advice services; a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Richardson, Jane; Calnan, Michael; Salisbury, Chris; Foster, Nadine E

    2016-03-28

    In response to long waiting lists and problems with access to primary care physiotherapy, several Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) (now Clinical Commissioning Groups CCGs) developed physiotherapy-led telephone assessment and treatment services. The Medical Research Council (MRC) funded PhysioDirect trial was a randomised control trial (RCT) in four PCTs, with a total of 2252 patients that compared this approach with usual physiotherapy care. This nested qualitative study aimed to explore the acceptability of the PhysioDirect telephone assessment and advice service to patients with musculoskeletal conditions. We conducted 57 semi-structured interviews with adults from 4 PCTs who were referred from general practice to physiotherapy with musculoskeletal conditions and were participating in the PhysioDirect trial. The Framework method was used to analyse the qualitative data. The PhysioDirect service was largely viewed as acceptable although some saw it as a first step to subsequent face-to-face physiotherapy. Most participants found accessing the PhysioDirect service straightforward and smooth, and they valued the faster access to physiotherapy advice offered by the telephone service. Participants generally viewed both the PhysioDirect service and the physiotherapists providing the service as helpful. Participants' preferences and priorities for treatment defined the acceptable features of PhysioDirect but the acceptable features were traded off against less acceptable features. Some participants felt that the PhysioDirect service was impersonal and impaired the development of a good relationship with their physiotherapist, which made the service feel remote and less valuable. The PhysioDirect service was broadly acceptable to participants since it provided faster access to physiotherapy advice for their musculoskeletal conditions. Participants felt that it is best placed as one method of accessing physiotherapy services, in addition to, rather than as a replacement for

  13. An investigation of somatosensory profiles in work related upper limb disorders: a case-control observational study protocol.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Niamh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work related upper limb disorders constitute 45% of all occupational diseases and are a significant public health problem. A subgroup, non specific arm pain (NSAP), remains elusive in terms of understanding its pathophysiological mechanisms with its diagnosis based on the absence of specific clinical findings. One commonly proposed theory is that a neural tissue disorder is the primary dysfunction in NSAP and findings from previous studies lend some support to this theory. However, it is not clear if changes identified are simply a consequence of ongoing pain rather than due to specific neural changes. The presence of neuropathic pain has been investigated in several other musculoskeletal conditions but currently, there is no specific diagnostic tool or gold standard which permits an unequivocal diagnosis of neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study is to further describe the somatosensory profiles in patients with NSAP and to compare these profiles to a group of patients with MRI confirmed cervical radiculopathy who have been previously classified as having neuropathic pain. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Three groups of participants will be investigated: Groups 1 and 2 will be office workers with either NSAP or cervical radiculopathy and Group 3 will be a control group of non office workers without upper limb pain. Participants will undergo a clinical assessment, pain questionnaires (LANSS, Short Form McGill, DASH and TSK) and quantitative sensory testing comprising thermal detection and pain thresholds, vibration thresholds and pressure pain thresholds. DISCUSSION: The spectrum of clinically suspected neuropathic pain ranges from more obvious conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia to those with vague signs of nerve disorder such as NSAP. A thorough description of the somatosensory profiles of NSAP patients and a comparison with a more defined group of patients with evidence of neuropathic pain will help in the understanding of underlying neurophysiology in

  14. Chronic hyperglycemia increases the risk of lateral epicondylitis: the Locomotive Syndrome and Health Outcome in Aizu Cohort Study (LOHAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoshi, Kenichi; Takegami, Misa; Sekiguchi, Miho; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Shin; Otani, Koji; Shishido, Hiroaki; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Kikuchi, Shinichi; Konno, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Although humeral epicondylitis is a common health problem, there have been no reports that describe its prevalence in Japanese general population, and relatively little is known about its etiology and associated risk factors. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of humeral epicondilitis in Japanese general population, and investigate the associated risk factors using the data from a cross-sectional study of the Locomotive Syndrome and Health Outcome in Aizu Cohort Study (LOHAS). A total of 1,777 participants who participated in health checkups conducted at rural area in Japan in 2010 were enrolled. The prevalence of lateral and medial epicondylitis was investigated. Logistic regression models were performed to examine the relationship between lateral epicondylitis and correlated factors such as occupational status, smoking and alcohol preferences, and medical characteristics. The overall prevalence of lateral and medial epicondylitis was 2.5 % and 0.3 %, respectively. A shortened version of the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (The QuickDASH) score was significantly higher in subjects with lateral epicondylitis than in those without (15.0 ± 12.7 vs 8.5 ± 11.1). Subjects with definite chronic hyperglycemia (HbA1c ≥ 6.5) showed a 3.37-times higher risk of lateral epicondylitis than those with favorable glycemic control (HbA1c lateral epicondylitis. Lateral epicondylitis influences activities of daily living. Chronic hyperglycemia might be one of the risk factor for lateral epicondylitis. Chronic hyperglycemia is significantly associated with lateral epicondylitis.

  15. An investigation of somatosensory profiles in work related upper limb disorders: a case-control observational study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Toby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work related upper limb disorders constitute 45% of all occupational diseases and are a significant public health problem. A subgroup, non specific arm pain (NSAP, remains elusive in terms of understanding its pathophysiological mechanisms with its diagnosis based on the absence of specific clinical findings. One commonly proposed theory is that a neural tissue disorder is the primary dysfunction in NSAP and findings from previous studies lend some support to this theory. However, it is not clear if changes identified are simply a consequence of ongoing pain rather than due to specific neural changes. The presence of neuropathic pain has been investigated in several other musculoskeletal conditions but currently, there is no specific diagnostic tool or gold standard which permits an unequivocal diagnosis of neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study is to further describe the somatosensory profiles in patients with NSAP and to compare these profiles to a group of patients with MRI confirmed cervical radiculopathy who have been previously classified as having neuropathic pain. Methods/Design Three groups of participants will be investigated: Groups 1 and 2 will be office workers with either NSAP or cervical radiculopathy and Group 3 will be a control group of non office workers without upper limb pain. Participants will undergo a clinical assessment, pain questionnaires (LANSS, Short Form McGill, DASH and TSK and quantitative sensory testing comprising thermal detection and pain thresholds, vibration thresholds and pressure pain thresholds. Discussion The spectrum of clinically suspected neuropathic pain ranges from more obvious conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia to those with vague signs of nerve disorder such as NSAP. A thorough description of the somatosensory profiles of NSAP patients and a comparison with a more defined group of patients with evidence of neuropathic pain will help in the understanding of underlying

  16. Some transition metal complexes derived from mono- and di-ethynyl perfluorobenzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitt, David J; Bruce, Michael I; Gaudio, Maryka; Zaitseva, Natasha N; Skelton, Brian W; White, Allan H; Le Guennic, Boris; Halet, Jean-François; Fox, Mark A; Roberts, Rachel L; Hartl, Frantisek; Low, Paul J

    2008-12-21

    Transition metal alkynyl complexes containing perfluoroaryl groups have been prepared directly from trimethylsilyl-protected mono- and di-ethynyl perfluoroarenes by simple desilylation/metallation reaction sequences. Reactions between Me(3)SiC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CC(6)F(5) and RuCl(dppe)Cp' [Cp' = Cp, Cp*] in the presence of KF in MeOH give the monoruthenium complexes Ru(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CC(6)F(5))(dppe)Cp' [Cp' = Cp (); Cp* ()], which are related to the known compound Ru(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CC(6)F(5))(PPh(3))(2)Cp (). Treatment of Me(3)SiC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CC(6)F(5) with Pt(2)(mu-dppm)(2)Cl(2) in the presence of NaOMe in MeOH gave the bis(alkynyl) complex Pt(2)(mu-dppm)(2)(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CC(6)F(5))(2) (). The Pd(0)/Cu(i)-catalysed reactions between Au(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CC(6)F(5))(PPh(3)) and Mo( identical withCBr)(CO)(2)Tp* [Tp* = hydridotris(3.5-dimethylpyrazoyl)borate], Co(3)(mu(3)-CBr)(mu-dppm)(CO)(7) or IC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CFc [Fc = (eta(5)-C(5)H(4))FeCp] afford Mo( identical withCC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CC(6)F(5))(CO)(2)Tp* (), Co(3)(mu(3)-CC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CC(6)F(5))(mu-dppm)(CO)(7) () and FcC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CC(6)F(5) (), respectively. The diruthenium complexes 1,4-{Cp'(PP)RuC[triple bond, length as m-dash]C}(2)C(6)F(4) [(PP)Cp' = (PPh(3))(2)Cp (); (dppe)Cp (); (dppe)Cp* ()] are prepared from 1,4-(Me(3)SiC[triple bond, length as m-dash]C)(2)C(6)F(4) in a manner similar to that described for the monoruthenium complexes -. The non-fluorinated complexes 1,4-{Cp'(PP)RuC[triple bond, length as m-dash]C}(2)C(6)H(4) [(PP)Cp' = (PPh(3))(2)Cp (); (dppe)Cp (); (dppe)Cp* ()], prepared for comparison, are obtained from 1,4-(Me(3)SiC[triple bond, length as m-dash]C)(2)C(6)H(4). Spectro-electrochemical studies of the ruthenium aryl and arylene alkynyl complexes - and -, together with DFT-based computational

  17. Improving adherence to healthy dietary patterns, genetic risk, and long term weight gain: gene-diet interaction analysis in two prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiange; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Dianjianyi; Huang, Tao; Ma, Wenjie; Rimm, Eric B; Manson, JoAnn E; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Qi, Lu

    2018-01-10

    To investigate whether improving adherence to healthy dietary patterns interacts with the genetic predisposition to obesity in relation to long term changes in body mass index and body weight. Prospective cohort study. Health professionals in the United States. 8828 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 5218 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Genetic predisposition score was calculated on the basis of 77 variants associated with body mass index. Dietary patterns were assessed by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Alternate Mediterranean Diet (AMED). Five repeated measurements of four year changes in body mass index and body weight over follow-up (1986 to 2006). During a 20 year follow-up, genetic association with change in body mass index was significantly attenuated with increasing adherence to the AHEI-2010 in the Nurses' Health Study (P=0.001 for interaction) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (P=0.005 for interaction). In the combined cohorts, four year changes in body mass index per 10 risk allele increment were 0.07 (SE 0.02) among participants with decreased AHEI-2010 score and -0.01 (0.02) among those with increased AHEI-2010 score, corresponding to 0.16 (0.05) kg versus -0.02 (0.05) kg weight change every four years (Pdietary patterns could attenuate the genetic association with weight gain. Moreover, the beneficial effect of improved diet quality on weight management was particularly pronounced in people at high genetic risk for obesity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Improving adherence to healthy dietary patterns, genetic risk, and long term weight gain: gene-diet interaction analysis in two prospective cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiange; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Dianjianyi; Huang, Tao; Ma, Wenjie; Rimm, Eric B; Manson, JoAnn E; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate whether improving adherence to healthy dietary patterns interacts with the genetic predisposition to obesity in relation to long term changes in body mass index and body weight. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Health professionals in the United States. Participants 8828 women from the Nurses’ Health Study and 5218 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Exposure Genetic predisposition score was calculated on the basis of 77 variants associated with body mass index. Dietary patterns were assessed by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Alternate Mediterranean Diet (AMED). Main outcome measures Five repeated measurements of four year changes in body mass index and body weight over follow-up (1986 to 2006). Results During a 20 year follow-up, genetic association with change in body mass index was significantly attenuated with increasing adherence to the AHEI-2010 in the Nurses’ Health Study (P=0.001 for interaction) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (P=0.005 for interaction). In the combined cohorts, four year changes in body mass index per 10 risk allele increment were 0.07 (SE 0.02) among participants with decreased AHEI-2010 score and −0.01 (0.02) among those with increased AHEI-2010 score, corresponding to 0.16 (0.05) kg versus −0.02 (0.05) kg weight change every four years (Pdietary patterns could attenuate the genetic association with weight gain. Moreover, the beneficial effect of improved diet quality on weight management was particularly pronounced in people at high genetic risk for obesity. PMID:29321156

  19. Superior heat transfer fluids for solar heating and cooling applications. Final report, 21 August 1978-31 December 1979. Report MRC-DA-953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parts, L; Miller, D R; Leffingwell, J W; Thompson, Q E

    1980-09-01

    The major objective of this program was the identification of superior, currently available organic heat transfer fluids for solar collector applications. Organic fluids used in the form of aqueous solutions were also to be identified. The required design and handling properties of the fluids were determined through a survey in which 115 designers and manufacturers of solar collectors and collection systems participated. A state-of-the-art survey of commercially available organic heat transfer fluids provided information on fifty fluids. These were grouped into nine classes. This report contains information on limiting, design, and handling properties of these fluids. The limiting properties affix the use temperature ranges of the fluids. The design properties include the following thermophysical data: densities, vapor pressures, viscosities, specific heats, thermal conductivities, heats of vaporization, and coefficients of thermal expansion. The handling properties include: compatibility and incompatibility, with construction materials, chemical sensitivity, ignitability, physiological effects, and biodegradability characteristics. Mutagenicity tests with Salmonella typhimurium bacteria, and ignitability tests were conducted with a number of fluids in this program. The properties of the fluids were analyzed with reference to the required design and handling properties established in the survey of collector manufacturers. Guidelines are provided for the selection of superior fluids to meet specific collector operational and compatibility requirements. These guidelines include the use of heat transfer efficiency factors, that were calculated or the temperature ranges for which thermophysical data were available.

  20. GoMRC Website ‘Meta-analysis Report: Land-use and submerged aquatic vegetation change in the Gulf of Mexico’

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Chaeli; Stefansson, Emily S.; Brushnahan, Heather

    2007-12-06

    Over the past century, health and spatial extent of seagrasses has decreased dramatically in the Gulf of Mexico. While some of the changes can be explained by direct impacts to the seagrass beds, we hypothesize that changes in the land use in the watersheds can also be correlated with the decline of seagrasses. Through this meta-analysis, we researched historical and compared trends in seagrass populations and land use in five bays and their watersheds within the Gulf of Mexico: Mobile Bay, Perdido Bay, Tampa Bay, Charlotte Harbor, and Galveston Bay. Using both historical records and spatial datasets, we examined land use and seagrass trends in these five areas.

  1. The MRC1/CD68 ratio is positively associated with adipose tissue lipogenesis and with muscle mitochondrial gene expression in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Moreno-Navarrete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alternative macrophages (M2 express the cluster differentiation (CD 206 (MCR1 at high levels. Decreased M2 in adipose tissue is known to be associated with obesity and inflammation-related metabolic disturbances. Here we aimed to investigate MCR1 relative to CD68 (total macrophages gene expression in association with adipogenic and mitochondrial genes, which were measured in human visceral [VWAT, n = 147] and subcutaneous adipose tissue [SWAT, n = 76] and in rectus abdominis muscle (n = 23. The effects of surgery-induced weight loss were also longitudinally evaluated (n = 6. RESULTS: MCR1 and CD68 gene expression levels were similar in VWAT and SWAT. A higher proportion of CD206 relative to total CD68 was present in subjects with less body fat and lower fasting glucose concentrations. The ratio MCR1/CD68was positively associated with IRS1gene expression and with the expression of lipogenic genes such as ACACA, FASN and THRSP, even after adjusting for BMI. The ratio MCR1/CD68 in SWAT increased significantly after the surgery-induced weight loss (+44.7%; p = 0.005 in parallel to the expression of adipogenic genes. In addition, SWAT MCR1/CD68ratio was significantly associated with muscle mitochondrial gene expression (PPARGC1A, TFAM and MT-CO3. AT CD206 was confirmed by immunohistochemistry to be specific of macrophages, especially abundant in crown-like structures. CONCLUSION: A decreased ratio MCR1/CD68 is linked to adipose tissue and muscle mitochondrial dysfunction at least at the level of expression of adipogenic and mitochondrial genes.

  2. Role of SPECT (HM-PAO, Tc99mRc) and ultrasound (TCD) in the instrumental diagnostic approach to the comprehension of reversible ischemic symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liboni, W.; Baggiore, P.; Chianale, G.; Marta, G.; Castellano, G.; Cornaglia, G.

    1989-01-01

    The relation between variations of cerebral and acute neurologic events, followed by partial or total recovery, has been investigated with SPECT HM-PAO and with ultrasound (TRANSCRANIAL DOPPLER). (H.W.). 3 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. Adjuvant external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of endometrial cancer (MRC ASTEC and NCIC CTG EN.5 randomised trials): pooled trial results, systematic review, and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P; Swart, Ann Marie; Orton, J; Kitchener, H; Whelan, T; Lukka, H; Eisenhauer, E; Bacon, M; Tu, D; Parmar, M K B; Amos, C; Murray, C; Qian, W

    2009-01-10

    Early endometrial cancer with low-risk pathological features can be successfully treated by surgery alone. External beam radiotherapy added to surgery has been investigated in several small trials, which have mainly included women at intermediate risk of recurrence. In these trials, postoperative radiotherapy has been shown to reduce the risk of isolated local recurrence but there is no evidence that it improves recurrence-free or overall survival. We report the findings from the ASTEC and EN.5 trials, which investigated adjuvant external beam radiotherapy in women with early-stage disease and pathological features suggestive of intermediate or high risk of recurrence and death from endometrial cancer. Between July, 1996, and March, 2005, 905 (789 ASTEC, 116 EN.5) women with intermediate-risk or high-risk early-stage disease from 112 centres in seven countries (UK, Canada, Poland, Norway, New Zealand, Australia, USA) were randomly assigned after surgery to observation (453) or to external beam radiotherapy (452). A target dose of 40-46 Gy in 20-25 daily fractions to the pelvis, treating five times a week, was specified. Primary outcome measure was overall survival, and all analyses were by intention to treat. These trials were registered ISRCTN 16571884 (ASTEC) and NCT 00002807 (EN.5). After a median follow-up of 58 months, 135 women (68 observation, 67 external beam radiotherapy) had died. There was no evidence that overall survival with external beam radiotherapy was better than observation, hazard ratio 1.05 (95% CI 0.75-1.48; p=0.77). 5-year overall survival was 84% in both groups. Combining data from ASTEC and EN.5 in a meta-analysis of trials confirmed that there was no benefit in terms of overall survival (hazard ratio 1.04; 95% CI 0.84-1.29) and can reliably exclude an absolute benefit of external beam radiotherapy at 5 years of more than 3%. With brachytherapy used in 53% of women in ASTEC/EN.5, the local recurrence rate in the observation group at 5 years was 6.1%. Adjuvant external beam radiotherapy cannot be recommended as part of routine treatment for women with intermediate-risk or high-risk early-stage endometrial cancer with the aim of improving survival. The absolute benefit of external beam radiotherapy in preventing isolated local recurrence is small and is not without toxicity.

  4. Cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone as induction therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients destined for autologous stem-cell transplantation: MRC Myeloma IX randomized trial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth J.; Davies, Faith E.; Gregory, Walter M.; Bell, Sue E.; Szubert, Alexander J.; Navarro Coy, Nuria; Cook, Gordon; Feyler, Sylvia; Johnson, Peter R.E.; Rudin, Claudius; Drayson, Mark T.; Owen, Roger G.; Ross, Fiona M.; Russell, Nigel H.; Jackson, Graham H.; Child, J. Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Background Thalidomide is active in multiple myeloma and is associated with minimal myelosuppression, making it a good candidate for induction therapy prior to high-dose therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation. Design and Methods Oral cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone was compared with infusional cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Results The post-induction overall response rate (≥ partial response) for the intent-to-treat population was significantly higher with cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone (n=555) versus cyclophosphamide-vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone (n=556); 82.5% versus 71.2%; odds ratio 1.91; 95% confidence interval 1.44–2.55; P<0.0001. The complete response rates were 13.0% with cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone and 8.1% with cyclophos-phamide-vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone (P=0.0083), with this differential response being maintained in patients who received autologous stem-cell transplantation (post-transplant complete response 50.0% versus 37.2%, respectively; P=0.00052). Cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone was non-inferior to cyclophosphamide-vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone for progression-free and overall survival, and there was a trend toward a late survival benefit with cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone in responders. A trend toward an overall survival advantage for cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone over cyclophosphamide-vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone was also observed in a subgroup of patients with favorable interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. Compared with cyclophosphamide-vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone was associated with more constipation and somnolence, but a lower incidence of cytopenias. Conclusions The cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone regimen showed improved response rates and was not inferior in terms of survival outcomes to the standard infusional regimen of cyclophosphamide-vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone. Based on its oral administration and the reduced incidence of infection and cytopenia, cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexa-methasone may be considered an effective induction therapy option for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. (ISRCTN: 68454111) PMID:22058209

  5. Identification of patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia who benefit from the addition of gemtuzumab ozogamicin: results of the MRC AML15 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burnett, Alan K; Hills, Robert K; Milligan, Donald

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Antibody-directed chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may permit more treatment to be administered without escalating toxicity. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) is an immunoconjugate between CD33 and calicheamicin that is internalized when binding to the epitope. We previously...... established that it is feasible to combine GO with conventional chemotherapy. We now report a large randomized trial testing the addition of GO to induction and/or consolidation chemotherapy in untreated younger patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this open-label trial, 1,113 patients, predominantly younger...... in toxicity. There was no overall difference in response or survival in either induction of consolidation. However, a predefined analysis by cytogenetics showed highly significant interaction with induction GO (P = .001), with significant survival benefit for patients with favorable cytogenetics, no benefit...

  6. MRC OX19 RECOGNIZES THE RAT CD5 SURFACE GLYCOPROTEIN, BUT DOES NOT PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR A POPULATION OF CD5(BRIGHT) B-CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERMEER, LA; DEBOER, NK; BUCCI, C; BOS, NA; KROESE, FGM; ALBERTI, S

    To clone the rat CD5 gene we first produced two rat CD5 probes. The probes were obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on rat genomic DNA using primers designed on conserved regions between mouse and human CD5. The screening of a rat cDNA library at high stringency using these probes resulted

  7. Improving access to high-quality primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: a mixed method study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John A; Jones, Andrew P; Wong, Geoff; Clark, Allan B; Porter, Tom; Shakespeare, Tom; Swart, Ann Marie; Steel, Nicholas

    2015-09-18

    The UK has an ageing population, especially in rural areas, where deprivation is high among older people. Previous research has identified this group as at high risk of poor access to healthcare. The aim of this study is to generate a theory of how socioeconomically disadvantaged older people from rural areas access primary care, to develop an intervention based on this theory and test it in a feasibility trial. On the basis of the MRC Framework for Developing and Evaluating Complex Interventions, three methods will be used to generate the theory. First, a realist review will elucidate the patient pathway based on existing literature. Second, an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing will be completed using structural equation modelling. Third, 15 semistructured interviews will be undertaken with patients and four focus groups with health professionals. A triangulation protocol will be used to allow each of these methods to inform and be informed by each other, and to integrate data into one overall realist theory. Based on this theory, an intervention will be developed in discussion with stakeholders to ensure that the intervention is feasible and practical. The intervention will be tested within a feasibility trial, the design of which will depend on the intervention. Lessons from the feasibility trial will be used to refine the intervention and gather the information needed for a definitive trial. Ethics approval from the regional ethics committee has been granted for the focus groups with health professionals and interviews with patients. Ethics approval will be sought for the feasibility trial after the intervention has been designed. Findings will be disseminated to the key stakeholders involved in intervention development, to researchers, clinicians and health planners through peer-reviewed journal articles and conference publications, and locally through a dissemination event. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  8. Exploring perceived barriers, drivers, impacts and the need for evaluation of public involvement in health and social care research: a modified Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, D; Kirkham, J; Britten, N; Froggatt, K; Gradinger, F; Lobban, F; Popay, Jennie; Wyatt, K; Jacoby, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore areas of consensus and conflict in relation to perceived public involvement (PI) barriers and drivers, perceived impacts of PI and ways of evaluating PI approaches in health and social care research. Background Internationally and within the UK the recognition of potential benefits of PI in health and social care research is gathering momentum and PI is increasingly identified by organisations as a prerequisite for funding. However, there is relatively little examination of the impacts of PI and how those impacts might be measured. Design Mixed method, three-phase, modified Delphi technique, conducted as part of a larger MRC multiphase project. Sample Clinical and non-clinical academics, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and funders. Findings This study found high levels of consensus about the most important barriers and drivers to PI. There was acknowledgement that tokenism was common in relation to PI; and strong support for the view that demonstrating the impacts and value of PI was made more difficult by tokenistic practice. PI was seen as having intrinsic value; nonetheless, there was clear support for the importance of evaluating its impact. Research team cohesion and appropriate resources were considered essential to effective PI implementation. Panellists agreed that PI can be challenging, but can be facilitated by clear guidance, together with models of good practice and measurable standards. Conclusions This study is the first to present empirical evidence of the opinions voiced by key stakeholders on areas of consensus and conflict in relation to perceived PI barriers and drivers, perceived impacts of PI and the need to evaluate PI. As such it further contributes to debate around best practice in PI, the potential for tokenism and how best to evaluate the impacts of PI. These findings have been used in the development of the Public Involvement Impact Assessment Framework (PiiAF), an online resource which offers

  9. Kinetics study of heterogeneous reactions of ozone with erucic acid using an ATR-IR flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Chunbo; Hiltner, Joseph; Pham, Hai; Kelley, Judas; Mach, Mindy; Zhang, Yunhong; Liu, Yong

    2014-03-07

    The ozone initiated heterogeneous oxidation of erucic acid (EA) thin film was investigated using a flow system combined with attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) over wide ranges of ozone concentrations (0.25-60 ppm), thin film thickness (0.1-1.0 μm), temperatures (263-298 K), and relative humidities (0-80% RH) for the first time. Pseudo-first-order rate constants, kapp, and overall reactive uptake coefficients, γ, were obtained through changes in the absorbance of C[double bond, length as m-dash]O stretching bands at 1695 cm(-1), which is assigned to the carbonyl group in carboxylic acid. Results showed that the reaction followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism and kapp was largely dominated by surface reaction over bulk phase reaction. In addition, both the kapp and the γ values showed very strong temperature dependences (∼two orders of magnitude) over the temperature range; in contrast, they only slightly increased with increasing RH values from 0-80%. According to the kapp values as a function of temperature, the activation energy for the heterogeneous reaction was estimated to be 80.6 kJ mol(-1). Our results have suggested that heterogeneous reactions between ozone and unsaturated solid surfaces likely have a substantially greater temperature dependence than liquid ones. Moreover, the hygroscopic properties of EA thin films before and after exposure to ozone were also studied by measurement of water uptake. Based on the hygroscopicity data, the insignificant RH effect on reaction kinetics was probably due to the relatively weak water uptake by the unreacted and reacted EA thin films.

  10. Comparative study of cytotoxicity of direct metal laser sintered and cast Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Puskar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The presented work investigated the cytotoxicity of direct metal laser sintered (DMLS and cast Co-Cr-Mo (CCM dental alloy. In vitro tests were done on human fibroblast cell line MRC-5. There was no statistically significant difference in the cytotoxic effects of DMLS and CCM alloy specimens. The results of this investigation show good potential of DMLS Co-Cr-Mo alloy for application in dentistry.

  11. A study of the effects of gender and different instructional media (computer-assisted instruction tutorials vs. textbook) on student attitudes and achievement in a team-taught integrated science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eardley, Julie Anne

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different instructional media (computer assisted instruction (CAI) tutorial vs. traditional textbook) on student attitudes toward science and computers and achievement scores in a team-taught integrated science course, ENS 1001, "The Whole Earth Course," which was offered at Florida Institute of Technology during the Fall 2000 term. The effect of gender on student attitudes toward science and computers and achievement scores was also investigated. This study employed a randomized pretest-posttest control group experimental research design with a sample of 30 students (12 males and 18 females). Students had registered for weekly lab sessions that accompanied the course and had been randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. The treatment group used a CAI tutorial for completing homework assignments and the control group used the required textbook for completing homework assignments. The Attitude toward Science and Computers Questionnaire and Achievement Test were the two instruments administered during this study to measure students' attitudes and achievement score changes. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), using hierarchical multiple regression/correlation (MRC), was employed to determine: (1) treatment versus control group attitude and achievement differences; and (2) male versus female attitude and achievement differences. The differences between the treatment group's and control group's homework averages were determined by t test analyses. The overall MANCOVA model was found to be significant at p factor set independent variables separately resulted in gender being the only variable that significantly contributed in explaining the variability in a dependent variable, attitudes toward science and computers. T test analyses of the homework averages showed no significant differences. Contradictory to the findings of this study, anecdotal information from personal communication, course

  12. Children, parents, and pets exercising together (CPET randomised controlled trial: study rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yam Philippa S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectively measured physical activity is low in British children, and declines as childhood progresses. Observational studies suggest that dog-walking might be a useful approach to physical activity promotion in children and adults, but there are no published public health interventions based on dog-walking with children. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study aims to develop and evaluate a theory driven, generalisable, family-based, dog walking intervention for 9-11 year olds. Methods/design The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study is an exploratory, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial as defined in the UK MRC Framework on the development and evaluation of complex interventions in public health. The trial will follow CONSORT guidance. Approximately 40 dog-owning families will be allocated randomly in a ratio of 1.5:1 to receive a simple behavioural intervention lasting for 10 weeks or to a 'waiting list' control group. The primary outcome is change in objectively measured child physical activity using Actigraph accelerometry. Secondary outcomes in the child, included in part to shape a future more definitive randomised controlled trial, are: total time spent sedentary and patterning of sedentary behaviour (Actigraph accelerometry; body composition and bone health from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; body weight, height and BMI; and finally, health-related quality of life using the PedsQL. Secondary outcomes in parents and dogs are: changes in body weight; changes in Actigraph accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Process evaluation will consist of assessment of simultaneous child, parent, and dog accelerometry data and brief interviews with participating families. Discussion The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together trial should be the first randomised controlled study to establish and evaluate an intervention aimed at dog-based physical

  13. Children, parents, and pets exercising together (CPET) randomised controlled trial: study rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Philippa S; Morrison, Ryan; Penpraze, Viki; Westgarth, Carri; Ward, Dianne S; Mutrie, Nanette; Hutchison, Pippa; Young, David; Reilly, John J

    2012-03-19

    Objectively measured physical activity is low in British children, and declines as childhood progresses. Observational studies suggest that dog-walking might be a useful approach to physical activity promotion in children and adults, but there are no published public health interventions based on dog-walking with children. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study aims to develop and evaluate a theory driven, generalisable, family-based, dog walking intervention for 9-11 year olds. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study is an exploratory, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial as defined in the UK MRC Framework on the development and evaluation of complex interventions in public health. The trial will follow CONSORT guidance. Approximately 40 dog-owning families will be allocated randomly in a ratio of 1.5:1 to receive a simple behavioural intervention lasting for 10 weeks or to a 'waiting list' control group. The primary outcome is change in objectively measured child physical activity using Actigraph accelerometry. Secondary outcomes in the child, included in part to shape a future more definitive randomised controlled trial, are: total time spent sedentary and patterning of sedentary behaviour (Actigraph accelerometry); body composition and bone health from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; body weight, height and BMI; and finally, health-related quality of life using the PedsQL. Secondary outcomes in parents and dogs are: changes in body weight; changes in Actigraph accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Process evaluation will consist of assessment of simultaneous child, parent, and dog accelerometry data and brief interviews with participating families. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together trial should be the first randomised controlled study to establish and evaluate an intervention aimed at dog-based physical activity promotion in families. It should advance our

  14. MIDWESTERN REGIONAL CENTER OF THE DOE NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR CLIMATIC CHANGE RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, Andrew J. [Michigan Technological University

    2014-02-28

    The goal of NICCR (National Institute for Climatic Change Research) was to mobilize university researchers, from all regions of the country, in support of the climatic change research objectives of DOE/BER. The NICCR Midwestern Regional Center (MRC) supported work in the following states: North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio. The MRC of NICCR was able to support nearly $8 million in climatic change research, including $6,671,303 for twenty projects solicited and selected by the MRC over five requests for proposals (RFPs) and $1,051,666 for the final year of ten projects from the discontinued DOE NIGEC (National Institute for Global Environmental Change) program. The projects selected and funded by the MRC resulted in 135 peer-reviewed publications and supported the training of 25 PhD students and 23 Masters students. Another 36 publications were generated by the final year of continuing NIGEC projects supported by the MRC. The projects funded by the MRC used a variety of approaches to answer questions relevant to the DOE’s climate change research program. These included experiments that manipulated temperature, moisture and other global change factors; studies that sought to understand how the distribution of species and ecosystems might change under future climates; studies that used measurements and modeling to examine current ecosystem fluxes of energy and mass and those that would exist under future conditions; and studies that synthesized existing data sets to improve our understanding of the effects of climatic change on terrestrial ecosystems. In all of these efforts, the MRC specifically sought to identify and quantify responses of terrestrial ecosystems that were not well understood or not well modeled by current efforts. The MRC also sought to better understand and model important feedbacks between terrestrial ecosystems, atmospheric chemistry, and regional

  15. Very High Prevalence of Frozen Shoulder in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes of ≥45 Years' Duration: The Dialong Shoulder Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Niels Gunnar; Brox, Jens Ivar; Brunborg, Cathrine; Holte, Kristine Bech; Berg, Tore Julsrud

    2017-08-01

    To compare the prevalence of shoulder disorders and self-reported shoulder disability in patients with long-term type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetes-free subjects; and to explore the association between the long-term glycemic burden and shoulder disability in the diabetes group. Cross-sectional study of shoulder diagnoses with 30 years' historical data on glycemic burden in patients with diabetes. Diabetics center and a university hospital. Subjects attending the Norwegian Diabetics Center in 2015 with type 1 diabetes since 1970 or earlier were eligible (N=136). One hundred and five patients were included, and 102 (50% women; mean age, 61.9y) completed the study together with 73 diabetes-free subjects (55% women; mean age, 62.5y). Not applicable. Shoulder diagnoses decided through clinical examination according to scientific diagnostic criteria. Frozen shoulder was diagnosed in 60 (59%) patients with diabetes and 0 diabetes-free subjects, with a lifetime prevalence of 76% in the diabetes group versus 14% in the diabetes-free subjects. Patients with diabetes had higher disability and higher mean QuickDASH scores (23.0±19.9) than diabetes-free subjects (8.9±12.0), with a mean difference of -14.2 (95% confidence interval, -19.3 to -9.0) points (Pshoulder in patients with long-lasting type 1 diabetes was 59%, and the lifetime prevalence was 76%. The diabetes group had more shoulder disability than diabetes-free subjects. The historical HbA 1c level was associated with increased shoulder disability. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlation Between Bile Reflux Gastritis and Biliary Excreted Contrast Media in the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jong Jin; Yeom, Suk Keu; Shim, Euddeum; Cha, Jaehyung; Choi, Inyoung; Lee, Seung Hwa; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Cha, Sang Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between biliary excreted contrast media in the stomach and the presence of bile reflux gastritis. Consecutive 111 patients who underwent both gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (gadoxetic MRC) and gastric endoscopy were included in this study. We performed a review of the gadoxetic-MRC image sets acquired 60 minutes after intravenous injection of contrast media and endoscopic images. We recorded amount of contrast media in the stomach. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of duodenogastric bile reflux diagnosis were evaluated for the gadoxetic MRC. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test and the linear-by-linear association test. Among the 111 patients, 39 had 60-minute delayed images showing the presence of contrast media in the stomach. Of these 39 patients, 13 had bile reflux gastritis and 5 showed bile in the stomach without evidence of erythematous gastritis. Of the 72 patients who did not show contrast media in the stomach, none had bile reflux gastritis and 2 patients showed bile staining in the stomach without evidence of erythematous gastritis. Bile reflux gastritis was significantly more frequent in patients with contrast media in the stomach on gadoxetic MRC than in those without. Patients with high-grade extension of contrast media in the stomach had significantly frequent bile reflux gastritis than did those with low-grade extension. Biliary excreted contrast media in the stomach on 60-minute delayed gadoxetic MRC has a correlation with the presence of bile reflux gastritis on endoscopic examination.

  17. Imaging by the SSFSE single slice method at different viscosities of bile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Hiroya; Usui, Motoki; Fukunaga, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Naruto; Ikegami, Toshimi [Kawasaki Hospital, Kobe (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    The single shot fast spin echo single thick slice method (single slice method) is a technique that visualizes the water component alone using a heavy T{sub 2}. However, this method is considered to be markedly affected by changes in the viscosity of the material because a very long TE is used, and changes in the T{sub 2} value, which are related to viscosity, directly affect imaging. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the effects of TE and the T{sub 2} value of bile in the single slice method and also examined the relationship between the signal intensity of bile on T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted images and imaging by MR cholangiography (MRC). It was difficult to image bile with high viscosities at a usual effective TE level of 700-1,500 ms. With regard to the relationship between the signal intensity of bile and MRC imaging, all T{sub 2} values of the bile samples showing relatively high signal intensities on the T{sub 1}-weighted images suggested high viscosities, and MRC imaging of these bile samples was poor. In conclusion, MRC imaging of bile with high viscosities was poor with the single slice method. Imaging by the single slice method alone of bile showing a relatively high signal intensity on T{sub 1}-weighted images should be avoided, and combination with other MRC sequences should be used. (author)

  18. Imaging by the SSFSE single slice method at different viscosities of bile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Hiroya; Usui, Motoki; Fukunaga, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Naruto; Ikegami, Toshimi

    2001-01-01

    The single shot fast spin echo single thick slice method (single slice method) is a technique that visualizes the water component alone using a heavy T 2 . However, this method is considered to be markedly affected by changes in the viscosity of the material because a very long TE is used, and changes in the T 2 value, which are related to viscosity, directly affect imaging. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the effects of TE and the T 2 value of bile in the single slice method and also examined the relationship between the signal intensity of bile on T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images and imaging by MR cholangiography (MRC). It was difficult to image bile with high viscosities at a usual effective TE level of 700-1,500 ms. With regard to the relationship between the signal intensity of bile and MRC imaging, all T 2 values of the bile samples showing relatively high signal intensities on the T 1 -weighted images suggested high viscosities, and MRC imaging of these bile samples was poor. In conclusion, MRC imaging of bile with high viscosities was poor with the single slice method. Imaging by the single slice method alone of bile showing a relatively high signal intensity on T 1 -weighted images should be avoided, and combination with other MRC sequences should be used. (author)

  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test scores corresponding to modified Medical Research Council grades among COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    In assigning patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to subgroups according to the updated guidelines of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, discrepancies have been noted between the COPD assessment test (CAT) criteria and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) criteria. We investigated the determinants of symptom and risk groups and sought to identify a better CAT criterion. This retrospective study included COPD patients seen between June 20, 2012, and December 5, 2012. The CAT score that can accurately predict an mMRC grade ≥ 2 versus COPD patients, the percentages of patients classified into subgroups A, B, C, and D were 24.5%, 47.2%, 4.2%, and 24.1% based on CAT criteria and 49.3%, 22.4%, 8.9%, and 19.4% based on mMRC criteria, respectively. More than 90% of the patients who met the mMRC criteria for the 'more symptoms group' also met the CAT criteria. AUROC and CART analyses suggested that a CAT score ≥ 15 predicted an mMRC grade ≥ 2 more accurately than the current CAT score criterion. During follow-up, patients with CAT scores of 10 to 14 did not have a different risk of exacerbation versus those with CAT scores COPD patients.

  20. ESTUDIOS FUNCIONALES DE ARTEFACTOS LÍTICOS DE CUEVA DE LAS MANOS, RÍO PINTURAS, SANTA CRUZ, ARGENTINA / Lithic artifacts functional studies from Cueva de las Manos, Río Pinturas, Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roxana Cattaneo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar los resultados del estudio funcional o de microhuellas de una muestra de raspadores procedentes de la excavación del sitio Cueva de las Manos. Fueron seleccionados entre los provenientes de las capas 4c, 5 y 6 –que cuentan con fechados radiocarbónicos entre 1610 años AP a 9300 años AP. Por un lado nos interesó poder profundizar sobre qué materia prima trabajaron estos raspadores, ya que nunca había podido ser analizado en estudios anteriores. Por otro lado nos interesa ampliar el estudio de la variabilidad morfológica en relación a la variabilidad funcional en los raspadores ya que en este sitio es notable la variedad de instrumentos clasificados como raspadores y cepillos (rabots. Estos nuevos resultados permitirán además profundizar la discusión presentada en trabajos anteriores donde se infirió una tendencia hacia una diferenciación entre ciertos subgrupos de instrumentos cuyos últimos usos conocidos fueron sobre un solo tipo de materia prima mientras que otros se asociaron con el trabajo de al menos dos tipos de materiales. Para este trabajo se utilizaron las observaciones realizadas con el Microscopio Láser Confocal de Barrido BioRad MRC600, luego analizadas a través de software de reconocimiento de imágenes “PHILOS”.  Palabras clave: Cueva de las Manos, raspadores, análisis funcional, diseño.  AbstractWe present the results of microwear studies of a sample of scrapers, from the excavations at the site Cueva de las Manos -layers 4c, 5 and 6-, dated between 1610 bp to 9300 years bp. We are interested in defining on what type of raw material these scrapers worked, since this subject wasn’t previously analyzed. On the other hand we are interested in extending the study of the morphologic variability of scrapers, in relation to their functional variability. Especially considering that this site presents a remarkable number of instruments classified as scrapers

  1. Physical and cognitive capability in mid-adulthood as determinants of retirement and extended working life in a British cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, M.; Cooper, R.; Cadar, D.; Carr, E.; Murray, E.; Richards, M.; Stansfeld, S.; Zaninotto, P.; Head, J.; Kuh, D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Policy in many industrialized countries increasingly emphasizes extended working life. We examined associations between physical and cognitive capability in mid-adulthood and work in late adulthood. Methods Using self-reported physical limitations and performance-based physical and cognitive capability at age 53, assessed by trained nurses from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development, we examined prospective associations with extended working (ca...

  2. Physical and cognitive capability in mid-adulthood as determinants of retirement and extended working life in a British cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, M.; Cooper, R.; Cadar, D.; Carr, E.; Murray, E.; Richards, M.; Stansfeld, S.; Zaninotto, P.; Head, J.; Kuh, D.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Policy in many industrialized countries increasingly emphasizes extended working life. We examined associations between physical and cognitive capability in mid-adulthood and work in late adulthood. METHODS: Using self-reported physical limitations and performance-based physical and cognitive capability at age 53, assessed by trained nurses from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development, we examined prospective associations with extended working (...

  3. The effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on respiratory chain system activity in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzyszyn, Z; Czerny, B; Myśliwiec, Z; Pawlik, A; Droździk, M

    2010-06-01

    The effect of artichoke extract on mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) activity in isolated rat liver mitochondria (including reaction kinetics) was studied. The effect of the extract on the activity of isolated cytochrome oxidase was also studied. Extract in the range of 0.68-2.72 microg/ml demonstrated potent and concentration-dependent inhibitory activity. Concentrations > or =5.4 microg/ml entirely inhibited MRC activity. The succinate oxidase system (MRC complexes II-IV) was the most potently inhibited, its activity at an extract concentration of 1.36 microg/ml being reduced by 63.3% compared with the control (p artichoke extracts may rely in part on the effects of their active compounds on the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain system.

  4. Continuous passive motion and physical therapy (CPM) versus physical therapy (PT) versus delayed physical therapy (DPT) after surgical release for elbow contractures; a study protocol for a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveen, Jetske; Doornberg, Job N; Kodde, Izaak F; Goossens, Pjotr; Koenraadt, Koen L M; The, Bertram; Eygendaal, Denise

    2017-11-22

    The elbow is prone to stiffness after trauma. To regain functional elbow motion several conservative- and surgical treatment options are available. Conservative treatment includes physical therapy, intra-articular injections with corticosteroids and a static progressive or dynamic splinting program. If conservative treatment fails, an operative release of the posttraumatic stiff elbow is often performed. The best Evidence-Based rehabilitation protocol for patients after an operative release is unknown to date and differs per surgeon, hospital and country. Options include early- or delayed motion supervised by a physical therapist, immediate continuous passive motion (CPM), (night) splinting and a static progressive or dynamic splinting program. The SET-Study (Stiff Elbow Trial) is a single-centre, prospective, randomized controlled trial. The primary objective of this study is to compare the active Range of Motion (ROM) (flexion arc and rotational arc) twelve months after surgery between three groups. The first group will receive in-hospital CPM in combination with early motion Physical Therapy (PT) supervised by a physical therapist, the second group will receive only in-hospital early motion PT supervised by a physical therapist and the third group will receive outpatient supervised PT from postoperative day seven till ten. Secondary outcome measures will be Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) including the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), the Oxford Elbow Score (OES), the quick Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (qDASH) score, Visual Analogue pain Scale in rest and activity (VAS), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the Short Form (SF)-36, the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Revised (CESD-R) and the Work Rehabilitation Questionnaire (WORQ) for the upper limb. A successful completion of this trial will provide evidence on the best rehabilitation protocol in order to (re)gain optimal motion after surgical release of the stiff elbow

  5. Frontotemporal dementia and its subtypes: a genome-wide association study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Hernandez, Dena G; Nalls, Michael A; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Kwok, John B J; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Brooks, William S; Schofield, Peter R; Halliday, Glenda M; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier; Bartley, Lauren; Thompson, Elizabeth; Haan, Eric; Hernández, Isabel; Ruiz, Agustín; Boada, Mercè; Borroni, Barbara; Padovani, Alessandro; Cruchaga, Carlos; Cairns, Nigel J; Benussi, Luisa; Binetti, Giuliano; Ghidoni, Roberta; Forloni, Gianluigi; Galimberti, Daniela; Fenoglio, Chiara; Serpente, Maria; Scarpini, Elio; Clarimón, Jordi; Lleó, Alberto; Blesa, Rafael; Waldö, Maria Landqvist; Nilsson, Karin; Nilsson, Christer; Mackenzie, Ian R A; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R; Mann, David M A; Grafman, Jordan; Morris, Christopher M; Attems, Johannes; Griffiths, Timothy D; McKeith, Ian G; Thomas, Alan J; Pietrini, P; Huey, Edward D; Wassermann, Eric M; Baborie, Atik; Jaros, Evelyn; Tierney, Michael C; Pastor, Pau; Razquin, Cristina; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Alonso, Elena; Perneczky, Robert; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Kurz, Alexander; Rainero, Innocenzo; Rubino, Elisa; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; George-Hyslop, Peter St; Rossi, Giacomina; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Giaccone, Giorgio; Rowe, James B; Schlachetzki, J C M; Uphill, James; Collinge, John; Mead, S; Danek, Adrian; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Grossman, Murray; Trojanowsk, John Q; van der Zee, Julie; Deschamps, William; Van Langenhove, Tim; Cruts, Marc; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Cappa, Stefano F; Le Ber, Isabelle; Hannequin, Didier; Golfier, Véronique; Vercelletto, Martine; Brice, Alexis; Nacmias, Benedetta; Sorbi, Sandro; Bagnoli, Silvia; Piaceri, Irene; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Hjermind, Lena E; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Mayhaus, Manuel; Ibach, Bernd; Gasparoni, Gilles; Pichler, Sabrina; Gu, Wei; Rossor, Martin N; Fox, Nick C; Warren, Jason D; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Morris, Huw R; Rizzu, Patrizia; Heutink, Peter; Snowden, Julie S; Rollinson, Sara; Richardson, Anna; Gerhard, Alexander; Bruni, Amalia C; Maletta, Raffaele; Frangipane, Francesca; Cupidi, Chiara; Bernardi, Livia; Anfossi, Maria; Gallo, Maura; Conidi, Maria Elena; Smirne, Nicoletta; Rademakers, Rosa; Baker, Matt; Dickson, Dennis W; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Petersen, Ronald C; Knopman, David; Josephs, Keith A; Boeve, Bradley F; Parisi, Joseph E; Seeley, William W; Miller, Bruce L; Karydas, Anna M; Rosen, Howard; van Swieten, John C; Dopper, Elise G P; Seelaar, Harro; Pijnenburg, Yolande AL; Scheltens, Philip; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Capozzo, Rosa; Novelli, Valeria; Puca, Annibale A; Franceschi, M; Postiglione, Alfredo; Milan, Graziella; Sorrentino, Paolo; Kristiansen, Mark; Chiang, Huei-Hsin; Graff, Caroline; Pasquier, Florence; Rollin, Adeline; Deramecourt, Vincent; Lebert, Florence; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Ferrucci, Luigi; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Singleton, Andrew B; Hardy, John; Momeni, Parastoo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a complex disorder characterised by a broad range of clinical manifestations, differential pathological signatures, and genetic variability. Mutations in three genes—MAPT, GRN, and C9orf72—have been associated with FTD. We sought to identify novel genetic risk loci associated with the disorder. Methods We did a two-stage genome-wide association study on clinical FTD, analysing samples from 3526 patients with FTD and 9402 healthy controls. All participants had European ancestry. In the discovery phase (samples from 2154 patients with FTD and 4308 controls), we did separate association analyses for each FTD subtype (behavioural variant FTD, semantic dementia, progressive non-fluent aphasia, and FTD overlapping with motor neuron disease [FTD-MND]), followed by a meta-analysis of the entire dataset. We carried forward replication of the novel suggestive loci in an independent sample series (samples from 1372 patients and 5094 controls) and then did joint phase and brain expression and methylation quantitative trait loci analyses for the associated (p<5 × 10−8) and suggestive single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Findings We identified novel associations exceeding the genome-wide significance threshold (p<5 × 10−8) that encompassed the HLA locus at 6p21.3 in the entire cohort. We also identified a potential novel locus at 11q14, encompassing RAB38/CTSC, for the behavioural FTD subtype. Analysis of expression and methylation quantitative trait loci data suggested that these loci might affect expression and methylation incis. Interpretation Our findings suggest that immune system processes (link to 6p21.3) and possibly lysosomal and autophagy pathways (link to 11q14) are potentially involved in FTD. Our findings need to be replicated to better define the association of the newly identified loci with disease and possibly to shed light on the pathomechanisms contributing to FTD. Funding The National Institute of

  6. Study of the combined action of gamma radiation and static electric fields in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moron, Michelle Mendes

    2008-01-01

    The basic principle of radiotherapy is the one of maximizing damage to the tumor, while minimizing it in neighboring health tissues. Several strategies have been worked out aiming at increasing cellular radiosensitivity, and among them is the use of exogenous fields. Our goal in this work is the study in human cells of the effect resulting from the association of irradiation with exposure to exogenous static electric fields. The T47D cell line of breast cancer cells was irradiated with gammas in the 0 - 8 Gy doses range. The corresponding survival curve provided information on the radiosensitivity of this cell line. The rate of cell deaths per Gray in the 0 - 8 Gy range exhibited a maximum at 2 Gy, which corresponds to the most efficient irradiation dose. The viability of this T47D cells exposed to both gamma radiation and 1.250 V/cm static electric field (SEF) was about 12% lower than when only irradiated. The sole exposure of the cells to SEF by 24 and 72 hours didn't induce toxicity. Immunofluorescence runs carried out in irradiated normal MRC5 cell line of human lung fibroblast, without and with exposition to a SEF, have quantified the expression of the y- H2AX histone. The amount of phosphorylated histones was approximately 40% higher after irradiation with 2 Gy plus exposure to a SEF by 1 hour, showing that the electric field negatively interfered in the repairing process of the DNA double strand breaks. The flow cytometry analysis with FACS allowed the investigation of a possible interference of radiation and SEF in the cell distributions among the cellular cycle phases. It was found that in T47D cells treated with 1 and 2 Gy by 24 hours the SEF also negatively interfered in the DNA repairing process, as evidenced by the higher accumulation of cells in the S phase. Therefore, it would be possible to conclude that static and exogenous electric fields are able of negatively interfering in the cellular repair and, presumably, in DNA repair. (author)

  7. The Hydractinia echinata Test-System. III: Structure-Toxicity Relationship Study of Some Azo-, Azo-Anilide, and Diazonium Salt Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Adrian Chicu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Structure-toxicity relationships for a series of 75 azo and azo-anilide dyes and five diazonium salts were developed using Hydractinia echinata (H. echinata as model species. In addition, based on these relationships, predictions for 58 other azo-dyes were made. The experimental results showed that the measured effectiveness Mlog(1/MRC50 does not depend on the number of azo groups or the ones corresponding to metobolites, but it is influenced by the number of anilide groups, as well as by the substituents’ positions within molecules. The conformational analysis pointed out the intramolecular hydrogen bonds, especially the simple tautomerization of quinoidic (STOH or aminoidic (STNH2 type. The effectiveness is strongly influenced by the “push-pull” electronic effect, specific to two hydroxy or amino groups separated by an azo moiety (double alternate tautomery, (DAT, to the –COOH or –SO3H groups which are located in ortho or para position with respect to the azo group. The levels of the lipophylic/hydrophilic, electronic and steric equilibriums, pointed out by the Mlog(1/MRC50 values, enabled the calculation of their average values Clog(1/MRC50 (“Köln model”, characteristic to one derivative class (class isotoxicity. The azo group reduction and the hydrolysis of the amido/peptidic group are two concurrent enzymatic reactions, which occur with different reaction rates and mechanisms. The products of the partial biodegradation are aromatic amines. No additive or synergic effects are noticed among them.

  8. Efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography compared with T2-weighted magnetic resonance cholangiography in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Pei Wu

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: CE-MRC is not superior to conventional T2W-MRC with respect to biliary visualization in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, a combination of T2W-MRC and CE-MRC provides significantly better visualization of biliary structures than T2W-MRC alone.

  9. [Evolution in muscle strength in critical patients with invasive mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via Clavero, G; Sanjuán Naváis, M; Menéndez Albuixech, M; Corral Ansa, L; Martínez Estalella, G; Díaz-Prieto-Huidobro, A

    2013-01-01

    To assess the evolution of muscle strength in critically ill patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) from withdrawal of sedatives to hospital discharge. A cohort study was conducted in two intensive care units in the Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge from November 2011 to March 2012. Consecutive patients with MV > 72h. Dependent outcome: Muscle strength measured with the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale beginning on the first day the patient was able to answer 3 out of 5 simple orders (day 1), every week, at ICU discharge and at hospital discharge or at day 60 Independent outcomes: factors associated with muscle strength loss, ventilator-free days, ICU length of stay and hospital length of stay. The patients were distributed into two groups (MRC2 (P 2 and costicosteroids. Patients with a MRC < 48 required more days with MV and a longer ICU stay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  10. 醫療糾紛鑑定的維持率:二十年全國性的實證研究結果 Consistency of Assessments for Medical Dispute Cases: A 20-year Nationwide Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吳俊穎 Chun-Ying Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 本文分析民國76 年至95 年之間,囑託衛生署醫審會所作成之4,949 件醫療糾紛鑑定報告書,依照當事人進行歸案後,進行實證研究以分析醫療糾紛鑑定之維持率。所謂鑑定維持率係指再次鑑定維持與前次鑑定之同樣有無疏失的鑑定結果。研究結果發現第一次鑑定有疏失的比例為16.7%,第一次鑑定有疏失後,再送第二次鑑定,維持有疏失的比例僅有46.1%;兩次鑑定都有疏失,再送第三次鑑定,有疏失的維持率還是僅有42.9%。反之,第一次鑑定無疏失的個案,再送第二次鑑定,維持無疏失的比例高達90.0%;兩 次鑑定都無疏失,再送第三次鑑定,無疏失的維持率高達95.3%。醫療糾紛鑑定的有疏失維持率顯著偏低的可能解釋,包括:醫療糾紛過失認定的困難、鑑定委員會採取過高的標準進行鑑定,忽視了個案的特殊性等各種可能原因所致。四成左右的有疏失鑑定維持率,剛好與刑事訴訟中檢察官起訴後的定罪率相同,顯示鑑定結果維持率對於醫療糾紛訴訟的結果,有著相當重要的影響,如何進一步改善醫療糾紛鑑定中有疏失的鑑定結果維持率,是一個非常重要而亟待解決的課題。 This nationwide empirical study examined 4,949 assessment reports made by Taiwan’s Medical Review Committee (MRC during 1987-2006. The aim of this study is to investigate the consistency of assessment reports for the same cases made by the MRC. The consistency of assessments was defined as the same judgment made in the later assessment as the previous one. Among these assessments, 16.7% were assessed with negligence. For cases found with negligence, the consistency of negligence in the secondary assessment was only 46.1%. Even those with negligence in the first two assessments, only 42.9% cases were found with negligence in the third assessment. On the other hand, those

  11. Functional incapacity related to rotator cuff syndrome in workers. Is it influenced by social characteristics and medical management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Romain; Bodin, Julie; Fouquet, Natacha; Roquelaure, Yves; Petit, Audrey

    2017-12-04

    Survey. Rotator cuff syndrome (RCS) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders reported in workers. The functional incapacity related to RCS may vary according to the sociodemographic context and to the medical management. The purpose of this is to analyze the RCS-related functional incapacity assessed by the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaires in workers according to their sociodemographic characteristics and the use of care. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a French sample of workers diagnosed with RCS. The DASH and DASH-work scores were studied according to the sociodemographic factors, musculoskeletal symptoms, and RCS medical management during the preceding 12 months. Two hundred seven workers who suffered from RCS filled out the questionnaire of which 80% were still working. The DASH score was significantly higher in women (24.0 vs 17.4; P 0.6). The demographic factors and the RCS medical management influenced the overall incapacity assessed by the DASH questionnaire. Work incapacity was more especially related to the use of care for RCS. The sociodemographic and medical parameters added to other established predictors could help guide clinicians in managing their patients. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling the dynamics of BMI changes during adolescence. The Oporto Growth, Health and Performance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, M C; Eisenmann, J C; e Santos, D V; de Chaves, R N; de Moraes Forjaz, C L; Maia, J A R

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: (i) to model changes in body mass index (BMI) of 10-18-year-old adolescents, and (ii) to investigate the effects of total physical activity (TPA), physical fitness (PF), sleep duration and fruit/vegetable consumption in BMI trajectories across time. Data were obtained from the Oporto Growth, Health and Performance Study and comprised 6894 adolescents (3418 girls) divided into four age cohorts (10, 12, 14 and 16 years) measured annually for 3 years. BMI was computed using the standard formula (kg m(-2)); TPA was estimated with the Baecke questionnaire; PF measures included 1-mile run/walk, 50 yard dash (50YD), standing long jump (SLJ), handgrip strength (HGr) and agility shuttle run. Longitudinal changes in BMI were analyzed using the multilevel modeling approach. The average BMI at age of peak of height velocity was 20.7±0.07 kg m(-2) for girls (P<0.001) and 20.58±0.06 kg m(-2) for boys (P<0.001). The annual increment in BMI was 1.36±0.04 kg m(-2), P<0.001 and 1.23±0.03 kg m(-2), P<0.001 for girls and boys, respectively. PF were related to BMI trajectories in both sexes (Girls: β1mile=0.12±0.02, P<0.001; βSLJ=-0.01±0.00, P<0.001; β50YD=0.28±0.05, P<0.001; βHGr=-8.91±0.54, P<0.001; Boys: β1mile=0.18±0.02, P<0.001; βSLJ=-0.01±0.00, P<0.001; β50YD=0.26±0.04, P<0.001; and βHGr=-8.15±0.45, P<0.001). TPA only showed significant, but positive, association with girls' BMI trajectories (β=0.10±0.03, P=0.001). After adjusting for the covariates, sleep duration and fruit/vegetable intake did not show any significant association with BMI trajectories either sex. BMI increased linearly with age in both gender. PF levels are negatively associated with BMI across time in both boys and girls. Therefore, promotion of PF in the adolescent years seems to be effective in the early prevention of obesity.

  13. Responsiveness of two Persian-versions of shoulder outcome measures following physiotherapy intervention in patients with shoulder disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahban, Hossein; Behtash, Zeinab; Sohani, Soheil Mansour; Salehi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    To identify the ability of the Persian-version of the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) to detect changes in shoulder function following physiotherapy intervention (i.e. responsiveness) and to determine the change score that indicates a meaningful change in functional ability of the patient (i.e. Minimally Clinically Important Difference (MCID)). A convenient sample of 200 Persian-speaking patients with shoulder disorders completed the SPADI and the DASH at baseline and then again 4 weeks after physiotherapy intervention. Furthermore, patients were asked to rate their global rating of shoulder function at follow-up. The responsiveness was evaluated using two methods: the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) method and the correlation analysis. Two useful statistics extracted from the ROC method are the area under curve (AUC) and the optimal cutoff point called as MCID. Both the SPADI and the DASH showed the AUC of greater than 0.70 (AUC ranges = 0.77-0.82). The best cutoff points (or change scores) for the SPADI-total, SPADI-pain, SPADI-disability and the DASH were 14.88, 26.36, 23.86, and 25.41, respectively. Additionally, moderate to good correlations (Gamma = -0.51 to -0.58) were found between the changes in SPADI/DASH and changes in global rating scale. The Persian SPADI and DASH have adequate responsiveness to clinical changes in patients with shoulder disorders. Moreover, the MCIDs obtained in this study will help the clinicians and researchers to determine if a Persian-speaking patient with shoulder disorder has experienced a true change following a physiotherapy intervention. Implications for Rehabilitation Responsiveness was evaluated using two methods; the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) method and the correlation analysis. The Persian SPADI and DASH can be used as two responsive instruments in both clinical practice and research settings. The MCIDs of 14.88 and 25

  14. Blood Mononuclear Cell Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex IV Activity is Decreased in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Effects of β-Interferon Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Hargreaves

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evidence of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC dysfunction and oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS. However, at present, there is no reliable low invasive surrogate available to evaluate mitochondrial function in these patients. In view of the particular sensitivity of MRC complex IV to oxidative stress, the aim of this study was to assess blood mononuclear cell (BMNC MRC complex IV activity in MS patients and compare these results to age matched controls and MS patients on β-interferon treatment. Methods: Spectrophotometric enzyme assay was employed to measure MRC complex IV activity in blood mononuclear cell obtained multiple sclerosis patients and aged matched controls. Results: MRC Complex IV activity was found to be significantly decreased (p < 0.05 in MS patients (2.1 ± 0.8 k/nmol × 10−3; mean ± SD] when compared to the controls (7.2 ± 2.3 k/nmol × 10−3. Complex IV activity in MS patients on β-interferon (4.9 ± 1.5 k/nmol × 10−3 was not found to be significantly different from that of the controls. Conclusions: This study has indicated evidence of peripheral MRC complex IV deficiency in MS patients and has highlighted the potential utility of BMNCs as a potential means to evaluate mitochondrial function in this disorder. Furthermore, the reported improvement of complex IV activity may provide novel insights into the mode(s of action of β-interferon.

  15. Coenzyme Q10 defects may be associated with a deficiency of Q10-independent mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Fragaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 or ubiquinone deficiency can be due either to mutations in genes involved in CoQ10 biosynthesis pathway, or to mutations in genes unrelated to CoQ10 biosynthesis. CoQ10 defect is the only oxidative phosphorylation disorder that can be clinically improved after oral CoQ10 supplementation. Thus, early diagnosis, first evoked by mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC spectrophotometric analysis, then confirmed by direct measurement of CoQ10 levels, is of critical importance to prevent irreversible damage in organs such as the kidney and the central nervous system. It is widely reported that CoQ10 deficient patients present decreased quinone-dependent activities (segments I + III or G3P + III and II + III while MRC activities of complexes I, II, III, IV and V are normal. We previously suggested that CoQ10 defect may be associated with a deficiency of CoQ10-independent MRC complexes. The aim of this study was to verify this hypothesis in order to improve the diagnosis of this disease. RESULTS: To determine whether CoQ10 defect could be associated with MRC deficiency, we quantified CoQ10 by LC-MSMS in a cohort of 18 patients presenting CoQ10-dependent deficiency associated with MRC defect. We found decreased levels of CoQ10 in eight patients out of 18 (45 %, thus confirming CoQ10 disease. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that CoQ10 defect can be associated with MRC deficiency. This could be of major importance in clinical practice for the diagnosis of a disease that can be improved by CoQ10 supplementation.

  16. The concurrent validity of the Amharic version of Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness (SALSA) in persons affected by leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijk, Ulrika; Brandsma, J Wim; Dahlström, Orjan; Björk, Mathilda

    2013-03-01

    Leprosy is endemic in many countries and results in activity limitations. There is a need for assessment tools to guide professionals in their evaluation and choice of intervention in order to improve conditions for leprosy-affected people. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of the Amharic version of Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness (SALSA-am) scale with Amharic version of Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH-am) questionnaire. Thirty-eight individuals with nerve damage due to leprosy completed the SALSA-am and DASH-am questionnaires. Spearman's rank correlation was used to determine relationships between SALSA and DASH scores. Specificity, sensitivity and accuracy were calculated. There was a good correlation 0.87 (P < 0.001) between SALSA-am and DASH-am scores. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated with acceptable results. SALSA-am is considered a useful questionnaire for determining activity limitations in persons affected by leprosy, and showed good correlation with DASH-am. The concurrent validity was considered good.

  17. Financial considerations in the conduct of multi-centre randomised controlled trials: evidence from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Adrian M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Securing and managing finances for multicentre randomised controlled trials is a highly complex activity which is rarely considered in the research literature. This paper describes the process of financial negotiation and the impact of financial considerations in four UK multicentre trials. These trials had met, or were on schedule to meet, recruitment targets agreed with their public-sector funders. The trials were considered within a larger study examining factors which might be associated with trial recruitment (STEPS. Methods In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted in 2003–04 with 45 individuals with various responsibilities to one of the four trials. Interviewees were recruited through purposive and then snowball sampling. Interview transcripts were analysed with the assistance of the qualitative package Atlas-ti. Results The data suggest that the UK system of dividing funds into research, treatment and NHS support costs brought the trial teams into complicated negotiations with multiple funders. The divisions were somewhat malleable and the funding system was used differently in each trial. The fact that all funders had the potential to influence and shape the trials considered here was an important issue as the perspectives of applicants and funders could diverge. The extent and range of industry involvement in non-industry-led trials was striking. Three broad periods of financial work (foundation, maintenance, and resourcing completion were identified. From development to completion of a trial, the trialists had to be resourceful and flexible, adapting to changing internal and external circumstances. In each period, trialists and collaborators could face changing costs and challenges. Each trial extended the recruitment period; three required funding extensions from MRC or HTA. Conclusion This study highlights complex financial aspects of planning and conducting trials, especially where multiple

  18. The Diagnostic Utility of MR cholangiography before laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Hyung Jin; Lee, Jae Mun; Jung, Seung Eun; Kim, Eung Kook; Kim, Jae Kwang; Han, Sung Tae

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare the clinical applicability of magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) with that of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in the evaluation of combined choledocholithiasis in patients with gall stones who were candidates for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Twenty-seven patients with gall stones underwent fast spin-echo MR cholangiography using the half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) method, and half-Fourier rapid acquisition using the relaxation enhancement (RARE) method. Within five hours the same patients underwent ERC. The results of MRC was reviewed by two radiologists blinded to the results of ERC. The number and size of CBD stones and gall stones, and the degree of CBD dilatation, as seen on HASTE and RARE images, were compared with the results of ERC. MRC depicted common bile duct stones in 10 of 11 patients shown by ERC to have stones, while in the 16 patients in whom ERC did not reveal stones, MRC demonstrated the same finding. The number of CBD stones was exactly demonstrated by HASTE imaging in eight of eleven patients (73%) and by RARE imaging in ten of eleven patients (91%) in whom ERC revealed choledocholithiasis. The size of common bile duct stones visualized by ERC correlated in nine of eleven patients (82%) on HASTE images and in seven of eleven (64%) on RARE images. MRC showed CBD dilatation in all patients in whom dilatation was demonstrated by ERC. For the evaluation of choledocholithiasis before laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with gall stones, MRC and ERC are equally accurate. A comparison of HASTE imaging with RARE imaging, as used in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis, revealed no significant differences. (author)

  19. Staging of Klatskin tumours (hilar cholangiocarcinomas): comparison of MR cholangiography, MR imaging, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, Thomas J.; Schwarz, Wolfram O.; Heller, Matthias; Herzog, Christopher; Zangos, Stephan; Hammerstingl, Renate M.; Hintze, Rainer E.; Neuhaus, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare prospectively magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in the diagnosis and staging of Klatskin tumours of the biliary tree (hilar cholangiocarcinomas). Forty-six patients with suspected Klatskin tumours of the biliary tract underwent MRI and heavily T2-weighted, non-breathhold, respiratory-triggered fast spin-echo MRC. Forty-two patients underwent ERC within 24 h; in four patients, ERC was not feasible, and percutaneous trans-hepatic cholangiography (PTC) was carried out instead. Two independent investigators evaluated imaging results for the presence of tumour, bile duct dilatation, and stenosis. Clinical and histopathological correlation revealed Klatskin tumours in 33 patients. MRI revealed a slightly hyperintense signal of infiltrated bile ducts in T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequences. The malignant lesion was regularly visualized as a hypointense area in T1-weighted gradient-echo sequences with substantial contrast enhancement along the involved bile duct walls. MRC revealed the location and extension of the tumour in 31 of 33 cases correctly (sensitivity 94%, specificity 100%, diagnostic accuracy 95%). In 27 of 31 cases, ERC enabled accurate staging and diagnosis of Klatskin tumours with a sensitivity of 87%. ERC and PTC combined yielded a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 97%. Tumours were grouped according to the Bismuth classification, with MRC allowing correct identification of type I tumour in seven patients, type II tumour in four patients, type III tumour in 12 patients, and type IV tumour in ten patients. MRC provided superior visualization of completely obstructed peripheral systems. MRC in combination with MRI is a reliable non-invasive diagnostic method for the pre-therapeutic staging of Klatskin tumours. (orig.)

  20. Advantages and disadvantages of magnetic resonance cholangiography for patients with cholelithiasis with reference to those patients associated with dilatation of the common bile duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Takuya; Morimoto, Yoshikazu; Sumimura, Junichi; Miyazaki, Minoru

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) was performed on patients with cholelithiasis with dilatation of the common bile duct (more than 10 mm in diameter) before surgery, and the advantages and disadvantages were investigated based on laparotomy findings. Subjects were 27 patients with cholelithiasis associated with common bile duct dilatation who were operated on at the department since June 1996. There were 13 men and 14 women. A mean age of them was 68.2±11.2 years, ranging from 43 to 90 years. As preoperative imagings, abdominal ultrasonography (US) and abdominal CT scan were performed in all cases; either of intravenous cholangiography (IVC), endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP), or percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) was conducted in them; and MRC was performed in 22 cases except incompatible cases. Patients were imaged in the coronal planes by 0.5-T MR scanner employing a body surface coil at 10 second catch at a single breath-hold without injection of contrast medium. Twenty-one (21) out of 27 patients were proven to have common bile duct stones. The overall diagnostic accuracies in US, CT, IVC, and MRC were 40.7%, 62.9%, 68.4% and 86.3%, respectively. The diameters of common bile duct were ranged from 10 mm to 45 mm (mean 15.9±7.9 mm). MRC allows to assess microstones in the common bile duct, and moreover it is useful for postoperative or allergic patients. However, MRC can necessarily reveal peripapillary diverticulum, and it may overestimate the gallbladder in case of negative cholecystogram. MRC can noninvasively and rapidly reveal the presence of stones in the common bile duct, but further studies are required for a better evaluation of the potential disadvantages of this technique. (author)

  1. Added value of gadoxetic acid-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance cholangiography for the diagnosis of post-transplant biliary complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinner, Sonja [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Schubert, Tilman B. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Basel University Hospital, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Said, Adnan [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States); Mezrich, Joshua D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Surgery, Madison, WI (United States); Reeder, Scott B. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Emergency Medicine, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-10-15

    Biliary complications after liver transplantation (LT) are common. This study aimed to ascertain the value of gadoxetic acid-enhanced T1-weighted (T1w) magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) to evaluate anastomotic strictures (AS), non-anastomotic strictures (NAS) and biliary casts (BC). Sixty liver-transplanted patients with suspicion of biliary complications and T2w-MRCP and T1w-MRC followed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) were analysed. Two readers reviewed the MRCs and rated image quality (IQ) and likelihood for AS/NAS/BC on Likert scales. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated, ROC curve analysis performed, and inter-reader variability assessed. The subjective added value of T1w-MRC was rated. IQ was high for all sequences without significant differences (2.83-2.88). In 39 patients ERCP/PTC detected a complication. Sensitivity and specificity for AS were 64-96 using T2w-MRCP, increasing to 79-100 using all sequences. Use of all sequences increased the sensitivity of detecting NAS/BC from 72-92% to 88-100% and 67-89% to 72-94%, respectively. Kappa values were substantial (0.45-0.62). T1w-MRC was found to be helpful in 75-83.3%. Combining T1w-MRC and T2w-MRCP increased sensitivity and specificity and diagnostic confidence in patients after LT with suspected biliary complications. T1w-MRC is a valuable tool for evaluating post-transplant biliary complications. (orig.)

  2. The Impact of Gd-Eob-Dtpa-Enhanced MR Cholangiography in Biliary Diseases: Comparison with T2-Weighted MR Cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Özmen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography is a novel technique and promising method in demonstrating biliary tree anatomy and evaluating biliary disorders. However, to date, there are a limited number of studies that have focused on the impact of this technique. Aims: We aimed to evaluate the additional role of contrast enhanced MR cholangiography (MRC and compare contrast enhanced MRC with T2-weighted (w magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP in the diagnosis of biliary disorders. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study. Methods: The T2w-MRCP and contrast enhanced MRC sequences of 31 patients whose gold standard test results were available were scored visually for the existence of pathological findings with regard to any of the biliary diseases. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA was used as the contrast agent. The correlation values were determined according to the statistical analysis made from those scores and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values of each sequence were detected as well. Results: We detected that the correlation values with gold standard methods of contrast enhanced MRC sequences were significantly higher than the ones of T2w-MRCP sequences. The correlation ratios of T2w-MRCP sequences were between 26 and 34%, while those for contrast enhanced MRC sequences were between 81 and 83% for the first reader and the correlation ratios of T2w-MRCP sequences were between 10 and 61%, whereas those of contrast enhanced MRC were between 79 and 81% for the second reader The mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values of T2w-MRCP sequences were 14.3-42.5%, 85-89.2% and 59.3-72.5%, respectively, while the mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values of contrast enhanced MRC sequences were 100%, 86.7% and 93.2-93.3%, respectively. Conclusion: We suggest that obtaining of contrast enhanced MRC sequences in addition to the T2w-MRCP can be useful in

  3. Clinical rating systems in elbow research-a systematic review exploring trends and distributions of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan P; Smith, Chris D; Fine, Nicola F; Porter, Ian; Gangannagaripalli, Jaheeda; Goodwin, Victoria A; Valderas, Jose M

    2018-04-01

    Clinical rating systems are used as outcome measures in clinical trials and attempt to gauge the patient's view of his or her own health. The choice of clinical rating system should be supported by its performance against established quality standards. A search strategy was developed to identify all studies that reported the use of clinical rating systems in the elbow literature. The strategy was run from inception in Medline Embase and CINHAL. Data extraction identified the date of publication, country of data collection, pathology assessed, and the outcome measure used. We identified 980 studies that reported clinical rating system use. Seventy-two separate rating systems were identified. Forty-one percent of studies used ≥2 separate measures. Overall, 54% of studies used the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). For arthroplasty, 82% used MEPS, 17% used Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), and 7% used QuickDASH. For trauma, 66.7% used MEPS, 32% used DASH, and 23% used the Morrey Score. For tendinopathy, 31% used DASH, 23% used Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and 13% used MEPS. Over time, there was an increased proportional use of the MEPS, DASH, QuickDASH, PRTEE, and the Oxford Elbow Score. This study identified a wide choice and usage of clinical rating systems in the elbow literature. Numerous studies reported measures without a history of either a specific pathology or cross-cultural validation. Interpretability and comparison of outcomes is dependent on the unification of outcome measure choice. This was not demonstrated currently. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations of Childhood and Adulthood Cognition with Bone Mineral Density in Later Adulthood: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bendayan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the association between cognitive ability in childhood and midlife and bone health outcomes in early old age; and the relationships of these bone measures with contemporaneous and subsequent cognitive ability in the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD. This British birth cohort assessed areal and volumetric bone mineral density (aBMD and vBMD at age 60–64, derived from peripheral quantitative computed tomography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and cognitive performance from childhood to age 69, among 866 women and 792 men. Cognitive performance at age 15 was assessed using tests of verbal and non-verbal ability, and mathematics; and memory and search speed tasks were administered at ages 53, 60–64, and 69. Covariates included body size, pubertal timing, smoking, leisure time physical activity, socioeconomic circumstances and menopause timing. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that higher childhood cognitive ability was associated with higher hip aBMD, in women, and greater cortical and trabecular vBMD, in men. For women, there were positive associations between hip aBMD and total vBMD, and contemporaneous cognitive ability with associations also extending to subsequent cognitive ability for total vBMD. For men, some associations with trabecular and total vBMD emerged at ages 60–64 and 69 but only after adjusting for education, occupational class and health behaviors. Our findings highlight that higher cognitive ability in childhood is associated with BMD in early old age and these associations might be explained by social and behavioral pathways. The results suggest that individuals with greater cognitive ability in early life are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors (e.g., leisure time physical activity in adulthood, which in turn are associated with greater BMD later in life. Associations between bone health and cognitive performance should be considered within a life course

  5. The effects of reducing worry in patients with persecutory delusions: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Freeman Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our approach to advancing the treatment of psychosis is to focus on key single symptoms and develop interventions that target the mechanisms that maintain them. In our theoretical research we have found worry to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of persecutory delusions. Worry brings implausible ideas to mind, keeps them there, and makes the experience distressing. Therefore the aim of the trial is to test the clinical efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention for worry for patients with persecutory delusions and determine how the worry treatment might reduce delusions. Methods/Design An explanatory randomized controlled trial - called the Worry Intervention Trial (WIT - with 150 patients with persecutory delusions will be carried out. Patients will be randomized to the worry intervention in addition to standard care or to standard care. Randomization will be carried out independently, assessments carried out single-blind, and therapy competence and adherence monitored. The study population will be individuals with persecutory delusions and worry in the context of a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis. They will not have responded adequately to previous treatment. The intervention is a six-session cognitive-behavioral treatment provided over eight weeks. The control condition will be treatment as usual, which is typically antipsychotic medication and regular appointments. The principal hypotheses are that a worry intervention will reduce levels of worry and that it will also reduce the persecutory delusions. Assessments will be carried out at 0 weeks (baseline, 8 weeks (post treatment and 24 weeks (follow-up. The statistical analysis strategy will follow the intention-to-treat principle and involve the use of linear mixed models to evaluate and estimate the relevant between- and within-subjects effects (allowing for the possibility of missing data. Both traditional regression and newer instrumental

  6. Exploring the relationship between maternal iron status and offspring’s blood pressure and adiposity: a Mendelian randomization study

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    Alwan NA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nisreen A Alwan,1 Debbie A Lawlor,2 Harry J McArdle,3 Darren C Greenwood,4 Janet E Cade11Nutritional Epidemiology Group, School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; 2MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Research, University of Bristol, Bristol; 3Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen; 4Biostatistics Unit, Leeds Institute for Health, Genetics and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds, UKBackground: Iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. Experimental animal studies suggest that mothers deficient in iron during pregnancy are more likely to have offspring who become obese with high blood pressure. C282Y mutation carriers are more likely to have higher iron stores.Methods: We undertook an instrumental variable (IV analysis, using maternal C282Y as an indicator for the mother’s iron status, to examine its association with offspring blood pressure (BP, waist circumference (WC, and body mass index (BMI, and compared the results to that of ordinary least squares (OLS regression. Offspring of a sub-cohort of mothers from the UK Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS were recruited in 2009–2010 (n = 348, mean age = 41 years. Their blood pressure, height, and weight were measured at their local general medical practice, and they were asked to self-measure their waist circumference. About half were offspring of C282Y carriers. Maternal ferritin was used as a biomarker of maternal iron status.Results: Maternal C282Y was strongly associated with maternal ferritin (mean difference per allele = 84 g/L, 95% confidence interval: 31–137, P = 0.002. Using IV analyses, maternal ferritin was not linked to offspring’s BP, BMI, or WC. The first stage F-statistic for the strength of the instrument was 10 (Kleibergen–Paap rk LM P = 0.009. Maternal ferritin was linked to offspring diastolic BP, WC, and BMI in univariable, but not in multivariable OLS analysis. There

  7. Occupational performance, pain, and global quality of life in women with upper extremity fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dekkers, Merete Klindt; Nielsen, Tove Lise

    2010-01-01

    on the COPM and with the COPM satisfaction score, and it can be argued that a finding of a low DASH score in elderly women with upper extremity fractures should be followed up by a referral to occupational therapy. Future studies