WorldWideScience

Sample records for mowing

  1. To mow or to mow less: Lawn mowing frequency affects bee abundance and diversity in suburban yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susannah B. Lerman; Alexandra R. Contosta; Joan Milam; Christofer Bang

    2018-01-01

    Green spaces embedded within the urban matrix, particularly residential yards, could mitigate negative aspects of urban development and provide pollinator habitat. Lawns represent a dominant green space, and their management consists of frequent mowing to inhibit the growth of ostensibly “weedy” species (e.g., dandelions and clover). Since widespread population...

  2. 29 CFR 780.206 - Planting and lawn mowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plant fruit trees and berry stock not raised by their employer would be considered as engaged in... mowing. (a) The planting of trees and bushes is within the scope of agriculture where it constitutes a... of such trees or bushes). Thus, employees of the nurseryman who raised such nursery stock are doing...

  3. Deconstructing The Current Construction Of Mow: 'Meaning Of Work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ‟. It is argued that MOW could be ... This paper calls for debate on the ontological (the nature) and teleological (the purpose) base of the concept „work‟, its meaning in society and application in work psychology. Such debate would inform the ...

  4. Effect of mowing and grazing on ramet emergence of Leymus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-21

    Mar 21, 2011 ... experiment was conducted in the spring of 2004 to investigate the effects on the surface soil temperature caused by mowing, grazing and grazing exclusion, and the influence of these factors on the ramets emergence characteristics. The primary effect of the treatments was significant changes in.

  5. Does delaying the first mowing date benefit biodiversity in meadowland?

    OpenAIRE

    Humbert J.Y. J. Pellet P. Buri & R. Arlettaz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Meadows are regularly mown in order to provide fodder or litter for livestock and to prevent vegetation succession. However the time of year at which meadows should be first mown in order to maximize biological diversity remains controversial and may vary with respect to context and focal taxa. We carried out a systematic review and meta analysis on the effects of delaying the first mowing date upon plants and invertebrates in European meadowlands. Methods: Following a CEE protoco...

  6. Microwave sensors for detection of wild animals during pasture mowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patrovsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 400000 wild animals are killed or severely injured every year during spring time pasture mowing. Conventional methods for detection and removal or expulsion of animals before mowing are either inefficient or very time-consuming. The first really working method is based on a pyro-detector which senses the temperature contrast between the animals body and the surrounding pasture. Unfortunately, the detection reliability of this sensor decreases with increasing ambient temperature and strong sunlight, i.e. for typical weather conditions, when pasture is mowed, especially around noon. In this paper, a detector is presented that exhibits complementary behaviour. It works best during dry conditions (i.e. around noon, but has a tendency to false alarms when dew is present (i.e. morning and evening. The sensor is based on a commercial, low-cost Doppler module at 24GHz. It senses the difference of radar cross section between the animals body (high water content, specular reflection and the pasture (low water content, diffuse reflection. The signal is analysed by means of a non-linear Wigner time-frequency transformation. Experimental results are presented for a laboratory setup as well as for measurement in actual spring-time pasture. The results prove that a microwave sensor is capable of reliably detecting animals of the size of a fawn even if it is covered by a layer of pasture.

  7. Does delaying the first mowing date benefit biodiversity in meadowland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humbert Jean-Yves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meadows are regularly mown in order to provide fodder or litter for livestock and to prevent vegetation succession. However, the time of year at which meadows should be first mown in order to maximize biological diversity remains controversial and may vary with respect to context and focal taxa. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of delaying the first mowing date upon plants and invertebrates in European meadowlands. Methods Following a CEE protocol, ISI Web of Science, Science Direct, JSTOR, Google and Google Scholar were searched. We recorded all studies that compared the species richness of plants, or the species richness or abundance of invertebrates, between grassland plots mown at a postponed date (treatment vs plots mown earlier (control. In order to be included in the meta-analysis, compared plots had to be similar in all management respects, except the date of the first cut that was (mostly experimentally manipulated. They were also to be located in the same meadow type. Meta-analyses applying Hedges’d statistic were performed. Results Plant species richness responded differently to the date to which mowing was postponed. Delaying mowing from spring to summer had a positive effect, while delaying either from spring to fall, or from early summer to later in the season had a negative effect. Invertebrates were expected to show a strong response to delayed mowing due to their dependence on sward structure, but only species richness showed a clearly significant positive response. Invertebrate abundance was positively influenced in only a few studies. Conclusions The present meta-analysis shows that in general delaying the first mowing date in European meadowlands has either positive or neutral effects on plant and invertebrate biodiversity (except for plant species richness when delaying from spring to fall or from early summer to later. Overall, there was also strong between

  8. Determination of thermodynamical coefficients for Mo-W alloys according to short-range order parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhin, L.N.; Mokrov, A.P.; Shivrin, O.N.; Khanina, N.I.

    1986-01-01

    A method is proposed for determining thermodynamical coefficients according to short-range order parameters. The method approbation for Mo-W alloys has shown a good agreement between the thermodynamical and diffusion data. The Mo-W system in the concentration range under study is close to the ideal one. The calculated relative error of determination of interdiffusion coefficients in alloys of the Mo-W system does not exceed 16%

  9. Effect of different mowing regimes on butterflies and diurnal moths on road verges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtonen, A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In northern and central Europe road verges offer alternative habitats for declining plant and invertebrate species of semi-natural grasslands. The quality of road verges as habitats depends on several factors, of which the mowing regime is one of the easiest to modify. In this study we compared the Lepidoptera communities on road verges that underwent three different mowing regimes regarding the timing and intensity of mowing; mowing in mid-summer, mowing in late summer, and partial mowing (a narrow strip next to the road. A total of 12,174 individuals and 107 species of Lepidoptera were recorded. The mid-summer mown verges had lower species richness and abundance of butterflies and lower species richness and diversity of diurnal moths compared to the late summer and partially mown verges. By delaying the annual mowing until late summer or promoting mosaic-like mowing regimes, such as partial mowing, the quality of road verges as habitats for butterflies and diurnal moths can be improved.

  10. Time of mowing and burning veld: short term effects on production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a comparison of mowing and burning as removal treatments in the Natal Tall Grassveld, mowing proved to be superior to burning in terms of sward productivity in the season following the removal treatment, but burning was responsible for a sward of higher protein content, at least during the early part of the season.

  11. Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kirk W.; Bates, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Dustin D.; Nafus, Aleta M.

    2009-07-01

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time . Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height ( P < 0.05), but all characteristics were recovering ( P < 0.05). Mowing A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves ( P < 0.05), but it simultaneously results in up to 20 years of decrease in Artemisia structural characteristics. Because of the large reduction in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis for potentially 20 years following mowing, mowing should not be applied in Artemisia facultative and obligate wildlife winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities.

  12. Comparison of multi-enzyme and thermophilic bacteria on the hydrolysis of mariculture organic waste (MOW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Sun, Mei; Zong, Yan; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2016-01-01

    Mariculture organic waste (MOW) is rich in organic matter, which is a potential energy resource for anaerobic digestion. In order to enhance the anaerobic fermentation, the MOW was hydrolyzed by multi-enzyme and thermophilic bacteria. It was advantageous for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) release at MOW concentrations of 6 and 10 g/L with multi-enzyme and thermophilic bacteria pretreatments. For multi-enzyme, the hydrolysis was not obvious at substrate concentrations of 1 and 3 g/L, and the protein and carbohydrate increased with hydrolysis time at substrate concentrations of 6 and 10 g/L. For thermophilic bacteria, the carbohydrate was first released at 2-4 h and then consumed, and the protein increased with hydrolysis time. The optimal enzyme hydrolysis for MOW was determined by measuring the changes of SCOD, protein, carbohydrate, ammonia and total phosphorus, and comparing with acid and alkaline pretreatments.

  13. Attempting to restore herbaceous understories in Wyoming big sagebrush communities with mowing and seeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrub steppe communities with depleted perennial herbaceous understories need to be restored to increase resilience, provide quality wildlife habitat, and improve ecosystem function. Mowing has been applied to Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle &Young) steppe...

  14. Does the different mowing regime affect soil biological activity and floristic composition of thermophilous Pieniny meadow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Zarzycki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The study area was located in the Pieniny National Park in the Carpathian Mountain (Southern Poland). About 30% of Park's area is covered by meadows. The climax stage of this area is forest. Therefore extensive use is indispensable action to keep semi-natural grassland such as termophilous Pieniny meadows, which are characterized by a very high biodiversity. The purpose of this research was to answer the question, how the different way of mowing: traditional scything (H), and mechanical mowing (M) or abandonment of mowing (N) effect on the biological activity of soil. Soil biological activity has been expressed by microbial and soil fauna activity. Microbial activity was described directly by count of microorganisms and indirectly by enzymatic activity (dehydrogenase - DHA) and the microbial biomass carbon content (MBC). Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae were chosen as representatives of soil fauna. Density and species diversity of this Oligochaeta was determined. Samples were collected twice in June (before mowing) and in September (after mowing). Basic soil properties, such as pH value, organic carbon and nitrogen content, moisture and temperature, were determined. Mean count of vegetative bacteria forms, fungi and Actinobacteria was higher in H than M and N. Amount of bacteria connected with nitrification and denitrification process and Clostridium pasteurianum was the highest in soil where mowing was discontinued 11 years ago. The microbial activity measured indirectly by MBC and DHA indicated that the M had the highest activity. The soil biological activity in second term of sampling had generally higher activity than soil collected in June. That was probably connected with highest organic carbon content in soil resulting from mowing and the end of growing season. Higher earthworm density was in mowing soil (220 and 208 individuals m-2 in H and M respectively) compare to non-mowing one (77 ind. m-2). The density of Enchytraeidae was inversely, the higher density

  15. Mowing exacerbates the loss of ecosystem stability under nitrogen enrichment in a temperate grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhai; Loreau, Michel; He, Nianpeng; Zhang, Guangming; Han, Xingguo

    2017-08-04

    1. Global reactive nitrogen (N) is projected to further increase in the coming years. Previous studies have demonstrated that N enrichment weakens the temporal stability of the ecosystem and the primary productivity through decreased biodiversity and species asynchrony. Mowing is a globally common practise in grasslands; and infrequent mowing can maintain or increase plant diversity under N enrichment conditions. However, it is unclear how infrequent mowing affects ecosystem stability in the face of N enrichment. 2. By independently manipulating the frequency (twice vs. monthly additions per year) and rate (i.e. 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 50 g N m -2 year -1 ) of NH 4 NO 3 inputs and mowing (unmown vs. mown) over 3 years (2011-2013) in a temperate grassland of northern China, we aimed to examine the interactive effects of N enrichment and mowing on ecosystem stability. 3. The results show that mowing maintained a positive relationship between species richness and ecosystem stability despite N addition, but that it exacerbated the negative effects of N addition on ecosystem stability. Mowing increased mean primary productivity and plant species richness, but it also increased the synchrony of population fluctuations and the variability of primary productivity under N enrichment, thereby contributing to a decline in the ecosystem stability. 4. Thus, our study reveals that infrequent mowing can buffer the negative effects of N enrichment on biodiversity to some extent and further increase the primary productivity, but it exacerbates the loss of ecosystem stability with N enrichment, thereby threatening local and/or semiarid regional food security.

  16. Mowing Submerged Macrophytes in Shallow Lakes with Alternative Stable States: Battling the Good Guys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Jan J.; Verhofstad, Michiel J. J. M.; Louwers, Evelien L. M.; Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Brederveld, Robert J.; van Gerven, Luuk P. A.; Janssen, Annette B. G.; de Klein, Jeroen J. M.; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2017-04-01

    Submerged macrophytes play an important role in maintaining good water quality in shallow lakes. Yet extensive stands easily interfere with various services provided by these lakes, and harvesting is increasingly applied as a management measure. Because shallow lakes may possess alternative stable states over a wide range of environmental conditions, designing a successful mowing strategy is challenging, given the important role of macrophytes in stabilizing the clear water state. In this study, the integrated ecosystem model PCLake is used to explore the consequences of mowing, in terms of reducing nuisance and ecosystem stability, for a wide range of external nutrient loadings, mowing intensities and timings. Elodea is used as a model species. Additionally, we use PCLake to estimate how much phosphorus is removed with the harvested biomass, and evaluate the long-term effect of harvesting. Our model indicates that mowing can temporarily reduce nuisance caused by submerged plants in the first weeks after cutting, particularly when external nutrient loading is fairly low. The risk of instigating a regime shift can be tempered by mowing halfway the growing season when the resilience of the system is highest, as our model showed. Up to half of the phosphorus entering the system can potentially be removed along with the harvested biomass. As a result, prolonged mowing can prevent an oligo—to mesotrophic lake from becoming eutrophic to a certain extent, as our model shows that the critical nutrient loading, where the lake shifts to the turbid phytoplankton-dominated state, can be slightly increased.

  17. Combining glyphosate with burning or mowing improves control of Yellow Bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, S.; Hickman, Karen R.; Harmoney, Keith R.; Leslie,, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The invasive yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum [L.] Keng) threatens native biodiversity, and its control is of interest to land managers involved in restoration of invaded grasslands. We used single, double, and triple applications of glyphosate (2.125 kg ai.ha-1.application-1) over the course of one growing season in combinations at different timings (early, middle, late season) with and without a mechanical treatment of mowing or burning to determine the most effective control method. One year after treatment, burning and mowing prior to a mid-season single or double early, middle, and/or late season herbicide application resulted in a similar level of control of yellow bluestem relative to a triple herbicide application, all of which had greater control relative to herbicide treatment alone. Reproductive tiller density and visual obstruction increased 2 yr after treatment with two herbicide treatments applied either early and middle season or early and late season, but it was prevented with burning and mowing prior to herbicide application. With the exception of three herbicide applications, combining burning or mowing with herbicide applications provided more effective control of yellow bluestem than any individual herbicide applications. Burning or mowing likely improves glyphosate effectiveness by altering the invasive grass structure so that plants are clear of standing dead and have shorter, active regrowth to enhance herbicide effectiveness. During restoration projects requiring control of invasive yellow bluestem, an effective management option is a combination of mechanical and chemical control.

  18. Effects of mowing cessation and hydrology on plant trait distribution in natural fen meadows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdekamp, W.; Beauchard, O.; Backx, H.; Franken, F.; Cox, T.J.S.; Van Diggelen, R.; Meire, P.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional grasslands are often of high conservation value, but depend on non-intensive management like mowing for their preservation. During the 20th century, traditional agricultural usage was either heavily intensified or abandoned due to socio-economic reasons. In Eastern Europe, land

  19. Do Children Understand the Basic Relationship Between Speech and Writing? The Mow-Motorcycle Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Paul; And Others

    School children (N=218) who have not yet attained moderate reading fluency were tested for their awareness of a fundamental relationship between our writing system and speech: that the sounds of speech are represented in writing. Children were shown a long and short word written on a card (e.g., mow and motorcycle), and asked which word…

  20. The effect of winter burning and mowing on seasonal herbage yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of Eragrostis curvula cv. Ermelo to three levels of fertilizer (no nitrogen or phosphorus; 53 kg nitrogen + 16 kg phosphorus per ha; and 106 kg nitrogen + 32 kg phosphorus per ha), three times of removing unutilized herbage (July, August and September) and three methods of herbage removal (annual mowing ...

  1. Effects of vegetation management by mowing on ground-dwelling arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Schaffers, A.P.; Sykora, K.V.

    2010-01-01

    Species-rich grasslands are rare in the Netherlands and need consistent vegetation management to retain their characteristic biodiversity. Roadside verges are important refuges for grassland plants since the mowing management no longer aims at traffic safety only but also strives for botanical

  2. Effect of repeated mowing to reduce graminoid plant cover on the moss carpet at a Sphagnum farm in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guêné-Nanchen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sphagnum farming is defined as the sustainable production of non-decomposed Sphagnum biomass on a cyclical and renewable basis. In this article, the influence and necessity of mowing graminoid plants to optimise Sphagnum growth in Sphagnum farming basins are examined. Repeated mowing was applied to reduce graminoid plant cover at two different stages of the production cycle (one-year-old and seven-year-old Sphagnum moss carpet at the beginning of the experiment at an experimental Sphagnum farm in eastern Canada. Sphagnum growth (cover, biomass, moss layer thickness was measured after three years of mowing. In addition, a greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine whether there is a threshold for graminoid plant cover beyond which mowing becomes necessary. Sphagnum cover and biomass were not affected by repeated mowing, even if mowing reduced the cover of graminoid plants. Thus, it appears that mowing is unnecessary if the dominant vascular species is a graminoid plant such as Eriophorum angustifolium, which accumulates minimal amounts of litter. Furthermore, high cover of Eriophorum angustifolium (up to 85 % did not affect Sphagnum cover in a density-controlled greenhouse experiment. When the specific goal is Sphagnum fibre production, decisions about control of graminoid plants should be made after considering the cover, life form and litter accumulation potentials of the dominant graminoid species involved.

  3. Mowing mitigates bioactivity of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of flowering lawn weeds and turfgrass guttation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jonathan L; Redmond, Carl T; Potter, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic neonicotinoid insecticides are used to control turfgrass insect pests. The authors tested their transference into nectar of flowering lawn weeds or grass guttation droplets, which, if high enough, could be hazardous to bees or other insects that feed on such exudates. The authors applied imidacloprid or clothianidin to turf with white clover, followed by irrigation, and used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze residues in clover blooms that were directly sprayed during application or that formed after the first mowing. Imidacloprid residues in guttation fluid from field-grown creeping bentgrass were assessed similarly. The authors used Orius insidiosus, a small anthrocorid bug that is sensitive to dietary neonicotinoids, as a bioindicator of the exudates' toxicity. Nectar from directly sprayed clover blooms contained 5493 ng/g to 6588 ng/g imidacloprid or 2882 ng/g to 2992 ng/g clothianidin and was acutely toxic to Orius. Residues were 99.4% to 99.8% lower in nectar of blooms formed after mowing, and nontoxic to Orius. Imidacloprid residues in turfgrass guttation averaged 88 ng/g at 1 wk after treatment, causing some intoxication of Orius, but declined to 23 ng/g within 3 wk. Systemic transference of neonicotinoids into white clover nectar and creeping bentgrass guttation appears relatively low and transitory. The hazard to nontarget insects via nectar of flowering weeds in treated lawns can be mitigated by adhering to label precautions and mowing to remove blooms if they are inadvertently sprayed. © 2014 SETAC.

  4. Diversification of mowing regime increases arthropods diversity in species-poor cultural hay meadows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, O.; Zámečník, J.; Tropek, Robert; Kočárek, P.; Konvička, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2012), s. 215-226 ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA MŽP SP/2D3/62/08 Grant - others:Czech Agency for Nature Conservation(CZ) PPK-35a/62/06 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : hay meadows * arthropods conservation * mowing regimes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2012 http://www.muzeumhk.cz/files/jaroslav_zamecnik/2012_cizek_zamecnik.pdf

  5. Comparative study of NiW, NiMo and MoW prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Sagarzazu, A.; Villalba, R.; Ochoa, J.

    2007-01-01

    The present work concern the amorphisation process induced by mechanical alloying in the NiW, NiMo and MoW systems. The alloys chosen combine a group of transition elements varying from very similar atomic radius and electronic valences (MoW) to different ones (NiW and NiMo). The three systems achieved an amorphous state after 50 h of milling. The mechanism of amorphisation proposed for NiW and NiMo was the combined effect of an excess concentration of the solute atoms entering into the structure of one of the elements and a critical concentration of defects. Continuous formation of an amorphous phase at the interface of the crystalline phase was observed during the process. MoW seems to amorphize by continuous reduction of grain size down to a critical value where the amorphisation takes place

  6. The Effect of Artificial Mowing on the Competition of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora in the Yangtze Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spartina alterniflora Loisel. is one of the most invasive species in the world. However, little is known about the role of artificial mowing in its invasiveness and competiveness. In this work, we studied the effect of mowing on its interspecific interactions with native species Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin ex Steud of the Yangtze Estuary, China. We calculated their relative neighbor effect (RNE index, effect of relative crowding (Dr index, and interaction strength (I index. The results showed that the RNE of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora was 0.354 and 0.619, respectively, and they have competitive interactions. The mowing treatments can significantly influence the RNE of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora on each other. Concretely, the RNE of Spartina alterniflora in the removal treatments was significantly higher than the value in the controls. But the RNE of Phragmites australis in the removal treatments was significantly lower than the value in the controls. Meanwhile, Dr of the two species on the targets was higher in the removal treatments than that in the controls, and the opposite was for I. We concluded that artificial mowing could promote the invasion of Spartina alterniflora by increasing its competitive performance compared with native species.

  7. Mathematically modelling the power requirement for a vertical shaft mowing machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Simón Pérez de Corcho Fuentes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a mathematical model for determining the power demand for a vertical shaft mowing machine, particularly taking into account the influence of speed on cutting power, which is different from that of other models of mowers. The influence of the apparatus’ rotation and translation speeds was simulated in determining power demand. The results showed that no chan-ges in cutting power were produced by varying the knives’ angular speed (if translation speed was constant, while cutting power became increased if translation speed was increased. Variations in angular speed, however, influenced other parameters deter-mining total power demand. Determining this vertical shaft mower’s cutting pattern led to obtaining good crop stubble quality at the mower’s lower rotation speed, hence reducing total energy requirements.

  8. Development of a Motorized Afifia Mowing Machine Design for Controlling Environmental Conservation and Menace for Home Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbasouzor Austin Ikechukwu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology has become more affordable and penetrates every aspect of daily life, even in developing country like Nigeria. However many of the users in developing countries are still finding difficulty in using the technologies due to lack of experience as they undergo a technology leap. The aim of this research work explores the approach in designing, development of a motorized Afifia (grass mowing machine. This research was considered because of the unhygienic environmental conservation and its menace. An estimate of 20N was adopted as the required force to cut lawns and based on this design force of 70N was chosen. This design force was the basis of characterizing the selection of materials use, as a result it was found that the machine is 85% efficient based on the area mowed per hour which is 390.6m2.

  9. Characterization of aerosol particles from grass mowing by joint deployment of ToF-AMS and ATOFMS instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnick, Frank; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Harrison, Roy

    During a measurement campaign at a semi-urban/industrial site a grass-cutting event was observed, when the lawn in the immediate surrounding of the measurement site was mowed. Using a wide variety of state-of-the-art aerosol measurement technology allowed a broad characterization of the aerosol generated by the lawn mowing. The instrumentation included two on-line aerosol mass spectrometers: an Aerodyne Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ToF-AMS) and a TSI Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS); in addition, a selection of on-line aerosol concentration and size distribution instruments (OPC, APS, SMPS, CPC, FDMS-TEOM, MAAP) was deployed. From comparison of background aerosol measurements during most of the day with the aerosol measured during the lawn mowing, the grass cutting was found to generate mainly two different types of aerosol particles: an intense ultrafine particle mode (1 h average: 4 μg m -3) of almost pure hydrocarbon-like organics and a distinct particle mode in the upper sub-micrometer size range containing particles with potassium and nitrogen-organic compounds. The ultrafine particles are probably lubricating oil particles from the lawn mower exhaust; the larger particles are swirled-up plant debris particles from the mowing process. While these particle types were identified in the data from the two mass spectrometers, the on-line aerosol concentration and size distribution data support these findings. The results presented here show that the combination of quantitative aerosol particle ensemble mass spectrometry (ToF-AMS) and single particle mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) provides much deeper insights into the nature of the aerosol properties than each of the instruments could do alone. Therefore a combined deployment of both types of instruments is strongly recommended.

  10. Allelopathic cover crop prior to seeding is more important than subsequent grazing/mowing in grassland establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchunas, Daniel G.; Vandever, Mark W.; Ball, Leonard O.; Hyberg, Skip

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grazing, mowing, and type of cover crop were evaluated in a previous winter wheat–fallow cropland seeded to grassland under the Conservation Reserve Program in eastern Colorado. Prior to seeding, the fallow strips were planted to forage sorghum or wheat in alternating strips (cover crops), with no grazing, moderate to heavy grazing, and mowing (grazing treatments) superimposed 4 yr after planting and studied for 3 yr. Plots previously in wheat had more annual and exotic species than sorghum plots. Concomitantly, there were much greater abundances of perennial native grass and all native species in sorghum than wheat cropped areas. The competitive advantage gained by seeded species in sorghum plots resulted in large increases in rhizomatous western wheatgrass. Sorghum is known to be allelopathic and is used in crop agriculture rotations to suppress weeds and increase crop yields, consistent with the responses of weed and desired native species in this study. Grazing treatment had relatively minor effects on basal and canopy cover composition of annual or exotic species versus perennial native grass or native species. Although grazing treatment never was a significant main effect, it occasionally modified cover crop or year effects. Opportunistic grazing reduced exotic cheatgrass by year 3 but also decreased the native palatable western wheatgrass. Mowing was a less effective weed control practice than grazing. Vegetative basal cover and aboveground primary production varied primarily with year. Common management practices for revegetation/restoration currently use herbicides and mowing as weed control practices and restrict grazing in all stages of development. Results suggest that allelopathic cover crop selection and opportunistic grazing can be effective alternative grass establishment and weed control practices. Susceptibility, resistance, and interactions of weed and seeded species to allelopathic cover species/cultivars may be a fruitful area

  11. A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for CVD diamond deposition on steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundrát, Vojtěch; Sullivan, John; Ye, Haitao, E-mail: h.ye@aston.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Zhang, Xiaoling; Cooke, Kevin; Sun, Hailin [Miba Coating Group: Teer Coatings Ltd, West-Stone-House, West-Stone, Berry-Hill-Industrial-Estate, WR9 9AS, Droitwich (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42) substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo) – tungsten (W) interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the CVD diamond deposition.

  12. A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for CVD diamond deposition on steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrát, Vojtěch; Zhang, Xiaoling; Cooke, Kevin; Sun, Hailin; Sullivan, John; Ye, Haitao

    2015-04-01

    Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42) substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo) - tungsten (W) interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the CVD diamond deposition.

  13. Recent progress on RE2O3-Mo/W emission materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinshu; Zhang, Xizhu; Liu, Wei; Cui, Yuntao; Wang, Yiman; Zhou, Meiling

    2012-08-01

    RE2O3-Mo/W cathodes were prepared by powder metallurgy method. La2O3-Y2O3-Mo cermet cathodes prepared by traditional sintering method and spark plasma sintering (SPS) exhibit different secondary emission properties. The La2O3-Y2O3-Mo cermet cathode prepared by SPS method has smaller grain size and exhibits better secondary emission performance. Monte carlo calculation results indicate that the secondary electron emission way of the cathode correlates with the grain size. Decreasing the grain size can decrease the positive charging effect of RE2O3 and thus is favorable for the escaping of secondary electrons to vacuum. The Scandia doped tungsten matrix dispenser cathode with a sub-micrometer microstructure of matrix with uniformly distributed nanometer-particles of Scandia has good thermionic emission property. Over 100 A/cm2 full space charge limited current density can be obtained at 950Cb. The cathode surface is covered by a Ba-Sc-O active surface layer with nano-particles distributing mainly on growth steps of W grains, leads to the conspicuous emission property of the cathode.

  14. A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for CVD diamond deposition on steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kundrát

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (CVD processes is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42 substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo – tungsten (W interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the CVD diamond deposition.

  15. Estimated Mortality of Selected Migratory Bird Species from Mowing and Other Mechanical Operations in Canadian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Tews

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical operations such as mowing, tilling, seeding, and harvesting are well-known sources of direct avian mortality in agricultural fields. However, there are currently no mortality rate estimates available for any species group or larger jurisdiction. Even reviews of sources of mortality in birds have failed to address mechanical disturbance in farm fields. To overcome this information gap we provide estimates of total mortality rates by mechanical operations for five selected species across Canada. In our step-by-step modeling approach we (i quantified the amount of various types of agricultural land in each Bird Conservation Region (BCR in Canada, (ii estimated population densities by region and agricultural habitat type for each selected species, (iii estimated the average timing of mechanical agricultural activities, egg laying, and fledging, (iv and used these values and additional demographical parameters to derive estimates of total mortality by species within each BCR. Based on our calculations the total annual estimated incidental take of young ranged from ~138,000 for Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris to as much as ~941,000 for Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis. Net losses to the fall flight of birds, i.e., those birds that would have fledged successfully in the absence of mechanical disturbance, were, for example ~321,000 for Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus and ~483,000 for Savannah Sparrow. Although our estimates are subject to an unknown degree of uncertainty, this assessment is a very important first step because it provides a broad estimate of incidental take for a set of species that may be particularly vulnerable to mechanical operations and a starting point for future refinements of model parameters if and when they become available.

  16. Isothermal and dynamic oxidation behaviour of Mo-W doped carbon-based coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Paranjayee; Ehiasarian, Arutiun P.; Hovsepian, Papken Eh.

    2015-10-01

    The oxidation behaviour of Mo-W doped carbon-based coating (Mo-W-C) is investigated in elevated temperature (400-1000 °C). Strong metallurgical bond between Mo-W-C coating and substrate prevents any sort of delamination during heat-treatment. Isothermal oxidation tests show initial growth of metal oxides at 500 °C, however graphitic nature of the as-deposited coating is preserved. The oxidation progresses with further rise in temperature and the substrate is eventually exposed at 700 °C. The performance of Mo-W-C coating is compared with a state-of-the-art DLC(Cr/Cr-WC/W:C-H/a:C-H) coating, which shows preliminary oxidation at 400 °C and local delamination of the coating at 500 °C leading to substrate exposure. The graphitisation starts at 400 °C and the diamond-like structure is completely converted into the graphite-like structure at 500 °C. Dynamic oxidation behaviour of both the coatings is investigated using Thermo-gravimetric analysis carried out with a slow heating rate of 1 °C/min from ambient temperature to 1000 °C. Mo-W-C coating resists oxidation up to ˜800 °C whereas delamination of DLC(Cr/Cr-WC/W:C-H/a:C-H) coating is observed beyond ˜380 °C. In summary, Mo-W-C coating provides improved oxidation resistance at elevated temperature compared to DLC(Cr/Cr-WC/W:C-H/a:C-H) coating.

  17. The interplay of stress and mowing disturbance for the intensity and importance of plant interactions in dry calcareous grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Jean-Paul; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Marchand, Lilian; Touzard, Blaise; Michalet, Richard

    2012-09-01

    There is still debate regarding the direction and strength of plant interactions under intermediate to high levels of stress. Furthermore, little is known on how disturbance may interact with physical stress in unproductive environments, although recent theory and models have shown that this interplay may induce a collapse of plant interactions and diversity. The few studies assessing such questions have considered the intensity of biotic interactions but not their importance, although this latter concept has been shown to be very useful for understanding the role of interactions in plant communities. The objective of this study was to assess the interplay between stress and disturbance for plant interactions in dry calcareous grasslands. A field experiment was set up in the Dordogne, southern France, where the importance and intensity of biotic interactions undergone by four species were measured along a water stress gradient, and with and without mowing disturbance. The importance and intensity of interactions varied in a very similar way along treatments. Under undisturbed conditions, plant interactions switched from competition to neutral with increasing water stress for three of the four species, whereas the fourth species was not subject to any significant biotic interaction along the gradient. Responses to disturbance were more species-specific; for two species, competition disappeared with mowing in the wettest conditions, whereas for the two other species, competition switched to facilitation with mowing. Finally, there were no significant interactions for any species in the disturbed and driest conditions. At very high levels of stress, plant performances become too weak to allow either competition or facilitation and disturbance may accelerate the collapse of interactions in dry conditions. The results suggest that the importance and direction of interactions are more likely to be positively related in stressful environments.

  18. The nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of MOW clients and the need for further targeted strategies to enhance intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Karen; Charlton, Karen E; Manning, Fiona; McMahon, Anne T; Galea, Sarah; Evans, Kaitlyn

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of literature about the nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of Meals on Wheels (MOW) clients. The current study aimed to determine the nutritional status and the adequacy of energy and protein intakes of MOW clients. Forty-two clients were recruited from two MOW services in the Illawarra region of Australia for assessment of their nutritional status, using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA(®)). Estimated energy and protein intakes for a MOW day were compared to a non-MOW day and average daily energy and protein intakes were assessed against estimated daily requirements. A single dietitian performed all assessments and home based interviews to explore the client's perception of the service. Mean daily energy intake (7593 (±2012) kJ) was not significantly different to estimated requirements (7720 (±975) kJ) (P = 0.480), while mean daily protein intake was higher (78.7 (±23.4) g) than calculated requirements (68.4 (±10.8) g; P = 0.009). However 16 clients were identified as at risk of malnutrition and 2 were malnourished; consuming 2072 kJ (P = 0.000) less energy and 20.4 g less protein (P = 0.004) per day compared to well-nourished clients. MOW clients are at risk of being poorly nourished and meals delivered by the service provide an important contribution to overall intakes. These findings support the need for regular nutrition screening and dietary monitoring in this high risk group, to identify those for whom additional strategies may be indicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Promoting Pollinating Insects in Intensive Agricultural Matrices: Field-Scale Experimental Manipulation of Hay-Meadow Mowing Regimes and Its Effects on Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Pierrick; Humbert, Jean-Yves; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    Bees are a key component of biodiversity as they ensure a crucial ecosystem service: pollination. This ecosystem service is nowadays threatened, because bees suffer from agricultural intensification. Yet, bees rarely benefit from the measures established to promote biodiversity in farmland, such as agri-environment schemes (AES). We experimentally tested if the spatio-temporal modification of mowing regimes within extensively managed hay meadows, a widespread AES, can promote bees. We applied a randomized block design, replicated 12 times across the Swiss lowlands, that consisted of three different mowing treatments: 1) first cut not before 15 June (conventional regime for meadows within Swiss AES); 2) first cut not before 15 June, as treatment 1 but with 15% of area left uncut serving as a refuge; 3) first cut not before 15 July. Bees were collected with pan traps, twice during the vegetation season (before and after mowing). Wild bee abundance and species richness significantly increased in meadows where uncut refuges were left, in comparison to meadows without refuges: there was both an immediate (within year) and cumulative (from one year to the following) positive effect of the uncut refuge treatment. An immediate positive effect of delayed mowing was also evidenced in both wild bees and honey bees. Conventional AES could easily accommodate such a simple management prescription that promotes farmland biodiversity and is likely to enhance pollination services. PMID:24416434

  20. Promoting pollinating insects in intensive agricultural matrices: field-scale experimental manipulation of hay-meadow mowing regimes and its effects on bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Pierrick; Humbert, Jean-Yves; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    Bees are a key component of biodiversity as they ensure a crucial ecosystem service: pollination. This ecosystem service is nowadays threatened, because bees suffer from agricultural intensification. Yet, bees rarely benefit from the measures established to promote biodiversity in farmland, such as agri-environment schemes (AES). We experimentally tested if the spatio-temporal modification of mowing regimes within extensively managed hay meadows, a widespread AES, can promote bees. We applied a randomized block design, replicated 12 times across the Swiss lowlands, that consisted of three different mowing treatments: 1) first cut not before 15 June (conventional regime for meadows within Swiss AES); 2) first cut not before 15 June, as treatment 1 but with 15% of area left uncut serving as a refuge; 3) first cut not before 15 July. Bees were collected with pan traps, twice during the vegetation season (before and after mowing). Wild bee abundance and species richness significantly increased in meadows where uncut refuges were left, in comparison to meadows without refuges: there was both an immediate (within year) and cumulative (from one year to the following) positive effect of the uncut refuge treatment. An immediate positive effect of delayed mowing was also evidenced in both wild bees and honey bees. Conventional AES could easily accommodate such a simple management prescription that promotes farmland biodiversity and is likely to enhance pollination services.

  1. Promoting pollinating insects in intensive agricultural matrices: field-scale experimental manipulation of hay-meadow mowing regimes and its effects on bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierrick Buri

    Full Text Available Bees are a key component of biodiversity as they ensure a crucial ecosystem service: pollination. This ecosystem service is nowadays threatened, because bees suffer from agricultural intensification. Yet, bees rarely benefit from the measures established to promote biodiversity in farmland, such as agri-environment schemes (AES. We experimentally tested if the spatio-temporal modification of mowing regimes within extensively managed hay meadows, a widespread AES, can promote bees. We applied a randomized block design, replicated 12 times across the Swiss lowlands, that consisted of three different mowing treatments: 1 first cut not before 15 June (conventional regime for meadows within Swiss AES; 2 first cut not before 15 June, as treatment 1 but with 15% of area left uncut serving as a refuge; 3 first cut not before 15 July. Bees were collected with pan traps, twice during the vegetation season (before and after mowing. Wild bee abundance and species richness significantly increased in meadows where uncut refuges were left, in comparison to meadows without refuges: there was both an immediate (within year and cumulative (from one year to the following positive effect of the uncut refuge treatment. An immediate positive effect of delayed mowing was also evidenced in both wild bees and honey bees. Conventional AES could easily accommodate such a simple management prescription that promotes farmland biodiversity and is likely to enhance pollination services.

  2. Linking Above- and Belowground Responses to 16 Years of Fertilization, Mowing, and Removal of the Dominant Species in a Temperate Grassland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotas, Petr; Chroma, M.; Šantrůčková, H.; Lepš, Jan; Tříska, Jan; Kaštovská, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2017), s. 354-367 ISSN 1432-9840 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17118S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : dominant removal * fertilization * grassland * microbial community structure * mowing * pH * PLFA Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EG - Zoology (ENTU-I) OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7); Entomology (ENTU-I) Impact factor: 4.198, year: 2016

  3. Challenges of establishing big sgebrush (Artemisia tridentata) in rangeland restoration: effects of herbicide, mowing, whole-community seeding, and sagebrush seed sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Martha M.; Germino, Matthew J.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Pilliod, David S.; McIlroy, Susan K.; Arkle, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) on sites disturbed by fire has motivated restoration seeding and planting efforts. However, the resulting sagebrush establishment is often lower than desired, especially in dry areas. Sagebrush establishment may be increased by addressing factors such as seed source and condition or management of the plant community. We assessed initial establishment of seeded sagebrush and four populations of small outplants (from different geographies, climates, and cytotypes) and small sagebrush outplants in an early seral community where mowing, herbicide, and seeding of other native plants had been experimentally applied. No emergence of seeded sagebrush was detected. Mowing the site before planting seedlings led to greater initial survival probabilities for sagebrush outplants, except where seeding also occurred, and these effects were related to corresponding changes in bare soil exposure. Initial survival probabilities were > 30% greater for the local population of big sagebrush relative to populations imported to the site from typical seed transfer distances of ~320–800 km. Overcoming the high first-year mortality of outplanted or seeded sagebrush is one of the most challenging aspects of postfire restoration and rehabilitation, and further evaluation of the impacts of herb treatments and sagebrush seed sources across different site types and years is needed.

  4. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field.

  5. The Spatial Pattern and Interactions of Woody Plants on the Temperate Savanna of Inner Mongolia, China: The Effects of Alternating Seasonal Grazing-Mowing Regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    Full Text Available Ulmus pumila tree-dominated temperate savanna, which is distributed widely throughout the forest-steppe ecotone on the Mongolian Plateau, is a relatively stable woody-herbaceous complex ecosystem in northern China. Relatively more attention has been paid to the degradation of typical steppe areas, whereas less focus has been placed on the succession of this typical temperate savanna under the present management regime. In this study, we established 3 sample plots 100 m×100 m in size along a gradient of fixed distances from one herder's stationary site and then surveyed all the woody plants in these plots. A spatial point pattern analysis was employed to clarify the spatial distribution and interaction of these woody plants. The results indicated that old U. pumila trees (DBH ≥ 20 cm showed a random distribution and that medium U. pumila trees (5 cm ≤ DBH < 20 cm showed an aggregated distribution at a smaller scale and a random distribution at a larger scale; few or no juvenile trees (DBH < 5 cm were present, and seedlings (without DBH formed aggregations in all 3 plots. These findings can be explained by an alternate seasonal grazing-mowing regime (exclosure in summer, mowing in autumn and grazing in winter and spring; the shrubs in all 3 plots exist along a grazing gradient that harbors xerophytic and mesophytic shrubs. Of these shrubs, xerophytic shrubs show significant aggregation at a smaller scale (0-5.5 m, whereas mesophytic shrubs show significant aggregation at a larger scale (0-25 m, which may be the result of the dual effects of grazing pressure and climate change. Medium trees and seedlings significantly facilitate the distributions of xerophytic shrubs and compete significantly with mesophytic shrubs due to differences in water use strategies. We conclude that the implementation of an alternative grazing-mowing regime results in xerophytic shrub encroachment or existence, breaking the chain of normal succession in a U. pumila

  6. Redox dependent behaviour of molybdenum during magmatic processes in the terrestrial and lunar mantle: Implications for the Mo/W of the bulk silicate Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzke, F. P.; Fonseca, R. O. C.; Sprung, P.; Mallmann, G.; Lagos, M.; Michely, L. T.; Münker, C.

    2017-09-01

    We present results of high-temperature olivine-melt, pyroxene-melt and plagioclase-melt partitioning experiments aimed at investigating the redox transition of Mo in silicate systems. Data for a series of other minor and trace elements (Sc, Ba, Sr, Cr, REE, Y, HFSE, U, Th and W) were also acquired to constrain the incorporation of Mo in silicate minerals. All experiments were carried out in vertical tube furnaces at 1 bar and temperatures ranging from ca. 1220 to 1300 °C. Oxygen fugacity was controlled via CO-CO2 gas mixtures and varied systematically from 5.5 log units below to 1.9 log units above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) redox buffer thereby covering the range in oxygen fugacities of terrestrial and lunar basalt genesis. Molybdenum is shown to be volatile at oxygen fugacities above FMQ and that its compatibility in pyroxene and olivine increases three orders of magnitude towards the more reducing conditions covered in this study. The partitioning results show that Mo is dominantly tetravalent at redox conditions below FMQ-4 and dominantly hexavalent at redox conditions above FMQ. Given the differences in oxidation states of the terrestrial (oxidized) and lunar (reduced) mantles, molybdenum will behave significantly differently during basalt genesis in the Earth (i.e. highly incompatible; average DMoperidotite/melt ∼ 0.008) and Moon (i.e. moderately incompatible/compatible; average DMoperidotite/melt ∼ 0.6). Thus, it is expected that Mo will strongly fractionate from W during partial melting in the lunar mantle, given that W is broadly incompatible at FMQ-5. Moreover, the depletion of Mo and the Mo/W range in lunar samples can be reproduced by simply assuming a primitive Earth-like Mo/W for the bulk silicate Moon. Such a lunar composition is in striking agreement with the Moon being derived from the primitive terrestrial mantle after core formation on Earth.

  7. Preliminary analysis on mowing and harvesting grass along riverbanks for the supply of anaerobic digestion plants in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Boscaro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of vegetal biomass for biogas production is causing competition with food production. To reduce this problem and to provide new opportunities it is necessary to take into consideration different kinds of vegetable biomass that are more sustainable. Grass from the maintenance of non-cultivated areas such as riverbanks has not yet been fully studied as a potential biomass for biogas production. Although grass has lower methane potential, it could be interesting because it does not compete with food production. However, there is a lack of appropriate technologies and working system adapted to these areas. In this paper, different systems that could be available for the mowing and harvesting of grass along riverbanks have been preliminarily assessed through the evaluation of the field capacity, labour requirement, economic and energy aspects. The splitting of the cutting and harvesting phases into operations with different machinery seems to be the best system for handling this biomass. However, these solutions have to take into consideration the presence of obstacles or accessibility problems in the harvesting areas that could limit the operational feasibility and subsequent correct sizing.

  8. Deinking of different furnishes of recycled MOW, ONP, and OMG pulps in silicate-free conditions using organic complex of PHASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Akbarpour

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sodium silicate causes problems in papermaking such as deposit formation, decreased retention, and lower sheet strength. Due to these problems, chemical deinking of different recycled papers furnishes including 100% ONP, 80% ONP, and 20% OMG, and a combination of 70% ONP/ 20% OMG/ 10% MOW was accomplished using an organic complexing agent which included poly-hydroxyl acrylic acid and sodium salt (PHAAS in silicate-free conditions. PHAAS was utilized at four levels of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1% (based on oven-dry weight of recycled paper rather than sodium silicate. The optical and physical properties of deinked pulp were compared to control pulp (conventional deinking containing 2% sodium silicate. The results showed that the paper brightness was improved and the yellowness, dirt count, and dirt area were decreased significantly by increasing PHAAS charge up to 0.9%. Also, in different recycled paper furnishes above mentioned, using different charges of PHAAS had different effects on paper opacity. Using different charges of PHAAS (especially 0.7 to 0.9% decreased paper caliper, increased paper air resistance, increased freeness, and gave similar or slightly better paper tear indices. Differences of tear indices were not significant at confidence level of 99%. Based on the present research, the use of 0.7 to 0.9% PHAAS in place of sodium silicate is advisable because of the better quality of final papers compared to conventional deinking process.

  9. Automatic Detection of Animals in Mowing Operations Using Thermal Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Green

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, high-efficiency farming equipment has been developed in the agricultural sector. This has also included efficiency improvement of moving techniques, which include increased working speeds and widths. Therefore, the risk of wild animals being accidentally injured or killed during routine farming operations has increased dramatically over the years. In particular, the nests of ground nesting bird species like grey partridge (Perdix perdix or pheasant (Phasianus colchicus are vulnerable to farming operations in their breeding habitat, whereas in mammals, the natural instinct of e.g., leverets of brown hare (Lepus europaeus and fawns of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus to lay low and still in the vegetation to avoid predators increase their risk of being killed or injured in farming operations. Various methods and approaches have been used to reduce wildlife mortality resulting from farming operations. However, since wildlife-friendly farming often results in lower efficiency, attempts have been made to develop automatic systems capable of detecting wild animals in the crop. Here we assessed the suitability of thermal imaging in combination with digital image processing to automatically detect a chicken (Gallus domesticus and a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus in a grassland habitat. Throughout the different test scenarios, our study animals were detected with a high precision, although the most dense grass cover reduced the detection rate. We conclude that thermal imaging and digital imaging processing may be an important tool for the improvement of wildlife-friendly farming practices in the future.

  10. Learning to Mow Grass: IDF Adaptations to Hybrid Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    April 2006. The language of SOD, however, was a mixed bag from “post-modern French philosophy, literary theory, architecture and psychology.”44 It...ground forces OCL soon proved this assessment. Near the end of 2008, Hamas had broken the Egyptian -brokered truce between it and Israel. Having...turned to southern Gaza to destroy more of Hamas tunnel network near the Egyptian border.176

  11. Automatic detection of animals in mowing operations using thermal cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Kim Arild; Villa-Henriksen, Andrés; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Green, Ole

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades, high-efficiency farming equipment has been developed in the agricultural sector. This has also included efficiency improvement of moving techniques, which include increased working speeds and widths. Therefore, the risk of wild animals being accidentally injured or killed during routine farming operations has increased dramatically over the years. In particular, the nests of ground nesting bird species like grey partridge (Perdix perdix) or pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) are vulnerable to farming operations in their breeding habitat, whereas in mammals, the natural instinct of e.g., leverets of brown hare (Lepus europaeus) and fawns of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) to lay low and still in the vegetation to avoid predators increase their risk of being killed or injured in farming operations. Various methods and approaches have been used to reduce wildlife mortality resulting from farming operations. However, since wildlife-friendly farming often results in lower efficiency, attempts have been made to develop automatic systems capable of detecting wild animals in the crop. Here we assessed the suitability of thermal imaging in combination with digital image processing to automatically detect a chicken (Gallus domesticus) and a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in a grassland habitat. Throughout the different test scenarios, our study animals were detected with a high precision, although the most dense grass cover reduced the detection rate. We conclude that thermal imaging and digital imaging processing may be an important tool for the improvement of wildlife-friendly farming practices in the future.

  12. Peripheral mowing blade. Final report ending 08/24/00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darden, John A.

    2000-08-24

    The first prototype built for the peripheral mower blade was the nineteen foot batwing mower. It features twelve-inch blades, three-sixteenth thick. The configuration of the mower is three individual rotor gangs housed in separate housing all mounted to a centrally located housing. Each outer gang is driven by power being diverted through the center rotor. The power is supplied to each wing through means of a disconnect mechanism which allows the outer gangs to stop in the event that particular housing is raised by hydraulic power. This unit has given us unlimited information in the drive and power applications needed to drive the peripheral blade gangs. The nineteen foot unit has not changed much from the beginning, but information received from its performance has been applied to the building of a preproduction unit that is now in progress. Another prototype unit we have work with is the seven foot mounted mower. This unit consisted of a standard ASAE category I three-point hitch. The hitch was made by using an "A" frame which formed the attaching points for the mower and two back straps that gives support to the hitch assembly. The deck allowed for one-inch blade clearance at the top and featured a slanted deck extension at both the front and rear. The extension were formed by means of two breaks that run parallel to the blade gang and angled down at one hundred thirty degrees at the front and one hundred fifteen degrees at the rear. A roller is mounted across the back of the deck. This roller offers support to the deck while on the ground and is adjustable for height of cut control. This unit was made with a small roller, and too lighter hitch. After only a few hours of test proved that both items would have to be beefed up. The rear roller was increased to a four-inch diameter. The hitch was changed to a two-sided solid metal hitch three-eighths of an inch thick on the next machines.

  13. Effect of mowing and grazing on ramet emergence of Leymus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-21

    Mar 21, 2011 ... the ramets emergence characteristics. The primary effect of the treatments was significant changes in .... calcicorthic aridisol (US soil taxonomy classification system). .... tative growth and the geographical distribution of plants. This paper shows .... Spatial pattern changes in aboveground plant biomass in a ...

  14. Annual Fire, Mowing and Fertilization Effects on Two Cicada Species (Homoptera: Cicadidae) in Tallgrass Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; Matt R. Whiles; John M. Blair

    2002-01-01

    In tallgrass prairie, cicadas emerge annually, are abundant and their emergence can be an important flux of energy and nutrients. However, factors influencing the distribution and abundance of these cicadas are virtually unknown. We examined cicada emergence in plots from a long-term (13 y) experimental manipulation involving common tallgrass prairie management...

  15. From mowing to grazing: Does the change in grassland management affect soil annelid assemblages?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlaghamerský, J.; Šídová, A.; Pižl, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, Suppl. 1 (2007), S72-S78 ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SE/620/11/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Lumbricidae * Enchytraeidae * Tubificidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2007

  16. Moths and management of a grassland reserve: regular mowing and temporary abandonment support different species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šumpich, Jan; Konvička, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 5 (2012), s. 973-987 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA MŽP SP/2D3/62/08 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * heterogeneity * seminatural meadow Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.2478%2Fs11756-012-0095-9#page-1

  17. Rasenmähen aus biopsychologischer Disposition Mowing the lawn out of biopsychological disposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochus Wolff

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Martin van Creveld will in seinem neuen Buch zeigen, dass von einer Unterdrückung der Frau keine Rede sein könne und vielmehr die Frauen das eigentlich privilegierte Geschlecht seien. Basierend auf einem fragwürdigen ‚biopsychologischen‚ Konzept versucht er, die bestehende Geschlechterordnung zu rechtfertigen, und beschreibt sie als ahistorische Wahrheit. Seine Darstellung ist durch methodische Mängel, einen zweifelhaften Umgang mit Quellen und rhetorische Überredungstechniken gekennzeichnet, was auch noch die letzten positiven Ansätze seines Buches, geschlechtsspezifische Benachteiligungen von Männern zu problematisieren, diskreditiert.In his latest book, Martin van Creveld tries to prove that women are not in fact oppressed, but that really they are the privileged sex. Based on a questionable ‚biopsychological’ concept, the author attempts to legitimate the existing order of the sexes by presenting it as ahistorical truth. His reasoning is riddled with methodological faults, a dubious way of dealing with his sources and rhetorical techniques of persuasion which only serve to discredit the few vaild points his book does make about discrimination against men.

  18. Effects of mowing utilization on forage yield and quality in five oat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... The effects of harvest treatment, variety and their interaction on hay yield (HY), crude protein yields (CPY), stem/leaf ratio (S/L ratio), fresh/dry ratio(F/D ratio), crude protein content. (CP), crude fat content (CF), crude ash content (CA) and acid detergent fibre content (ADF) of oat forage were analyzed with ...

  19. SYNTHESIS AND FABRICATION OF MO-W COMPONENTS FOR NEUTRON RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BINGERT, S.; DESCH, P.; TRUJILLO, E.

    1999-01-01

    A Molybdenum-- 182 Tungsten (Mo- 182 W) alloy was specified for an application that would ultimately result in the measurement of temperature and particle velocity during the steady state time following the shock loading of various materials. The 182 W isotope provides a tag for the analysis of neutron resonance line shape from which the temperature may be calculated. The material was specified to have 1.8 atom percent W, with W-rich regions no larger than 1 microm in size. Both the composition and W distribution were critical to the experiment. Another challenge to the processing was the very small quantity of 182 W material available for the synthesis of the alloy. Therefore, limited fabrication routes were available for evaluation. Several synthesis and processing routes were explored to fabricate the required alloy components. First, precipitation of W onto Mo powder using ammonium metatungstate was investigated for powder synthesis followed by uniaxial hot pressing. Second, mechanical alloying (MA) followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and warm forging was attempted. Finally, arc-melting techniques followed by either hot rolling or crushing the alloyed button into powder and consolidation were pursued. The results of the processing routes and characterization of the materials produced will be discussed

  20. Victims of agricultural intensification: Mowing date affects Rhinanthus spp. regeneration and fruit ripening

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažek, P.; Lepš, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 211, Dec 15 (2015), s. 10-16 ISSN 0167-8809 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : yellow rattle * hemiparasite * agri-environmental schemes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.564, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880915001553

  1. Astronomical tuning for the upper Messinian Spanish Atlantic margin : Disentangling basin evolution, climate cyclicity and MOW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, B.C.J.; Sierro, F. J.; Hilgen, F. J.; Flecker, R.; Larrasoaña, J. C.; Krijgsman, W.; Flores, J. A.; Mata, M. P.; Bellido Martín, E.; Civis, J.; González-Delgado, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new high-resolution cyclostratigraphic age model for the Messinian sediments of the Montemayor-1 core. This core was drilled in the Guadalquivir Basin in southern Spain, which formed part of the marine corridor linking the Mediterranean with the Atlantic in the Late Miocene. Tuning of

  2. Effects of mowing utilization on forage yield and quality in five oat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oat (Avena sativa) is grown to provide feed in winter for livestock production in the alpine area of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The effect of early cutting (T1), late cutting (T2) as well as once cutting and twice cutting (T3) on forage yields and qualities were investigated for five oat varieties (YTA, CNC, B3, Q473 and Q444).

  3. Effect of mowing and fertilization on biomass and carbohydrate reserves of Molinia caerulea at two organizational levels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Michael; Janeček, Štěpán; Klimešová, Jitka

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2011), 299-306 ISSN 1146-609X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963; GA ČR GA526/07/0808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Apical dominance * Resprouting, * Clonal multiplication Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.570, year: 2011

  4. A Close Cut: A Technical Report of Endovascular Removal of a Penetrating Intravascular Foreign Body after a Lawn Mowing Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, C. R. [Oxford University Hospitals, John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Gallo, A.; Silva, R. J. De [Oxford University Hospitals, John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (United Kingdom); Uberoi, R., E-mail: raman.uberoi@orh.nhs.uk [Oxford University Hospitals, John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    We present a case of endovascular retrieval of a penetrating foreign body that was originally lodged in the mediastinum and then migrated to the hepatic vein. The steel nail entered the thorax and traversed the left lung causing a pneumothorax. The patient underwent a thoracotomy, but the foreign body had migrated from its original mediastinal position. A postsurgical CT showed that the object was below the right hemidiaphragm. Diagnostic venogram demonstrated that the object was in the main hepatic vein. Using a double-snare technique, the object was safely and successfully removed from the hepatic vein via the right common femoral vein.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Ni-Mo filler brazing alloy for Mo-W joining for microwave tube technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ferrer Sene

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A brazing process based on Ni-Mo alloy was developed to join porous tungsten cathode bottom and dense molybdenum cathode body for microwave tubes manufacture. The Ni-Mo alloy was obtained by mixing and milling powders in the eutectic composition, and applied on the surface of the components. The brazing was made at 1400 °C by using induction heating in hydrogen for 5 minutes. Alumina surfaces were coated with the binder and analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-rays Fluorescence. The brazed samples were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled to Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. Stress-strain tests were performed to determine the mechanical behavior of the joining. The quality of the brazing was evaluated by assuring the presence of a "meniscus" formed by the Ni-Mo alloy on the border of the tungsten and molybdenum joint, the absence of microstructural defects in the interface between the tungsten and molybdenum alloys, and the adhesion of the brazed components.

  6. "Imagine your neighbor mows the lawn": a pilot study of psychological sequelae due to awake craniotomy: clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milian, Monika; Luerding, Ralf; Ploppa, Annette; Decker, Karlheinz; Psaras, Tsambika; Tatagiba, Marcos; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Feigl, Guenther C

    2013-06-01

    Although it has been reported that awake neurosurgical procedures are well tolerated, the long-term occurrence of general psychological sequelae has not yet been investigated. This study assessed the frequency and effects of psychological symptoms after an awake craniotomy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Sixteen patients undergoing an awake surgery were surveyed with a self-developed questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Inventory For Awake Surgery Patients, which adopts the core components of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria. The mean time between surgery and data collection was 97.3 ± 93.2 weeks. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Forty-four percent of the patients stated that they had experienced either repetitive distressing recollections or dreams related to the awake surgery, 18.8% stated persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the awake surgery, and symptoms of increased arousal occurred in 62.5%. Two patients presented with postoperative psychological sequelae resembling PTSD symptoms. Younger age at surgery and female sex were risk factors for symptoms of increased arousal. The experience of intense anxiety during awake surgery appears to favor the development of postsurgical PTSD symptoms, while recurrent distressing recollections particularly affect HRQOL negatively. In many cases awake craniotomy is necessary to preserve language and motor function. However, in some cases awake craniotomy can lead to postoperative psychological sequelae resembling PTSD symptoms. Therefore, possible long-term effects of an awake surgery should be considered and discussed with the patient when planning this type of surgery.

  7. Friction and wear behaviour of Mo-W doped carbon-based coating during boundary lubricated sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepian, Papken Eh.; Mandal, Paranjayee; Ehiasarian, Arutiun P.; Sáfrán, G.; Tietema, R.; Doerwald, D.

    2016-03-01

    A molybdenum and tungsten doped carbon-based coating (Mo-W-C) was developed in order to provide low friction in boundary lubricated sliding condition at ambient and at high temperature. The Mo-W-C coating showed the lowest friction coefficient among a number of commercially available state-of-the-art DLC coatings at ambient temperature. At elevated temperature (200 °C), Mo-W-C coating showed a significant reduction in friction coefficient with sliding distance in contrast to DLC coatings. Raman spectroscopy revealed the importance of combined Mo and W doping for achieving low friction at both ambient and high temperature. The significant decrease in friction and wear rate was attributed to the presence of graphitic carbon debris (from coating) and 'in situ' formed metal sulphides (WS2 and MoS2, where metals were supplied from coating and sulphur from engine oil) in the transfer layer.

  8. Macroinvertebrates in North American tallgrass prairie soils: effects of fire, mowing, and fertilization on density and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Callaham; J.M. Blair; T.C. Todd; D.J. Kitchen; M.R. Whiles

    2003-01-01

    The responses of tallgrass prairie plant communities and ecosystem processes to fire and grazing are well characterized. However, responses of invertebrate consumer groups. and particularly soil-dwelling organisms, to these disturbances are not well known. At Konza Prairie Biological Station. we sampled soil macroinvertebrates in 1994 and 1999 as part of a long-term...

  9. Effect of Mowing Cotton Stalks and Preventing Plant Re-Growth on Post-Harvest Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard F.; Kemerait, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a major parasite of cotton in the U.S., and management tactics for this nematode attempt to minimize population levels. We compared three post-harvest practices for their ability to reduce nematode population levels in the field, thereby reducing initial nematode population for the next year's crop. The three practices tested were: 1) chemical defoliation before harvest plus cutting cotton stalks after harvest, 2) chemical defoliation plus applying a herbicide to kill plants prior to cutting the stalks, and 3) chemical defoliation without cutting stalks. Experiments were conducted in both the greenhouse and in the field. The greenhouse experiments demonstrated that M. incognita reproduction (measured as egg counts and root gall rating indices) was significantly greater when stalks were not cut. Cutting stalks plus applying herbicide to kill cotton roots did not significantly reduce nematode reproduction compared to cutting stalks alone. In field experiments, cutting stalks reduced egg populations and root galling compared to defoliation without stalk cutting. In a greenhouse bioassay which used soil from the field plots, plants grown in soil from the defoliation only treatment had greater root gall ratings and egg counts than in the stalk cutting plus herbicide treatment. Therefore, we conclude that cutting cotton stalks immediately after harvest effectively reduces M. incognita reproduction, and may lead to a lower initial population density of this nematode in the following year. PMID:22736845

  10. MowA®: A simple and economic way of monitoring chronic wounds outcome with your mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, Francesco; Portincasa, Aurelio; Parisi, Domenico; Innocenti, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of skin ulcers of the lower extremities is a difficult challenge for surgeons as demonstrated in the literature 1,2. Furthermore objective monitoring of skin ulcers represts an important necessity for the plastic surgeon who has to update the treatment over time. In the past we had to write about systems and applications designed to catalog and manage digital libraries 3, so we have gone looking for a system to catalog and manage date related skin in ulcers. I present an application for mobile devices that allows to calculate , evaluate and analyze, the both surface area and tissue quality of skin ulcers m in a fast and practical way. The application is called "Mowa®"and it is available both for Apple and Android devices. Often we have to treat chronic injuries to the skin for several weeks and the evaluation needs to takes place in a periodic manner. An important problem for a surgeon, in the treatment of chronic wounds of the skin, is to evaluate the effectiveness of the cure in terms of "reduction of the lesion" and "quality of tissue". That is, it would be useful having s way to assess the size(area) of the wound an quality if tissues inside the lesion. This would make it objectively easier to measure the progress if the treatment in the past there have been many proposed systems 4-6. We tried in the past, to use theVisa-track system (smith & Nephew) with good outcomes, but this is limited because it can be used by a single patient at atime. The need to find a more affordable way led us to experience Mora application in our devices. This simple application allows, through a photograph, to quantify in quare centimeters the surface of the lesion. Furtermore Mowa® provides a system for detecting the fibrin percentage of granulation and necrotic tissue. The analysis of the chronic lesion of the skin is also completed by the insertion of the main characteristics of the qound, for esample, the exudate (in small quantities,moderate or a lot). The suspicion of infection, bleeding and the depth of the lesion. The application also offers a treatment algorithm based in the data entered and follows the EPUAP and NPUAP guidelines 7. Once the assessment of chronic skin lesion takes place, it is possible to produce a PDF or JPEG file with photography and the characteristics of the wound.The producted files can be shared via email. The use of this simple application is of interest to those surgeons who want a quick way to evaluate in size and percentage skin ulcers. The ability to store and search Ptients data in a fast and practice way is the strongest point of this application. Through this application you can monitor and compare both size and outcome of chronic wound over time, When using the applicatiom, if you want, there is need to include any sensitive information relates to the patients, No author has economic interest and financed by the the advertising of this application.

  11. Hydrothermal focusing of chemical and chemiosmotic energy, supported by delivery of catalytic Fe, Ni, Mo/W, Co, S and Se, forced life to emerge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Wolfgang; Russell, Michael J

    2009-11-01

    Energised by the protonmotive force and with the intervention of inorganic catalysts, at base Life reacts hydrogen from a variety of sources with atmospheric carbon dioxide. It seems inescapable that life emerged to fulfil the same role (i.e., to hydrogenate CO(2)) on the early Earth, thus outcompeting the slow geochemical reduction to methane. Life would have done so where hydrothermal hydrogen interfaced a carbonic ocean through inorganic precipitate membranes. Thus we argue that the first carbon-fixing reaction was the molybdenum-dependent, proton-translocating formate hydrogenlyase system described by Andrews et al. (Microbiology 143:3633-3647, 1997), but driven in reverse. Alkaline on the inside and acidic and carbonic on the outside - a submarine chambered hydrothermal mound built above an alkaline hydrothermal spring of long duration - offered just the conditions for such a reverse reaction imposed by the ambient protonmotive force. Assisted by the same inorganic catalysts and potential energy stores that were to evolve into the active centres of enzymes supplied variously from ocean or hydrothermal system, the formate reaction enabled the rest of the acetyl coenzyme-A pathway to be followed exergonically, first to acetate, then separately to methane. Thus the two prokaryotic domains both emerged within the hydrothermal mound-the acetogens were the forerunners of the Bacteria and the methanogens were the forerunners of the Archaea.

  12. Typha control efficiency of a weed-cutting boat in the Lac de Guiers in Senegal : A preliminary study on mowing speed and re-growth capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellsten, S.; Dieme, C.; Mbengue, M.; Janauer, G.A.; Hollander, den N.G.; Pieterse, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Prolific growth of Typha australis in the lower part of the Senegal River and the Lac de Guiers resulted from changed ecological conditions following the construction of two high dams in the Senegal River. Fluctuation of the water level has decreased markedly and the water has changed from brackish

  13. Scale- and time-dependent effects of fertilization, mowing and dominant removal on a grassland community during a 15-year experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lepš, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2014), s. 978-987 ISSN 0021-8901 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17118S Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity decline * competitive exclusion * Molinia caerulea Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.564, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.12255/pdf

  14. Differential response of communities of plants, snails, ants and spiders to long-term mowing in a small-scale experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pech, P.; Dolanský, J.; Hrdlička, R.; Lepš, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 115-124 ISSN 1585-8553 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Araneae * biodiversity * Formicidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.019, year: 2015

  15. Reversing expansion of Calamagrostis epigejos in a grassland biodiversity hotspot: Hemiparasitic Rhinanthus major does a better job than increased mowing intensity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Těšitel, J.; Mládek, J.; Fajmon, K.; Blažek, P.; Mudrák, Ondřej

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2018), s. 104-112 ISSN 1402-2001 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Calamagrostis epigejos * clonality * competition Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.474, year: 2016

  16. Effect of low-dose N application and early mowing on plant species composition of mesophilous meadow grassland (Arrhenatherion) in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čámská, K.; Skálová, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 3 (2012), s. 403-410 ISSN 0142-5242 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : fertilization * cutting regime * canopy structure Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.567, year: 2012

  17. The Work Values of Teacher Training Students in a Spanish University. Symbiosis between Schwartz and Meaning of Work (MOW) Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes Pascual, M. P. Alejandra

    2009-01-01

    Work values are linked with other relevant variables in career development, such as professional interests or vocational personality, are formed in a specific work context and influence the orientation intervention designed, for example, as an element of the professional portfolio or the development of transversal participatory and personal…

  18. Development of salt tolerant grasses for roadside use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Roadsides in Rhode Island and elsewhere are planted to mowed turfgrass in order to prevent erosion, improve aesthetics, : maintain visibility, and provide a safe means of stopping errant vehicles. However, there are a number of ways in which : mowed ...

  19. The growth of veld in response to defoliation by various means in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was concluded on Dohne Sourveld to determine the effect of mowing and burning during the late winter and spring on subsequent herbage yields. Mowing in spring and burning in late winter before rain gave the highest and lowest yields respectively. There was no difference between burning after the late ...

  20. Air quality and energy impacts of NYSDOT highway ROW management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Mowing the highway right-of-way is important for the safety of roadway users and maintaining the highway infrastructure. However, little quantitative data are available on the energy use and air quality impacts of highway mowing activities. In this r...

  1. Butterfly Density and Behaviour in Uncut Hay Meadow Strips: Behavioural Ecological Consequences of an Agri-Environmental Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A.; Van Dyck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Sparing zones from mowing has been proposed, and applied, to improve local conditions for survival and reproduction of insects in hay meadows. However, little is known about the efficiency of refuge zones and the consequences for local populations. We studied population densities of butterflies before and after mowing in the refuge zone of 15 meadows in 2009 and 2011. We also studied the behaviour of the meadow brown (Maniola jurtina) comparing nectar use, interactions and flights in the refuge zone before and after mowing. Densities of grassland butterflies in this zone doubled on average after mowing. The density of females of M. jurtina increased on average fourfold, while males showed a more modest increase. In line with the idea of increased scramble competition in the refuge zone after mowing, M. jurtina increased the time spent on nectar feeding, the preferred nectar source was visited more frequently, and females made more use of non-preferred nectar sources. Maniola jurtina did not interact more with conspecifics after mowing, but interactions lasted longer. Flight tracks did not change in linearity, but were faster and shorter after mowing. After mowing, only a part of the local grassland butterflies moved to the uncut refuge zone. The resulting concentration effect alters the time allocated to different activities, nectar use and movements. These aspects have been largely ignored for agri-environmental schemes and grassland management in nature reserves and raise questions about optimal quantities and quality of uncut refuge sites for efficient conservation of grassland arthropods in agricultural landscapes. PMID:26284618

  2. Laser program annual report, 1977. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.F.; Jarman, B.D. (eds.)

    1978-07-01

    This volume contains detailed information on each of the following sections: (1) fusion target design, (2) target fabrication, (3) laser fusion experiments and analysis, (4) advanced lasers, (5) systems and applications studies, and (6) laser isotope separation program. (MOW)

  3. Social Development: 1 Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... re doing around the house. Whether you’re reading the paper, sweeping the floors, mowing the lawn, ...

  4. TIBER II: Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor: 1986 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1986-10-23

    Several chapters are presented that cover the following areas: (1) physics basis; (2) current drive; (3) compact divertors; (4) neutron shielding; (5) high-current density, radiation-tolerant magnets; and (6) costs. (MOW)

  5. Laser program. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsler, M.J.; Jarman, B.D. (eds.)

    1979-03-01

    This volume details the year's experiments, data, and analysis. The technology development programs required for the high performance needed in target diagnostic instrumentation and in solid state laser components are reviewed. (MOW)

  6. Proceedings of the international conference on radiation test facilities for the CTR surface and materials program, Argonne, Illinois, July 15--18, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 42 included papers. Abstracts for all 42 papers appear in Nuclear Science Abstracts while abstracts for 32 of the papers appear in ERDA Research Abstracts. (MOW)

  7. [Microbial biomass and growth kinetics of microorganisms in chernozem soils under different farm land use modes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskiĭ, S A; Bogomolova, I N; Blagodatskaia, E V

    2008-01-01

    The carbon content of microbial biomass and the kinetic characteristics of microbial respiration response to substrate introduction have been estimated for chernozem soils of different farm lands: arable lands used for 10, 46, and 76 years, mowed fallow land, non-mowed fallow land, and woodland. Microbial biomass and the content of microbial carbon in humus (Cmic/Corg) decreased in the following order: soils under forest cenoses-mowed fallow land-10-year arable land-46- and 75-year arable land. The amount of microbial carbon in the long-plowed horizon was 40% of its content in the upper horizon of non-mowed fallow land. Arable soils were characterized by a lower metabolic diversity of microbial community and by the highest portion of microorganisms able to grow directly on glucose introduced into soil. The effects of different scenarios of carbon sequestration in soil on the reserves and activity of microbial biomass are discussed.

  8. Fusion power: the transition from fundamental science to fusion reactor engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1975-01-01

    The historical development of fusion research is outlined. The basics of fusion power along with fuel cost and advantages of fusion are discussed. Some quantitative requirements for fusion power are described. (MOW)

  9. Radiation effects and tritium technology for fusion reactors. Volume I. Proceedings of the international conference, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, October 1--3, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.S.; Wiffen, F.W.; Bishop, J.L.; Breeden, B.K. (eds.)

    1976-03-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 29 included papers in Vol. I. The topics covered in this volume include swelling and microstructures in thermonuclear reactor materials. Some papers on modeling and damage analysis are included. (MOW)

  10. Workplace bullying in health care affects the meaning of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, Judith; Wuest, Judith; Gray, Marilyn Merritt; Cronkhite, Marcella

    2010-08-01

    Our purpose in this grounded theory study was to explore the impact of workplace bullying (WPB) on women working in health care. We analyzed interviews with 21 women, professionals and nonprofessionals. The women experienced a change in their meaning of work (MOW) when they had experienced WPB, and they addressed this change through a process we called the shifting meaning of work. This process has three stages. The first, developing insight, involves recognizing causes of changed MOW as external. In the second stage, resisting, women defend against changed MOW by sustaining acceptable MOW and work performances, and by confronting causes. In the final stage, rebuilding, women try to adapt and modify approaches to work by coming to terms, adjusting work attitudes, and investing in self. We identified implications of this process for managing health and work issues with women, health care providers, and employers.

  11. Multilayer Oil-in-Water Emulsions: Formation, Characteristics and Application as the Carriers for Lipophilic Bioactive Food Components – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bortnowska Grażyna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review article demonstrates fundamentals regarding the manufacturing of multilayer oil-in-water (M-O/W emulsions and factors affecting stability of these systems. Moreover, characteristics of major bioactive lipophilic components and ingredients mostly applied to form multilayered membranes as well analytical methods used to examine properties of M-O/W emulsions are specified. It has been shown that production of M-O/W systems is based on the layer-by-layer (LbL electrostatic deposition technique which makes use of the electrostatic attraction of oppositely charged surfactants and biopolymers to form multicomposite protective layers around emulsion droplets. Finally, limitations regarding studies of M-O/W systems which should be developed are specified.

  12. 4 Types of Exercise, Endurance | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jogging Yard work (mowing, raking, digging) Dancing Swimming Biking Climbing stairs or hills Playing tennis Playing basketball ... to set realistic goals based on your own health and abilities. You can manage and track goal ...

  13. Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activities, such as golfing, playing tennis, bowling, running, biking, weight lifting, gardening or mowing, and vacuuming for ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Urinary Incontinence Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  14. Advanced refrigeration system for the Brookhaven superconducting cable project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a basic supercritical refrigerator. The present status of the cable enclosure and the types of cooling schemes being considered are presented with some examples of laboratory results and computer analysis. (MOW)

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-04-16

    Apr 16, 2018 ... Matching Objects and Words (MOW) application is an AR game that is ... benefits associated with human involvement in controlling engineered systems. .... support data and video capture of time and critical action elements is ...

  16. Synfuels from fusion: producing hydrogen with the Tandem Mirror Reactor and thermochemical cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, R.W.; Ribe, F.L.

    1981-01-21

    This volume contains the following sections: (1) the Tandem Mirror fusion driver, (2) the Cauldron blanket module, (3) the flowing microsphere, (4) coupling the reactor to the process, (5) the thermochemical cycles, and (6) chemical reactors and process units. (MOW)

  17. Planning For a Healthy School Year: Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Include children in family activities like walking the dog, washing the car, or mowing the lawn. Sign ... visit www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-communication-programs/win/Pages/community-groups-organizations.aspx Find ...

  18. USSR imploding liner program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A summary is given of the history and rationale of the USSR program to implode metallic liners for the fusion program. The explosive driven, magnetic drive, and compressed gas driven research is reviewed. (MOW)

  19. 7 CFR 650.6 - Categorical exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... include: Mowing, haying, grazing, fencing, off-stream watering facilities, and invasive species control..., property, and/or natural and cultural resources and removal is necessary to restore lands to pre-disaster...

  20. Assessment of an Impact of Mechanical Regulation on Selected Morphometric and Productive Parameters of Invasive Species Solidago Canadensis Population in Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Končeková Lýdia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Repeated mowing is considered as one of the effective control methods against species of the genus Solidago. This paper evaluates the impact of the repeated mowing on selected morphometric and productive characteristics of the invasive neophyte Solidago canadensis in the district of Rimavská Sobota in Central Slovakia. Permanent research plots (PRPs were established within anthropogenic habitat on an abandoned land that was divided into two variants. In the first variant, the mechanical regulation - mowing was applied. The second variant was without the regulation. The mechanical regulation of the populations was carried out in June and August during the growing season 2011. The results showed that the mechanical regulation did not have a clear impact on the population density. The decreasing trend of the number of shoots within the mowed variant was found only in one research plot (PRP3. The other plots showed an increase in the number of individuals by 2.7 and 32.7% between the mowings. Statistically highly significant differences in terms of the mowing impact on the height of the individuals were found in all PRPs. The difference in the weight of dry aboveground biomass between the mowings was 221.87 g, which represents 36.41%. Double the difference (48.8% was recorded in the dry weight of the underground biomass in the regulated stand compared with the unregulated stand (165.1 and 322.5 g/m2, respectively. Although there was a short-term success achieved by the application of the two mowings during the growing period, the pursued objective was not reached.

  1. Autonomous Mower vs. Rotary Mower: Effects on Turf Quality and Weed Control in Tall Fescue Lawn

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Pirchio; Marco Fontanelli; Christian Frasconi; Luisa Martelloni; Michele Raffaelli; Andrea Peruzzi; Monica Gaetani; Simone Magni; Lisa Caturegli; Marco Volterrani; Nicola Grossi

    2018-01-01

    Autonomous mowers are battery-powered machines designed for lawn mowing that require very low human labour. Autonomous mowers can increase turf quality and reduce local noise and pollution compared with gasoline-powered rotary mowers. However, very little is known about the effects of autonomous mowing on encroaching weeds. The aim of this research was to compare the effects of an autonomous mower and an ordinary gasoline-powered mower on weed development in an artificially infested tall fesc...

  2. 59 MDW/ST OVERVIEW BRIEFING 15 JUNE 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Animal Welfare Act of 1966, as amended." 59 MOW FORM 3039, 20160628 PrP~l".rihRrl hv !’i9 MDWI 41-108 PREVIOUS EDITIONS ARE OBSOLETE Page 1 of 3 Pages...and strengthen human capital , to build and maintain a strong R&A program to optimize our ability to fly, fight and win . -=~~.:~~- • 59 MOW Mission

  3. The impact of gyre dynamics on the mid-depth salinity signature of the eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, K. C.; Lozier, M. S.

    2009-04-01

    The Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) is widely recognized for its role in establishing the mid-depth salinity signature of the subtropical North Atlantic. However, recent work has revealed an intermittent impact of MOW on the salinity signature of the eastern subpolar basin. This impact results from a temporally variable penetration of the northward flowing branch of the MOW past Porcupine Bank into the eastern subpolar basin. It has been shown that the salinity signature of the eastern subpolar basin, in particular the Rockall Trough, varies with the state of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO): during persistent periods of strong winds (high NAO index), when the subpolar front moves eastward, waters in the subpolar gyre block the northward flowing MOW, preventing its entry into the subpolar gyre. Conversely, during persistent periods of weak winds (low NAO index), the front moves westward, allowing MOW to penetrate north of Porcupine Bank and into the subpolar gyre. Here, we investigate the manner in which the spatial and temporal variability in the northward penetration of the MOW and the position of the eastern limb of the subpolar front affect the mid-depth property fields not only in the subpolar gyre, but in the subtropical gyre as well. Using approximately 55 years of historical hydrographic data and output from the 1/12° FLAME model, we analyze the temporal variability of salinity along the eastern boundary and compare this variability to the position of the subpolar front in both the observational record and the FLAME model. We conclude that when the zonal position of the subpolar front moves relatively far offshore and the MOW is able to penetrate to the north, high salinity anomalies are observed at high latitudes and low salinity anomalies are observed at low latitudes. Conversely, when the frontal position shifts to the east, the MOW (and thus, the high salinity signature) is blocked, resulting in a drop in salinity anomalies at high latitudes

  4. Composition-Graded MoWSx Hybrids with Tailored Catalytic Activity by Bipolar Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu Min; Pumera, Martin

    2017-12-06

    Among transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD)-based composites, TMD/graphene-related material and bichalcogen TMD composites have been widely studied for application toward energy production via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, scarcely any literature explored the possibility of bimetallic TMD hybrids as HER electrocatalysts. The use of harmful chemicals and harsh preparation conditions in conventional syntheses also detracts from the objective of sustainable energy production. Herein, we present the conservational alternative synthesis of MoWS x via one-step bipolar electrochemical deposition. Through bipolar electrochemistry, the simultaneous fabrication of composition-graded MoWS x hybrids, i.e., sulfur-deficient Mo x W (1-x) S 2 and Mo x W (1-x) S 3 (MoWS x /BPE cathodic and MoWS x /BPE anodic , respectively) under cathodic and anodic overpotentials, was achieved. The best-performing MoWS x /BPE cathodic and MoWS x /BPE anodic materials exhibited Tafel slopes of 45.7 and 50.5 mV dec -1 , together with corresponding HER overpotentials of 315 and 278 mV at -10 mA cm -2 . The remarkable HER activities of the composite materials were attributed to their small particle sizes, as well as the near-unity value of their surface Mo/W ratios, which resulted in increased exposed HER-active sites and differing active sites for the concurrent adsorption of protons and desorption of hydrogen gas. The excellent electrocatalytic performances achieved via the novel methodology adopted here encourage the empowerment of electrochemical deposition as the foremost fabrication approach toward functional electrocatalysts for sustainable energy generation.

  5. Temperature and Productivity Variability Along the Southwestern Portuguese Margin During the Onset of the Mid-Pleistocene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, E.; Voelker, A. H. L.; Abrantes, F. F. G.; Rodrigues, T.; Sierro, F. J.; Hodell, D. A.; Alberto, A.; Freitas, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Southwest Portuguese Margin sedimentary record is influenced by the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW), with a strong thermohaline signature occurring between 500 and 1500m water depth. Variations of MOW intensity during the Late Quaternary (±750ky) are related to changes in the global climate and in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. To validate the sedimentary climate records on the Southwestern Portuguese Margin we performed a regional core-top multi-proxy study (Corg, CaCO3, grain size, foraminifera abundances, stable isotopes) to distinguish the MOW effects in recent sediments. The influence of this high velocity bottom current is marked in sediments by a strong increase of the sand content at both, the upper and lower, MOW boundaries. An increase of fine sediments is due to winnowing by the current, resulting in a drastic change in the accumulation rates of any sand-sized biogenic particle. For this reason, some of the traditional productivity proxies used such as Corg, planktonic and benthic foraminifera total abundances, should not be used at sites under the influence of contour currents. However, we demonstrate that the planktonic foraminifera relative abundances can be used with confidence because they are independent of the action of the MOW. Based on the planktonic foraminifera assemblages in two IODP Sites, U1387 recovered from the MOW influenced Faro Drift, and U1385 recovered at 2578m, we reconstruct the sea surface temperature (SST) and export productivity (Pexp) during the beginning of the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, Marine Isotope Stages 36 and 35. At Site U1387: i) foraminifera-derived SST was compared with biomarkers SST and foraminiferal δ18O data; ii) foraminifera-derived Pexp was compared with the Corg; and iii) the influence of the MOW on the sediments was deducted from the weight percent of the sand fraction, indicating contourite layers, and the benthic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C data.

  6. Infestation of Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae on re-sprout of cotton plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Jurca Grigolli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of cotton crop residues at the end of the crop cycle is a key strategy for the phytosanitary crop management, since its off-season re-sprout can provide sites for feeding and oviposition of pests such as the boll weevil. This study aimed to evaluate the re-sprout capacity of cotton cultivars, as well as their infestation by Anthonomus grandis. A randomized blocks design, in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three cultivars (FM 910, DeltaOPAL and NuOPAL, two mowing heights (10 cm and 20 cm and four replications, was used. Weekly evaluations were carried out for measuring the percentage of plant re-sprout for both mowing heights, percentage of flower buds infested by the boll weevil and number of adults per re-sprout. Plants mowed at 10 cm presented a lower sprout capacity and consequently less flower buds, reducing the boll weevil population density in the area, while plants mowed at 20 cm showed high re-sprouts rates, seven days after mowing. The FM 910 cultivar had the highest number of re-sprout plants, while the DeltaOPAL cultivar showed the highest number of flower buds and adults per plant, as well as the highest percentage of buds damaged by the boll weevil.

  7. Weed management practices affect the diversity and relative abundance of physic nut mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Althiéris de Sousa; Sarmento, Renato A; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; de Souza, Danival José; Teodoro, Adenir V; Silva, Daniella G

    2015-03-01

    Crop management practices determine weed community, which in turn may influence patterns of diversity and abundance of associated arthropods. This study aimed to evaluate whether local weed management practices influence the diversity and relative abundance of phytophagous and predatory mites, as well as mites with undefined feeding habits--of the families Oribatidae and Acaridae--in a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) plantation subjected to (1) within-row herbicide spraying and between-row mowing; (2) within-row herbicide spraying and no between-row mowing; (3) within-row weeding and between-row mowing; (4) within-row weeding and no between-row mowing; and (5) unmanaged (control). The herbicide used was glyphosate. Herbicide treatments resulted in higher diversity and relative abundance of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit on physic nut shrubs. This was probably due to the toxic effects of the herbicide on mites or to removal of weeds. Within-row herbicide spraying combined with between-row mowing was the treatment that most contributed to this effect. Our results show that within-row weeds harbor important species of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit. However, the dynamics of such mites in the system can be changed according to the weed management practice applied. Among the predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae Amblydromalus sp. was the most abundant, whereas Brevipalpus phoenicis was the most frequent phytophagous mite and an unidentified oribatid species was the most frequent mite with undefined feeding habit.

  8. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-106)SnoKing Tap to Monroe-Samamish Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Mark A. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-09-30

    Vegetation Management along the SnoKing Tap to the Monroe-Samamish transmission line from structure 8/1 through structure 20/6. BPA proposes to remove unwanted vegetation along the right-of-way, access roads and around tower structures along the subject transmission line corridor. The right-of-way will be treated using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Approximately 12 miles of access roads will be cleared using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Approximately 65 tower sites will be treated using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Vegetation management is required for unimpeded operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. See Section 1of the attached checklist for a complete description of the proposal.

  9. Climate changes in south western Iberia and Mediterranean Outflow variations during two contrasting cycles of the last 1 Myrs: MIS 31-MIS 30 and MIS 12-MIS 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Goñi, M. F.; Llave, E.; Oliveira, D.; Naughton, F.; Desprat, S.; Ducassou, E.; Hodell, D. A.; Hernández-Molina, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Grain size analysis and physical properties of Sites U1388, U1389 and U1390 collected in the Contourite Depositional System of the Gulf of Cádiz during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 339 "Mediterranean Outflow" reveal relative changes in bottom current strength, a tracer of the dynamics of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW), before and after the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT). The comparison of MOW behavior with climate changes identified by the pollen analysis and δ18O benthic foraminifera measurements of Site U1385, the Shackleton Site, collected in the south western Iberian margin shows that the interval MIS 31-MIS 30, ~ 1.1-1.05 million years ago (Ma), before the MPT, was marked by wetter climate and weaker bottom current than the interval MIS 12-MIS 11 (0.47-0.39 Ma), after the MPT. Similarly, the increase in fine particles from these glacials to interglacials and in coarse fraction from interglacials to glacials was coeval with forest and semi-desert expansions, respectively, indicating the lowering/enhancement of MOW strength during periods of regional increase/decrease of moisture. While these findings may not necessarily apply to all glacial/interglacial cycles, they nonetheless serve as excellent supporting examples of the hypothesis that aridification can serve as a good tracer for MOW intensity. The strongest regional aridity during MIS 12 coincides with a remarkable increase of coarse grain size deposition and distribution that we interpret as a maximum in MOW strength. This MOW intensification may have pre-conditioned the North Atlantic by increasing salinity, thereby triggering the strong resumption of the Meridional Overturning Circulation that could contribute to the great warmth that characterizes the MIS 11c super-interglacial.

  10. Impact of restriction of the Atlantic-Mediterranean gateway on the Mediterranean Outflow Water and eastern Atlantic circulation during the Messinian

    Science.gov (United States)

    PéRez-Asensio, J. N.; Aguirre, J.; Schmiedl, G.; Civis, J.

    2012-09-01

    Messinian foraminiferal stable oxygen and carbon isotopes of the Montemayor-1 core (Guadalquivir Basin, SW Spain) have been investigated. This record is exceptional to study the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) impact on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and global climate during the Messinian because the core is near the Guadalhorce Corridor, the last Betic gateway to be closed during the early Messinian. Our results allow dating accurately its closure at 6.18 Ma. Constant benthicδ18O values, high difference between benthic and planktonic δ18O, and low sedimentation rates before 6.18 Ma indicate the presence of a two-layer water column, with bottom winnowing due to an enhanced Mediterranean outflow current. The enhanced contribution of dense MOW to the North Atlantic Ocean likely fostered the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). After 6.18 Ma, benthicδ18O values parallel that of the global glacioeustatic curve, the difference between benthic and planktonic δ18O is low, and sedimentation rates considerably increased. This indicates a good vertical mixing of the water column, interruption of the MOW, and a dominant glacioeustatic control on the isotopic signatures. According to the role of MOW in the modern Atlantic thermohaline circulation, the reduction of the MOW after the closure of the Guadalhorce Corridor might have resulted in a decreased NADW formation rate between 6.0 and 5.5 Ma weakening the AMOC and promoting northern hemisphere cooling. After the Gibraltar Strait opening, the restoration of the MOW and related salt export from the Mediterranean could have promoted an enhanced NADW formation.

  11. Attitudes to Child Spacing Amongst Rural Malawian Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women using services. The lack of association between women's desire for no ... of the extended family) that restrict the use of services by women who would otherwise use ... benefits.of child spacing and family planning. Ac1mow1edgement.

  12. Scenes from the Suburbs. The Suburb in Contemporary US Film and Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, T.J.V.

    2014-01-01

    Suburbia. Say the word and a stream of images pass before your eyes: white picket fence, neatly mowed lawns, winding roads nicely lined with trees, pastel-tinted bungalows, bored housewives, conspicuous consumption. We all know what the suburbs are about. Or do we? This book looks again at the

  13. The Effect of Molybdenum Fertilization on Arachis Glabrata Biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of molybdenum fertilization on biomass and the number of nodules of Arachis glabrata was assessed at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Dschang in 2011 at different periods of mowing. A factorial design comparing four doses of molybdenum as ammonium molybdate (0, 0.75, 1.5 and 2.25 ...

  14. Final Environmental Assessment, Construct Antenna Parts Storage Facility, Upgrade Perimeter Security Fence and Demolish Camera Shed, Red River Air Force Space Surveillance Station (AFSSS), Lewisville, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    root plowed for construction of the Installation. Now the Installation consists mostly of short grasses which are routinely mowed. Woods border...aristata* bracted plantain Rumex crispus* curly dock Setaria parviflora yellow bristlegrass Solanum carolinense* Carolina horse nettle Sorghum...the land was covered with a hardwood forest. The land was cleared and root plowed dur- ing construction of the Installation. Earthen platforms were

  15. Laser program. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsler, M.J.; Jarman, B.D. (eds.)

    1979-03-01

    This volume documents progress in advanced quantum electronics - primarily the quest for advanced rep-rateable short-wavelength lasers with high efficiency. Application studies in electrical energy production and fissile fuel production are also described. Selected highlights of the advanced isotope separation program are also presented. (MOW)

  16. Developing maintainability for tokamak fusion power systems. Phase I report. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, H.S.

    1977-10-01

    This volume contains the following appendices: (1) baseline large module time estimates, (2) baseline intermediate module time estimates, (3) baseline small module time estimates, (4) alternate concept estimates, (5) maintenance equipment concepts, (6) additional reactor design definition, and (7) TOCOMO supplements. (MOW)

  17. 47th ANZAAS Congress (abstracts). Vol. II, Sections 21-33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts are included for approximately 200 papers in the following areas of research: (1) geographical sciences, (2) education, (3) psychology, (4) economics, (5) anthropology, archaeology, and linguistics, (6) history, (7) sociology, (8) criminology and forensic science, (9) student Anzaas, and (10) communication in science. An author index is included. (MOW)

  18. An Automated Approach to Extracting River Bank Locations from Aerial Imagery Using Image Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-04

    is more likely to be encountered in high latitudes. The technique recognizes areas of urban or rural built environments, such as mowed fields...optical remote sensing of river channel morphology and in-stream habitat : physical basis and feasability. Remote Sensing of the Environment 93: 493

  19. Suitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokdam, J.; Braeckel, van A.

    2002-01-01

    The suitability of grazing, burning, mowing and cutting as tools for succession control in peatland was assessed and expressed on a scale from 0 - 1. All management tools are suitable, but their effects are conditional. The suitability depends on the targeted vegetation transition and on their

  20. Effects of a polymeric organic coagulant for industrial mineral oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of chemical oxidation demand (COD), soap oil and grease (SOG), total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity from the MOW were used as the response variables for the coagulation flotation process. This was done with a standard dissolved air flotation jar test. The results show that the actual COD, SOG, TSS ...

  1. Microbial transformation of organic matter in soils of montane grasslands under different management

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlířová, Eva; Šimek, Miloslav; Šantrůčková, Hana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2005), s. 225-235 ISSN 0929-1393 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/99/1410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : grassland * mowing * mulching Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.755, year: 2005

  2. Impact of Early Pruning and Thinning on Lumber Grade Yield From Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Clark; Mike Strub; Larry R. Anderson; H. Gwynne Lloyd; Richard F. Daniels; James H. Scarborough

    2004-01-01

    The Sudden Sawlog Study was established in 1954 near Crossett, AR, in a 9-year-old loblolly pine plantation to test the hypothesis that loblolly plantations can produce sawtimber in 30 years. To stimulate diameter and height growth and clear wood production, study plots were heavily thinned, trees pruned to 33 feet by age 24 years, under-story mowed, and growth of...

  3. 47th ANZAAS Congress (abstracts) Vol. I, Sections 1-18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts are included for approximately 250 papers. The subject areas covered by the papers include the following: (1) physics, (2) chemistry, (3) geology, (4) architecture and town planning, (5) pharmaceutical sciences, (6) optometry, (7) zoology, (8) botany, (9) agriculture and forestry, (10) physiology, and (11) food science and nutrition. An author index is included. (MOW)

  4. Restoration of brook valley meadows in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, A.P.; Bakker, J.P.; Jansen, A.J.M.; Kemmers, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    Until recently, restoration measures in Dutch brook valley meadows consisted of re-introducing traditional management techniques, such as mowing without fertilisation and low-intensity grazing. In the Netherlands, additional measures, such as rewetting and sod cutting, are now carried out on a large

  5. Rootstock and vineyard floor management influence on 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a preliminary study on the influence two rootstocks (110R, high vigor; 420A, low vigor) grafted to scion 'Cabernet Sauvignon' clone 8, and three vineyard floor management regimes (tilled resident vegetation – usual practice in California, and barley cover crops that were either mowed or till...

  6. Lagere fosfaatuitscheiding op melkveebedrijven door zwaardere maaisneden = Decreasing phosphorus excretion on dairy farms by cutting at a later stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curth-van Middelkoop, J.C.; Holshof, G.; Plomp, M.

    2014-01-01

    By cutting grass for silage at a later stage than usual it is possible to decrease the phosphorus excretion on dairy farms maximal about 5%. This saves costs for mowing but it increases the use of manufactured feed and grazing is harder to realise because it takes more time for a cut for silage to

  7. Possible explanation of the interaction cross-section growth at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, V.A.; Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of the relativized Yukawa potential it is shown that the mowing hadron transverse size grows with increasing its energy ∼(lnγ) 0.8 (γ is the Lorentz factor). The opinion is expressed that the known growth of the interaction cross section at high energies is due to the indicated reason. 9 refs.; 1 tab

  8. Controlled thermonuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Brief discussions are given for the following four areas of research: (1) tritium handling system for an experimental fusion power reactor, (2) preparation for tests of cryosorption pumping for fusion reactors, (3) tritium sorption studies, and (4) tritium sorption in Li--Al and Li--Bi alloys. (MOW)

  9. Effects of changes in management on resistance and resilience in three grassland communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Leoš; Hájek, Michal; Mudrák, Ondřej; Dančák, M.; Prejslerová, Z.; Hájková, Petra; Jongepierová, I.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2013), s. 640-649 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Mowing * oligotrophic meadow * oligotrophic meadow * Bile Karpaty Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2013

  10. Plant seedlings in a species-rich meadow: effect of management, vegetation type and functional traits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Doležal, Jiří; Hájek, M.; Dančák, M.; Klimeš, Leoš; Klimešová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2013), s. 286-295 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Bile Karpaty Mountains * Litter * Mowing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2013

  11. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, Technical Research Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Ronald C.

    1980-08-01

    A review is given of the technical programs carried out by the Plasma Fusion Center. The major divisions of work areas are applied plasma research, confinement experiments, fusion technology and engineering, and fusion systems. Some objectives and results of each program are described. (MOW)

  12. The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering | State, Local,

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Tribal Governments | NREL The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering February 12, 2018 by Benjamin Mow Massachusetts (DPU) seeking an advisory ruling on the eligibility of pairing solar-plus-storage systems with current

  13. Laser program annual report, 1977. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.F.; Jarman, B.D. (eds.)

    1978-07-01

    An overview is given of the laser fusion program. The solid-state program covers the Shiva and Nova projects. Laser components, control systems, alignment systems, laser beam diagnostics, power conditioning, and optical components are described. The fusion experimental program concerns the diagnostics and data acquisition associated with Argus and Shiva. (MOW)

  14. Manipulating transplant morphology to advance post-transplant growth and yield in strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekie, J.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Two methods were developed to enhance transplant success and minimize water use of strawberry transplants harvested in Canadian nurseries for use in the annual strawberry production system in the Southern United States: mechanical leaf removal by mowing, and chemical control of growth and

  15. Abundance and guild structure of grasshoppers (Orthoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lightly grazed area, characterised by tall vegetation and high aerial cover, low greenness of grass, and low frequency of forbs, was inhabited by grasshopper species associated with long and/or thick grass, that were mixed feeders or tough grass feeders. The mowed area, characterised by short vegetation and low ...

  16. Controlled thermonuclear processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Brief discussions are given on research progress during this report period for the following two topics: (1) conceptual design of a tritium handling system for Ormak F/BX, and (2) design of, and preparation for, tests of cryosorption pumping for fusion reactors. The status of the program is outlined. (MOW)

  17. The effect of defoliation environment on primary growth allocation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compositional shifts of bunchgrass species in the Southern Tall Grassveld in response to different combinations of non-selective mowing and burning appear to reflect differences in growth strategy among species, but there are few studies of South African grasses designed to test this. A descriptive study was undertaken ...

  18. 76 FR 63801 - Fire Prevention Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Proclamation Fires, whether caused by people or nature, can have devastating effects. Hundreds of thousands of... practice fire safety throughout the year. This year's Fire Prevention Week theme, ``Protect Your Family... mowing dry grasses to two inches or less, and by clearing brush, leaves, green grass, and lumber from...

  19. Functional traits in a species-rich grassland and a short-term change in management: Is there a competition-colonisation trade-off?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Mudrák, Ondřej; Doležal, Jiří; Hájek, Michal; Dančák, M.; Klimeš, Leoš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2013), 373-391 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Mowing, abandonment * oligotrophic meadow * Bile Karpaty Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2013

  20. Laser fusion system design study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The following studies were completed: (1) The synthesis of a pointing/control system compatible with existing and advanced laser opto-mechanical configurations. (2) Attainment of the required pointing angle, longitudinal focus, and differential pathlength accuracies. (3) Maximum modularization of the sensor and gimbal assemblies to provide the required accuracies at minimum cost. Detailed information is given on each. (MOW)

  1. Fifteen-Year Growth of Six Planted Hardwood Species on Sharkey Clay Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Krinard; Harvey E. Kennedy

    1987-01-01

    Six hardwood species planted on Sharkey clay soil that had been disked the first 5 years for weed control were significantly taller at age 5 when compared to species grown on mowed sites. By age 15, there were no differences in heights within species except for sweet pecan. Average heights by species at age 15 were: cottonwood (Populus deltoides...

  2. Mediterranean Outflow Water dynamics during the past ~570 kyr : Regional and global implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaboth, Stefanie; de Boer, Bas; Bahr, André; Zeeden, Christiaan; Lourens, Lucas J.

    The Gulf of Cadiz constitutes a prime area to study teleconnections between the North Atlantic Ocean and climate change in the Mediterranean realm. In particular, the highly saline Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) is an important modulator of the North Atlantic salt budget on intermediate water

  3. Direct and indirect effects of the most widely implemented Dutch agri-environment schemes on breeding waders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, J.; Kleijn, D.; Berendse, F.

    2007-01-01

    1. In the Netherlands, agri-environment schemes are an important tool for halting the ongoing decline of meadow birds and, in particular, waders breeding on wet meadows. The effectiveness of the main scheme, postponed mowing, is heavily debated because it does not result in higher breeding

  4. 75 FR 7286 - Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge, Caroline, Essex, King George, Lancaster...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ..., which we included in the draft CCP/EA. The CCP will guide us in managing and administering Rappahannock... management. Under Alternative C, we would allow the existing 700 acres of grasslands and old fields to revert to shrub and forest. Tree plantings, applying herbicides, and cutting or brush-hogging (mowing) would...

  5. Position of tillers in a clone determines their ontogeny:example of the clonal grass Phalaris arundinacea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Jana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3-4 (2017), s. 317-325 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : bud bank * tiller position * mowing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  6. Functional electrical stimulation-assisted walking for persons with incomplete spinal injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladouceur, M.; Barbeau, H.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the changes in maximal overground walking speed (MOWS) that occurred during; walking training with a functional electrical stimulation (FES) orthosis by chronic spinal cord injured persons with incomplete motor function loss. The average walking: speed over a distance of 10...

  7. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This report covers the following areas: (1) PLT, (2) PDX, (3) smaller devices, (4) TFTR, (5) TFTR blanket module experiments, (6) engineering, (7) machine design and fabrication, and (8) advanced projects design and analysis, (9) design studies for new devices, (10) theory, (11) administration, and (12) graduate education. (MOW)

  8. Issues in the commercialization of magnetic fusion power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockwood, A.D.; Willke, T.L.

    1979-12-01

    This study identifies and outlines the issues that must be considered if fusion is to be put into commercial practice. The issues are put into perspective around a consistent framework and a program of study and research is recommended to anticipate and handle the issues for a successful fusion commercialization program. (MOW)

  9. Workplace violence and the meaning of work in healthcare workers: A phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Josianne; Guay, Stephane

    2017-01-01

    Workplace violence (WPV) has been associated with turnover intentions and reduced job satisfaction, yet the mechanisms behind such associations are still nebulous. Studying the way people make sense of their work in the context of WPV could lead to a better understanding of its consequences. The objective of this exploratory study is to identify key features of meaning of work (MOW) in a group of healthcare workers and explain how these features can change following an act of WPV. Researchers recruited 15 healthcare workers (11 women - 4 men) who had previously been the victim of a serious physical or sexual assault by a patient. A phenomenological approach was used. Two main themes were identified: MOW and relationships with others and MOW and relationship with the self. WPV might have the potential to trigger negative changes in the way some workers perceive their colleagues, their patients and their organisation. It can also interfere with their sense of self-accomplishment; all workers however, were still able to find positive meaning in 'contribution' and 'autonomy'. WPV has the potential to change certain aspects of MOW that could help explain why WPV is associated with lowered job satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and higher turnover. Also, finding meaning through contribution and autonomy can be a form of resilience.

  10. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by ‘Meals on Wheels’ South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjuna, Tony; Miller, Michelle; Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian; Visvanathan, Renuka; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D

    2018-01-01

    An audit of ‘standard’ (STD) and ‘energy and protein fortified’ (HEHP) meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW) South Australia’s summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia’s kitchen and delivered to three ‘sham(dummy)-clients’ over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia). On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs) for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21–39% for energy and 42–63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29–55% for energy and 46–69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein. PMID:29461476

  11. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by 'Meals on Wheels' South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjuna, Tony; Miller, Michelle; Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian; Visvanathan, Renuka; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D

    2018-02-20

    An audit of 'standard' (STD) and 'energy and protein fortified' (HEHP) meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW) South Australia's summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia's kitchen and delivered to three 'sham(dummy)-clients' over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia). On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs) for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21-39% for energy and 42-63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29-55% for energy and 46-69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein.

  12. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by ‘Meals on Wheels’ South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Arjuna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An audit of ‘standard’ (STD and ‘energy and protein fortified’ (HEHP meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW South Australia’s summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia’s kitchen and delivered to three ‘sham(dummy-clients’ over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia. On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21–39% for energy and 42–63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29–55% for energy and 46–69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein.

  13. Effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 4.2c for biodiversity conservation in set-asides, part II (ground-dwelling Arthropods and Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biaggini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The MO.NA.CO. project has been set up to evaluate the effectiveness of some GAECs (Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions through the institution of a monitoring network throughout the Italian territory. The present work deals with the evaluation of the Standard 4.2c, concerning biomass and biodiversity in set-asides, in relation to fauna conservation. Monitoring was performed in three areas, using the following indicators: ground-dwelling Arthropods identified at the order level, Coleoptera identified at the family level and Lacertids. Our results seem to indicate that a mild management of set-asides, consisting in mowing once a year (mid July in the examined areas, may enhance faunal diversity, above all Arthropod diversity. After mowing, the set-asides managed following Standard 4.2, hosted higher levels of Arthropod diversity and a more balanced faunistic composition in comparison to unmoved set-asides and arable lands. On the contrary, we did not find significant effects of mowing on lizard abundance. We also discussed some measures to mitigate the negative direct effects of mechanical mowing on fauna. 

  14. A Vineyard Agroecosystem: Disturbance and Precipitation Affect Soil Respiration under Mediterranean Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated impacts of agricultural management practices on soil respiration (Rs) in a Cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera) vineyard (Oakville, CA; November 2003 – December 2005). We determined 1) Rs’s response to cover cropping, mowing and tillage, 2) environmental drivers of Rs and 3) total ann...

  15. STAT FAQs Part 2: Lifetime of PV Panels | State, Local, and Tribal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governments | NREL STAT FAQs Part 2: Lifetime of PV Panels STAT FAQs Part 2: Lifetime of PV Panels April 23, 2018 by Benjamin Mow The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) receives many is the productive lifetime and degradation rate of solar PV panels. Question: What is the productive

  16. Structural Influence on the Mechanical Response of Adolescent Gottingen Porcine Cranial Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    one of the surfaces perpendicular to the loading platen was speckled for DIC. Specimens were loaded using an Instron servo -hydraulic load frame...Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press ; 1997. 3. Mow VC, Huiskes R. Basic orthopaedic biomechanics and mechano-biology. Third ed. Baltimore (MD

  17. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-A. Commercial fusion electric plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E. (eds.)

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-A contains the following chapters: (1) plasma engineering, (2) magnets, (3) ecr heating systems, (4) anchor ion-cyclotron resonance heating system, (5) sloshing ion neutral beam, (6) end cell structure, (7) end plasma technology, (8) fueling, (9) startup ion cyclotron resonant heating systems, and (10) end cell radiation analysis. (MOW)

  18. Deciphering the paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes of the Gulf of Cádiz during the past 2.6 million years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaboth, S.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to shed new light on the climatic dependent evolution of Mediterranean Outflow Water throughout the Pleistocene epoch which comprises the last ~2.6 million years.Our findings show for the Late Pleistocene and Holocene time interval (last 600.000 years) three distinct phases of MOW

  19. Possibilities of the management of Helianthus tuberosus species in Poodri PLA (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svehlakova, H.; Janikova, A.; Kupka, J.; Sotkova, N.; Rajdus, T.

    2017-10-01

    This article deals with the possibilities of population management of invasive and in Czech Republic no - native species Helianthus tuberosus. We have chosen study areas in Poodri PLA, it is located near the industrial city Ostrava (Moravian-Silesian region). Invasive Helianthus tuberosus forms monodominant vegetation, excludes the original and often rare plant species and reduces biodiversity. It is a risk for the further development of the landscape of Poodri PLA. There is no known effective way to dispose of invasive Helianthus tuberosus so far. We have applied the proposed management works on 15 monitoring areas and then evaluated their effectiveness. We have used chemical (herbicides) and mechanical (mowing, digging up) methods and their combinations. The most effective was the combination of 3 interventions: manual mowing - spraying - mowing by mechanization, just mowing itself rather promotes the spread of the population. We can say this is a pilot study from a long-term project dealing with the effectiveness of different ways of invasive plants management.

  20. Stage theta pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Downing, J.N.; Gribble, R.F.; Jacobson, A.R.; Platts, D.A.; Thomas, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    The Staged Theta Pinch program is designed to study the technological and physics problems associated with producing fat plasmas and separating the implosion heating from the adiabatic compression. Several methods of implosion heating are discussed. Circuit diagrams and theoretical magnetic field behavior are described for the STP and resonant heating experiments. (MOW)

  1. High-density ionization with an intense linear focus discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.N.

    1975-01-01

    Some experimental results obtained with a linear focus device are described. Measurements include plasma diagnostics made with fast photography, pinhole x-ray photography, and x-ray spectroscopy in the photon energy range of 6 to 35 0 keV. (MOW)

  2. Efficacy of Intravenous Cobinamide Versus Hydroxocobalamin or Control for Treatment of Severe Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity in a Swine (Sus Scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    Publications and Presentations Section will route the request form to clinical investigations. S02 ISG/JAC ( Ethics Review) and Public Affairs (S9 MOW/PA) for... workplace gas inhalation deaths. H2S is also an attractive terrorism tool because of its high toxicity and ease with which it can be produced. Although

  3. On calculation of lattice parameters of refractory metal solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsukov, A.D.; Zhuravleva, A.D.; Pedos, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Technique for calculating lattice periods of solid solutions is suggested. Experimental and calculation values of lattice periods of some solid solutions on the basis of refractory metals (V-Cr, Nb-Zr, Mo-W and other) are presented. Calculation error was correlated with experimental one. 7 refs.; 2 tabs

  4. Full accounting of the greenhouse gas (CO2, N2O, CH4) budget of nine European grassland sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soussana, J.F.; Allard, V.; Pilegaard, K.; Ambus, P.; Amman, C.; Campbell, C.; Ceschia, E.; Clifton-Brown, J.; Czobel, S.; Domingues, R.; Flechard, C.; Fuhrer, J.; Hensen, A.; Horvath, L.; Jones, M.; Kasper, G.J.; Martin, C.; Nagy, Z.; Neftel, A.; Raschi, A.; Baronti, S.

    2007-01-01

    The full greenhouse gas balance of nine contrasted grassland sites covering a major climatic gradient over Europe was measured during two complete years. The sites include a wide range of management regimes (rotational grazing, continuous grazing and mowing), the three main types of managed

  5. Laser program annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, L.W.; Strack, J.R. (eds.)

    1980-03-01

    This volume provides a program overview, presenting highlights of the technical accomplishments of the elements of the program, as well as discussions of program resources and facilities. Also covered are the work of the Solid-State Laser program element, which includes systems operations, Nova, and research and development activities. (MOW)

  6. High temperature gases: progress towards nuclear fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, P.

    1975-11-01

    The basics of producing gaseous plasmas are outlined. The use of shock waves for heating is reviewed along with diagnostic techniques to measure various plasma properties. The use of hot plasmas in the CTR program is mentioned along with some basic fusion-directed studies. (MOW)

  7. 1982 laser program annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Grow, G.R. (eds.)

    1983-08-01

    This annual report covers the following eight sections: (1) laser program review, (2) laser systems and operation, (3) target design, (4) target fabrication, (5) fusion experiments program, (6) Zeus laser project, (7) laser research and development, and (8) energy applications. (MOW)

  8. Persistent Flagellate Hyperpigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-28

    medical research or technical information as a publication/presentation, a new 59 MOW Form 3039 must be submitted for review and approval.) IA 6...directives.) D DISAPPROVED 40. PRINTED NAME. RANK/GRADE, TITLE OF REVIEWER 41 . REVIEWER SIGNATURE 42 . DATE Kevin linuma, SSgt/E-5, 59 MDW Public

  9. Annual report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This annual report covers research progress on each of the following areas: (1) PLT device, (2) PDX, (3) spheromak, (4) smaller devices, (5) theory, (6) TFTR, (7) applied physics, (8) TFTR blanket module experiments, (9) advanced toroidal facility, (10) advanced projects design and analysis, (11) engineering, and (12) fabrication, operations and maintenance. (MOW)

  10. Bee Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Don't wear loose clothing, which can trap bees between the cloth and your skin. When driving, keep your windows rolled up. Be careful when mowing the lawn or trimming vegetation, activities that might arouse insects in a beehive or wasp nest. Have hives and nests near your home removed ...

  11. Special purpose materials for the fusion reactor environment: a technical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This technology assessment considers the following areas: (1) breeding materials, (2) coolants, (3) tritium barriers, (4) graphite and silicon carbide, (5) ceramics, (6) heat-sink materials, and (7) magnet materials. Some questions and analyses forming the assessment are described. (MOW)

  12. "It could probably help someone else but not me": a feasibility study of a snack programme offered to meals on wheels clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, K E; Walton, K; Moon, L; Smith, K; McMahon, A T; Ralph, F; Stuckey, M; Manning, F; Krassie, J

    2013-04-01

    Community-based services, such as Meals on Wheels (MOW), allow older adults to remain in their homes for as long as possible. Many MOW recipients experience decreased appetite that limits intake at mealtimes. This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of providing high protein high energy snacks to improve nutrient intakes of MOW clients in a regional centre of New South Wales, Australia. A convenience sample of 12 MOW clients. Participants received snacks five times a week, in addition to their usual MOW order, for four weeks. Nutritional status was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment tool. Pre-post changes in dietary intake were assessed using a diet history and food frequency questionnaire. Qualitative interviews conducted in clients' homes were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and themes identified. Post-intervention, there was a trend for an increased energy (mean = +415kJ (SD=1477) /day) and protein (+7.2 (±14.06) g/day) intake. MNA scores significantly increased (P= 0.036) and proportion of respondents categorised as 'malnourished' or 'at risk of malnutrition' decreased from 17% to 8%, and 67% to 25%, respectively (P body weight increased from 67.1 (±14.3) to 67.8 (±14.8) (P= 0.008), while Body Mass Index (BMI) increased by a mean of 0.78 (±1.16) kg/m2 (P = 0.039). Only half of participants indicated interest in continuing with the program. Reasons included the role of snacks serving as a reminder to eat, as well as their perceived nutritional value. Identified barriers included perceived lack of need for additional food, ability to self-provide such items, and a perceived adequate health status. Provision of an additional daily mid-meal snack may be a useful addition to existing MOW services, for improved energy and protein intakes. However, not all MOW clients at risk of malnutrition perceived the snacks to be beneficial to them.

  13. Habitat fragmentation, vole population fluctuations, and the ROMPA hypothesis: An experimental test using model landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzli, George O

    2016-11-01

    Increased habitat fragmentation leads to smaller size of habitat patches and to greater distance between patches. The ROMPA hypothesis (ratio of optimal to marginal patch area) uniquely links vole population fluctuations to the composition of the landscape. It states that as ROMPA decreases (fragmentation increases), vole population fluctuations will increase (including the tendency to display multi-annual cycles in abundance) because decreased proportions of optimal habitat result in greater population declines and longer recovery time after a harsh season. To date, only comparative observations in the field have supported the hypothesis. This paper reports the results of the first experimental test. I used prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster, and mowed grassland to create model landscapes with 3 levels of ROMPA (high with 25% mowed, medium with 50% mowed and low with 75% mowed). As ROMPA decreased, distances between patches of favorable habitat (high cover) increased owing to a greater proportion of unfavorable (mowed) habitat. Results from the first year with intensive live trapping indicated that the preconditions for operation of the hypothesis existed (inversely density dependent emigration and, as ROMPA decreased, increased per capita mortality and decreased per capita movement between optimal patches). Nevertheless, contrary to the prediction of the hypothesis that populations in landscapes with high ROMPA should have the lowest variability, 5 years of trapping indicated that variability was lowest with medium ROMPA. The design of field experiments may never be perfect, but these results indicate that the ROMPA hypothesis needs further rigorous testing. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of a medication order writing standards policy in a regional health authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Colette B.; Coates, Jan; Woloschuk, Donna M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (WRHA) implemented a medication order writing standards (MOWS) policy (including banned abbreviations) to improve patient safety. Widespread educational campaigns and direct prescriber feedback were implemented. Methods: We audited orders within the WRHA from 2005 to 2009 and surveyed all WRHA staff in 2011 about the policy and suggestions for improving education and compliance. Results: Overall, orders containing banned abbreviations, acronyms or symbols numbered 2261/8565 (26.4%) preimplementation. After WRHA-wide didactic education, the proportion declined to 1358/5461 (24.9%) (p = 0.043) and then, with targeted prescriber feedback, to 1186/6198 (19.1%) (p < 0.0001). A survey of 723 employees showed frequent violations of the MOWS, despite widespread knowledge of the policy. Respondents supported ongoing efforts to enforce the policy within the WRHA. Nonprescribers were significantly more likely than prescribers to agree with statements regarding enhancing compliance by defining prescriber/transcriber responsibilities and placing sanctions on noncompliant prescribers. Discussion: Education, raising general awareness and targeted feedback to prescribers alone are insufficient to ensure compliance with MOWS policies. WRHA staff supported ongoing communication, improved tools such as compliant preprinted orders and reporting and feedback about medication incidents. A surprising number of respondents supported placing sanctions on noncompliant prescribers. Conclusion: Serial audits and targeted interventions such as direct prescriber feedback improve prescription quality in inpatient hospital settings. Education plus direct prescriber feedback had a greater impact than education alone on improving compliance with a MOWS policy. Future efforts at the WRHA to improve compliance will require an expanded focus on incentives, resources and development of action plans that involve all affected staff, not just prescribers

  15. Non-target effects on songbirds from habitat manipulation for Greater Sage-Grouse: Implications for the umbrella species concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Jason D.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Smith, Kurt T.; Beck, Jeffery L.

    2018-01-01

    The “umbrella species” concept is a conservation strategy in which creating and managing reserve areas to meet the needs of one species is thought to benefit other species indirectly. Broad-scale habitat protections on behalf of an umbrella species are assumed to benefit co-occurring taxa, but targeted management actions to improve local habitat suitability for the umbrella species may produce unintended effects on other species. Our objective was to quantify the effects of a common habitat treatment (mowing of big sagebrush [Artemisia tridentata]) intended to benefit a high-profile umbrella species (Greater Sage-Grouse [Centrocercus urophasianus]) on 3 sympatric songbird species of concern. We used a before–after control-impact experimental design spanning 3 yr in Wyoming, USA, to quantify the effect of mowing on the abundance, nest-site selection, nestling condition, and nest survival of 2 sagebrush-obligate songbirds (Brewer's Sparrow [Spizella breweri] and Sage Thrasher [Oreoscoptes montanus]) and one open-habitat generalist songbird (Vesper Sparrow [Pooecetes gramineus]). Mowing was associated with lower abundance of Brewer's Sparrows and Sage Thrashers but higher abundance of Vesper Sparrows. We found no Brewer's Sparrows or Sage Thrashers nesting in the mowed footprint posttreatment, which suggests complete loss of nesting habitat for these species. Mowing was associated with higher nestling condition and nest survival for Vesper Sparrows but not for the sagebrush-obligate species. Management prescriptions that remove woody biomass within a mosaic of intact habitat may be tolerated by sagebrush-obligate songbirds but are likely more beneficial for open-habitat generalist species. By definition, umbrella species conservation entails habitat protections at broad spatial scales. We caution that habitat manipulations to benefit Greater Sage-Grouse could negatively affect nontarget species of conservation concern if implemented across large spatial extents.

  16. Topographic control on the nascent Mediterranean outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, M.; Pelegrí, J. L.; Nash, J. D.; Peters, H.; García-Lafuente, J.

    2011-12-01

    Data collected during a 12-day cruise in July 2009 served to examine the structure of the nascent Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) immediately west of the Espartel Sill, the westernmost sill in the Strait of Gibraltar. The MOW is characterized by high salinities (>37.0 and reaching 38.3) and high velocities (exceeding 1 m s-1 at 100 m above the seafloor), and follows a submerged valley along a 30 km stretch, the natural western extension of the strait. It is approx. 150 m thick and 10 km wide, and experiences a substantial drop from 420 to 530 m over a distance of some 3 km between two relatively flat regions. Measurements indicate that the nascent MOW behaves as a gravity current with nearly maximal traveling speed; if this condition is maintained, then the maximum MOW velocity would decrease slowly with distance from the Espartel Sill, remaining significantly high until the gravity current excess density is only a small fraction of its original value. The sharp pycnocline between the Mediterranean and the overlying North Atlantic Central waters is dynamically unstable, particularly where the flow interacts with the 100 m decrease in bottom depth. Here, subcritical gradient Richardson numbers coincide with the development of large interfacial undulations and billows. The very energetic downslope flow is likely responsible for the development of a narrow V-shaped channel downstream of the seafloor drop along the axis of the submerged valley, this probably being the very first erosional scour produced by the nascent MOW. The coincidence of subcritical gradient Richardson numbers with relatively high turbidity values above the channel flanks suggests it may be undergoing upstream erosion.

  17. Mediterranean Outflow Water dynamics during the past 570 kyr: Regional and global implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboth, Stefanie; de Boer, Bas; Bahr, André; Zeeden, Christian; Lourens, Lucas J.

    2017-06-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz constitutes a prime area to study teleconnections between the North Atlantic Ocean and climate change in the Mediterranean realm. In particular, the highly saline Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) is an important modulator of the North Atlantic salt budget on intermediate water levels. However, our understanding of its paleoceanographic evolution is poorly constrained due to the lack of high-resolution proxy records that predate the last glacial cycle. Here we present the first continuous and high-resolution ( 1 kyr) benthic δ18O and δ13C as well as grain size records from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1386 representing the last 570 kyr. We find three distinct phases of MOW variability throughout the Late to Middle Pleistocene at Site U1386 associated with prominent shifts in its composition and flow strength. We attribute this long-term variability to changes in water mass sourcing of the MOW. Superimposed on the long-term change in water mass sourcing is the occurrence of distinct and precession paced δ18O enrichment events, which contrast the pattern of global ice volume change as inferred from the global mean δ18O signal (i.e., LR04) but mimics that of the adjacent Mediterranean Sea. We attribute these enrichment events to a profound temperature reduction and salinity increases of the MOW, aligning with similar changes in the Mediterranean source region. These events might further signify ice volume increases as inferred from significant sea level drops recorded in the Red Sea and/or increased influence of North Atlantic intermediate water masses when MOW influence was absent at Site U1386.

  18. Response of Tridens flavus (L.) A. S. Hitchc. to soil nutrients and disturbance in an early successional old field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honu, Y.A.K.; Gibson, D.J.; Middleton, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Soil nutrients and disturbance are two of the main abiotic factors that influence plant dominance (canopy cover), density, and fecundity in early successional old field plant communities. The manner in which the dominant species in old field successional systems respond to the interaction of nutrients and disturbance is poorly known. We examined the dominance, density of flowering tillers, and reproductive output of Tridens flavus, a perennial, warm-season bunchgrass that is important in old field succession, to varying soil nutrient and disturbance regimes. We tested the hypothesis that the interaction between nutrients and disturbance would influence the performance (cover, density, fecundity) of T. flavus. To test this hypothesis, we subjected 25 m2 experimental plots to various combinations of fertilizer and mowing treatments for eight years after initially plowing the field. The performance of T. flavus was measured by estimating percent cover for 8 years (1996-2003) and both density of flowering tillers and reproductive output (panicle length and number of branches per panicle) for three years (2001-2003). The pattern of canopy cover of T. flavus over the first eight years of succession varied over time depending on mowing regime. Dominance was significantly higher in plots that were fertilized only in years one and five than in annually fertilized and unfertilized control plots. The length of panicles and density of flowering tillers were both significantly greater in annually mowed plots than in unmowed plots. In the absence of mowing in particular, T. flavus became overtopped by woody species and declined in this old field community. Therefore, disturbances such as mowing and fertilization may be important in maintaining grasses such as Tridens flavus in old fields.

  19. Effects of Seasonal and Perennial Grazing on Soil Fauna Community and Microbial Biomass Carbon in the Subalpine Meadows of Yunnan, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shengjie; YANG Xiaodong; Anthony R.IVES; FENG Zhili; SHA Liqing

    2017-01-01

    Grazing and over-grazing may drive changes in the diversity and functioning of below-ground meadow ecosystems.A field soil survey was conducted to compare microbial biomass carbon (Cmin) and soil fauna communities in the two main grassland management systems in subalpine regions of Yunnan Province,China:perennial grazing currently practiced due to increasing herd sizes and traditional seasonal grazing.A three-year exclosure experiment was then conducted to further compare the effects of different grazing practices,including treatments of no mowing,perennial grazing (NM + G),mowing followed by seasonal grazing (M + G),mowing and no grazing (M + NG),and no mowing or grazing (NM + NG).The comparative survey result revealed that Cmin and total density of soil fauna were significantly lower at a perennially grazed site than at a seasonally grazed site.The experiment results showed that in comparison to non-grazing treatments (M + NG and NM + NG),grazing (NM + G and M + G) reduced total fauna density (by 150 individuals m-2) and the number of taxonomic groups present (by 0.32 taxa m-2).Mowing decreased Cmin (by 0.31 mg g-1).Furthermore,the NM + G treatment (perennial grazing) had the lowest density of Collembola (16.24 individuals m-2),one of the two most common taxonomic groups,although other taxonomic groups responded differently to the treatments.Treatment effects on soil fauna were consistent with those on above-ground grasses,in which C:N ratios were greatly reduced by grazing,with this effect being the greatest for the NM + G treatment.In contrast,different grazing treatments had little effect on C:N ratio of soil.Furthermore,the traditional grazing method (mowing followed by seasonal grazing) may have less severe effects on some taxonomic groups than perennial grazing.Therefore,an appropriate management should aim to protect soil fauna and microbes in this area from over-grazing and against further degradation.

  20. Fungal species and multiple mycotoxin contamination of cultivated forage crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kononenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of grass samples used for animal feed by combining mycotoxin measures and mycological determination of mycobiota were explored. The samples of the plant material were collected in 2014 in two stages: before the first mowing (May–June and before the second one (July–August from the fields of stock-farms located in northwestern part of the Russia. All samples were divided into three types: grasses, mixture of different grasses and clover, alfalfa mixed with timothy. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1, alternariol, citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid, deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, emodin, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, mycophenolic acid, ochratoxin A, PR-toxin, roridin A, sterigmatocystin, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone were determined using ELISA. The multiple fungal and mycotoxin contaminations are already formed in plant tissues by the moment of first mowing. The complexes of mycotoxins including up to 14–16 components and the combined character of plant contamination quite correspond to the taxonomic variety of mycobiota.

  1. Tungsten carbide and tungsten-molybdenum carbides as automobile exhaust catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, L.; Daubrege, F.; Gengembre, L.; Leclercq, G.; Prigent, M.

    1987-01-01

    Several catalyst samples of tungsten carbide and W, Mo mixed carbides with different Mo/W atom ratios, have been prepared to test their ability to remove carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and propane from a synthetic exhaust gas simulating automobile emissions. Surface characterization of the catalysts has been performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and selective chemisorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Tungsten carbide exhibits good activity for CO and NO conversion, compared to a standard three-way catalyst based on Pt and Rh. However, this W carbide is ineffective in the oxidation of propane. The Mo,W mixed carbides are markedly different having only a very low activity. 9 refs.; 10 figs.; 5 tabs

  2. Rare wild Orchids at CERN Meyrin

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    There are several "Floral Nature Reserve - Late Mowing" zones at CERN Meyrin. The blossoms of a rare and a not so rare type of wild orchid are currently in flower. The rare one is the bee orchid (Ophrys Apifera) which is a protected perennial. They are very unusual and in some years can appear in great numbers and then sometimes only reappear after a decade. They live in a symbiotic relationship with a soil-dwelling fungus. Its name stems from the fact that its brown, furry lip resembles and smells like a female bee, a mimicry used to attract drones to aid in pollination. The much more distributed species is the pyramidal orchid (Anacamptis Pyramidalis), which due to its size and its bright pink colour is already visible when you pass by in your car. Photos were taken on the late mowing zone adjacent to route Einstein opposite building 57 on 4 June 2005.

  3. Improving Interactive Health Literacy Skills of Older Adults: Lessons Learned From Formative Organizational Research With Community Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmer, John; Furtado, Debra; Rubin, Donald L; Freimuth, Vicki; Kaley, Terry; Okundaye, Mumbi

    2015-01-01

    Meals on Wheels (MOW) organizations are ideal community partners for delivering social support relating to health information exchange for vulnerable and home-bound older adults. This article illustrates how formative organizational evaluation can be used to adapt health literacy interventions delivered by community partners. Key informant interviews and ethnographic observations were conducted as part of a formative organizational evaluation of potential community partners. The observed brevity of volunteer-client interaction led program planners to incorporate substantial emphasis on communicating with older adults into the health literacy coach training curriculum. Ethnographic observations made clear that program materials had to be portable and fit it in with the mobile nature of MOW delivery. Formative organizational research can greatly increase the chance of successful implementation of public health interventions when those interventions will be implemented in partnerships with community-based organizations in diverse settings and with varying practices.

  4. Home Delivered Meals to Older Adults: A Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Marie C; Donley, Amy M; Wright, James D; Vega, Sara Strickhouser

    The United States is witnessing a growing aging population stemming in part from medical advancements allowing people to live decades longer than previous generations. Simultaneously, food insecurity among older adults has increased, and is projected to get worse as the Baby Boomer generation ages. This review focuses on an assistance program for older adults: home-delivered meals. Specifically, we focus on the effects of Meals on Wheels (MOW) on the physical and emotional well-being of older adults, and the wide variety of procedural and operational issues that various MOW programs around the country experience. Findings from the literature highlight the positive outcomes these programs have on their clients. Although there have been recent budget cut threats from the federal government, evidence suggests that more funding should be allocated so these programs can provide services to everyone in need, and even expand what they are able to offer to older adults.

  5. Who is Distressed Applying the Diabetes Related Distress Scale in a Diabetes Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    59 MDW /SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 7APR 2017 1. Your paper, entitled Who is Distressed? Applying the Diabetes -Related Distress...Scale in A Diabetes Clinic presented at/published to American Diabetes Association 2017 Meeting, San Francisco, CA (National Conference), 9-16 June...as a publication/presentation, a new 59 MOW Form 3039 must be submitted for review and approval.) Using the Diabetes -Related Distress Scale in

  6. Occult lawn mower projectile injury presenting with hemoptysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric J. Darvie, BS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 72-year-old man with hemoptysis after a thoracic projectile injury, which occurred while mowing the lawn. Chest radiograph followed by a computed tomography angiogram revealed a metallic foreign body in the right middle lobe of the lung. The patient underwent a right anterolateral thoracotomy where the object was successfully retrieved. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery.

  7. Occult lawn mower projectile injury presenting with hemoptysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvie, Patric J; Ballard, David H; Harris, Nicholas; Bhargava, Peeyush; Rao, Vyas R; Samra, Navdeep S

    2017-12-01

    We present the case of a 72-year-old man with hemoptysis after a thoracic projectile injury, which occurred while mowing the lawn. Chest radiograph followed by a computed tomography angiogram revealed a metallic foreign body in the right middle lobe of the lung. The patient underwent a right anterolateral thoracotomy where the object was successfully retrieved. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery.

  8. Occult lawn mower projectile injury presenting with hemoptysis

    OpenAIRE

    Patric J. Darvie, BS; David H. Ballard, MD; Nicholas Harris, MD; Peeyush Bhargava, MD, MBA; Vyas R. Rao, MD; Navdeep S. Samra, MD

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of a 72-year-old man with hemoptysis after a thoracic projectile injury, which occurred while mowing the lawn. Chest radiograph followed by a computed tomography angiogram revealed a metallic foreign body in the right middle lobe of the lung. The patient underwent a right anterolateral thoracotomy where the object was successfully retrieved. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery.

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 4251 - 4300 of 11090 ... Vol 9, No 4 (2010), Effects of mowing utilization on forage yield and quality in five oat varieties in alpine area of the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Abstract PDF. W Gao-Lin, W Mei-Ru, G Ting, H Tian-Ming, G Davidson. Vol 7, No 17 (2008), Effects of municipal sewage sludge doses on the yield, ...

  10. Man o' War Mutation in UDP-α-D-Xylose Synthase Favors the Abortive Catalytic Cycle and Uncovers a Latent Potential for Hexamer Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Jr., Richard M.; Polizzi, Samuel J.; Kadirvelraj, Renuka; Howard, Wesley W.; Wood, Zachary A. [Georgia

    2015-03-17

    The man o’ war (mow) phenotype in zebrafish is characterized by severe craniofacial defects due to a missense mutation in UDP-α-D-xylose synthase (UXS), an essential enzyme in proteoglycan biosynthesis. The mow mutation is located in the UXS dimer interface ~16 Å away from the active site, suggesting an indirect effect on the enzyme mechanism. We have examined the structural and catalytic consequences of the mow mutation (R236H) in the soluble fragment of human UXS (hUXS), which shares 93% sequence identity with the zebrafish enzyme. In solution, hUXS dimers undergo a concentration-dependent association to form a tetramer. Sedimentation velocity studies show that the R236H substitution induces the formation of a new hexameric species. Using two new crystal structures of the hexamer, we show that R236H and R236A substitutions cause a local unfolding of the active site that allows for a rotation of the dimer interface necessary to form the hexamer. The disordered active sites in the R236H and R236A mutant constructs displace Y231, the essential acid/base catalyst in the UXS reaction mechanism. The loss of Y231 favors an abortive catalytic cycle in which the reaction intermediate, UDP-α-D-4-keto-xylose, is not reduced to the final product, UDP-α-D-xylose. Surprisingly, the mow-induced hexamer is almost identical to the hexamers formed by the deeply divergent UXS homologues from Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori (21% and 16% sequence identity, respectively). The persistence of a latent hexamer-building interface in the human enzyme suggests that the ancestral UXS may have been a hexamer.

  11. 3.10. Habitat restoration and creation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    1.12.1 Terrestrial habitat Based on the collated evidence, what is the current assessment of the effectiveness of interventions for terrestrial habitat restoration and creation? Beneficial ● Replant vegetation Likely to be beneficial ● Clear vegetation● Create artificial hibernacula or aestivation sites● Create refuges● Restore habitat connectivity Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence) ● Change mowing regime No evidence found (no assessment) ● Create habitat connectivity Beneficial Repla...

  12. Cruise Summary Report - MEDWAVES survey (MEDiterranean out flow WAter and Vulnerable EcosystemS)

    OpenAIRE

    Orejas, Covadonga; Addamo, Anna; Alvarez, Marta; Aparicio, Alberto; Alcoverro, Daniel; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Bilan, Meri; Boavida, Joana; Cainzos, Veronica; Calderon, Ruben; Cambeiro, Peregrino; Castano, Monica; Fox, Alan; Gallardo, Marina; Gori, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The MEDWAVES (MEDiterranean out flow WAter and Vulnerable EcosystemS) cruise targeted areas under the potential influence of the MOW within the Mediterranean and Atlantic realms. These include seamounts where Cold-water corals (CWCs) have been reported but that are still poorly known, and which may act as essential “stepping stones” connecting fauna of seamounts in the Mediterranean with those of the continental shelf of Portugal, the Azores and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. During MEDWAVES samplin...

  13. Vegetative, productive and qualitative performance of grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" according to the use of winter cover crops

    OpenAIRE

    Bettoni, Jean Carlos; Feldberg, Nelson Pires; Nava, Gilberto; Veiga, Milton da; Wildner, Leandro do Prado

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To study the effect of winter cover crops on the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapevines, an experiment was conducted in two wine harvests by sowing different species of winter cover crops and additional treatments with manual weeding and mechanical mowing in an experimental vineyard located at the Experimental Station of Epagri in Videira, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plant attributes of the grapevine, such as number of rods and weight ...

  14. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 4.2 on biodiversity in set-aside management and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers, part I

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Mocali; Silvia Landi; Arturo Fabiani; Raimondo Piccolo; Alessandro Agnelli; Giada d'Errico; Giuseppe Mazza; Marco Fedrizzi; Giulio Sperandio; Mirko Guerrieri; Mauro Pagano; Daniele Puri; Paolo Bazzoffi; Marta Biaggini; Pietro Lo Cascio

    2016-01-01

    In 2005, the CAP reform introduced the principle of conditionality that enables the access to single payments for farmers only ‘on condition’ that a series of commitments, such as the Statutory Management Requirements (SMR) and Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAEC), are respected. In particular, the GAEC Standard 4.2 aims to ensure the proper management of the set-aside fields through specific agronomic practices consisting in mowing or equivalent operations in order to conser...

  15. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1983-September 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    Progress made during this reporting period is reported for each of the following areas: (1) principal parameters achieved in experimental devices, (2) TFTR, (3) PLT, (4) PBX, (5) S-1 Spheromak, (6) advanced concepts Torus-1, (7) x-ray laser studies, (8) theory, (9) tokamak modeling, (10) reactor studies, (11) spin-polarized fusion program, (12) tokamak fusion core experiment, and (13) engineering. (MOW)

  16. Inpatient Psychiatric Admission Rates in a U.S. Air Force Basic Military Training Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-20

    Please know that if you are a Graduate Health Sciences Education student and your department has told you they cannot fund your publication, the 59th...author must complete page two of this form: a. In Section 2, add the funding source for your study (e.g., S9 MOW CRD Graduate Health Sciences...U.S. AIR FORCE BASIC MILITARY TRAINING POPULATION Background: Mental health admission rates for those with no active mental health disorders have

  17. The Holistic Targeting (HOT) methodology as the means to improve Information Operations (IO) target development and prioritization

    OpenAIRE

    Ieva, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Prioritization. In response to this challenge, this study proposes five recommendations to enhance IO integration into the Joint Targeting Cycle: the use of interim IO Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual (JMEM) techniques to better forecast cognitive effects, the adoption of the Measure of Worth (MOW) model to assess IO effects, the HOT methodology to develop and prioritize IO targets, the use of compendium software facilitate targeting problem understanding and the network analysis to...

  18. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  19. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  20. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  1. Synfuels from fusion: using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, R.W. (ed.)

    1982-11-01

    This study is concerned with the following area: (1) the tandem mirror reactor and its physics; (2) energy balance; (3) the lithium oxide canister blanket system; (4) high-temperature blanket; (5) energy transport system-reactor to process; (6) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (7) interfacing the GA cycle; (8) matching power and temperature demands; (9) preliminary cost estimates; (10) synfuels beyond hydrogen; and (11) thermodynamics of the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O system. (MOW)

  2. 78 FR 52823 - Designation of 1 Individual and 1 Entity Pursuant to Executive Order 13224 of September 23, 2001...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... (Pakistan); alt. National ID No. 42201-015024707-7 (individual) [SDGT]. Entity 1. JAMIA TALEEM-UL-QURAN-WAL...; a.k.a. MADRASA TALEEMUL QURAN WAL HADITH; a.k.a. MADRASA TALEEMUL QURAN WAL SUNNAH; a.k.a. MAWIYA MADRASSA; a.k.a. MOW-YA MADRASSA; a.k.a. TALALIM QURAN MADRASSA; a.k.a. TALEEM UL-QURAN MADRASSA; a.k.a...

  3. Lessons Learned from the Use of the Machine Gun during the Russo-Japanese War and the Application of Those Lessons by the Protagonists of World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-17

    remain the master of the 9 battlefield. The influential military theorist Spencer Wilkinson, founder of the Manchester Tactical Society, clearly stated...yards, 473 Zulus . They lay in groups, in some places, of fourteen to thirty dead, mowed down by the fire of the Gatlings, which tells upon them more...than the fire of the rifles.”10 Lord Chelmsford was so impressed with their usefulness as an infantry support weapon that after the Zulu campaign he said

  4. Physicochemical properties analysis and size distribution research of microstickies in whitewater

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Wei Wang; Bo Li; Shu-Bin Wu; Peng Lu

    2012-01-01

    Microstickies in whitewater have caused serious deterioration of paper quality and low efficiency of paper machine runnability. To solve this problem it is necessary to master the characteristics of various aspects of microstickies. In this study, the physicochemical properties and size distribution of microstickies in whitewater of three typical kinds of waste papers, old newspaper (ONP), old book paper (OBP), and mixed office wastepaper (MOW), were investigated by conventional methods and a...

  5. Interhemispheric teleconnections: Late Pliocene change in Mediterranean outflow water linked to changes in Indonesian Through-Flow and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, a review and update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnthein, Michael; Grunert, Patrick; Khélifi, Nabil; Frank, Martin; Nürnberg, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    The ultimate, possibly geodynamic control and potential impact of changes in circulation activity and salt discharge of Mediterranean outflow waters (MOW) on Atlantic meridional overturning circulation have formed long-standing objectives in paleoceanography. Late Pliocene changes in the distal advection of MOW were reconstructed on orbital timescales for northeast Atlantic DSDP/ODP sites 548 and 982 off Brittany and on Rockall Plateau, supplemented by a proximal record from Site U1389 west off Gibraltar, and compared to Western Mediterranean surface and deep-water records of Alboran Sea Site 978. From 3.43 to 3.3 Ma, MOW temperatures and salinities form a prominent rise by 2-4 °C and 3 psu, induced by a preceding and coeval rise in sea surface and deep-water salinity and increased summer aridity in the Mediterranean Sea. We speculate that these changes triggered an increased MOW flow and were ultimately induced by a persistent 2.5 °C cooling of Indonesian Through-Flow waters. The temperature drop resulted from the northward drift of Australia that crossed a threshold value near 3.6-3.3 Ma and led to a large-scale cooling of the eastern subtropical Indian Ocean and in turn, to a reduction of African monsoon rains. Vice versa, we show that the distinct rise in Mediterranean salt export after 3.4 Ma induced a unique long-term rise in the formation of Upper North Atlantic Deep Water, that followed with a phase lag of 100 ky. In summary, we present evidence for an interhemispheric teleconnection of processes in the Indonesian Gateways, the Mediterranean and Labrador Seas, jointly affecting Pliocene climate.

  6. Mechanisms for dominance in an early successional old field by the invasive non-native Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, A.L.; Gibson, D.J.; Middleton, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers studying invasive plants often concentrate their efforts on predictive models thought to allow invasive plants to dominate native landscapes. However, if an invasive is already well established then experimental research is necessary to provide the information necessary to effectively manage the species. Prescribing appropriate management strategies without prior experimental research may not only be ineffective but also may squander limited resources or have the unintended consequence of furthering spread. Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don. is a well-established invasive plant of old fields and tall-grass prairie in the US. Managers suspect this species shades-out native plants and this is proposed as its primary mechanism for dominance. Using field experiments we tested probable factors allowing the speices to establish itself and once established, interfere in old field plant communities. We also examined the effects of two common anthropogenic disturbances (mowing and nutrients) on L. cuneata growth and establishment. When L. cuneata was treated (clipping, herbicide and stem pull-back) there was a significant increase in species richness and native speices cover. Stem density and canopy cover of L. cuneata increased significantly with mowing frequency but decreased with nutrient input. We suggest that mowing benefits L. cuneata while also hindering woody competition. Results also indicate L. cuneata is less prevalent on nutrient enriched soils than on unamended soil. Lespedeza cuneata appears to suppress native plants by shading them out and it can subsequently take over grassland communities. Since it has a varying response to human induced disturbances and may actually benefit from mowing, land managers should be cautious when utilizing this as a management tool.

  7. Evaluation of Exercise Response in a Young, High Risk Population: Submaximal Invasive Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (ICPET) in Active Duty Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    funding source for your study [e.g., S9 MOW CRD Graduate Health Sciences Educa tion (GHSE) (SGS O&M); SGS R&D; Tri-Service Nursing Research Program (TSNRP...Fidelity Hemodynamic Waveform and Data Repository for Training A llied Health Personnel and Research 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED...Ph.D. February 11 , 2015 FROM: PROJECT TITLE: Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC) Institutional Review Board (408191-1] High-Fidelity Hemodynamic

  8. Laser program annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, L.W.; Strack, J.R. (eds.)

    1980-03-01

    This volume contains four sections that covers the areas of target design, target fabrication, diagnostics, and experiments. Section 3 reports on target design activities, plasma theory and simulation, code development, and atomic theory. Section 4 presents the accomplishments of the target fabrication group, and Section 5 presents results of diagnostic developments and applications for the year. The results of laser-target experiments are presented. (MOW)

  9. Laser program annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, L.W.; Strack, J.R. (eds.)

    1980-03-01

    Volume 3 comprises three sections, beginning with Section 7 on advanced quantum electronics. Both theoretical and experimental research and development activities on advanced laser concepts in the quest for high efficiency and high repetition rate are presented. Section 8 contains the results of studies by the Energy and Military Applications group. Section 9 presents results from some of the activities of the advanced isotope separation program. (MOW)

  10. User's view of FERF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doggett, J.N.; Vandervoort, R.R.; Barmore, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    This report represents a first attempt at coordinating a testing program with a FERF design. The purpose was to gain insight into the value and problems associated with using FERF in a real materials and systems test program. A comparison to the current survey of CTR materials test requirements shows that FERF can provide virtually all the appropriate experimental space and flux requested (except for very large blanket sections). (MOW)

  11. Kinetic analysis of polyoxometalate (POM) oxidation of non-phenolic lignin model compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoya Yokoyama; Hou-min Chang; Ira A. Weinstock; Richard S. Reiner; John F. Kadla

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic and reaction mechanism of non-phenolic lignin model compounds under anaerobic polyoxometalate (POM), Na5(+1.9)[SiV1(-0.1)MoW10(+0.1) 40], bleaching conditions were examined. Analyses using a syringyl type model, 1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)ethanol (1), a guaiacyl type, 1-(3,4- imethoxyphenyl)ethanol (2), and 1- (4-ethoxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanol (3) suggest...

  12. TFTR neutral beam injection system conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Three subsystems are described in the following chapters: (1) Neutral Beam Injection Line; (2) Power Supplies; and (3) Controls. Each chapter contains two sections: (1) Functions and Design Requirements; this is a brief listing of the requirements of components of the subsystem. (2) Design Description; this section describes the design and cost estimates. The overall performance requirements of the neutral beam injection system are summarized. (MOW)

  13. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    This chapter deals with the analysis and engineering scaling of solid breeded blankets. The limits under which full component behavior can be achieved under changed test conditions are explored. The characterization of these test requirements for integrated testing contributes to the overall test matrix and test plan for the understanding and development of fusion nuclear technology. The second chapter covers the analysis and engineering scaling of liquid metal blankets. The testing goals for a complete blanket program are described. (MOW)

  14. Driving forces in the Greenlandic urbanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    2014-01-01

    Generally urbanization is recognised as a natural development where the population is mowing into the larger towns driven by e.g. better job opportunities, larger product and service supply and better education and health services, and it is often argued that this is also the driving forces...... support and with limited export oriented value creation. It will be disused how the previous and present urbanization interact with a sustainable development and what is the core prerequisites for sustainable towns and settlements....

  15. Fytodiverzita různě starých úhorů ve vztahu ke změnám využívání zemědělské půdy v okolí českých vesnic v rumunském Banátu

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to identify the main factors influencing development and diversity of vegetation on old fields around village Svatá Helena in Romania. I evaluated the influence of age of an old field, its management (mowing, pasture, burning and fallowing), soil chemical properties, topography and surrounding vegetation. Using phytosociological relevés I collected data about species composition and coverage of species of the old field vegetation. With the assistance of local i...

  16. A Case of Chagas Cardiomyopathy Following Infection in South Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-24

    an entity seeking to do business with the government. then your presentation should have an ethics review. If your travel ls being paid for (in...route the request form to dinical investigations. 502 ISG/JAC ( Ethics Review) and Public Affairs (59 MOW/PA) for review and then foiward you a final...Presentation and Publication of Medical and Technical Papers. for additional information. 11. The Joint Ethics Regulation (JER) DoD 5500.07-R

  17. Evaluation of Xstat and Combat Gauze in a Swine Model of Lethal Junctional Hemorrhage in Coagulopathic Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-19

    standards of ethical conduct for all DoD personnel and their interactions with other non-DoD entities. organizations , societies. conferences, etc...following examples are provided as a guideline: For presentations before professional societies and like organizations . the 59 MOW Public Affairs Office...swine were used in all experiments. Dilutional coagulopathy was induced by replacing 60% of the animal’s estimated blood volume with room

  18. Feasibility of Implementing an Opioid Risk Mitigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    abstracts. papers, posters, etc., should contain the following disclaimer statement for research involving animals , as required by AFMAN 40-401 IP...Gulde for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the Animal Welfare Act of 1966, as am ended." 59 MOW FORM 3039, 20160218 Prescribed by S9 MDWI 41...System 7. FUNDING RECEIVED FOR THIS STUDY? 181 YES 0 NO FUNDING SOURCE: JPC-5 Substance Abuse Working Group 8. DO YOU NEED FUNDING SUPPORT FOR

  19. Center for Dielectric Studies,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    10oC, and SPC with reference to the value at 250C. All the samples reported in Table 1 had resistivities greater than 11010 ohm-on. As evident from...suitably chosen AP3 increments ca be found. These mow values o f P3g amd I2 may them be sub stituted back imto the squat ioms for AG, aad f ori the

  20. Thermocouple calibration facility for 2900 deg C high temperature and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1991-01-01

    The construction and the performance characteristic of a 2900 deg C high temperature thermocouple calibration facility are described. The calibration error analysis is made. The test results of the calibration characteristics of high temperature thermocouples Mo/Nb, W-3Re/W-25Re, and W-1Mo/W-25Mo are given. The test result of temperature dependent resistivity of BeO made by this facility is given

  1. Development and Technology Programs to address research and development needs of the Engineering Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    The following topics are covered in this report: (1) toroidal field system, (2) induction and poloidal field coil systems, (3) neutral beam heating system, (4) rf heating, (5) mm wave rf plasma breakdown, (6) divertors/limiters, (7) fuel injection, (8) tritium system, (9) materials, (10) vacuum, (11) instrumentation and control, (12) neutronics, (13) first wall, blanket and shield, (14) maintenance, and (15) environment and safety. (MOW)

  2. Use of STOP Bang Questionnaire in Outpatient Setting: Increasing Both Identification of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients and Polysomnography Referral Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-16

    that if you are a Graduate Health Sciences Education student and your department has told you they cannot fund your publication, the 59th Clin ica l...t cote p~ed In lhe :J~cr.5e Ter.Jml::nl lrl’l!rr...atkm CCf"b!r (:> TIC ). O.Jl\\.TE April J.4, 2() l 7 14 55 MOW PRIMARY P CXNT OF CONTACT I.La~ ~e

  3. High-energy glass lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    In order to investigate intense pulse propagation phenomena, as well as problems in laser and system design, a prototype single chain laser called CYCLOPS was constructed. This laser employs a 20-cm clear aperture disk amplifier in its final stage and produces a terawatt pulse whose brightness exceeds 10 18 watts/cm 2 -ster. The CYCLOPS system is summarized and aspects of nonlinear propagation phenomena that are currently being addressed are discussed. (MOW)

  4. Marine microalgae flocculation using plant: the case of Nannochloropsis oculata and Moringa oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharuddin, N.; Aziz, N. S.; Sohif, H. N.; Basiran, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Marine microalgae have been commercially used as live feed for aquaculture and nutritional supplements. However, harvesting of marine microalgae is a major obstacle for industrial scale and one of the promising harvesting techniques is bio-flocculation. Nannochloropsis oculata from the culture broth was investigated. The potential of Moringa oleifera as a flocculant has been evaluated using jar test experiments. Moringa oleifera after oil extraction (MOAE) and with non-extracted Moringa oleifera (MOWE) have been studied and compared to chemical flocculant, aluminium sulphate. Three parameters involved: pH, settling time and flocculant dosage. When MOAE and MOWE were used as flocculants, the highest flocculation efficiency of Nannochloropsis oculata was observed at 93.77 percent (pH 7, 150 minutes, 5000 mg/L) and 70.56 percent (pH 7, 90 minutes, 4000 mg/L) respectively. Harvesting efficiency of 99.98 percent with short settling time, 30 minutes and 2000 mg/L of flocculant dosage at pH 6 was achieved using aluminium sulphate. The concentrated of Nannochloropsis oculata was then fed to the Brachionus plicatilis (rotifers) to observe the growth characteristics in 12 days period. Concentrates of MOWE gave better growth of Brachionus plicatilis than growth in concentrates of MOAE and live Nannochloropsis oculata. In contrast, growth of Brachionus plicatilis in aluminium sulphate was tremendously decline. In Conclusion, bio-flocculation using Moringa oleifera was rapid, inexpensive and eco-friendly technology as no addition of chemical flocculants was required. (author)

  5. Lawn mower injuries in children: a preventable impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, J E; Sanchez, F L

    1995-01-01

    Every year there are seven million new lawn mowers purchased in the United States, each of which is capable of injuring young children, especially those > 14 years of age. A total of 33 children injured by a lawn mower were reviewed to identify the mechanism of injury, to determine the factors responsible for the accident, to determine an effective treatment regime, and to evaluate the permanent impairment for these patients. Classified according to their mechanism of injury, 14 children were injured as bystanders, 13 injured as riders, and six injured as operators. Categorized according to the anatomical location of injury, there were eight head and eye injuries, 12 upper extremity injuries, and 13 lower extremity injuries. There were 13 amputations (39.3%). The treatment management was satisfactory, but 23 children had an impairment > 40% of the whole person. We believe that the incidence of these injuries can be reduced by public awareness. Each orthopaedic surgeon should take on the task of educating the public about the dangers and wounding capacity of these machines and instructing the proper safety precautions that should be taken when mowing the lawn, especially when children are involved. The bottom line is that children should not be allowed in the yard while the lawn is being mowed nor should they be allowed to mow the lawn until they are > or = 15 years of age.

  6. Characterization of airborne BTEX exposures during use of lawnmowers and trimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avens, Heather J; Maskrey, Joshua R; Insley, Allison L; Unice, Kenneth M; Reid, Rachel C D; Sahmel, Jennifer

    2018-02-08

    Few studies have evaluated airborne exposures to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) during operation of two-stroke and four-stroke small engines, such as those in lawn maintenance equipment. Full-shift, 8-hour personal samples were collected during a simulation study to characterize yard maintenance activities including mowing, trimming, and fueling. Short-term, 15-minute personal samples were collected to separately evaluate mowing and trimming exposures. Mean 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) BTEX concentrations were 2.3, 5.8, 0.91, and 4.6 ppb, respectively (n = 2). Mean 15-minute TWA BTEX concentrations were 1.6, 1.8, 0.22, and 1.3 ppb, respectively, during mowing and 1.2, 3.6, 0.68, and 3.3 ppb, respectively, during trimming (n = 3 per task). Measured BTEX concentrations during fueling were 20-110, 61-310, 8-41, and 40-203 ppb, respectively (n = 2, duration 2-3 minutes). These exposure concentrations were well below applicable US occupational exposure limits.

  7. Oceanographic Mower Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, J.; Ercilla, G.; Hernández-Molina, F. J.; Casas, D.

    2015-04-01

    The MOWER Cruise has executed a geophysics and geologic expedition in the Gulf of Cádiz (sector adjacent to the Strait of Gibraltar) and west off Portugal, in the framework of the coordinate research project MOWER "Erosive features and associated sandy deposits generated by the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) around Iberia: paleoceanographic, sedimentary & economic implications" (CTM 2012-39599-C03). The main aim of this project is to identify and study the erosional features (terraces and channels) and associated sedimentary deposits (sandy contourites) generated by the Mediterranean Water Masses around the middle continental slope of Iberia (The Mediterranean Outflow Water - MOW - in the Atlantic margins), their Pliocene and Quaternary evolution and their paleoceanographic, sedimentary and economic implications. This objective directly involves the study of alongslope (contourite) processes associated with the MOW and across-slope (turbiditic flows, debris flows, etc.) processes in the sedimentary stacking pattern and evolution of the Iberian margins. The MOWER project and cruise are related to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 339 (Mediterranean Outflow). It is also linked and coordinated with CONDRIBER Project "Contourite drifts and associated mass-transport deposits along the SW Iberia margin - implications to slope stability and tsunami hazard assessment" (2013-2015) funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal (PTDC/GEO-GEO/4430/2012).

  8. Epibenthic communities of sedimentary habitats in a NE Atlantic deep seamount (Galicia Bank)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, A.; Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; Punzón, A.; García-Alegre, A.; Arronte, J. C.; Ríos, P.; Lourido, A.; Frutos, I.; Blanco, M.

    2017-12-01

    Galicia Bank is a deep seamount included as Site of Community Importance (SCI) in the Spanish Natura 2000 Network proposal. In the present study, epibenthic assemblages of sedimentary habitats have been described, together with the main environmental factor explaining species and communities distribution. Five epibenthic assemblages have been identified. Depth was the main factor explaining assemblage distribution, and the role of sediment type, water masses, and coral framework presence is also discussed. Three assemblages are located in the summit: the shallowest one (730-770 m), in the boundary between Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW) and Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) water masses is typified by ophiuroids and characterized by medium sands. The second assemblage (770-800 m) typified by the bivalve Limopsis minuta and the solitary coral Flabellum chunii correspond with medium sands and MOW core; and the third typified by the presence of cold-water coral communities dominated by Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, also on the MOW influence. In the border of the summit, in the bank break, an assemblage located in the range 1000-1200 m is dominated by the urchin Cidaris cidaris and the sponge Thenea muricata. In the flat flanks around the bank, the deepest assemblage (1400-1800 m) is dominated by the holothurian Benthogone rosea, in a depth range dominated by the Labrador water (LSW) and in fine sands with highest contents of organic matter. Most of species appeared in a depth range smaller than 25% of total depth range sampled and in bank.

  9. Interpretation of data on the aggregate composition of typical chernozems under different land use by cluster and principal component analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Yaroslavtseva, N. V.; Lazarev, V. I.; Frid, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    Cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) have been used for the interpretation of dry sieving data. Chernozems from the treatments of long-term field experiments with different land-use patterns— annually mowed steppe, continuous potato culture, permanent black fallow, and untilled fallow since 1998 after permanent black fallow—have been used. Analysis of dry sieving data by PCA has shown that the treatments of untilled fallow after black fallow and annually mowed steppe differ most in the series considered; the content of dry aggregates of 10-7 mm makes the largest contribution to the distribution of objects along the first principal component. This fraction has been sieved in water and analyzed by PCA. In contrast to dry sieving data, the wet sieving data showed the closest mathematical distance between the treatment of untilled fallow after black fallow and the undisturbed treatment of annually mowed steppe, while the untilled fallow after black fallow and the permanent black fallow were the most distant treatments. Thus, it may be suggested that the water stability of structure is first restored after the removal of destructive anthropogenic load. However, the restoration of the distribution of structural separates to the parameters characteristic of native soils is a significantly longer process.

  10. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 4.2 on biodiversity in set-aside management and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers, part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mocali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the CAP reform introduced the principle of conditionality that enables the access to single payments for farmers only ‘on condition’ that a series of commitments, such as the Statutory Management Requirements (SMR and Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAEC, are respected. In particular, the GAEC Standard 4.2 aims to ensure the proper management of the set-aside fields through specific agronomic practices consisting in mowing or equivalent operations in order to conserve and protect biodiversity. This is considered one of the main environmental challenges of the new CAP. In the present work, we report the results of a monitoring activity aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the Standard 4.2 on soil biodiversity. Monitoring involved both, soil microorganisms and soil arthropod fauna, representing the so-called ‘invisible biodiversity’, a key element for soil fertility and sustainability, as well as the ground-dwelling arthropods. Two different managements of set-aside, with and without mowing, were compared in three different areas in Italy: Caorle (VE, Fagna (FI, and Metaponto (MT. The results showed a slight but significant increase in biodiversity in the plots where mowing was applied.

  11. Soil Properties and Plant Biomass Production in Natural Rangeland Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu de Souza Werner

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Improper management of rangelands can cause land degradation and reduce the economic efficiency of livestock activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil properties and quantify plant biomass production in four natural rangeland management systems in the Santa Catarina Plateau (Planalto Catarinense of Brazil. The treatments, which included mowed natural rangeland (NR, burned natural rangeland (BR, natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after harrowing (IH, and natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after chisel plowing (IC, were evaluated in a Nitossolo Bruno (Nitisol. In the improved treatments, soil acidity was corrected, phosphate fertilizer was applied, and intercropped annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, velvet grass (Holcus lanatus, and white clover (Trifolium repens were sown. Management systems with harrowed or chisel plowed soil showed improved soil physical properties; however, the effect decreased over time and values approached those of burned and mowed natural rangelands. Natural rangeland systems in the establishment phase had little influence on soil organic C. The mowed natural rangeland and improved natural rangeland exhibited greater production of grazing material, while burning the field decreased production and increased the proportion of weeds. Improvement of the natural rangelands increased leguminous biomass for pasture.

  12. Late Pliocene History of Mediterranean Outflow Water in the Gulf of Cadiz (IODP Expedition 339, Site U1389)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, P.; Balestra, B.; Flores, J. A.; Sierro, F. J.; García Gallardo, Á.; Piller, W. E.; Aubry, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    The opening and closure of ocean gateways play an important role amongst climate forcing mechanisms: surface and deep-water circulation are altered, and hence global heat transport. An important component of North Atlantic circulation patterns is the warm and saline Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) that enters the North Atlantic via the Gibraltar Strait. Its onset and early history after the opening of the Gibraltar Strait at 5.3 Ma are poorly constrained and its impact on oceanography and climate in the Pliocene are largely unexplored. Current research efforts in the scope of projects funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF-P25831-N29) and the Max Kade Foundation aim to improve our knowledge about this early phase of MOW. Research focuses on Sites U1387C (upper Miocene-lower Pliocene; ~5.8-3.8 Myrs) and U1389E (middle-upper Pliocene; ~3.7-2.8) drilled during IODP Expedition 339 in the northern Gulf of Cádiz close to the source area of MOW. At IODP Site U1389E, a 280m-thick sequence of upper Pliocene contourites is studied to reconstruct MOW behavior and potential paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic feedback mechanisms during the Mid-Pliocene Thermal Optimum. Currently, a reliable age model is developed for the studied interval based on bio-, chemo-, and cyclostratigraphy. Several biostratigraphic datums have been identified from analyses of calcareous nannoplankton and planktic foraminifera which indicate a depositional age between 3.65 Ma and 2.87 Ma. In some intervals of the record a further refinement of the age model at the millenial scale is complicated by poor recovery. However, preliminary results from high-resolution geochemical analyses of the bulk sediment (TOC, CaCO3 and S) and shells of the planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber (δ18O, δ13C) reveal distinct cyclic patterns in several well recovered intervals. Based on an average sedimentation rate of ~25cm/ka, these cycles most likely reflect precessional forcing. Current paleoceanographic

  13. NFLUENCE OF SALTED ENVIRONMENT ON FODDER HERBS EFFICIENCY OF PASTURABLE PHYTOCOENOSES OF THE NORTH-WESTERN CASPIAN LOWLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Z. Usmanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The changes in the intensity of biological processes in the vegetation and productivity of forage grasses depending on the degree of soil salinity of the North-West Caspian Lowland were studied. Salination factors are specific. They are formed because of their adaptive nature, providing for species the opportunity to get the certain position in the relevant biocenosis. As a result each species produces its own strategy of life. Development of saline processes of soil in the growth and development of the plant mass, biological and agronomic salt resistance is clearly seen. Biological salt resistance is characterized by the ability to maintain the viability of the plant body at the upper limit of salinity. Agronomical salt resistance is determined by the value of crop and productivity. Adaptive possibilities of different plant species with different biological characteristics were also examined.Subject, objective of the work. Productivity of vegetation of semidesert ecosystems and dynamics under the influence of salinity forage grass pasture phytocenoses of the North-West Caspian Lowland were studied.Test method. We studied fodder crops: wheat grass long (Elytrigia elongata, ctenoid wheatgrass (Agropirum cristatum and alfalfa (Medicago sativa. The crop from each significant area was weighed; it was taken from the average sample weighed in at 1 kg in a gauze bag for drying at a temperature of 60–65 °C in airing cupboard where brought to constant weight. Accounting for phytomass was carried by laying mowing area 8–10 times. Dimensions of mowing fields are 0.25 m2, that ensured coverage of all dominant plants.Results. At mid-saline meadow-chestnut soil of the North-West Caspian Lowland wheatgrass long gives the highest yield of green mass – 18,1 tons per hectare of dry weight average for 2003–2010. Alfalfa crop is in the second place, that is less than bluegrass by 18.0 % (2.9 tons per hectare. The least yield of these crops is

  14. Cellulose and cutisin decomposition in soil of Alopecuretum meadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Hrevušová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant litter decomposition is a fundamental process to ecosystem functioning regulated by both abiotic and biotic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the decomposition of cellulose and protein (cutisin substrates on permanent Alopecuretum meadow under different methods of management. The treatments were following: 2 × cut, 2 × cut + NPK, 2 × mulch, 1 × cut, 1 × mulch (frequency of mowing per year and no-treated plots. Cutting or mulching was carried out in October, under the 2 × cut management also in May. In 2007–2009, cellulose and cutisin in mesh bags were placed in the soil and kept from April to October. Total mean ratios of decomposed cellulose and cutisin were 83 % and 40 % of primal substrate weight, respectively. The cellulose decomposition was affected by weather conditions, but not by applied management. The highest mean ratio of decomposed cellulose was found in 2009 (with increased amount of precipitation in May and July, the lowest in 2007. Coefficients of variation within a year and over the years were up to 22 % and 20 %, respectively. The cutisin decomposition was significantly affected by applied management in all three years. Higher rates of decomposition were noted in two times mowed treatments compared to one or not mowed treatments. Significant differences were found between years in 2× cut and 2 × cut + NPK treatments. Coefficients of variation within the year and over the years were both higher by cutisin than by cellulose samples (up to 50 and 42 %, respectively.

  15. Does crotalaria (Crotalaria breviflora or pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata inter-row cultivation in restoration plantings control invasive grasses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gomes César

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to control invasive fodder grasses are necessary to reduce the use of herbicides in forest restoration, which has been carried out primarily in riparian zones. We sought to investigate if inter-row cultivation of crotalaria (Crotalaria breviflora DC or pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duschene ex. Poir with native tree species is an efficient strategy to control invasive fodder grasses in restoration plantings. We tested five treatments in a randomized block design, namely (1 control of brachiaria grass (Urochloa decumbens (Stapf. Webster with glyphosate in the implementation and post-planting grass control of the reforestation, (2 and 3 glyphosate use in the implementation and inter-row sowing of crotalaria (2 or pumpkin (3, and control of brachiaria by mowing in the post-planting phase, (4 and 5 mowing in the implementation and inter-row sowing of crotalaria (4 or pumpkin (5, and control of brachiaria by mowing in the post-planting phase. Post-planting grass control was carried out four and nine months after tree seedling planting. Throughout 13 months, we evaluated the percentage of ground cover by brachiaria grass, pumpkin production, and native tree seedling mortality, height and crown cover. The exclusive use of glyphosate, without inter-row sowing of pumpkin or crotalaria showed the most favorable results for controlling brachiaria grass and, consequently, for tree seedling development. Hence, inter-row cultivation of green manure or short-lived crop species is not enough to control invasive grasses in restoration plantings, and complementary weeding is necessary to reduce the highly competitive potential of C4 grasses for supporting native species seedlings growth.

  16. N management of European grasslands: can the exchange of gaseous N species be influenced at the operational level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanca, P; Neftel, A; Fuhrer, J

    2001-11-30

    Grassland ecosystems can be regarded as biochemical reactors in which large amounts of organic nitrogen (N) are converted into inorganic N, and vice versa. If managed in a sustainable manner, grasslands should operate in a quasi steady state, characterized by an almost perfect balance between total N input and output. As a consequence, the exchange of gaseous N species (NH3, NO, NO2, N2O, and N2) between grasslands and the atmosphere is very small compared to the total N turnover. In this study, the effects of two management options (mowing and fertilization) on production and emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from a grass/clover crop were examined on the basis of observations and model results referring to an experiment carried out on the Swiss Plateau in late summer of 2000. It was found that production and emission of N2O induced by mowing were of the same order of magnitude as those brought about by fertilization, suggesting a possible transfer of N from clover to the soil after defoliation. Emissions were strongly modulated by precipitation on time scales ranging from 1 day to 1 week. This indicates that effective control of N2O emissions through management on a day-to-day basis requires reliable medium-range weather forecasts. Model calculations were not able to reproduce essential characteristics of the emissions. The model slightly overestimated the background emissions, but severely underestimated the emission peaks following fertilizer application, and largely failed to reproduce emission induced by mowing. Shortfalls in the model used for this study were found in relation to the description of soil-water fluxes, soil organic matter, and the physiology of clover.

  17. N Management of European Grasslands: Can the Exchange of Gaseous N Species Be Influenced at the Operational Level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Calanca

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Grassland ecosystems can be regarded as biochemical reactors in which large amounts of organic nitrogen (N are converted into inorganic N, and vice versa. If managed in a sustainable manner, grasslands should operate in a quasi steady state, characterized by an almost perfect balance between total N input and output. As a consequence, the exchange of gaseous N species (NH3, NO, NO2, N2O, and N2 between grasslands and the atmosphere is very small compared to the total N turnover. In this study, the effects of two management options (mowing and fertilization on production and emission of nitrous oxide (N2O from a grass/clover crop were examined on the basis of observations and model results referring to an experiment carried out on the Swiss Plateau in late summer of 2000. It was found that production and emission of N2O induced by mowing were of the same order of magnitude as those brought about by fertilization, suggesting a possible transfer of N from clover to the soil after defoliation. Emissions were strongly modulated by precipitation on time scales ranging from 1 day to 1 week. This indicates that effective control of N2O emissions through management on a day-to-day basis requires reliable medium-range weather forecasts. Model calculations were not able to reproduce essential characteristics of the emissions. The model slightly overestimated the background emissions, but severely underestimated the emission peaks following fertilizer application, and largely failed to reproduce emission induced by mowing. Shortfalls in the model used for this study were found in relation to the description of soil-water fluxes, soil organic matter, and the physiology of clover.

  18. Female Reproductive Effects of Exposure to Jet Fuel at U.S. Air Force Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    first breath sample until the Monday morning ofyour final breath sample. Avoid self-service refueling of your vehicle or lawn mower this week (outside of...fuel the lawn mower and mow the lawn for her - Post-pone painting, spraying pesticides/insecticides or using solvents if she might be in the area and...U No U_ 2. In the PAST WEEK, that is, one week ago today, did you... a).. .use the self-service tank when refueling of your vehicle or lawn mower this

  19. The Humanitarian Bailment of Foreign Possessed Territories: A Proactive Method of Legal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    entrusts an employee with the employer’s lawn mower to mow the employer’s lawn .220 This is analogous to the permissive entry situation where a host...accompanying text. 82 If an employee feloniously takes the lawn mower from the employer’s place of business to the employee’s house the servant has...committed larceny because the employee never had 230possession of the mower, only custody. If the employee picked up the lawn mower from the repair

  20. Comparison of Hydroxocobalamin Versus Norepinephrine Versus Saline in a Swine Model of Servere Septic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Versus Saline in a Swine Model of Severe Septic Shock presented at/published to SURF Conference, San Antonio, TX 20 May 2016 with MDWJ 41-108, and has...of Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center (WHASC) internship and residency programs. 3. Please know that if you are a Graduate Health Sciences...must complete page two of this form: a. In Section 2, add the funding source for your study (e.g., S9 MOW CRD Graduate Health Sciences Education (GHSE

  1. Historical review of academic concepts of dementia in the world and Japan: with a short history of representative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    Expanding our knowledge of the history of dementia may be beneficial for its holistic understanding. This article aims to review the trajectory of the concepts of dementia in the world and Japan. Historical backgrounds of major dementia diseases are also addressed. The first reference to "imbecility" appeared in Greece in 6th century BC. A Japanese term "Mow-roku" (aged and devitalized) first appeared in 11th century, was replaced by "Chee-hou" (absent-minded imbecile) in 1960s, and then by "Ninchee-show" (cognitive impairment) in 2014 for humanistic reasons. In 1970s, dementia was delineated from normal aging, and the present concept of dementia was established.

  2. New Trends in Research of Energetic Materials (5th Seminar) Held in Pardubice, Czech Republic on 24-25 Apr 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Zielonka, POLAND CONTA CT COMPA TIRILITYINVESTIGA TIONS OF HIGH-ENER GE TIC MA TERIALS USED IN’MORTAR A UGMENTING PROPELLI7VG CHARGES 200 Joel ...Proceeding of the V. Seminar IRON OXIDE/ALUMINUM FAST THERMITE REACTION USING NITRATE ADITIVES Joel Morgado*, Luisa Durfes**, Jos6 Campos* and Ant6nio...fctwi..0.00400 - ___ ___________ .5. - Cobi _ - 0__ 4.50 C t0C 1. ________-01.6 0.000 0.000 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.010 0.035 0.040 01045 Mow0

  3. Faktor – Faktor Yang Memengaruhi Pasangan Usia Subur ( PUS ) Terhadap Pemakaian Metode Kontrasepsi Jangka Panjang di Kecamatan Medan Denai

    OpenAIRE

    Amelia, Agustia Rizky

    2016-01-01

    Long-term contraception (LTM) is a contraceptive that is used to delay, space pregnancy was, and stop fertility which is used to cover long-term IUD, implant, and safe contraception. Total EFA long-term contraceptive methods as much as 4694 soul that IUD use in 2951 people (18.5%), MOW 649 people (4.1%), Implant 1094 people (6.8%) in the district of Medan Denai. This study aims to identify factors - factors that affect the use of contraceptives EFA LTCM in Medan Denai Subdistrict. This resear...

  4. Ecological Resilience of Small Urban Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JasmaniI, Zanariah Binti

    consists of several sub-variables or attributes. The attributes of physical characteristics include park size, land use, park shape, proximity to a road and the presence of a water element. Elements relating to vegetation diversity, such as the presence and share of native and exotic species, presence....... Birds and butterflies react differently to various park maintenance practices (e.g. mowing). Based on the overall results, findings and discussion of the key features for bird and butterfly richness and abundance, study IV proposes nine recommendations for small urban parks to improve their ecological...

  5. Controlled thermonuclear materials technology program. Annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.L.

    1975-10-01

    Detailed descriptions are given of research progress in the following areas: (1) microstructure of irradiated 316 stainless steel containing high helium concentrations, (2) temperature and fluence limitations for a type 316 stainless steel CTR first wall, (3) swelling and microstructural changes in irradiated vanadium alloys, (4) mechanical properties of irradiated V-20 wt percent Ti, (5) radiation damage calculations, (6) evaluation of irradiation facilities for CTR materials development, (7) surface studies, compatibility studies, (8) magnet development, (9) EPR design support, and (10) the influence of structural materials on fusion-reactor blanket response. (MOW)

  6. Full accounting of the greenhouse gas (CO2, N2O, CH4) budget of nine European grassland sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soussana, J.E.; Allard, V.; Pilegaard, Kim

    2007-01-01

    The full greenhouse gas balance of nine contrasted grassland sites covering a major climatic gradient over Europe was measured during two complete years. The sites include a wide range of management regimes (rotational grazing, continuous grazing and mowing), the three main types of managed......, automated chambers and tunable diode laser) and CH4 emissions resulting from enteric fermentation of the grazing cattle were measured in situ at four sites using the SF6 tracer method. Averaged over the two measurement years, net ecosystem exchange (NEE) results show that the nine grassland plots displayed...

  7. Protection against productivity versus erosion vineyards. Testing of vegetal covers in slope crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M. J.; Ruiz-Colmenero, M.; Garcia-Munoz, S.; Cabello, F.; Munoz-Organero, G.; Perez-Jimenez, M. A.; Bienes, R.

    2009-01-01

    Temporary and permanent cover crops were used in three rain fed vineyards in the Center of Spain. They were sown in the middle of the strips to assess their ability to control erosion as well as their influence on grape production. Data from the year 2008 are compared with those obtained with traditional tillage treatment. The permanent cover formed by Brachypodium distachyon showed better ability to control erosion but it produced a decrease in production in young vines. barley and rye treatments were temporary covers, mowed in spring. They also reduced the erosion compared with the tillage however they did not appear to affect the vineyard production. (Author)

  8. Protection against productivity versus erosion vineyards. Testing of vegetal covers in slope crops; Proteccion contra la erosion versus productividad en venidos. Ensayos de cubiertas vegetales en cultivos en pendiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, M. J.; Ruiz-Colmenero, M.; Garcia-Munoz, S.; Cabello, F.; Munoz-Organero, G.; Perez-Jimenez, M. A.; Bienes, R.

    2009-07-01

    Temporary and permanent cover crops were used in three rain fed vineyards in the Center of Spain. They were sown in the middle of the strips to assess their ability to control erosion as well as their influence on grape production. Data from the year 2008 are compared with those obtained with traditional tillage treatment. The permanent cover formed by Brachypodium distachyon showed better ability to control erosion but it produced a decrease in production in young vines. barley and rye treatments were temporary covers, mowed in spring. They also reduced the erosion compared with the tillage however they did not appear to affect the vineyard production. (Author)

  9. Energy self-sufficiency in Northampton, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The study is not an engineering analysis but begins the process of exploring the potential for conservation and local renewable-resource development in a specific community, Northampton, Massachusetts, with the social, institutional, and environmental factors in that community taken into account. Section I is an extensive executive summary of the full study, and Section II is a detailed examination of the potential for increased local energy self-sufficiency in Northampton, including current and future demand estimates, the possible role of conservation and renewable resources, and a discussion of the economic and social implications of alternative energy systems. (MOW)

  10. Twenty years experience with constructed wetland systems in Denmark - what did we learn?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Hans; Schierup, Hans-Henrik; Arias, Carlos Alberto

    2007-01-01

    , the reeds do not increase the hydraulic conductivity of cohesive soils as much as necessary to secure sub-surface flow. Operation needs of soil-based reed beds are low and normally restricted to emptying of the sedimentation tank, cleaning of the distribution system and mowing of the grass around the system...... wetland systems are either compact vertical flow systems which provide good nitrification, willow systems with no discharge or restored wetland systems for nitrate removal. If efficient removal of phosphorus is required, this is achieved by chemical precipitation in the sedimentation tank....

  11. Radioactivity in terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queirazza, G.; Guzzi, L.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation demonstrated that in the first stage the contamination affected only the foliage; therefore, the concentration ratios observed were by several orders of magnitude higher than the transfer factors. The effect of direct contamination tends to diminish gradually as observed in the radiometric data relating to two subsequent mowings of alfalfa and a meadow of miscellaneous plants. For same vegetables of alimentary value (tomatoes, rice, barley and maize) it was ascertained due to soil-to-plant transfer alone, which normally represent a very small fraction on the amount present in the soil

  12. Early phase clean-up actions after nuclear accidents. Guidelines for the planner. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvsand, T.

    1997-06-01

    The work reported has been performed with the purpose of working out a guide for planners of early clean-up actions in nuclear fallout situations and for decision makers in the Nordic countries. The actions considered are hosing of roofs, walls and paved areas, lawn mowing, removal of snow, pruning of trees and bushes and vacuum cleaning of streets. The expected effects, mainly as life time dose reduction, and consequences regarding practicability, waste produced, staffing and protection are presented for urban, suburban and rural living environments. The work has been performed within the fram work of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Program 1994-97 (Statens Raeddningsverk). (au)

  13. FieldSAFE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Mikkel Fly; Christiansen, Peter; Laursen, Morten Stigaard

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel multi-modal dataset for obstacle detection in agriculture. The dataset comprises approximately 2 hours of raw sensor data from a tractor-mounted sensor system in a grass mowing scenario in Denmark, October 2016. Sensing modalities include stereo camera, thermal...... camera, web camera, 360-degree camera, lidar, and radar, while precise localization is available from fused IMU and GNSS. Both static and moving obstacles are present including humans, mannequin dolls, rocks, barrels, buildings, vehicles, and vegetation. All obstacles have ground truth object labels...

  14. Imacon 600 ultrafast streak camera evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, T.C.; Coleman, L.W.

    1975-01-01

    The Imacon 600 has a number of designed in disadvantages for use as an ultrafast diagnostic instrument. The unit is physically large (approximately 5' long) and uses an external power supply rack for the image intensifier. Water cooling is required for the intensifier; it is quiet but not conducive to portability. There is no interlock on the cooling water. The camera does have several switch selectable sweep speeds. This is desirable if one is working with both slow and fast events. The camera can be run in a framing mode. (MOW)

  15. Design of a wildlife avoidance planning system for autonomous harvesting operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis D.; Grøn Sørensen, Claus; Green, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting and mowing operations are among the main potential stressors affecting wildlife within agricultural landscapes, leading to large animal losses. A number of studies have been conducted on harvesting practices to address the problem of wildlife mortality, providing a number of management...... actions or field area coverage strategies. Nevertheless, these are general rules limited to simple-shaped fields, and which are not applicable to more complex operational situations. The objectives of the present study were to design a system capable of deriving a wildlife avoidance driving pattern...

  16. Dielectric breakdown in liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F.L. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental apparatus consists of a 130 kV dc 80 kV ac intermediate voltage unit and a 600 kV dc 700 kV high voltage unit under construction. The experimental devices consist of an insulated container, or dewar, in which two electrodes are placed, one above the other. A voltage is built up in one electrode until an arc occurs to the other electrode. A typical set of breakdown data is shown. A mathematical analysis is briefly described. (MOW)

  17. Rootstock and vineyard floor management influence on 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin; Steenwerth, Kerri L

    2011-08-01

    This is a study on the influence that two rootstocks (110R, high vigour; 420A, low vigour) and three vineyard floor management regimes (tilled resident vegetation - usual practise in California, and barley cover crops that were either mowed or tilled) had upon grape nitrogen-containing compounds (mainly ammonia and free amino acids recalculated as YAN), sugars, and organic acids in 'Cabernet Sauvignon' clone 8. A significant difference was observed for some of the free amino acids between rootstocks. In both sample preparation methods (juiced or chemically extracted), 110R rootstock grapes were significantly higher in SER, GLN, THR, ARG, VAL, ILE, LEU, and YAN than were 420A rootstock grapes. Differences in individual free amino acid profiles and concentrations were observed between the two sample preparations, which indicate that care should be taken when comparing values from dissimilar methods. No significant differences among vineyard floor treatments were detected, which suggests that mowing offers vineyard managers a sustainable practise, alternative to tilling, without negatively affecting grape nitrogen compounds, sugars, or organic acids. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Comparison of Vegetation Indices from Rpas and SENTINEL-2 Imagery for Detecting Permanent Pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piragnolo, M.; Lusiani, G.; Pirotti, F.

    2018-04-01

    Permanent pastures (PP) are defined as grasslands, which are not subjected to any tillage, but only to natural growth. They are important for local economies in the production of fodder and pastures (Ali et al. 2016). Under these definitions, a pasture is permanent when it is not under any crop-rotation, and its production is related to only irrigation, fertilization and mowing. Subsidy payments to landowners require monitoring activities to determine which sites can be considered PP. These activities are mainly done with visual field surveys by experienced personnel or lately also using remote sensing techniques. The regional agency for SPS subsidies, the Agenzia Veneta per i Pagamenti in Agricoltura (AVEPA) takes care of monitoring and control on behalf of the Veneto Region using remote sensing techniques. The investigation integrate temporal series of Sentinel-2 imagery with RPAS. Indeed, the testing area is specific region were the agricultural land is intensively cultivated for production of hay harvesting four times every year between May and October. The study goal of this study is to monitor vegetation presence and amount using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and the Normalized Difference Built Index (NDBI). The overall objective is to define for each index a set of thresholds to define if a pasture can be classified as PP or not and recognize the mowing.

  19. Ferromanganese crusts as indicators for paleoceanographic events in the NE Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschinsky, A.; Halbach, P.; Hein, J. R.; Mangini, A.

    Hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts reflect the chemical conditions of the seawater from which they formed. Fine-scale geochemical analysis of crust layers in combination with age determinations can therefore be used to investigate paleoceanographic changes which are recorded in geochemical gradients in the crusts. At Tropic seamount (off northwest Africa), uniform crust growth influenced by terrigenous input from the African continent occurred during approximately the past 12Ma. Phosphatization of these crusts is minor. In contrast, crusts from Lion seamount, located between Madeira and the Portuguese coast, display a much more variable growth history. A pronounced increase in Ni, Cu, and Zn is observed in some intervals of the crusts, which probably reflects increased surface productivity. A thick older phosphatized generation occurs in many samples. Hydrographic profiles indicate that Mediterranean outflow water (MOW) may play an important role in the composition of these crusts. 10Be dating of one sample confirms that the interruption of the MOW during the Messinian salinity crisis (6.2-5Ma ago) resulted in changes in element composition. Sr-isotope dating of the apatite phase of the old crust generation has been carried out to obtain a minimum age for the older generation of Atlantic crusts and to determine whether crust phosphatization in the Atlantic can be related to phosphatization episodes recorded in Pacific crusts. The preliminary data show that the old phosphatized crust generation might be as old as approximately 30-40Ma.

  20. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place, and Contractor, FY 88. Part 23. (Greenland-Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    1 0 00 00000 C17Cl) 0 0 0 -~ 0 4 w IW ar’) (1 N1 -4- 4-4 4 f3 --- -4 cn (1) -4 - Iw 0 C’) - ((4-4 3-.3t- Nl LA) N - -- CLI W0(1 -4 000 Me) 0I--U3...1 cc00 IO -J(0 w 00 C00 0000 00 zoo W0000 f3 --t*C- - -4 4000 0I(100DO4 1 <"N 00 W(0((0(OC’W) "to4(0 c .. C(D )(0-.I-I-3 V) 04N I-00(0-4 I (Rl* (D l...I 0000W’I 0 00 L 00 00 4) 0- (/)(A(L ( ACCA 00U ( ) .w A mow< 14 0) OLAo N C’) in c) 0 0 10 -0 0) -4 -4I 0) t I Mow< I 0() -40 C t(0~ N 04’I N r- -r

  1. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose from office waste paper: A greener approach towards waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Gyanesh, E-mail: joshig@icfre.org [Cellulose and Paper Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun 248006 (India); Naithani, Sanjay [Chemistry of Forest Products Division, Institute of Wood Science & Technology, Bangalore 560003 (India); Varshney, V.K. [Chemistry Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun 248006 (India); Bisht, Surendra S. [Chemistry of Forest Products Division, Institute of Wood Science & Technology, Bangalore 560003 (India); Rana, Vikas; Gupta, P.K. [Cellulose and Paper Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun 248006 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was successfully prepared from waste paper. • CMC had maximum degree of substitution (DS) 1.07. • Rheological studies of CMC (DS, 1.07) showed non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. • Characterization of CMC was done by FT-IR and NMR techniques. • Morphology of prepared CMC was studied by SEM. - Abstract: In the present study, functionalization of mixed office waste (MOW) paper has been carried out to synthesize carboxymethyl cellulose, a most widely used product for various applications. MOW was pulped and deinked prior to carboxymethylation. The deinked pulp yield was 80.62 ± 2.0% with 72.30 ± 1.50% deinkability factor. The deinked pulp was converted to CMC by alkalization followed by etherification using NaOH and ClCH{sub 2}COONa respectively, in an alcoholic medium. Maximum degree of substitution (DS) (1.07) of prepared CMC was achieved at 50 °C with 0.094 M and 0.108 M concentrations of NaOH and ClCH{sub 2}COONa respectively for 3 h reaction time. The rheological characteristics of 1–3% aqueous solution of optimized CMC product showed the non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) study were used to characterize the CMC product.

  2. COMPARISON OF VEGETATION INDICES FROM RPAS AND SENTINEL-2 IMAGERY FOR DETECTING PERMANENT PASTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Piragnolo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Permanent pastures (PP are defined as grasslands, which are not subjected to any tillage, but only to natural growth. They are important for local economies in the production of fodder and pastures (Ali et al. 2016. Under these definitions, a pasture is permanent when it is not under any crop-rotation, and its production is related to only irrigation, fertilization and mowing. Subsidy payments to landowners require monitoring activities to determine which sites can be considered PP. These activities are mainly done with visual field surveys by experienced personnel or lately also using remote sensing techniques. The regional agency for SPS subsidies, the Agenzia Veneta per i Pagamenti in Agricoltura (AVEPA takes care of monitoring and control on behalf of the Veneto Region using remote sensing techniques. The investigation integrate temporal series of Sentinel-2 imagery with RPAS. Indeed, the testing area is specific region were the agricultural land is intensively cultivated for production of hay harvesting four times every year between May and October. The study goal of this study is to monitor vegetation presence and amount using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI, and the Normalized Difference Built Index (NDBI. The overall objective is to define for each index a set of thresholds to define if a pasture can be classified as PP or not and recognize the mowing.

  3. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  4. Solid state amorphisation in binary systems prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Sagarzazu, A.; Bonyuet, D.; D'Angelo, L.; Villalba, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work a detailed study of amorphisation in different systems prepared by mechanical alloying under the same experimental conditions was carried out, milling up to 50 and 100 h in some cases. The systems studied were: AlTi, AlNi, AlFe, FeNi, FeCo, NiMo, NiW, NiCo, MoW, CoMo. These systems were chosen to study the effect of Al-transition metal, transition metal-transition metal and also systems with large and small negative heat of mixing, different and similar crystal structures, atomic sizes and diffusion coefficients. Calculations based on the Miedema model for alloy formation and amorphisation on all the alloys studied were performed. The experimental results from X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the systems based on Fe (FeNi, FeCo and FeAl) did not amorphised, even after milling for 100 h, and formed a stable solid solution with a nanometric grain size of 7 nm. The systems NiMo, NiW, MoW and CoMo (systems with small negative heat of mixing), showed amorphisation after 50 h of milling. NiAl and TiAl form an intermediate amorphous phase after around 20 h of milling and with further milling they recrystallize into a fcc solid solution. Agreement between the theoretical calculations based on the Miedema model and the experimental results was found in most of the systems.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose from office waste paper: A greener approach towards waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Gyanesh; Naithani, Sanjay; Varshney, V.K.; Bisht, Surendra S.; Rana, Vikas; Gupta, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was successfully prepared from waste paper. • CMC had maximum degree of substitution (DS) 1.07. • Rheological studies of CMC (DS, 1.07) showed non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. • Characterization of CMC was done by FT-IR and NMR techniques. • Morphology of prepared CMC was studied by SEM. - Abstract: In the present study, functionalization of mixed office waste (MOW) paper has been carried out to synthesize carboxymethyl cellulose, a most widely used product for various applications. MOW was pulped and deinked prior to carboxymethylation. The deinked pulp yield was 80.62 ± 2.0% with 72.30 ± 1.50% deinkability factor. The deinked pulp was converted to CMC by alkalization followed by etherification using NaOH and ClCH 2 COONa respectively, in an alcoholic medium. Maximum degree of substitution (DS) (1.07) of prepared CMC was achieved at 50 °C with 0.094 M and 0.108 M concentrations of NaOH and ClCH 2 COONa respectively for 3 h reaction time. The rheological characteristics of 1–3% aqueous solution of optimized CMC product showed the non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) study were used to characterize the CMC product

  6. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose from office waste paper: a greener approach towards waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gyanesh; Naithani, Sanjay; Varshney, V K; Bisht, Surendra S; Rana, Vikas; Gupta, P K

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, functionalization of mixed office waste (MOW) paper has been carried out to synthesize carboxymethyl cellulose, a most widely used product for various applications. MOW was pulped and deinked prior to carboxymethylation. The deinked pulp yield was 80.62 ± 2.0% with 72.30 ± 1.50% deinkability factor. The deinked pulp was converted to CMC by alkalization followed by etherification using NaOH and ClCH2COONa respectively, in an alcoholic medium. Maximum degree of substitution (DS) (1.07) of prepared CMC was achieved at 50 °C with 0.094 M and 0.108 M concentrations of NaOH and ClCH2COONa respectively for 3h reaction time. The rheological characteristics of 1-3% aqueous solution of optimized CMC product showed the non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) study were used to characterize the CMC product. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Habitat Management: A Tool to Modify Ecosystem Impacts of Nitrogen Deposition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Power

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric nitrogen deposition has been shown to affect both the structure and the function of heathland ecosystems. Heathlands are semi-natural habitats and, as such, undergo regular management by mowing or burning. Different forms of management remove more or less nutrients from the system, so habitat management has the potential to mitigate some of the effects of atmospheric deposition. Data from a dynamic vegetation model and two field experiments are presented. The first involves nitrogen addition following different forms of habitat management. The second tests the use of habitat management to promote heathland recovery after a reduction in nitrogen deposition. Both modelling and experimental approaches suggest that plant and microbial response to nitrogen is affected by management. Shoot growth and rates of decomposition were lowest in plots managed using more intensive techniques, including mowing with litter removal and a high temperature burn. Field data also indicate that ecosystem recovery from prolonged elevated inputs of nitrogen may take many years, or even decades, even after the removal of plant and litter nitrogen stores which accompanies the more intensive forms of habitat management.

  8. Service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intention in home delivered meals program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Hyun-Woo; Yuan, Jingxue Jessica; Huffman, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate recipients' perception of service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intention in home delivered meals program in the US. Out of 398 questionnaires, 265 (66.6%) were collected, and 209 questionnaires (52.5%) were used for the statistical analysis. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) with a maximum likelihood was first conducted to estimate the measurement model by verifying the underlying structure of constructs. The level of internal consistency in each construct was acceptable, with Cronbach's alpha estimates ranging from 0.7 to 0.94. All of the composite reliabilities of the constructs were over the cutoff value of 0.50, ensuring adequate internal consistency of multiple items for each construct. As a second step, a Meals-On-Wheels (MOW) recipient perception model was estimated. The model's fit as indicated by these indexes was satisfactory and path coefficients were analyzed. Two paths between (1) volunteer issues and behavioral intention and (2) responsiveness and behavioral intention were not significant. The path for predicting a positive relationship between food quality and satisfaction was supported. The results show that having high food quality may create recipient satisfaction. The findings suggest that food quality and responsiveness are significant predictors of positive satisfaction. Moreover, satisfied recipients have positive behavioral intention toward MOW programs. PMID:21556231

  9. Relationship between land use pattern and the structure and diversity of soil meso-micro arthropod community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limin; Zhang, Xueping; Cui, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Soil arthropod communities can provide valuable information regarding the impacts of human disturbances on ecosystem structure. Our study evaluated the structure, composition and diversity of soil meso-micro arthropod communities, in six different vegetation types and assessed the impacts of human activity. A completely randomized design, including 3 replicates from 6 sites (mowing steppe, natural grassland, severe degradation grassland, farmland, artificial shelter forest, and wetland) was used. Soil samples from the depth of 0 to 20 cm were collected during May, July, and September 2007. Soil meso-micro arthropod were separated using the Tullgren funnels method, and were identified and counted. Soil pH value, organic matter, and total nitrogen were measured in topsoil (0-20 cm) from each site. A total of 5,602 soil meso-micro arthropod individuals were collected, representing 4 classes, 14 orders, and 57 families. Most soil arthropods were widely distributed; however, some species appeared to be influenced by environment variables, and might serve as bioindicators of adverse human impacts. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated the soil arthropod distribution in the severely degraded grassland, mowing steppe, farmland, and shelter forest differed from the natural grassland. Arthropod density and diversity were greatest in May, and the forestland community was the most stable. Because of the vital role soil arthropods have in maintaining a healthy ecosystem, mechanisms to maintain their abundance and diversity should be further evaluated.

  10. The potential conservation value of unmowed powerline strips for native bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, K.N.; Ikerd, H.; Droege, S.

    2005-01-01

    The land area covered by powerline easements in the United States exceeds the area of almost all national parks, including Yellowstone. In parts of Europe and the US, electric companies have altered their land management practices from periodic mowing to extraction of tall vegetation combined with the use of selective herbicides. To investigate whether this alternate management practice might produce higher quality habitat for native bees, we compared the bee fauna collected in unmowed powerline corridors and in nearby mowed grassy fields at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (MD). Powerline sites had more spatially and numerically rare species and a richer bee community than the grassy fields, although the difference was less pronounced than we expected. Powerline sites also had more parasitic species and more cavitynesting bees. Bee communities changed progressively through the season, but differences between the site types were persistent. The surrounding, nongrassland landscape likely has a strong influence on the bee species collected at the grassland sites, as some bees may be foraging in the grasslands but nesting elsewhere. Improving habitat for native bees will help ameliorate the loss of pollination services caused by the collapse of wild and managed honeybee populations. This study suggests that powerline strips have the potential to provide five million acres of bee-friendly habitat in the US if utilities more generally adopt appropriate management practices.

  11. A review of the nutritional needs of Meals on Wheels consumers and factors associated with the provision of an effective meals on wheels service-an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassie, J; Smart, C; Roberts, D C

    2000-04-01

    A review of the literature was undertaken to identify the nutritional needs of elderly MOW consumers and factors affecting the ability of existing programs to meet those needs. The focus was on the Australian experience but drawing on the world literature. Keyword search of English language based computer databases of the medical and health literature. Several studies suggest the nutritional intake of MOW consumers is below recommended levels, although the risk of nutritional deficiency has not always been identified. The literature indicates the effectiveness of Meals on Wheels programs are affected by a range of issues including the appropriateness of nutritional standards, menu selection, portion control, level of consumption and customer satisfaction. The literature recommends control of time and temperatures associated with food handling procedures, along with education of providers and customers, to assist in the provision of a safe food supply. Meals on Wheels is an important service, providing meals to housebound consumers. While the effectiveness of such programs is dependent on a range of variables, the nutritional impact of the service and the standard of food hygiene are fundamental assessment criteria. This work was supported by a grant from the NSW Meals on Wheels Association, Australia. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 275-280

  12. Graphite-(Mo,W)S2 intergrowth as a palaeoenvironmental proxy in metasedimentary rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Zeh, Armin; da Silva Viana, Nívea Cristina; Schirmer, Thomas; Lehmann, Bernd

    2017-12-01

    Molybdenum enrichment in pristine organic-C-rich sedimentary rocks forms the basis for inferring the presence of dissolved oxygen in seawater. Organic matter removes dissolved hexavalent Mo from seawater where anoxic and euxinic conditions are attained. However, it is unknown whether this Mo-based proxy is retained under metamorphic conditions where organic C is no longer preserved. Here, we describe aggregates of graphite and molybdenite (MoS2) containing up to 21 mass per cent of W as tungstenite (WS2) in solid solution. These aggregates are disseminated in a sulfide-rich Mn-silicate-carbonate rock (queluzite), metamorphosed under amphibolite-facies conditions within the Archaean Barbacena greenstone belt in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Our finding indicates that: (i) W is, like Mo, a palaeoenvironmental proxy; (ii) the W proxy is sensitive to high fS2/fO2 environments; (iii) both Mo and W proxies survive amphibolite-facies overprint as (Mo,W)S2 intergrown with graphite. Archaean greenstones are potential candidates for storing palaeoenvironmental information as (Mo,W)S2-graphite intergrowths.

  13. Vegetative, productive and qualitative performance of grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" according to the use of winter cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Bettoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To study the effect of winter cover crops on the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapevines, an experiment was conducted in two wine harvests by sowing different species of winter cover crops and additional treatments with manual weeding and mechanical mowing in an experimental vineyard located at the Experimental Station of Epagri in Videira, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plant attributes of the grapevine, such as number of rods and weight of pruned material and number of branches per plant. At the time of skin color change, petioles of recently matured leaves were collected for analysis of the levels of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and B. Moments before harvest, 100 grape berries were collected randomly to determine the total soluble solids, titratable acidity and pH. At harvest, the number of bunches per branch, the number and mass of clusters per plant and the average mass of clusters per plot were determined. Fresh and dry matter yields of the cover crop and weed plants were also determined when coverage reached full bloom. The winter cover crops did not alter the yield and quality of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapes and showed no differences from each other for the management of spontaneous vegetation by hand weeding or mechanical mowing. Rye and ryegrass are effective alternatives for weed control alternatives. The species of white and red clover present difficulty in initial establishment, producing a small amount of biomass.

  14. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  15. Service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intention in home delivered meals program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Hak-Seon; Yuan, Jingxue Jessica; Huffman, Lynn

    2011-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate recipients' perception of service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intention in home delivered meals program in the US. Out of 398 questionnaires, 265 (66.6%) were collected, and 209 questionnaires (52.5%) were used for the statistical analysis. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) with a maximum likelihood was first conducted to estimate the measurement model by verifying the underlying structure of constructs. The level of internal consistency in each construct was acceptable, with Cronbach's alpha estimates ranging from 0.7 to 0.94. All of the composite reliabilities of the constructs were over the cutoff value of 0.50, ensuring adequate internal consistency of multiple items for each construct. As a second step, a Meals-On-Wheels (MOW) recipient perception model was estimated. The model's fit as indicated by these indexes was satisfactory and path coefficients were analyzed. Two paths between (1) volunteer issues and behavioral intention and (2) responsiveness and behavioral intention were not significant. The path for predicting a positive relationship between food quality and satisfaction was supported. The results show that having high food quality may create recipient satisfaction. The findings suggest that food quality and responsiveness are significant predictors of positive satisfaction. Moreover, satisfied recipients have positive behavioral intention toward MOW programs.

  16. Thermophysical and elastic properties of titanium carbonitrides containing molybdenum and tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tetsushi; Matsubara, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► (Ti,Me)(C,N) sintered bodies were prepared by hot-pressing. ► The thermophysical and elastic properties of the carbonitrides were evaluated. ► The porosities of the specimens were less than 1%. ► The Young’s modulus decreases with increasing Mo content. ► The Debye temperatures decrease with increasing Mo/W content. -- Abstract: Titanium carbonitride has good mechanical properties such as high hardness and high Young’s modulus. It is a major raw material for Ti(C,N)-based cermets, and their properties are strongly dependent on the properties of titanium carbonitrides. The thermophysical and elastic properties of the carbonitride need to be systematically investigated, so as to be used for designing cutting tools and wear-resistant tools. The thermophysical and elastic properties of (Ti,Me)(C,N) (Me = Mo. W) sintered bodies prepared by hot-pressing at 2200 °C were evaluated. The porosities of the specimens were less than 1%. The Young’s modulus decreased with increasing Mo, which seems to be the result of vacancy formation. The thermal expansion coefficient, the thermal conductivity and the Debye temperatures of (Ti,Me)(C,N) sintered bodies decreased with increasing Mo/W content

  17. Monitoring Spatial Variability and Temporal Dynamics of Phragmites Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor R. Tóth

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Littoral zones of freshwater lakes are exposed to environmental impacts from both terrestrial and aquatic sides, while substantial anthropogenic pressure also affects the high spatial, and temporal variability of the ecotone. In this study, the possibility of monitoring seasonal and spatial changes in reed (Phragmites australis stands using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV based remote sensing technique was examined. Stands in eutrophic and mesotrophic parts of Lake Balaton including not deteriorating (stable and deteriorating (die-back patches, were tracked throughout the growing season using a UAV equipped with a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI camera. Photophysiological parameters of P. australis were also measured with amplitude modulated fluorescence. Parameters characterizing the dynamics of seasonal changes in NDVI data were used for phenological comparison of eutrophic and mesotrophic, stable and die-back, terrestrial and aquatic, mowed and not-mowed patches of reed. It was shown that stable Phragmites plants from the eutrophic part of the lake reached specific phenological stages up to 3.5 days earlier than plants from the mesotrophic part of the lake. The phenological changes correlated with trophic (total and nitrate-nitrite nitrogen and physical (organic C and clay content properties of the sediment, while only minor relationships with air and water temperature were found. Phenological differences between the stable and die-back stands were even more pronounced, with ~34% higher rates of NDVI increase in stable than die-back patches, while the period of NDVI increase was 16 days longer. Aquatic and terrestrial parts of reed stands showed no phenological differences, although intermediate areas (shallow water parts of stands were found to be less vigorous. Winter mowing of dried Phragmites sped up sprouting and growth of reed in the spring. This study showed that remote sensing-derived photophysiological and phenological

  18. Habitat selection, movement patterns, and hazards encountered by northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) in an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Melinda G.; Herner-Thogmartin, Jennifer H.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Kapfer, Joshua M.; Nelson, John

    2018-01-01

    Telemetry data for 59 Northern Leopard Frogs (Lithobates pipiens) breeding in ponds in Houston and Winona Counties, MN; 2001-2002. Agricultural intensification is causing declines in many wildlife species, including Northern Leopard Frogs (Lithobates pipiens). Specific information about frog movements, habitat selection, and sources of mortality can be used to inform conservation-focused land management and acquisition. We studied Northern Leopard Frogs in southeastern Minnesota, part of the Driftless Area ecoregion, characterized by hills and valleys and a mix of agriculture, forests, small towns and farmsteads. In this area, small farm ponds, originally built to control soil erosion are used by the species for breeding and wintering in addition to riparian wetlands. But, this agricultural landscape may be hazardous for frogs moving between breeding, feeding, and wintering habitats. We surgically implanted transmitters into the peritoneal cavity of 59 Northern Leopard Frogs and tracked them from May to October 2001-2002. The total distance traveled by radio-tagged frogs ranged from 12 to 3316 m, the 95% home range averaged 5.3 ± 1.2 (SE) ha, and the 50% core area averaged 1.05 ± 0.3 (SE) ha. As expected, Northern Leopard Frogs selected wetlands over all other land cover classes and row crops were generally avoided at all levels of selection. Only a few tracked frogs were successful at dispersing (n = 6). Most frogs attempting to disperse (n =31) ended up missing (n = 14), died due to mowing (n = 8), or were recorded as transmitter failure (n = 2) or unknown mortalities (n = 1). For the conservation of Northern Leopard Frogs in this agricultural setting, we must consider both the aquatic and the terrestrial needs of this species. Conservation agencies that restore, manage, and acquire wetlands should consider the hazards posed by land uses adjacent to frog breeding and wintering sites and plan for movement corridors between these locations. For example

  19. The new Federal Act for the protection against nuisances (BImSchV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froeba, K.; Thomas, L.

    1977-01-01

    Text of the decree with introduction and comprehensive explanations. Furnaces (1st decree of BImSchV); Chemical purification installations (2nd decree of BImSchV); sulfur content of light fuel oil and diesel oil (3rd decree of BImSchV); installations subject to licensing (4th decree of BImSchV); persons authorized with the protection against nuisances (5th decree of BImSchV); know-how and reliability of these persons (6th decree of BImSchV); ejection limitation for wood dust (7th decree of BImSchV); limitation of noise made by lawn mowing machines (8th decree of BImSchV); principles of the licensing procedure (9th decree of BImSchV). Text of the Federal Act for the Protection Against Nuisances. (orig.) [de

  20. Visual disamenities from off-shore wind farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Dubgaard, Alex; Tranberg, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Expansion of the off-shore wind power plays a significant role in the energy policies of many EU countries. However, off-shore wind farms create visual disamenities. These disamenities can be reduced by locating wind farms at larger distances from the coast – and accepting higher costs per k......Wh produced. Base on the choices among alternative wind farm outlays, the preferences for reducing visual disamenities of off-shore wind farms were elicited using the Choice Experiment Method. The results show a clear picture; the respondents in three independent samples are willing to pay for mowing future...... off-shore wind farms away from the shore to reduce the wind farms visibility. However, the results also denote that the preferences vary with regards to the experiences with visual disamenities of off-shore wind farms. The respondents Horns Revs sample, where the off-shore wind farm is located...

  1. Oak Ridge TNS program: evaluation of a secondary vacuum enclosure for TNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardella, C.

    1979-11-01

    This report investigates the use of a secondary vacuum enclosure (SVE) to eliminate the need for high vacuum joints between torus sectors and thereby improve device maintainability. Several conceptual SVE designs have been identified and evaluated and the vacuum building was selected as the most promising. A mechanically assembled torus having high impedance seals (rather than vacuum tight seals) between sectors is described and the mechanical characteristics of the device are discussed. The size of the vacuum pump system and the pumpdown time for the vacuum building were determined. Studied also were the many aspects of the effect a vacuum environment has on tokamak systems. The potential benefits of using a SVE on a commercial reactor were investigated and stated in terms of improved plant availability. (MOW)

  2. High performance emitter for thermionic diode obtained by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faron, R.; Bargues, M.; Durand, J.P.; Gillardeau, J.

    1973-01-01

    Vapor deposition process conditions presently known for tungsten and molybdenum (specifically the range of high temperatures and low pressures) permit the achievement of high performance thermionic emitters when used with an appropriate technology. One example of this uses the following series of successive vapor deposits, the five last vapor deposits constituting the fabrication of the emitting layer: Mo deposit for the formation of the nuclear fuel mechanical support; Mo deposit, which constitutes the sheath of the nuclear fuel; epitaxed Mo--W alloy deposit; epitaxed tungsten deposit; fine-grained tungsten deposit; and tungsten deposit with surface orientation according to plane (110)W. In accordance with vapor deposition techniques previously developed, such a sequence of deposits can easily be achieved with the same equipment, even without having to take out the part during the course of the process. (U.S.)

  3. Field dodder – How to control it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Sarić-Krsmanović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Broad geographic distribution and spectrum of hosts make field dodder, Cuscuta campestris, one of the most widespread and most harmful pests among flowering parasitic plants. Field dodder may become a problem in vegetable nurseries (e.g. tomato, sweet pepper and cabbage or in potato or some other crop grown in plastic greenhouses. However, the most devastating damage comes from field dodder outbreaks in newly-established perennial legume crops (alfalfa, clover, etc., which are generally the preferred hosts of this parasitic flowering species. Apart from alfalfa and clover, an expansion of field dodder has been observed in recent years in sugar beet, too. Different measures are available for controlling field dodder, from preventive (pure seeding material, tolerant cultivars, etc., to mechanical removal (mowing and hand weeding to herbicide treatments. The most successful control of field dodder requires a systematic approach ensured through integrated protection, which contributes to a more effective control of parasitic flowering plants.

  4. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina

  5. Future industrial and municipal waste management in poland the polish challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowskl, J.; Sorum, L.; Hustad, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Poland now face a very interesting discussion on modern waste treatment methods, although the waste problems are very oil. This paper presents a total waste management view from the formation process to recycling, utilisation and land filling. The average municipal solid waste (MSW) annual per capita generation in poland is 250 kg per person, which is half of the waste amount generated in norway and one third of the amount in Usa. The present low per capita generation, large variations in MSW properties and an expected growth in the standard of living make the decisions regarding future polish waste management systems very important. Waste management must be handled carefully to prevent a rapid growth of waste generation - this is the p olish challenge , both mow and for the future. Three different possibilities for future waste management systems for rural areas, small cities and larger cities are discussed in the paper. 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Applying parcel-specific land-use data to map conflicts and convergences between agriculture and biodiversity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Provision of semi-natural habitats is an important service of agricultural ecosystems. Quality and extent of semi-natural habitats is closely linked with intensity of agricultural management. Grass-dominated habitat types often depend on extensive management in terms of grazing or mowing. Lack...... compositions of semi-natural habitats disappear. For Denmark, we apply parcel-specific data on agricultural land use to map convergences and conflicts between agriculture and biodiversity. We group land-uses into intensive and extensive and overlay these with a map of grass-dominated semi-natural habitats. 61...... % of habitats overlap with extensively managed land, indicating convergence between agriculture and biodiversity. In contrast, 13 % of habitats overlap with intensively managed land, pointing at severe conflicts between agriculture and biodiversity. 27 % of habitats are located outside any agricultural land...

  7. Improving the energy balance of grass-based anaerobic digestion through harvesting optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Egelund, H.

    with a number of coarse barbs) to simultaneously mow and mechanically pretreat two different lignocellulosic substrates. Thus, ensiled meadow grass was initially examined at the first experimental set up. Regarding the second field test, an area sowed with regularly cultivated grass was harvested. In order......) protocol. The findings showed that methane production can efficiently be enhanced by mechanical pretreatment applied at the harvesting step. More specifically, the most effective treatment yielded more than 10% increase in the bioenergy production from both examined grass silages. Our study demonstrates...... that the appropriate harvester can improve the energy output by approximately 2.4 GJ/ha under optimal conditions and subsequently, the overall sustainability of grass-based AD....

  8. An Application-oriented Open Software Platform for Multi-purpose Field Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld

    that solve simple tasks such as mowing, and automatic tractor steering that navigates through a planned route under the supervision of an operator. The outdoor environment in which the robot operates is often very complex. This places great demands on the robot's ability to perceive the environment and based...... on this behave in a way that is appropriate and productive with respect to the given task while being safe for nearby people, animals and objects. Researchers are challenged by the considerable resources required to develop robot software capable of supporting experiments in such a complex perception...... and behavior. The lack of collaboration between research groups contributes to the problem, the scientific publications describe methods and results from the work, but little software for field robots are released and documented for use by others. The hypothesis of this work is that an application oriented...

  9. Field tests of electric survey using capacitive electrodes; Kyapashita denkyoku wo mochiita denki tansarei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, I; Iseki, S; Kobayashi, T [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    This paper describes field test results of electric survey using capacitive electrodes. When two metal plates are approached without contacting with the ground and voltage is applied between the plates, current flows in the ground. The metal plates and the ground work as a capacitor. Charges are stored between them. These metal plates having insulation with the ground are called capacitive electrodes. When ac voltage is applied between a pair of capacitors, current flows continuously in the ground without saturating the capacitors. Resistivity of the ground can be determined by measuring the level of current flowing in the ground and the level of potential. As a result of the field tests, it was found that the present method is superior to the conventional method in around ten times. However, to obtain high quality data, water spraying, reduced towing speed at the low resistivity ground such as clay and soil, and grass mowing are required. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Analysis of molybdenum, tungsten, and vanadium in surface water of the Atlantic Ocean using solid phase extraction with 8-hydroxyquinoline and ICP MS determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimskaya-Korsakova, M. N.; Berezhnaya, E. D.; Dubinin, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    An analytical technique is proposed to determine ultratrace concentrations of Mo, V, and W found in seawater using mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP MS) after preliminary concentration by solid-phase extraction of metal complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) on C18 octadecyl silica. The technique utilizes 150 mL of a water sample. A preconcentration factor 50 is obtained. The detection limits are 0.25 nmol/kg, 0.041 nmol/kg, and 5 pmol/kg for Mo, V, and W, respectively. Dissolved Mo, V, and Wconcentrations in surface seawater from Atlantic Ocean transect were determined. The concentrations ranges along the transect were: 91-108 nmol/kg for Mo, 28-35 nmol/kg for V, and 55-75 pmol/kg for W. The Mo/W ratio varied from 1300 to 1800.

  11. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE ANTHROPIC IMPACT IN THE AREA OF THE ORNITHOLOGIC RESERVATION “THE SWAMPS FROM SATCHINEZ” (TIMIŞ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Török-Oance

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of the anthropic impact within the Ornithologic Reservation Swamps from Satchinez is based on the field notes in the period 2003-2005, the air photos taken in 2004 and the reconstitution of past situations (1963-1973 using the photoplans from that period. Within the reservation and the buffer area a series of anthropic activities are taking place, allowed or not, which have a negative impact on the protected area: agricultural works (including agro-chemical treatments, grazing, mowing, hydrotechnical arrangements, illegal tree felling, cutting and burning the reed, poaching, hunting and fishing, collecting biological material, transport, tourism and petrol exploitation. All these lead to the deterioration of the habitat, affect the life of the birds, the water, the clogging of the swamp and cause the disappearance of the clean water spots thus endangering the reservation itself.

  12. The Dynamic of Work Meaning on the Privatization Imminence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Prezotti Palassi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the dynamic of the work meaning on the privatization imminence of a Brazilian sanitation company. The discussion is based on the (MOW, 1987 ideas about construction of work meaning and Tajfel (1981 about to belong to social groups. The emphasis on imminence is based on the Figueiredo and Viana (1982 understanding that the continuous expectation of frustration generates a differentiated impact related to a previously defined situation. Data collection procedure was carried out through participant observation and questionnaires. Quantitative data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and qualitative data by using content analysis. The results revealed a dynamic that fragments the work meanings on the imminence of privatization and presents itself associated with different meanings and aspects of the situation. It is proposed that the fragmentation of work meaning on the imminence of certain situations can be repeated in other contemporary contexts.

  13. H-1 and N-15 resonance assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiselyov, Vladislav V; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    We report here the NMR assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). This module has previously been shown to interact with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and the FGFR-binding site was mapped by NMR to the FG-loop region of the mo......We report here the NMR assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). This module has previously been shown to interact with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and the FGFR-binding site was mapped by NMR to the FG-loop region...... of the module. The FG-loop region also contains a putative nucleotide-binding motif, which was shown by NMR to interact with ATP. Furthermore, ATP was demonstrated to inhibit binding of the second F3 module of NCAM to FGFR....

  14. On the necessary conditions of the regular minimum of the scale factor of the co-moving space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agakov, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    In the framework of homogeneous cosmologic model studied is the behaviour of the comoving space element volume filled with barotropous medium, deprived of energy fluxes. Presented are the necessary conditions at which a regular final minimum of the scale factor of the co-mowing space may take place. It is found that to carry out the above minimum at values of cosmological constant Λ <= 0 the presence of two from three anisotropy factors is necessary. Anisotropy of space deformation should be one of these factors. In case of Λ <= 0 the regular minimum is also possible if all three factors of anisotropy are equal to zero. However if none of the factors of Fsub(i), Asub(ik) anisotropy is equal to zero, the presence of deformation space anisotropy is necessary for final regular minimum appearance

  15. Combined Use of a Crop Model and FORMOSAT-2 Images for Permanent Grassland and Water Monitoring in Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadria, Rachid; Courault, Dominique; Ruget, Francois; Olioso, Albert; Duchemin, Benoit; Desfonds, Veronique; Bertrand, Nadine; Hagolle, Olivier; Dedieu, Gerard

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study is to provide tools to improve crop and water management in Mediterranean regions. The specific aim is twofold: 1) study the feasibility of using optical remote sensing data acquired at high spatio-temporal resolutions for crop agricultural practice monitoring and, 2) test the capacity of crop modelling to estimated water balance and crop production.We developed a methodology based on the combined use of FORMOSAT-2 images and STICS crop model to estimate evapotranspiration and drainage of irrigated grasslands in 'the Crau' region in the South Eastern France. Simple algorithms were developed to retrieve the dynamic of Leaf Area Index (LAI) for each plot of the studied region and the main agricultural practices such as mowing and irrigation dates. This information was then used to parameterize STICS, applied at region scale to estimate the spatial variability of water budget associated with the biomass productions. Satisfactory results were obtained when compared to ground measurements.s

  16. Verschleissfeste, anlassbestaendige und warmfeste Legierung

    OpenAIRE

    Li, F.

    1996-01-01

    Novel wear- and temper-resistant, high hot strength alloy has the compsn. (by wt.) 10-35% Mo and/or 20-50% W; 0.6-6% C; 5-25% V, Ti, Zr, Nb and/or Ta; 0-20% Cr; 0-12% Co; 0-8% Ni; 0-5% Si; 0-5% Al; 0-5% Mn; 0-5% Cu; 0-2% B; 0-0.5% N; balance at least 30% Fe and impurities, with the provisos that (a) the total Mo+W concn. has a minimum value increasing linearly from 10% to 20% with increasing W content and a max. value increasing linearly from 35% to 50% with increasing W content; (b) the rati...

  17. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R. [Thermo Nuclear Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina.

  18. Biotic, abiotic, and management controls on the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of European mountain grassland ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Anderson-Dunn, Margaret; Bahn, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange (NEE) of nine European mountain grassland ecosystems was measured during 2002-2004 using the eddy covariance method. Overall, the availability of photosynthetically active radiation (PPFD) was the single most important abiotic influence factor for NEE....... Its role changed markedly during the course of the season, PPFD being a better predictor for NEE during periods favorable for CO2 uptake, which was spring and autumn for the sites characterized by summer droughts (southern sites) and (peak) summer for the Alpine and northern study sites. This general...... pattern was interrupted by grassland management practices, that is, mowing and grazing, when the variability in NEE explained by PPFD decreased in concert with the amount of aboveground biomass (BMag). Temperature was the abiotic influence factor that explained most of the variability in ecosystem...

  19. Use of electrochemical techniques to study the corrosion of metals in model fluoride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, S. [EDF R and D, Département MMC, Groupe Chimie et Corrosion, 77818 Moret-sur-Loing Cedex (France); Cabet, C., E-mail: celine.cabet@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d’Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cassayre, L.; Chamelot, P. [Université Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, Département Procédés Electrochimiques, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France); Delepech, S. [ENSCP, Laboratoire d’Électrochimie, de Chimie des Interface et Modélisation pour l’Energie, UMR 7575, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75232 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Finne, J. [EDF R and D, Département MMC, Groupe Chimie et Corrosion, 77818 Moret-sur-Loing Cedex (France); Massot, L. [Université Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, Département Procédés Electrochimiques, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France); Noel, D. [EDF R and D, Département MMC, Groupe Chimie et Corrosion, 77818 Moret-sur-Loing Cedex (France)

    2013-10-15

    Molten fluorides are appealing coolants for innovative nuclear systems but structural alloys may undergo corrosion at high temperature. Because corrosion primarily occurs via electrochemical reactions, electrochemical techniques are ideal for the study of corrosion thermochemistry and kinetics. Examples are given. An electrochemical series was established using voltammetry in LiF–NaF at 1173 K. Stability increases in the following order: Na, Cr, Fe, Ni, Mo/W, Ag, Au. Various alloys were also classified according to their oxidation resistance. A cathodic protection method was developed to curb the intergranular attack of some nickel alloys in molten LiF–CaF{sub 2}–MgF{sub 2}–ZrF{sub 4} containing tellurium vapor at 953 K. Voltammetry and polarization resistance measurement were used to estimate the rate of chromium selective dissolution for nickel base alloys immersed in LiF–NaF at 1073 K and 1173 K.

  20. Selected Manpower Statistics, FY-73

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-05-15

    30 tun 1973 151,933 69ý285 82,648 i0 w/ ea consists of the District of Columbia, Montgomery and Prince Georges counties in Maryland; Alexandr-ia...Is V"_ _ 0 .6 Cy8 3,981. ±. L F O I CtII 8,17 0:1 18 0. M.Ow Q 1. 0.8 ,W 6,a 0.) 1 I.? 44 0. k..1 0 tun ,llu O #.3 P0,15 7.8 LOS k.1 0410 0.4 (1.1886b...Z 3 -O Cuba .. . .. . . . r,01. t i . . .. .iAkfa e st .. . . . . .. . . (, 0 ittxaw cunal Zaw ,- . ill(" Puerto RICO .r, 5, OW Orevhara

  1. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS DOE/EIS-0285/SA-110-Covington-Columbia No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermeston, Mark W. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-10-02

    Vegetation Management along the Covington-Columbia No. 3, 230kV transmission lines from structure 1/1 through structure 12/1. Corridor width varies from 150 feet to 537.5 feet. The project area is located within King County, Washington. BPA proposes to remove unwanted vegetation along the right-of-way, access roads and around tower structures along the subject transmission line corridor. Approximately 568.4 acres of the right-of-way will be treated using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Vegetation management is required for unimpeded operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. See Section 1 of the attached checklist for a complete description of the proposal.

  2. Preparation and properties of molybdenum-tungsten-carbonitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, M.; Ettmayer, P.; Kieffer, R.

    1982-01-01

    Molybdenum-tungsten-carbonitrides can be prepared by reacting prealloyed powders of Mo and W with carbon in the presence of nitrogen or ammonia. Single phase carbonitrides (Mo,W) (C,N) with the WC-type structure can be obtained. The nitrogen content of these carbonitrides increases with increasing molybdenum content. Flowing ammonia has a decarburizing effect, which has to be counterbalanced by an addition of a carbonaceous gas such as methane. Nitrogen instead of ammonia is equally effective and gives carbonitrides which have a nitrogen content only insignificantly lower than the carbonitrides obtained in flowing ammonia. The lattice parameters of the carbonitrides are found to slightly smaller than the lattice parameters of the corresponding carbides. (Author)

  3. Rare wild Orchids at CERN Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    There are several "Floral Nature Reserve - Late Mowing" zones at CERN Meyrin. The blossoms of a rare and a not so rare type of wild orchid are currently in flower. The rare one is the bee orchid (Ophrys Apifera) which is a protected perennial. They are very unusual and in some years can appear in great numbers and then sometimes only reappear after a decade. They live in a symbiotic relationship with a soil-dwelling fungus. Its name stems from the fact that its brown, furry lip resembles and smells like a female bee, a mimicry used to attract drones to aid in pollination. The much more distributed species is the pyramidal orchid (Anacamptis Pyramidalis), which due to its size and its bright pink colour is already visible when you pass by in your car.

  4. Long-term trends in midwestern milkweed abundances and their relevance to monarch butterfly declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaya, David N.; Pearse, Ian; Spyreas, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Declines in monarch butterfly populations have prompted investigation into the sensitivity of their milkweed host plants to land-use change. Documented declines in milkweed abundance in croplands have spurred efforts to promote milkweeds in other habitats. Nevertheless, our current understanding of milkweed populations is poor. We used a long-term plant survey from Illinois to evaluate whether trends in milkweed abundance have caused monarch decline and to highlight the habitat-management practices that promote milkweeds. Milkweed abundance in natural areas has not declined precipitously, although when croplands are considered, changes in agricultural weed management have led to a 68% loss of milkweed available for monarchs across the region. Midsuccessional plant communities with few invasive species provide optimal milkweed habitat. The augmentation of natural areas and the management of existing grasslands, such as less frequent mowing and woody- and exotic-species control, may replace some of the milkweed that has been lost from croplands.

  5. Effect of airflow on biodrying of gardening wastes in reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer-Mendoza, F J; Herrera-Prats, L; Robles-Martínez, F; Gallardo-Izquierdo, A; Piña-Guzmán, A B

    2013-05-01

    Biodrying consists of reducing moisture by using the heat from aerobic bio-degradation. The parameters that control the process are: aeration, temperature during the process, initial moisture of biowaste, and temperature and relative humidity of the input air. Lawn mowing and garden waste from the gardens of the University Jaume I, Castellón (Spain) were used as a substrate. Biodrying was performed in 10 reactors with known air volumes from 0.88 to 6.42 L/(min x kg dry weight). To promote aeration, 5 of the reactors had 15% of a bulking agent added. The experiment lasted 20 days. After the experiments it was found that the bulking agent led to greater weight loss. However, the increased airflow rate was not linearly proportional to the weight loss.

  6. Wetland habitat disturbance best predicts metrics of an amphibian index of biotic integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Micacchion, Mick; Adams, Jean V.

    2015-01-01

    Regression and classification trees were used to identify the best predictors of the five component metrics of the Ohio Amphibian Index of Biotic Integrity (AmphIBI) in 54 wetlands in Ohio, USA. Of the 17 wetland- and surrounding landscape-scale variables considered, the best predictor for all AmphIBI metrics was habitat alteration and development within the wetland. The results were qualitatively similar to the best predictors for a wetland vegetation index of biotic integrity, suggesting that similar management practices (e.g., reducing or eliminating nutrient enrichment from agriculture, mowing, grazing, logging, and removing down woody debris) within the boundaries of the wetland can be applied to effectively increase the quality of wetland vegetation and amphibian communities.

  7. O trabalho e seus sentidos Work and it's meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Morin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde meados dos anos 1950, pesquisadores têm buscado, por diferentes metodologias, compreender o significado atribuído ao trabalho pelas pessoas em diferentes países. Os resultados obtidos por pesquisadores do grupo Meaning of Work International Research Team ([MOW], 1987 mostraram que o trabalho pode assumir desde uma condição de neutralidade até de centralidade na identidade pessoal e social. O objetivo desta pesquisa é apresentar dados qualitativos sobre os sentidos do trabalho para jovens executivos brasileiros, a partir da abordagem desenvolvida por Morin (2002. Os resultados preliminares desta pesquisa indicam, para a amostra pesquisada, que o trabalho é essencial na vida das pessoas. O principal sentido apontado por este grupo é que o trabalho permite a sobrevivência. Além disso, os dados desta pesquisa indicam que valores como variedade na natureza das tarefas, aprendizagem, autonomia, reconhecimento e segurança também são fundamentais para que o trabalho tenha sentido.Many researches, since the 1950's, seek to comprehend the meaning of work using different methodological approaches. Results obtained by the Meaning of Work group International Research Team ([MOW] in 1987, in different countries, showed that work could assume different conditions from neutrality to centrality in relation to the subject's personal and social identity. The objective of this research is to present some qualitative data on the meanings of work for young Brazilian managers, using the approach developed by Morin (2002. Preliminary results of this research show that work is essential at the lives of this group, because work is related to survival. Results also indicate that values such as variations on the nature of the tasks, autonomy, recognition and security are also fundamental for a meaningful work.

  8. The role of above-ground competition and nitrogen vs. phosphorus enrichment in seedling survival of common European plant species of semi-natural grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Ceulemans

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities have severely altered fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus in ecosystems worldwide. In grasslands, subsequent negative effects are commonly attributed to competitive exclusion of plant species following increased above-ground biomass production. However, some studies have shown that this does not fully account for nutrient enrichment effects, questioning whether lowering competition by reducing grassland productivity through mowing or herbivory can mitigate the environmental impact of nutrient pollution. Furthermore, few studies so far discriminate between nitrogen and phosphorus pollution. We performed a full factorial experiment in greenhouse mesocosms combining nitrogen and phosphorus addition with two clipping regimes designed to relax above-ground competition. Next, we studied the survival and growth of seedlings of eight common European grassland species and found that five out of eight species showed higher survival under the clipping regime with the lowest above-ground competition. Phosphorus addition negatively affected seven plant species and nitrogen addition negatively affected four plant species. Importantly, the negative effects of nutrient addition and higher above-ground competition were independent of each other for all but one species. Our results suggest that at any given level of soil nutrients, relaxation of above-ground competition allows for higher seedling survival in grasslands. At the same time, even at low levels of above-ground competition, nutrient enrichment negatively affects survival as compared to nutrient-poor conditions. Therefore, although maintaining low above-ground competition appears essential for species' recruitment, for instance through mowing or herbivory, these management efforts are likely to be insufficient and we conclude that environmental policies aimed to reduce both excess nitrogen and particularly phosphorus inputs are also necessary.

  9. Who's hot, who's not? Effects of concentrating solar power heliostats on soil temperature at Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System, Mojave Desert, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodsky, S.; Hernandez, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Solar energy development may function as a contemporary, anthropogenic driver of disturbance when sited in natural ecosystems. Orientation and density of solar modules, including heliostats at concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities, may affect soils via shading and altered surface-water flow. Meanwhile, soil attributes like temperature and moisture may affect nutrient cycling, plant germination and growth, and soil biota. We tested effects of CSP heliostats on soil temperature at Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS) in the Mojave Desert, USA. We implemented experimental treatments based on preconstruction rare plant [e.g., Mojave milkweed (Asclepias nyctaginifolia)] protection areas (hereafter "halos"), site preparation activities, and heliostat density throughout three, replicated CSP blocks (i.e., tower and associated heliostats), including: (1) No Halos (Bladed) - high site preparation intensity, high heliostat density immediately surrounding towers; (2) No Halos (Mowed) - moderate site preparation intensity, moderate to low heliostat density as distance increases from towers; and (3) Halos - no site preparation, no heliostats. We also established control sites within 1,600 km of ISEGS in undisturbed desert. We observed significant differences in soil temperature across treatments. We recorded significantly lower soil temperatures in the No Halos (Bladed) treatments (26.7°C) and No Halos (Mowed) treatments (29.9°C) than in the Halos treatments (32.9°C) and controls (32.1°C). We also determined that soil temperatures in the Halos treatments and controls did not significantly differ. Our results indicated that shading from high-density heliostat configuration significantly reduced soil temperature relative to low-density heliostat configuration and areas without CSP. Shading from heliostats and consequential fluctuation in soil temperatures may affect local-scale distribution of flora and fauna, leading to altered "bottom-up" ecological

  10. Methods of studying the optical properties of landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владислав Малышев

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The definition and systematization of dynamical changes and temporal variants of geosystems, comparative analysis and typological classification of geosystems based on the nature and totality of their conditions present one of the central problems in landscapes dynamics and the most important aspect of dynamic modelling problem. Currently, spectral characteristics of geosystems obtained by remote sensing techniques can be used in the study of landscape areas dynamic processes with considerable success, as the integrated value. The study of the landscapes properties on the basis of their optical properties was carried out in the test section of the Kursk aerospace polygon that includes Streletski site of the Central Chernozem V.V. Alekhin state biospheric natural reserve, a site of Kursk biospheric station and agribusinesses Panino. It included spectral and phytometric measurements in soil-vegetation cover by land and from the aircraft AN-2. Measurements of spectral characteristics with simultaneous obtaining of digital colour image in RJB channels and parameters of soil and vegetation cover in the mode in-situ were carried out on the experimental sites located in three areas of protected steppes with natural vegetation and different modes of nature use: not mowed, mowed, grazing; as well as agricultural systems with different crops. The spectral characteristics of images were obtained with photospectroscopic system FSS-M1 and the spectroradiometer of the FSR–M. Vegetation samples were taken from the experimental sites for further processing in laboratory conditions. In chamber conditions total phytomass and phytomass fractions (leaves, stems, stalks, flowers were measured. The leaf area and the projected area of the plants were calculated. The results of simultaneous ground-based and flight measurements are recorded in the field book (after treatment, in a specially designed book in Excel to create the database and conduct

  11. Simulation of Long-Term Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Grassland-Based Dairy Farming Systems to Evaluate Mitigation Strategies for Nutrient Losses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Abbas Shah

    Full Text Available Many measures have been proposed to mitigate gaseous emissions and other nutrient losses from agroecosystems, which can have large detrimental effects for the quality of soils, water and air, and contribute to eutrophication and global warming. Due to complexities in farm management, biological interactions and emission measurements, most experiments focus on analysis of short-term effects of isolated mitigation practices. Here we present a model that allows simulating long-term effects at the whole-farm level of combined measures related to grassland management, animal housing and manure handling after excretion, during storage and after field application. The model describes the dynamics of pools of organic carbon and nitrogen (N, and of inorganic N, as affected by farm management in grassland-based dairy systems. We assessed the long-term effects of delayed grass mowing, housing type (cubicle and sloping floor barns, resulting in production of slurry and solid cattle manure, respectively, manure additives, contrasting manure storage methods and irrigation after application of covered manure. Simulations demonstrated that individually applied practices often result in compensatory loss pathways. For instance, methods to reduce ammonia emissions during storage like roofing or covering of manure led to larger losses through ammonia volatilization, nitrate leaching or denitrification after application, unless extra measures like irrigation were used. A strategy of combined management practices of delayed mowing and fertilization with solid cattle manure that is treated with zeolite, stored under an impermeable sheet and irrigated after application was effective to increase soil carbon stocks, increase feed self-sufficiency and reduce losses by ammonia volatilization and soil N losses. Although long-term datasets (>25 years of farm nutrient dynamics and loss flows are not available to validate the model, the model is firmly based on knowledge of

  12. Development of mechanical methods for cell-tray propagation and field transplanting of dwarf napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Fatmyah Utamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since dwarf napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. must be propagated vegetatively due to lack of viable seeds, root splitting and stem cuttings are generally used to obtain true-to-type plant populations. These ordinary methods are laborious and costly, and are the greatest barriers for expanding the cultivation area of this crop. The objectives of this research were to develop nursery production of dwarf napiergrass in cell trays and to compare the efficiency of mechanical versus manual methods for cell-tray propagation and field transplanting. After defoliation of herbage either by a sickle (manually or hand-mowing machine, every potential aerial tiller bud was cut to a single one for transplanting into cell trays as stem cuttings and placed in a glasshouse over winter. The following June, nursery plants were trimmed to a 25–cm length and transplanted in an experimental field (sandy soil with 20,000 plants ha^(−1 either by shovel (manually or Welsh onion planter. Labour time was recorded for each process. The manual defoliation of plants required 44% more labour time for preparing the stem cuttings (0.73 person-min. stemcutting^(−1 compared to using hand-mowing machinery (0.51 person-min. stem-cutting^(−1. In contrast, labour time for transplanting required an extra 0.30 person-min. m^(−2 (14% using the machinery compared to manual transplanting, possibly due to the limited plot size for machinery operation. The transplanting method had no significant effect on plant establishment or plant growth, except for herbage yield 110 days after planting. Defoliation of herbage by machinery, production using a cell-tray nursery and mechanical transplanting reduced the labour intensity of dwarf napiergrass propagation.

  13. Intensive land use drives small-scale homogenization of plant- and leafhopper communities and promotes generalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisté, Melanie N; Mody, Karsten; Kunz, Gernot; Gunczy, Johanna; Blüthgen, Nico

    2018-02-01

    The current biodiversity decline through anthropogenic land-use not only involves local species losses, but also homogenization of communities, with a few generalist species benefitting most from human activities. Most studies assessed community heterogeneity (β-diversity) on larger scales by comparing different sites, but little is known about impacts on β-diversity within each site, which is relevant for understanding variation in the level of α-diversity, the small-scale distribution of species and associated habitat heterogeneity. To obtain our dataset with 36,899 individuals out of 117 different plant- and leafhopper (Auchenorrhyncha) species, we sampled communities of 140 managed grassland sites across Germany by quantitative vacuum suction of five 1 m 2 plots on each site. Sites differed in land-use intensity as characterized by intensity of fertilization, mowing and grazing. Our results demonstrate a significant within-site homogenization of plant- and leafhopper communities with increasing land-use intensity. Correspondingly, density (- 78%) and γ-diversity (- 35%) declined, particularly with fertilization and mowing intensity. More than 34% of plant- and leafhopper species were significant losers and only 6% were winners of high land-use intensity, with abundant and widespread species being less affected. Increasing land-use intensity adversely affected dietary specialists and promoted generalist species. Our study emphasizes considerable, multifaceted effects of land-use intensification on species loss, with a few dominant generalists winning, and an emerging trend towards more homogenized assemblages. By demonstrating homogenization for the first time within sites, our study highlights that anthropogenic influences on biodiversity even occur on small scales.

  14. Models meet data: Challenges and opportunities in implementing land management in Earth system models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongratz, Julia; Dolman, Han; Don, Axel; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Fuchs, Richard; Herold, Martin; Jones, Chris; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Naudts, Kim

    2018-04-01

    As the applications of Earth system models (ESMs) move from general climate projections toward questions of mitigation and adaptation, the inclusion of land management practices in these models becomes crucial. We carried out a survey among modeling groups to show an evolution from models able only to deal with land-cover change to more sophisticated approaches that allow also for the partial integration of land management changes. For the longer term a comprehensive land management representation can be anticipated for all major models. To guide the prioritization of implementation, we evaluate ten land management practices-forestry harvest, tree species selection, grazing and mowing harvest, crop harvest, crop species selection, irrigation, wetland drainage, fertilization, tillage, and fire-for (1) their importance on the Earth system, (2) the possibility of implementing them in state-of-the-art ESMs, and (3) availability of required input data. Matching these criteria, we identify "low-hanging fruits" for the inclusion in ESMs, such as basic implementations of crop and forestry harvest and fertilization. We also identify research requirements for specific communities to address the remaining land management practices. Data availability severely hampers modeling the most extensive land management practice, grazing and mowing harvest, and is a limiting factor for a comprehensive implementation of most other practices. Inadequate process understanding hampers even a basic assessment of crop species selection and tillage effects. The need for multiple advanced model structures will be the challenge for a comprehensive implementation of most practices but considerable synergy can be gained using the same structures for different practices. A continuous and closer collaboration of the modeling, Earth observation, and land system science communities is thus required to achieve the inclusion of land management in ESMs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Tune color of single-phase LiGd(MoO4)2-X(WO4)X: Sm3+, Tb3+ via adjusting the proportion of matrix and energy transfer to create white-light phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongyue; Yang, Junfeng; Wang, Xiaoxue; Gan, Shucai; Li, Linlin

    2018-03-01

    A series of LiGd(MO4)2: Sm3+, Tb3+ (M = Mo, W) phosphors was prepared by a conventional solid state reaction method. Powder X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that the compounds are of the same structure type. Their luminescent properties have been studied. The optimal doping concentrations are 8% for Sm3+ and 18% for Tb3+ in the LiGd(MoO4)2 host. Sm3+ and Tb3+ have different sensitivity to the Mo/W ratio. For LiGd(MoO4)2-X(WO4)X: Sm3+ (X = 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0), the strongest emission intensity is 1.766 times than that of the weakest, while 171 times for LiGd(MoO4)2-X(WO4)X: Tb3+. The experimental results show that Mo/W ratio strong influences on the properties of LiGd(MoO4)2-X(WO4)X: Tb3+. With the increasing of WO42- groups concentration, the shape of characteristic excitation peaks of Tb3+ is almost the same and the excitation intensity gradually increase. Moreover, the energy transfer from Tb3+ to Sm3+ has been realized in the co-doped phosphors. The experimental analysis and theoretical calculations reveal that the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction is the dominant mechanism for the Tb3+→Sm3+ energy transfer. Therefore, luminous intensity can be adjusted by different sensitivities to matrix composition and energy transfer from Tb3+→Sm3+. By this tuning color method, white-light-emitting phosphor has been prepared. The excitation wavelength is 378 nm, and this indicates that the white-light-emitting phosphor could be pumped by near-UV light.

  16. Structural, spectroscopic and photoluminescence studies of LiEu(WO4)2-x (MoO4) x as a near-UV convertible phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.-H.; Wang, M.-F.; Lee, C.-S.; Chen, T.-M.

    2007-01-01

    A series of lithium europium double tungsto-molybdate phosphors LiEu(WO 4 ) 2- x (MoO 4 ) x (x=0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0) have been synthesized by solid-state reactions and their crystal structure, optical and luminescent properties were studied. As the molybdate content increases, the intensity of the 5 D 0 →7 F 2 emission of Eu 3+ activated at wavelength of 396 nm was found to increase and reach a maximum when the relative ratio of Mo/W is 2:0. These changes were found to be accompanied with the changes in the spectral feature, which can be attributed to the crystal field splitting of the 5 D 0 →7 F 2 transition. As the molybdate content increases the emission intensity of the 615 nm peak also increases. The intense red-emission of the tungstomolybdate phosphors under near-UV excitation suggests them to be potential candidate for white light generation by using near-UV LEDs. In this study the effect of chemical compositions and crystal structure on the photoluminescent properties of LiEu(WO 4 ) 2- x (MoO 4 ) x is investigated and discussed. - Graphical abstract: As shown by the PL spectra of LiEu(WO 4 ) 2- x (MoO 4 ) x (x=0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0) under 394 nm near-UV excitation, the intensity of 5 D 0 →7 F 2 transition was found to increase with the increasing x and the I-λ curve reaches a maximum when the relative ratio of Mo/W is 2:0

  17. Frequent fire promotes diversity and cover of biological soil crusts in a derived temperate grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Katharine E; Prober, Suzanne Mary; Lunt, Ian D; Eldridge, David J

    2009-04-01

    The intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) predicts that species diversity is maximized at moderate disturbance levels. This model is often applied to grassy ecosystems, where disturbance can be important for maintaining vascular plant composition and diversity. However, effects of disturbance type and frequency on cover and diversity of non-vascular plants comprising biological soil crusts are poorly known, despite their potentially important role in ecosystem function. We established replicated disturbance regimes of different type (fire vs. mowing) and frequency (2, 4, 8 yearly and unburnt) in a high-quality, representative Themeda australis-Poa sieberiana derived grassland in south-eastern Australia. Effects on soil crust bryophytes and lichens (hereafter cryptogams) were measured after 12 years. Consistent with expectations under IDH, cryptogam richness and abundance declined under no disturbance, likely due to competitive exclusion by vascular plants as well as high soil turnover by soil invertebrates beneath thick grass. Disturbance type was also significant, with burning enhancing richness and abundance more than mowing. Contrary to expectations, however, cryptogam richness increased most dramatically under our most frequent and recent (2 year) burning regime, even when changes in abundance were accounted for by rarefaction analysis. Thus, from the perspective of cryptogams, 2-year burning was not an adequately severe disturbance regime to reduce diversity, highlighting the difficulty associated with expression of disturbance gradients in the application of IDH. Indeed, significant correlations with grassland structure suggest that cryptogam abundance and diversity in this relatively mesic (600 mm annual rainfall) grassland is maximised by frequent fires that reduce vegetation and litter cover, providing light, open areas and stable soil surfaces for colonisation. This contrasts with detrimental effects of 2-year burning on native perennial grasses

  18. Application of a crop model forced with remote sensing data at high spatio-temporal resolution to estimate evaporation and yields of irrigated grasslands in the South Eastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couralt, D.; Hadria, R.; Ruget, F.; Duchemin, B.; Hagolle, O.

    2009-09-01

    This study focused on the feasibility of using remote sensing data acquired at high spatial and temporal resolution (FORMOSAT-2 images(http://www.spotimage.fr/web/en/977--formosat-2-images.php) for crop monitoring at regional scale. The monitoring of agricultural practices such as grassland mowing and irrigation is essential to simulate accurately all processes related to crop system. This information is needed for example in crop simulation models to estimate production, water and fertilizer consumption and can thus serve to better understand the interactions between agriculture and climate. The analysis of these interactions is especially important in Mediterranean region where the effects of climate changes and crop management modifications are increasingly marked. In this context, an experiment was conducted in 2006 in Crau region in the South-Eastern France. In this area, permanent grassland represents 67 % of the usable agricultural area, and it is often used with irrigation (47 % of the permanent grassland). A time series of 36 FORMOSAT-2 images was acquired with a three days frequency from March to October 2006. Information concerning grassland mowing and irrigation was collected through a survey over 120 fields. The high FORMOSAT-2 revisit frequency allowed replicating the dynamics of Leaf Area index (LAI), and detecting to some extents cultural practices like vegetation cut. Simple automatic algorithms were developed to obtain daily values of LAI for each grasslands field linked with the main agricultural practices performed (cut and irrigation dates). This information was then used in a crop model called STICS (http://147.100.66.194/stics/) to estimate the spatial variability of evapotranspiration and drainage associated with the aerial biomass productions. Comparisons between simulated and observed yields gave satisfactory results. The great spatial variations of evapotranspiration were strongly related to the crop and water management. Such

  19. Positive feedback of greenhouse gas balances to warming is determined by non-growing season emissions in an alpine meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, S.; Wang, J.; Quan, Q.; Chen, W.; Wen, X.; Yu, G.

    2017-12-01

    Large uncertainties exist in the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) in response to climate warming and human activity. So far, numerous previous studies have evaluated the CO2 budget, but little attention has paid to CH4 and N2O budgets and the concurrent balance of these three gases in combination, especially in the non-growing season. Here, we synthesized eddy covariance measurement with the automatic chamber measurements of CO2, CH4, and N2O exposed to three levels of temperature treatments (ambient, +1.5 °C, +2.5 °C) and two disturbance treatments (ummowing, mowing) in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau. We have found that warming caused increase in CH4 uptake and decrease in N2O emission offset little of the enhancement in CO2 emission, triggering a positive feedback to climate warming. Warming switches the ecosystem from a net sink (-17 ± 14 g CO2-eq m-2 yr-1) in the control to a net source of greenhouse gases of 94 ± 36 gCO2-eq m-2 yr-1 in the plots with +1.5 °C warming treatment, and 177 ± 6 gCO2-eq m-2 yr-1 in the plots with +2.5 °C warming treatment. The changes in the non-growing season balance, rather than those in the growing season, dominate the warming responses of annual greehouse gas balance. And this is not changed by mowing. The dominant role of responses of winter greenhouse gas balance in the positive feedback of ecosystem to climate warming highlights that greenhouse gas balance in cold season has to be considered when assessing climate-carbon cycle feedback.

  20. Early actions in decontamination after nuclear power accidents, guidelines for planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvsand, T.; Andersson, K.G.; Hansen, J.H.; Preuthun, J.; Sinkko, K.; Svennerstedt, G.; Uhnger, S.

    1997-01-01

    The target group for this document consists mainly of persons in charge of making plans for the actions in case of a radioactive release, persons found at different levels in the preparedness organisations. This report builds on a joint Nordic project, from which a basic report has been published (NKS-EKO--5(96)-18, INIS 28-021176), which is useful to experts. The work has extracted seven actions which can be classed as early: Hosing of roofs, walls, and paved areas; Lawn mowing; Pruning of trees and bushes; Removal of snow; and Vacuum cleaning of streets. For a reference deposition of 1 Mbq/m 2 of 137 Cs, calculations have been performed in five urban or suburban areas such as detached wooden or brick houses, semi-detached houses, terrace houses and city centre multi-storey houses. In case of dry or wet deposition, the report describes the expected effects of the various actions and the practical, economical and protective-relevant consequences generated by them. The actions giving the largest effects, measured as reduction in life time dose reduction, are lawn mowing, removal of snow and pruning of trees and bushes. The document finally discuss clean-up actions and their effects on the rural living environments. The actions will be the same as those taken in the urban areas, but there is a difference in the performance. In urban areas, the actions will to a great extent be performed by the society. In rural areas, the equipment and experience needed exist on the farms, and the inhabitants will perform the clean-up actions themselves

  1. YIELD AND QUALITY OF SORGHUM IN IRRIGATED AGRO LANDSCAPES OF REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G. Muslimov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. One of drought-resistant crops that can provide stable high yields is sorghum, which is salt-tolerant, heat-resistant and a flexible crop of versatile use (green forage, silage, hay, grass meal, grain forage. The research conducted in 2010-2013 included studies on the effectiveness of the methods and norms of sowing the sorghum, required quantities of mineral fertilizers to increase the crop yields and nutritional value of sorghum sown in the irrigated lowland areas of Dagestan. Methods. We conducted three field researches. In experiments with grain sorghum (the middle ripening group Zernogradskiy 88 we studied drill and broad-cast methods of sowing, seeding rate, the calculated doses of mineral fertilizers on programmable levels of crop yields: 6 t/ha (N160P112K70, 7 t/ha (N190P128K80 and 8 t/ha (N220P144K90. Seeding rate was 300, 350 and 400 thousand viable seeds per 1 ha; broadcast was chosen as a sowing method.A field experiment with sweet sorghum included promising hybrid crop Debut, fertilizers N140P80K70, N190P110K95 and N240P140K120 to obtain 60, 70 and 80 t/ha of green mass for two mowings, respectively. Results. The use of fertilizers based on a given level of productivity at optimum plant population can significantly improve the nutritional regime of the soil during the growing season of the sweet sorghum and create optimal conditions for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium security for the crops and thus obtain the planned crop yield. Conclusion. The fodder quality of sweet sorghum varies depending on the nutrient status of the soil and mowing time.

  2. Pyrolysis and co-composting of municipal organic waste in Bangladesh: A quantitative estimate of recyclable nutrients, greenhouse gas emissions, and economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Shamim; Uddin, Md Ektear; Kader, Md Abdul; Ahsan, Amimul; Mannan, M A; Hossain, Mohammad Monjur; Solaiman, Zakaria M

    2018-05-01

    Waste causes environmental pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when it is not managed sustainably. In Bangladesh, municipal organic waste (MOW) is partially collected and landfilled. Thus, it causes deterioration of the environment urging a recycle-oriented waste management system. In this study, we propose a waste management system through pyrolysis of selective MOW for biochar production and composting of the remainder with biochar as an additive. We estimated the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) recycling potentials in the new techniques of waste management. Waste generation of a city was calculated using population density and per capita waste generation rate (PWGR). Two indicators of economic development, i.e., gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita gross national income (GNI) were used to adopt PWGR with a projected contribution of 5-20% to waste generation. The projected PWGR was then validated with a survey. The waste generation from urban areas of Bangladesh in 2016 was estimated between 15,507 and 15,888 t day -1 with a large share (∼75%) of organic waste. Adoption of the proposed system could produce 3936 t day -1 biochar blended compost with an annual return of US $210 million in 2016 while it could reduce GHG emission substantially (-503 CO 2 e t -1 municipal waste). Moreover, the proposed system would able to recover ∼46%, 54%, 54% and 61% of total C, N, P and K content in the initial waste, respectively. We also provide a projection of waste generation and nutrient recycling potentials for the year 2035. The proposed method could be a self-sustaining policy option for waste management as it would generate ∼US$51 from each tonne of waste. Moreover, a significant amount of nutrients can be recycled to agriculture while contributing to the reduction in environmental pollution and GHG emission. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative study of the growth and carbon sequestration potential of Bermuda grass in industrial and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a global phenomenon occurring throughout the world. Greenhouse gases (GHGs especially carbon dioxide (CO2 considered to be the major culprit to bring these changes. So, carbon (C sequestration by any mean could be useful to reduce the CO2 level in atmosphere. Turf grasses have the ability to sequester C and minimize the effects of GHGs on the environment. In order to study that how turf grasses can help in C sequestration, Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon was grown both at industrial and urban location and its effect on C storage were assessed by soil and plant analysis. Dry deposition of ammonium and nitrate was maximum at both locations through the year. However wet deposition was highest during the months of high rainfall. It was examined through soil analysis that soil organic matter, soil C and nitrogen in both locations increased after second mowing of grass. However, soil pH 6.68 in urban and 7.00 in industrial area and EC 1.86 dS/m in urban and 1.90 dS/m in industrial area decreased as the grass growth continue. Soil fresh weight (27.6 g in urban and (27.28 g industrial area also decreased after first and second mowing of grass. The C levels in plant dry biomass also increased which showed improved ability of plant to uptake C from the soil and store it. Similarly, chlorophyll contents were more in industrial area compared to urban area indicates the positive impact of high C concentration. Whereas stomatal conductance was reduced in high C environment to slow down respiration process. Hence, from present study it can be concluded that the Bermuda grass could be grown in areas with high C concentration in atmosphere for sequestrating C in soil.

  4. Grassland birds wintering at U.S. Navy facilities in southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary Kay; Bryan, Pearce D.; Ruddy, Amanda J.; Hickman, Graham C.

    2010-01-01

    Grassland birds have undergone widespread decline throughout North America during the past several decades. Causes of this decline include habitat loss and fragmentation because of conversion of grasslands to cropland, afforestation in the East, brush and shrub invasion in the Southwest and western United States, and planting of exotic grass species to enhance forage production. A large number of exotic plant species, including grasses, have been introduced in North America, but most research on the effects of these invasions on birds has been limited to breeding birds, primarily those in northern latitudes. Research on the effects of exotic grasses on birds in winter has been extremely limited.This is the first study in southern Texas to examine and compare winter bird responses to native and exotic grasslands. This study was conducted during a period of six years (2003–2009) on United States Navy facilities in southern Texas including Naval Air Station–Corpus Christi, Naval Air Station–Kingsville, Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Waldron, Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Orange Grove, and Escondido Ranch, all of which contained examples of native grasslands, exotic grasslands, or both. Data from native and exotic grasslands were collected and compared for bird abundance and diversity; ground cover, vegetation density, and floristic diversity; bird and vegetation relationships; diversity of insects and arachnids; and seed abundance and diversity. Effects of management treatments in exotic grasslands were evaluated by comparing numbers and diversity of birds and small mammals in mowed, burned, and control areas.To determine bird abundance and bird species richness, birds were surveyed monthly (December–February) during the winters of 2003–2008 in transects (100 meter × 20 meter) located in native and exotic grasslands distributed at all five U.S. Navy facilities. To compare vegetation in native and exotic grasslands, vegetation characteristics were measured

  5. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Oleson Tracts of the Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Donna; Smith, maureen; Schmidt, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Located in the northern Willamette River basin, Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) was established in 1992 with an approved acquisition boundary to accommodate willing sellers with potentially restorable holdings within the Tualatin River floodplain. The Refuge's floodplain of seasonal and emergent wetlands, Oregon ash riparian hardwood, riparian shrub, coniferous forest, and Garry oak communities are representative of remnant plant communities historically common in the Willamette River valley and offer an opportunity to compensate for wildlife habitat losses associated with the Willamette River basin federal hydroelectric projects. The purchase of the Oleson Units as additions to the Refuge using Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds will partially mitigate for wildlife habitat and target species losses incurred as a result of construction and inundation activities at Dexter and Detroit Dams. Lands acquired for mitigation of Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) impacts to wildlife are evaluated using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) methodology, which quantifies how many Habitat Units (HUs) are to be credited to BPA. HUs or credits gained lessen BPA's debt, which was formally tabulated in the FCRPS Loss Assessments and adopted as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Fish and Wildlife Program as a BPA obligation (NWPCC, 1994 and 2000). There are two basic management scenarios to consider for this evaluation: (1) Habitats can be managed without restoration activities to benefit wildlife populations, or (2) Habitats can be restored using a number of techniques to improve habitat values more quickly. Without restoration, upland and wetland areas may be periodically mowed and disced to prevent invasion of exotic vegetation, volunteer trees and shrubs may grow to expand forested areas, and cooperative farming may be employed to provide forage for migrating and wintering waterfowl. Abandoned cropland

  6. Biodiversity and agro-ecology in field margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauwer, B; Reheul, D; Nijs, I; Milbau, A

    2005-01-01

    This multidisciplinary study investigates agro-ecological functions (nature conservation, agriculture, environment) and implications of newly created, mown sown and unsown field margin strips installed on ex-arable land to increase biodiversity. From conservational concern, the development of species rich field margin strips was not strongly affected by the installed type of margin strip since species diversity converged over time, whether strips were sown or not. Convergence between unsown and sown margin strips occurred also in terms of species composition: unsown and sown strips became similar over time. Mowing without removal of cuttings significantly reduced species richness, yielded more grassy margin strips and delayed similarity in species composition between sown and unsown margin strips. Species richness on the longer term was not significantly affected by light regime nor by disturbance despite significant temporary effects shortly after the disturbance event. On the contrary vegetation composition in terms of importance of functional groups changed after disturbance: the share of spontaneous species within functional groups increased resulting in higher similarity between the sown and unsown vegetation. Furthermore risk of invasion was highest in the disturbed unsown community on the unshaded side of a tree lane. A positive effect of botanical diversity on insect number and diversity was found. However the effects of botanical diversity on insect number was mediated by light regime. At high light availability differences between plant communities were more pronounced compared to low light availablilty. The abundance of some insect families was dependent on the vegetation composition. Furthermore light availability significantly influenced insect diversity as well as the spatial distribution of families. From agricultural concern, installing margin strips by sowing a species mixture and a mowing regime with removal of cuttings are good practices to

  7. Lawn mower-related injuries to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, David; Khosla, Kimberly; Shields, Brenda J; Beeghly, B Christine; Bonsu, Bema; Smith, Gary A

    2005-09-01

    ride-on lawn mowers with a no-mow-in-reverse default feature, with location of the no-mow-in-reverse override switch behind the seating position of the ride-on mower operator.

  8. Geochemistry and geochronology of ore-bearing and barren intrusions in the Luanchuan ore fields of East Qinling metallogenic belt, China: Diverse tectonic evolution and implications for mineral exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Wang, Gongwen; Santosh, M.; Yang, Fan; Shen, Zhiwei; Kong, Liang; Guo, Nana; Zhang, Xuhuang; Jia, Wenjuan

    2018-05-01

    The Luanchuan ore fields form part of the East Qinling metallogenic belt in central China. In this study, we compare two ore-bearing intrusions, the Shibaogou granitic pluton (SBG) and the Zhongyuku granitic pluton (ZYK), with the ore-barren Laojunshan intrusion (LJS) from the Luanchuan ore field. Geochemically, all the three intrusions are characterized by high-Si, high-K, and alkalis, together with moderate-ASI, exhibiting I-type granite features. The rocks, especially the ore-related plutons also show enrichment in LREEs. Mineral chemistry of biotite from the intrusions exhibits similar features of high Si and Mg, and low Al and Fe. Zircon grains from the ZYK intrusion yielded a U-Pb age of 149.6 ± 2.4 Ma. The zircon grains show εHf (t) values and two stage model ages (TDM2) in the range of -16.8 to -19.7 and 1998-2156 Ma respectively. The biotite composition and Hf isotopic data indicate that the magma was derived by re-melting of deep crustal material with minor input of mantle components. We evaluate the results to understand the physico-chemical conditions, petrogenesis, and tectonic setting, and their implications for mineral exploration. The ore-bearing plutons show wide ranges of temperature and oxygen fugacity, favoring Mo-W mineralization. In addition, estimates on pressure and depth of emplacement suggest that lower solidification pressure in a decompressional setting contributed to the evolution of magmatic hydrothermal deposits. Our data suggest that the ZYK has the highest potential for Mo-W mineralization. The ore-bearing plutons of ZYK and SBG were formed in a transitional tectonic setting from compression to extension, with the large-scale metallogeny triggered by slab melts at ca. 145 Ma. However, the ore-barren LJS batholith formed in an extension-related geodynamic setting at ∼115 Ma. Our study shows that different tectonic settings and consequent physico-chemical conditions dictated the ore potential of the intrusions in the Luanchuan ore

  9. The effects of household management practices on the global warming potential of urban lawns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chuanhui; Crane, John; Hornberger, George; Carrico, Amanda

    2015-03-15

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are an important component of the greenhouse gas (GHG) budget for urban turfgrasses. A biogeochemical model DNDC successfully captured the magnitudes and patterns of N2O emissions observed at an urban turfgrass system at the Richland Creek Watershed in Nashville, TN. The model was then used to study the long-term (i.e. 75 years) impacts of lawn management practice (LMP) on soil organic carbon sequestration rate (dSOC), soil N2O emissions, and net Global Warming Potentials (net GWPs). The model simulated N2O emissions and net GWP from the three management intensity levels over 75 years ranged from 0.75 to 3.57 kg N ha(-1)yr(-1) and 697 to 2443 kg CO2-eq ha(-1)yr(-1), respectively, which suggested that turfgrasses act as a net carbon emitter. Reduction of fertilization is most effective to mitigate the global warming potentials of turfgrasses. Compared to the baseline scenario, halving fertilization rate and clipping recycle as an alternative to synthetic fertilizer can reduce net GWPs by 17% and 12%, respectively. In addition, reducing irrigation and mowing are also effective in lowering net GWPs. The minimum-maintenance LMP without irrigation and fertilization can reduce annual N2O emissions and net GWPs by approximately 53% and 70%, respectively, with the price of gradual depletion of soil organic carbon, when compared to the intensive-maintenance LMP. A lawn age-dependent best management practice is recommended: a high dose fertilizer input at the initial stage of lawn establishment to enhance SOC sequestration, followed by decreasing fertilization rate when the lawn ages to minimize N2O emissions. A minimum-maintained LMP with clipping recycling, and minimum irrigation and mowing, is recommended to mitigate global warming effects from urban turfgrass systems. Among all practices, clipping recycle may be a relatively malleable behavior and, therefore, a good target for interventions seeking to reduce the environmental impacts of lawn

  10. Modeled Changes in Potential Grassland Productivity and in Grass-Fed Ruminant Livestock Density in Europe over 1961-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Campioli, Matteo; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphaël; Leip, Adrian; Soussana, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    About 25% of European livestock intake is based on permanent and sown grasslands. To fulfill rising demand for animal products, an intensification of livestock production may lead to an increased consumption of crop and compound feeds. In order to preserve an economically and environmentally sustainable agriculture, a more forage based livestock alimentation may be an advantage. However, besides management, grassland productivity is highly vulnerable to climate (i.e., temperature, precipitation, CO2 concentration), and spatial information about European grassland productivity in response to climate change is scarce. The process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE-GM, containing an explicit representation of grassland management (i.e., herbage mowing and grazing), is used here to estimate changes in potential productivity and potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density across European grasslands over the period 1961-2010. Here "potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density" denotes the maximum density of livestock that can be supported by grassland productivity in each 25 km × 25 km grid cell. In reality, livestock density could be higher than potential (e.g., if additional feed is supplied to animals) or lower (e.g., in response to economic factors, pedo-climatic and biotic conditions ignored by the model, or policy decisions that can for instance reduce livestock numbers). When compared to agricultural statistics (Eurostat and FAOstat), ORCHIDEE-GM gave a good reproduction of the regional gradients of annual grassland productivity and ruminant livestock density. The model however tends to systematically overestimate the absolute values of productivity in most regions, suggesting that most grid cells remain below their potential grassland productivity due to possible nutrient and biotic limitations on plant growth. When ORCHIDEE-GM was run for the period 1961-2010 with variable climate and rising CO2, an increase of potential annual production (over 3%) per decade

  11. Variations in Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange across the late Pliocene climate transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gallardo, Ángela; Grunert, Patrick; Piller, Werner E.

    2018-03-01

    Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar plays a significant role in the global ocean-climate dynamics in two ways. On one side, the injection of the saline and warm Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) contributes to North Atlantic deep-water formation. In return, the Atlantic inflow is considered a sink of less saline water for the North Atlantic Ocean. However, while the history of MOW is the focus of numerous studies, the Pliocene Atlantic inflow has received little attention so far. The present study provides an assessment of the Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange with a focus on the Atlantic inflow strength and its response to regional and global climate from 3.33 to 2.60 Ma. This time interval comprises the mid-Pliocene warm period (MPWP; 3.29-2.97 Ma) and the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation (NHG). For this purpose, gradients in surface δ18O records of the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber between the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1389E (Gulf of Cádiz) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 978A (Alboran Sea) have been evaluated. Interglacial stages and warm glacials of the MPWP revealed steep and reversed (relative to the present) W-E δ18O gradients suggesting a weakening of Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange likely caused by high levels of relative humidity in the Mediterranean region. In contrast, periods of stronger inflow are indicated by flat δ18O gradients due to more intense arid conditions during the severe glacial Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2 and the initiation of NHG (MIS G22, G14, G6-104). Intensified Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange in cold periods is linked to the occurrence of ice-rafted debris (IRD) at low latitudes and a weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Our results thus suggest the development of a negative feedback between AMOC and exchange rates at the Strait of Gibraltar in the latest Pliocene as it has been proposed for the late Quaternary.

  12. Bottom current processes along the Iberian continental margin; Procesos sedimentarios por corrientes de fondo a lo largo del margen continental iberico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llave, E.; Hernandez-Molina, F. J.; Ercilla, G.; Roque, C.; Van Rooij, D.; Garcia, M.; Juan, C.; Mena, A.; Brackenridge, R.; Jane, G.; Stow, D.; Gomez-Ballesteros, M.

    2015-07-01

    The products of bottom current circulation around the Iberian continental margin are characterised by large erosional and depositional features formed under a variety of geological and oceanographic contexts. The Iberian margins are influenced by several water masses that mainly interact along the upper and middle con- tinental slopes, as well as along the lower slope with the abyssal plains being influenced to a lesser extent. The main depositional features occur along the Ceuta Contourite Depositional System (CDS) within the SW Alboran Sea, in the Gulf of Cadiz (the most studied so far), the western margins of the Portugal/Galician mar- gin, the Ortegal Spur and the Le Danois Bank or Cachucho. Moreover, erosional contourite features have also been recently indentified, most notably terraces, abraded surfaces, channels, furrows and moats. The majority of these features are formed under the influence of the Mediterranean water masses, especially by the interaction of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) with the seafloor. The MOW is characterized as relatively warm (13 degree centigrade) and with a high salinity (∼36.5), giving it a high density relative to the surrounding water masses, hence constituting an important contribution to the global thermohaline circulation, making it one of the most studied water masses surrounding Iberia. The development of both depositional and ero- sional contourite features does not only depend on the bottom-current velocity but also on several other important controlling factors, including: 1) local margin morphology affected by recent tectonic activity; 2) multiple sources of sediment supply; 3) water-mass interphases interacting with the seafloor; and 4) glacioeustatic changes, especially during the Quaternary, when the increasing influence of the bottom cur- rent has been observed during the cold stages. The main objective of this special volume contribution is to provide a review and description of the regional along

  13. The water regime of the long-seasonally-frozen peat soils of the Northern Trans-Ural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motorin Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of many-years research of the water regime of the long-seasonally-frozen peat soils of the Northern Trans-Uralare described. It is shown that the fluctuation of groundwater in the Tarmanskoe swamp before drying is characterized by a sharp increase in levels during the spring snowmelt, then – a minimal level in summer, increase in levels in autumn, and winter minimum. The intensity of the decline in groundwater depends on precipitation (r=0.83 and evaporation. The change of groundwater level in winter is significantly affected by the progress of freezing of the upper layer and thaw. After drying at atmospheric-alluvial type of water supply of the swamp, the groundwater level during the vegetation period is determined mainly by the amount of rainfall (r=0.76. The deepest groundwater table (1.97 m on average during the growing season set in 2012, when 56.7% of the average annual norm of precipitation fell. On the dried potter’s drainage (To=24 m, H=1.5 m land there is no increase of the groundwater in the autumn. The lowest possible (2.5 m and more level of the groundwater table reaches in the beginning of snowmelt in late March - early April. The magnitude of the spring rise is 1-1.5 m and depends on winter moisture (r=0.65, the snow cover and the intensity of the melting of solid precipitation. The humidity of the root layer (0.3 m medium peat soil with a deep groundwater table (1.3 to 1.9 m under perennial grasses is in the range of 0.5-0.6 LMC (the least moisture capacity. In the formation of the first mowing of perennial grasses, soil moisture is in the optimum range (0.6-0.85 LMC; in the high-draught years for a full second mowing has a deficit. On the boundary of the thawed and frozen layers, soil moisture is always at the upper limit of the optimum (0.85-0.95 LMC. During the winter period, the moisture reserves in the upper layer 0.5 m up to 20% due to the underlying horizons.

  14. Current tritium chemical studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.J.; Redman, J.D.; Strehlow, R.A.; Bell, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    The equilibrium pressures of hydrogen isotopes in the Li-LiH-H 2 , Li-LiD-D 2 and Li-LiT-T 2 systems are being measured. The solubility of hydrogen in lithium was studied and the data are in reasonable agreement with the literature values. The Li-LiD-D 2 system is now being studied. The first experimental measurements of the equilibrium pressures of tritium between 700 and 1000 0 C as a function of the LiT concentration in the Li-LiT-T 2 system have also been completed. The permeation of tritium through clean metals and through metals under simulated steam generator conditions is being investigated. Measurements of tritium permeation through clean nickel at temperatures between 636 and 910 0 K were made using a mixed isotope technique. The tritium permeability, DK/sub s/', as a function of temperature was determined to be ln DK/sub s/' [cc(NTP).mm.min -1 .torr/sup -1/2/.cm -2 ] = -0.906 - 6360/T( 0 K). The measured permeation activation energy was 12.6 +- 0.4 kcal/mole. (MOW)

  15. TX 2000: total reflection and 45o energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasti, F.; Torboli, A.; Valdes, M.

    2000-01-01

    This equipment, developed by Ital Structures, combines two kinds of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques, the first using total reflection geometry and the second conventional 45 o geometry. The equipment is completely controlled by a PC and to reach the condition of total reflection is very easy because it is enough to load the file with the right position for the corresponding energy. In this apparatus we used an x-ray tube with an alloy anode of Mo/W with a long fine focus at 2200 W. To monochromatize the x-ray beam while choosing, for example, the Mo K alpha or W L alpha or a piece of white spectrum of 33 keV, we use a highly reflective multilayer made of Si/W with 2d = 45.5 A o . The detector used in the equipment is a lithium drifted silicon detector (Si(Li)) with an excellent energy resolution of 135 eV at 5.9 keV and 1000 cps. We developed two programs written in Windows 95, 98 and NT for a 32 bit microprocessor. The first one is called TYACQ32 and has the following functions: first, complete control of the hardware, second automatic alignment of the TX 2000 spectrometer and third acquisition of spectra. The second program is EDXRF32. This is a program to accomplish spectrum and quantitative analysis for TXRF and EDXRF 45 o degrees analysis. (author)

  16. Observations on the Nesting and Prey of the Solitary Wasp, Tachysphex inconspicuus, with a Review of Nesting Behavior in the T. obscuripennis species group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczewski, Frank E.; Coville, Rollin E.; Schal, Coby

    2010-01-01

    The nesting behaviors of 10 females of Tachysphex inconspicuus (Kirby) (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) were studied on a sandy, mowed lawn at the La Selva Biological Station in northeastern Costa Rica on 27–29 April 1980. Twenty-four completed nests were observed, excavated, and measured. The nests had oblique, short burrows leading to one or two shallow cells. Prey cockroaches belonging to 11 species of Chorisoneura and Riatia fulgida (Saussure) (Blattaria: Blattellidae), all tropical wet forest canopy indicator species, were removed from the cells, weighed, and identified. The cockroaches consisted mainly of adult females, selectively preyed upon over adult males and nymphs due to their larger sizes. The aggregate prey mass in cells was separable into prospective larger (heavier) female and smaller (lighter) male cells. Wasps usually oviposited on the heaviest cockroach in a cell, in most cases an adult female. Atypical genus behavior included (1) prey being carried to one side of the wasp and perhaps grasped by a hindleg during removal of the temporary entrance closure and nest entry and (2) wasp's egg being laid affixed to a forecoxal corium and extending backward in a longitudinally posteriad position across the prey's ventral thorax. A comparison with the nesting behavior of other species in the Tachysphex obscuripennis species group is made. PMID:21062142

  17. Vibration analysis of the sulky accessory for a commercial walk-behind lawn mower to determine operator comfort and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrailkill, Elizabeth A; Lowndes, Bethany R; Hallbeck, M Susan

    2013-01-01

    A sulky is a single-wheeled platform attachment on which the operator of a commercial walk-behind lawn mower rides while standing. The effects of sulky vibration on operator comfort and health have not been investigated. In this study, tri-axial accelerometers measured sulky vibration during mower use by two commercial mowers on varied terrain and 12 volunteer mowers over a controlled course. The accelerometer data were processed according to methods established in ISO 2631. Results indicate the mean frequency-weighted root mean square (RMS) acceleration sums fall into the 'very uncomfortable' range for vibration of standing persons (1.9 ± 0.48 m s⁻²). Additionally, vibration dose values indicated that the mean vibration dosages exceeded the daily exposure limit values established in Directive 2002 /44/EC (z-axis A(8) value of 1.30 ± 34 m s⁻²; VDV(exp) value of 28.1 ± 6.25 m s⁻¹·⁷⁵). This information suggests that modifications including vibration damping should be added to the sulky to reduce rider discomfort and health risks. This study investigated the effects of vibration during use of a commercial lawn mowing sulky. Findings from accelerometer data suggest that the vibration experienced by sulky operators is significant enough to cause discomfort and health risks which may lead to personnel turnover or long-term effects for the operator.

  18. Lemonade from lemons: the taphonomic effect of lawn mowers on skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D C; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Roberts, Lindsey G

    2013-09-01

    This study provides a descriptive analysis of the taphonomic changes produced by passing over skeletonized remains (n = 4, Sus scrofa) with three common lawn mowers. Two skeletons were mowed over with a riding lawn mower set at multiple blade heights (10.16, 7.62, 5.08 cm) and one each with a rotary mower (9.53, 6.35 cm) and a mulching mower (6.35 cm). Results show that different types of common lawn mowers will produce different patterns of bone dispersal and fragmentation rates. Overall, skeletal elements projecting upward from the surface frequently exhibited a sheared morphology characterized by a smooth, flat, cut surface (7.0-7.6% of elements). The push mowers yielded a higher frequency of undamaged bone than the riding mower (54.8-61.2% vs. 17.7%), and the riding mower created more catastrophic damage to skeletal elements. Additionally, each mower produced a distinct dispersal pattern of skeletal fragments. The dispersal patterns have been identified as "bull's-eye" (riding), circular (mulching), and discontinuous rectangle (rotary). © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. AGRICULTURAL USE OF FLOODPLAINS ABOVE JEZIORSKO RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Walczak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Flood plains are specific sedimentary environment. They are a natural clarifier tank and filter for rivers carrying various impurities m. in .: heavy metals, biogenic elements, which are transported during floods and floods. Much of it is accumulated on the river bank called bufferstrip. It is a strip of land lying along the watercourses, often overgrown with riparian plant associations related functionally to the flooding of the river and forming a transition zone ecosystems of plants oak-hornbeam forest. Very often vegetation found in this strip is made up of annual plants, shrubs and trees of different heights and characterized by various density. Some of these areas is used for agriculture as pastures and meadows, where you can get for animal feed. Based on aerial photographs, maps and studies showed significant differences in the way development in the analyzed part of valley. Much smaller growth of shrubs, rather its lack is observed in areas used for grazing cattle. Despite the favorable conditions for development (access water and light through continuous mowing of vegetation by animals did not develop in a manner threatening reducing bandwidth floodplains.

  20. Predation risk of artificial ground nests in managed floodplain meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeiter, Susanne; Franke, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Nest predation highly determines the reproductive success in birds. In agricultural grasslands, vegetation characteristics and management practices influences the predation risk of ground breeders. Little is known so far on the predation pressure on non-passerine nests in tall swards. Investigations on the interaction of land use with nesting site conditions and the habitat selection of nest predators are crucial to develop effective conservation measures for grassland birds. In this study, we used artificial nests baited with quail and plasticine eggs to identify potential predators of ground nests in floodplain meadows and related predation risk to vegetation structure and grassland management. Mean daily predation rate was 0.01 (±0.012) after an exposure duration of 21 days. 70% of all observed nest predations were caused by mammals (Red Fox and mustelids) and 17.5% by avian predators (corvids). Nest sites close to the meadow edge and those providing low forb cover were faced with a higher daily predation risk. Predation risk also increased later in the season. Land use in the preceding year had a significant effect on predation risk, showing higher predation rates on unmanaged sites than on mown sites. Unused meadows probably attract mammalian predators, because they provide a high abundance of small rodents and a more favourable vegetation structure for foraging, increasing also the risk of incidental nest predations. Although mowing operation is a major threat to ground-nesting birds, our results suggest that an annual removal of vegetation may reduce predation risk in the subsequent year.

  1. Velocity and stress distributions of deep seismic zone under Izu-Bonin, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoming; Zhang, Guibin; Jia, Zhengyuan

    2017-04-01

    Deep earthquakes can provide the deep information of the Earth directly. We have collected the waveform data from 77 deep earthquakes with depth greater than 300 km under Izu-Bonin in Japan. To obtain the velocity structures of P- and S-wave, we have inversed the double-differences of travel times from deep event-pairs. These velocity anomalies can further yield the Poisson's ratio and the porosity. Our results show that the average P-wave velocity anomaly is lower 6%, however the S-wave anomaly is higher 2% than the iasp91 model. The corresponding Poisson's ratio and porosity anomaly are -24% and -4%, respectively, which suggest that the possibility of water in the deep seismic zone is very few and the porosity might be richer. To obtain the stress distribution, we have used the ISOLA method to analyse the non-double-couple components of moment tensors of 77 deep earthquakes. The focal mechanism results show that almost half of all earthquakes have larger double-couple (DC) components, but others have clear isotropic (ISO) or compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) components. The non-double-couple components (ISO and CLVD) seem to represent the volume around a deep earthquake changes as it occurs, which could be explained the metastable olivine phase transition. All results indicate that the metastable olivine wedge (MOW) might exist in the Pacific slab under the Izu-Bonin region and the deep earthquakes might be induced by the phase change of metastable olivine.

  2. The U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Andrew R.; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Emmerich, Christopher; Talbert, Marian

    2017-05-03

    The U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal (https://my.usgs.gov/mows/) is a user-friendly interface that summarizes monthly historical and simulated future conditions for seven hydrologic and meteorological variables (actual evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration, precipitation, runoff, snow water equivalent, atmospheric temperature, and streamflow) at locations across the conterminous United States (CONUS).The estimates of these hydrologic and meteorological variables were derived using a Monthly Water Balance Model (MWBM), a modular system that simulates monthly estimates of components of the hydrologic cycle using monthly precipitation and atmospheric temperature inputs. Precipitation and atmospheric temperature from 222 climate datasets spanning historical conditions (1952 through 2005) and simulated future conditions (2020 through 2099) were summarized for hydrographic features and used to drive the MWBM for the CONUS. The MWBM input and output variables were organized into an open-access database. An Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc., Web Feature Service allows the querying and identification of hydrographic features across the CONUS. To connect the Web Feature Service to the open-access database, a user interface—the Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal—was developed to allow the dynamic generation of summary files and plots  based on plot type, geographic location, specific climate datasets, period of record, MWBM variable, and other options. Both the plots and the data files are made available to the user for download 

  3. Modeling vegetation and carbon dynamics of managed grasslands at the global scale with LPJmL 3.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Susanne; Müller, Christoph; Heinke, Jens; Weindl, Isabelle; Biewald, Anne; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Bondeau, Alberte; Boons-Prins, Eltje R.; Bouwman, Alexander F.; Leffelaar, Peter A.; te Roller, Johnny A.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2018-02-01

    Grassland management affects the carbon fluxes of one-third of the global land area and is thus an important factor for the global carbon budget. Nonetheless, this aspect has been largely neglected or underrepresented in global carbon cycle models. We investigate four harvesting schemes for the managed grassland implementation of the dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land (LPJmL) that facilitate a better representation of actual management systems globally. We describe the model implementation and analyze simulation results with respect to harvest, net primary productivity and soil carbon content and by evaluating them against reported grass yields in Europe. We demonstrate the importance of accounting for differences in grassland management by assessing potential livestock grazing densities as well as the impacts of grazing, grazing intensities and mowing systems on soil carbon stocks. Grazing leads to soil carbon losses in polar or arid regions even at moderate livestock densities (management options enables assessments of the global grassland production and its impact on the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles but requires a global data set on current grassland management.

  4. Terrestrial ecosystem process model Biome-BGCMuSo v4.0: summary of improvements and new modeling possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidy, Dóra; Barcza, Zoltán; Marjanović, Hrvoje; Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Dobor, Laura; Gelybó, Györgyi; Fodor, Nándor; Pintér, Krisztina; Churkina, Galina; Running, Steven; Thornton, Peter; Bellocchi, Gianni; Haszpra, László; Horváth, Ferenc; Suyker, Andrew; Nagy, Zoltán

    2016-12-01

    The process-based biogeochemical model Biome-BGC was enhanced to improve its ability to simulate carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles of various terrestrial ecosystems under contrasting management activities. Biome-BGC version 4.1.1 was used as a base model. Improvements included addition of new modules such as the multilayer soil module, implementation of processes related to soil moisture and nitrogen balance, soil-moisture-related plant senescence, and phenological development. Vegetation management modules with annually varying options were also implemented to simulate management practices of grasslands (mowing, grazing), croplands (ploughing, fertilizer application, planting, harvesting), and forests (thinning). New carbon and nitrogen pools have been defined to simulate yield and soft stem development of herbaceous ecosystems. The model version containing all developments is referred to as Biome-BGCMuSo (Biome-BGC with multilayer soil module; in this paper, Biome-BGCMuSo v4.0 is documented). Case studies on a managed forest, cropland, and grassland are presented to demonstrate the effect of model developments on the simulation of plant growth as well as on carbon and water balance.

  5. Stability of nanocrystalline Ni-based alloys: coupling Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseda, O.; Goldenstein, H.; Silva, G. F. B. Lenz e.; Neiva, A.; Chantrenne, P.; Morthomas, J.; Perez, M.; Becquart, C. S.; Veiga, R. G. A.

    2017-10-01

    The thermal stability of nanocrystalline Ni due to small additions of Mo or W (up to 1 at%) was investigated in computer simulations by means of a combined Monte Carlo (MC)/molecular dynamics (MD) two-steps approach. In the first step, energy-biased on-lattice MC revealed segregation of the alloying elements to grain boundaries. However, the condition for the thermodynamic stability of these nanocrystalline Ni alloys (zero grain boundary energy) was not fulfilled. Subsequently, MD simulations were carried out for up to 0.5 μs at 1000 K. At this temperature, grain growth was hindered for minimum global concentrations of 0.5 at% W and 0.7 at% Mo, thus preserving most of the nanocrystalline structure. This is in clear contrast to a pure Ni model system, for which the transformation into a monocrystal was observed in MD simulations within 0.2 μs at the same temperature. These results suggest that grain boundary segregation of low-soluble alloying elements in low-alloyed systems can produce high-temperature metastable nanocrystalline materials. MD simulations carried out at 1200 K for 1 at% Mo/W showed significant grain boundary migration accompanied by some degree of solute diffusion, thus providing additional evidence that solute drag mostly contributed to the nanostructure stability observed at lower temperature.

  6. The effects of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence and the current internal parasite control measures employed on Irish dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; Phelan, Paul; O'Kiely, Padraig; de Waal, Theo

    2015-01-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is responsible for major production losses in cattle farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence on Irish dairy farms and to document the current control measures against parasitic diseases. In total, 369 dairy farms throughout Ireland were sampled from October to December 2013, each providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM) sample for liver fluke antibody-detection ELISA testing and completing a questionnaire on their farm management. The analysis of samples showed that cows on 78% (n=288) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. There was a difference (P0.05) between positive and negative farms in (a) the grazing of dry cows together with replacement cows, (b) whether or not grazed grassland was mowed for conservation, (c) the type of drinking water provision system, (d) spreading of cattle manure on grassland or (e) for grazing season length (GSL; mean=262.5 days). Also, there were differences (Pmanagement practices between Irish farms with dairy herds exposed or not exposed to liver fluke and stressed the need of fine-scale mapping of the disease patterns even at farm level to increase the accuracy of risk models. Also, comprehensive advice and professional support services to farmers on appropriate farm management practices are very important for an effective anthelmintic control strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Corrosion of candidate container materials by Yucca Mountain bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, J; Jones, D; Lian, T; Martin, S; Rivera, A

    1999-01-01

    Several candidate container materials have been studied in modified Yucca Mountain (YM) ground water in the presence or absence of YM bacteria. YM bacteria increased corrosion rates by 5-6 fold in UNS G10200 carbon steel, and nearly 100-fold in UNS NO4400 Ni-Cu alloy. YM bacteria caused microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) through de-alloying or Ni-depletion of Ni-Cu alloy as evidenced by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) analysis. MIC rates of more corrosion-resistant alloys such as UNS NO6022 Ni-Cr- MO-W alloy, UN's NO6625 Ni-Cr-Mo alloy, and UNS S30400 stainless steel were measured below 0.05 umyr, however YM bacteria affected depletion of Cr and Fe relative to Ni in these materials. The chemical change on the metal surface caused by depletion was characterized in anodic polarization behavior. The anodic polarization behavior of depleted Ni-based alloys was similar to that of pure Ni. Key words: MIC, container materials, YM bacteria, de-alloying, Ni-depletion, Cr-depletion, polarization resistance, anodic polarization,

  8. Necrotizing Fasciitis Secondary to Aeromonas Infection Presenting with Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Bhatia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of necrotizing fasciitis presenting with septic shock due to an Aeromonas infection. The patient cut his foot while mowing the lawn and then spent time in a pool with black mold. He began feeling ill and developed swelling and a quarter-sized black area on his right lower extremity. Despite being hemodynamically unstable with systolic blood pressure in the low 70s, the patient was transferred to our facility from outside hospital 100 miles away. Upon arriving to facility, the patient appeared to be septic and the infected area of skin had grown. Irrigation and debridement were performed and appropriate antibiotic therapy was given; however, the patient subsequently died on hospital day 8. On review of the literature, cases of necrotizing fasciitis due to Aeromonas infection have been treated successfully with the aforementioned therapy; however, there is high mortality associated with these infections, many times related to a delayed diagnosis. Our patient also had multiple poor prognostic factors including hepatic dysfunction and immunosuppression.

  9. Location-independent study concerning the construction, operation and closure of possible facilities for the final storage of radioactive waste in rock-salt formations in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    Final storage of radioactive waste has been studied on the base of two main concepts: in deep boreholes and caverns from the mowing-field, and for a, for this purpose to be developed, underground ore. Storage supplies have been designed, including the closing constructions after finishing the storage activities, with a, much longer than usually, technical lifetime. Herein use has been made of in general known materials whose properties and behaviour were assumed to remain unaltered over long periods and also will not be influenced by the rock-salt environment. The possible storage concepts described are location independent and based upon the geological and geomechanical information which have been provided with the task and which are indicative for the rock-salt formations occurring in the Netherlands. In first instance the authors have started from the thermodynamical, chemical and fysical properties of the storage rock-formations as are mentioned in the apendices of the task. It particularly concerns properties of the storage rock-formations and the construction materials needed for a qualitatively good and reliable closing of the storage. The construction and operation of the in this report described storage concepts is based upon the storage scenario's as indicated in the task circumscriptions

  10. ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Müellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  11. Erva-mate production and conservation of Araucaria Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Signor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize a native production area (native erval through silvicultural procedures, productivity and density of Ilex paraguariensis St.-Hil. (erva-mate and also the floristic, phytosociology, and diameter structure. To identify the silvicultural procedures, we used semi-structured interviews. For productivity assessment, the commercial biomass of I. paraguariensis was determined. For vegetation assessment, two permanent sample plots totaling 1.25 ha were installed, considering all individuals with circumference at 1.30 m above soil level (CBH ≥ 31.4 cm, for which it was registered CBH, botanical identification, XY coordinates in the plot, and all the individuals of I. paraguariensis composing the production system. Silvicultural procedures were characterized by mowing, canopy opening and conduct of natural regeneration, promoting I. paraguariensis, Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. Kuntze, and cattle. I. paraguariensis density was 634 trees.ha-1, with 2,030 kg.ha-1 of productivity in three-year crops. We found 22 species, with a predominance of Myrtaceae and Aquifoliaceae. The species of highest importance value and coverage was A. angustifolia. The diameter distribution showed a higher concentration of individuals in the smaller classes.

  12. Examining shifts in Carabidae assemblages across a forest-agriculture ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, T W; Biddinger, D J; Rohr, J R; Hulting, A G; Mortensen, D A; Fleischer, S J

    2014-02-01

    Northeastern U.S. farms are often situated adjacent to forestland due to the heterogeneous nature of the landscape. We investigated how forested areas influence Carabidae diversity within nearby crop fields by establishing transects of pitfall traps. Trapping extended across a forest-agriculture ecotone consisting of maize, an intermediate mowed grass margin, and a forest edge. Carabidae diversity was compared among the three habitats, and community and population dynamics were assessed along the transect. We used a principal response curve to examine and visualize community change across a spatial gradient. The highest levels of richness and evenness were observed in the forest community, and carabid assemblages shifted significantly across the ecotone, especially at the forest-grass interface. Despite strong ecotone effects, population distributions showed that some species were found in all three habitats and seemed to thrive at the ecotone. Based on similarity indices, carabid assemblages collected in maize adjacent to forest differed from carabid assemblages in maize not adjacent to forest. We conclude that forest carabid assemblages exhibit high degrees of dissimilarity with those found in agricultural fields and forested areas should thus be retained in agricultural landscapes to increase biodiversity at the landscape scale. However, ecotone species found at forest edges can still noticeably influence carabid community composition within neighboring agricultural fields. Further studies should determine how these shifts in carabid assemblages influence agroecosystem services in relation to ecosystem services observed in fields embedded in an agricultural matrix.

  13. Design and Implementation of Automatic Wheat Mower Based on Smart Sensor Fed by a Photovoltaic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Esen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The biggest problems of our time are environmental pollution and the reduction of fossil fuel resources. In recent years, photovoltaic (PV has started to be used efficiently in order to produce electrical energy from solar energy throughout the world. In this study, a wheat mover machine taking its energy with PV technology transformation from the sun was designed supported by smart sensors. The designed vehicle was tested in two wheat fields in Sivas in Turkey. It was seen that daily average sunshine rates were not lower than 700 Watt/m2 during the testing dates and time. The amounts of electrical charge used to mow 5 m2 and 50 m2 areas are obtained as 500 mAh and 3395 mAh, respectively. Also maximum power is calculated from used PV panel as 26.15 Watt during the day of the experiments. The range of solar radiation intensity is found 4.5 kWh/m2/day at the studied kWh which was $0.140 USD on the date of November 2015. This system is 94.5% more economic than conventional mowers over an area of 1000 m2.

  14. Application of corn meal at ensiling of alfalfa cocksfoot and their mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Jasmin A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the solutions for the economical use of alfalfa and cocksfoot is making the silage. However, these plant species are difficult to be conserved without appropriate additives. The aim of this study was to determine the impact addition of cornmeal on the quality of silage of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Kruševačka 22, cocksfoot (Dactilys glomerata L. cv. Kruševačka 40 and their mixture (50% alfalfa, 50% cocksfoot. Mowing both species was carried out at the stage when 1/3 to 1/5 of the plants were in flowering in alfalfa or in stage appearance of inflorescence with cocksfoot. Corn grain is ground at the mill with a sieve ø 2 mm, then mixed with chopped fodder of alfalfa, cocksfoot and the mixture in the following amount: 6% (treatment A2, 3% (treatment A1, and without cornmeal addition (control A0. After six months was determined silage quality. Cornmeal addition, according to the basic indicators of the quality of silage had a significant impact on changing the quality silage of alfalfa, cocksfoot and their mixtures. It is evident that the addition cornmeal addition a significant impact on increasing the energy value (primarily the content inside BEM of silage in all studied treatments.

  15. Sphagnum farming on cut-over bog in NW Germany: Long-term studies on Sphagnum growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaudig

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sphagnum farming allows sustainable and climate-friendly land use on bogs while producing a renewable substitute for peat in horticultural growing media. We studied Sphagnum productivity on an experimental Sphagnum culture established on a cut-over bog in Germany with strongly humified peat at the surface. Preparation of the site included levelling of the peat surface, construction of an irrigation system, spreading of Sphagnum papillosum fragments, covering them with straw, and finally rewetting. Provided there was an adequate (95 % initial cover of Sphagnum fragments, the most relevant variables for Sphagnum productivity were found to be water supply and regular mowing of vascular plants. As long as sufficient water was supplied, the dry biomass accumulation of the established Sphagnum lawn remained high, reaching 3.7 t ha-1 yr-1 between 2007 and 2011. Annual dry Sphagnum biomass productivity over the period 2010–2011 was up to 6.9 t ha-1. During periods when high water table could not be maintained, substantial decomposition of the previously accumulated biomass occurred. After nine years the net accumulated dry mass per hectare was on average 19.5 t of pure Sphagnum and 0.7 t of subsurface vascular-plant biomass. Nitrogen deposition in the study region is apparently sufficient to support fast Sphagnum growth, whereas phosphorus and potassium may be limiting.

  16. Organic carbon budget for the eastern boundary of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre: major role of DOC in mesopelagic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Falcón, Yeray; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Pérez-Hernández, María Dolores; Hernández-Guerra, Alonso; Mason, Evan; Arístegui, Javier

    2017-08-31

    Transports of suspended particulate (POC susp ) and dissolved (DOC) organic carbon are inferred from a box-model covering the eastern boundary of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Corresponding net respiration rates (R) are obtained from a net organic carbon budget that is based on the transport estimates, and includes both vertical and lateral fluxes. The overall R in the mesopelagic layer (100-1500 m) is 1.6 ± 0.4 mmol C m -2 d -1 . DOC accounts for up to 53% of R as a result of drawdown of organic carbon within Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW) that is entrained into sinking Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) that leads to formation of Mediterranean water (MW) at intermediate depths (~900 m). DOC represents 90% of the respired non-sinking organic carbon. When converted into oxygen units, the computed net respiration rate represents less than half the oxygen utilization rates (OUR) reported for the mesopelagic waters of the subtropical North Atlantic. Mesoscale processes in the area, not quantified with our approach, could account in part for the OUR differences observed between our carbon budget and other published studies from the North Atlantic, although seasonal or interannual variability could also be responsible for the difference in the estimates.

  17. The application of lambda-cyhalothrin in tick control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurisic, Aleksandar D; Petrovic, Aleksandra P; Rajkovic, Dragana V; Nicin, Slobodan Dj

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, in urban areas of Novi Sad, unique ecological conditions, specific floristic and faunistic composition and poor habits of citizens in sense of public health, facilitate the development and maintenance of ticks. Regarding the importance of ticks as vectors of severe human and animal diseases, complex and detailed studies are conducted with an aim to find the most efficient methods for tick control. Two tick species, Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor marginatus, were identified during a 3-year period on the territory of Municipality of Novi Sad. During 2006, the efficacy of the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin in tick control varied from 60.7 to 100%. The highest efficacy recorded in 2007 was 92.3%. The efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin in 2008 varied from 39.1 to 100%. Lambda-cyhalothrin showed high efficacy in tick control at localities which were improved before the application (mowed, litter removed, abundance control and euthanasia of abandoned cats and dogs). The results of this research indicate that lambda-cyhalothrin has a toxic effect on ticks and could be used as efficient acaricide for tick control, although its efficacy depends on formulation, terrain features and methods of application.

  18. Bacterial endophyte communities of three agricultural important grass species differ in their response towards management regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemheuer, Franziska; Kaiser, Kristin; Karlovsky, Petr; Daniel, Rolf; Vidal, Stefan; Wemheuer, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are critical for plant growth and health. However, compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophyte communities towards agricultural practices are still poorly understood. Hence, we analyzed the influence of fertilizer application and mowing frequency on bacterial endophytes in three agriculturally important grass species. For this purpose, we examined bacterial endophytic communities in aerial plant parts of Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca rubra L., and Lolium perenne L. by pyrotag sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes over two consecutive years. Although management regimes influenced endophyte communities, observed responses were grass species-specific. This might be attributed to several bacteria specifically associated with a single grass species. We further predicted functional profiles from obtained 16S rRNA data. These profiles revealed that predicted abundances of genes involved in plant growth promotion or nitrogen metabolism differed between grass species and between management regimes. Moreover, structural and functional community patterns showed no correlation to each other indicating that plant species-specific selection of endophytes is driven by functional rather than phylogenetic traits. The unique combination of 16S rRNA data and functional profiles provided a holistic picture of compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophytes in agricultural relevant grass species towards management practices.

  19. Measuring physical activity during pregnancy - Cultural adaptation of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) and assessment of its reliability in Polish conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzepota, Justyna; Sadowska, Dorota; Sempolska, Katarzyna; Pelczar, Małgorzata

    2017-12-23

    The assessment of physical activity during pregnancy is crucial in perinatal care and it is an important research topic. Unfortunately, in Poland there is a lack of one commonly accepted questionnaire of physical activity during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to adapt the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) to Polish conditions and assess the reliability of its Polish version (PPAQ-PL). The PPAQ was translated from English into Polish and its reliability tested. 64 correctly completed (twice, one week apart) questionnaires were qualified for analysis. Test-retest reliability was assessed using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). As a result of the adaptation and psychometric assessment, in the Polish version of the questionnaire the number of questions was reduced from 36 to 35 by removing the question concerning 'mowing lawn while on a riding mower'. The ICC value for total activity was 0.75, which confirms a substantial level of reliability. The ICC values for subscales of intensity ranged from 0.53 (light) - 0.86 (vigorous). For subscales of type, ICC values ranged from 0.59 (transportation) - 0.89 (household/caregiving). The PPAQ-PL can be accepted as a reliable tool for the assessing physical activity of pregnant women in Poland. Information obtained using the questionnaire might be helpful in monitoring health behaviours, preventing obesity, as well as designing and promoting physical activity programmes for pregnant women.

  20. Moss and vascular plant indices in Ohio wetlands have similar environmental predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Adams, Jean V.; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Mosses and vascular plants have been shown to be reliable indicators of wetland habitat delineation and environmental quality. Knowledge of the best ecological predictors of the quality of wetland moss and vascular plant communities may determine if similar management practices would simultaneously enhance both populations. We used Akaike's Information Criterion to identify models predicting a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) and a vascular plant index of biological integrity based on floristic quality (VIBI-FQ) from 27 emergent and 13 forested wetlands in Ohio, USA. The set of predictors included the six metrics from a wetlands disturbance index (ORAM) and two landscape development intensity indices (LDIs). The best single predictor of MQAI and one of the predictors of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assesses habitat alteration and disturbance within the wetland, such as mowing, grazing, and agricultural practices. However, the best single predictor of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assessed wetland vascular plant communities, interspersion, and microtopography. LDIs better predicted MQAI than VIBI-FQ, suggesting that mosses may either respond more rapidly to, or recover more slowly from, anthropogenic disturbance in the surrounding landscape than vascular plants. These results supported previous predictive studies on amphibian indices and metrics and a separate vegetation index, indicating that similar wetland management practices may result in qualitatively the same ecological response for three vastly different wetland biological communities (amphibians, vascular plants, and mosses).

  1. Evaluation of the finite element software ABAQUS for biomechanical modelling of biphasic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J Z; Herzog, W; Epstein, M

    1998-02-01

    The biphasic cartilage model proposed by Mow et al. (1980) has proven successful to capture the essential mechanical features of articular cartilage. In order to analyse the joint contact mechanics in real, anatomical joints, the cartilage model needs to be implemented into a suitable finite element code to approximate the irregular surface geometries of such joints. However, systematic and extensive evaluation of the capacity of commercial software for modelling the contact mechanics with biphasic cartilage layers has not been made. This research was aimed at evaluating the commercial finite element software ABAQUS for analysing biphasic soft tissues. The solutions obtained using ABAQUS were compared with those obtained using other finite element models and analytical solutions for three numerical tests: an unconfined indentation test, a test with the contact of a spherical cartilage surface with a rigid plate, and an axi-symmetric joint contact test. It was concluded that the biphasic cartilage model can be implemented into the commercial finite element software ABAQUS to analyse practical joint contact problems with biphasic articular cartilage layers.

  2. A multivariate analysis of biophysical parameters of tallgrass prairie among land management practices and years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.A.; Price, K.P.; Martinko, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Six treatments of eastern Kansas tallgrass prairie - native prairie, hayed, mowed, grazed, burned and untreated - were studied to examine the biophysical effects of land management practices on grasslands. On each treatment, measurements of plant biomass, leaf area index, plant cover, leaf moisture and soil moisture were collected. In addition, measurements were taken of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which is derived from spectral reflectance measurements. Measurements were taken in mid-June, mid-July and late summer of 1990 and 1991. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine whether there were differences in the set of variables among treatments and years. Follow-up tests included univariate t-tests to determine which variables were contributing to any significant difference. Results showed a significant difference (p treatments in the composite of parameters during each of the months sampled. In most treatment types, there was a significant difference between years within each month. The univariate tests showed, however, that only some variables, primarily soil moisture, were contributing to this difference. We conclude that biomass and % plant cover show the best potential to serve as long-term indicators of grassland condition as they generally were sensitive to effects of different land management practices but not to yearly change in weather conditions. NDVI was insensitive to precipitation differences between years in July for most treatments, but was not in the native prairie. Choice of sampling time is important for these parameters to serve effectively as indicators.

  3. USGS Geospatial Fabric and Geo Data Portal for Continental Scale Hydrology Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, K. M.; Newman, A. J.; Blodgett, D. L.; Viger, R.; Hay, L.; Clark, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation describes use of United States Geological Survey (USGS) data products and server-based resources for continental-scale hydrologic simulations. The USGS Modeling of Watershed Systems (MoWS) group provides a consistent national geospatial fabric built on NHDPlus. They have defined more than 100,000 hydrologic response units (HRUs) over the continental United States based on points of interest (POIs) and split into left and right bank based on the corresponding stream segment. Geophysical attributes are calculated for each HRU that can be used to define parameters in hydrologic and land-surface models. The Geo Data Portal (GDP) project at the USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics (CIDA) provides access to downscaled climate datasets and processing services via web-interface and python modules for creating forcing datasets for any polygon (such as an HRU). These resources greatly reduce the labor required for creating model-ready data in-house, contributing to efficient and effective modeling applications. We will present an application of this USGS cyber-infrastructure for assessments of impacts of climate change on hydrology over the continental United States.

  4. Surrogate screening models for the low physical activity criterion of frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Sandrah P; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Chaves, Paulo H M; Fried, Linda P; Louis, Thomas A

    2011-06-01

    Low physical activity, one of five criteria in a validated clinical phenotype of frailty, is assessed by a standardized, semiquantitative questionnaire on up to 20 leisure time activities. Because of the time demanded to collect the interview data, it has been challenging to translate to studies other than the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), for which it was developed. Considering subsets of activities, we identified and evaluated streamlined surrogate assessment methods and compared them to one implemented in the Women's Health and Aging Study (WHAS). Using data on men and women ages 65 and older from the CHS, we applied logistic regression models to rank activities by "relative influence" in predicting low physical activity.We considered subsets of the most influential activities as inputs to potential surrogate models (logistic regressions). We evaluated predictive accuracy and predictive validity using the area under receiver operating characteristic curves and assessed criterion validity using proportional hazards models relating frailty status (defined using the surrogate) to mortality. Walking for exercise and moderately strenuous household chores were highly influential for both genders. Women required fewer activities than men for accurate classification. The WHAS model (8 CHS activities) was an effective surrogate, but a surrogate using 6 activities (walking, chores, gardening, general exercise, mowing and golfing) was also highly predictive. We recommend a 6 activity questionnaire to assess physical activity for men and women. If efficiency is essential and the study involves only women, fewer activities can be included.

  5. Feature discrimination/identification based upon SAR return variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasco, W. A., Sr.; Pietsch, R.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the statistics of The look-to-look variation statistics in the returns recorded in-flight by a digital, realtime SAR system are analyzed. The determination that the variations in the look-to-look returns from different classes do carry information content unique to the classes was illustrated by a model based on four variants derived from four look in-flight SAR data under study. The model was limited to four classes of returns: mowed grass on a athletic field, rough unmowed grass and weeds on a large vacant field, young fruit trees in a large orchard, and metal mobile homes and storage buildings in a large mobile home park. The data population in excess of 1000 returns represented over 250 individual pixels from the four classes. The multivariant discriminant model operated on the set of returns for each pixel and assigned that pixel to one of the four classes, based on the target variants and the probability distribution function of the four variants for each class.

  6. Simulation and assessment of agricultural biomass supply chain systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pavlou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural biomass supply chain consists of a number of interacted sequential operations affected by various variables, such as weather conditions, machinery systems, and biomass features. These facts make the process of biomass supply chain as a complex system that requires computational tools, e.g. simulation and mathematical models, for their assessment and analysis. A biomass supply chain simulation model developed on the ExtendSim 8 simulation environment is presented in this paper. A number of sequential operations are applied in order biomass to be mowed, harvested, and transported to a biorefinery facility. Different operational scenarios regarding the travel distance between field and biorefinery facility, number of machines, and capacity of machines are analyzed showing how different parameters affect the processes within biomass supply chain in terms of time and cost. The results shown that parameters such as area of the field, travel distance, number of available machines, capacity of the machines, etc. should be taken into account in order a less time and/ or cost consuming machinery combination to be selected.

  7. Analisis Ekonomi Usaha Tanaman Pangan dan Kambing Kosta di Kecamatan Carita Kabupaten Pandeglang, Banten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supardi Rusdiana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the economic analysis of crop and livestock enterprises Costa goat. The experiment was conducted in the village of Sukarame District of Pandeglang Banten Carita. Interviews to 20 farmers the agro-ecosystem crops and livestock farmer Costa goat using questionnaires. Primary data obtained from interviews at the household unit farmers. While the secondary data obtained from the relevant authorities. Data analysis processed by descriptive qualitative, quantitative and economic analysis. The results showed that the corn plants net income around IDR.559.450,-/harvest with B/C ratio of about 1.2, whereas the results of raising of Costa goat net income approximately IDR.1.810.950,-/year, or equivalent of IDR.248.550,-/month with B/C ratio of about 1.1. The amount of man power corn farming around 131.12 HOK or equivalent of IDR.1.966.800,-/year, lot of time incurred by maize farmers are turning the land and mowing, while the man power Costa goat  around 2.57 HOK or equivalent of IDR 38.550,-/year, the time used by farmers to shepherd. Agricultural of waste crops on the research site such as corn waste can be used as feed for Costa goat.

  8. Metals and arsenic in soils and corresponding vegetation at Central Elbe river floodplains (Germany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overesch, M. [Department for Geo- and Agroecology, Institute of Spatial Analysis and Planning in Areas of Intensive Agriculture, University of Vechta, P.O. Box 1553, D-49364 Vechta (Germany)]. E-mail: moveresch@ispa.uni-vechta.de; Rinklebe, J. [Department of Soil Science, UFZ Center for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: joerg.rinklebe@ufz.de; Broll, G. [Department for Geo- and Agroecology, Institute of Spatial Analysis and Planning in Areas of Intensive Agriculture, University of Vechta, P.O. Box 1553, D-49364 Vechta (Germany)]. E-mail: gbroll@ispa.uni-vechta.de; Neue, H.-U. [Department of Soil Science, UFZ Center for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: heinz-ulrich.neue@ufz.de

    2007-02-15

    Floodplain soils at the Elbe river are frequently polluted with metals and arsenic. High contents of these pollutants were detected down to subsoil layers. NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd, Ni, and Zn were elevated in horizons with high acidity. Among five common floodplain plant species, Artemisia vulgaris showed highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Hg, Alopecurus pratensis of As and Phalaris arundinacea of Ni, Pb, and Zn. Relationships were weak between metal concentrations in plants and phytoavailable stocks in soil. As and Hg uptake seems to be enhanced on long submerged soils. Enrichments of Cd and Hg are linked to a special plant community composition. Grassland herbage sampled in July/August revealed higher concentrations of As (+122%), Hg (+124%), and Pb (+3723%) than in May. To limit harmful transfers into the food chain, low-lying terraces and flood channels revealing highest contaminations or phytoavailabilities should be excluded from mowing and grazing. - Soils in the Elbe river floodplains are highly polluted with metals and arsenic and a critical enrichment in the grassland herbage seems to be most likely in flood channels or within special plant species.

  9. Non-market value of Estonian seminatural grasslands: a contingent valuation study. Eesti poolloodusliku rohumaa turuväline väärtus: tingliku hindamise uuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helli Lepasaar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seminatural grasslands i.e. the floodplain meadows, seashore meadows, wooded meadows, dry meadows, wooded pastures are the very traditional part of Estonian landscapes, which play an important role in the appearance of the landscape in general and also serve as an important habitat for many plant and animal species. In order to preserve the seminatural grasslands continuous annual mowing and/or pasturing is needed. This activity is not economically profitable and needs subsidizing. The authors of the work raise a hypothesis that the Estonian seminatural grasslands could be viewed as a valuable non-market environmental good for which a significant public demand exists. In order to find out the non-market value of the seminatural grasslands a contingent valuation study was carried out among the Estonian working-age population (size of the sample 1061 individuals. The average individual willingness to pay was 11.3 euros. During the study, the authors constructed the total demand function and discovered that the total annual demand for seminatural grasslands was 17.9 million euros.

  10. Nitrogen availability in an apple orchard with weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Weed management in apple orchards (Malus domestica can affect the leaching of nitrogen (N in soil. The study aimed to evaluate the potential leaching of N forms in soil of an apple orchard with different weed management treatments. The experiment was conducted in an apple orchard implanted in 2008. In October 2011, 80 plants were selected and the following treatments were implemented: no weed management (NM, desiccation of weeds on the tree row with herbicide use (DR and mechanical mowing of weeds on the tree row (MR. Yield was evaluated in the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 crop seasons. In May 2012 porous cup lysimeters were installed in the NM, DR and MR treatments. In the solution collected at 0.20m, NH4 +-N and NO3 --N were analyzed sixteen times and mineral N concentration was calculated. The highest concentrations of NO3 --N and mineral N occurred in soil solution with DR, which increases availability of the nutrient to apple trees, but also enhances the potential losses. Weed management and N flow in the solution did not affect apple yield.

  11. Effects of land use on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Siim-Kaarel; Jairus, Teele; Vasar, Martti; Zobel, Martin; Öpik, Maarja

    2018-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities vary across habitat types, as well as across different land use types. Most relevant research, however, has focused on agricultural or other severely human-impacted ecosystems. Here, we compared AM fungal communities across six habitat types: calcareous grassland, overgrown ungrazed calcareous grassland, wooded meadow, farmyard lawn, boreonemoral forest, and boreonemoral forest clear-cut, exhibiting contrasting modes of land use. AM fungi in the roots of a single host plant species, Prunella vulgaris, and in its rhizosphere soil were identified using 454-sequencing from a total of 103 samples from 12 sites in Estonia. Mean AM fungal taxon richness per sample did not differ among habitats. AM fungal community composition, however, was significantly different among habitat types. Both abandonment and land use intensification (clearcutting; trampling combined with frequent mowing) changed AM fungal community composition. The AM fungal communities in different habitat types were most similar in the roots of the single host plant species and most distinct in soil samples, suggesting a non-random pattern in host-fungal taxon interactions. The results show that AM fungal taxon composition is driven by habitat type and land use intensity, while the plant host may act as an additional filter between the available and realized AM fungal species pool.

  12. Native Roadside Vegetation that Enhances Soil Erosion Control in Boreal Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika K. Jägerbrand

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on identifying vegetation characteristics associated with erosion control at nine roadside sites in mid-West Sweden. A number of vegetation characteristics such as cover, diversity, plant functional type, biomass and plant community structure were included. Significant difference in cover between eroded and non-eroded sub-sites was found in evergreen shrubs, total cover, and total above ground biomass. Thus, our results support the use of shrubs in order to stabilize vegetation and minimize erosion along roadsides. However, shrubs are disfavored by several natural and human imposed factors. This could have several impacts on the long-term management of roadsides in boreal regions. By both choosing and applying active management that supports native evergreen shrubs in boreal regions, several positive effects could be achieved along roadsides, such as lower erosion rate and secured long-term vegetation cover. This could also lead to lower costs for roadside maintenance as lower erosion rates would require less frequent stabilizing treatments and mowing could be kept to a minimum in order not to disfavor shrubs.

  13. Long term prevention of disturbance induces the collapse of a dominant species without altering ecosystem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiang; Wu, Honghui; Wang, Zhengwen; Flynn, Dan F B; Yang, Hao; Lü, Fumei; Smith, Melinda; Han, Xingguo

    2015-09-21

    Limitation of disturbances, such as grazing and fire, is a key tool for nature reserve management and ecological restoration. While the role of these disturbances in shaping ecosystem structure and functioning has been intensively studied, less is known about the consequences of long-term prevention of grazing and fire. Based on a 31-year study, we show that relative biomass of the dominant grass, Leymus chinensis, of grasslands in northern China declined dramatically, but only after 21 years of exclusion of fire and grazing. However, aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) did not decline accordingly due to compensatory responses of several subdominant grass species. The decline in dominance of L. chinensis was not related to gradually changing climate during the same period, whereas experimentally imposed litter removal (simulating fire), mowing (simulating grazing), fire and moderate grazing enhanced dominance of L. chinensis significantly. Thus, our findings show that disturbances can be critical to maintain the dominance of key grass species in semiarid grassland, but that the collapse of a dominant species does not necessarily result in significant change in ANPP if there are species in the community capable of compensating for loss of a dominant.

  14. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  15. Structure of restacked MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2} elucidated by electron crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heising, J; Kanatzidis, M G

    1999-02-03

    There has been a lot of confusion about the nature of restacked MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2}. The structure has been proposed to be trigonal TiS{sub 2} type with octahedral M{sup 4} and called 1T-MoS{sub 2}. The presence of a distortion in the metal plane that gives rise to a superstructure has been suggested. Electron crystallographic studies on small (submicron) single crystal domains of restacked WS{sub 2} and MoS{sub 2} have been performed to solve their superstructure. It was shown that what initially seems to be a trigonal crystal is actually a triplet of three individual orthorhombic crystals. Using two-dimensional hk0 data from films for both triple and single crystals the authors calculated corresponding Patterson projections, which reveal a severe distortion in the Mo/W plane, forming infinite zigzag chains. The projection of the structure suggests M-M distances of 2.92 and 2.74 {angstrom} for MoS{sub 2} and Ws{sub 2}, respectively. Least-squares refinement from the single-crystal data gives R{sub 1} = 13.3% for WS{sub 2} and R{sub 1} = 15.3% for MoS{sub 2}. Therefore, it is proposed that restacked MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2} are not 1T form but rather WTe{sub 2} type.

  16. Optical absorption analysis of quaternary molybdate- and tungstate-ordered double perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tablero, C., E-mail: ctablero@etsit.upm.es

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • These compounds present a high optical absorption. • The absorption coefficients using different DFT + U alternatives have been compared. • The absorption coefficients have been split into different contributions. • The maximum efficiency is near the maximum efficiency for multiple-gap solar cells. - Abstract: Quaternary-ordered double perovskite A{sub 2}MM′O{sub 6} (M = Mo,W) semiconductors are a group of materials with a variety of photocatalytic and optoelectronic applications. An analysis focused on the optoelectronic properties is carried out using first-principles density-functional theory with several U orbital-dependent one-electron potentials applied to different orbital subspaces. The structural non-equivalence of the atoms resulting from the symmetry has been taken in account. In order to analyze optical absorption in these materials deeply, the absorption coefficients have been split into inter- and intra-non-equivalent species contributions. The results indicate that the effect of the A and M′ atoms on the optical properties are minimal whereas the largest contribution comes from the non-equivalent O atoms to M transitions.

  17. Sheep production as a Senecio spp. control tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mota Bandarra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Since poisoning by Senecio spp. is one of the main causes of cattle death in southern Brazil, control of these plants is a priority for the local livestock production. After the pasture has been mowed, grazing by 16 sheep was efficient for controlling Senecio brasiliensis and Senecio madagascariensis populations in a 5.5-hectare area that had long been severely infested with these species. A total of 28,629 plants among S. brasiliensis (flower-of-souls, 10,122 and S.madagascariensis (fireweed, 18,507 were almost completely eliminated in a two-year period. The number of sheep was kept at 3.0 stock units/ha, but a variable number of cattle were temporarily stocked according to pasture availability. The major sanitary practice applied to the sheep was anthelmintic administration. Liver biopsies taken from sheep and cattle before and after experimental period didn't reveal any change associable with seneciosis. The performance levels of the sheep were comparable to those observed in flocks managed under traditional extensive grazing systems in southern Brazil.

  18. Thermally evaporated mechanically hard tin oxide thin films for opto-electronic apllications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, Sumanta K.; Rajeswari, V. P.

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten doped tin oxide (WTO) and Molybdenum doped tin oxide (MoTO) thin film were deposited on corn glass by thermal evaporation method. The films were annealed at 350°C for one hour. Structural analysis using Xray diffraction data shows both the films are polycrystalline in nature with monoclinic structure of tin oxide, Sn 3 O 4 , corresponding to JCPDS card number 01-078-6064. SEM photograph showed that both the films have spherical grains with size in the range of 20–30 nm. Compositional analysis was carried out using EDS which reveals the presence of Sn, O and the dopant Mo/W only thereby indicating the absence of any secondary phase in the films. The films are found to contain nearly 6 wt% of Mo, 8 wt% of W as dopants respectively. The transmission pattern for both the films in the spectral range 200 – 2000 nm shows that W doping gives a transparency of nearly 80% from 380 nm onwards while Mo doping has less transparency of 39% at 380nm. Film hardness measurement using Triboscope shows a film hardness of about 9–10 GPa for both the films. It indicates that W or M doping in tin oxide provides the films the added advantage of withstanding the mechanical wear and tear due to environmental fluctuations By optimizing the optical and electrical properties, W/Mo doped tin oxide films may be explored as window layers in opto-electronic applications such as solar cells

  19. Trade-offs between pasture production and farmland bird conservation: exploration of options using a dynamic farm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, R; Teillard, F; Rossing, W A H; Doyen, L; Tichit, M

    2015-05-01

    In European grassland landscapes, grazing and mowing play a key role for the maintenance of high-quality habitats that host important bird populations. As grasslands are also key resources for cattle feeding, there is a need to develop management strategies that achieve the double objective of production and biodiversity conservation. The objective of this study was to use a modelling approach to generate recognisable patterns of bird dynamics in farms composed of different land use proportions, and to compare their production and ecological dimensions. We developed a dynamic model, which linked grassland management to bird population dynamics at the field and farm levels. The model was parameterised for two types of suckling farms corresponding to contrasting levels of grassland intensification and for two bird species of high conservation value. A viability algorithm was used to define and assess viable management strategies for production and ecological performance so as to draw the shape of the relationship between both types of performances for the two types of farms. Our results indicated that, at the farm level, there was a farming system effect with a negative and non-linear relationship linking performance. Improving bird population maintenance was less costly in extensive farms compared with intensive farms. At the field level, the model predicted the timing and intensity of land use, maximising either production or ecological performance. The results suggested that multi-objective grassland management would benefit from public policies that consider levels of organisation higher than the field level, such as the farm or the landscape.

  20. Milk production and physiological traits of ewes and goats housed indoor or grazing at different daily timing in summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Todaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During a 6 week trial in summer, 3 homogeneous groups, each consisting of 5 Comisana ewes and 5 Rossa Mediterranea goats, grazed watered forage resources during day (D or night (N, or were housed indoor and supplied with mowed herbage(H. Maximum THI peaked at 94 at the end of July, and was almost constantly higher of 80. Milk yield was higher in N than in D and H goats, whereas N ewes produced more milk than H group, but their milk yield was higher than D ewes only in the period with the highest THI values. The lower urea in N goat milk, and the higher casein in N ewe milk, seem to indicate a better efficiency in dietary nitrogen utilization of night grazing animals. N ewes showed lower SCC in milk, and higher incidence of clotting milk samples, in comparison to other ewes. N goats and ewes showed lower rectal temperature and pulse rate in the afternoon and, among metabolic parameters, higher hematic level of sodium. Night grazing was confirmed to be a management practice for increasing heat tolerance, to which goats appeared to be more sensitive in terms of milk yield.

  1. Seslerio uliginosae-Scorzoneretum purpureae (Festuco-Brometea class in the Nida Basin (Małopolska Upland after 90 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Towpasz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Seslerio uliginosae-Scorzoneretum purpureae is the only xerothermic community of the Festuco-Brometea class, where a rare species known as Sesleria uliginosa occurs in Poland. A couple of sites hosting this association in the Nida Basin were described in the 1920s and 1950s. All these stands are now situated in the areas designated as xerothermic nature reserves. The study aimed at describing the present-day characteristics of this rare association, the most likely being endemic in Poland, as well as the changes that have occurred in it. The species diversity and the contribution of xerothermic plants have decreased significantly in terms of their number and cover coefficient. Some of the diagnostic species of the association have become extremely rare. Sesleria uliginosa is the only one without visible changes in their dominant position in the community. Mosses, that have played a significant role before, were among the vanished species. At the same time, an increase in number and cover of mesophilous meadows species was observed. Mesophilous grasses belong to the group of species growing in significance in the phytocoenoses. The observed changes in species composition were reflected in a statistically significant increase of nitrogen indicator value. The slow process of succession observed in the Seslerio-Scorzoneretum purpureae could be attributed to the lack of appropriate land use, e.g. mowing and grazing that have been ceased in the nature reserves.

  2. Production and characterization of APAT-RM004 (compost) and APAT-RM005 (agricultural soil) matrix reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, M.; Balzamo, S.; Barbizzi, S.; Centioli, D.; Zorzi, P. de; Galas, C.; Gaudino, S.; Guagnini, T.; Pati, A.; Ravaioli, C.; Rosamilia, S.; Sentina, G.

    2006-01-01

    Compost is the decomposed remnants of organic materials (usually those with plant origins) and it is used in gardening and agriculture, mixed in with the soil. It improves soil structure, increases the amount of organic matter, and provides nutrients. Compost is a common name for humus, which is the result of the decomposition of organic matter. Generally, compost is the raw material obtained by the aerobic decomposition of the organic residues of the municipal waste or of the vegetable market waste. Composting is the industrial operation to produce compost on a large scale and it is the controlled decomposition technique of organic matter. Rather than allowing nature to take its slow course, a composter provides an optimal environment in which decomposer can thrive. The compost raw material used to prepare the APAT-RM004 reference material has been obtained from an aerobic composting plant located near Rome (Italy). This plant produces compost from organic waste originating from municipal routine plant trimmings, pruning, lawn mowing and wastes deriving from vegetable markets. The homogeneity test was carried out on 10 different units (bottles) sequentially selected over the whole bottling process. This study has been carried by measuring the total contents of C by CHN-S considering a sample intake of 0.02g and by the determination of the Hg content by direct mercury analyzer (DMA-80) considering a sample intake of 0.5g. Both techniques achieve high precision levels and require little or no sample processing prior to analysis

  3. Multi-Modal Detection and Mapping of Static and Dynamic Obstacles in Agriculture for Process Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Korthals

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, agricultural vehicles are available that can automatically perform tasks such as weed detection and spraying, mowing, and sowing while being steered automatically. However, for such systems to be fully autonomous and self-driven, not only their specific agricultural tasks must be automated. An accurate and robust perception system automatically detecting and avoiding all obstacles must also be realized to ensure safety of humans, animals, and other surroundings. In this paper, we present a multi-modal obstacle and environment detection and recognition approach for process evaluation in agricultural fields. The proposed pipeline detects and maps static and dynamic obstacles globally, while providing process-relevant information along the traversed trajectory. Detection algorithms are introduced for a variety of sensor technologies, including range sensors (lidar and radar and cameras (stereo and thermal. Detection information is mapped globally into semantical occupancy grid maps and fused across all sensors with late fusion, resulting in accurate traversability assessment and semantical mapping of process-relevant categories (e.g., crop, ground, and obstacles. Finally, a decoding step uses a Hidden Markov model to extract relevant process-specific parameters along the trajectory of the vehicle, thus informing a potential control system of unexpected structures in the planned path. The method is evaluated on a public dataset for multi-modal obstacle detection in agricultural fields. Results show that a combination of multiple sensor modalities increases detection performance and that different fusion strategies must be applied between algorithms detecting similar and dissimilar classes.

  4. Diversity of weed communities in soybean [Glycine max (L.] crop growing under direct sowing depending on cover crops and different herbicide doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Harasim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite being harmful for agricultural production, weeds are an essential component of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. A field study was conducted during the period 2007–2009 on grey-brown podzolic soil (sandy, designated as PWsp, with the granulometric composition of silt and classified Class 2 in agricultural land suitability. The study evaluated the structure of weed communities based on selected indicators of diversity of a soybean crop grown under no-tillage with mulch from winter rye, winter oilseed rape, and white mustard as well as using herbicide rates reduced by 25% and 50% in relation to the standard rate (2 L ha−1. The studied factors were as follows: (i mulch plant species and mulch management method; (ii rates of the foliar herbicide Basagran 600 SL (a.i. bentazon; 600 g L−1. The results of this study confirm that no-tillage with mulch significantly changes the diversity of weed flora in a soybean crop. Among the mulches used, the mowed rye and winter oilseed rape in particular increased the values of the general diversity (H', species richness (d, and evenness (J' indices relative to the control treatment. On the other hand, the study found a strong decrease in the value of the dominance index (c. Reduced herbicide rates modified only the species richness index, in the case of which the 75% rate resulted in its significantly higher values compared to the full rate.

  5. Effect of tillage and crop residue management on nematode densities on corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1994-12-01

    Effects of winter cover crop management on nematode densities associated with a subsequent corn (Zea mays) crop were examined in five sites in north Florida. Two sites had received winter cover crops of lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), and one site each had rye (Secale cereale), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). In each site, five different management regimes were compared: 1) conventional tillage after the cover crop was removed for forage; 2) conventional tillage with the cover crop retained as green manure; 3) no-till with the cover crop mowed and used as a mulch; 4) no-till with the cover crop removed as forage; and 5) fallow. Sites were sampled at corn planting and harvest for estimates of initial (Pi) and final (Pf) nematode population densities, respectively. Whether the cover crop was removed as forage or retained as green manure or mulch had no effect (P > 0.10) on population densities of any plant-parasitic nematode before or after corn at any site. Differences between conventional-till and no-till treatments were significant (P cover crop residues had little consistent effect on nematodes, and these practices should be considered based on agronomic benefits rather than for nematode management.

  6. Soil physical properties and grape yield influenced by cover crops and management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Dalla Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in vineyards is a conservation practice with the purpose of reducing soil erosion and improving the soil physical quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate cover crop species and management systems on soil physical properties and grape yield. The experiment was carried out in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Southern Brazil, on a Haplic Cambisol, in a vineyard established in 1989, using White and Rose Niagara grape (Vitis labrusca L. in a horizontal, overhead trellis system. The treatments were established in 2002, consisting of three cover crops: spontaneous species (SS, black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb (BO, and a mixture of white clover (Trifolium repens L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L. and annual rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L. (MC. Two management systems were applied: desiccation with herbicide (D and mechanical mowing (M. Soil under a native forest (NF area was collected as a reference. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized blocks, with three replications. The soil physical properties in the vine rows were not influenced by cover crops and were similar to the native forest, with good quality of the soil structure. In the inter-rows, however, there was a reduction in biopores, macroporosity, total porosity and an increase in soil density, related to the compaction of the surface soil layer. The M system increased soil aggregate stability compared to the D system. The treatments affected grapevine yield only in years with excess or irregular rainfall.

  7. Lightning Impacts on Airports - Challenges of Balancing Safety & Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Matthias; Deierling, Wiebke; Nelson, Eric; Stone, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Thunderstorms and lightning pose a safety risk to personnel working outdoors, such as people maintaining airport grounds (e.g., mowing grass or repairing runway lighting) or servicing aircraft on ramps (handling baggage, food service, refueling, tugging and guiding aircraft from/to gates, etc.). Since lightning strikes can cause serious injuries or death, it is important to provide timely alerts to airport personnel so that they can get to safety when lightning is imminent. This presentation discusses the challenges and uncertainties involved in using lightning information and stakeholder procedures to ensure safety of outdoor personnel while keeping ramp operations as efficient as possible considering thunderstorm impacts. The findings presented are based on extensive observations of airline operators under thunderstorm impacts. These observations reveal a complex picture with substantial uncertainties related to the (1) source of lightning information (e.g., sensor type, network, data processing) used to base ramp closure decisions on, (2) uncertainties involved in the safety procedures employed by various stakeholders across the aviation industry (yielding notably different rules being applied by multiple airlines even at a single airport), and (3) human factors issues related to the use of decision support tools and the implementation of safety procedures. This research is supported by the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official policy or position of the FAA.

  8. Selection and cultivation of final vegetative cover for closed waste sites at the Savannah River Site, SC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Salvo, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    Low-level, hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the final closure cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation into and through the waste material. Turf type grasses are currently being used as a vegetative cover for most sites. Consequently, the sites require periodic mowing and other expensive annual maintenance practices. The purpose of this five year study was to evaluate alternative plant material for use on wastes sites that is quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retards water infiltration, provides maximum year-round evapotranspiration, is ecologically acceptable and does not harm the closure cap. The results of the study are described in this report and suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys bissetii and P. rubromarainata) can be utilized to provide long lived, low maintenance, climax vegetation for the waste sites. These large species of bamboo will also reduce the probability of intrusion by humans, animals and deeply rooted plant species

  9. Weed control and persistence of two oxyfluorfen formulations in olive groves under non tillage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M J; Farsaoui, K; de Prado, R

    2004-01-01

    To obtain profitable yields in olive groves, residual preemergence herbicides are applied in October or November before the winter rains, and before the winter annual weeds germinate. Simazine, one of the herbicides most used for weed control in olive groves, has recently been banned. Oxyfluorfen is presented as a good alternative to simazine in olive fields. Experiments were carried out in 2002 and 2003 to evaluate the behaviour of two oxyfluorfen formulations, 2XL and G4F, at 480 g a.i. ha(-1) for three different soil management systems with three replications (1. bare soil; 2. bare soil and grassed buffer strips, chemically controlled and 3. bare soil and grassed buffer strips with controlled mowing; under non tillage conditions in all three cases). The most important species that survived 2XL and G4F treatments was Sagina apetala ARD. Oxyfluorfen residues were evaluated throughout 158 days after the applications. Three soil samples from each plot were collected, mixed and air dried. The herbicide extractions were made with methanol and the residues were analyzed by HPLC. We found no differences between the two formulations, but results showed that recoveries of oxyfluorfen were higher in plots with chemically controlled buffer grassed strips than in the other soil management types.

  10. Local Conduction in MoxW1–xSe2: The Role of Stacking Faults, Defects, and Alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Here, we report on the surface conductivity of WSe2 and MoxW1–xSe2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) crystals investigated with conductive atomic force microscopy. We found that stacking faults, defects, and chemical heterogeneities form distinct two-dimensional and one-dimensional conduction paths on the transition metal dichalcogenide surface. In the case of WSe2, in addition to step edges, we find a significant amount of stacking faults (formed during the cleaving process) that strongly influence the surface conductivity. These regions are attributed to the alternation of the 2H and 3R polytypism. The stacking faults form regular 2D patterns by alternation of the underlying stacking order, with a periodicity that varies significantly between different regions and samples. In the case of MoxW1–xSe2, its conductivity has a localized nature, which depends on the underlying chemical composition and the Mo/W ratio. Segregation to W-rich and Mo-rich regions during the growth process leads to nonuniform conduction paths on the surface of the alloy. We found a gradual change of the conductivity moving from one region to the other, reminiscent of lateral band bending. Our results demonstrate the use of C-AFM as a nanoscopic tool to probe the electrical properties of largely inhomogeneous samples and show the complicated nature of the surface conductivity of TMDC alloys. PMID:29578328

  11. Local Conduction in Mo xW1- xSe2: The Role of Stacking Faults, Defects, and Alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampoulis, Pantelis; Sotthewes, Kai; Siekman, Martin H; Zandvliet, Harold J W

    2018-04-18

    Here, we report on the surface conductivity of WSe 2 and Mo x W 1- x Se 2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) crystals investigated with conductive atomic force microscopy. We found that stacking faults, defects, and chemical heterogeneities form distinct two-dimensional and one-dimensional conduction paths on the transition metal dichalcogenide surface. In the case of WSe 2 , in addition to step edges, we find a significant amount of stacking faults (formed during the cleaving process) that strongly influence the surface conductivity. These regions are attributed to the alternation of the 2H and 3R polytypism. The stacking faults form regular 2D patterns by alternation of the underlying stacking order, with a periodicity that varies significantly between different regions and samples. In the case of Mo x W 1- x Se 2 , its conductivity has a localized nature, which depends on the underlying chemical composition and the Mo/W ratio. Segregation to W-rich and Mo-rich regions during the growth process leads to nonuniform conduction paths on the surface of the alloy. We found a gradual change of the conductivity moving from one region to the other, reminiscent of lateral band bending. Our results demonstrate the use of C-AFM as a nanoscopic tool to probe the electrical properties of largely inhomogeneous samples and show the complicated nature of the surface conductivity of TMDC alloys.

  12. Doublet III limiter performance and implications for mechanical design and material selection for future limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabado, M.M.; Marcus, F.B.; Trester, P.W.; Wesley, J.C.

    1979-10-01

    The plasma limiter system for Doublet III is described. Initially, high-Z materials, Ta-10W for the primary limiter and Mo for the backup limiters, were selected as the most attractive metallic candidates from the standpoint of thermal and structural properties. For the purpose of evaluating the effect of material Z on plasma performance, the nonmagnetic, Ni-base alloy Inconel X-750 was selected for a medium-Z limiter material. Graphite, a low-Z material, will likely be the next limiter material for evaluation. Design and material selection criteria for the different Z ranges are presented. The performance of the high-Z limiters in Doublet III is reviewed for an operation period that included approximately 5000 plasma shots. Changes in surface appearance and metallurgical changes are characterized. Discussion is presented on how and to what extent the high-Z elements affected the performance of the plasma based on theory and measurements in Doublet III. The fabrication processes for the Inconel X-750 limiters are summarized, and, last, observations on early performance of the Inconel limiters are described. (MOW)

  13. Workability of glass reinforced concrete (GRC) with granite and silica sand aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moceikis, R.; Kičaitė, A.; Keturakis, E.

    2017-10-01

    Glass fiber reinforced concrete (GRC) opens the door for lightweight and complex shaped innovative construction, adding architectural value to buildings. With panel thickness down to 15 mm, considerable amount of total loads and materials per square meter of facade can be saved, if compared to conventionally used 80 mm thickness outer layer in insulated precast concrete wall elements. Even though GRC is used for over 50 years in such countries as Great Britain, USA and Japan, there are very few examples and little research done in Eastern Europe with this building material. European Commission propagates sustainable design as commitment to energy efficiency, environmental stewardship and conservation. For this reason, GRC plays important role in mowing toward these goals. In this paper, GRC premix recipes including fine granite and silica sands, reinforced with 13mm length alkali resistant glass fibers are investigated. Two CEM I 52,5R cements with different particle sizes were used and severe water dissociation noticed in one of concrete mixes. Cement particle size distribution determined with laser diffraction particle analyser Cilas 1090LD. To determine modulus of rupture (M.O.R.) and limit of proportionality (L.O.P), plates thickness 15 and 20 mm were produced and tested for flexural resistance according to 4-point bending scheme. Concrete workability tests were made according EN 1170-1.

  14. Effects of thermal treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties of a Co-Cr-Mo-W biomedical alloy produced by laser sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengucci, P; Barucca, G; Gatto, A; Bassoli, E; Denti, L; Fiori, F; Girardin, E; Bastianoni, P; Rutkowski, B; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A

    2016-07-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) technology based on a layer by layer production process was used to produce a Co-Cr-Mo-W alloy specifically developed for biomedical applications. The alloy mechanical response and microstructure were investigated in the as-sintered state and after post-production thermal treatments. Roughness and hardness measurements, and tensile and flexural tests were performed to study the mechanical response of the alloy while X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM, TEM, STEM) techniques and microanalysis (EDX) were used to investigate the microstructure in different conditions. Results showed an intricate network of ε-Co (hcp) lamellae in the γ-Co (fcc) matrix responsible of the high UTS and hardness values in the as-sintered state. Thermal treatments increase volume fraction of the ε-Co (hcp) martensite but slightly modify the average size of the lamellar structure. Nevertheless, thermal treatments are capable of producing a sensible increase in UTS and hardness and a strong reduction in ductility. These latter effects were mainly attributed to the massive precipitation of an hcp Co3(Mo,W)2Si phase and the contemporary formation of Si-rich inclusions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Disturbance metrics predict a wetland Vegetation Index of Biotic Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Mack, John; Adams, Jean V.; Gara, Brian; Micacchion, Mick

    2013-01-01

    Indices of biological integrity of wetlands based on vascular plants (VIBIs) have been developed in many areas in the USA. Knowledge of the best predictors of VIBIs would enable management agencies to make better decisions regarding mitigation site selection and performance monitoring criteria. We use a novel statistical technique to develop predictive models for an established index of wetland vegetation integrity (Ohio VIBI), using as independent variables 20 indices and metrics of habitat quality, wetland disturbance, and buffer area land use from 149 wetlands in Ohio, USA. For emergent and forest wetlands, predictive models explained 61% and 54% of the variability, respectively, in Ohio VIBI scores. In both cases the most important predictor of Ohio VIBI score was a metric that assessed habitat alteration and development in the wetland. Of secondary importance as a predictor was a metric that assessed microtopography, interspersion, and quality of vegetation communities in the wetland. Metrics and indices assessing disturbance and land use of the buffer area were generally poor predictors of Ohio VIBI scores. Our results suggest that vegetation integrity of emergent and forest wetlands could be most directly enhanced by minimizing substrate and habitat disturbance within the wetland. Such efforts could include reducing or eliminating any practices that disturb the soil profile, such as nutrient enrichment from adjacent farm land, mowing, grazing, or cutting or removing woody plants.

  16. Effect Of Agrotechnical Measures And Varieties On Seasonal Dynamics Of Tetranychus Urticae Koch (Acari, Trombidiformes, Tetranychidae On High Tunnel-Cultivated Garden Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmane Ineta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the seasonal pattern of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae on strawberries cultivated in polythene-covered high tunnels in temperate climatic conditions. Various cultivars were used and the effect of modification of plant covering indices on abundance and incidence of these mites was also tested. The number of two-spotted spider mites was relatively low at the beginning of the vegetation season and started to increase when average air temperature rose above 20 to 25 °C. In the experiment two types of tunnels differing in additional plant cover were used. The maximum mite abundance did not significantly vary between varieties in tunnel 1 conditions, but it was significantly lower for variety 'Sonata' in tunnel 2 conditions. Mite numbers significantly declined after strawberry foliage mowing and removal of polythene cover. Mite development was prolonged in tunnel 1, where additional cover of plants was used and higher early season air temperature was recorded in comparison to tunnel 2. It was concluded that increase in early season temperature can increase two-spotted spider mite abundance and have a more negative effect on strawberry plants in respect of foliage damage by mites.

  17. Managing Sonchus arvensis using mechanical and cultural methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VANHALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Perennial sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis L. represents an increasing problem in Finland. Options for mechanical and cultural control of S. arvensis were studied in a field experiment on clay soil under organic production. The experiment consisted of different crop sequences: spring cereal (barley, Hordeum vulgare L., in 2001, oats, Avena sativa L., in 2002 with or without inter-row hoeing and/or stubble cultivation, bare fallow, fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L., and ley with mowing. In 2003 the entire field was sown to spring wheat. Crop plant and Sonchus shoot density and dry mass prior to cereal harvest and crop yield were assessed. The control effect was rated: bare fallow > ley > cereal with or without inter-row hoeing > poor growth fibre hemp. Bare fallow was an effective but costly way to reduce S. arvensis infestation. Introduction of a regularly mown green fallow or silage ley in the crop rotation is advisable. Mechanical weed control by inter-row hoeing in cereals limits S. arvensis growth. Infestation might also be reduced by stubble cultivation in autumn. When managing S. arvensis using mechanical and cultural methods, appropriate options, including a competitive crop, should be chosen for the specific field and rotation.;

  18. Mesoscale eddies in the Gulf of Aden and their impact on the spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Amy S.; Furey, Heather H.

    2012-04-01

    anticyclonic eddies are added to the previously identified Gulf of Aden Eddy (GAE; Prasad and Ikeda, 2001) and Somali Current Ring (SCR; Fratantoni et al., 2006). These are the Summer Eddy (SE) and the Lee Eddy (LE), both of which form at the beginning of the summer monsoon when strong southwest winds blowing through Socotra Passage effectively split the GAE into two smaller eddies. The SE strengthens as it propagates westward deeper in the GOA, while the Lee Eddy remains stationary in the lee of Socotra Island. Both eddies are strengthened or sustained by Ekman convergence associated with negative wind stress curl patches caused by wind jets through or around high orography. The annual cycle in the appearance, propagation and demise of these new eddies and those described in earlier work is documented to provide a comprehensive view of the most energetic circulation features in the GOA. The observations contain little evidence of features that have been shown previously to be important in the spreading of Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) in the North Atlantic, namely a wall-bounded subsurface jet (the Mediterranean Undercurrent) and submesoscale coherent lenses containing a core of MOW (‘meddies’). This is attributed to the fact that the RSOW enters the open ocean on a western boundary. High background eddy kinetic energy typical of western boundary regimes will tend to shear apart submesoscale eddies and boundary undercurrents. Even if a submesoscale lens of RSOW did form in the GOA, westward self-propagation would transport the eddy and its cargo of outflow water back toward, rather than away from, its source.

  19. Outsourcing and benchmarking in a rural public hospital: does economic theory provide the complete answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S H

    2003-01-01

    mowing were outsourced while food services was retained internally. The outsourcing of radiology was due to the hospital being unable (or unwilling) to finance new equipment and the problematical relationship between the existing radiologists, and hospital management and staff. Outsourcing resulted in increased staff morale, upgraded capital equipment and improved services. The outsourcing of pathology and dental technical services aimed to increase labour flexibility, thereby decreasing costs. Additional drivers in pathology were the changing nature of the funding arrangements rendering it profitable for the private sector to move into the provision of pathology and the increasing power of the medical scientists' union. The outsourcing of lawn mowing was simply to reduce costs. Food services was not outsourced because there was a lack of evidence that costs could be reduced. In addition, the existing relationships with food services staff were regarded as important because they had previously made immense changes to work practices, reduced staff numbers and decreased costs. Transaction costs are important when analysing how managers make the outsourcing decision, but the evidence from this case is that not all transaction costs are included in the decision, and that such costs are more complex than can be included in the type of analysis often undertaken by decision-makers. Taking into account Williamson's variables, the research shows that the outsourcing of services did not comply solely with the levels of transaction frequency or the requirement of asset specificity. In addition, opportunistic behaviour was evident on the part of all parties and was used in some cases as a reason for outsourcing, and in others to sway the decision to the manager's predisposed choice. A variety of arrangements were used to reduce environmental uncertainty, such as the transfer of staff to the contractor and the use of long-term contracts. Indeed the case shows that relationships

  20. Effect of soil type and soil management on soil physical, chemical and biological properties in commercial organic olive orchards in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Auxiliadora Soriano, Maria; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas, Juan Antonio; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-05-01

    One of the objectives of organic agriculture is to maintain and improve soil quality, while simultaneously producing an adequate yield. A key element in organic olive production is soil management, which properly implemented can optimize the use of rainfall water enhancing infiltration rates and controlling competition for soil water by weeds. There are different soil management strategies: eg. weed mowing (M), green manure with surface tillage in spring (T), or combination with animal grazing among the trees (G). That variability in soil management combined with the large variability in soil types on which organic olive trees are grown in Southern Spain, difficult the evaluation of the impact of different soil management on soil properties, and yield as well as its interpretation in terms of improvement of soil quality. This communications presents the results and analysis of soil physical, chemical and biological properties on 58 soils in Southern Spain during 2005 and 2006, and analyzed and evaluated in different studies since them. Those 58 soils were sampled in 46 certified commercial organic olive orchards with four soil types as well as 12 undisturbed areas with natural vegetation near the olive orchards. The four soil types considered were Eutric Regosol (RGeu, n= 16), Eutric Cambisol (CMeu, n=16), Calcaric Regosol (RGca, n=13 soils sampled) and Calcic Cambisol (CMcc), and the soil management systems (SMS) include were 10 light tillage (LT), 16 sheep grazing (G), 10 tillage (T), 10 mechanical mowing (M), and 12 undisturbed areas covered by natural vegetation (NV-C and NV-S). Our results indicate that soil management had a significant effect on olive yield as well as on key soil properties. Among these soil properties are physical ones, such as infiltration rate or bulk density, chemical ones, especially organic carbon concentration, and biological ones such as soil microbial respiration and bacterial community composition. Superimpose to that soil

  1. Produção animal em pastagem natural e pastagem sobre-semeada com espécies de estação fria com e sem o uso de glyphosate = Animal production in natural pasture and pasture overseeded with cool season species with and without the use of glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Nogueira Martins

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produção animal de novilhos e vegetal de campo natural e de campo natural sobre-semeado com azevém (Lolium multiflorum, trevo branco (Trifolium repens e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus com e sem a utilização do herbicida glyphosate. Os tratamentos foram: CN – campo nativo, com roçada anual; CNI – campo nativo com sobre-semeadura, adubação e roçada anual; G1 – Idem ao CNI com aplicação de herbicida no primeiro ano; G3 – idem ao G1 com supressão da vegetação natural com herbicida no segundo e terceiro ano; GA3 – Idem ao G3 com adubação duplicada nos três anos. O delineamento experimental foi blocos completamente casualizados com duas repetições. Os resultados apresentados são do terceiro anode avaliação. Para ganho médio diário, houve diferenças (p £ 0,1 entre tratamentos e períodos, que variaram de 0,214 kg animal-1 dia-1 em CN a 1,406 para os tratamentos com introdução de espécies. Quanto à variável ganho por área, os ganhos variaram de 84 a 410 kg PV ha-1. As cargas variaram de 283 a 679 kg PV ha-1. O uso do herbicida não apresentou efeitos sobre a produção; e a introdução de espécies de estação fria por sobre-semeadura melhorou a produção animal emCN, que possibilitou a colheita de maiores ganhos animal-1 dia-1 e por área.This study evaluated animal production of steers and pasture production of natural grassland and grassland overseeded withItalian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, with and without the use of glyphosate herbicide. Treatments consisted of: NG –natural grassland, with annual mowing; ING – natural grassland with overseeding, fertilizing and annual mowing; G1 – Same ING, but with glyphosate application in the first year; G3 – same as G1, with suppression of natural vegetation using herbicide in the second and third years; GF3 – same as G3, with doubled fertilizing in the three

  2. Modeled Changes in Potential Grassland Productivity and in Grass-Fed Ruminant Livestock Density in Europe over 1961–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Campioli, Matteo; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphaël; Leip, Adrian; Soussana, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    About 25% of European livestock intake is based on permanent and sown grasslands. To fulfill rising demand for animal products, an intensification of livestock production may lead to an increased consumption of crop and compound feeds. In order to preserve an economically and environmentally sustainable agriculture, a more forage based livestock alimentation may be an advantage. However, besides management, grassland productivity is highly vulnerable to climate (i.e., temperature, precipitation, CO2 concentration), and spatial information about European grassland productivity in response to climate change is scarce. The process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE-GM, containing an explicit representation of grassland management (i.e., herbage mowing and grazing), is used here to estimate changes in potential productivity and potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density across European grasslands over the period 1961–2010. Here “potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density” denotes the maximum density of livestock that can be supported by grassland productivity in each 25 km × 25 km grid cell. In reality, livestock density could be higher than potential (e.g., if additional feed is supplied to animals) or lower (e.g., in response to economic factors, pedo-climatic and biotic conditions ignored by the model, or policy decisions that can for instance reduce livestock numbers). When compared to agricultural statistics (Eurostat and FAOstat), ORCHIDEE-GM gave a good reproduction of the regional gradients of annual grassland productivity and ruminant livestock density. The model however tends to systematically overestimate the absolute values of productivity in most regions, suggesting that most grid cells remain below their potential grassland productivity due to possible nutrient and biotic limitations on plant growth. When ORCHIDEE-GM was run for the period 1961–2010 with variable climate and rising CO2, an increase of potential annual production (over 3

  3. Family Planning Behavior and Small Family Concept Acceptance in Two Different Geographical Characteristics Municipality of South Klaten, Klaten, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Priyono

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aim to know the family planning behaviour, the acceptance small family norm and the influential factors in two villages that have different geographical aspect. The behaviour involve the knowledge, the attitude and the practice where as the influential factors involve education, accupation, values of children, income, children still born and family size desired. The research areas are chosen purposive in two villages that have different geographical aspect, social aspect and cultural aspect. The aspect are: 1 location and topography, 2 socialy  structure, and 3 the achievement of effective acceptor. Based on the three aspects, Ngalas village (developing and Sumberejo (developed are chosen as research areas. The recorded as ative acceptor (recordedin RI/PUS/1991 form. The respondents are chosen by cencus at two neighborhoord association at every village. There are six variables in this research are assumed influence the periode of the contraceptives use, such as education, occupation status, values of children, family income, children still born, and family size desired. There are three variables are assumed influence the small family norm, such as education, occupation status, and values of children. The data was analyzed by frequency table, crosee table, and statistical analysis (Q square and Regresion. The data was always compared between the two villages. The analysis use computer by Microsoft Program.  The research result showed that Sumberejo was better than Ngalas in the knowledge, the attitude, and the practice of family planning. Most of the people who live in Sumberejo understood the contraception device well (52,4%, where as in Ngalas (26,8%. Both of them agreed on using contraception device (more than 70%. The respondent who live in Sumberejo used IUD (40% and MOW/MOP (23,23%. They had used of the contraception device for 4.8 years on an average. Mean  while the respondents in Ngalas use IUD (23,68% and MOW/MOP (2

  4. Inhibiton of Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers by a Mulch Derived from Rye (Secale cereale L. in grapevines Inhibición del Crecimiento de Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y Pasto Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. con mulch Vegetal Proveniente de Centeno (Secale cereale L. en Vides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ormeño-Núñez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials (Los Andes 1998-1999 and Santiago 2004-2005 were carried out to determine growth inhibition of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., growing on the plantation row, by mulch derived from a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop established between grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. rows on overhead (cv. Flame Seedless and vertical (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon training. Spring mowing of the rye sown in the fall allowed for developing a thick and long lasting mulch along the grape rows. Nutsedge and bermudagrass control was 81 and 82%, respectively, and was more effective than conventional chemical (in the row + mechanical (between rows control. Glyphosate at 2% for nutsedge and 1% for bermudagrass control, applied twice (October and December, was insufficient to control either perennial weed adequately. Total broadleaved and grass/sedge weed control was 67.3 and 43.0% more effective with the rye mulch than with conventional treatments at Los Andes and Santiago, respectively. Perennial weed control levels could be explained as the new foliage of yellow nutsedge and bermudagrass was particularly susceptible to the shading provided by the rye mulch assembled prior to mid spring shoot emergence, and this effect remained active up until the beginning of autumn. The subsequent rye foliage mowing at the vegetative stage fully expressed the allelopathic effect produced by this local rye cultivar. The use of rye cover crop management and mulch could be applied as an effective weed control technique in conventional, as well as organic deciduous tree orchards.En dos ensayos de campo (Los Andes 1998-1999 y Santiago 2004-2005 se determinó el efecto inhibitorio sobre chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y pasto bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. de residuos de centeno (Secale cereale L. establecido en otoño entre las hileras de vides (Vitis vinifera L. en parronal (cv. Flame Seedless y espaldera (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

  5. Modeled Changes in Potential Grassland Productivity and in Grass-Fed Ruminant Livestock Density in Europe over 1961-2010.

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    Jinfeng Chang

    Full Text Available About 25% of European livestock intake is based on permanent and sown grasslands. To fulfill rising demand for animal products, an intensification of livestock production may lead to an increased consumption of crop and compound feeds. In order to preserve an economically and environmentally sustainable agriculture, a more forage based livestock alimentation may be an advantage. However, besides management, grassland productivity is highly vulnerable to climate (i.e., temperature, precipitation, CO2 concentration, and spatial information about European grassland productivity in response to climate change is scarce. The process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE-GM, containing an explicit representation of grassland management (i.e., herbage mowing and grazing, is used here to estimate changes in potential productivity and potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density across European grasslands over the period 1961-2010. Here "potential grass-fed ruminant livestock density" denotes the maximum density of livestock that can be supported by grassland productivity in each 25 km × 25 km grid cell. In reality, livestock density could be higher than potential (e.g., if additional feed is supplied to animals or lower (e.g., in response to economic factors, pedo-climatic and biotic conditions ignored by the model, or policy decisions that can for instance reduce livestock numbers. When compared to agricultural statistics (Eurostat and FAOstat, ORCHIDEE-GM gave a good reproduction of the regional gradients of annual grassland productivity and ruminant livestock density. The model however tends to systematically overestimate the absolute values of productivity in most regions, suggesting that most grid cells remain below their potential grassland productivity due to possible nutrient and biotic limitations on plant growth. When ORCHIDEE-GM was run for the period 1961-2010 with variable climate and rising CO2, an increase of potential annual production (over

  6. Use of endotrophic mycorhiza and soil microorganisms and vegetation establishment on mineral green roof substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J. [GeoVerde Inc., Schaffhausen (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    Green roofs have the potential to introduce colour and nature into urban and industrial areas. This paper showed how the addition of soil microorganisms into a green roof substrate can help establish vegetation. Microorganisms help the roots exploit essential nutrient and water reserves in the substrate by making them more readily available to the plant. Microorganisms facilitate uniform germination, plant development at the young stage, and prolonged vegetation development on the roof. Soil microorganisms and mycorrhizal fungi can be added directly in to the seed blends. As the products are blended with the seed, they also fulfill the function of a seeding aid. Mycorrhizal and other soil fungi were examined on mineral roof substrates by means of dry and hydroseeding in greenhouse and field tests. Results of this developmental work and experiences from practical applications were presented. It was noted that vegetation on green roof areas must be able to withstand harsh environmental conditions. As such, the challenges include drought that causes water stress, warm and cold temperatures, wind, acid rain and air pollution. This paper also presented details of the following categories of green roof systems. Intensive green roofs are usually referred to as roof gardens. They are constructed over reinforced concrete decks and usually are accessible. Simple intensive green roofs are vegetated with lawns or ground covering plants. Regular maintenance including irrigation, fertilization and mowing is also required. Extensive green roofs are low maintenance and low weight. Growing media is usually composed of purely mineral material or a blend of mineral with a low proportion of organic matter. Substrate is low in nutrient content and the depth . Vegetation usually consists of succulents that require minimal maintenance. The requirements to install each of these types of green roof systems were also presented. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Sudden changes in environmental conditions do not increase invasion risk in grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Eszter; Fenesi, Annamária; Nijs, Ivan

    2013-02-01

    After direct habitat transformation, biological invasions are considered to be the second most important threat to biodiversity. A better understanding of the factors affecting invasion success in new areas is crucial, and may provide insight into potential control actions. We hypothesized that invasion risk increases in habitats undergoing a sudden change in the disturbance regime or environmental conditions. For testing this assumption we initiated a seed sowing experiment while introducing two novel treatments, mowing twice and fertilizer application, in two grassland sites (one dryer and one mesic) in Romania. The seeds of two invasive species, Solidago canadensis and Rudbeckia laciniata, and two resident natives of similar seed sizes, life-forms and strategies were sowed in treated and control plots, and seed germination, seedling establishment and growth were followed during four months. Contrary to our expectations, there was no difference in the treatment effects on seed germination and seedling establishment between species, while there was on seedling vigour of the larger seeded species in the dryer grassland site, where the native had a higher performance especially in increased nutrient conditions. Indifferently from applied treatments, invasive species had greater cumulative germination in the mesic site, while natives were far more successful in seedling establishment in the drier site. At the same time, seed size was found to be a very important factor explaining germination and establishment success, with large seeded species outperforming small seeded species in any circumstances. Our results call the attention upon management interventions in mesic, productive grassland sites opening colonization windows for the recruitment of those invasive species of which ecological requirements correspond to local environmental conditions.

  8. Investigation of Contaminated Groundwater at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (VOC) groundwater contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, beginning in 2000. The primary contaminants of interest in the study are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. Engineered remediation aspects at the site consist of a zero-valent-iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) installed in December 2002 intercepting the contamination plume and a phytoremediation test stand of loblolly pine trees planted in the source area in May 2003. The U.S. Geological Survey planted an additional phytoremediation test stand of loblolly pine trees on the upgradient side of the southern end of the PRB in February 2008. At least once during the summer, however, the trees were inadvertently mowed during lawn cutting activity. The PRB along the main axis of the contaminant plume appears to be actively removing contamination. In contrast to the central area of the PRB, the data from the southern end of the PRB indicate that contaminants are moving around the PRB. Concentrations in wells upgradient from the PRB showed a general decrease in VOC concentrations. VOC concentrations in some wells in the forest downgradient from the PRB showed a sharp increase in 2005, followed by a decrease in 2006. Farther downgradient in the forest, the VOC concentrations began to increase in 2007 and continued to increase into 2008. The VOC-concentration changes in groundwater beneath the forest appear to indicate movement of a groundwater-contaminant pulse through the forest. It also is possible that the data may represent lateral shifting of the plume in response to changes in groundwater-flow direction.

  9. Pregnant and active – suitability of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire for measuring the physical activity of pregnant women in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Krzepota

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background . The issue of physical activity of pregnant women, including determining proper recommendations, has been a broadly discussed topic in international circles. Objectives. The aim of this paper is to present the suitability of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ for measuring the physical activity of pregnant women in Poland. Material and methods . The study included 162 questionnaires, which were filled in correctly by pregnant women (third trimester who took part in childbirth classes organized by a childbirth school. As a research method, the PPAQ was chosen. The PPAQ allows pregnant women to self-assess their physical activity in the current trimester. The questions investigated time devoted to various types of activity related to household/caregiving, transportation, sports/exercise in their free time, occupational activity and inactivity. Based on the average weekly energy expenditure, each of these activities is classified by intensity: sedentary activity, light-intensity activity, moderate-intensity activity, vigorous-intensity activity. Results . While using the PPAQ in Poland, it is recommended to reduce the number of questions from 36 to 35, by removing question 18 (time of mowing lawn while on a riding mower. It is also advisable to convert American units of measurement into metric units, which are used in Poland. Conclusions . The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire in Poland may fill the gap in studies devoted to the physical activity of pregnant Polish women. With this questionnaire, it is possible to determine energy expenditure in terms of intensity and type of physical activity. It also serves as a reliable tool that can be used for international comparisons.

  10. New results on long term aging tests for rad-waste container alloy selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, H.; Wahl, V.; Ibas, O.; Stenner, F.

    2004-01-01

    The current design of containers for high level nuclear waste proceeds on using an outer barrier of corrosion resistant Ni-based super alloy. The current alloy of choice is alloy 22 (UNS N06022). It is a quaternary Ni-Cr- Mo-W alloy system. The new but well established alloy 59 (UNS N06059) is an excellent equal or even a superior alternative to alloy 22 for the 10,000 years reliability being sought. Alloy 59 is a pure ternary alloy in the Ni-Cr-Mo alloy system. Objective of this paper is to present data comparing these two alloys. Therefore the behaviour of alloy 59 and alloy 22 was characterised after aging in air for 10,000 h and 20,000 h at different temperatures (200, 300 and 427 deg. C). Since the performance of weldments is of great concern, both welded and unwelded specimens were studied. Mechanical properties of the air aged alloys were measured at room temperature by tensile and notch impact-bending test. Thermal stability and aqueous corrosion are considered to be the key issues in the long-term performance of container materials proposed for the geological disposal of high level nuclear waste. The long-term thermal stability and corrosion resistance of the alloy 59 compared to alloy 22 is discussed. Corrosion resistance was evaluated in ASTM G28 A and 'green death' solution laboratory tests; hereby corrosion rates and depth of attack were determined. Metallo-graphical studies were performed in mill annealed and air aged conditions. The results of the aging tests at 10,000 h and 20,000 h show that alloy 59 is an equal or better candidate material due to its superior localised corrosion resistance behaviour (pitting and crevice corrosion resistance) and better thermal stability needed especially in multi-pass welding of thick sections. Therefore alloy 59 seems to be the most promising alternative to alloy 22. (authors)

  11. Contemporary floristic changes in the Karkonosze Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Fabiszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the transformations of species composition in the main plant communities of the Karkonosze Mts. subalpine and alpine belts during the last 35 years. The investigations of floristic changes were performed in associations: Carici (rigidae-Nardetum, Carici-Festucetum supinae, Crepidi-Calamagrostietum villose and Empetro-Vaccinietum. Signalized are also some vegetation transformations in the remaining belts. The progressing floristic degradation of plant communities in the subalpine and alpine belts consists in: (a expansion of grasses, (b decline of rare vascular plants, and (c elimination of terricolous bryophytes and lichens. In spruce forest belts declining are species connected with old-growth spruce forests like: Listera cordata and Moneses uniflora. The changes of plant communities of low mountain swards (Nardetalia caused by cessation of pasture and mowing in the cause of retreat of many rare plants, like e.g., Arnica montana. The main cause of the still lasting in the Karkonosze Mts. community transformations is the changes in soil environment connected with anthropogenic nitrogen fertilization. The large inflow of mineral nitrogen from the atmosphere (1138 mg/m2 sum for vegetation season is the reason of accelerated rate of decomposition of organic matter and intensified nitrification. The high content of nitrates in soil (5 times higher than in the Tatra Mts. swards is the reason of expansion of graminoids, mainly Deschampsia flexuosa, Calamagrostis villosa and Carex bigelowii subsp. rigida. The overfertilisation of habitats causes the retreat of rare high mountain vascular plants and the decline of terricolous bryophytes and lichens.

  12. The electronic structure and optical properties of donor-acceptor codoped TiO{sub 2} nanosheets from hybrid functional calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanyu; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Ping, E-mail: pingwu@tju.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    Here we explore the effect of charge-compensated donor-acceptor pairs (2Nb + C), (2Ta + C), (Mo + 2N) and (W + 2N) codoping on the electronic and optical properties of TiO{sub 2} nanosheets. The results demonstrate that the (2Nb + C) and (2Ta + C) codoping create the delocalized midgap states in TiO{sub 2} nanosheets. The appearance of impurity states extends the absorption edge of nanosheets to the visible light region. The interaction of the host and the foreign chiefly occurs at the band edges of the N-related systems, which reduces the band-gap by 0.5 eV. Although this large band-gap still renders the visible light inefficient, the enhanced UV light absorption has been observed. Besides, the position of absorption edge is independent on the doping concentration, but the higher codoping concentration yields stronger light absorption. Moreover, the band edge alignment verifies that the C-related systems are desirable visible and UV-light-driven photocatalysts for overall water splitting. - Highlights: • A systematical study has been employed on 2D TiO{sub 2} nanosheets with the donor-acceptor codoping. • The (2Nb/2Ta + C) codoping in TiO{sub 2} nanosheets creates the delocalized midgap states. • The C-related systems are desirable visible and UV-light-driven photocatalysts. • The water splitting power of (Mo/W + 2N) codoped systems is improved with enhanced UV light response. • The high doping concentration means the stronger absorption ability of the solar energy.

  13. Estimating above-ground biomass on mountain meadows and pastures through remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrachina, M.; Cristóbal, J.; Tulla, A. F.

    2015-06-01

    Extensive stock-breeding systems developed in mountain areas like the Pyrenees are crucial for local farming economies and depend largely on above-ground biomass (AGB) in the form of grass produced on meadows and pastureland. In this study, a multiple linear regression analysis technique based on in-situ biomass collection and vegetation and wetness indices derived from Landsat-5 TM data is successfully applied in a mountainous Pyrenees area to model AGB. Temporal thoroughness of the data is ensured by using a large series of images. Results of on-site AGB collection show the importance for AGB models to capture the high interannual and intraseasonal variability that results from both meteorological conditions and farming practices. AGB models yield best results at midsummer and end of summer before mowing operations by farmers, with a mean R2, RMSE and PE for 2008 and 2009 midsummer of 0.76, 95 g m-2 and 27%, respectively; and with a mean R2, RMSE and PE for 2008 and 2009 end of summer of 0.74, 128 g m-2 and 36%, respectively. Although vegetation indices are a priori more related with biomass production, wetness indices play an important role in modeling AGB, being statistically selected more frequently (more than 50%) than other traditional vegetation indexes (around 27%) such as NDVI. This suggests that middle infrared bands are crucial descriptors of AGB. The methodology applied in this work compares favorably with other works in the literature, yielding better results than those works in mountain areas, owing to the ability of the proposed methodology to capture natural and anthropogenic variations in AGB which are the key to increasing AGB modeling accuracy.

  14. Resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems: implications for state and transition models and management treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Miller, Richard F.; Board, David I.; Pyke, David A.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Grace, James B.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Tausch, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    In sagebrush ecosystems invasion of annual exotics and expansion of piñon (Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frem.) and juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook., J. osteosperma [Torr.] Little) are altering fire regimes and resulting in large-scale ecosystem transformations. Management treatments aim to increase resilience to disturbance and enhance resistance to invasive species by reducing woody fuels and increasing native perennial herbaceous species. We used Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project data to test predictions on effects of fire vs. mechanical treatments on resilience and resistance for three site types exhibiting cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion and/or piñon and juniper expansion: 1) warm and dry Wyoming big sagebrush (WY shrub); 2) warm and moist Wyoming big sagebrush (WY PJ); and 3) cool and moist mountain big sagebrush (Mtn PJ). Warm and dry (mesic/aridic) WY shrub sites had lower resilience to fire (less shrub recruitment and native perennial herbaceous response) than cooler and moister (frigid/xeric) WY PJ and Mtn PJ sites. Warm (mesic) WY Shrub and WY PJ sites had lower resistance to annual exotics than cool (frigid to cool frigid) Mtn PJ sites. In WY shrub, fire and sagebrush mowing had similar effects on shrub cover and, thus, on perennial native herbaceous and exotic cover. In WY PJ and Mtn PJ, effects were greater for fire than cut-and-leave treatments and with high tree cover in general because most woody vegetation was removed increasing resources for other functional groups. In WY shrub, about 20% pretreatment perennial native herb cover was necessary to prevent increases in exotics after treatment. Cooler and moister WY PJ and especially Mtn PJ were more resistant to annual exotics, but perennial native herb cover was still required for site recovery. We use our results to develop state and transition models that illustrate how resilience and resistance influence vegetation dynamics and management options.

  15. EFFECT OF CLEARINGS OF BIDENS PILOSA AND COMMELINA BENGHALENSIS SPECIES ON MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Lemos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the study of the interaction and competition between the crop harvested, and the weed is critical to diagnose the efficiency of the administration of them, especially the mechanical control. We carried out this work in order to evaluate the effects of interference of Bidens pilosa and Commelina benghalensis, mowed in different seasons on the morphological characteristics of corn plants conducted in a greenhouse. The experimental design was in entirely casualized blocks, with three repetitions, in a factorial scheme 2 x 3 + 1, on which the first factor consisted of two weeds and the second of three times of handling of these plants (clearing of the stage of three corn leaves, clearing of the stage of three and six corn leaves, and corn without weed control. The additional treatment (witness consisted in the cultivation of corn free from the interference of weeds. The accumulation of dry matter on plants in all parts of the corn plant (leaf, stalk, root, and floral organs, the interval between male and female florescence, the number of leaves (green, senescent and total, specific foliar area, foliar mass rate, stalk mass rate, root mass rate and aerial part/radicular system rate of corn plants in greenhouses were evaluated. Independently from the weed species studies, two clearings provided a bigger accumulation of dry matter on corn plants. Plant corn in competition with B. pilosa or C. benghalensis without the use of control presented decreases (MSF, ALT, and NFV RMF and increments (NFS, IAE and AEF undesirable for its productive potential.

  16. Grassland communities of urban open spaces in Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamokete N.V. Dingaan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural vegetation in urban environments is greatly impacted by human activities and it is in constant threat of degradation and destruction as a result of urbanisation. This vegetation, although fragmented, serves an important ecological function and needs to be properly managed and conserved. Studies on urban vegetation are lacking in South Africa, with only a handful having been carried out since the end of the last century. This study was initiated to identify, classify and describe the grassland communities of the urban open spaces in Bloemfontein. Relevés were compiled in 61 sample plots, where species present and habitat information were recorded. Care was taken to restrict sample plots to vegetation in pristine condition, wherever possible, and severely degraded stands were avoided. A two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed two distinct major communities, seven communities and four sub-communities. Both detrended and canonical correspondence analyses indicated the vegetation units to be associated with soil texture and pH, although biotic factors such as overgrazing, burning and mowing also influence the composition of the vegetation. The proper management and conservation of urban open spaces requires in-depth knowledge of the spatial distribution, floristic, structural and functional compositions within the major vegetation types in this environment. The present study further contributed towards formulating ways for the proper management, utilisation and functioning of the open spaces within the Bloemfontein area.Conservation implications: The Grassland Biome of South Africa is poorly conserved, mainly because of its status as an agricultural hub of the country. The preservation of natural and semi-natural forms of urban vegetation is important because such vegetation, although often disturbed and degraded, could form dispersal corridors between peri-urban and rural

  17. New results on long term aging tests for rad-waste container alloy selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, H.; Wahl, V.; Ibas, O.; Stenner, F. [ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH, Altena (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The current design of containers for high level nuclear waste proceeds on using an outer barrier of corrosion resistant Ni-based super alloy. The current alloy of choice is alloy 22 (UNS N06022). It is a quaternary Ni-Cr- Mo-W alloy system. The new but well established alloy 59 (UNS N06059) is an excellent equal or even a superior alternative to alloy 22 for the 10,000 years reliability being sought. Alloy 59 is a pure ternary alloy in the Ni-Cr-Mo alloy system. Objective of this paper is to present data comparing these two alloys. Therefore the behaviour of alloy 59 and alloy 22 was characterised after aging in air for 10,000 h and 20,000 h at different temperatures (200, 300 and 427 deg. C). Since the performance of weldments is of great concern, both welded and unwelded specimens were studied. Mechanical properties of the air aged alloys were measured at room temperature by tensile and notch impact-bending test. Thermal stability and aqueous corrosion are considered to be the key issues in the long-term performance of container materials proposed for the geological disposal of high level nuclear waste. The long-term thermal stability and corrosion resistance of the alloy 59 compared to alloy 22 is discussed. Corrosion resistance was evaluated in ASTM G28 A and 'green death' solution laboratory tests; hereby corrosion rates and depth of attack were determined. Metallo-graphical studies were performed in mill annealed and air aged conditions. The results of the aging tests at 10,000 h and 20,000 h show that alloy 59 is an equal or better candidate material due to its superior localised corrosion resistance behaviour (pitting and crevice corrosion resistance) and better thermal stability needed especially in multi-pass welding of thick sections. Therefore alloy 59 seems to be the most promising alternative to alloy 22. (authors)

  18. Non-aqueous metathesis as a general approach to prepare nanodispersed materials: Case study of scheelites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasiev, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A general approach to the preparation of inorganic nanoparticles is proposed, using metathesis of precursor salts in non-aqueous liquids. Nanoparticles of scheelites AMO 4 (A=Ba, Sr, Ca; M=Mo, W), were obtained with a quantitative yield. Precipitations in formamide, N-methylformamide, propylene carbonate, DMSO and polyols often provide narrow particle size distributions. Advantageous morphology was explained by strong ionic association in non-aqueous solvents, leading to slow nucleation and negligible Ostwald ripening. Mean particle size below 10 nm and high specific surface areas were obtained for several Ca(Sr)Mo(W)O 4 materials, making them promising for applications as adsorbents or catalysts. Zeta-potential of scheelites in aqueous suspensions showed negative values in a wide range of pH. Systematic study of optical properties demonstrated variation of optical gap in the sequences W>Mo and Ba>Sr>Ca. The observed trends were reproduced by DFT calculations. No quantum confinement effect was observed for small particles, though the surface states induce low-energy features in the optical spectra. - Graphical abstract: Scheelites AMO 4 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba; M=Mo, W) were prepared in various non-aqueous liquids with high specific surface areas and narrow size distributions. The optical gap of scheelites changes in the series CaMo. - Highlights: • Scheelites AMO 4 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba; M=Mo, W) were prepared in various non-aqueous liquids. • Narrow size distributions explained by ionic association in non-aqueous media. • Nanoparticles of less than 10 nm size and highest ever specific surface areas were obtained. • Optical gap of scheelites changes in the series Ca

  19. Trace Metal Requirements for Microbial Enzymes Involved in the Production and Consumption of Methane and Nitrous Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer B.; Orphan, Victoria J.

    2011-01-01

    Fluxes of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere are heavily influenced by microbiological activity. Microbial enzymes involved in the production and consumption of greenhouse gases often contain metal cofactors. While extensive research has examined the influence of Fe bioavailability on microbial CO2 cycling, fewer studies have explored metal requirements for microbial production and consumption of the second- and third-most abundant greenhouse gases, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we review the current state of biochemical, physiological, and environmental research on transition metal requirements for microbial CH4 and N2O cycling. Methanogenic archaea require large amounts of Fe, Ni, and Co (and some Mo/W and Zn). Low bioavailability of Fe, Ni, and Co limits methanogenesis in pure and mixed cultures and environmental studies. Anaerobic methane oxidation by anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) likely occurs via reverse methanogenesis since ANME possess most of the enzymes in the methanogenic pathway. Aerobic CH4 oxidation uses Cu or Fe for the first step depending on Cu availability, and additional Fe, Cu, and Mo for later steps. N2O production via classical anaerobic denitrification is primarily Fe-based, whereas aerobic pathways (nitrifier denitrification and archaeal ammonia oxidation) require Cu in addition to, or possibly in place of, Fe. Genes encoding the Cu-containing N2O reductase, the only known enzyme capable of microbial N2O conversion to N2, have only been found in classical denitrifiers. Accumulation of N2O due to low Cu has been observed in pure cultures and a lake ecosystem, but not in marine systems. Future research is needed on metalloenzymes involved in the production of N2O by enrichment cultures of ammonia oxidizing archaea, biological mechanisms for scavenging scarce metals, and possible links between metal bioavailability and greenhouse gas fluxes in anaerobic environments where metals may be limiting due to sulfide

  20. Urban domestic gardens: the effects of human interventions on garden composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loram, Alison; Warren, Philip; Thompson, Ken; Gaston, Kevin

    2011-10-01

    Private domestic gardens contribute substantially to the biodiversity of urban areas and benefit human health and well-being. We previously reported a study of 267 gardens across five cities in the United Kingdom in which variation in geographical and climatic factors had little bearing on the richness, diversity and composition of plant species. We therefore hypothesise that garden management is an important factor in determining garden characteristics. Here, from the same sample of gardens, we investigate potential associations between the uses to which people put their gardens, the types of management activities they undertake, and the characteristics of those gardens. Householders (n = 265) completed a questionnaire detailing various aspects of garden use and management activities. The majority of respondents used their gardens chiefly for relaxation, recreation, and eating. Fewer than one fifth included "gardening" amongst their garden uses even though all performed some garden management, suggesting that not all management activity resulted from an interest in gardening. Garden-watering and lawn-mowing were the most prevalent activities and were predictors of other types of management including weeding, vegetation-cutting, leaf-collection, and dead-heading flowers. A number of these activities were associated with one another, the richness and composition of plant species, and the number of land uses in gardens. However, relationships between management activities and the amount of tall vegetation were less consistent, and garden management appeared to be independent of garden area. More species of amphibians, birds, and mammals were observed in gardens with ponds and in which efforts were made to attract wildlife, particularly by providing drinking water. This study supports the hypothesis that garden use and management is associated with garden characteristics.

  1. Effects of long- and short-term management on the functional structure of meadows through species turnover and intraspecific trait variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, Martin; Redmond, Conor; Albert, Ágnes J; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Biella, Paolo; Götzenberger, Lars; Hrázský, Záboj; Janeček, Štěpán; Klimešová, Jitka; Lepš, Jan; Šebelíková, Lenka; Vlasatá, Tereza; de Bello, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The functional structures of communities respond to environmental changes by both species replacement (turnover) and within-species variation (intraspecific trait variability; ITV). Evidence is lacking on the relative importance of these two components, particularly in response to both short- and long-term environmental disturbance. We hypothesized that such short- and long-term perturbations would induce changes in community functional structure primarily via ITV and turnover, respectively. To test this we applied an experimental design across long-term mown and abandoned meadows, with each plot containing a further level of short-term management treatments: mowing, grazing and abandonment. Within each plot, species composition and trait values [height, shoot biomass, and specific leaf area (SLA)] were recorded on up to five individuals per species. Positive covariations between the contribution of species turnover and ITV occurred for height and shoot biomass in response to both short- and long-term management, indicating that species turnover and intraspecific adjustments selected for similar trait values. Positive covariations also occurred for SLA, but only in response to long-term management. The contributions of turnover and ITV changed depending on both the trait and management trajectory. As expected, communities responded to short-term disturbances mostly through changes in intraspecific trait variability, particularly for height and biomass. Interestingly, for SLA they responded to long-term disturbances by both species turnover and intraspecific adjustments. These findings highlight the importance of both ITV and species turnover in adjusting grassland functional trait response to environmental perturbation, and show that the response is trait specific and affected by disturbance regime history.

  2. The status of the Hanaro class 4 power outage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyungkyoo, K.; Hoansung, J.; Jongsup, W.

    2004-01-01

    Electric power is essential for all industrial plant. All who use electric power desire a perfect frequency, voltage stability, and reliability all the time. But this cannot be realized in practice because of the many causes of a power supply disturbance that are beyond the control of the utility. Since the first criticality of the Hanaro research reactor, the major reasons for reactor trips were system malfunctions and inexperienced operators in the initial stage of its operation. As Hanaro is stabilizing, the power supply outage becomes the major reason for a reactor trip. This paper describes the status of power supply outages. This paper deals with not only the outages which have an effect on Hanaro operation but also the reasons for the Hanaro class-4 power outages. The class-4 power is a commercial power which supplies the load centers and the large motors such as primary cooling pumps and secondary cooling pumps. Even if a class-4 power outage occurs, Hanaro is safe because of the reactor cooling by natural convection and the flywheel effect of the primary cooling pumps. The analysis of the characteristics and the trends of the outages can provide clues to how the outages can be minimized and what the impact of the outages are on the operation. For the site-wide class-4 power, the latest failure rate has been 2.36 per year and the mean time to repair is 23,78 minutes for the exponentially weighted mowing average. The unavailability of the Class-4 power is 1.5 10 -4

  3. Roadside verges as habitats for endangered lizard-orchids (Himantoglossum spp.): Ecological traps or refuges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Réka; Nagy, Timea; Bódis, Judit; Biró, Éva; Löki, Viktor; Süveges, Kristóf; Takács, Attila; Tökölyi, Jácint; Molnár V, Attila

    2017-12-31

    Alterations in traditional land use practices have led to severe declines in the area of semi-natural grasslands, thereby seriously threatening plant and animal species dependent on these habitats. Small anthropogenic managed habitats, like roadsides can act as refuges and might play an important role in conserving these species. Colonization of roadside verges by endangered lizard orchids (Himantoglossum spp.) has long been known, but few studies have systematically explored the suitability of roadside habitats for these orchids and the impact of roads on them. In this paper we present results of targeted surveys of three lizard orchid taxa on roadsides from eight European countries. During these surveys we searched for lizard orchids inhabiting roadside verges and recorded their distance from road, aspects of the roadside environment, as well as vegetative and reproductive characteristics of individual plants. We found large numbers of lizard orchids on roadside verges. Distance from roads was not uniformly distributed: orchids occurred more closely to roads than expected by chance. This suggests that regular management of roadsides (e.g. mowing) might enhance colonization and survival of lizard orchids. On the other hand, we also found that close proximity to roads negatively affects reproductive success, suggesting that the immediate vicinity of roads might act as an ecological trap (i.e. favorable in terms of colonization and survival but unfavorable in terms of reproduction). Nonetheless, the fact that significant and viable populations are maintained at roadsides suggests that traditionally managed roadside verges may allow long-term persistence of lizard orchid populations and may serve as refuges in a landscape context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Beneficial Insect Borders Provide Northern Bobwhite Brood Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Christopher E.; Plush, Charles J.; Orr, David B.; Reberg-Horton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes), including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species). Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation) as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds. PMID:24376759

  5. Species Richness Responses to Structural or Compositional Habitat Diversity between and within Grassland Patches: A Multi-Taxon Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Szabolcs; Déri, Eszter; Magura, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Habitat diversity (spatial heterogeneity within and between habitat patches in a landscape, HD) is often invoked as a driver of species diversity at small spatial scales. However, the effect of HD on species richness (SR) of multiple taxa is not well understood. We quantified HD and SR in a wet-dry gradient of open grassland habitats in Hortobágy National Park (E-Hungary) and tested the effect of compositional and structural factors of HD on SR of flowering plants, orthopterans, true bugs, spiders, ground beetles and birds. Our dataset on 434 grassland species (170 plants, 264 animals) showed that the wet-dry gradient (compositional HD at the between-patch scale) was primarily related to SR in orthopterans, ground-dwelling arthropods, and all animals combined. The patchiness, or plant association richness, of the vegetation (compositional HD at the within-patch scale) was related to SR of vegetation-dwelling arthropods, whereas vegetation height (structural HD at the within-patch scale) was related to SR of ground-dwelling arthropods and birds. Patch area was related to SR only in birds, whereas management (grazing, mowing, none) was related to SR of plants and true bugs. All relationships between HD and SR were positive, indicating increasing SR with increasing HD. However, total SR was not related to HD because different taxa showed similar positive responses to different HD variables. Our findings, therefore, show that even though HD positively influences SR in a wide range of grassland taxa, each taxon responds to different compositional or structural measures of HD, resulting in the lack of a consistent relationship between HD and SR when taxon responses are pooled. The idiosyncratic responses shown here exemplify the difficulties in detecting general HD-SR relationships over multiple taxa. Our results also suggest that management and restoration aimed specifically to sustain or increase the diversity of habitats are required to conserve biodiversity in

  6. Thermally evaporated mechanically hard tin oxide thin films for opto-electronic apllications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sumanta K.; Rajeswari, V. P. [Centre for Nano Science and Technology, GVP College of Engineering (Autonomous), Visakhapatnam- 530048 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Tungsten doped tin oxide (WTO) and Molybdenum doped tin oxide (MoTO) thin film were deposited on corn glass by thermal evaporation method. The films were annealed at 350°C for one hour. Structural analysis using Xray diffraction data shows both the films are polycrystalline in nature with monoclinic structure of tin oxide, Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, corresponding to JCPDS card number 01-078-6064. SEM photograph showed that both the films have spherical grains with size in the range of 20–30 nm. Compositional analysis was carried out using EDS which reveals the presence of Sn, O and the dopant Mo/W only thereby indicating the absence of any secondary phase in the films. The films are found to contain nearly 6 wt% of Mo, 8 wt% of W as dopants respectively. The transmission pattern for both the films in the spectral range 200 – 2000 nm shows that W doping gives a transparency of nearly 80% from 380 nm onwards while Mo doping has less transparency of 39% at 380nm. Film hardness measurement using Triboscope shows a film hardness of about 9–10 GPa for both the films. It indicates that W or M doping in tin oxide provides the films the added advantage of withstanding the mechanical wear and tear due to environmental fluctuations By optimizing the optical and electrical properties, W/Mo doped tin oxide films may be explored as window layers in opto-electronic applications such as solar cells.

  7. Effectiveness of cattail ('Typha' spp. management techniques depends on exogenous nitrogen inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Elgersma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands occupy a position in the landscape that makes them vulnerable to the effects of current land use and the legacies of past land use. Many wetlands in agricultural regions like the North American Midwest are strongly affected by elevated nutrient inputs as well as high rates of invasion by the hybrid cattail 'Typha' x 'glauca'. These two stressors also exacerbate each other: increased nutrients increase invasion success, and invasions increase nutrient retention and nutrient loads in the wetland. This interaction could create a positive feedback that would inhibit efforts to manage and control invasions, but little is known about the effects of past or present nutrient inputs on wetland invasive plant management. We augmented a previously-published community-ecosystem model (MONDRIAN to simulate the most common invasive plant management tools: burning, mowing, and herbicide application. We then simulated different management strategies and 3 different durations in low and high nutrient input conditions, and found that the most effective management strategy and duration depends strongly on the amount of nutrients entering the wetland. In high-nutrient wetlands where invasions were most successful, a combination of herbicide and fire was most effective at reducing invasion. However, in low-nutrient wetlands this approach did little to reduce invasion. A longer treatment duration (6 years was generally better than a 1-year treatment in high-nutrient wetlands, but was generally worse than the 1-year treatment in low-nutrient wetlands. At the ecosystem level, we found that management effects were relatively modest: there was little effect of management on ecosystem C storage, and while some management strategies decreased wetland nitrogen retention, this effect was transient and disappeared shortly after management ceased. Our results suggest that considering nutrient inputs in invaded wetlands can inform and improve management, and reducing

  8. Prospects of potential fodder-crops in hilly regions, especially northern areas of pakistan, their production and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Khan, S.

    2005-01-01

    The comparison of green-fodder and dry-matter yields in various winter cereal fodder crops showed that oat is a high fodder-yielding and more nutritive crop than barley, cereal rye wheat and triticale. Average of the three locations in northern areas of Pakistan (i.e. Gilgit, Chilas and Skardu) indicated that green-fodder yield obtained from oats was 54% higher than barley and 50% than cereal rye. It was also determined that oats and barley have greater re-growth potential than triticale. In oats, it was assessed that whole dose of N=75 kg/ha applied at the time of sowing and the split doses of N at the time of sowing and at vegetative stage of the crop increased green-fodder yield by 250% and 287% respectively than control. Improved varieties of oats viz. PD2L V65 and S-81 produced the highest total green-fodder yields of 87.34 and 86.10 t/ha under two cut system. Also re-growth potential of these varieties was the highest than the other cultivars. In winter legume fodder crops, berseem produced two times more green and dry matter yields as compared to shaftal at Gilgit and Chilas. Berseem harvested 6 cm above ground level and 45 days interval showed good results. Protein percentage decreased as cutting intervals increased in berseem crop. The improved lucerne variety Sundor was superior to local variety both in green-fodder and dry-matter yields. The yield of lucerne decreased with the increase in altitude which might be due to low temperattlre, variation in soil fertility and short growing seasons. Green forage and pasture crop species are dried enough to permit their safe storage, without spoilage or serious loss of nutrients. About 70-90% of water present in standing crop at mowing is reduced to 18-20% by sun and wind without adversely affecting nutritive value. (author)

  9. Impact of Collection Equipment on Ash Variability of Baled Corn Stover Biomass for Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Smith; Jeffery Einerson; Kevin Kenney; Ian J. Bonner

    2014-09-01

    Cost-effective conversion of agricultural residues for renewable energy hinges not only on the material’s quality but also the biorefinery’s ability to reliably measure quality specifications. The ash content of biomass is one such specification, influencing pretreatment and disposal costs for the conversion facility and the overall value of a delivered lot of biomass. The biomass harvest process represents a primary pathway for accumulation of soil-derived ash within baled material. In this work, the influence of five collection techniques on the total ash content and variability of ash content within baled corn stover in southwest Kansas is discussed. The equipment tested included a mower for cutting the corn stover stubble, a basket rake, wheel rake, or shred flail to gather the stover, and a mixed or uniform in-feed baler for final collection. The results showed mean ash content to range from 11.5 to 28.2 % depending on operational choice. Resulting impacts on feedstock costs for a biochemical conversion process range from $5.38 to $22.30 Mg-1 based on the loss of convertible dry matter and ash disposal costs. Collection techniques that minimized soil contact (shred flail or nonmowed stubble) were shown to prevent excessive ash contamination, whereas more aggressive techniques (mowing and use of a wheel rake) caused greater soil disturbance and entrainment within the final baled material. Material sampling and testing were shown to become more difficult as within-bale ash variability increased, creating uncertainty around feedstock quality and the associated costs of ash mitigation.

  10. Assessing insecticide hazard to bumble bees foraging on flowering weeds in treated lawns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L Larson

    Full Text Available Maintaining bee-friendly habitats in cities and suburbs can help conserve the vital pollination services of declining bee populations. Despite label precautions not to apply them to blooming plants, neonicotinoids and other residual systemic insecticides may be applied for preventive control of lawn insect pests when spring-flowering weeds are present. Dietary exposure to neonicotinoids adversely affects bees, but the extent of hazard from field usage is controversial. We exposed colonies of the bumble bee Bombus impatiens to turf with blooming white clover that had been treated with clothianidin, a neonicotinoid, or with chlorantraniliprole, the first anthranilic diamide labeled for use on lawns. The sprays were applied at label rate and lightly irrigated. After residues had dried, colonies were confined to forage for six days, and then moved to a non-treated rural site to openly forage and develop. Colonies exposed to clothianidin-treated weedy turf had delayed weight gain and produced no new queens whereas those exposed to chlorantraniliprole-treated plots developed normally compared with controls. Neither bumble bees nor honey bees avoided foraging on treated white clover in open plots. Nectar from clover blooms directly contaminated by spray residues contained 171±44 ppb clothianidin. Notably, neither insecticide adversely impacted bee colonies confined on the treated turf after it had been mown to remove clover blooms present at the time of treatment, and new blooms had formed. Our results validate EPA label precautionary statements not to apply neonicotinoids to blooming nectar-producing plants if bees may visit the treatment area. Whatever systemic hazard through lawn weeds they may pose appears transitory, however, and direct hazard can be mitigated by adhering to label precautions, or if blooms inadvertently are contaminated, by mowing to remove them. Chlorantraniliprole usage on lawns appears non-hazardous to bumble bees.

  11. Controls on anastomosis in lowland river systems: Towards process-based solutions to habitat conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Paweł; Grabowski, Robert C; Okruszko, Tomasz

    2017-12-31

    Anastomosing rivers were historically common around the world before extensive agricultural and industrial development in river valleys. Few lowland anastomosing rivers remain in temperate zones, and the protection of these river-floodplain systems is an international conservation priority. However, the mechanisms that drive the creation and maintenance of multiple channels, i.e. anabranches, are not well understood, particularly for lowland rivers, making it challenging to identify effective management strategies. This study uses a novel multi-scale, process-based hydro-geomorphological approach to investigate the natural and anthropogenic controls on anastomosis in lowland river reaches. Using a wide range of data (hydrologic, cartographic, remote-sensing, historical), the study (i) quantifies changes in the planform of the River Narew, Poland over the last 100years, (ii) documents changes in the natural and anthropogenic factors that could be driving the geomorphic change, and (iii) develops a conceptual model of the controls of anastomosis. The results show that 110km of anabranches have been lost from the Narew National Park (6810ha), a 42% reduction in total anabranch length since 1900. The rates of anabranch loss have increased as the number of pressures inhibiting anabranch creation and maintenance has multiplied. The cessation of localized water level and channel management (fishing dams, water mills and timber rafting), the loss of traditional floodplain activities (seasonal mowing) and infrastructure construction (embanked roads and an upstream dam) are contributing to low water levels and flows, the deposition of sediment at anabranch inlets, the encroachment of common reed (Phragmites australis), and the eventual loss of anabranches. By identifying the processes driving the loss of anabranches, this study provides transferable insights into the controls of anastomosis in lowland rivers and the management solutions needed to preserve the unique

  12. Land-use intensification causes multitrophic homogenization of grassland communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, Martin M; Lewinsohn, Thomas M; Kahl, Tiemo; Grassein, Fabrice; Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Birkhofer, Klaus; Renner, Swen C; Sikorski, Johannes; Wubet, Tesfaye; Arndt, Hartmut; Baumgartner, Vanessa; Blaser, Stefan; Blüthgen, Nico; Börschig, Carmen; Buscot, Francois; Diekötter, Tim; Jorge, Leonardo Ré; Jung, Kirsten; Keyel, Alexander C; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Klemmer, Sandra; Krauss, Jochen; Lange, Markus; Müller, Jörg; Overmann, Jörg; Pašalić, Esther; Penone, Caterina; Perović, David J; Purschke, Oliver; Schall, Peter; Socher, Stephanie A; Sonnemann, Ilja; Tschapka, Marco; Tscharntke, Teja; Türke, Manfred; Venter, Paul Christiaan; Weiner, Christiane N; Werner, Michael; Wolters, Volkmar; Wurst, Susanne; Westphal, Catrin; Fischer, Markus; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Allan, Eric

    2016-12-08

    Land-use intensification is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Alongside reductions in local species diversity, biotic homogenization at larger spatial scales is of great concern for conservation. Biotic homogenization means a decrease in β-diversity (the compositional dissimilarity between sites). Most studies have investigated losses in local (α)-diversity and neglected biodiversity loss at larger spatial scales. Studies addressing β-diversity have focused on single or a few organism groups (for example, ref. 4), and it is thus unknown whether land-use intensification homogenizes communities at different trophic levels, above- and belowground. Here we show that even moderate increases in local land-use intensity (LUI) cause biotic homogenization across microbial, plant and animal groups, both above- and belowground, and that this is largely independent of changes in α-diversity. We analysed a unique grassland biodiversity dataset, with abundances of more than 4,000 species belonging to 12 trophic groups. LUI, and, in particular, high mowing intensity, had consistent effects on β-diversity across groups, causing a homogenization of soil microbial, fungal pathogen, plant and arthropod communities. These effects were nonlinear and the strongest declines in β-diversity occurred in the transition from extensively managed to intermediate intensity grassland. LUI tended to reduce local α-diversity in aboveground groups, whereas the α-diversity increased in belowground groups. Correlations between the β-diversity of different groups, particularly between plants and their consumers, became weaker at high LUI. This suggests a loss of specialist species and is further evidence for biotic homogenization. The consistently negative effects of LUI on landscape-scale biodiversity underscore the high value of extensively managed grasslands for conserving multitrophic biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Indeed, biotic homogenization rather than local diversity

  13. Assessing Insecticide Hazard to Bumble Bees Foraging on Flowering Weeds in Treated Lawns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jonathan L.; Redmond, Carl T.; Potter, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining bee-friendly habitats in cities and suburbs can help conserve the vital pollination services of declining bee populations. Despite label precautions not to apply them to blooming plants, neonicotinoids and other residual systemic insecticides may be applied for preventive control of lawn insect pests when spring-flowering weeds are present. Dietary exposure to neonicotinoids adversely affects bees, but the extent of hazard from field usage is controversial. We exposed colonies of the bumble bee Bombus impatiens to turf with blooming white clover that had been treated with clothianidin, a neonicotinoid, or with chlorantraniliprole, the first anthranilic diamide labeled for use on lawns. The sprays were applied at label rate and lightly irrigated. After residues had dried, colonies were confined to forage for six days, and then moved to a non-treated rural site to openly forage and develop. Colonies exposed to clothianidin-treated weedy turf had delayed weight gain and produced no new queens whereas those exposed to chlorantraniliprole-treated plots developed normally compared with controls. Neither bumble bees nor honey bees avoided foraging on treated white clover in open plots. Nectar from clover blooms directly contaminated by spray residues contained 171±44 ppb clothianidin. Notably, neither insecticide adversely impacted bee colonies confined on the treated turf after it had been mown to remove clover blooms present at the time of treatment, and new blooms had formed. Our results validate EPA label precautionary statements not to apply neonicotinoids to blooming nectar-producing plants if bees may visit the treatment area. Whatever systemic hazard through lawn weeds they may pose appears transitory, however, and direct hazard can be mitigated by adhering to label precautions, or if blooms inadvertently are contaminated, by mowing to remove them. Chlorantraniliprole usage on lawns appears non-hazardous to bumble bees. PMID:23776667

  14. Management of invasive plant species in the valley of the River Ślepiotka in Katowice – the example of the REURIS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frelich Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, programmes aimed at improving environmental conditions in river valleys within urban spaces have been initiated in many of the European Community countries. An example is the project “Revitalization of Urban River Spaces – REURIS” which was implemented in 2009-2012. Its main aim was to revitalize a part of the valley of the River Ślepiotka in Katowice. One of the tasks of the project was a comprehensive treatment to combat invasive plant species occurring in this area, carried out by using a combination of chemical and mechanical methods. Chemical treatment involved the application of herbicide mixtures, and mechanical treatment included, among others, mowing and/or removal of the undesirable plants. The work focused primarily on reducing the spread of two species of the Impatiens genus: I. glandulifera and I. parviflora, and the species Padus serotina, Reynoutria japonica and Solidago canadensis. Currently, the maintenance works on this section of the river are performed by the Urban Greenery Department in Katowice, which continues the elimination of invasive plants, according to the objectives of the REURIS program. In 2012 the Department of Botany and Nature Protection at the Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection started to monitor the implementation and the effects of the implemented actions for elimination and participated in the action of removal of selected invasive plant species: Impatiens parviflora and Reynoutria japonica within specific areas. These actions led to a reduction in the area occupied by invasive plants and a weakening of their growth rate and ability to reproduce.

  15. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Aleksandar S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full development. During the vegetative period three replications cut was conducted at about 3-5 cm height, imitating mowing and grazing. The concentrations of As and Ni were elevated in media samples collected from TENT A ash deposit, while the level of all studied elements in soil samples collected from cultivated land were within allowed limits. The variance of certain elements amounts in plant material collected from TENT A ash deposit was less homogeneous; the concentrations of As, Fe and Ni were higher in grasses collected from ash deposit, but Pb and Cu concentrations were higher in grasses grown on cultivated land. The concentrations of Zn were approximately the same in plants collected from the sites, whereas Cd concentrations were slightly increased in grasses grown on ash deposit. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this study that the concentrations of heavy metals in plants collected from both sites do not exceed maximal tolerant levels for fodder. The use of grasses grown on ash deposit for forage production should be taken with reserve. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31016: Unapređenje tehnologije gajenja krmnih biljaka na oranicama i travnjacima

  16. Effect of vegetation on the energy balance and evapotranspiration in tallgrass prairie: a paired study with eddy covariance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Zou, C.; Wilcox, B. P.; Stebler, E.

    2017-12-01

    Whole-year measurement with eddy covariance system was carried out over two adjoining plots with contrasting vegetation coverage in tallgrass prairie, one was treated with herbicide and mowing while the other one kept as undisturbed control. The magnitude and phase difference between soil heat storage and ground heat flux were explicitly examined for its relative weights and energy balance. Surface turbulent flux (sensible heat and latent heat) accounted for about 85% of available energy at both sites, implying that vegetation coverage didn't significantly influence the closure scenario of energy imbalance. The seasonal and daily pattern of energy partitioning were dramatically different between the contrasting sites during growing season. The treated site received slightly lower net radiation due to high albedo, had higher sensible heat, and reduced latent heat due to reduction on transpiration. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) in treated site was only accounts for about 73% of annual ET in control. Meanwhile, lower surface conductance and decoupling factor showed that vegetation removal would increase the sensibility of ET to vapor pressure deficit and soil drought. ET dynamics is controlled by leaf area and net radiation when soil moisture is high, while soil drought caused stomata closure and subdued ET during drought. Stomata closure and transpiration reduction caused decline in ET, surface conductance, and decoupling factor. Soil moisture storage served as an important reservoir to meet peak ET demand during growing season. In summary, ET was the dominant component of water balance in tallgrass prairie, and any land management alterring the albedo, soil mositure storage, or canopy phenology (e.g., NDVI) could significantly affect energy and water budgets in .

  17. How ecosystem services knowledge and values influence farmers' decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pénélope Lamarque

    Full Text Available The ecosystem services (ES concept has emerged and spread widely recently, to enhance the importance of preserving ecosystems through global change in order to maintain their benefits for human well-being. Numerous studies consider various dimensions of the interactions between ecosystems and land use via ES, but integrated research addressing the complete feedback loop between biodiversity, ES and land use has remained mostly theoretical. Few studies consider feedbacks from ecosystems to land use systems through ES, exploring how ES are taken into account in land management decisions. To fill this gap, we carried out a role-playing game to explore how ES cognition mediates feedbacks from environmental change on farmers' behaviors in a mountain grassland system. On a close to real landscape game board, farmers were faced with changes in ES under climatic and socio-economic scenarios and prompted to plan for the future and to take land management decisions as they deemed necessary. The outcomes of role-playing game were complemented with additional agronomic and ecological data from interviews and fieldwork. The effects of changes in ES on decision were mainly direct, i.e. not affecting knowledge and values, when they constituted situations with which farmers were accustomed. For example, a reduction of forage quantity following droughts led farmers to shift from mowing to grazing. Sometimes, ES cognitions were affected by ES changes or by external factors, leading to an indirect feedback. This happened when fertilization was stopped after farmers learned that it was inefficient in a drought context. Farmers' behaviors did not always reflect their attitudes towards ES because other factors including topographic constraints, social value of farming or farmer individual and household characteristics also influenced land-management decisions. Those results demonstrated the interest to take into account the complete feedback loop between ES and land

  18. Synthesis of molybdenum and tungsten modified composite systems based on bisorbent from rice husk

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    Duisek Haisagalievich Kamysbaev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of the synthesis of a new composite material modified with polyvalent metals. Rice husk was chosen as a raw material for obtaining a carrier – a bisorbent consisting of carbon and amorphous silicon oxide. The sorption material was obtained from the products of thermal decomposition of rice husks. Further it was modified with ammonium salts of molybdenum and tungsten: (NH46Mo7O24·4H2O and (NH42O·12WO3·5H2O in Mo/W ratios: 5/5 wt. %, 10/5 wt. % and reducted by heating in a stream of hydrogen. The registration of the voltammetric curves in the medium of 1-methyl-4-piperidone was carried out in various background electrolytes: 0.2 M Li2SO4, pH = 6.36 and 0.1 M KOH, pH = 13, 2,5·10–2 M K2HPO4 + 2,5·10–2 M NaH2PO4, pH = 6.86. Differential voltammetric curves were analyzed. The electrochemical activity of the obtained modified composites in the potential range from -1.2 V to 0.5 V was determinated. The mechanism of the proceeding electrochemical processes on these modified electrode materials has been studied. The possibility of further use of synthesized composite systems based on bisorbents from the rice husk for the electrochemical reduction of 1-methyl-4-piperidone was shown.

  19. Physical-hydraulic properties of a sandy loam typic paleudalf soil under organic cultivation of 'montenegrina' mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Valverde dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are the most important fruit species in the world, with emphasis to oranges, mandarins and lemons. In Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, most fruit production is found on small properties under organic cultivation. Soil compaction is one of the factors limiting production and due to the fixed row placement of this crop, compaction can arise in various manners in the interrows of the orchard. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil physical properties and water infiltration capacity in response to interrow management in an orchard of mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore 'Montenegrina' under organic cultivation. Interrow management was performed through harrowing, logs in em "V", mowing, and cutting/knocking down plants with a knife roller. Soil physical properties were evaluated in the wheel tracks of the tractor (WT, between the wheel tracks (BWT, and in the area under the line projection of the canopy (CLP, with undisturbed soil samples collected in the 0.00-0.15, 0.15-0.30, 0.30-0.45, and 0.45-0.60 m layers, with four replicates. The soil water infiltration test was performed using the concentric cylinder method, with a maximum time of 90 min for each test. In general, soil analysis showed a variation in the physical-hydraulic properties of the Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico arênico (sandy loam Typic Paleudalf in the three sampling sites in all layers, regardless of the management procedure in the interrows. Machinery traffic leads to heterogeneity in the soil physical-hydraulic properties in the interrows of the orchard. Soil porosity and bulk density are affected especially in the wheel tracks of the tractor (WT, which causes a reduction in the constant rate of infiltration and in the accumulated infiltration of water in this sampling site. The use of the disk harrow and mower leads to greater harmful effects on the soil, which can interfere with mandarin production.

  20. Magnetic transition in double perovskite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, O., E-mail: navarro@servidor.unam.m [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-360, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Aguilar, B. [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de Magnetismo Natural, Instituto de Geofisica, Sede Michoacan, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia (Mexico); Avignon, M. [Institut Neel, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-05-15

    The search for materials having complete spin polarization and high Curie temperature have received a lot of attention in view of spintronics applications, especially the ferromagnetic (F) Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6}, because of its fairly high Curie temperature (T{sub C}= 450 K), half-metallic character, large magnetoresistance and potential applications. On the other hand, Sr{sub 2}FeWO{sub 6} is insulating and antiferromagnetic (AF) with T{sub N}=37K. With a double exchange type model it has been shown that F-AF transition can be driven by super-exchange interactions with increasing Fe-M (M=Mo, W) charge transfer energy. So, the charge transfer energy is expected to be larger in FeW than in FeMo compounds. Using a tight-binding model with the renormalized perturbation expansion technique, we determine the density of states for the AF phase and the electronic energy difference for the F- and AF-phases as a function of the Fe-M charge transfer energy. The F-AF transition in the ordered system Sr{sub 2}FeMo{sub x}W{sub 1-x}O{sub 6} occurs for xapprox0.3, in good agreement with the experimental value. We also studied the effect of the diagonal disorder in the variation of the number of conduction electrons on Fe and M sites. Finally, the behavior of the Curie temperature as a function of the Mo/W concentration is determined.

  1. Estimating temporal trend in the presence of spatial complexity: a Bayesian hierarchical model for a wetland plant population undergoing restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Rodhouse

    Full Text Available Monitoring programs that evaluate restoration and inform adaptive management are important for addressing environmental degradation. These efforts may be well served by spatially explicit hierarchical approaches to modeling because of unavoidable spatial structure inherited from past land use patterns and other factors. We developed bayesian hierarchical models to estimate trends from annual density counts observed in a spatially structured wetland forb (Camassia quamash [camas] population following the cessation of grazing and mowing on the study area, and in a separate reference population of camas. The restoration site was bisected by roads and drainage ditches, resulting in distinct subpopulations ("zones" with different land use histories. We modeled this spatial structure by fitting zone-specific intercepts and slopes. We allowed spatial covariance parameters in the model to vary by zone, as in stratified kriging, accommodating anisotropy and improving computation and biological interpretation. Trend estimates provided evidence of a positive effect of passive restoration, and the strength of evidence was influenced by the amount of spatial structure in the model. Allowing trends to vary among zones and accounting for topographic heterogeneity increased precision of trend estimates. Accounting for spatial autocorrelation shifted parameter coefficients in ways that varied among zones depending on strength of statistical shrinkage, autocorrelation and topographic heterogeneity--a phenomenon not widely described. Spatially explicit estimates of trend from hierarchical models will generally be more useful to land managers than pooled regional estimates and provide more realistic assessments of uncertainty. The ability to grapple with historical contingency is an appealing benefit of this approach.

  2. How Ecosystem Services Knowledge and Values Influence Farmers' Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarque, Pénélope; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Nettier, Baptiste; Lavorel, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The ecosystem services (ES) concept has emerged and spread widely recently, to enhance the importance of preserving ecosystems through global change in order to maintain their benefits for human well-being. Numerous studies consider various dimensions of the interactions between ecosystems and land use via ES, but integrated research addressing the complete feedback loop between biodiversity, ES and land use has remained mostly theoretical. Few studies consider feedbacks from ecosystems to land use systems through ES, exploring how ES are taken into account in land management decisions. To fill this gap, we carried out a role-playing game to explore how ES cognition mediates feedbacks from environmental change on farmers' behaviors in a mountain grassland system. On a close to real landscape game board, farmers were faced with changes in ES under climatic and socio-economic scenarios and prompted to plan for the future and to take land management decisions as they deemed necessary. The outcomes of role-playing game were complemented with additional agronomic and ecological data from interviews and fieldwork. The effects of changes in ES on decision were mainly direct, i.e. not affecting knowledge and values, when they constituted situations with which farmers were accustomed. For example, a reduction of forage quantity following droughts led farmers to shift from mowing to grazing. Sometimes, ES cognitions were affected by ES changes or by external factors, leading to an indirect feedback. This happened when fertilization was stopped after farmers learned that it was inefficient in a drought context. Farmers' behaviors did not always reflect their attitudes towards ES because other factors including topographic constraints, social value of farming or farmer individual and household characteristics also influenced land-management decisions. Those results demonstrated the interest to take into account the complete feedback loop between ES and land management

  3. Species frequency dynamics in an old-field succession: Effects of disturbance, fertilization and scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, D.J.; Middleton, B.A.; Foster, K.; Honu, Y.A.K.; Hoyer, E.W.; Mathis, M.

    2005-01-01

    Question: Can patterns of species frequency in an old-field be explained within the context of a metapopulation model? Are the patterns observed related to time, spatial scale, disturbance, and nutrient availability? Location: Upland and lowland old-fields in Illinois, USA. Method: Species richness was recorded annually for seven years following plowing of an upland and lowland old-field subject to crossed fertilizer and disturbance treatments (mowing and rototilling). Species occupancy distributions were assessed with respect to the numbers of core and satellite species. Results: In both fields, species richness became higher in disturbed plots than in undisturbed plots over time, and decreased in fertilized plots irrespective of time. A bimodal pattern of species richness consistent with the Core-satellite species (CSS) hypothesis occurred in the initial seed bank and through the course of early succession. The identity of native and exotic core species (those present in > 90% of blocks) changed with time. Some core species from the seed bank became core species in the vegetation, albeit after several years. At the scale of individual plots, a bimodal fit consistent with the CSS hypothesis applied only in year 1 and rarely thereafter. Conclusions: The CSS hypothesis provides a metapopulation perspective for understanding patterns of species richness but requires the assessment of spatial and temporal scaling effects. Regional processes (e.g. propagule availability) at the largest scale have the greatest impact influencing community structure during early secondary succession. Local processes (e.g., disturbance and soil nutrients) are more important at smaller scales and place constraints on species establishment and community structure of both native and exotic species. Under the highest intensity of disturbance, exotic species may be able to use resources unavailable to, or unused by, native species. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  4. Surveying managers to inform a regionally relevant invasive Phragmites australis control research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohal, C B; Kettenring, K M; Sims, K; Hazelton, E L G; Ma, Z

    2018-01-15

    Managers of invasive species consider the peer-reviewed literature only moderately helpful for guiding their management programs. Though this "knowing-doing gap" has been well-described, there have been few efforts to guide scientists in how to develop useful and usable science. Here we demonstrate how a comprehensive survey of managers (representing 42 wetland management units across the Great Salt Lake watershed) can highlight management practices and challenges (here for the widespread invasive plant, Phragmites australis, a recent and aggressive invader in this region) to ultimately inform a research program. The diversity of surveyed organizations had wide-ranging amounts of Phragmites which led to different goals and approaches including more aggressive control targets and a wider array of control tools for smaller, private organizations compared to larger government-run properties. We found that nearly all managers (97%) used herbicide as their primary Phragmites control tool, while burning (65%), livestock grazing (49%), and mowing (43%) were also frequently used. Managers expressed uncertainties regarding the timing of herbicide application and type of herbicide for effective control. Trade-offs between different Phragmites treatments were driven by budgetary concerns, as well as environmental conditions like water levels and social constraints like permitting issues. Managers had specific ideas about the plant communities they desired following Phragmites control, yet revegetation of native species was rarely attempted. The results of this survey informed the development of large-scale, multi-year Phragmites control and native plant revegetation experiments to address management uncertainties regarding herbicide type and timing. The survey also facilitated initial scientist-manager communication, which led to collaborations and knowledge co-production between managers and researchers. An important outcome of the survey was that experimental results were

  5. Effects of grassland management on the emission of methane from grassland on peat soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oenema, O. [Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    The aim of the project on the title subject is to provide insight into the major controlling factors that contribute to the net exchange rates of methane (CH4) between grassland and atmosphere, and to provide quantitative net CH4 emission rates. Net CH4 emissions have been monitored with vented closed flux chambers on both intensively managed grasslands and grasslands in a nature preserve on peat soil in the Netherlands. Net CH4 emissions from intensively managed grasslands (Zegveld, Netherlands) were low in the period January-December 1994, in general in the range of -0.2 to 0.2 mg CH4 m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. Only in the relatively warm summer of 1994, consumption of atmospheric CH4 of about 0.4 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} was measured. Effects of ground water level in the range of 30-60 cm below surface were very small. There were also no clear effects of nitrogen fertilization and grazing versus mowing on CH4 emission from the soil. Net CH4 emissions from three extensively managed grasslands in a nature preserve (Nieuwkoopse Plassen area in the Netherlands) ranged from 0-215 mg CH4 m{sup -2} d{sup -1} in the period January 1994-June 1995. Differences between the three sites were quite large, as were the spatial variations at each of the sites. The results presented here indicate that a shift of intensively managed peat grasslands into more natural ecosystems will significantly increase the contribution of Dutch peat soils to the total CH4 emission. refs.

  6. Coupling effects of tungsten and molybdenum on microstructure and stress-rupture properties of a nickel-base cast superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjin Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to comprehensively understand the forming mechanism of abnormal phases solidified in a nickel-base cast superalloy with additives of tungsten and molybdenum, the coupling effects of W and Mo on the microstructure and stress-rupture properties were investigated in this paper. The results indicated that the precipitation of primary α-(W, Mo phase depended tremendously on the amount of W and Mo addition. When the total amount of W and Mo was greater than 5.79 at%, α-(W, Mo phase became easily precipitated in the alloy. With increasing of Mo/W ratio, the dendrite-like α-(W, Mo phases were apt to convert into small bars or blocky-like phases at the vicinities of γ′/γ eutectic. The morphological changes of α-(W, Mo phase can be interpreted as the non-equilibrium solidification of W and Mo in the alloy. Since the large sized α-(W, Mo phase has detrimental effects on stress-rupture properties in as-cast conditions, secondary cracks may mainly initiate at and then propagate along the interfaces of brittle phases and soft matrix. During exposing at 1100 ℃ for 1000 h, the α-(W, Mo phases transformed gradually into bigger and harder M6C carbide, which results in decreasing of stress-rupture properties of the alloy. Finally, the alloy with an addition of 14W-1Mo(wt% maintained the longest stress lives at high temperatures and therefore it revealed the best microstructure stability after 1100 ℃/1000 h thermal exposure. Keywords: Superalloy, Tungsten and molybdenum, Cast, Microstructure, Stress-rupture properties

  7. Analysis of annual exposure of private farmers to noise and whole body vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Solecki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a literature review for the period of 1982– 2011, an analysis was performed of studies by various researchers concerning the exposure of private farmers to noise and vibration of the whole body with particular consideration of the annual exposure to these factors. The main sources of noise occurring in agriculture are: agricultural tractors mounted with a set of farm machinery, self-propelled machines, machinery for the production of fodder and workshop equipment. The review of literature showed that the highest values of equivalent exposure to noise (EA, T or noise doses (d were noted during the summer-autumn season and in spring. Mean noise levels for the entire year (of over 90 dB-A, considerably exceeded permissible values.The primary sources of the whole body vibration are agricultural vehicles including agricultural tractors of various types and self-propelled agricultural vehicles. In these vehicles vibration transmitted from the seat to the whole body is of basic importance. The measurements of vibration acceleration indicated that mechanical vibration on seats was produced while performing following activities: hay tedding and raking, sowing of fertilizers, aggregation of soil, grass mowing and cultivation. All of them may create a considerable health risk. These work activities are performed at elevated working speeds of tractors, most often along with hardened or uneven surfaces. In relation to the standard values (A(840.8 m/s2, the mean daily vibration acceleration values remain below the permissible levels during all months of the year. However, considering the occurrence of mechanical shocks of high values (above the Maximum Acceptable Intensity on agricultural vehicles there is a high risk for the spine problems among operators of agricultural vehicles.

  8. Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mattioli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicità di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalità tra i piccoli e gli adulti è diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni

  9. Combined use of FORMOSAT-2 images with a crop model for biomass and water monitoring of permanent grassland in Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courault, D.; Hadria, R.; Ruget, F.; Olioso, A.; Duchemin, B.; Hagolle, O.; Dedieu, G.

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to propose methods to improve crop and water management in Mediterranean regions. At landscape scale, there is a spatial variability of agricultural practices, particularly for grasslands irrigated by flooding. These grasslands are harvested three times per year and produce high quality hay, but their productions decreased significantly during the last few years because of the water scarcity. It is therefore important to assess the real water requirement for crops in order to predict productions in the case of agricultural practice modifications. Until now, the spatial variability of agricultural practices was obtained through surveys from farmers, but this method was tedious to describe an entire region. Thus, the specific aim of the study is to develop and assess a new method based on a crop model for estimating water balance and crop yield constrained by products derived from optical remote sensing data with high spatio-temporal resolution. A methodology, based on the combined use of FORMOSAT-2 images and the STICS crop model, was developed to estimate production, evapotranspiration and drainage of irrigated grasslands in "the Crau" region in the South Eastern France. Numerous surveys and ground measurements were performed during an experiment conducted in 2006. Simple algorithms were developed to retrieve the dynamic of Leaf Area Index (LAI) for each plot and the main agricultural practices such as mowing and irrigation dates. These variables computed from remote sensing were then used to parameterize STICS, applied at region scale to estimate the spatial variability of water budget associated with the biomass productions. Results are displayed at the farm scale. Satisfactory results were obtained when compared to ground measurements. The method for the extrapolation to other regions or crops is discussed as regard to data available.

  10. Combined use of FORMOSAT-2 images with a crop model for biomass and water monitoring of permanent grassland in Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Courault

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to propose methods to improve crop and water management in Mediterranean regions. At landscape scale, there is a spatial variability of agricultural practices, particularly for grasslands irrigated by flooding. These grasslands are harvested three times per year and produce high quality hay, but their productions decreased significantly during the last few years because of the water scarcity. It is therefore important to assess the real water requirement for crops in order to predict productions in the case of agricultural practice modifications. Until now, the spatial variability of agricultural practices was obtained through surveys from farmers, but this method was tedious to describe an entire region. Thus, the specific aim of the study is to develop and assess a new method based on a crop model for estimating water balance and crop yield constrained by products derived from optical remote sensing data with high spatio-temporal resolution.

    A methodology, based on the combined use of FORMOSAT-2 images and the STICS crop model, was developed to estimate production, evapotranspiration and drainage of irrigated grasslands in "the Crau" region in the South Eastern France. Numerous surveys and ground measurements were performed during an experiment conducted in 2006. Simple algorithms were developed to retrieve the dynamic of Leaf Area Index (LAI for each plot and the main agricultural practices such as mowing and irrigation dates. These variables computed from remote sensing were then used to parameterize STICS, applied at region scale to estimate the spatial variability of water budget associated with the biomass productions. Results are displayed at the farm scale. Satisfactory results were obtained when compared to ground measurements. The method for the extrapolation to other regions or crops is discussed as regard to data available.

  11. Remotely-Sensed Detection of Foreclosure Effects on Residential Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, B.; Minn, M.; Pavlovic, N. R.; Greenberg, J. A.; Fraterrigo, J.; Turner, V. K.

    2014-12-01

    This project aims to understand whether the foreclosure crisis of 2007-2010 led to change in yard management with consequences for property and neighborhood land cover. By triangulating across analyses that vary in spatial and temporal resolution, this study examines whether foreclosure has resulted in changes in household and neighborhood vegetation structure. One common hypothesis is that the of financial distress is a reduction in lawn management (mowing, irrigating, and fertilizing ) due to economic constraint, vacancy or abandonment. However, changes in these practices differ across space as they are mediated by individual idiosyncrasies as well as complex social norms encoded in formal and informal institutions. The aim of our broader research project is to gain understanding of how foreclosure changes yard management within the context of these institutions. This poster presents preliminary results of analyses that aim to understand the relationship between foreclosure and land cover change in Maricopa County (Phoenix), Arizona. We synthesize foreclosure data with other social data sources focused on demographics, property characteristics, and vacancy to quantify both general and spatially dependent signatures of foreclosure in remotely-sensed NDVI data from MODIS and LANDSAT. Through results from multiple sources of data, we aim to isolate and describe signals that can be correlated with housing distress and foreclosure-induced vacancy. Arizona is analytically advantageous as area with an arid climate where the vegetation changes resulting from cessation of lawn maintenance are often dramatic and clearly observable. Our preliminary analysis indicates that there are specific NDVI signatures reflecting differing landscape-maintenance responses to foreclosure, supporting our central thesis that foreclosure influences land cover. These results provide a foundation upon which we will engage in both detailed investigation of the environmental effects of this

  12. Organic farming benefits local plant diversity in vineyard farms located in intensive agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Maurizio G

    2012-05-01

    The majority of research on organic farming has considered arable and grassland farming systems in Central and Northern Europe, whilst only a few studies have been carried out in Mediterranean agro-systems, such as vineyards, despite their economic importance. The main aim of the study was to test whether organic farming enhances local plant species richness in both crop and non-crop areas of vineyard farms located in intensive conventional landscapes. Nine conventional and nine organic farms were selected in an intensively cultivated region (i.e. no gradient in landscape composition) in northern Italy. In each farm, vascular plants were sampled in one vineyard and in two non-crop linear habitats, grass strips and hedgerows, adjacent to vineyards and therefore potentially influenced by farming. We used linear mixed models to test the effect of farming, and species longevity (annual vs. perennial) separately for the three habitat types. In our intensive agricultural landscapes organic farming promoted local plant species richness in vineyard fields, and grassland strips while we found no effect for linear hedgerows. Differences in species richness were not associated to differences in species composition, indicating that similar plant communities were hosted in vineyard farms independently of the management type. This negative effect of conventional farming was probably due to the use of herbicides, while mechanical operations and mowing regime did not differ between organic and conventional farms. In grassland strips, and only marginally in vineyards, we found that the positive effect of organic farming was more pronounced for perennial than annual species.

  13. Plant Materials are Sustainable Substrates Supporting New Technologies of Plant-Only-Based Culture Media for in vitro Culturing of the Plant Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Elhussein F; Sarhan, Mohamed S; Daanaa, Hassan-Sibroe A; Abdou, Mennatullah; Morsi, Ahmed T; Abdelfadeel, Mohamed R; Elsawey, Hend; Nemr, Rahma; El-Tahan, Mahmoud; Hamza, Mervat A; Abbas, Mohamed; Youssef, Hanan H; Abdelhadi, Abdelhadi A; Amer, Wafaa M; Fayez, Mohamed; Ruppel, Silke; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2018-03-29

    In order to improve the culturability and biomass production of rhizobacteria, we previously introduced plant-only-based culture media. We herein attempted to widen the scope of plant materials suitable for the preparation of plant-only-based culture media. We chemically analyzed the refuse of turfgrass, cactus, and clover. They were sufficiently rich to support good in vitro growth by rhizobacteria isolates representing Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. They were also adequate and efficient to produce a cell biomass in liquid batch cultures. These culture media were as sufficient as artificial culture media for the cultivation and recovery of the in situ rhizobacteria of barley (Hordeum murinum L.). Based on culture-dependent (CFU plate counting) and culture-independent analyses (qPCR), mowed turfgrass, in particular, supported the highest culturable population of barley endophytes, representing >16% of the total bacterial number quantified with qPCR. This accurately reflected the endophytic community composition, in terms of diversity indices (S', H', and D') based on PCR-DGGE, and clustered the plant culture media together with the qPCR root populations away from the artificial culture media. Despite the promiscuous nature of the plant materials tested to culture the plant microbiome, our results indicated that plant materials of a homologous nature to the tested host plant, at least at the family level, and/or of the same environment were more likely to be selected. Plant-only-based culture media require further refinements in order to provide selectivity for the in vitro growth of members of the plant microbiome, particularly difficult-to-culture bacteria. This will provide insights into their hidden roles in the environment and support future culturomic studies.

  14. Resource-Mediated Indirect Effects of Grassland Management on Arthropod Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Nadja K.; Gossner, Martin M.; Lewinsohn, Thomas M.; Boch, Steffen; Lange, Markus; Müller, Jörg; Pašalić, Esther; Socher, Stephanie A.; Türke, Manfred; Fischer, Markus; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2014-01-01

    Intensive land use is a driving force for biodiversity decline in many ecosystems. In semi-natural grasslands, land-use activities such as mowing, grazing and fertilization affect the diversity of plants and arthropods, but the combined effects of different drivers and the chain of effects are largely unknown. In this study we used structural equation modelling to analyse how the arthropod communities in managed grasslands respond to land use and whether these responses are mediated through changes in resource diversity or resource quantity (biomass). Plants were considered resources for herbivores which themselves were considered resources for predators. Plant and arthropod (herbivores and predators) communities were sampled on 141 meadows, pastures and mown pastures within three regions in Germany in 2008 and 2009. Increasing land-use intensity generally increased plant biomass and decreased plant diversity, mainly through increasing fertilization. Herbivore diversity decreased together with plant diversity but showed no response to changes in plant biomass. Hence, land-use effects on herbivore diversity were mediated through resource diversity rather than quantity. Land-use effects on predator diversity were mediated by both herbivore diversity (resource diversity) and herbivore quantity (herbivore biomass), but indirect effects through resource quantity were stronger. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing both direct and indirect effects of land-use intensity and mode on different trophic levels. In addition to the overall effects, there were subtle differences between the different regions, pointing to the importance of regional land-use specificities. Our study underlines the commonly observed strong effect of grassland land use on biodiversity. It also highlights that mechanistic approaches help us to understand how different land-use modes affect biodiversity. PMID:25188423

  15. Species Richness Responses to Structural or Compositional Habitat Diversity between and within Grassland Patches: A Multi-Taxon Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Lengyel

    Full Text Available Habitat diversity (spatial heterogeneity within and between habitat patches in a landscape, HD is often invoked as a driver of species diversity at small spatial scales. However, the effect of HD on species richness (SR of multiple taxa is not well understood. We quantified HD and SR in a wet-dry gradient of open grassland habitats in Hortobágy National Park (E-Hungary and tested the effect of compositional and structural factors of HD on SR of flowering plants, orthopterans, true bugs, spiders, ground beetles and birds. Our dataset on 434 grassland species (170 plants, 264 animals showed that the wet-dry gradient (compositional HD at the between-patch scale was primarily related to SR in orthopterans, ground-dwelling arthropods, and all animals combined. The patchiness, or plant association richness, of the vegetation (compositional HD at the within-patch scale was related to SR of vegetation-dwelling arthropods, whereas vegetation height (structural HD at the within-patch scale was related to SR of ground-dwelling arthropods and birds. Patch area was related to SR only in birds, whereas management (grazing, mowing, none was related to SR of plants and true bugs. All relationships between HD and SR were positive, indicating increasing SR with increasing HD. However, total SR was not related to HD because different taxa showed similar positive responses to different HD variables. Our findings, therefore, show that even though HD positively influences SR in a wide range of grassland taxa, each taxon responds to different compositional or structural measures of HD, resulting in the lack of a consistent relationship between HD and SR when taxon responses are pooled. The idiosyncratic responses shown here exemplify the difficulties in detecting general HD-SR relationships over multiple taxa. Our results also suggest that management and restoration aimed specifically to sustain or increase the diversity of habitats are required to conserve

  16. Living Mulch Performance in a Tropical Cotton System and Impact on Yield and Weed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Bhaskar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. is a major crop in the Vidarbha region of central India. The vertisol soils on which much of the cotton is grown have been severely degraded by the tropical climate, excessive tillage and depletion of organic matter. Living mulches have the ability to mitigate these problems but they can cause crop losses through direct competition with the cotton crop and unreliable weed control. Field experiments were conducted in 2012 and 2013 at four locations in Vidarbha to study the potential for growing living mulches in mono-cropped cotton. Living mulch species evaluated included gliricidia [Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp.], sesbania [Sesbania sesban (L. Merr.], sorghum sudan grass [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench × Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench ssp. Drummondii (Nees ex Steud. de Wet & Harlan] and sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.. Living mulch height was controlled through mowing and herbicides were not used. Living mulches generated 1 to 13 tons ha−1 of dry matter across sites and years. Weed cover was negatively correlated with both living mulch biomass and cover. Where living mulches were vigorous and established quickly, weed cover was as low as 7%, without the use of herbicides, or inter-row tillage. In a dry year, living mulch growth had a negative impact on cotton yield; however, in a year when soil moisture was not limiting, there was a positive relationship between cotton yield and living mulch biomass. Use of living mulches in cotton production in the Vidarbha region of India is feasible and can lead to both effective weed suppression and acceptable cotton yields.

  17. Relative importance of management, meteorological and environmental factors in the spatial distribution of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle in a temperate climate zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennema, S C; Ducheyne, E; Vercruysse, J; Claerebout, E; Hendrickx, G; Charlier, J

    2011-02-01

    Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution, is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. Diagnosis is hampered by the fact that the infection is mostly subclinical. To increase awareness and develop regionally adapted control methods, knowledge on the spatial distribution of economically important infection levels is needed. Previous studies modelling the spatial distribution of F. hepatica are mostly based on single cross-sectional samplings and have focussed on climatic and environmental factors, often ignoring management factors. This study investigated the associations between management, climatic and environmental factors affecting the spatial distribution of infection with F. hepatica in dairy herds in a temperate climate zone (Flanders, Belgium) over three consecutive years. A bulk-tank milk antibody ELISA was used to measure F. hepatica infection levels in a random sample of 1762 dairy herds in the autumns of 2006, 2007 and 2008. The infection levels were included in a Geographic Information System together with meteorological, environmental and management parameters. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between possible risk factors and infection levels. The prevalence and spatial distribution of F. hepatica was relatively stable, with small interannual differences in prevalence and location of clusters. The logistic regression model based on both management and climatic/environmental factors included the factors: annual rainfall, mowing of pastures, proportion of grazed grass in the diet and length of grazing season as significant predictors and described the spatial distribution of F. hepatica better than the model based on climatic/environmental factors only (annual rainfall, elevation and slope, soil type), with an Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic of 0.68 compared with 0.62. The results indicate that in temperate climate zones without large climatic

  18. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

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    Michael Ansong

    Full Text Available When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487 were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  19. Reproductive success and habitat characteristics of Golden-winged Warblers in high-elevation pasturelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Aldinger, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is one of the most rapidly declining vertebrate species in the Appalachian Mountains. It is the subject of extensive range-wide research and conservation action. However, little is known about this species' breeding ecology in high-elevation pasturelands, a breeding habitat with conservation potential considering the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service's Working Lands for Wildlife program targeting private lands in the Appalachian Mountains. We located 100 nests of Golden-winged Warblers in pastures in and around the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia during 2008–2012. Daily nest survival rate (mean ± SE  =  0.962 ± 0.006), clutch size (4.5 ± 0.1), and number of young fledged per nest attempt (2.0 ± 0.2) and successful nest (4.0 ± 0.1) fell within the range of values reported in other parts of the species' range and were not significantly affected by year or the presence/absence of cattle grazing. Classification tree analysis revealed that nests were in denser vegetation (≥52%) and closer to forest edges (the male's territory. Successful nests had significantly more woody cover (≥9%) within 1 m than failed nests. Our results suggest that cattle grazing at 1.2–2.4 ha of forage/animal unit with periodic mowing can create and maintain these characteristics without interfering with the nesting of Golden-winged Warblers. High-elevation pasturelands may provide a refuge for remaining populations of Golden-winged Warblers in this region.

  20. Ellenberg's indicator values support prediction of suitable habitat for pre-diapause larvae of endangered butterfly Euphydryas aurinia.

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    Remigiusz Pielech

    Full Text Available In spite of the great popularity of Ellenberg's Indicator Values (EIVs in plant ecology, animal ecologists seldom use EIVs to address ecological questions. In this study we used EIVs to test their potential usefulness for the prediction of suitable habitat for pre-diapause larvae of the endangered butterfly species Euphydryas aurinia. Nine transects crossing grasslands in SW Poland with abundant populations of E. aurinia were designed. We sampled 76 vegetation plots along the transects. In addition, the presence of the larval webs of E. aurinia in sampled plots was also recorded. We then calculated the mean community EIVs of light, nitrogen, soil reaction, moisture and temperature for each sample plots. Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMMs were used to assess which factors determine the local occurrence of larval webs of E. aurinia. We found the larval webs only in 12 plots, while the host plant was present in 39 of the examined plots. The presence of the host plant was the most important predictor in both models including all plots or including only plots with host plants. The other significant predictor was the mean EIV of light, and its importance increased in models considering all plots. We attributed the importance of the EIV of light to the site openness and density of the vegetation layer. A positive relationship between this predictor and the presence of larval webs indicates that sites with looser vegetation, a lower contribution of shrubs and tall herbs and better penetration of photosynthetically active radiation to lower vegetation layers are preferred by E. aurinia for oviposition. Moreover, the significance of EIV of light may be linked with management practices. Many light-demanding species decline after cessation of mowing as a result of litter accumulation and the dominance of tall herbs. An absence of light-demanding species decreases the community's mean EIV of light and thus indicates the influence of meadow

  1. Late Quaternary high resolution micropaleontological and sedimentological records in the Gulf of Cadiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestra, B.; Ducassou, E.; Zarikian, C.; Bout-Roumazeilles, V.; Flores, J. A.; Paytan, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present preliminary micropaleontological and sedimentological data from IODP Site U1390 (Expedition 339), located in the central middle slope of the Gulf of Cadiz, since the last glaciation. This site has been targeted for reconstruction of regional paleo-circulation as it shows particularly high sedimentation rates, throughout the Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We use micropaleontological and sedimentological proxies to understand the bottom current variations through time and the ecological conditions at the sea surface (planktonic foraminifer, pteropod and nannofossil assemblages), and the sea bottom (ostracod assemblages). Eleven samples, chosen at transitions of planktonic foraminifer assemblages, have been dated by AMS radiocarbon analyses. Preliminary results from benthic ostracod assemblages show variations in bottom water ventilation and food supply. Planktonic foraminifer assemblages clearly show the well-known cold events of this period such as the Younger Dryas and Heinrich stadial associated to coarser sediment, and warmer phases such as the Bölling-Allerød associated to muddy sediment. Other bio-events within the Holocene period are also recorded. The preservation of the coccolithophore assemblages is good to moderate. Coccolith abundances (expressed in coccoliths/gr of sediment) show higher values during the Holocene and generally are like assemblages previously reported for the same area. Implications for characterization of the Holocene, the last termination and LGM ecological conditions at high resolution and their potential fluctuations (i.e. amplitude and magnitude) under the influence of the lower core of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW), with this multi proxy approach based on sedimentological, and paleontological data will be discussed.

  2. The Evaluation of Disturbed Grassland After the Ecological Restoration and Phytoremediation in the Low Tatras National Park

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    Ján Novák

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present the grasslands in the conservation areas are often degraded folowing the abandonment of the pasture and it is necessary to restore them. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the grasslands after the ecological restoration and phytoremediation by different methods. In 2004 the experiment was established on degraded sites at locality Low Tatras National Park (1 126 m a.s.l. with three treatments (U – unmanaged control, C – managed by cutting, CS – managed by seeding and cutting. In 2013 on C treatment we noticed the increase of the number of species (threefold, the increase of the coverage of plants (twofold and also the significant increase of the species diversity in comparison with the year 2004. On CS treatment the species diversity has decreased slightly but the forage value has increased more than twofold since 2004. U treatment has remained without changes. The results show the method of seeding the autochthonous species is highly appropriate to increase the forage value of grassland. Spearman correlations between environmental factors (p ≤ 0.05 prove the effect of treatment on the amount of P-soil, P-fyt, K-soil and K-fyt, which show strong negative correlation with the time. On the other hand number of species and EGQ (The evaluation of the grassland qualitycorrelate with time positively (p ≤ 0.05. The restoration by the mowing is recommended on sites, where the increase of diversity is important. Legumes, C, grasses, K-soil, EGQ, number of species, P-soil, time, dry matter hit the variability of the species significantly (to 96.80% of the total variability. The strongest effect on the overall variability of species had legumes, which is 61% of the total variability. Cutting explain 26% of the variability. The soil in the Low Tatras National Park was recovered to the original state through the reduction of soil nutrient – phytoremediation.

  3. Changes in the number of nesting pairs and breeding success of theWhite Stork Ciconia ciconia in a large city and a neighbouring rural area in South-West Poland

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    Kopij Grzegorz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the years 1994–2009, the number of White Stork pairs breeding in the city of Wrocław (293 km2 fluctuated between 5 pairs in 1999 and 19 pairs 2004. Most nests were clumped in two sites in the Odra river valley. Two nests were located only cca. 1 km from the city hall. The fluctuations in numbers can be linked to the availability of feeding grounds and weather. In years when grass was mowed in the Odra valley, the number of White Storks was higher than in years when the grass was left unattended. Overall, the mean number of fledglings per successful pair during the years 1995–2009 was slightly higher in the rural than in the urban area. Contrary to expectation, the mean number of fledglings per successful pair was the highest in the year of highest population density. In two rural counties adjacent to Wrocław, the number of breeding pairs was similar to that in the city in 1994/95 (15 vs. 13 pairs. However, in 2004 the number of breeding pairs in the city almost doubled compared to that in the neighboring counties (10 vs. 19 pairs. After a sharp decline between 2004 and 2008, populations in both areas were similar in 2009 (5 vs. 4 pairs, but much lower than in 1994–1995. Wrocław is probably the only large city (>100,000 people in Poland, where the White Stork has developed a sizeable, although fluctuating, breeding population. One of the most powerful role the city-nesting White Storks may play is their ability to engage directly citizens with nature and facilitate in that way environmental education and awareness.

  4. Complex Messages in Long-Term Monitoring of Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in the State of Wisconsin, USA, 1988–2015

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    Ann B. Swengel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The regal fritillary (“regal” (Speyeria idalia is endangered in Wisconsin, USA, and declining and at risk range-wide. During 1988–2015, we surveyed 24 known regal sites and >100 areas of potential habitat in Wisconsin. We recorded 9037 individuals in 742.7 km on the peak survey per year at occupied sites. At six sites surveyed over 5–25 years, we found regal fritillaries in only one year, mostly in the latter half of the study. The three populations in the state with more favorable trends than the median had a never-burned refugium and/or infrequent fire management. They also all had substantial amounts of grazing, haying, and/or mowing managements. Sites with trends below the regional median trend had frequent or moderate fire management, and either a diminishing never-burned refugium or none at all. Regal populations at sites with ≤15 ha of grassland have become undetectable. Nonetheless, Hogback, a slightly larger than 15 ha site, had the most favorable trend, a significant increase. Nearly all Wisconsin Regal populations known before 1990 declined to consistent non-findability, even though these were conserved sites. More favorable trends at more recently discovered populations may be attributable to species-specific habitat management protocols implemented in the 1990s. Two sites with better than median long-term trends represent the longest consistent land ownership of known Regal populations in the state. This wide range of population outcomes illustrates both the need for long-term monitoring and the challenges of explaining the outcomes. Despite evidence of increasing Regal dispersal, this species remains very localized, indicating the unsuitability of the wider landscape as regal habitat. The number of significantly declining or no longer detectable populations in Wisconsin indicates an ever more adverse landscape for this species. Sites will need to have habitat characteristics that are ever more optimal in a wide range of

  5. The technology of fish-vegetable feed production

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    Mukatova M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perspective direction of the Volga-Caspian basin fisheries is increasing the productivity of aquaculture production which requires the availability of sufficient quantities of feed. The cutting waste of carp and crucian carp, crayfish processing (cephalothorax, wheat bran, soy isolate, freshwater plants – pondweed perfoliate, fish-vegetable ration, produced feeding staffs have been investigated. In researching samples of manufactured pelleted feeds the standard methods adopted in the animal feed industry have been used. The number of nitrogen-free extractives and energy value has been determined by calculation. The composition of fish-vegetable ration has been worked out. Some manufacturing inspection of fish-vegetable feed technology using proofing process has been carried out. The possibility of manufacturing on the basis of crushed fish waste of the company LLC "VES" and dry ingredients of fish-vegetable feed has been determined; the output of feed at water content of not more than 10 % is 43 % of feed mix based on the mass of directed waste equal to 84 %. The pilot batch of dry fish-vegetable feed has been investigated to establish quality indicators. It has been determined that fish-vegetable feed meets the requirements of GOST 10385–2014 "Combined feeding staffs for fishes. General specifications" as for main quality indicators and refers to economic grower for catfish and carp fish weighing more than 50 g. This reveals good palatability of the experimental batch of floating feed by carp fish species and African catfish. Thus, fish-vegetable feed manufacturing technology can be implemented in the production for processing secondary raw materials: waste from butchering fish by grinding, cooking, mixing with selected vegetable fillings which is waste of flour or grain processing industries and freshwater plants mowed annually during the reclamation works on the Volga delta.

  6. Improving yield and water use efficiency of apple trees through intercrop-mulch of crown vetch (Coronilla varia L.) combined with different fertilizer treatments in the Loess Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, W.; Li, Y.; Gong, Q.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, Z.; Zheng, Z.; Zhai, B.; Wang, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Improving water use efficiency (WUE) and soil fertility is relevant for apple production in drylands. The effects of intercrop-mulch (IM) of crown vetch (Coronilla varia L.) combined with different fertilizer treatments on WUE of apple trees and soil fertility of apple orchards were assessed over three years (2011, 2013 and 2014). A split-plot design was adopted, in which the main treatments were IM and no intercrop-mulch (NIM). Five sub-treatments were established: no fertilization (CK); nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer (NP); manure (M); N, P and potassium fertilizer (NPK); and NPK fertilizer combined with manure (NPKM). Due to mowing and mulching each month during July–September, the evapotranspiration for IM was 17.3% lower than that of NIM in the dry year of 2013. Additionally, the soil water storage of NPKM treatment was higher than that of CK during the experimental period. Thus, single fruit weight and fruit number per tree increased with IM and NPKM application. Moreover, applying NPKM with IM resulted in the highest yield (on average of three years), which was 73.25% and 130.51% greater than that of CK in IM and NIM, respectively. The WUE of NPKM combined with IM was also the highest in 2013 and 2014 (47.69 and 56.95% greater than applying IM alone). In addition, due to application of IM combined with NPKM, soil organic matter was increased by 25.8% compared with that of CK (in NIM). Additionally, application of IM combined with NPKM obtained more economic net return, compared to other combinations. Therefore, applying NPKM with IM is recommended for improving apple production in this rain-fed agricultural area.

  7. THE FAUNA OF PEST CHRYSOMELINAE (СOLEOPTERA: СHRYSOMELIDAE OF NORTH-EASTERN PART OF AZERBAIJAN

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    N. B. Mirzoeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. An annotated list of beetles of the subfamily Chrysomelinae of Kuba-Khachmaz Region of Azerbaijan is providedfor the first time. In total 18 species were found, 5 of which are new records to Azerbaijan and 4 to Kuba-Khachmaz Region. Also, among these beetles such a serious pests were recorded as Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, Chrysolina menthastri Suffr., Chrysomela populi L., Chrysomela vigintipunctata Scop., Qastrophysa polygoni L., Phaedon cochleariae F. which are harmful to both forest and agricultural ecosystems.Methods. Collection of eggs, larvae, pupae and adults was carried out by examination of wild and cultivated plants, soil excavation as well as mowing a net for wild plants and trees.To determine leaf beetles used classification and nomenclature of prof. L.N. Medvedeva and prof. D.S. Shapiro.Results. As a result of research conducted in Cuba-Khachmaz Region 18 species are recorded. To clarify the current state of fauna and nature of the propagation of leaf beetles injuring agricultural plants in the region, and to establish links with certain environmental conditions and rationalization measures against the most harmful species, the importance of finding the distribution of leaf beetles on individual habitats and on the basis of the materials give some data on the biological and ecological features in the territory of Cuba-Khachmaz Region.Main conclucasions. Leaf beetles registered for Cuba-Khachmaz Region of Azerbaijan belong to 8 genera and 18 species of the subfamily Chrysomelinae: 8 species of the genus Chrysolina, 2 species of Chrysomela, 1 species of Colaphellus, 2 species of Entomoscelis, 1 species of Qastrophysa, 2species of Phratora and 2 species of Phaedon. Among them, 3 species are recorded for the first time for the fauna of Azerbaijan and 4 species for the fauna of Cuba-Khachmaz Region.

  8. Soil microbial community structure is unaltered by plant invasion, vegetation clipping, and nitrogen fertilization in experimental semi-arid grasslands

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    Chelsea J Carey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Global and regional environmental changes often co-occur, creating complex gradients of disturbance on the landscape. Soil microbial communities are an important component of ecosystem response to environmental change, yet little is known about how microbial structure and function respond to multiple disturbances, or whether multiple environmental changes lead to unanticipated interactive effects. Our study used experimental semi-arid grassland plots in a Mediterranean-climate to determine how soil microbial communities in a seasonally variable ecosystem respond to one, two, or three simultaneous environmental changes: exotic plant invasion, plant invasion + vegetation clipping (to simulate common management practices like mowing or livestock grazing, plant invasion + nitrogen (N fertilization, and plant invasion + clipping + N fertilization. We examined microbial community structure 5-6 years after plot establishment via sequencing of >1 million 16S rRNA genes. Abiotic soil properties (soil moisture, temperature, pH, and inorganic N and microbial functioning (nitrification and denitrification potentials were also measured and showed treatment-induced shifts, including altered NO3- availability, temperature, and nitrification potential. Despite these changes, bacterial and archaeal communities showed little variation in composition and diversity across treatments. Even communities in plots exposed to three interacting environmental changes were similar to those in restored native grassland plots. Historical exposure to large seasonal and inter-annual variations in key soil properties, in addition to prior site cultivation, may select for a functionally plastic or largely dormant microbial community, resulting in a microbial community that is structurally robust to single and multiple environmental changes.

  9. Net carbon sequestration potential and emissions in home lawn turfgrasses of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selhorst, Adam; Lal, Rattan

    2013-01-01

    Soil analyses were conducted on home lawns across diverse ecoregions of the U.S. to determine the soil organic carbon (SOC) sink capacity of turfgrass soils. Establishment of lawns sequestered SOC over time. Due to variations in ecoregions, sequestration rates varied among sites from 0.9 Mg carbon (C) ha(-1) year(-1) to 5.4 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). Potential SOC sink capacity also varied among sites ranging from 20.8 ± 1.0-96.3 ± 6.0 Mg C ha(-1). Average sequestration rate and sink capacity for all sites sampled were 2.8 ± 0.3 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) and 45.8 ± 3.5 Mg C ha(-1), respectively. Additionally, the hidden carbon costs (HCC) due to lawn mowing (189.7 kg Ce (carbon equivalent) ha(-1) year(-1)) and fertilizer use (63.6 kg Ce ha(-1) year(-1)) for all sites totaled 254.3 kg Ce ha(-1) year(-1). Considering home lawn SOC sink capacity and HCC, mean home lawn sequestration was completely negated 184 years post establishment. The potential SOC sink capacity of home lawns in the U.S. was estimated at 496.3 Tg C, with HCC of between 2,504.1 Gg Ce year(-1) under low management regimes and 7551.4 Gg Ce year(-1) under high management. This leads to a carbon-positive system for between 66 and 199 years in U.S. home lawns. More efficient and reduction of C-intensive maintenance practices could increase the overall sequestration longevity of home lawns and improve their climate change mitigation potential.

  10. Engineering a plant community to deliver multiple ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storkey, Jonathan; Döring, Thomas; Baddeley, John; Collins, Rosemary; Roderick, Stephen; Jones, Hannah; Watson, Christine

    2015-06-01

    The sustainable delivery of multiple ecosystem services requires the management of functionally diverse biological communities. In an agricultural context, an emphasis on food production has often led to a loss of biodiversity to the detriment of other ecosystem services such as the maintenance of soil health and pest regulation. In scenarios where multiple species can be grown together, it may be possible to better balance environmental and agronomic services through the targeted selection of companion species. We used the case study of legume-based cover crops to engineer a plant community that delivered the optimal balance of six ecosystem services: early productivity, regrowth following mowing, weed suppression, support of invertebrates, soil fertility building (measured as yield of following crop), and conservation of nutrients in the soil. An experimental species pool of 12 cultivated legume species was screened for a range of functional traits and ecosystem services at five sites across a geographical gradient in the United Kingdom. All possible species combinations were then analyzed, using a process-based model of plant competition, to identify the community that delivered the best balance of services at each site. In our system, low to intermediate levels of species richness (one to four species) that exploited functional contrasts in growth habit and phenology were identified as being optimal. The optimal solution was determined largely by the number of species and functional diversity represented by the starting species pool, emphasizing the importance of the initial selection of species for the screening experiments. The approach of using relationships between functional traits and ecosystem services to design multifunctional biological communities has the potential to inform the design of agricultural systems that better balance agronomic and environmental services and meet the current objective of European agricultural policy to maintain viable food

  11. Effect of protonation, composition and isomerism on the redox properties and electron (de)localization of classical polyoxometalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    This publication reviews some relevant features related with the redox activity of two inorganic compounds: [XM12O40]q- (Keggin structure) and [X2M18O62]q- (Wells-Dawson structure). These are two well-known specimens of the vast Polyoxometalate (POM) family, which has been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical research owing to their unmatched properties. In particular, their redox activity focus a great deal of attention from scientists due to their prospective related applications. POMs are habitually seen as `electron sponges' since many of them accept several electrons without losing their chemical identity. This makes them excellent models to study mechanisms of electrochemical nature. Their redox properties depend on: (i) the type and number of transition metal atoms in the structure, (ii) the basicity of the first reduced species and, occasionally, of the fully oxidized species; (iii) the size of the molecule, (iv) the overall negative charge of the POM, and (v) the size of the central heteroatom. In the last years, important collaboration between the experimental and theoretical areas has been usual on the development of POM science. In the present chapter three of these synergies are highlighted: the influence of the internal heteroatom upon the redox potentials of Keggin anions; the dependence of the redox waves of Fe-substituted Wells-Dawson compounds with pH; and the role of electron delocalization and pairing in mixed-metal Mo/W Wells-Dawson compounds in their ability to accept electrons. In these three cases, a complete understanding of the problem would not have been possible without the mutual benefit of experimental and computational data.

  12. Chores at Times of Fatal or Serious Injuries Associated with Tractor Overturns with and without Rollover Protection

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    Henry P. Cole

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes chores when farmers were either fatally or seriously injured and required emergency medical treatment as a result of overturns of tractors with or without rollover protective structures (ROPS. Data from the 2002 Kentucky Farm Tractor Overturn Survey were used for this study. The data were collected by a telephone survey of a population-based random sample of 6063 (7.98% of Kentucky’s 76,017 farm operators as listed in the Kentucky Agricultural Statistics Service database. Of farm operators interviewed, 551 (9.1% reported 603 overturns and 5512 (90.9% reported no overturns in the history of their farm, covering a period from 1925 to February 2002. Only the latest overturn was considered to improve recall accuracy. In addition, since the 1925 to 1959 time period had only 49 (8.1% of the overturns reported, (14 farmers did not provide the year of most recent overturn; only data from the 1960 to 2002 period (approximately 41 years were used. After making these adjustments, incidents evaluated included 25 cases (one fatal and four serious nonfatal injuries that involved ROPS-equipped tractor overturns and 88 cases (24 fatal and 64 serious nonfatal injuries that involved non-ROPS tractor overturns. Chores at highest risk for tractor overturns were identified for which educational and ROPS retrofit interventions could be emphasized. The highest frequency of overturn-related fatalities and nonfatal injuries were associated with hay harvesting, rotary mowing, and on-farm travel chores. These three chores represented 68.2% of fatal events and 50.0% of permanent and 56.6% of temporary disability overturn incidents. Tragically, in countries such as India and China with emerging mechanization, a large majority of tractors are produced without ROPS that can be expected to result in the same overturn-related epidemic of deaths experienced in highly mechanized countries, despite evidence of the protection provided by ROPS.

  13. Petite motorisation et exploitations maraîchères de taille limitée du Sahel tunisien Partie 2: Evaluation sur le terrain des performances et des coûts de préparation du sol

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    Chehaibi, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Power Mechanisation and Small-scale Vegetable Production in the Tunisian Sahel Region. Part 2: On the Field Evaluation of Performances and of Soil Preparation Costs. In this study, it was investigated to what extent low power mechanisation could be introduced in vegetable production in the Tunisian Sahel region by evaluating its performance (labour input and field efficiency by means of field experiments in which different traction equipment was used for carrying out several cultivation operations. Furthermore, costs per unit area for soil preparation in both sandy clay and clayish sand were calculated for four different power classes and for small fields. The results showed that two wheel tractors had a real labour input for scuffling between plant rows ranging from 11.3 h/ha to 18.7 h/ha. These inputs ranged from 5.5 h/ha to 6.7 h/ha for tied crops. For mowing, the two wheel tractor had labour inputs of 17.3 and 14.2 h/ha for the first and the second cut, respectively, while for potato digging, the first and the second passage of secondary tillage these values were 11.5, 14.3 and 10.4 h/ha, respectively. Superficial soil preparation by means of a four wheel tractor gave rise to values between 2.7 and 3.5 h/ha. With respect to the cost estimation for soil preparation, the lowest costs were obtained by means of the low power mechanisation. Similar conclusions were drawn for the field efficiencies for the operations investigated. In general, these efficiencies were above 70%.

  14. Em Busca do Significado do Trabalho: relato de um estudo qualitativo entre executivos In search of the meaning of the work: overview of a qualitative study among executivesEn Busca del Significado del Trabajo: relato de un estudio cualitativo entre ejecutivos

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    CODA, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO presente artigo é fruto de um estudo realizado junto a um grupo de executivos, que teve por objetivo compreender o significado atribuído ao trabalho. A pesquisa foi conduzida segundo a abordagem qualitativa, com base na Fenomenologia. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio de entrevistas individuais, adotando-se para o processo analítico, o método proposto por Giorgi (1985, composto de quatro passos e que parte dos depoimentos da experiência vivida para chegar à compreensão do fenômeno. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o trabalho assume para cada indivíduo, um significado, uma função, relacionada aos seus desejos e necessidades, o que o transforma, portanto, num instrumento para realização dessas pessoas. O estudo permitiu ainda a identificação de 10 categorias de significado, que vão ao encontro dos resultados obtidos pelo Meaning of Working – MOW (1987 – sobre o tema. Constatou-se também que à medida que o trabalho consegue cumprir sua função, ou seja, quando é provido de significado para o indivíduo, há um sentimento de gratificação e prazer, o que leva à reflexão sobre a importância de estudos sobre o Significado do Trabalho, cujos resultados beneficiam: 1 os profissionais, pois as investigações levam a um questionar-se e, portanto, à busca de um maior conhecimento dos próprios desejos e necessidades, com conseqüente envolvimento com as atividades mais significativas; 2 as empresas, que podem buscar um maior ajuste entre os objetivos organizacionais e as expectativas dos indivíduos, resultando em qualidade, sinergia e eficácia.ABSTRACTThe present article is derived from of a study accomplished in a group of managers which objective aimed at understanding the meaning attributed by them to the work they perform. The research has been conducted according to a qualitative approach, based on Phenomenology. The collection of data was obtained through individual interviews, adopting as analytical

  15. Exposure to vibrations in wine growing

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    Domenico Pessina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Apart the winter period, the activity in specialized agricultural cultivations (i.e. wine- and fruit-growing is distributed for a long period of the year. Some tasks, such as pesticide distribution, are repeated several times during the growing season. On the other hand, mechanization is one of the pillars on which is based the modern agriculture management. As a consequence, in wine growing the tractor driver has to be considered a worker potentially subjected to high level of vibrations, due to the poor machinery conditions often encountered, and sometimes to the rough soil surface of the vineyard combined with the high travelling speed adopted in carrying out many operations. About vibrations, the Italian Decree 81/08 basically refers to the European Directive 2002/44/CE, that provides some very strict limits of exposure, both for whole body and hand-arm districts. In Oltrepo pavese, a large hilly area located the south part of the Pavia province (Lombardy - Italy wine growing is the main agricultural activity; for this reason, a detailed survey on the vibration levels recorded at the tractor driver’s seat was carried out, in order to ascertain the real risk to which the operators are exposed. The activity in wine growing has been classified into 6 groups of similar tasks, as follows: 1. canopy management: pruning, trimming, binding, stripping, etc.; 2. soil management: harrowing, hoeing, subsoiling etc.; 3. inter-row management: chopping of pruning , pinching, grass mowing, etc.; 4. crop protection: pesticides and fungicides distribution, sulfidation, foliar fertilization, etc.; 5. grape harvesting: manual or mechanical; 6. transport: from the vineyard to the cellar. For each group of tasks, the vibration levels on 3 the traditional axes (x, y and z were recorded, and then an exposure time was calculated for each of them, in order to ascertain the risk level in comparison to what provided by the dedicated standard. Finally, a detailed

  16. The effect of wide swathing on wilting times and nutritive value of alfalfa haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, L; Stough, E C; McDonell, E E; Schmidt, R J; Hofherr, M W; Reich, L J; Klingerman, C M

    2010-04-01

    On 3 consecutive cuttings, alfalfa from a single field was mowed with a John Deere 946 mower-conditioner (4-m cut width; Moline, IL) to leave narrow swaths (NS) ranging from 1.2 to 1.52 m wide (30-37% of cutter bar width) and wide swaths (WS) ranging from 2.44 to 2.74 m wide (62-67% of cutter bar width). Samples were collected from windrows and dry matter (DM) was monitored during wilting until a target of 43 to 45% DM was obtained. Forage from random windrows (n=4-6) was harvested by hand, chopped through a forage harvester before being packed in replicated vacuum-sealed bags, and allowed to ensile for 65 d. There was no swath width x cutting interaction for any parameter tested. Over all cuttings, the resulting silage DM was not different between the NS silage (43.8%) and the WS silage (44.9%). However, wide swathing greatly reduced the time of wilting before making silage. The hours of wilting time needed to reach the targeted DM for the NS silage compared with the WS silage at cuttings 1, 2, and 3 were 50 versus 29, 54 versus 28, and 25 versus 6, respectively. At the time of ensiling, the WS silage had more water-soluble carbohydrates (5.1%) than did the NS silage (3.7%). The WS silage had a lower pH (4.58) than did the NS silage (4.66), but swath width did not affect fermentation end products (lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol). The NS silage had more NH(3)-N (0.26%) than did the WS silage (0.21%). Wide swathing did not affect the concentration of ash or the digestibility of NDF, but it lowered the N content (NS=3.45%; WS=3.23%) and increased the ADF content (NS=39.7%; WS=40.9%) of the resulting silage. Wide swathing can markedly reduce the time that alfalfa must wilt before it can be chopped for silage, but under good conditions, as in this study, the resulting silage quality was generally not improved. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of herbicides in the urine of pet dogs following home lawn chemical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Deborah W., E-mail: knappd@purdue.edu [Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Purdue University Center for Cancer Research and Purdue Oncological Sciences Center, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Peer, Wendy A.; Conteh, Abass; Diggs, Alfred R. [Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cooper, Bruce R. [Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Glickman, Nita W. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Bonney, Patty L.; Stewart, Jane C. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Glickman, Lawrence T. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Murphy, Angus S. [Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Exposure to herbicide-treated lawns has been associated with significantly higher bladder cancer risk in dogs. This work was performed to further characterize lawn chemical exposures in dogs, and to determine environmental factors associated with chemical residence time on grass. In addition to concern for canine health, a strong justification for the work was that dogs may serve as sentinels for potentially harmful environmental exposures in humans. Experimentally, herbicides [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxypropionic acid (MCPP), dicamba] were applied to grass plots under different conditions (e.g., green, dry brown, wet, and recently mowed grass). Chemicals in dislodgeable residues were measured by LC-MS at 0.17, 1, 24, 48, 72 h post treatment. In a separate study, 2,4-D, MCPP, and dithiopyr concentrations were measured in the urine of dogs and in dislodgeable grass residues in households that applied or did not apply chemicals in the preceding 48 h. Chemicals were measured at 0, 24, and 48 h post application in treated households and at time 0 in untreated control households. Residence times of 2,4-D, MCPP, and dicamba were significantly prolonged (P < 0.05) on dry brown grass compared to green grass. Chemicals were detected in the urine of dogs in 14 of 25 households before lawn treatment, in 19 of 25 households after lawn treatment, and in 4 of 8 untreated households. Chemicals were commonly detected in grass residues from treated lawns, and from untreated lawns suggesting chemical drift from nearby treated areas. Thus dogs could be exposed to chemicals through contact with their own lawn (treated or contaminated through drift) or through contact with other grassy areas if they travel. The length of time to restrict a dog's access to treated lawns following treatment remains to be defined. Further study is indicated to assess the risks of herbicide exposure in humans and dogs. - Highlights: • Lawn chemicals were commonly

  18. Incorporating Ecosystem Processes Controlling Carbon Balance Into Models of Coupled Human-Natural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, W.; Brown, D. G.; Brunner, A.; Fouladbash, L.; Hadzick, Z.; Hutchins, M.; Kiger, S. E.; Makino, Y.; Nassauer, J. I.; Robinson, D. T.; Riolo, R. L.; Sun, S.

    2012-12-01

    facilitated our linkage of vegetation management, such as lawn mowing, fertilizer use, and leaf litter removal, to agent-based modeling of human preferences and behaviors.

  19. Structural development and web service based sensitivity analysis of the Biome-BGC MuSo model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidy, Dóra; Balogh, János; Churkina, Galina; Haszpra, László; Horváth, Ferenc; Ittzés, Péter; Ittzés, Dóra; Ma, Shaoxiu; Nagy, Zoltán; Pintér, Krisztina; Barcza, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Studying the greenhouse gas exchange, mainly the carbon dioxide sink and source character of ecosystems is still a highly relevant research topic in biogeochemistry. During the past few years research focused on managed ecosystems, because human intervention has an important role in the formation of the land surface through agricultural management, land use change, and other practices. In spite of considerable developments current biogeochemical models still have uncertainties to adequately quantify greenhouse gas exchange processes of managed ecosystem. Therefore, it is an important task to develop and test process-based biogeochemical models. Biome-BGC is a widely used, popular biogeochemical model that simulates the storage and flux of water, carbon, and nitrogen between the ecosystem and the atmosphere, and within the components of the terrestrial ecosystems. Biome-BGC was originally developed by the Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group (NTSG) of University of Montana (http://www.ntsg.umt.edu/project/biome-bgc), and several other researchers used and modified it in the past. Our research group developed Biome-BGC version 4.1.1 to improve essentially the ability of the model to simulate carbon and water cycle in real managed ecosystems. The modifications included structural improvements of the model (e.g., implementation of multilayer soil module and drought related plant senescence; improved model phenology). Beside these improvements management modules and annually varying options were introduced and implemented (simulate mowing, grazing, planting, harvest, ploughing, application of fertilizers, forest thinning). Dynamic (annually varying) whole plant mortality was also enabled in the model to support more realistic simulation of forest stand development and natural disturbances. In the most recent model version separate pools have been defined for fruit. The model version which contains every former and new development is referred as Biome-BGC MuSo (Biome

  20. Soil amendments effects on radiocesium translocation in forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yuki; Ozawa, Hajime; Umemura, Mitsutoshi; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-12-01

    large concentrations and/or anaerobic conditions. Combining elemental sulfur application with forest management practices, such as mowing and thinning, could be a suitable method of decontamination of the forest environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of Public Outreach in the University Science Mission: Publishing K-12 Curriculum, Organizing Tours, and Other Methods of Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Much attention has been devoted in recent years to the importance of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education in K-12 curriculum for developing a capable workforce. Equally important is the role of the voting public in understanding STEM-related issues that impact public policy debates such as the potential impacts of climate change, hydraulic fracturing in oil and gas exploration, mining impacts on water quality, and science funding. Since voted officials have a major impact on the future of these policies, it is imperative that the general public have an understanding of the basic science behind these issues. By engaging with the public in a more fundamental way, university students can play an important role in educating the public while at the same time enhancing their communication skills and gaining valuable teaching experience. I will talk about my own experiences in (1) evaluating and publishing water chemistry and hazardous waste cleanup curriculum on the K-12 engineering platform TeachEngineering.org, (2) organizing public tours of water and energy sites (e.g., abandoned mine sites, coal power plants, wastewater treatment plants, hazardous waste treatment facilities), and (3) other outreach and communication activities including public education of environmental issues through consultations with customers of a landscaping/lawn mowing company. The main focus of this presentation will be the role that graduate students can play in engaging and educating their local community and lessons learned from community projects (Dittrich, 2014; 2012; 2011). References: Dittrich, T.M. 2014. Adventures in STEM: Lessons in water chemistry from elementary school to graduate school. Abstract ED13E-07 presented at 2014 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 15-19 Dec. Dittrich, T.M. 2012. Collaboration between environmental water chemistry students and hazardous waste treatment specialists on the University of Colorado-Boulder campus. Abstract ED53C

  2. Status assessment and conservation plan for the Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    The Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) breeds in grassland habitats throughout much of the U.S., southern and southeastern Canada, and northern Mexico. Additional subspecies are resident in Central America, northern South America, and the Caribbean. It winters primarily in the coastal states of the southeastern U.S., southern portions of the southwestern states, and in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. The species prefers relatively open grassland with intermediate grass height and density and patchy bare ground; because it is widely distributed across different grassland types in North America, it selects different vegetation structure and species composition depending on what is available. In the winter, they use a broader range of grassland habitats including open grasslands, as well as weedy fields and grasslands with woody vegetation. Analyses show significant range-wide population declines from the late 1960s through the present, primarily caused by habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation. Grasshopper Sparrow is still a relatively common and broadly distributed species, but because of significant population declines and stakeholder concerns, the species is considered of conservation concern nationally and at the state level for numerous states. Many factors, often related to different grassland management practices (e.g., grazing, burning, mowing, management of shrub encroachment, etc.) throughout the species’ range, have impacts on Grasshopper Sparrow distribution, abundance, and reproduction and may represent limiting factors or threats given steep declines in this species’ population. Because of the concerns for this species, Grasshopper Sparrow has been identified as a focal species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and this Status Assessment and Conservation Plan for Grasshopper Sparrow has been developed. Through literature searches and input from stakeholders across its range, this plan presents information about

  3. DECOMPOSIÇÃO DAS PODAS DAS LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS Gliricidia sepium E Acacia angustissima EM UM SISTEMA AGROFLORESTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Diniz de Paula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Agroforestry Systems (SAFs bring multiple benefits and they are an alternative to minimize environmental degradation, and to achieve a sustainable development, due to greatest diversity of species. This study evaluated the contribution of the leguminous trees, gliricídia sepium and Acacia angustissima , grown in alley cropping of banana ( Musa sp. and “açaí” palm ( Euterpe oleraceae used as green manure in the implantation of an Agroforestry Systems. They were compared the production of biomass, nutrients cycling, nitrogen intake, activity and diversity of soil fauna, and banana productivity in the SAF, and with the usage of the legume Pueraria phaseoloides and nitrogen fertilization. The SAF implantation occurred in May 2004, at the Research Center of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State. The following year it was planted the forest African mahogany specie ( Kaya senegalensis , at the centre of the legumes alleys. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the leguminous trees arranged between the lines of bananas and the “açaí” palm, and they were: acacia angustíssima ( Acacia angustissima , tropical kudzu ( Pueraria phaseoloides , and gliricídia (G liricídia sepium ; besides application of nitrogen as urea and spontaneous vegetation. To quantify the production of biomass, and the release of N, P, Ca, Mg and K, the legumes branches were cut and the kudzu tropical and spontaneous vegetation were mowed, in the rainy and dry seasons. The determination of remaining dry matter, releasing of nutrients, decomposition rates, and half life time of plant residues were held to 50 grams of fresh material from litterbags, placed on the soil surface, sampled at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60 and 75 days after the installation of the experiment. Acacia angustissima and kudzu tropical showed higher dry biomass, 9.5 and 10.8 Mg ha

  4. Can lemmings control the expansion of woody plants on tundra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Lauri; Oksanen, Tarja; Olofsson, Johan; Virtanen, Risto; Hoset, Katrine; Tuomi, Maria; Kyrö, Kukka

    2013-04-01

    results show that edibility plays a relatively small role for the vulnerability of woody plants to lemming impacts. As long as the plants are relatively small, like the evergreens were on our plots (the dominating species was the lingonberry, Vaccinium vitis-ideaea), they are mowed down by lemmings in outbreak years. The potential of lemmings to control the expansion of woody plants is thus likely to depend on the size of the seedlings of trees and shrubs and, therefore, on the frequency of lemming outbreaks

  5. Wetland and Sensitive Species Survey Report for Y-12: Proposed Uranium Processing Facility (UPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffen, N.; Peterson, M.; Reasor, S.; Pounds, L.; Byrd, G.; Wiest, M. C.; Hill, C. C.

    2009-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of an environmental survey conducted at sites associated with the proposed Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in September-October 2009. The survey was conducted in order to evaluate potential impacts of the overall project. This project includes the construction of a haul road, concrete batch plant, wet soil storage area and dry soil storage area. The environmental surveys were conducted by natural resource experts at ORNL who routinely assess the significance of various project activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Natural resource staff assistance on this project included the collection of environmental information that can aid in project location decisions that minimize impacts to sensitive resource such as significant wildlife populations, rare plants and wetlands. Natural resources work was conducted in various habitats, corresponding to the proposed areas of impact. Thc credentials/qualifications of the researchers are contained in Appendix A. The proposed haul road traverses a number of different habitats including a power-line right-of-way. wetlands, streams, forest and mowed areas. It extends from what is known as the New Salvage Yard on the west to the Polaris Parking Lot on the east. This haul road is meant to connect the proposed concrete batch plant to the UPF building site. The proposed site of the concrete batch plant itself is a highly disturbed fenced area. This area of the project is shown in Fig. 1. The proposed Wet Soils Disposal Area is located on the north side of Bear Creek Road at the former Control Burn Study Area. This is a second growth arce containing thick vegetation, and extensive dead and down woody material. This area of the project is shown in Fig. 2. Thc dry soils storage area is proposed for what is currently known as the West Borrow Area. This site is located on the west side of Reeves Road south of Bear Creek Road. The site is an early successional

  6. Detection of herbicides in the urine of pet dogs following home lawn chemical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Peer, Wendy A.; Conteh, Abass; Diggs, Alfred R.; Cooper, Bruce R.; Glickman, Nita W.; Bonney, Patty L.; Stewart, Jane C.; Glickman, Lawrence T.; Murphy, Angus S.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to herbicide-treated lawns has been associated with significantly higher bladder cancer risk in dogs. This work was performed to further characterize lawn chemical exposures in dogs, and to determine environmental factors associated with chemical residence time on grass. In addition to concern for canine health, a strong justification for the work was that dogs may serve as sentinels for potentially harmful environmental exposures in humans. Experimentally, herbicides [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxypropionic acid (MCPP), dicamba] were applied to grass plots under different conditions (e.g., green, dry brown, wet, and recently mowed grass). Chemicals in dislodgeable residues were measured by LC-MS at 0.17, 1, 24, 48, 72 h post treatment. In a separate study, 2,4-D, MCPP, and dithiopyr concentrations were measured in the urine of dogs and in dislodgeable grass residues in households that applied or did not apply chemicals in the preceding 48 h. Chemicals were measured at 0, 24, and 48 h post application in treated households and at time 0 in untreated control households. Residence times of 2,4-D, MCPP, and dicamba were significantly prolonged (P < 0.05) on dry brown grass compared to green grass. Chemicals were detected in the urine of dogs in 14 of 25 households before lawn treatment, in 19 of 25 households after lawn treatment, and in 4 of 8 untreated households. Chemicals were commonly detected in grass residues from treated lawns, and from untreated lawns suggesting chemical drift from nearby treated areas. Thus dogs could be exposed to chemicals through contact with their own lawn (treated or contaminated through drift) or through contact with other grassy areas if they travel. The length of time to restrict a dog's access to treated lawns following treatment remains to be defined. Further study is indicated to assess the risks of herbicide exposure in humans and dogs. - Highlights: • Lawn chemicals were commonly

  7. Dinâmica vegetacional em pastagem natural e pastagem sobre-semeada com espécies de estação fria com e sem o uso de herbicida - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.9148 Vegetation dynamics in natural pasture and pasture overseeded with cool season species with and without the use of herbicide - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.9148

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Guerra Bandinelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os possíveis efeitos do uso do herbicida e da introdução de espécies de estação fria na dinâmica vegetacional da pastagem natural. Os tratamentos foram: pastagem natural com roçadas anuais (CN; pastagem natural melhorada com introdução de espécies de estação fria e com adubação anual (CNI; idem ao anterior, mas com uma aplicação de glifosato (G1; idem ao anterior, porém com três aplicações de glifosato (G3; idem ao G3, mas com o dobro da adubação anual (GA3. A semeadura de trevo branco, cornichão e azevém anual foi feita a lanço, sendo esta precedida da aplicação do herbicida glifosato. O sistema de pastejo foi o contínuo com lotação variável. A composição botânica observada foi diferente (p This study evaluated the possible effects of the use of herbicide and introduction of cool season species on the dynamics of natural grassland vegetation. The treatments were: natural grassland with annual mowing (CN; natural grassland improved with introduction of cool season species and annual fertilization (CNI; same as the previous but with glyphosate application (G1; same as the previous with three glyphosate applications (G3; same as G3 but with double annual fertilizing (GA3. The sod seeding of white clover, birdsfoot trefoil and annual ryegrass was preceded by application of the herbicide glyphosate. The grazing system was continuous, with variable stocking rates. The observed botanical composition was different (p < 0.06 between treatments that did not receive glyphosate application and those with application. The botanical composition of the treatments did not present variation (p = 0.57 among periods. The use of glyphosate allows an efficient establishment of the introduced species. However, the use of this practice is not recommended due to its effects on modifying the floristic composition of the natural grassland.

  8. Results of the Promethee Method Application in Selecting the Technological System at the Majdan III Open Pit Mine / Wyniki Zastosowania Metody Promethee do Wyboru Systemu Technologicznego W Kopalni Odkrywkowej Majdan III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Slobodan; Hudej, Marjan; Miljanović, Igor

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses the application of the PROMETHEE model and the results achieved in practice, following the example of the multi-criteria selection of the technological system at the Majdan III clay mineral raw material open pit mine of the Potisje Company, Republic of Serbia. After the introduction comments, reasons are explained for selecting the new technological system, conditions and limitations for the seven alternative solutions considered are described, mathematical foundation for the PROMETHEE method and a multi-criteria model of the problem in question are presented. The solution with the following structure was ranked first and accepted by the Company management as the best: Bucket chain excavator - Conveyor belts - Spreader (ECS), alongside a decision is made on the acquisition of machinery and system construction. The system was put into operation in 2000. The experience and the data accumulated in the previous twelve years confirm that the decision made on the application of the ECS technology was just, and the conclusion lists the benefits achieved. W artykule omówiono zastosowanie modelu Promethee i przedyskutowano uzyskane w ten sposób wyniki na przykładzie wielokryterialnego wyboru systemu technologicznego do zastosowania w kopalni odkrywkowej minerałów ilastych Majdan III, należącej do przedsiębiorstwa górniczego Potisje (Republika Serbii). Po uwagach wprowadzających przedstawiono powody wyboru nowego ciągu technologicznego, omówiono warunki oraz ograniczenia dla siedmiu alternatywnych rozwiązań, podstawy matematyczne metody Promethee oraz wielokryterialny model zagadnienia. Rozwiązanie uznane za najlepsze i zaaprobowane przez zarząd przedsiębiorstwa zakłada zastosowanie następującego ciągu technologicznego: koparka łancuchowa jednonaczyniowa - przenośniki taśmowe - rozkładarka(system ECS). Podjęto także decyzje odnośnie zakupu sprzętu i instalacji systemu, który uruchomiony został w 2000 roku. Doświadczenia i

  9. A model of greenhouse gas emissions from the management of turf on two golf courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Mark D; James, Iain T

    2011-11-01

    An estimated 32,000 golf courses worldwide (approximately 25,600 km2), provide ecosystem goods and services and support an industry contributing over $124 billion globally. Golf courses can impact positively on local biodiversity however their role in the global carbon cycle is not clearly understood. To explore this relationship, the balance between plant–soil system sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management on golf courses was modelled. Input data were derived from published studies of emissions from agriculture and turfgrass management. Two UK case studies of golf course type were used, a Links course (coastal, medium intensity management, within coastal dune grasses) and a Parkland course (inland, high intensity management, within woodland).Playing surfaces of both golf courses were marginal net sources of greenhouse gas emissions due to maintenance (Links −2.2 ± 0.4 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1); Parkland − 2.0 ± 0.4 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1)). A significant proportion of emissions were from the use of nitrogen fertiliser, especially on tees and greens such that 3% of the golf course area contributed 16% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The area of trees on a golf course was important in determining whole-course emission balance. On the Parkland course, emissions from maintenance were offset by sequestration from turfgrass, and trees which comprised 48% of total area, resulting in a net balance of −5.4 ± 0.9 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1). On the Links course, the proportion of trees was much lower (2%) and sequestration from links grassland resulted in a net balance of −1.6 ± 0.3 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1). Recommendations for golf course management and design include the reduction of nitrogen fertiliser, improved operational efficiency when mowing, the inclusion of appropriate tree-planting and the scaling of component areas to maximise golf course sequestration capacity. The findings are transferrable to the management and design of

  10. A model of greenhouse gas emissions from the management of turf on two golf courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, Mark D.; James, Iain T.

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 32,000 golf courses worldwide (approximately 25,600 km 2 ), provide ecosystem goods and services and support an industry contributing over $124 billion globally. Golf courses can impact positively on local biodiversity however their role in the global carbon cycle is not clearly understood. To explore this relationship, the balance between plant-soil system sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management on golf courses was modelled. Input data were derived from published studies of emissions from agriculture and turfgrass management. Two UK case studies of golf course type were used, a Links course (coastal, medium intensity management, within coastal dune grasses) and a Parkland course (inland, high intensity management, within woodland). Playing surfaces of both golf courses were marginal net sources of greenhouse gas emissions due to maintenance (Links 0.4 ± 0.1 Mg CO 2 e ha -1 y -1 ; Parkland 0.7 ± 0.2 Mg CO 2 e ha -1 y -1 ). A significant proportion of emissions were from the use of nitrogen fertiliser, especially on tees and greens such that 3% of the golf course area contributed 16% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The area of trees on a golf course was important in determining whole-course emission balance. On the Parkland course, emissions from maintenance were offset by sequestration from trees which comprised 48% of total area, resulting in a net balance of -4.3 ± 0.9 Mg CO 2e ha -1 y -1 . On the Links course, the proportion of trees was much lower (2%) and sequestration from links grassland resulted in a net balance of 0.0 ± 0.2 Mg CO 2e ha -1 y -1 . Recommendations for golf course management and design include the reduction of nitrogen fertiliser, improved operational efficiency when mowing, the inclusion of appropriate tree-planting and the scaling of component areas to maximise golf course sequestration capacity. The findings are transferrable to the management and design of urban parks and gardens, which range

  11. Can conservation tillage reduce N2O emissions on cropland transitioning to organic vegetable production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guihua; Kolb, Lauren; Cavigelli, Michel A; Weil, Ray R; Hooks, Cerruti R R

    2018-03-15

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is an important greenhouse gas and a catalyst of stratospheric ozone decay. Agricultural soils are the source of 75% of anthropogenic N 2 O emissions globally. Recently, significant attention has been directed at examining effects of conservation tillage on carbon sequestration in agricultural systems. However, limited knowledge is available regarding how these practices impact N 2 O emissions, especially for organic vegetable production systems. In this context, a three-year study was conducted in a well-drained sandy loam field transitioning to organic vegetable production in the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain of USA to investigate impacts of conservation tillage [strip till (ST) and no-till (NT)] and conventional tillage (CT) [with black plastic mulch (CT-BP) and bare-ground (CT-BG)] on N 2 O emissions. Each year, a winter cover crop mixture (forage radish: Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus, crimson clover: Trifolium incarnatum L., and rye: Secale cereale L.) was grown and flail-mowed in the spring. Nearly 80% of annual N 2 O-nitrogen (N) emissions occurred during the vegetable growing season for all treatments. Annual N 2 O-N emissions were greater in CT-BP than in ST and NT, and greater in CT-BG than in NT, but not different between CT-BG and CT-BP, ST and NT, or CT-BG and ST. Conventional tillage promoted N mineralization and plastic mulch increased soil temperature, which contributed to greater N 2 O-N fluxes. Though water filled porosity in NT was higher and correlated well with N 2 O-N fluxes, annual N 2 O-N emissions were lowest in NT suggesting a lack of substrates for nitrification and denitrification processes. Crop yield was lowest in NT in Year 1 and CT-BP in Year 3 but yield-scaled N 2 O-N emissions were consistently greatest in CT-BP and lowest in NT each year. Our results suggest that for coarse-textured soils in the coastal plain with winter cover crops, conservation tillage practices may reduce N 2 O emissions in organic

  12. Reactivity of Cubane-Type [(OC)(3)MFe(3)S(4)(SR)(3)](3-) Clusters (M = Mo, W): Interconversion with Cuboidal [Fe(3)S(4)](0) Clusters and Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raebiger, James W.; Crawford, Charles A.; Zhou, Jian; Holm, R. H.

    1997-03-12

    The title clusters, several examples of which have been reported earlier, have been prepared by two different methods and subjected to structural and reactivity studies. The compounds (Et(4)N)(3)[(OC)(3)MFe(3)S(4)(Smes)(3)].MeCN (M = Mo/W) are isomorphous and crystallize in monoclinic space group P2(1)/n with a = 13.412(1)/13.297(1) Å, b = 19.0380(1)/18.9376(3) Å, c = 26.4210(1)/26.2949(1) Å, beta = 97.87(1)/97.549(1) degrees, and Z = 4. The clusters contain long M-S (2.62/2.59 Å) and M-Fe (3.22/3.19 Å) bonds, consistent with the reported structure of [(OC)(3)MoFe(3)S(4)(SEt)(3)](3-) (3). Reaction of [(OC)(3)MoFe(3)S(4)(LS(3))](3-) (7) with CO in the presence of NaPF(6) affords cuboidal [Fe(3)S(4)(LS(3))](3-) (9), also prepared in this laboratory by another route as a synthetic analogue of protein-bound [Fe(3)S(4)](0) clusters. The clusters [Fe(3)S(4)(SR)(3)](3-) (R = mes, Et), of limited stability, were generated by the same reaction. Treatment of 9 with [M(CO)(3)(MeCN)(3)] affords 7 and its M = W analogue. The clusters [(OC)(3)MFe(3)S(4)(SR)(3)](3-) form a four-member electron transfer series in which the 3- cluster can be once reduced (4-) and twice oxidized (2-, 1-) to afford clusters of the indicated charges. The correct assignment of redox couple to potential in the redox series of six clusters is presented, correcting an earlier misassignment of the redox series of 3. Carbonyl stretching frequencies are shown to be sensitive to cluster oxidation state, showing that the M sites and Fe(3)S(4) fragments are electronically coupled despite the long bond distances. (LS(3) = 1,3,5-tris((4,6-dimethyl-3-mercaptophenyl)thio)-2,4,6-tris(p-tolylthio)benzenate(3-); mes = mesityl.)

  13. Roles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Soil Abiotic Conditions in the Establishment of a Dry Grassland Community.

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    Jana Knappová

    in the AMF communities are the most likely drivers of the observed changes. The effects of other soil biota, however, cannot be fully excluded.These results suggest that the availability of soil fungi may not be the most important limiting factor for the establishment of grassland species in abandoned fields if we manage to reduce the intensity of competition at these sites e.g., by mowing or grazing.

  14. A model of greenhouse gas emissions from the management of turf on two golf courses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Mark D., E-mail: m.d.bartlett@cranfield.ac.uk; James, Iain T., E-mail: i.t.james@cranfield.ac.uk

    2011-03-15

    An estimated 32,000 golf courses worldwide (approximately 25,600 km{sup 2}), provide ecosystem goods and services and support an industry contributing over $124 billion globally. Golf courses can impact positively on local biodiversity however their role in the global carbon cycle is not clearly understood. To explore this relationship, the balance between plant-soil system sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management on golf courses was modelled. Input data were derived from published studies of emissions from agriculture and turfgrass management. Two UK case studies of golf course type were used, a Links course (coastal, medium intensity management, within coastal dune grasses) and a Parkland course (inland, high intensity management, within woodland). Playing surfaces of both golf courses were marginal net sources of greenhouse gas emissions due to maintenance (Links 0.4 {+-} 0.1 Mg CO{sub 2}e ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}; Parkland 0.7 {+-} 0.2 Mg CO{sub 2}e ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}). A significant proportion of emissions were from the use of nitrogen fertiliser, especially on tees and greens such that 3% of the golf course area contributed 16% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The area of trees on a golf course was important in determining whole-course emission balance. On the Parkland course, emissions from maintenance were offset by sequestration from trees which comprised 48% of total area, resulting in a net balance of -4.3 {+-} 0.9 Mg CO{sub 2e} ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}. On the Links course, the proportion of trees was much lower (2%) and sequestration from links grassland resulted in a net balance of 0.0 {+-} 0.2 Mg CO{sub 2e} ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}. Recommendations for golf course management and design include the reduction of nitrogen fertiliser, improved operational efficiency when mowing, the inclusion of appropriate tree-planting and the scaling of component areas to maximise golf course sequestration capacity. The findings are transferrable to the

  15. Birds of a eucaliptos woodlot in interior São Paulo

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    E. O. Willis

    Full Text Available Some 255 birds were recorded between 1982-2001 in and near a 2314-ha "Horto" of old eucalyptus plantations with native understory and a lake, near Rio Claro, in central São Paulo, Brazil. This is close to the 263 recorded in and around a ten-times smaller nearby 230-ha woodlot of semideciduous forest. Different species were 44, for a total of 307 in both areas. One hundred and fifty nonvagrant forest and border species were recorded in 1982-86, a number close to the 152 in the small native woodlot. With dry years and logging of plots in 1985-93, 21 of the 150 species were lost, 42 species decreased in numbers, 49 were stable, 19 increased (15 being border species, and 5 entered (one of dry forest and 4 of borders, so 129 species remained in 1996-2001 compared to 133 in the native woodlot. Open-area birds were 33, versus 50 in better-checked grassy swales in sugar cane near the natural woodlot, for a total of 53. Several species, like some border ones, did not enter the open but isolated and mowed interior lake area, or took years to do so. Water and marsh birds were 46 versus 40 in smaller creeks and ponds near the natural woodlot (total, 55 but many were migrants or infrequent visitors using distant areas, and perhaps should be counted as 0.1-0.9 "local species" rather than "1" species. Use of this more accurate method would reduce waterbird totals by 14 "species" in the Horto and by 11 around the native woodlot. I also recommend longer censusing at the edges in large woodlots or many edge species will be recorded only in small fragments of habitat. Several species increased and others decreased with occasional cat-tail and water-lily cleanups at the lake. A forested corridor between the Horto and natural woodlot is recommended, with old eucalyptus left to provide flowers for hummingbirds.

  16. Birds of a eucaliptos woodlot in interior São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis E. O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Some 255 birds were recorded between 1982-2001 in and near a 2314-ha "Horto" of old eucalyptus plantations with native understory and a lake, near Rio Claro, in central São Paulo, Brazil. This is close to the 263 recorded in and around a ten-times smaller nearby 230-ha woodlot of semideciduous forest. Different species were 44, for a total of 307 in both areas. One hundred and fifty nonvagrant forest and border species were recorded in 1982-86, a number close to the 152 in the small native woodlot. With dry years and logging of plots in 1985-93, 21 of the 150 species were lost, 42 species decreased in numbers, 49 were stable, 19 increased (15 being border species, and 5 entered (one of dry forest and 4 of borders, so 129 species remained in 1996-2001 compared to 133 in the native woodlot. Open-area birds were 33, versus 50 in better-checked grassy swales in sugar cane near the natural woodlot, for a total of 53. Several species, like some border ones, did not enter the open but isolated and mowed interior lake area, or took years to do so. Water and marsh birds were 46 versus 40 in smaller creeks and ponds near the natural woodlot (total, 55 but many were migrants or infrequent visitors using distant areas, and perhaps should be counted as 0.1-0.9 "local species" rather than "1" species. Use of this more accurate method would reduce waterbird totals by 14 "species" in the Horto and by 11 around the native woodlot. I also recommend longer censusing at the edges in large woodlots or many edge species will be recorded only in small fragments of habitat. Several species increased and others decreased with occasional cat-tail and water-lily cleanups at the lake. A forested corridor between the Horto and natural woodlot is recommended, with old eucalyptus left to provide flowers for hummingbirds.

  17. Weeds in Organic Fertility-Building Leys: Aspects of Species Richness and Weed Management

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    Thomas F. Döring

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume-based leys (perennial sod crops are an important component of fertility management in organic rotations in many parts of Europe. Despite their importance, however, relatively little is known about how these leys affect weed communities or how the specific composition of leys may contribute to weed management. To determine whether the choice of plant species in the ley affects weeds, we conducted replicated field trials at six locations in the UK over 24 months, measuring weed cover and biomass in plots sown with monocultures of 12 legume and 4 grass species, and in plots sown with a mixture of 10 legume species and 4 grass species. Additionally, we monitored weed communities in leys on 21 organic farms across the UK either sown with a mixture of the project species or the farmers’ own species mix. In total, 63 weed species were found on the farms, with the annuals Stellaria media, Sonchus arvensis, and Veronica persica being the most frequent species in the first year after establishment of the ley, while Stellaria media and the two perennials Ranunculus repens and Taraxacum officinale dominated the weed spectrum in the second year. Our study shows that organic leys constitute an important element of farm biodiversity. In both replicated and on-farm trials, weed cover and species richness were significantly lower in the second year than in the first, owing to lower presence of annual weeds in year two. In monocultures, meadow pea (Lathyrus pratensis was a poor competitor against weeds, and a significant increase in the proportion of weed biomass was observed over time, due to poor recovery of meadow pea after mowing. For red clover (Trifolium pratense, we observed the lowest proportion of weed biomass in total biomass among the tested legume species. Crop biomass and weed biomass were negatively correlated across species. Residuals from the linear regression between crop biomass and weed biomass indicated that at similar levels of crop

  18. Revision and update of the EGIB land-use database using the airborne laser scanning point cloud - the case study of Tuklecz village in 'wietokrzyskie voivodeship. (Polish Title: Weryfikacja i aktualizacja bazy klaso-użytków EGIB w oparciu o analizy chmury punktów z lotniczego skanowania laserowego na przykładzie wsi Tuklęcz w województwie świętokrzyskim)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wężyk, P.; Gęca, T.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic economic and social changes taking place for the past 20 years in Poland, effects often of such loss of extensive agriculture and abandonment of agricultural activities particularly on small and narrow plots , usually on the soils of poor grading. Even before the Polish accession to the EU, set - aside and fallow areas cover approx. 2.3 million ha (in 2002), but in subsequent years the area drastically decreased from 1.3 million ha (in 2004) , by 1.0 million ha ( 2 005 ) to 0.4 million hectares (2011). As a result of cessation of mowing meadows, grazing pastures and agricultural measures , we can observed the phenomenon of secondary forest succession ( plant communities of a forest properties ) leading to changes in land use and land cover classes structure . Recording changes in the agro - forestry space, update reference registers of the land and building (EGiB) and control granted to farmers subsidies ( direct EU payments) requires an efficient and automated technology acquisition, processing and analysis of spatial data. In addition to the used by ARiMR (in the LPIS system) vector data and aerial orthophotomaps , there is still a need to strengthen the decision - making process such as update of current ranges of land - use cla sses. One of the GI technologies that could be a real breakthrough is the Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) . The study area cover 137.17 ha in the village Tuklęcz (commune Rytwiany, Staszów County , ?więtokrzyskie Voivodeship ). The EGiB geo data came from PODGiK in Staszów. They were two ALS point cloud data sets: one provided by the RZGW in Krakow (from airborne campaign Nov. 2009; density ~ 2 pts / m2) and the second from ISOK project (Nov. 2012; density ~ 4 pts / m2 ). The Terrasolid and FUSION (USDA Forest Service) and ArcGIS Esri software were used in the study . Detection of vegetation was carried out in 4 variants differ in the "height above ground" of the class "succession" (thresholds: from 0.4m , 1m, 2m and 3m ). The

  19. Métodos de controle de plantas daninhas e seus impactos na qualidade microbiana de solo sob cafeeiro Methods of weed control and their impacts on microbial quality of soil under coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Melloni

    2013-02-01

    empregado para o controle de plantas daninhas em cafeeiro.Minas Gerais stands out as the largest coffee-producing state of Brazil. This crop is extremely susceptible to weeds, which can be handled by manual, mechanized and/or chemical methods, which strongly affect production costs and soil quality. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different weed control methods in and between coffee rows on the soil microbiota and its processes. For this purpose, soil samples were taken in April 2010 from an Oxisol on the experimental farm of the Agricultural Research Company of Minas Gerais (EPAMIG, in São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG, at a depth of 0-10 cm in the middle of the track (interrow of coffee and 20 cm away from the stem of the coffee trees (row, to determine the following properties: total density of bacteria and fungi, phosphate solubilizers, cellulolytic and ammonifying microorganisms, non-symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria, carbon biomass and microbial activity, metabolic quotient (qCO2 and enzymatic activity by the hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate. The coffee plants were subjected to seven methods of weed control: mowing, coffee tandem disk harrow (grid, rotary tiller, post-emergence herbicide, pre-emergence herbicide, manual weeding, and no weed control. The results showed the complexity of the effects of these different methods on soil and its processes, with lowest impacts of manual weeding and rotary hoe. Mowing, coffee tandem disk harrow, no weed control and pre-emergence herbicide caused intermediate impacts, while the application of post-emergence herbicides in-between coffee rows caused the most negative impacts on the evaluated properties. It is suggested that these impacts must be considered when evaluating and selecting the method for weed control in coffee plants.

  20. Hydrates of the alkali trioxidomonosulfidomolybdates and -tungstates. K{sub 2}[(Mo/W)O{sub 3}S] . 1.5 H{sub 2}O and (Rb/Cs){sub 2}[(Mo/W)O{sub 3}S] . H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Anna J.; Braitsch, Milan; Roehr, Caroline [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie

    2012-11-01

    The trioxidomonosulfidomolybdate and -tungstate anions [(Mo/W)O{sub 3}S]{sup 2-} are the first products formed when passing H{sub 2}S gas through a solution of the oxidometalates. Their potassium, rubidium and cesium salt hydrates form as crystalline precipitates from these solutions depending on pH, the polarity of the solvent, educt concentrations and temperature. The structures of the sesqui- (K) and mono- (Rb, Cs) hydrates have been determined by means of X-ray single crystal diffraction data. The potassium sesquihydrates K{sub 2}[(Mo/W)O{sub 3}S] . 1.5 H{sub 2}O are isotypic and crystallize with a new structure type (monoclinic, space group C2/c, M = Mo/W: a = 987.0(2)/993.13(11), b = 831.75(14)/831.10(11), c = 1868.9(4)/1865.2(2) pm, {beta} = 99.34(2)/99.153(8) , R1 = 0.0352/0.0390). In the crystal structure the [(Mo/W)O{sub 3}S]{sup 2-} anions are connected via hydrogen bonds to form columns along the c direction. Channels containing only water molecules run along the [101] direction. The dehydration process proceeds in a topotactic reaction between 60 to 95 C and yields crystals of the anhydrous salts K{sub 2}[(Mo/W)O{sub 3}S]. The two different K+ cations exhibit a 5 + 3 and 5 + 2 O/S coordination. The heavier alkali metal cations form the four monohydrates (Rb/Cs){sub 2}[(Mo/W)O{sub 3}S] . H{sub 2}O (trigonal rhombohedral, space group R anti 3m) with lattice parameters for the Rb/Cs molybdates of a = 621.17(6)/624.62(10), c = 3377.9(4)/3388.6(8) pm (R1 = 0.0505/0.0734) and the tungstates of a = 642.80(3)/643.3(4), c = 3532.8(3)/3566(4) pm (R1 = 0.0348/0.0660). In the structures the 3m symmetrical tetrahedra are arranged to form double layers in such a way, that the O{sub 3} bases of the tetrahedra are pointing towards each other in a staggered conformation. These double layers are stacked in the c direction in a rhombohedral sequence. In these hydrates, there are no distinct hydrogen bonds. Instead, partially disordered pairs of H{sub 2}O molecules are