Sample records for mowers

  1. Lawn mower injuries in children. (United States)

    Johnstone, B R; Bennett, C S


    Lawn mowers cause severe injuries, particularly to the lower limbs in children. The study of 52 inpatient cases treated over 12 years shows that ride-on lawn mowers cause the most severe trauma, resulting in longer hospitalization. These children more often require further admissions for reconstructive surgery including free tissue transfer. These accidents can be avoided if young children are prevented from playing near or using power lawn mowers.

  2. Oceanographic Mower Cruise (United States)

    Valencia, J.; Ercilla, G.; Hernández-Molina, F. J.; Casas, D.


    The MOWER Cruise has executed a geophysics and geologic expedition in the Gulf of Cádiz (sector adjacent to the Strait of Gibraltar) and west off Portugal, in the framework of the coordinate research project MOWER "Erosive features and associated sandy deposits generated by the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) around Iberia: paleoceanographic, sedimentary & economic implications" (CTM 2012-39599-C03). The main aim of this project is to identify and study the erosional features (terraces and channels) and associated sedimentary deposits (sandy contourites) generated by the Mediterranean Water Masses around the middle continental slope of Iberia (The Mediterranean Outflow Water - MOW - in the Atlantic margins), their Pliocene and Quaternary evolution and their paleoceanographic, sedimentary and economic implications. This objective directly involves the study of alongslope (contourite) processes associated with the MOW and across-slope (turbiditic flows, debris flows, etc.) processes in the sedimentary stacking pattern and evolution of the Iberian margins. The MOWER project and cruise are related to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 339 (Mediterranean Outflow). It is also linked and coordinated with CONDRIBER Project "Contourite drifts and associated mass-transport deposits along the SW Iberia margin - implications to slope stability and tsunami hazard assessment" (2013-2015) funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal (PTDC/GEO-GEO/4430/2012).

  3. Lawn mower-related burns. (United States)

    Still, J; Orlet, H; Law, E; Gertler, C


    Lawn mower-related injuries are fairly common and are usually caused by the mower blades. Burns may also be associated with the use of power lawn mowers. We describe 27 lawn mower-related burn injuries of 24 male patients and 3 female patients. Three of the patients with burn injuries were children. Burn sizes ranged from 1% to 99% of the total body surface area (mean, 18.1%). Two of the patients died. The hospital stay ranged from 1 day to 45 days. Twenty-six injuries involved gasoline, which is frequently associated with refueling accidents. Safety measures should involve keeping children away from lawn mowers that are being used. The proper use and storage of gasoline is stressed.

  4. An unusual lawn mower injury. (United States)

    Logar, M; Smrkolj, V; Veselko, M


    The authors report a case of foot trauma produced by a piece of the lawn mower blade, which was fired projectile-wise from the machine while it was in operation. At hit the calcaneous and remained trapped in the bone. The wound healed after removal of the foreign body, wound debridement and systemic and local antibiotic prophylaxis. In the professional literature available, no report has been found on a missile injury produced by a piece of rotating lawn mower knife.

  5. Autonomous Mower vs. Rotary Mower: Effects on Turf Quality and Weed Control in Tall Fescue Lawn


    Michel Pirchio; Marco Fontanelli; Christian Frasconi; Luisa Martelloni; Michele Raffaelli; Andrea Peruzzi; Monica Gaetani; Simone Magni; Lisa Caturegli; Marco Volterrani; Nicola Grossi


    Autonomous mowers are battery-powered machines designed for lawn mowing that require very low human labour. Autonomous mowers can increase turf quality and reduce local noise and pollution compared with gasoline-powered rotary mowers. However, very little is known about the effects of autonomous mowing on encroaching weeds. The aim of this research was to compare the effects of an autonomous mower and an ordinary gasoline-powered mower on weed development in an artificially infested tall fesc...

  6. Mutilating lawn mower injuries in children. (United States)

    Ross, P M; Schwentker, E P; Bryan, H


    Serious injuries from riding power mowers were sustained by 18 children. Eleven children were passangers on the mower and fell into its path. The injuries required an extensive number of hospitalizations and reconstructive procedures. Fifteen patients suffered considerable residual deformities. Operating riding power mowers in the vicinity of children must be actively discouraged.

  7. Pediatric lower extremity mower injuries. (United States)

    Hill, Sean M; Elwood, Eric T


    Lawn mower injuries in children represent an unfortunate common problem to the plastic reconstructive surgeon. There are approximately 68,000 per year reported in the United States. Compounding this problem is the fact that a standard treatment algorithm does not exist. This study follows a series of 7 pediatric patients treated for lower extremity mower injuries by a single plastic surgeon. The extent of soft tissue injury varied. All patients were treated with negative pressure wound therapy as a bridge to definitive closure. Of the 7 patients, 4 required skin grafts, 1 required primary closure, 1 underwent a lower extremity amputation secondary to wounds, and 1 was repaired using a cross-leg flap. Function limitations were minimal for all of our patients after reconstruction. Our basic treatment algorithm is presented with initial debridement followed by the simplest method possible for wound closure using negative pressure wound therapy, if necessary.

  8. Automatic Operation For A Robot Lawn Mower (United States)

    Huang, Y. Y.; Cao, Z. L.; Oh, S. J.; Kattan, E. U.; Hall, E. L.


    A domestic mobile robot, lawn mower, which performs the automatic operation mode, has been built up in the Center of Robotics Research, University of Cincinnati. The robot lawn mower automatically completes its work with the region filling operation, a new kind of path planning for mobile robots. Some strategies for region filling of path planning have been developed for a partly-known or a unknown environment. Also, an advanced omnidirectional navigation system and a multisensor-based control system are used in the automatic operation. Research on the robot lawn mower, especially on the region filling of path planning, is significant in industrial and agricultural applications.

  9. Lawn mower-related injuries to children. (United States)

    Vollman, David; Khosla, Kimberly; Shields, Brenda J; Beeghly, B Christine; Bonsu, Bema; Smith, Gary A


    Despite current prevention efforts, approximately 9,400 children younger than 18 years continue to receive emergency care for lawn mower-related injuries each year in the United States. In this study, we analyzed data from a consecutive series of children treated for lawn mower-related injuries during a 53-consecutive-month period in the emergency department of a large, academic children's hospital. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of lawn mower-related injuries to these children and to investigate the beliefs of parents regarding lawn mower use. There were 85 children treated for lawn mower-related injuries during the study period. The mean age was 7.6 years (SD, 4.3 years; median, 5 years), and 65% were boys. Thirty-four patients (40.0%) were admitted to the hospital, including 3 (3.5%) to the pediatric intensive care unit, and 30 (35.3%) required surgical intervention in the operating room. There were 25 children with lacerations (29.4%), 22 with fractures (25.9%), 18 with amputations (21.2%), and 10 with burns (11.8%). The most common body region injured was the lower extremity, accounting for 57.6% (49 of 85) of injuries, including 33 injuries (38.8%) to the foot/toe and 16 injuries (18.8%) to the leg. The hand/finger and head/neck regions each accounted for another 18.8% of injuries. The leading mechanism of injury was run-over/back-over (22.4%), followed by other blade contact (17.6%), thrown object (12.9%), burn (10.6%), and a fall off the mower (7.0%). Lacerations accounted for 68.8% (11 of 16) of injuries to the head/neck compared with 20.3% (14 of 69) to other body regions (p lawn mower safety standard American National Standards Institute/Outdoor Power Equipment Institute B71.1-2003 should be revised to include more rigorous performance provisions regarding prevention of penetration of feet and toes under the mower and into the path of the blades, shielding of hot mower parts from access by young children, and equipping all

  10. Technical report: lawn mower-related injuries to children. (United States)

    Smith, G A


    In the United States, approximately 9400 children younger than 18 years receive emergency treatment annually for lawn mower-related injuries. More than 7% of these children require hospitalization, and power mowers cause a large proportion of the amputations during childhood. Prevention of lawn mower-related injuries can be achieved by design changes of lawn mowers, guidelines for mower operation, and education of parents, child caregivers, and children. Pediatricians have an important role as advocates and educators to promote the prevention of these injuries.

  11. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R.


    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina

  12. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R. [Thermo Nuclear Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina.

  13. Lawn mower-related projectile injury. (United States)

    McNamara, William F; Yamout, Sani Z; Escobar, Mauricio A; Glick, Philip L


    Lawn mower injuries are a potentially devastating, yet preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. The sequelae to these injuries can become even worse if the initial presentation goes unsuspected by medical staff, leading to a delay in treatment. The authors report the case of a lawn mower-related penetrating missile injury, where the extent of injury was not appreciated by the patient until signs and symptoms of a soft-tissue infection developed, prompting the patient to seek medical attention the next day.

  14. Lawn mower injuries: a case report. (United States)

    Kharasch, M S; Longano, J; Kucich, V A; Mathews, J


    Frequent and varied injuries are sustained during the operation of power lawn mowers in the United States. A description of one such injury leading to cardiac trauma is presented. The clinical signs of injury were initially unclear, and obtaining accurate historical data was vital in the diagnosis of this patient.

  15. Tetanus after blunt lawn mower trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Normand


    Full Text Available A patient presented with tetanus ten days after blunt trauma with a lawn mower. Our case describes the diagnosis and treatment of this patient with an infectious disease commonly seen in the developing world but rarely seen in the developed world.

  16. Tetanus after blunt lawn mower trauma


    Normand, Camilla; Fostervold, Aasmund; Haarr, Elin; Skontorp, Marie; Berg, ?se


    A patient presented with tetanus ten days after blunt trauma with a lawn mower. Our case describes the diagnosis and treatment of this patient with an infectious disease commonly seen in the developing world but rarely seen in the developed world.

  17. Tetanus after blunt lawn mower trauma. (United States)

    Normand, Camilla; Fostervold, Aasmund; Haarr, Elin; Skontorp, Marie; Berg, Åse


    A patient presented with tetanus ten days after blunt trauma with a lawn mower. Our case describes the diagnosis and treatment of this patient with an infectious disease commonly seen in the developing world but rarely seen in the developed world.

  18. Fatal lawn mower related projectile injury. (United States)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Lynnerup, Niels; Banner, Jytte


    Fatal lawn mower related injuries are a relatively rare occurrence. In a forensic setting, the primary aim is to reconstruct the injury mechanism and establish the cause of death. A relatively rare, but characteristic type of injury is a so-called projectile or missile injury. This occurs when the operator or a bystander is impacted by an object mobilized from the grass by the rotating mower blades. This type of injury often leaves only modest external trauma, which increases the risk of overlooking an entry wound. In this paper we present a case of a fatal lawn mower related projectile injury which was initially overlooked, later interpreted as a possible gunshot homicide, and finally identified as a lawn mower related projectile injury when autopsy revealed a piece of metal thread in the main bronchus to the right middle lobe, hemopericardium, and right-sided hemothorax. To our knowledge, this injury mechanism has not previously been reported as a cause of death. This case illustrates the importance of postmortem radiological imaging and interdisciplinary cooperation when establishing manner and cause of death in unusual cases.

  19. Fatal lawn mower related projectile injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Lynnerup, Niels; Banner, Jytte


    was initially overlooked, later interpreted as a possible gunshot homicide, and finally identified as a lawn mower related projectile injury when autopsy revealed a piece of metal thread in the main bronchus to the right middle lobe, hemopericardium, and right-sided hemothorax. To our knowledge, this injury...

  20. Lawn mower injuries in children: a 30-year experience. (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh; Raymond, Simon; Morgan, Vanessa; Peters, Julian; Macgill, Kirstie; Johnstone, Bruce


    Lawn mowers cause severe injuries that are particularly devastating to children. This study analyses the patterns and trends in lawn mower injuries involving children referred to Victoria's principal children's hospital. A retrospective review of the patient medical records at the Royal Children's Hospital (Melbourne) Victoria, Australia was carried out. The series included all patients admitted for lawn mower injury during the 30-year period spanning 1975-2004. Lawn mower injuries treated at Royal Children's Hospital were severe and included partially amputated limbs. Overall, admissions for lawn mower injury generally decreased over time from n = 26 in the 1975-1979 interval to n = 14 in the 2000-2004 interval. However, the frequency of admission for injuries caused by ride-on mowers contradicted the overall trend and generally increased over time from n = 5 in the 1975-1979 interval to n = 11 in the 2000-2004 interval. This is of particular concern. Ride-on lawn mowers caused significantly more severe injuries requiring longer periods of admission and more operations during admission in comparison to standard mowers. Rural location at the time of injury was a risk factor associated with requiring longer periods of admission and more operations during admission. Children injured while operating mowers were generally older than children injured as bystanders. Lawn mower injuries are a significant cause of morbidity. These injuries are particularly devastating to children. The tragedy is keenly felt in the realization that these devastating injuries to children could all be prevented. Strategic preventative measures should be developed through partnership between the medical profession, the media, industry specialists and the wider community.

  1. Lawn mower injuries to children in Pennsylvania, 1989 to 1993. (United States)

    Bernardo, L M; Gardner, M J


    Lawn mowers pose a significant risk of morbidity and mortality to children. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of children injured by lawn mowers admitted to accredited trauma centers in Pennsylvania from 1989 to 1993. Data were available on 177 children who sustained 504 injuries. The majority of children were less than 5 years old, male, injured by a power mower, during the summer, at home, and with an injury to an extremity. Four cases that represent patients with a low injury Severity Score but a long hospitalization are discussed.

  2. Lawn mower injuries in pediatric patients. (United States)

    Horn, Pamela L; Beebe, Allan C


    Lawn mower injuries are painful, devastating, and life-altering. Pediatric patients who sustain these injuries suffer various forms of physical trauma. Some are minor, but many others are disfiguring or even fatal. The psychological and social impact is far-reaching as well. These injuries have high rates of morbidity, include many days lost from school, and can cause financial loss for the parents due to the hospitalization and missed work. The primary objective with regards to lawn mower injuries is prevention that is accomplished by education. However, once the patient has been injured and admitted to the hospital, then immediate treatment with timely discharge is the main objective. Excellent wound care, acceptable cosmetic appearance, and infection prevention are the ultimate goals. Use of the Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) device has helped facilitate the end results. Psychological adjustment with regards to this traumatic event is also addressed immediately for both the patient and the caregivers. Inpatient and outpatient counseling and follow-up all play a role in this stressful time.

  3. Management of lawn mower injuries to the foot and ankle. (United States)

    Corcoran, J; Zamboni, W A; Zook, E G


    Seventy consecutive patients treated for lawn mower injuries to the foot and ankle were reviewed to determine optimal treatment, functional results, and complications. Injuries were classified into 1 or more functional-anatomical zones (I, digits; II, dorsum; III, plantar nonweight-bearing surface; IV, heel; and V, ankle) for a total of 96 injuries. Thirty-one patients were available for follow-up. Mean age was 36.7 years and 84% were males. Most injuries (67%) involved patients > 16 years old using a push mower; however, 18% involved children Lawn mower injuries to the foot and ankle can be closed primarily after adequate irrigation and debridement without compromise of infection rate or function. Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended. One-sixth of these injuries involve children < 5 years of age and can be prevented.

  4. Management of lower extremity riding lawn mower injuries in children. (United States)

    Kroening, L; Davids, J R


    Eight children are injured by riding lawn mowers every day. The child, usually a bystander or passenger on the mower, can sustain life-threatening and limb-threatening injuries. Multidisciplinary care must be available to manage the numerous issues presented by the unique circumstance of a child with a severe injury in the acute and chronic settings. Whether the limb is salvaged or amputated, the ultimate goal is optimal functional outcome for the patient. We have developed a team approach to address these injuries from their onset until patient maturity, maximizing our ability to achieve this goal.

  5. Shock whilst gardening--implantable defibrillators & lawn mowers. (United States)

    Von Olshausen, G; Lennerz, C; Grebmer, C; Pavaci, H; Kolb, C


    Electromagnetic interference with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) can cause inappropriate shock delivery or temporary inhibition of ICD functions. We present a case of electromagnetic interference between a lawn mower and an ICD resulting in an inappropriate discharge of the device due to erroneous detection of ventricular fibrillation.

  6. Lemonade from lemons: the taphonomic effect of lawn mowers on skeletal remains. (United States)

    Martin, D C; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Roberts, Lindsey G


    This study provides a descriptive analysis of the taphonomic changes produced by passing over skeletonized remains (n = 4, Sus scrofa) with three common lawn mowers. Two skeletons were mowed over with a riding lawn mower set at multiple blade heights (10.16, 7.62, 5.08 cm) and one each with a rotary mower (9.53, 6.35 cm) and a mulching mower (6.35 cm). Results show that different types of common lawn mowers will produce different patterns of bone dispersal and fragmentation rates. Overall, skeletal elements projecting upward from the surface frequently exhibited a sheared morphology characterized by a smooth, flat, cut surface (7.0-7.6% of elements). The push mowers yielded a higher frequency of undamaged bone than the riding mower (54.8-61.2% vs. 17.7%), and the riding mower created more catastrophic damage to skeletal elements. Additionally, each mower produced a distinct dispersal pattern of skeletal fragments. The dispersal patterns have been identified as "bull's-eye" (riding), circular (mulching), and discontinuous rectangle (rotary). © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Lawn mower injuries of the pediatric foot and ankle: observations on prevention and management. (United States)

    Vosburgh, C L; Gruel, C R; Herndon, W A; Sullivan, J A


    We reviewed 32 children with lower extremity injuries caused by power lawn mowers. Functional outcome of 21 patients was evaluated. Anatomical injury patterns provide some guidelines in management and prediction of functional outcome. Consistently, the most severe injuries result from ride-on mowers and wounds to the posterior/plantar foot and ankle. Our experience with pediatric foot and ankle lawn mower injuries permits recommendations for maximum functional outcome with minimal intervention. Public awareness and mower safety devices may be required to decrease the rate of accidents in the future.

  8. Hydrogen-powered lawn mower: 14 years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvon, K.; Lorenzoni, J.-L.


    Our hydrogen-powered lawn mower [Yvon K, Lorenzoni J-L. Hydrogen powered lawn mower. Int J Hydrogen Energy 1993; 18, 345-48] has been operated without major interruption during the past 14 years. The commercial model was originally running on gasoline and was adapted to hydrogen by making small adjustments to the carburettor and by installing a hydrogen reservoir containing solid-state metal hydrides. During the evaluation period the only maintenance work was changing the lubricating oil of the engine once a year, and reactivating the metal hydride powder by external heating after an accidental inlet of air into the reservoir. There occurred no technical failure, and there was no safety incident, neither during operation nor during recharging of hydrogen. This demonstrates that a hydrogen-operated device of this type is mature for use by greater public. Cost and marketing issues are discussed. (author)

  9. Lawn mower injuries as a cause of serious visual acuity impairment – Case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jasielska


    Lawn mower induced eye injuries are a significant cause of serious visual acuity impairment or blindness. The presented study shows that lawn mower eye injuries are still a therapeutic, social and economic problem, yet are very preventable with proper eye protection and patients’ education. Current prevention strategies are inadequate, and therefore should be updated.

  10. Penetrating cardiac injury by wire thrown from a lawn mower. (United States)

    Rubio, P A; Reul, G J


    The first successful surgically treated case of penetrating heart injury, specifically the right ventricle, caused by a fragment of coat hanger wire thrown by a lawn mower, is reported. Though traumatic heart injuries are rare, this case represents accurate surgical management and judgment, especially in the preoperative phase which resulted in early operating and excellent postoperative results. It is our feeling that if the patient can be transferred safely to the operating room the mortality rate is considerably lowered; however, emergency room thoracotomy, which will undoubtedly result in a greater survival rate from these spectacular injuries, should be performed in the emergency center if cardiac activity ceases or the patient's condition deteriorates considerably.

  11. Major lower extremity lawn mower injuries in children. (United States)

    Dormans, J P; Azzoni, M; Davidson, R S; Drummond, D S


    Between 1983 and 1993, 16 children with 18 lower extremity power lawn mower-related injuries were treated at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Eleven of 16 patients (69%) were bystanders or nonoperators. The average age at injury was 4 years 9 months. Length of follow-up averaged 3 years 10 months. There was an average of 4.9 procedures per patient. Fourteen of the 18 limbs injured required eventual amputation (78%). We propose a new classification of lawn mower injuries in children. The most common injury (16 of 18 limbs) was a shredding type injury and was either intercalary or distal. The second was a paucilaceration type (two of 18 limbs). Of the four salvaged limbs, there were two shredding type injuries, and on most recent follow-up are considered to have poor results. The two patients with the paucilaceration type injuries and limb salvage are considered to have excellent results. All patients with a shredding type injury ultimately required amputation or had poor results with the salvaged limb. Limb salvage surgery was associated with prolonged hospitalizations, a higher incidence of surgical problems, a longer treatment course, and more complications than early ablative procedures.

  12. Lawn mower injuries in children: a preventable impairment. (United States)

    Alonso, J E; Sanchez, F L


    Every year there are seven million new lawn mowers purchased in the United States, each of which is capable of injuring young children, especially those > 14 years of age. A total of 33 children injured by a lawn mower were reviewed to identify the mechanism of injury, to determine the factors responsible for the accident, to determine an effective treatment regime, and to evaluate the permanent impairment for these patients. Classified according to their mechanism of injury, 14 children were injured as bystanders, 13 injured as riders, and six injured as operators. Categorized according to the anatomical location of injury, there were eight head and eye injuries, 12 upper extremity injuries, and 13 lower extremity injuries. There were 13 amputations (39.3%). The treatment management was satisfactory, but 23 children had an impairment > 40% of the whole person. We believe that the incidence of these injuries can be reduced by public awareness. Each orthopaedic surgeon should take on the task of educating the public about the dangers and wounding capacity of these machines and instructing the proper safety precautions that should be taken when mowing the lawn, especially when children are involved. The bottom line is that children should not be allowed in the yard while the lawn is being mowed nor should they be allowed to mow the lawn until they are > or = 15 years of age.

  13. Vena caval impalement: an unusual lawn mower injury in a child. (United States)

    Muńoz-Juárez, M; Drugas, G T; Hallett, J W; Zietlow, S P


    Penetrating injury to the vena cava is a potentially life threatening condition that necessitates prompt recognition and immediate treatment. Herein we describe a unique lawn mower-related injury in a 4-year-old boy, resulting in the impalement of the inferior vena cava by a foreign body projectile. Relevant concepts in the management of children with lawn mower injuries are discussed, with emphasis on penetrating injury to the inferior vena cava.

  14. Influential parameters for designing and power consumption calculating of cumin mower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodi, E.; Jafari, A. [Tehran Univ., Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Agricultural Machinery Engineering


    This paper reported on a study in which the consuming power and design of cumin mowers was calculated. The parameters required for calculating power consumption and designing of cumin mowers were measured along with some engineering properties of cumin stems. These included shearing and bending tests on cumin stem and specifying the coefficient of friction between mower knives and cumin stem. The relationships between static and dynamic friction forces being exerted on mower runners by soil with normal load were determined along with the factor affecting soil moisture. Some of the other parameters that are important for calculating the power consumption and design of an optimized mower include harvest moisture content; maximum and average of cumin stem diameter; maximum bio-yield point of force and maximum ultimate point of force in the cutting; average energy required to cut a stem; maximum elasticity module; maximum bending rupture force; average energy required for bending a stem; friction coefficient between the stem and knife edge; relation between bio-yield force, failure force, elasticity and diameter in the cutting; relation between rupture forces and diameter in the bending; and mower weight.

  15. Children treated for lawn mower-related injuries in US emergency departments, 1990-2014. (United States)

    Ren, Karen S; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Yang, Jingzhen; Friedenberg, Laura; Smith, Gary A


    Investigate the epidemiology of lawn mower-related injuries to children in the US. A retrospective analysis was conducted of children younger than 18years of age treated in US emergency departments for a lawn mower-related injury from 1990 through 2014 using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. An estimated 212,258 children lawn mower-related injuries from 1990 through 2014, equaling an average annual rate of 11.9 injuries per 100,000 US children. The annual injury rate decreased by 59.9% during the 25-year study period. The leading diagnosis was a laceration (38.5%) and the most common body region injured was the hand/finger (30.7%). Struck by (21.2%), cut by (19.9%), and contact with a hot surface (14.1%) were the leading mechanisms of injury. Patients Lawn mower-related injuries continue to be a cause of serious morbidity among children. Although the annual injury rate decreased significantly over the study period, the number of injuries is still substantial, indicating the need for additional prevention efforts. In addition to educational approaches, opportunities exist for improvements in mower design and lawn mower safety standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Injuries associated with the use of riding mowers in the United States, 2002-2007. (United States)

    Hammig, Bart; Childers, Elizabeth; Jones, Ches


    To examine injuries among patients treated in an emergency department (ED) related to the use of a riding lawn mower. Data were obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System for the years 2002-2007. National estimates of ED visits for injuries associated with the use of a riding lawn mower were analyzed. Narrative text entries were categorized to provide a detailed record of the circumstances precipitating the injury. Average annual rates were calculated and logistic regression analyses were employed to determine risk estimates for patient disposition and demographic characteristics related to ED visits for injuries associated with riding mowers. From 2002 through 2007, there were an estimated 66,341 ED visits for injuries related to the use of riding lawnmowers in the U.S., with an average annual rate of 6.0 ED visits per 100,000 males, and 1.6 ED visits per 100,000 females. Older adults had higher rates of ED visits for injuries (7.2/100,000) than younger age groups. The most common injuries involved contusions (24%); sprains/strains (22%) and fractures (17%). The majority of patients (90%) were treated and released the same day. Results of logistic regression analyses revealed that older adults were more likely to be hospitalized when compared to younger age groups; and incidents involving rollovers [OR=5.45 (95% CI=3.22-9.23)] and being run over [6.01 (95% CI 3.23-11.17)] were more likely to result in hospitalization when compared to all other circumstances of injury. Riding mowers present injury patterns and circumstances that are different than those reported for push mowers. Circumstances related to injuries and age groups affected were varied, making prevention of riding mower injuries challenging. APPLICATION/IMPACT: Findings support the need to increase awareness and/or change the design of riding mowers with respect to risk of rollover injuries.

  17. Experimental and Computational Investigation of Triple-rotating Blades in a Mower Deck (United States)

    Chon, Woochong; Amano, Ryoichi S.

    Experimental and computational studies were performed on the 1.27m wide three-spindle lawn mower deck with side discharge arrangement. Laser Doppler Velocimetry was used to measure the air velocity at 12 different sections under the mower deck. The high-speed video camera test provided valuable visual evidence of airflow and grass discharge patterns. The strain gages were attached at several predetermined locations of the mower blades to measure the strain. In computational fluid dynamics work, computer based analytical studies were performed. During this phase of work, two different trials were attempted. First, two-dimensional blade shapes at several arbitrary radial sections were selected for flow computations around the blade model. Finally, a three-dimensional full deck model was developed and compared with the experimental results.

  18. Investigation of Flow Behavior around Corotating Blades in a Double-Spindle Lawn Mower Deck


    Chon W.; Amano R. S.


    When the airflow patterns inside a lawn mower deck are understood, the deck can be redesigned to be efficient and have an increased cutting ability. To learn more, a combination of computational and experimental studies was performed to investigate the effects of blade and housing designs on a flow pattern inside a 1.1m wide corotating double-spindle lawn mower deck with side discharge. For the experimental portion of the study, air velocities inside the deck were measured using a laser Do...

  19. Helicopters, Lawn Mowers or Down-to-Earth Parents? What Works Best for Higher Education (United States)

    Gross, Karen


    Many faculty and staff working in higher education lament the increasing involvement of the parents of their college-aged students. They denigrate such individuals as "helicopter" parents, and when the contact occurs in person as opposed to through the phone or email, they call them "lawn mower" parents. The whole issue of…

  20. Lawn mower injuries presenting to the emergency department: 2005 to 2015. (United States)

    Harris, Christopher; Madonick, Jonathan; Hartka, Thomas Ryan


    The objective of this study was to describe recent trends in the epidemiology of lawn mower injuries presenting to the Emergency Department in the United States using nationally representative data for all ages. Data for this retrospective analysis were obtained from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), for the years 2005-2015. We queried the system using all product codes under "lawn mowers" in the NEISS Coding Manual. We examined body part injured, types of injuries, gender and age distribution, and disposition. There were an estimated 934,394 lawn mower injuries treated in U.S. ED's from 2005 to 2015, with an average of 84,944 injuries annually. The most commonly injured body parts were the hand/finger (22.3%), followed by the lower extremity (16.2%). The most common type of injury was laceration (23.1%), followed by sprain/strain (18.8%). The mean age of individuals injured was 46.5 years, and men were more than three times as likely to be injured as women. Patients presenting to the ED were far more likely to be discharged home after treatment (90.5%) than to be admitted (8.5%). Lawn mowers continue to account for a large number of injuries every year in the United States. The incidence of lawn mower injuries showed no decrease during the period of 2005-2015. Preventative measures should take into account the epidemiology of these injuries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Primary closure of lawn mower injuries to the foot: a case series. (United States)

    Goldsmith, Jon R; Massa, Eric G


    The standard initial treatment of lawn mower injuries to the foot consists of prompt administration of parenteral antibiotics, debridement of devitalized tissue, irrigation, repair of traumatized vascular structures, and stabilization of osseous fractures. The primary closure of these wounds at the initial operation is a controversial concept. The authors performed a retrospective study of 9 lawn mower injuries in which primary closure was performed. Medical records were evaluated, and 7 patients were reached for follow-up interviews. The hospital courses for this patient population were remarkably lower than those previously reported in the literature. No patient required further admission to the hospital or surgical intervention. The postinjury functional evaluation mean score was 97.6%. The results demonstrate that this treatment method can be an effective means for treating this mutilating injury in the foot.

  2. Investigation of Flow Behavior around Corotating Blades in a Double-Spindle Lawn Mower Deck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chon W.


    Full Text Available When the airflow patterns inside a lawn mower deck are understood, the deck can be redesigned to be efficient and have an increased cutting ability. To learn more, a combination of computational and experimental studies was performed to investigate the effects of blade and housing designs on a flow pattern inside a 1.1m wide corotating double-spindle lawn mower deck with side discharge. For the experimental portion of the study, air velocities inside the deck were measured using a laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV system. A high-speed video camera was used to observe the flow pattern. Furthermore, noise levels were measured using a sound level meter. For the computational fluid dynamics (CFD work, several arbitrary radial sections of a two-dimensional blade were selected to study flow computations. A three-dimensional, full deck model was also developed for realistic flow analysis. The computational results were then compared with the experimental results.

  3. [Reconstruction of the heel in a two-year-old boy after lawn mower injury]. (United States)

    Kraus, R; Albrecht, J; Schnettler, R; von Pichler, M


    Lawn mower injuries in children usually involve the lower extremities and can lead to serious amputation injuries. Treatment should look not only at the acute reconstruction, but also on maintaining the ability to grow. We report the case of a two-year-old boy with amputation of the heel. The boy was run over by a lawn mower. He suffered a complete loss of heel soft tissue, 30 % of the os calcis and the Achilles tendon. The one-stage reconstruction was performed by transplantation of an iliac crest graft, fascia lata to reconstruct the Achilles tendon and a microvascular latissimus dorsi flap. After one year, the functional and cosmetic result is excellent, the bone graft is healed completely and shows growth trends. The successful treatment of such a severe amputation injury requires the interdisciplinary cooperation between paediatric traumatologists, plastic surgeons, physical therapists and orthopaedic shoemaker. The result justifies the great effort. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Paediatric ride-on mower related injuries and plastic surgical management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, T A


    Lawnmower related injuries cause significant morbidity in children and young teenagers. The \\'ride-on\\' mowers which are more powerful than the \\'walk behind\\' mowers are becoming increasingly popular. The incidence and severity of injuries from either type of lawnmower appears to be steadily rising as is the burden placed on local plastic surgical and emergency services in managing the care of these patients. The aims of the study were to demonstrate changing trends in lawnmower-related injuries to children presenting to a single unit over a ten-year period and to identify any association between injury severity and machine subtype (\\'ride-on\\' versus \\'walk-behind\\'). Hospital databases, theatre records and medical case notes were reviewed retrospectively of all patients under the age of 16 treated for lawnmower related injuries over a 10 year period from July 1998 to June 2008. Data gathered included patient demographics, injury site and severity, management (type and number of surgical procedures), length of hospital stay and outcome. Injury severity score was also calculated for each case. Controlling for estimated regional population changes, there was a significant increase in the number of ride-on mower related accidents in the time period 2003-2008, compared to the time period 1998-2003. Ride-on injuries had significantly higher injury severity scores, longer hospital stays and were more likely to involve amputations as compared with walk-behind injuries. Children can sustain significant injuries with unsafe lawnmower use. The current study demonstrates the increasing incidence of ride-on mower related injuries in children and identifies a greater morbidity associated with such injuries. Such presentations place intense demands on local plastic surgical services.

  5. Lawn mower injuries as a cause of serious visual acuity impairment - Case reports. (United States)

    Jasielska, Monika; Winiarczyk, Mateusz; Bieliński, Paweł; Mackiewicz, Jerzy


    [b]Abstract Objective.[/b] The aim of the study is to present four cases of lawn mowers injuries as a cause of serious visual acuity impairment. [b]Materials and Method[/b]. A retrospective study of four patients admitted in 2013-2015 to the Department of Vitreoretinal Surgery in Lublin with severe open or closed globe injury, one with an intraocular foreign body (IOFB). The presence of eye protective equipment was assessed, as well as visual acuity, eye tissue condition before and after treatment, and applied therapy. In all cases an improvement was achieved in local conditions. The intraocular foreign body was removed, wounds sutured and damaged tissues placed in position. All eyeballs were saved. In three cases, visual acuity was improved to a usable level. Three patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy, one with IOFB removal from the vitreous cavity. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Lawn mower induced eye injuries are a significant cause of serious visual acuity impairment or blindness. The presented study shows that lawn mower eye injuries are still a therapeutic, social and economic problem, yet are very preventable with proper eye protection and patients' education. Current prevention strategies are inadequate, and therefore should be updated.

  6. Pediatric Lower Extremity Lawn Mower Injuries and Reconstruction: Retrospective 10-Year Review at a Level 1 Trauma Center. (United States)

    Branch, Leslie G; Crantford, John C; Thompson, James T; Tannan, Shruti C


    From 2004 to 2013, there were 9341 lawn mower injuries in children under 20 years old. The incidence of lawn mower injuries in children has not decreased since 1990 despite implementation of various different prevention strategies. In this report, the authors review the results of pediatric lawn mower-related lower-extremity injuries treated at a tertiary care referral center as well as review the overall literature. A retrospective review was performed at a level 1 trauma center over a 10-year period (2005-2015). Patients younger than 18 years who presented to the emergency room with lower extremity lawn mower injuries were included. Of the 27 patients with lower-extremity lawn mower injuries during this period, the mean age at injury was 5.5 years and Injury Severity Score was 7.2. Most (85%) patients were boys and the predominant type of mower causing injury was a riding lawn mower (96%). Injury occurred in patients who were bystanders in 78%, passengers in 11%, and operators in 11%. Mean length of stay was 12.2 days, and mean time to reconstruction was 7.9 days. Mean number of surgical procedures per patient was 4.1. Amputations occurred in 15 (56%) cases with the most common level of amputation being distal to the metatarsophalangeal joint (67%). Reconstructive procedures ranged from direct closure (41%) to free tissue transfer (7%). Major complications included infection (7%), wound dehiscence (11%), and delayed wound healing (15%). Mean follow up was 23.6 months and 100% of the patients were ambulatory after injury. The subgroup of patients with the most severe injuries, highest number of amputations, and need for overall surgical procedures were patients aged 2 to 5 years. A review of the literature also showed consistent findings. This study demonstrates the danger and morbidity that lawn mowers present to the pediatric population, particularly children aged 2 to 5 years. Every rung of the so-called reconstructive ladder is used in caring for these

  7. Lawn mower injuries to the lower extremity: a 10-year retrospective review. (United States)

    Greenhagen, Robert M; Raspovic, Katherine M; Crim, Brandon E; Ryan, Michael T; Gruen, Gary G


    Lawn mower injuries occur frequently in the United States and oftentimes result in extensive trauma to the lower extremities. These injuries can be quite devastating and cause there to be loss of function and amputation. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are specific factors that would help determine the best treatment protocol, patient outcomes, and prognosis after lawn mower injury to the foot and ankle. A retrospective review of medical records was performed on all patients treated at a university level 1 trauma center from 2000 to 2010. Only subjects 18 years or older who sustained an injury below the level of the knee were included for review. Seventy-three patients were included in this review. The results revealed that patients who developed a complication were significantly older than the group of patients without complications (P = .03). Digits were found to be injured most often but the odds of developing a complication were much higher if these injuries involved the plantar foot, dorsal foot, or ankle. Interestingly, patients on prolonged antibiotic therapy had a significantly higher risk of developing complications. The presence of comorbidities significantly increased the risk of complication (P = .008); the greatest risk factors were cardiovascular disease (P = .001) and diabetes (P = .06). The authors present the largest cohort of lawn mower injuries in the medical literature, which demonstrates that factors such as age, location of injury, and the presence of comorbidities influence the outcome and increase the risk of injury to the foot and ankle. These results may be useful in determining the best treatment plan possible for patients with these severe injuries. Therapeutic, Level IV, Retrospective case series.

  8. Ergonomics and comfort in lawn mower handle positioning: An evaluation of handle geometry. (United States)

    Lowndes, Bethany R; Heald, Elizabeth A; Hallbeck, M Susan


    Hand operation accompanied with any combination of large forces, awkward positions and repetition may lead to upper limb injury or illness and may be exacerbated by vibration. Commercial lawn mowers expose operators to these factors during actuation of hand controls and therefore may be a health concern. A nontraditional lawn mower control system may decrease upper limb illnesses and injuries through more neutral hand and body positioning. This study compared maximum grip strength in twelve different orientations (3 grip spans and 4 positions) and evaluated self-described comfortable handle positions. The results displayed force differences between nontraditional (X) and both vertical (V) and pistol (P) positions (p < 0.0001) and among the different grip spans (p < 0.0001). Based on these results, recommended designs should incorporate a tilt between 45 and 70°, handle rotations between 48 and 78°, and reduced force requirements or decreased grip spans to improve user health and comfort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Vibration analysis of the sulky accessory for a commercial walk-behind lawn mower to determine operator comfort and health. (United States)

    Thrailkill, Elizabeth A; Lowndes, Bethany R; Hallbeck, M Susan


    A sulky is a single-wheeled platform attachment on which the operator of a commercial walk-behind lawn mower rides while standing. The effects of sulky vibration on operator comfort and health have not been investigated. In this study, tri-axial accelerometers measured sulky vibration during mower use by two commercial mowers on varied terrain and 12 volunteer mowers over a controlled course. The accelerometer data were processed according to methods established in ISO 2631. Results indicate the mean frequency-weighted root mean square (RMS) acceleration sums fall into the 'very uncomfortable' range for vibration of standing persons (1.9 ± 0.48 m s⁻²). Additionally, vibration dose values indicated that the mean vibration dosages exceeded the daily exposure limit values established in Directive 2002 /44/EC (z-axis A(8) value of 1.30 ± 34 m s⁻²; VDV(exp) value of 28.1 ± 6.25 m s⁻¹·⁷⁵). This information suggests that modifications including vibration damping should be added to the sulky to reduce rider discomfort and health risks. This study investigated the effects of vibration during use of a commercial lawn mowing sulky. Findings from accelerometer data suggest that the vibration experienced by sulky operators is significant enough to cause discomfort and health risks which may lead to personnel turnover or long-term effects for the operator.

  10. Vision-based obstacle recognition system for automated lawn mower robot development (United States)

    Mohd Zin, Zalhan; Ibrahim, Ratnawati


    Digital image processing techniques (DIP) have been widely used in various types of application recently. Classification and recognition of a specific object using vision system require some challenging tasks in the field of image processing and artificial intelligence. The ability and efficiency of vision system to capture and process the images is very important for any intelligent system such as autonomous robot. This paper gives attention to the development of a vision system that could contribute to the development of an automated vision based lawn mower robot. The works involve on the implementation of DIP techniques to detect and recognize three different types of obstacles that usually exist on a football field. The focus was given on the study on different types and sizes of obstacles, the development of vision based obstacle recognition system and the evaluation of the system's performance. Image processing techniques such as image filtering, segmentation, enhancement and edge detection have been applied in the system. The results have shown that the developed system is able to detect and recognize various types of obstacles on a football field with recognition rate of more 80%.

  11. Design and Implementation of Automatic Wheat Mower Based on Smart Sensor Fed by a Photovoltaic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Esen


    Full Text Available The biggest problems of our time are environmental pollution and the reduction of fossil fuel resources. In recent years, photovoltaic (PV has started to be used efficiently in order to produce electrical energy from solar energy throughout the world. In this study, a wheat mover machine taking its energy with PV technology transformation from the sun was designed supported by smart sensors. The designed vehicle was tested in two wheat fields in Sivas in Turkey. It was seen that daily average sunshine rates were not lower than 700 Watt/m2 during the testing dates and time. The amounts of electrical charge used to mow 5 m2 and 50 m2 areas are obtained as 500 mAh and 3395 mAh, respectively. Also maximum power is calculated from used PV panel as 26.15 Watt during the day of the experiments. The range of solar radiation intensity is found 4.5 kWh/m2/day at the studied kWh which was $0.140 USD on the date of November 2015. This system is 94.5% more economic than conventional mowers over an area of 1000 m2.

  12. Design, Realization and First Tests of a Prototype of Mower-Conditioner to Harvest Fibre Sorghum through Haymaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assirelli, A.; Pari, L. (Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Unita di Ricerca per l' Ingegneria Agraria, Monterotondo, RM (Italy))


    The baling of dried fibre sorghum introduces some specific problems due mostly to stalk development, height and rigidity and to the volume of green biomass to process. To improve storage and to reduce transport cost, the main aspect to consider is the achievement of a satisfactory natural drying of the plant on the ground. Previous tests with mowers and mower-conditioners pointed out operational problems: the mowers, in relation to height and rigidity of the stalks, showed low working capacity, while the mower-conditioners, both with rolls or spokes, were not able to obtain a conditioning level good enough to achieve sufficient natural drying. The structure of the plant, particularly of its stalk, is such that without a continuous cleavage along the whole length, water content decreases slower than it would be suitable for harvesting period in Italy. Following these considerations, CRA-ING developed a back mounted harvester prototype, connected to the rear three-point linkage of a reversible drive tractor. Such equipment permits the cutting and conditioning of the whole plant, leaving it spread on the ground, without forming windrows, so to make full use of the solar radiation for drying. When the water contents drops to the optimum value for storing, the product can be collected in windrow and then baled with existing round balers or big balers. The adopted conditioning system is formed by six couples of longitudinal rolls, similar to those used in corn harvesting, because also the fibre sorghum is a row cultivation; each roll is provided with alternate blades and pads to press and cleave all along the stalk while pulling down the plant. Rolls dimensions and rotational speed are such to hit the stalk every 5 cm. Under the rolls, next to the ground, a saw cuts the plants. During the first year tests in Central Italy, the idea was confirmed successful: it was possible, working at 5 km/h speed, corresponding to 1,5 ha/h effective working capacity, to windrow and to

  13. Occult lawn mower projectile injury presenting with hemoptysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric J. Darvie, BS


    Full Text Available We present the case of a 72-year-old man with hemoptysis after a thoracic projectile injury, which occurred while mowing the lawn. Chest radiograph followed by a computed tomography angiogram revealed a metallic foreign body in the right middle lobe of the lung. The patient underwent a right anterolateral thoracotomy where the object was successfully retrieved. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery.

  14. Demonstration of a Catalytic Converter Using a Lawn Mower Engine (United States)

    Young, Mark A.


    Catalytic conversion is an important tool in environmental-remediation strategies and source removal of pollutants. Because a catalyst is regenerated, the chemistry can be extremely effective for conversion of undesirable pollutant species to less harmful products in situations where the pollutants have accumulated or are being continuously…

  15. Occult lawn mower projectile injury presenting with hemoptysis. (United States)

    Darvie, Patric J; Ballard, David H; Harris, Nicholas; Bhargava, Peeyush; Rao, Vyas R; Samra, Navdeep S


    We present the case of a 72-year-old man with hemoptysis after a thoracic projectile injury, which occurred while mowing the lawn. Chest radiograph followed by a computed tomography angiogram revealed a metallic foreign body in the right middle lobe of the lung. The patient underwent a right anterolateral thoracotomy where the object was successfully retrieved. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery.

  16. Occult lawn mower projectile injury presenting with hemoptysis


    Patric J. Darvie, BS; David H. Ballard, MD; Nicholas Harris, MD; Peeyush Bhargava, MD, MBA; Vyas R. Rao, MD; Navdeep S. Samra, MD


    We present the case of a 72-year-old man with hemoptysis after a thoracic projectile injury, which occurred while mowing the lawn. Chest radiograph followed by a computed tomography angiogram revealed a metallic foreign body in the right middle lobe of the lung. The patient underwent a right anterolateral thoracotomy where the object was successfully retrieved. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery.

  17. DCS Hydraulics Submission for MOWER COUNTY, MN (Countywide DFIRM) (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  18. DCS Hydrology Submission for Mower County, MN (Countywide DFIRM) (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. OrthoImagery Submission for Mower County, MN (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — NAIP imagery is available for distribution within 60 days of the end of a flying season and is intended to provide current information of agricultural conditions in...

  20. DCS Floodplain Mapping Submission for MOWER COUNTY, MN (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  1. It's a lawn mower! It's a weed whacker!'s a herd of goats! (United States)

    EPA’s research facility in Narragansett, Rhode Island recently enlisted the help of a highly skilled landscaping team to create more pollinator-friendly habitat on the premises. The team doesn’t use chemicals or pollute the air with carbon emissions, can work on just...

  2. Pop / Raul Saaremets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saaremets, Raul


    Heliplaatidest Starsailor" Love is Here". Chicago Underground Quartet "Chicago Underground Quartet". Mower "Mower". Kim Wilde "The Very Best of". Mull Historical Society "Loss". Jill Scott "Experience: 826+"

  3. Power Lawn Mower Assembler (agric. equip.) 6-94.352--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery. (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  4. Transfer of the second to the first metatarsal ray in a case of lawn mower injury: a case report. (United States)

    Sassu, Paolo; Tsai, Tsu Min


    The medial longitudinal arch of the foot plays a major role for a physiologic transfer of the load from the heel to the forefoot during walking and running. Traumatic amputation that involve either the great toe or the whole first metatarsal bone can lead to collapse of the medial longitudinal arch, overload of the metatarsal heads, and painful callus formation. If replant of the amputated part is not possible or has failed, it is advisable to reconstruct the medial longitudinal arch in order to re-establish a functional transfer of the load in the foot. We present a case of a young lady who suffered from traumatic amputation at the distal third of the first metatarsal. Replantation failed due to the severity of the initial injury. Despite a good coverage of the defect with a lateral arm flap, the patient developed a painful plantar callus underneath the amputated stump. The adjacent second metatarsal ray was then raised as a pedicled flap including bone and soft tissues and transferred to the first ray in order to reconstruct a physiologic medial longitudinal arch. The patient had excellent functional results with no recurrence of the callus. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Design Study for Controllable Electric Motor for Three Wheel Drive, In Wheel Mounting on Professional, Electric, Lawn Mower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan

    Design of a new generation of electric drive motor for professional lawnmowers forms the basic objective of this thesis. Modern drive concepts produces a growing demand for electrical machines featuring high torque density, and suitable for direct drive applications. Much attention is presently...... focused upon the transverse flux permanent magnet machine, which attracts great interests in electric and hybrid propulsion systems. This thesis deals with modelling, performance analysis, design, test and measurement of permanent magnet transverse flux machines (PMTFM). It is important to understand...... the main aspects that influence the behaviour of a PMTFM, as this may lead to improved designs of PMTFM or may reveal the limitations of the transverse flux technology. Generally, in PMTFM, the flux has a complex 3D pattern. Finite Element Method (FEM) needs to be used to analyse the magnetic field...

  6. How Much Physical Activity Do Adults Need? (United States)

    ... and your heart beating faster. From pushing a lawn mower, to taking a dance class, to biking to ... with few hills Playing doubles tennis Pushing a lawn mower Build Up Over Time If you want to ...

  7. Cream beaters, lawn mowers or Wokkels? A study on the implementation of small wind turbines in the built environment of Noord-Brabant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeer, E.


    The Dutch Projectbureau Energie 2050 aims to gain more insight in the technical, economic, social, legal and policy-related aspects of small wind turbines in the built environment. The aim of this report is to formulate recommendations for Energie 2050 with respect to the implementation of small wind turbines in the built environment of the province Noord-Brabant, which can serve as a basis for starting up concrete projects. [mk] [nl

  8. Analýza závislosti výkonnosti žacích strojů z kategorie malé mechanizace na technologii pracovní činnosti a technických parametrech.


    STAVÁREK, Tomáš


    This bachelor thesis based on the Performance analysis of mowers from category of small mechanization on work technology and technical parameters deals with maintenance of lawns, mowers, which are used for maintenance and performace evaluation of mowers and factors affecting performace.

  9. Coherent Change Detection: Theoretical Description and Experimental Results (United States)


    scene changes created using a rotary hoe and lawn mower . In the first collection the repeat pass delay is 24 hours and for a false alarm rate of 1 in 20...the rotary hoe and lawn mower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 35 Intensity SAR image of the scene used for repeat pass interferometry experi...ments. Superimposed on the image is a schematic showing the scene changes carried out with the rotary hoe and lawn mower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

  10. Investigations of Parametric Excitation in Physical Systems (United States)


    utility purposes. The most common and readily thought of was the standard lawn mower engine. These engines could exceed over 2 inches in piston diameter...and stroke length, as well as meet the need for only one piston. For this reason it was decided that a lawn mower engine would be used for the...examined several lawn mower engines and selecting the one with the la e to the piston cylinder was the next line of action. Upon removing all extraneous

  11. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erik


    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  12. Prototype Methodology for Designing and Developing Computer-Assisted Instruction (United States)


    contains essential information and is not set off with commas. For example: The lawn mower that is broken is in the garage. Use "which" whenever the...phrase that follows contains supplementary or incidental information. "Which" clauses are set of by a pair of commas. For example: The lawn mower , broken, is in the garage. If the lawn mower that is broken is in the garage, whereas the lawn mower that is working is in the yard, then the

  13. Introspective Multistrategy Learning: Constructing a Learning Strategy under Reasoning Failure (United States)


    Barsalou, Hale & Cox, 1989) that was designed to present domain knowledge about lawn mower engines, test their troubleshooting ability, and collect reaction...consider a lawn mower . When the lawn mower breaks down, someone has to repair it so that it will work right in the future. Strategy con- struction is like...choosing the right tools from the a tool box and planning how to use them to fix the broken lawn mower (see Figure 1). The person who does the repair is

  14. The Humanitarian Bailment of Foreign Possessed Territories: A Proactive Method of Legal Analysis (United States)


    entrusts an employee with the employer’s lawn mower to mow the employer’s lawn .220 This is analogous to the permissive entry situation where a host...accompanying text. 82 If an employee feloniously takes the lawn mower from the employer’s place of business to the employee’s house the servant has...committed larceny because the employee never had 230possession of the mower, only custody. If the employee picked up the lawn mower from the repair

  15. Carcinogenicity of Embedded Tungsten Alloys in Mice (United States)


    formation as a result of embedded metal from a lawn mower blade (Saruwatari et al. 2009) and a chain saw blade (Osawa et al. 2006), respectively. In both...granuloma attributable to a piece of lawn - mower blade. Clin Exp Dermatol 34:e268–e269 Schins RP, Borm PJ (1999) Mechanisms and mediators in coal dust induced

  16. NRaD Writing and Editorial Guidelines. Revision 1 (United States)


    shall" and "The government will." THAT, WHICH That is the defining or restrictive pronoun, which is nondefining or nonrestrictive. The lawn mower that is...broken is in the garage. (tells which one) The lawn mower , which is broken, is in the garage. (used simply as a parenthetical expression between

  17. Analysis of a Non-Developing Tropical Circulation System During the Tropical Cyclone Structure (TCS08) Field Experiment (United States)


    dropwindsondes each flight. For each of the three flights, the WC-130J aircraft flew in a variety of patterns including a lawn mower , square spiral...130J flew a modified lawn mower pattern through TCS025 at approximately 300 hPa and launched dropwindsondes approximately every 10 minutes (Figure 23

  18. Environmental Assessment: Military Housing Privatization Initiative at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois (United States)


    OUTDOOR NOISE SOURCES NOISE LEVEL (dBA) COMMON INDOOR NOISE LEVELS COMMON OUTDOOR NOISE LEVELS Gas Lawn Mower at 3 ft. Diesel Truck at 50 ft. Noise...Urban Daytime Gas Lawn Mower at 100 ft. Commercial Area Heavy Traffic at 300 ft. Quiet Urban Daytime Quiet Urban Nighttime Quiet Rural Nighttime Quiet

  19. Listen Up! Noises Can Damage Your Hearing (United States)

    ... exposure. “With adults it may be power tools, lawn mowers, snow blowers, and other sources of that type,” ... 110 dB, a motorcycle 95 dB, and a lawn mower 90 dB. All these have the potential to ...

  20. Final Environmental Assessment: Lodging Improvements (United States)


    LEVELS {dBA) NOISE LEVELS - r- 110 Rock Band Jet Flyover at 1 000 ft. - f- 100 Gas Lawn Mower at 3 ft. Inside Subway Train (New York) - f- 90...Diesel Truck at 50 ft. Food Blender at 3 ft. Noise Urban Daytime - f- 80 Garbage Disposal at 3 ft. Shouting at 3 ft. ,...... ; Gas Lawn Mower at 1

  1. Design Information for Civil Works Housing. (United States)


    tmm GUIDANCE Lawn Mower , Garden Equipment, Bicycles, etc. 20 ft ^ r" T STORAGE 1-STALL OARAGE 2-STALL QARAQE I I c COMMENTARY !A. Al A...Weatherproof 110-V outlets (as required per ap- plicable code). V. J 17 GUIDANCE Lawn Mower , Garden Equipment, and Bicycles 1-STALL CARPORT

  2. Environmental Assessment Temporary Use of a Training Airport (United States)


    NOISE LEVEL COMMON INDOOR NOISE LEVELS (dBA) NOISE LEVELS -- 110 Rock Band - - 100 Gas Lawn Mower at 3 ft. Inside Subway Train (New York) - - 90...Diesel Truck at 50 ft. Food Blender at 3 ft. Noise Urban Daytime - -80 Garbage Disposal at 3 ft. Shouting at 3 ft. Gas Lawn Mower at 100 ft

  3. Environmental Assessment: Sooner Drop Zone Expansion Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma (United States)


    AND OUTDOOR NOISE SOURCES NOISE LEVEL (dBA) COMMON INDOOR NOISE LEVELS COMMON OUTDOOR NOISE LEVELS Jet Flyover at 1000 ft. Gas Lawn Mower at 3 ft...Diesel Truck at 50 ft. Noise Urban Daytime Gas Lawn Mower at 100 ft. Commercial Area Heavy Traffic at 300 ft. Quiet Urban Daytime Quiet Urban Nighttime

  4. Environmental Assessment Use of Golden Triangle Regional Airport by 14th Flying Training Wing Aircraft (United States)


    NOISE LEVEL COMMON INDOOR NOISE LEVELS (dBA) NOISE LEVELS - .- 110 Rock Band - 1- 100 Gas Lawn Mower at 3 ft . Inside Subway Train (New York...1- 90 Diesel Truck at 50 ft. Food Blender at 3 ft. Noise Urban Daytime - 1- 80 Garbage Disposal at 3 ft. Shouting at 3 ft. Gas Lawn Mower at 100ft

  5. Deactivation of the SR-71 Program at Beale Air Force Base, California (United States)


    110 Rock Band Jet, F vover at 1000 Feet -- 100 Inside Subway Tran iNew York) Gas Lawn Mower at 3 Feet - •90 Dieses Truck at 50 Feet Food 3 Feet Noisy Urban Daytime - - 80 Garbage Dsciosai at 3 Feet Shouting at 3 Feet Gas Lawn Mower at 100 Feet - 70 Vacuum Cleaner at 10 Peet Commercial

  6. Environmental Assessment, Construction of 315th Airlift Wing War Readiness Material Warehouse, Charleston AFB, South Carolina (United States)


    INDOOR AND OUTDOOR NOISE SOURCES COMMON OUTDOOR NOISE LEVEL COMMON INDOOR NOISE LEVELS (dBA) NOISE LEVELS - ~ 110 Rock Band - r- 100 Gas Lawn Mower at...Shouting at 3 ft. Gas Lawn Mower at 100 ft. Vacuum Cleaner et 10ft. - ~ 70 Commercial Area Normal Speech at 3 ft. Heavy Traffic at 300 ft

  7. A Comparative Field Study of Permastripe(Trademark) Polymer Concrete and Waterborne Airfield Pavement Markings (United States)


    mounted to a self-propelled lawn mower (Figure 4). This resulted in acceptable Permastripe™ line thickness (25 to 30 mils). However, bead embedment...Permastripe™ markings were sprayed using a modified drywall texture application device mounted on a modified self-propelled lawn mower (Figure 4). This

  8. Environmental Assessment T-1, T-6, and T-37 Aircraft Operations at Perry Municipal Airport (United States)


    110 Rock Band - 1- 100 Inside Subway Train (New York) Gas Lawn Mower at 3 ft. Diesel Truck at 50 ft. - 1- 90 Food Blender at 3 ft. Noisy Urban...Daytime - 1- 80 Garbage Disposal at 3 ft. Shouting at 3 ft. Gas Lawn Mower at 100ft. Vacuum Cleaner at 10ft. - 1- 70 Commercial Area Normal

  9. Environmental Assessment: Anti-Terrorism/Force Protection at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota (United States)


    OUTDOOR NOISE SOURCES NOISE LEVEL (dBA) COMMON INDOOR NOISE LEVELS COMMON OUTDOOR NOISE LEVELS Gas Lawn Mower at 3 ft. Diesel Truck at 50 ft. Noise...Urban Daytime Gas Lawn Mower at 100 ft. Commercial Area Heavy Traffic at 300 ft. Quiet Urban Daytime Quiet Urban Nighttime Quiet Rural Nighttime Quiet

  10. 16 CFR 1205.1 - Scope of the standard. (United States)


    ... requirements of the standard apply to rotary mowers. The labeling requirements apply to both rotary and reel...-behind rotary and reel-type power lawn mowers manufactured or imported on or after the effective date of... mm) that employs an engine or motor as a power source. Section 3(a)(1) of the Consumer Product Safety...

  11. Female Reproductive Effects of Exposure to Jet Fuel at U.S. Air Force Bases (United States)


    first breath sample until the Monday morning ofyour final breath sample. Avoid self-service refueling of your vehicle or lawn mower this week (outside of...fuel the lawn mower and mow the lawn for her - Post-pone painting, spraying pesticides/insecticides or using solvents if she might be in the area and...U No U_ 2. In the PAST WEEK, that is, one week ago today, did you... a).. .use the self-service tank when refueling of your vehicle or lawn mower this

  12. A Stage Matched Physical Activity Intervention in Military Primary Care (United States)


    tine. I Usually Do This .... Read my mail sitting down Ride the elevator Ride a power lawn mower Drive my car Telephone people Use the...dishwasher But I Could Do This ..■■ Read mail while I pace Take the stairs Use a push lawn mower Walk or ride a bike Walk to see them Wash dishes by...into your daily routine. Stage 1 Moving Right Along I Usually Do This Read my mail sitting down Ride the elevator Ride a power lawn mower Drive

  13. Decentralized Planning for Autonomous Agents Cooperating in Complex Missions (United States)


    is a " lawn mower " search path. The world is divided into N, rectangles, and each agent traverses its own rectangle by sweeping back and forth in a...mission. Furthermore, the random walk never found more than three targets for the 50 missions simulated, as seen in Figure 5-7. The lawn mower search...that both the random walk and the lawn mower search seem to find targets at a linear rate with respect to time, whereas the other four strategies are

  14. Environmental Assessment, Establishing a Drop Zone at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center in Socorro, New Mexico and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) (United States)


    Rustle of leaf 20 dB Whisper 30 dB Normal conversation 60 dB Inside passenger car at 60 MPH 65-75 dB Ringing telephone 80 dB Lawn mower 85-90 dB...shows that the noise would be at a level between a lawn mower and a tractor/bulldozer, which is more than sufficient to wake people at night and to...would be at a level between a lawn mower and a tractor/bulldozer, which is more than sufficient to wake people at night, and to disrupt their

  15. Matching and Abstraction in Knowledge Systems, (United States)


    cuts a , 2 A,’ achine area A orpltV METHOD. PERFORM INTERSECTION SEARCH OF SEMANTIC NET RESULT: A LAWN MOWER IS A MACHINE THAT CUTS GRASS OR SIMILAR...34 Remember we created this by just reading the dictionary, and now we want to ask, "What’s a lawn mower ?" We did this more generally for noun-noun...the main method was to compare examples by partial matching over these structures. Thus we find "A lawn mower is a machine that cuts grass, or similar

  16. Noise (United States)

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  17. Hearing Loss (United States)

    ... Risk range 80 to 90 Heavy city traffic, power lawn mower 90 Motorcycle 100 Snowmobile, hand drill 110 Chain saw, rock concert Injury range 120 Ambulance siren 140 (pain threshold) Jet engine at takeoff 165 12-guage ...

  18. Empirical Calibration of Small Explosion Seismic And Acoustic Phenomenology in New England (United States)


    Quality Issues. Shot 1 Shot 2 Shot 3 Shot 4 Shot 5 NE10-Noise NE08-Car prior to shot arrival NE05-Noise, possibly from lawn mower NE05-Noise, possibly...from lawn mower NE02-Car prior to shot arrival SE03-Noise NE09-Car NE10-Noise SE05-Car? NE08-Car SE07-Noise SE05-Car SE10-Noise SE09-Car

  19. Quantification of Rock Damage from Small Explosions and Its Effect on Shear-Wave Generation (United States)


    Issues. Shot 1 Shot 2 Shot 3 Shot 4 Shot 5 NE10-Noise NE08-Car prior to shot arrival NE05-Noise, possibly from lawn mower NE05-Noise, possibly...from lawn mower NE02-Car prior to shot arrival SE03-Noise NE09-Car NE10-Noise SE05-Car? NE08-Car SE07-Noise SE05-Car SE10-Noise SE09-Car

  20. Swooping in the Suburbs; Parental Defence of an Abundant Aggressive Urban Bird against Humans


    Lees, Daniel; Sherman, Craig D. H.; Maguire, Grainne S.; Dann, Peter; Cardilini, Adam P. A.; Weston, Michael A.


    Simple Summary We studied the defensive behaviour of 94 pairs of nesting Masked Lapwings, Vanellus miles, in response to two types of human stimuli: a pedestrian and a person pushing a lawn mower. We also examined the effectiveness of a commonly promoted deterrent to swooping (the presence of mock eyes placed on the back of a person’s head) for each stimulus type. Masked Lapwings responded more aggressively to a person pushing a lawn mower compared with pedestrians. Birds also remained closer...

  1. Final Environmental Assessment for Transfer of Former Charleston Air Force Base Housing Annex Property to the City of North Charleston for Construction and Operation of New Municipal Facilities (United States)


    nighttime and daytime) as compared to normal speech at three feet (65 dBA) or a gas-powered lawn mower (95 dBA). With exception of any wildlife...Noise Levels COMMON OUTDOOR SOUND LEVELS B-747-200 Takeoff at2 miles Gas Lawn Mower at 3 ft. Diesel Truck at 150 ft. DC-9-30 Takeoff at2 miles

  2. Autonomous Lawnmower using FPGA implementation. (United States)

    Ahmad, Nabihah; Lokman, Nabill bin; Helmy Abd Wahab, Mohd


    Nowadays, there are various types of robot have been invented for multiple purposes. The robots have the special characteristic that surpass the human ability and could operate in extreme environment which human cannot endure. In this paper, an autonomous robot is built to imitate the characteristic of a human cutting grass. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the movements where all data and information would be processed. Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is used to describe the hardware using Quartus II software. This robot has the ability of avoiding obstacle using ultrasonic sensor. This robot used two DC motors for its movement. It could include moving forward, backward, and turning left and right. The movement or the path of the automatic lawn mower is based on a path planning technique. Four Global Positioning System (GPS) plot are set to create a boundary. This to ensure that the lawn mower operates within the area given by user. Every action of the lawn mower is controlled by the FPGA DE' Board Cyclone II with the help of the sensor. Furthermore, Sketch Up software was used to design the structure of the lawn mower. The autonomous lawn mower was able to operate efficiently and smoothly return to coordinated paths after passing the obstacle. It uses 25% of total pins available on the board and 31% of total Digital Signal Processing (DSP) blocks.

  3. Acoustic and Perceptual-Cognitive Factors in the Identification of 41 Environmental Sounds (United States)


    buoy 1912 2.81 I 9. Foghorn 2135 2.24 10. Water bubbling 2325 2.75 11. Bugle charge 2356 2.19 12. Rifle shot indoors 2371 2.97 13. Lawn mower 2596 3.65...1.2374 -1.4659 13. Lawn mower -0.2245 0.5973 0.1640 14. Church bell 0.9158 0.0325 -1.4782 15. Oar rowing 0.7036 -1.3898 -0.2945 16. Door knock 0.4689...600 Time (ms) I Lawn mower DBV RMS 30 + 20 +I * * 10 + * 0 + -10 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0000 0 00 0 C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C F F F F F F F F F F F F F

  4. 16 CFR 1205.36 - Product certification and labeling by importers. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Product certification and labeling by importers. 1205.36 Section 1205.36 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS Certification § 1205.36 Product...

  5. 16 CFR 1205.35 - Product certification and labeling by manufacturers. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Product certification and labeling by manufacturers. 1205.35 Section 1205.35 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS Certification § 1205.35 Product...

  6. Swooping in the Suburbs; Parental Defence of an Abundant Aggressive Urban Bird against Humans. (United States)

    Lees, Daniel; Sherman, Craig D H; Maguire, Grainne S; Dann, Peter; Cardilini, Adam P A; Weston, Michael A


    Masked Lapwings, Vanellus miles, often come into 'conflict' with humans, because they often breed in close proximity to humans and actively defend their ground nests through aggressive behaviour, which typically involves swooping. This study examined whether defensive responses differed when nesting birds were confronted with different human stimuli ('pedestrian alone' vs. 'person pushing a lawn mower' approaches to nests) and tested the effectiveness of a commonly used deterrent (mock eyes positioned on the top or back of a person's head) on the defensive response. Masked Lapwings did not swoop closer to a person with a lawn mower compared with a pedestrian, but flushed closer and remained closer to the nest in the presence of a lawn mower. The presence of eye stickers decreased (pedestrians) and increased (lawn mowers) swooping behaviour. Masked Lapwings can discriminate between different human activities and adjust their defensive behaviour accordingly. We also conclude that the use of eye stickers is an effective method to mitigate the human-lapwing 'conflict' in some, but not all, circumstances.

  7. An inexpensive and portable drill rig for bedrock groundwater studies in headwater catchments (United States)

    C. Gabrielli; J.J. McDonnell


    Bedrock groundwater dynamics in headwater catchments are poorly understood and poorly characterized. Here, we present an inexpensive and portable bedrock drilling system designed for use in remote locations. Our system is capable of drilling bedrock wells up to 11 m deep and 38 mm in diameter in a wide range of bedrock types. The drill consists of a lawn mower engine...

  8. How Good Are Trainers' Personal Methods Compared to Two Structured Training Strategies? (United States)

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    Training methods naturally employed by trainers were analyzed and compared to systematic structured training procedures. Trainers were observed teaching retarded subjects how to assemble a bicycle brake, roller skate, carburetor, and lawn mower engine. Trainers first taught using their own (personal) method, which was recorded in terms of types of…

  9. The Antiaircraft Journal. Volume 93, Number 5, September-October 1950 (United States)


    few able to immobi - lize many, to retain the initiatiye, to create consternation and to p~oduce results out of all proportion to their numeri- cal...Moore, R. E., 3125 N.W. Luzon, Portland, Ore. Moore, W. D., 8115 Svc. Det., APO 331, c/o PM., San Francisco, Calif. Moose , H. E., 220-6Mower St

  10. 16 CFR 1205.3 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY... more cutting blades rotate in essentially a horizontal plane about at least one vertical axis. (15... the mower. (b) Where applicable, the definitions in section 3 of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. MOISE


    Full Text Available The efficiency of forage production machinery system is partially reflected in someclassical economical indices, because the real efficiency of mechanical tillageutilization at forage harvesting and preparation must be reflected in the foragequality increasing and feed superior valorization by the farm livestock. An area of7.8 alfalfa ha was harvested with U-650M tractor and ROTO 165 rotary mower andwith U-650M tractor and Zakaz rotary mower at different speeds in field work.Average values of the speed in parcel work, work effective capacity, work capacityduring shift, specific work capacity on cutter width, fuel consume per land unit, andspecific fuel consume per mass unit were determined for each speed in field work.Power matching between the tractor and the mower do not always meet therequirements when forming harvesting mechanized systems. Classical mowers withcommon cutting units do not sufficiently load the U-650M tractor existing inmany Romanian farms, which determines an unfavorable functioning regime ofthe tractor engine correlated with increased fuel consumes.

  12. Round-Bale Silage Harvesting and Processing Effects on Overwintering Ability, Dry Matter Yield, Fermentation Quality, and Palatability of Dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Fukagawa


    Full Text Available Round-bale silage harvesting and processing methods were assessed to evaluate overwintering ability and dry matter (DM yield, fermentation quality and palatability of overwintered dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach in the two years following establishment in Nagasaki, Japan, in May 2013 using rooted tillers with a density of 2 plants/m2. In 2014, harvesting methods under no-wilting treatment were compared for flail-type harvesting with a round-baler (Flail/baler plot and mower conditioning with a round-baler (Mower/baler plot, which is common for beef-calf–producing farmers in the region. In 2015, the effect of ensilage with wilting was investigated only in the Mower/baler plot. Dwarf Napiergrass was cut twice, in early August (summer and late November (late autumn, each year. The winter survival rate was greater than 96% in May both years. The DM yield in the Mower/baler plot did not differ significantly for the first summer cutting or the annual total from the Flail/baler plot, but did show inferior yield for the second cutting. The fermentation quality of the second-cut plants, estimated using the V2-score, was higher in the Flail/baler plot than in the Mower/baler plot, possibly because of higher air-tightness, and the second-cut silage tended to have better fermentation quality than the first-cut silage in both harvesting plots. Wilting improved the fermentation quality of dwarf Napiergrass silage in summer, but not in autumn. The palatability of the silage, as estimated by alternative and voluntary intake trials using Japanese Black beef cattle, did not differ significantly between plots. The results suggest that dwarf Napiergrass can be better harvested using a mower conditioner with processing by a round-baler, an approach common to beef-calf–producing farmers, than with the flail/baler system, without reducing the persistence, yield, or palatability of the silage. Moreover, wilting treatment improved the fermentation

  13. Stepped Frequency GPR for Utility Line Detection using Polarization Dependent Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kiel; Gregersen, Ole


    A GPR for detection of buried cables and pipes is developed by Ekko Dome Production in cooperation with Aalborg University. The appearance is a "lawn mower" model including antennas, electronics and on-line data processing. A successful result is obtained by combining dedicated hardware and signa...... conditions, including sand, wet clay, pavements and grass covered soil. The results show reliable detection even when the conditions are difficult....

  14. Imaging of blunt arterial trauma of the upper extremity in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodina, M.; Gudinchet, F.; Schnyder, P.; Reinberg, O.


    We report four patients with blunt arterial trauma of the upper limb following unusual mechanisms of injury in two patients (one fell on the handlebars of his bicycle, the second was crushed by a moving lawn mower) and due to bicycle accidents in two further patients. The use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in all patients, together with colour Doppler imaging (CDI) in one patient, provided optimum preoperative identification and localisation of the arterial lesions. (orig.)

  15. Mechanical Behavior of Additive Manufactured Layered Materials, Part 2: Stainless Steels (United States)


    materials. Elsevier, Oxford; 2007: 416 -420. [19] Deng, D., Chen, R., Sun, Q. and Li, X. Microstructural study of 17-4PH stainless steel after plasma...1 Mechanical Behavior of Additive Manufactured Layered Materials, Part 2: Stainless Steels * Todd M. Mower † and Michael J. Long M.I.T. Lincoln... stainless steel alloys produced with Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) was measured and is compared to that of similar conventional materials

  16. Swooping in the Suburbs; Parental Defence of an Abundant Aggressive Urban Bird against Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Weston


    Full Text Available Masked Lapwings, Vanellus miles, often come into ‘conflict’ with humans, because they often breed in close proximity to humans and actively defend their ground nests through aggressive behaviour, which typically involves swooping. This study examined whether defensive responses differed when nesting birds were confronted with different human stimuli (‘pedestrian alone’ vs. ‘person pushing a lawn mower’ approaches to nests and tested the effectiveness of a commonly used deterrent (mock eyes positioned on the top or back of a person’s head on the defensive response. Masked Lapwings did not swoop closer to a person with a lawn mower compared with a pedestrian, but flushed closer and remained closer to the nest in the presence of a lawn mower. The presence of eye stickers decreased (pedestrians and increased (lawn mowers swooping behaviour. Masked Lapwings can discriminate between different human activities and adjust their defensive behaviour accordingly. We also conclude that the use of eye stickers is an effective method to mitigate the human-lapwing ‘conflict’ in some, but not all, circumstances.

  17. Peripheral mowing blade. Final report ending 08/24/00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darden, John A.


    The first prototype built for the peripheral mower blade was the nineteen foot batwing mower. It features twelve-inch blades, three-sixteenth thick. The configuration of the mower is three individual rotor gangs housed in separate housing all mounted to a centrally located housing. Each outer gang is driven by power being diverted through the center rotor. The power is supplied to each wing through means of a disconnect mechanism which allows the outer gangs to stop in the event that particular housing is raised by hydraulic power. This unit has given us unlimited information in the drive and power applications needed to drive the peripheral blade gangs. The nineteen foot unit has not changed much from the beginning, but information received from its performance has been applied to the building of a preproduction unit that is now in progress. Another prototype unit we have work with is the seven foot mounted mower. This unit consisted of a standard ASAE category I three-point hitch. The hitch was made by using an "A" frame which formed the attaching points for the mower and two back straps that gives support to the hitch assembly. The deck allowed for one-inch blade clearance at the top and featured a slanted deck extension at both the front and rear. The extension were formed by means of two breaks that run parallel to the blade gang and angled down at one hundred thirty degrees at the front and one hundred fifteen degrees at the rear. A roller is mounted across the back of the deck. This roller offers support to the deck while on the ground and is adjustable for height of cut control. This unit was made with a small roller, and too lighter hitch. After only a few hours of test proved that both items would have to be beefed up. The rear roller was increased to a four-inch diameter. The hitch was changed to a two-sided solid metal hitch three-eighths of an inch thick on the next machines.

  18. Pediatric traumatic amputations and hospital resource utilization in the United States, 2003. (United States)

    Conner, Kristen A; McKenzie, Lara B; Xiang, Huiyun; Smith, Gary A


    Despite the severity of consequences associated with traumatic amputation, little is known about the epidemiology or healthcare resource burden of amputation injuries, and even less is known about these injuries in the pediatric population. An analysis of patients aged lawn mower, motorized vehicle or explosives/fireworks, and children's hospital type were associated with longer LOS. Pediatric traumatic amputations contribute substantially to the health resource burden in the United States, resulting in 21 million dollars in inpatient charges annually. More effective interventions to prevent these costly injuries among children must be implemented.

  19. Mechanical pretreatment at harvesting increases the bioenergy output from marginal land grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Egelund, H.


    Meadow grass has recently gained increased attention as a substrate for full-scale biogas reactors. However, to increase its biodegradability, pretreatment is needed. In the present work, different harvesting machines were compared in order to assess their effect on biogas production. Specifically...... the methane yield of meadow grass by 20% compared to a classical Disc-mower. The positive effect was also validated by three kinetic model equations. The modified Gompertz model was the most capable of determining the kinetics of anaerobic digestion process, pointing out also the superiority of Excoriator...

  20. Map showing minimum depth to water in shallow aquifers (1963-72) in the Sugar House quadrangle, Salt Lake County, Utah (United States)

    Mower, R.W.; Van Horn, Richard


    The depth to ground water in shallow aquifers in the Sugar Horse quadrangle ranges from zero in areas of springs and seeps to more than 10 feet beneath most of the area shown on the map. The depth to water differs from place to place because of irregular topography, and the varying capability of different rock materials to transmit water. Ground water also occurs under unconfined and confined conditions in deep aquifers beneath the Sugar Horse quadrangle, as shown by the block diagram and as described by Hely, Mower, and Harr (1971a, p. 17-111).

  1. Introduction to the Special Issue on Software Architecture for Language Engineering


    Cunningham, Hamish; Scott, Donia


    Every building, and every computer program, has an architecture: structural and organisational principles that underpin its design and construction. The garden shed\\ud once built by one of the authors had an ad hoc architecture, extracted (somewhat painfully) from the imagination during a slow and non-deterministic process that, luckily, resulted in a structure which keeps the rain on the outside and the mower on the inside (at least for the time being). As well as being ad hoc (i.e. not info...

  2. Investigating the flow of information during speaking: The impact of morpho-phonological, associative and categorical picture distractors on picture naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens eBölte


    Full Text Available In three experiments, participants named target pictures by means of German compound words (e.g., Gartenstuhl - garden chair, each accompanied by two different distractor pictures (e.g., lawn mower and swimming pool.Targets and distractor pictures were semantically related, either associatively (garden chair and lawn mower or by a shared semantic category (garden chair and wardrobe. Within each type of semantic relation, target and distractor pictures either shared morpho-phonological (word-form information (Gartenstuhl with Gartenzwerg, garden gnome, and Gartenschlauch, garden hose or not. A condition with two completely unrelated pictures served as baseline. Target naming was facilitated when distractor and target pictures were morpho-phonologically related. This is clear evidence for the activation of lexical information of distractor pictures. Effects were larger for associatively than for categorically related distractors and targets, which constitutes evidence for lexical competition. Mere categorical relatedness, in the absence of morpho-phonological overlap, resulted in null effects (Experiments 1 and 2, and only speeded target naming when effects reflect only conceptual, not lexical processing (Experiment 3. Given that distractor pictures activate their word forms, the data cannot be easily reconciled with discrete serial models. The results fit well with models that allow information to cascade forward from conceptual to word-form levels.

  3. Investigating the flow of information during speaking: the impact of morpho-phonological, associative, and categorical picture distractors on picture naming. (United States)

    Bölte, Jens; Böhl, Andrea; Dobel, Christian; Zwitserlood, Pienie


    In three experiments, participants named target pictures by means of German compound words (e.g., Gartenstuhl-garden chair), each accompanied by two different distractor pictures (e.g., lawn mower and swimming pool). Targets and distractor pictures were semantically related either associatively (garden chair and lawn mower) or by a shared semantic category (garden chair and wardrobe). Within each type of semantic relation, target and distractor pictures either shared morpho-phonological (word-form) information (Gartenstuhl with Gartenzwerg, garden gnome, and Gartenschlauch, garden hose) or not. A condition with two completely unrelated pictures served as baseline. Target naming was facilitated when distractor and target pictures were morpho-phonologically related. This is clear evidence for the activation of word-form information of distractor pictures. Effects were larger for associatively than for categorically related distractors and targets, which constitute evidence for lexical competition. Mere categorical relatedness, in the absence of morpho-phonological overlap, resulted in null effects (Experiments 1 and 2), and only speeded target naming when effects reflect only conceptual, but not lexical processing (Experiment 3). Given that distractor pictures activate their word forms, the data cannot be easily reconciled with discrete serial models. The results fit well with models that allow information to cascade forward from conceptual to word-form levels.

  4. Garage carbon monoxide levels from sources commonly used in intentional poisoning. (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B; Holm, James R; Courtney, Todd G


    The incidence of intentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is believed to have declined due to strict federal CO emissions standards for motor vehicles and the uniform application of catalytic converters (CC). We sought to compare ambient CO levels produced by automobiles with and without catalytic converters in a residential garage, as well as from other CO sources commonly used for intentional poisoning. CO levels were measured inside a freestanding 73 m3 one-car garage. CO sources included a 1971 automobile without CC, 2003 automobile with CC, charcoal grill, electrical generator, lawn mower and leaf blower. After 20 minutes of operation, the CO level in the garage was 253 PPM for the car without a catalytic converter and 30 PPM for the car equipped withone. CO levels after operating or burning the other sources were: charcoal 200 PPM; generator >999 PPM; lawn mower 198 PPM; and leaf blower 580 PPM. While emissions controls on automobiles have reduced intentional CO poisonings, alternate sources may produce CO at levels of the same magnitude as vehicles manufactured prior to the use of catalytic converters. Those involved in the care of potentially suicidal individuals should be aware of this.

  5. Design and development of an Integrated Slasher (Pulverizer) for Sweet Potato Harvester: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakahy, Amer N N; Ahmad, D; Akhir, M D; Ishak, A; Sulaiman, S


    In this study information on the development of combined sweet potato harvester is presented. The study focuses on the design, manufacture and choice of the best slasher for cutting and fragmentation of stems and leaves (vegetative portion) for the crop to facilitate the process of harvesting and extraction of tubers. A survey on various types and forms of cutters (mowers) and knives normally used for cutting vines and leaves was conducted and concluded that the vertical type and flail type mowers are the most effective in removing of the vegetative growth. In addition there is a need to design an integrated harvester, which combines both the cutting and digging in a single pass in order to reduce the time taken for harvesting, the fuel consumption and the number of machines used since this will give some economical advantages. In addition to the design requirements, it is recommended that number of tests should be conducted to select the suitable speed for the tractor, the velocity for cutters and the length of knives for both sides of the ridges to avoid damage to the tubers.

  6. OU3 sediment dating and sedimentation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, R.B.; Wolaver, H.A.; Burger, V.M.


    Environmental Technologies at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFS) investigated the sediment history of Standley Lake, Great Western Reservoir, and Mower Reservoir using 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu global fall-out as dating indicators. These Colorado Front Range reservoirs have been the subject of study by various city, state and national agencies due to suspected Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant impacts. We performed sediment dating as part of the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for Operable Unit 3. A sediment chronology profile assists scientist in determining the year of sedimentation for a particular peak concentration of contaminants. Radioisotope sediment dating for the three reservoirs indicated sedimentation rates of 0.7 to 0.8 in./yr. for Standley Lake (SL), 0.9 in./yr. for Great Western Reservoir (GWR), and 0.3 in./yr. in Mower Reservoir (MR). RFS sediment dating for Operable Unit 3 compared favorably with the Hardy, Livingston, Burke, and Volchok Standley Lake study. This report describes the cesium/plutonium sediment dating method, estimates sedimentation rates for Operable Unit 3 reservoirs, and compares these results to previous investigations

  7. [Stump forming after traumatic foot amputation of a child--description of a new surgical procedure and literature review of lawnmower accidents]. (United States)

    Bayer, J; Zajonc, H; Strohm, P C; Vohrer, M; Maier-Lenz, D; Südkamp, N P; Schwering, L


    Amputation injuries in children occur in motor vehicle, farming and, importantly, lawn mower accidents. Treatment of lawn mower related injuries is complicated by gross wound contamination, avascular tissue, soft tissue defects and exposed bone. Many treatment options exist and often an adequate prosthetic supply is needed for rehabilitation. We report on an 8-year old boy who got under a ride-on lawn mower and sustained a subtotal amputation of his right foot. After initial surgery an amputation was subsequently necessary. For this, it had to be taken into account that the traumatic loss of the talus, calcaneus and parts of the cuboid bone would result in a length shortening of the right leg and so far not injured metatarsal and tarsal bones had to be sacrificed. Thus, we aimed to develop a new operation technique to optimize stump length as well as preserve tarsal bones and the possibility of limb growth. In order to achieve this, we performed a new stump forming operation in which we integrated uninjured tarsal and metatarsal bones. First a Lisfranc's amputation was performed and a metatarsal bone was kept aside. The talus, calcaneus as well as the cuboid bone were either completely or almost completely destroyed and were removed. The remaining cuneiform bones were transfixed by a notched metatarsal bone, thus achieving a tarsal arthrodesis, and the cartilages of the proximal joint surfaces were removed. The cartilage of the cranial and caudal navicular as well as the distal tibial joint surface was also removed and an arthrodesis between the distal tibia and the navicular bone was achieved by crossed Kirschner wires. Finally the cuneiform bones were placed inferior to the navicular bone. Further stump coverage was managed by skin and muscle flaps as well as split skin graft. Our patient was discharged on day 34. A fluent gait without crutches as well as sports activities were possible again as early as 6 1/2 months after the injury. Using our stump forming

  8. A Unique Fatal Moose Attack Mimicking Homicide. (United States)

    Gudmannsson, Petur; Berge, Johan; Druid, Henrik; Ericsson, Göran; Eriksson, Anders


    Fatalities caused by animal attacks are rare, but have the potential to mimic homicide. We present a case in which a moose attacked and killed a woman who was walking her dog in a forest. Autopsy showed widespread blunt trauma with a large laceration on one leg in which blades of grass were embedded. Flail chest was the cause of death. The case was initially conceived as homicide by means of a riding lawn mower. A review of the case by moose experts and analyses of biological trace material that proved to originate from moose, established the true source of injury. The dog probably provoked a moose, which, in response, stomped and gored the victim to death. The injuries resembled those previously reported from attacks by cattle and water buffalo. Fatal moose attacks constitute an extremely rare threat in boreal areas, but can be considered in traumatic deaths of unknown cause. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. A noise-reduction program in a pediatric operation theatre is associated with surgeon's benefits and a reduced rate of complications: a prospective controlled clinical trial. (United States)

    Engelmann, Carsten R; Neis, Jan Philipp; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Grote, Gudela; Ure, Benno M


    We assessed the impact of a noise-reduction program in a pediatric operating theatre. Adverse effects from noise pollution in theatres have been demonstrated. In 156 operations spatially resolved, sound levels were measured before and after a noise-reduction program on the basis of education, rules, and technical devices (Sound Ear). Surgical complications were recorded. The surgeon's biometric (saliva cortisol, electrodermal activity) and behavioral stress responses (questionnaires) were measured and correlated with mission protocols and individual noise sensitivity. Median noise levels in the control group versus the interventional group were reduced by -3 ± 3 dB(A) (63 vs 59 dB(A), P 0.05). Spontaneous noise during pediatric operations attains the magnitude of a lawn mower and peaks resemble a passing truck. The sound intensity could be reduced by 50% by specific measures. This reduction was associated with a significantly lowered number of postoperative complications. The surgeon's benefits are idiosyncratic with "responders" experiencing marked improvements.

  10. DVL Velocity Aiding in the HUGIN 1000 Integrated Inertial Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Jalving


    Full Text Available The RDI WHN-600 Doppler Velocity Log (DVL is a key navigation sensor for the HUG1N 1000 Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV. HUGIN 1000 is designed for autonomous submerged operation for long periods of time. This is facilitated by a low drift velocity aided Inertial Navigation System (INS. Major factors determining the position error growth are the IMU and DVL error characteristics and the mission plan pattern_ For instance, low frequency DVL errors cause an approximately linear drift in a straight-line trajectory, while these errors tend to be cancelled out by a lawn mower pattern_ The paper focuses on the accuracy offered by the DVL. HUGIN 1000 is a permanent organic mine countermeasure (MCM capacity on the Royal Norwegian Navy MCM vessel KNM Karmoy. HUGIN 1000 will be part of the NATO force MCMFORNORTH in fall 2004.

  11. Mobile Robots in Human Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael

    intelligent mobile robotic devices capable of being a more natural and sociable actor in a human environment. More specific the emphasis is on safe and natural motion and navigation issues. First part of the work focus on developing a robotic system, which estimates human interest in interacting......, lawn mowers, toy pets, or as assisting technologies for care giving. If we want robots to be an even larger and more integrated part of our every- day environments, they need to become more intelligent, and behave safe and natural to the humans in the environment. This thesis deals with making...... as being able to navigate safely around one person, the robots must also be able to navigate in environments with more people. This can be environments such as pedestrian streets, hospital corridors, train stations or airports. The developed human-aware navigation strategy is enhanced to formulate...

  12. Vision Guided Intelligent Robot Design And Experiments (United States)

    Slutzky, G. D.; Hall, E. L.


    The concept of an intelligent robot is an important topic combining sensors, manipulators, and artificial intelligence to design a useful machine. Vision systems, tactile sensors, proximity switches and other sensors provide the elements necessary for simple game playing as well as industrial applications. These sensors permit adaption to a changing environment. The AI techniques permit advanced forms of decision making, adaptive responses, and learning while the manipulator provides the ability to perform various tasks. Computer languages such as LISP and OPS5, have been utilized to achieve expert systems approaches in solving real world problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe several examples of visually guided intelligent robots including both stationary and mobile robots. Demonstrations will be presented of a system for constructing and solving a popular peg game, a robot lawn mower, and a box stacking robot. The experience gained from these and other systems provide insight into what may be realistically expected from the next generation of intelligent machines.

  13. Reducing the harms associated with risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montague, Peter


    Risk assessments are the intellectual products of dedicated public health and environmental professionals. Like many other products, risk assessments carry with them the potential for both good and harm. This paper briefly examines some of the harms to which risk assessments have contributed, and then suggests that the legal 'duty to warn' doctrine offers a logical and practical way to reduce some of these harms. The paper suggests concepts that could be incorporated into warnings accompanying every formal risk assessment as routine 'boiler plate' addenda, just as other potentially harmful products, such as lawn mowers and cook stoves, are accompanied by warnings. Finally, the paper briefly examines the 'Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice for Environmental Professionals' (promulgated by the National Association of Environmental Professionals) and shows that the suggested warnings are consistent with recommended practices for environmental professionals

  14. Modular Platform for Commercial Mobile Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten

    , and not on putting the robots on the commercial market. At the time when this research project was started in May 2010, the amount of successful commercial applications based on mobile robots was very limited. The most known applications were vacuum cleaners, lawn mowers, and few examples of specialized transport...... by the individual groups and perhaps a few close industrial partners. This research project addresses the problem of increasing the potential for more commercial applications based on mobile wheeled robots. Therefore the main focus is not on inventing new ground-breaking robotics technology, but instead...... period, a signicant research community was created around one specific robot control framework called ROS. From the very beginning,this research project acknowledged the value of such a community, and put a significant eort into in uencing the ROS framework to become usable also for industry...

  15. Mathematically modelling the power requirement for a vertical shaft mowing machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Simón Pérez de Corcho Fuentes


    Full Text Available This work describes a mathematical model for determining the power demand for a vertical shaft mowing machine, particularly taking into account the influence of speed on cutting power, which is different from that of other models of mowers. The influence of the apparatus’ rotation and translation speeds was simulated in determining power demand. The results showed that no chan-ges in cutting power were produced by varying the knives’ angular speed (if translation speed was constant, while cutting power became increased if translation speed was increased. Variations in angular speed, however, influenced other parameters deter-mining total power demand. Determining this vertical shaft mower’s cutting pattern led to obtaining good crop stubble quality at the mower’s lower rotation speed, hence reducing total energy requirements.

  16. Work in progress: Robotics mapping of landmine and UXO contaminated areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Jørgensen, R N; Bøgild, A

    Explosive remnants of war like landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) are a serious threat in post conflict environments around the World. Aside from the killing and injury of many people the landmines and UXO have a significant impact on the local economy due to inac- cessible roads and loss...... the knowledge and experience from the agricultural plant nursing robotics domain to demining applications. The aim is to have a reliable, efficient and user-friendly autonomous robot capable of mapping as well as visually marking detected landmines and UXO within a bounded area. The operator specifies the area...... Detection System (WADS) developed by the organization Danish Church Aid. Current status of the project is that the first autonomous area coverage tests have been performed successfully using Casmobot, a tracked mower platform capable of working in rough terrain including steep slopes. An improved modular...

  17. Performance of a Small-scale Treatment Wetland for Treatment of Landscaping Wash Water (United States)

    Thompson, R. J.; Fayed, E.; Fish, W.


    A large number of lawn mowers and related equipment must be cleaned each day by commercial landscaping operations and state and local highway maintenance crews. Washing these devices produces wastewater that contains high amounts of organic matter and potentially problematic nutrients, as well as oil and grease and other chemicals and metals that come from the machinery itself. Dirty water washes off the mowers, flows off the pavement and into nearby storm drains without any kind of treatment. A better idea would be to collect such wastewater, retain it in an appropriate catchment such as an engineered wetland where natural processes could break down any pollutants in the wash water, and allow the water to naturally evaporate or percolate into the soil where it could recharge ground water resources safely. This research examines the performance of a small-scale treatment wetland tailored to remove nitrogen from landscaping wash water by incorporating both aerobic and anaerobic phases. Contaminants are analyzed through physical and chemical methods. Both methods involve collection of samples, followed by standardized, validated analytical laboratory tests for measuring total solids, total kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrates, total and dissolved phosphorus, COD, BOD, oil and grease, and metals (Zn and Cu). High levels of total solids, total kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrates, total and dissolved phosphorus, COD, BOD, oil and grease are found. Zinc and copper levels are low. Wetland treatment removes 99% total solids, 77% total kjeldahl nitrogen, 100% nitrates, 94% total phosphorus, 86% dissolved phosphorus, 94% COD, 97% BOD, and 76% oil and grease. The results will be a critical step towards developing a sustainable low-energy system for treating such wastewater that could be used by private landscaping companies and government agencies.

  18. Noise levels of a track-laying tractor during field operations in the vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Catania


    Full Text Available Noise in agriculture is one of the risk factors to be taken into account in the assessment of the health and safety of workers; in particular, it is known that the tractor is a source of high noise. The Italian Low Decree 81/2008 defined the requirements for assessing and managing noise risk identifying a number of procedures to be adopted at different noise levels to limit workers exposure. This paper concerns the analysis of the noise risk arising from the use of a tracklaying tractor during field operations carried out in the vineyard. The objective of this study was to evaluate the noise level that comes close to the ear of the operator driving the tractor measuring the values of equivalent sound level (Leq(A and peak sound pressure (LCpk. We considered four options related to the same tractor coupled with the following tools to perform some farming operations: rototilling, chisel plough, flail mowers and vibro farmer. We considered three test conditions: T1 in flat (slope 0%, T2 uphill and T3 downhill (both 30% slope. The instrument used for the measurements is a precision integrating portable sound level meter, class 1, model HD2110L by Delta OHM, Italy. Each survey lasted 2 minutes, with an interval of measurement equal to 0.5 s. The tests were performed in compliance with the standards ISO 9612 and ISO 9432. The results show that the measured sound levels exceed the limits allowed by the regulations in almost all the test conditions; values exceeding the threshold limit of 80 dB(A were recorded coming up to a maximum value of 92.8 dB(A for flail mowers in test T1. When limits imposed by the regulations are exceeded, the operator is obliged to wear the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment.

  19. Soil organic carbon stocks in coffee plantations under different weed control systemsEstoques de carbono orgânico do solo em cafezais sob diferentes sistemas de controle de plantas invasoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Diniz Cogo


    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (COS is an important indicator of soil quality, as its levels and stocks can change by soil preparation. This study aimed to evaluate COS stocks on a clayey Oxisol cultivated with coffee and subject to different weed control systems in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, and weed control systems were: no weeding, manual weeding, pre-emergence herbicide, post-emergence herbicide, rotary tiller, rotary mowers and disk harrow. Undisturbed soil samples were collected at two positions in the coffee plantation (tire tracks and planting line, at depths of 0-3, 10-13, and 25-28 cm. A nearby native forest was sampled as a reference. A higher bulk density of soils under coffee plantations occurred compared to soil under the forest. There was little difference between COS concentrations in the plating line in relation to the native forest, but for the tire track position, the amount of COS was generally lower. After correction for soil compaction, it was estimated a loss of ca. 20% in SOC stock for te 0-30 cm depth for herbicide post-emergence, rotary tiller, manual weeding and disk barrow, and a 35% loss when using herbicide pre-emergence. SOC stocks under no weeding and rotary mowers did not differ from native forest (37 M-1g ha COS, indicating that the rotary mower, which allows temporary growth of weeds and does not disrupt soil structure, is the most appropriate weed control for the preservation of COS in coffee plantations.O carbono orgânico no solo (COS é um importante indicador da qualidade do solo, pois seus teores e estoques podem ser alterados conforme o sistema de preparo do solo. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os estoques de COS em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico argiloso cultivado com cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L e submetido a diferentes manejos de plantas invasoras no sul de Minas Gerais. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, sendo os tratamentos os

  20. Optimizing reed canary grass cropping to increase profitability. Field studies of plant varieties, intercropping with legumes and barley, fertilization and soil compaction; Optimering av odlingsaatgaerder i roerflen foer oekad loensamhet. Faeltstudier av sorter, samodling med baljvaexter och korn, goedsling samt markpackning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmborg, Cecilia; Lindvall, Eva (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden)


    Reed Canary Grass is a promising crop for biofuel production. For reed canary grass the first year is an establishment year when the small biomass is not harvested. The second year the biomass is usually cut in late autumn but the harvest (removal of the biomass from the field) is delayed until spring. This technique has resulted in lower costs and increases in fuel quality through lower ash contents, including lower contents of chlorine, sodium and potassium. However costs for production are still high, especially establishment costs, fertilization costs and harvesting costs. The aim of this project was to test ways to cut costs per MWh by increased yields, and decreased establishment costs. The methods used have been variety trials to develop more productive plant material, intercropping with nitrogen fixing legumes to reduce the nitrogen demand of the crop, fertilization with waste material (sewage sludge, reed canary grass ash or poultry manure) and harvest at frozen ground as a strategy to reduce soil compaction and harvest damages on the crop. Reed canary grass grown as a fuel has so far been grown as a mono culture. However, when it is been grown for forage, or as a biogas crop, intercropping with legumes has been successful in some studies. In addition to NPK-fertilizers sewage sludge, ash from combustion of reed canary grass and poultry manure was used. An economic calculation showed that the establishment costs (the first two growing seasons) can be lowered by intercropping with red clover. However it is also involves more risks, related to weeds, and cannot be recommended on fallow soil with a large seed bank of weeds. A ten year old reed canary grass ley was used for the experiment. Two 25 m wide strips were harvested with a mower on November 19 2008 when the top soil was frozen. The harvested material was chopped and removed from the field the following day. The following spring, May 19 2009, the remaining reed canary grass on the field was cut with a

  1. Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Annual Report 2007-2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkins, Brian


    This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife Area funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 08 contract period October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. Significant progress was realized in almost all major work types. Of particular note was progress made in tree plantings and pasture rehabilitation efforts. This year's tree planting effort included five sites detailed below and in terms of the number of plants was certainly the largest effort on the wildlife area to date in one season. The planting itself took a significant amount of time, which was anticipated. However, installation of mats and tubes took much longer than expected which impacted planned fence projects in particular. Survival of the plantings appears to be good. Improvement to the quality of waterfowl pasture habitats is evident on a number of sites due to replanting and weed control efforts. Continuing long-term weed control efforts will be key in improving this particular type of habitat. A prolonged cold, wet spring and a number of equipment breakdowns presented stumbling blocks that impacted schedules and ultimately progress on planned activities. The unusual spring weather delayed fieldwork on pasture planting projects as well as weed control and slowed the process of maintaining trees and shrubs. This time lag also caused the continued deferral of some of our fencing projects. The large brush hog mower had the driveline break twice and the smaller tractor had an engine failure that caused it to be down for over a month. We have modified our budget plan for next

  2. Gas Exchanges and Dehydration in Different Intensities of Conditioning in Tifton 85 Bermudagrass: Nutritional Value during Hay Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pasqualotto


    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the intensity of Tifton 85 conditioning using a mower conditioner with free-swinging flail fingers and storage times on dehydration curve, fungi presence, nutritional value and in vitro digestibility of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay dry matter (DM. The dehydration curve was determined in the whole plant for ten times until the baling. The zero time corresponded to the plant before cutting, which occurred at 11:00 and the other collections were carried out at 8:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 16:00. The experimental design was randomised blocks with two intensities of conditioning (high and low and ten sampling times, with five replications. The high and low intensities related to adjusting the deflector plate of the free iron fingers (8 and 18 cm. In order to determine gas exchanges during Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration, there were evaluations of mature leaves, which were placed in the upper middle third of each branch before the cutting, at every hour for 4 hours. A portable gas analyser was used by an infrared IRGA (6400xt. The analysed variables were photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs, internal CO2 concentration (Ci, transpiration (T, water use efficiency (WUE, and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi. In the second part of this study, the nutritional value of Tifton 85 hay was evaluated, so randomised blocks were designed in a split plot through time, with two treatments placed in the following plots: high and low intensity of cutting and five different time points as subplots: cutting (additional treatment, baling and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. Subsequently, fungi that were in green plants as well as hay were determined and samples were collected from the grass at the cutting period, during baling, and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. It was observed that Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration occurred within 49 hours, so this was considered the best time for drying hay. Gas exchanges were

  3. Acoustic Camera as a Fool for Identifying Machinery and Equipment Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Pavlikova


    Full Text Available Sound and noise are as old as humanity itself. They have accompanied civilization, evolution, and development for centuries. Music and speech represent not only the key elements of human life but also unpleasant feelings of noise that have always been an integral part of human existence. As industrial development has required more energy, powerful machinery, and equipment, there have been still noisier machines. Traffic has grown quickly due to the number and speed of vehicles. For that reason, an acoustic camera is used for the dynamic visualization of machinery and equipment noise as it analyses the sources of noise in details. Subsequently, qualified measures are introduced based on the results of the analysis. The paper considers launching another application. According to the proposed methodology, its use in identifying machinery and equipment failures and their maintenance is proved. The experiment was performed on a four-wheel lawn mower. The primary focus was on the identification of failures using an acoustic camera. The previous method allowed to quickly, precisely and efficiently identifying the failures in two out of five tested machines.

  4. Impalement of an unusual foreign body on the temporomandibular joint causing severe trismus. (United States)

    Ito, Ryohei; Kubota, Kosei; Furudate, Ken; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Kon, Takao; Tamura, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Wataru


    A penetrating injury by a foreign body is comparatively common in the oral and maxillofacial region. On the other hand, injury to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by a foreign object is very rare. The TMJ is an anatomically narrow space surrounded by hard bony processes. An unusual case of trauma with severe trismus caused by a foreign body that impaled the TMJ is reported. A 55-year-old man presented with a 5 × 1-cm laceration to the right cheek caused by a flying object propelled during the use of a lawn mower. The edge of the foreign body had a metallic wire, which became imbedded in the wound. His jaw opening was severely limited. Computed tomography revealed that the foreign body was 3 mm in diameter and was impaled on the articular capsule. The object was successfully removed, and the wound and interior of the TMJ were irrigated. Rehabilitation of mouth opening was started on postoperative day 3. On day 9, mouth opening had improved to 35 mm, and he was discharged. After 1 year, mouth opening was 45 mm with no sign of any TMJ disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. An unusual case of foreign body pulmonary embolus: case report and review of penetrating trauma at a pediatric trauma center. (United States)

    Boomer, Laura A; Watkins, Daniel J; O'Donovan, Julie; Kenney, Brian D; Yates, Andrew R; Besner, Gail E


    Penetrating thoracic trauma is relatively rare in the pediatric population. Embolization of foreign bodies from penetrating trauma is very uncommon. We present a case of a 6-year-old boy with a penetrating foreign body from a projectile dislodged from a lawn mower. Imaging demonstrated a foreign body that embolized to the left pulmonary artery, which was successfully treated non-operatively. We reviewed the penetrating thoracic trauma patients in the trauma registry at our institution between 1/1/03 and 12/31/12. Data collected included demographic data, procedures performed, complications and outcome. Sixty-five patients were identified with a diagnosis of penetrating thoracic trauma. Fourteen of the patients had low velocity penetrating trauma and 51 had high velocity injuries. Patients with high velocity injuries were more likely to be older and less likely to be Caucasian. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with low vs. high velocity injuries regarding severity scores or length of stay. There were no statistically significant differences in procedures required between patients with low and high velocity injuries. Penetrating thoracic trauma is rare in children. The case presented here represents the only report of cardiac foreign body embolus we could identify in a pediatric patient.

  6. Management of high-energy foot and ankle injuries in the geriatric population. (United States)

    Herscovici, Dolfi; Scaduto, Julia M


    By the year 2035 almost 20% of the US population of 389 million people will be 65 years and older. What this group has, compared with aged populations in the past, is better health, more mobility, and more active lifestyles. From January 1989 through December 2010, a total of 494 elderly patients with 536 foot and ankle injuries were identified. Within this group, 237 (48%) patients with 294 injuries were sustained as a result of a high-energy mechanism. These mechanisms consisted of 170 motor vehicle accidents, 30 as a result of high (not ground level) energy falls, 2 from industrial accidents, and 35 classified as other, which included sports, blunt trauma, bicycle, airplane or boating accidents, crush injuries, and injuries resulting from a lawn mower. The injuries produced were 17 metatarsal fractures, 9 Lisfranc injuries, 10 midfoot (navicular, cuneiform, or cuboid) fractures, 23 talus fractures, 63 calcaneal fractures, 73 unimalleolar, bimalleolar, or trimalleolar ankle fractures, 45 pilon fractures, and 3 pure dislocations of the foot or ankle. Overall, 243 (83%) of these injuries underwent surgical fixation and data have shown that when surgery is used to manage high-energy injuries of the foot and ankle in the elderly individuals, the complications and outcomes are similar to those seen in younger patients. Therefore, the decision for surgical intervention for high-energy injuries of the foot and ankle should be based primarily on the injury pattern and not solely on the age of the patient.

  7. Treatment of Chryseobacterium indologenes ventilator-associated pneumonia in a critically ill trauma patient. (United States)

    Monteen, Megan R; Ponnapula, Supriya; Wood, G Christopher; Croce, Martin A; Swanson, Joseph M; Boucher, Bradley A; Fabian, Timothy C


    To report a case of Chryseobacterium indologenes ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in a critically ill trauma patient. This report describes a 66-year-old critically ill trauma patient who developed VAP, which was caused by C indologenes. The patient was injured in a riding lawn mower accident that trapped him underwater in a pond. The patient required surgery for intra-abdominal injuries and was mechanically ventilated in the trauma intensive care unit. On hospital day 5, the patient developed signs and symptoms of VAP. A diagnosis of C indologenes VAP was confirmed based on a quantitative culture from a bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage. The patient's infection was successfully treated with moxifloxacin for 2 days followed by cefepime for 7 days. Formally known as Flavobacterium indologenes, C indologenes is a Gram-negative bacillus normally found in plants, soil, foodstuffs, and fresh and marine water sources. Recently, worldwide reports of C indologenes infections in humans have been increasing, though reports from the United States are still rare. Bacteremia and pneumonia are the most commonly reported infections, and most patients are immunocompromised. The current case differs from most previous reports because this patient was in the United States and did not have any traditional immunocompromised states (eg, transplant, cancer, HIV/AIDS, or corticosteroid use). This case report demonstrates that C indologenes can cause VAP in a trauma ICU patient.

  8. Assessment of Occupational Noise Exposure among Groundskeepers in North Carolina Public Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Anne G. Balanay


    Full Text Available Groundskeepers may have increased risk to noise-induced hearing loss due to the performance of excessively noisy tasks. This study assessed the exposure of groundskeepers to noise in multiple universities and determined the association between noise exposure and variables (ie, university, month, tool used. Personal noise exposures were monitored during the work shift using noise dosimetry. A sound level meter was used to measure the maximum sound pressure levels from groundskeeping equipment. The mean Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH time-weighted average (TWA noise exposures were 83.0 ± 9.6 and 88.0 ± 6.7 dBA, respectively. About 52% of the OSHA TWAs and 77% of the NIOSH TWAs exceeded 85 dBA. Riding mower use was associated with high TWA noise exposures and with having OSHA TWAs exceeding 85 and 90 dBA. The maximum sound pressure levels of equipment and tools measured ranged from 76 to 109 dBA, 82% of which were >85 dBA. These findings support that groundskeepers have excessive noise exposures, which may be effectively reduced through careful scheduling of the use of noisy equipment/tools.

  9. Measuring physical activity during pregnancy - Cultural adaptation of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) and assessment of its reliability in Polish conditions. (United States)

    Krzepota, Justyna; Sadowska, Dorota; Sempolska, Katarzyna; Pelczar, Małgorzata


    The assessment of physical activity during pregnancy is crucial in perinatal care and it is an important research topic. Unfortunately, in Poland there is a lack of one commonly accepted questionnaire of physical activity during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to adapt the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) to Polish conditions and assess the reliability of its Polish version (PPAQ-PL). The PPAQ was translated from English into Polish and its reliability tested. 64 correctly completed (twice, one week apart) questionnaires were qualified for analysis. Test-retest reliability was assessed using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). As a result of the adaptation and psychometric assessment, in the Polish version of the questionnaire the number of questions was reduced from 36 to 35 by removing the question concerning 'mowing lawn while on a riding mower'. The ICC value for total activity was 0.75, which confirms a substantial level of reliability. The ICC values for subscales of intensity ranged from 0.53 (light) - 0.86 (vigorous). For subscales of type, ICC values ranged from 0.59 (transportation) - 0.89 (household/caregiving). The PPAQ-PL can be accepted as a reliable tool for the assessing physical activity of pregnant women in Poland. Information obtained using the questionnaire might be helpful in monitoring health behaviours, preventing obesity, as well as designing and promoting physical activity programmes for pregnant women.

  10. Field Robotics in Sports: Automatic Generation of guidance Lines for Automatic Grass Cutting, Striping and Pitch Marking of Football Playing Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Green


    Full Text Available Progress is constantly being made and new applications are constantly coming out in the area of field robotics. In this paper, a promising application of field robotics in football playing fields is introduced. An algorithmic approach for generating the way points required for the guidance of a GPS-based field robotic through a football playing field to automatically carry out periodical tasks such as cutting the grass field, pitch and line marking illustrations and lawn striping is represented. The manual operation of these tasks requires very skilful personnel able to work for long hours with very high concentration for the football yard to be compatible with standards of Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA. In the other side, a GPS-based guided vehicle or robot with three implements; grass mower, lawn stripping roller and track marking illustrator is capable of working 24 h a day, in most weather and in harsh soil conditions without loss of quality. The proposed approach for the automatic operation of football playing fields requires no or very limited human intervention and therefore it saves numerous working hours and free a worker to focus on other tasks. An economic feasibility study showed that the proposed method is economically superimposing the current manual practices.

  11. An integrated system for conducting radiological surveys of contaminated sites - 16312

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, Jay P.; Rogers, Donna M.; Waggoner, Charles A.


    This paper describes an integrated detection system that has been developed to conduct radiological surveys of sites suspected of contamination of materials such as depleted uranium. This system utilizes cerium activated lanthanum bromide and thallium activated sodium iodide gamma detectors and can be easily adapted to include units for detecting neutrons. The detection system includes software controlling the collection of radiological spectra and GPS data. Two different platforms are described for conducting surveys, a modified zero turn radius (ZTR) mower and a three-wheeled cart that is manually pushed. The detection system software controlling data collection has components that facilitate completing a grid-less survey on user specified spacings. Another package confirms that all data quality activities (calibrations, etc.) are conducted prior to beginning the survey and also reviews data to identify areas that have been missed for which data quality falls below user designated parameters. Advanced digital signal processing algorithms are used to enhance the interpretation of spectra for conducting background subtractions and for mapping. Data from radiation detection instruments and GPS antennae are merged and made compatible with mapping using Geosoft Oasis montaj software. A summary of system performance during field-testing is included in the paper. This includes survey rate, detection limits, duty cycle, supporting ancillary equipment/material, and manpower requirements. The rate of false positives and false negatives is discussed with the benefits of surveys conducted using synergetic detection systems such as electromagnetic induction imaging. (authors)

  12. Optimization biogas management as alternative energy from communal scale dairy farm (United States)

    Ruhiyat, R.; Siami, L.


    Cow Slurry can be the main pollution source in most villages in Indonesia. In this study, treatment of cow slurry intended to reduce pollution in Citarum river and greenhouse gases effect of CH4 and CO2. As a part of renewable energy, biogas can be one of solution to be implemented in small-scale and remote area. In Pejaten, Tarumajaya Village, the cost-effective reached when 7cattleman united to treat cow slurry in one biodigester. The breed varies cow from calf, veal to adult cattle. The installation of anaerobic-bio digester that produce biogas 28 m3/day equivalent with Rp 168,000 to be consumed for 14 households. In addition, villager also benefitted manure as 42.5 ton monthly. As a whole, the highest profit comes from adult cattle that produce 900 kg/month slurry as Rp 59,919 monthly. Furthermore, this system gives job opportunity for villagers to be biodigester operator is the main beneficial with the higher income compare to mower that only Rp 600.000 monthly as Rp 1.065.000.

  13. Stirling engine application study (United States)

    Teagan, W. P.; Cunningham, D.


    A range of potential applications for Stirling engines in the power range from 0.5 to 5000 hp is surveyed. Over one hundred such engine applications are grouped into a small number of classes (10), with the application in each class having a high degree of commonality in technical performance and cost requirements. A review of conventional engines (usually spark ignition or Diesel) was then undertaken to determine the degree to which commercial engine practice now serves the needs of the application classes and to detemine the nature of the competition faced by a new engine system. In each application class the Stirling engine was compared to the conventional engines, assuming that objectives of ongoing Stirling engine development programs are met. This ranking process indicated that Stirling engines showed potential for use in all application classes except very light duty applications (lawn mowers, etc.). However, this potential is contingent on demonstrating much greater operating life and reliability than has been demonstrated to date by developmental Stirling engine systems. This implies that future program initiatives in developing Stirling engine systems should give more emphasis to life and reliability issues than has been the case in ongoing programs.

  14. Internal Combustion Engines as the Main Source of Ultrafine Particles in Residential Neighborhoods: Field Measurements in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Stolcpartova


    Full Text Available Ultrafine particles (UFP, diameter < 100 nm exposure has already been associated with adverse effects on human health. Spatial distribution of UFP is non-uniform; they concentrate in the vicinity of the source, e.g. traffic, because of their short lifespan. This work investigates spatial distribution of UFP in three areas in the Czech Republic with different traffic load: High traffic (Prague neighborhood—Sporilov, commuter road vicinity (Libeznice, and a small city with only local traffic (Celakovice. Size-resolved measurements of particles in the 5–500 nm range were taken with a particle classifier mounted, along with batteries, GPS and other accessories, on a handcart and pushed around the areas, making one-minute or longer stops at places of interest. Concentrations along main roads were elevated in comparison with places farther from the road; this pattern was observed in all sites, while particle number distributions both close and away from main roads had similar patterns. The absence of larger particles, the relative absence of higher concentrations of particles away from the main roads, and similar number distributions suggest that high particle number concentrations cannot be readily attributed to sources other than internal combustion engines in vehicles and mobile machinery (i.e., mowers and construction machines.

  15. Improving the energy balance of grass-based anaerobic digestion through combined harvesting and pretreatment. (United States)

    Tsapekos, P; Kougias, P G; Egelund, H; Larsen, U; Pedersen, J; Trénel, P; Angelidaki, I


    An important challenge that has to be addressed to achieve sustainable anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic substrates is the development of energy and cost efficient pretreatment methods. Technologies orientated to simultaneously harvest and mechanically pretreat the biomass at the field could meet these criteria as they can potentially reduce the energy losses. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of two full-scale harvesting machines to enhance the biogas production and subsequently, improve energy balance. The performances of Disc-mower and Excoriator were assessed on meadow and cultivated grass silages. The results showed that relatively high methane production can be achieved from meadow and cultivated grass harvested in different seasons. The findings indicated that the bioenergy production can be improved based on the selection of the appropriate harvesting technology. More specifically, Excoriator, which cuts and subsequently applies shearing forces on harvested biomass, enhanced the methane production up to 10% and the overall energy budget was improved proportionally to the driving speed increase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pregnant and active – suitability of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire for measuring the physical activity of pregnant women in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Krzepota


    Full Text Available Background . The issue of physical activity of pregnant women, including determining proper recommendations, has been a broadly discussed topic in international circles. Objectives. The aim of this paper is to present the suitability of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ for measuring the physical activity of pregnant women in Poland. Material and methods . The study included 162 questionnaires, which were filled in correctly by pregnant women (third trimester who took part in childbirth classes organized by a childbirth school. As a research method, the PPAQ was chosen. The PPAQ allows pregnant women to self-assess their physical activity in the current trimester. The questions investigated time devoted to various types of activity related to household/caregiving, transportation, sports/exercise in their free time, occupational activity and inactivity. Based on the average weekly energy expenditure, each of these activities is classified by intensity: sedentary activity, light-intensity activity, moderate-intensity activity, vigorous-intensity activity. Results . While using the PPAQ in Poland, it is recommended to reduce the number of questions from 36 to 35, by removing question 18 (time of mowing lawn while on a riding mower. It is also advisable to convert American units of measurement into metric units, which are used in Poland. Conclusions . The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire in Poland may fill the gap in studies devoted to the physical activity of pregnant Polish women. With this questionnaire, it is possible to determine energy expenditure in terms of intensity and type of physical activity. It also serves as a reliable tool that can be used for international comparisons.

  17. 2005 nonroad engine fleet characterization in the Canadian Lower Fraser Valley : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, J.; Chan, N.; Campbell, K.; Preston, K.; Bolechowsky, K.


    Metro Vancouver conducts an emission inventory for the Lower Fraser Valley on a five year basis. This report presented an estimate of the nonroad engine fleet population and emissions in the Canadian portion of the Lower Fraser Valley (CLFV). The nonroad engine fleet includes internal combustion engines of different fuel types used in mobile equipment such as on-road vehicles, aircraft, locomotives and ocean-going marine vessels. Some examples of nonroad equipment that were estimated included agricultural tractors; airport ground equipment; forklifts; excavators; generator sets; lawn mowers; railroad maintenance equipment; pleasure boats; and off-road motorcycles. The purpose of the study was to assist Metro Vancouver and other levels of government in determining what progress has been made in improving air quality, as well as the effect of policies and regulations on the environment in terms of nonroad vehicles. The report presented the objectives of the nonroad engine fleet characterization project which were to review the current data on nonroad engine populations and associated information, and confirm or improve the data through appropriate means; prepare estimates of 2005 emissions in the CLFV based on the revised engine counts using the United States Environmental Protection Agency's nonroad 2005 model; and prepare backcasts and forecasts of the 2005 nonroad engine emission estimates for 1990 to 2030 in five-year increments. Results were presented and analysed into the following 9 equipment type categories: agricultural, airport ground support, commercial, construction, industrial, lawn and garden, railway maintenance, recreational marine and recreational off-road vehicle. Four fuel types were considered for each type of equipment, notably gasoline, diesel, liquefied petroleum gases and compressed natural gas. The report described the methodologies and sources and presented the equipment population data. Emission results for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides

  18. Characterization of aerosol particles from grass mowing by joint deployment of ToF-AMS and ATOFMS instruments (United States)

    Drewnick, Frank; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Harrison, Roy

    During a measurement campaign at a semi-urban/industrial site a grass-cutting event was observed, when the lawn in the immediate surrounding of the measurement site was mowed. Using a wide variety of state-of-the-art aerosol measurement technology allowed a broad characterization of the aerosol generated by the lawn mowing. The instrumentation included two on-line aerosol mass spectrometers: an Aerodyne Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ToF-AMS) and a TSI Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS); in addition, a selection of on-line aerosol concentration and size distribution instruments (OPC, APS, SMPS, CPC, FDMS-TEOM, MAAP) was deployed. From comparison of background aerosol measurements during most of the day with the aerosol measured during the lawn mowing, the grass cutting was found to generate mainly two different types of aerosol particles: an intense ultrafine particle mode (1 h average: 4 μg m -3) of almost pure hydrocarbon-like organics and a distinct particle mode in the upper sub-micrometer size range containing particles with potassium and nitrogen-organic compounds. The ultrafine particles are probably lubricating oil particles from the lawn mower exhaust; the larger particles are swirled-up plant debris particles from the mowing process. While these particle types were identified in the data from the two mass spectrometers, the on-line aerosol concentration and size distribution data support these findings. The results presented here show that the combination of quantitative aerosol particle ensemble mass spectrometry (ToF-AMS) and single particle mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) provides much deeper insights into the nature of the aerosol properties than each of the instruments could do alone. Therefore a combined deployment of both types of instruments is strongly recommended.

  19. Spark innovation through empathic design. (United States)

    Leonard, D; Rayport, J F


    Companies are used to bringing in customers to participate in focus groups, usability laboratories, and market research surveys in order to help in the development of new products and services. And for improving products that customers know well, those tools are highly sophisticated. For example, knowledgeable customers are adept at identifying the specific scent of leather they expect in a luxury vehicle or at helping to tune the sound of a motorcycle engine to just the timbre that evokes feelings of power. But to go beyond improvements to the familiar, companies need to identify and meet needs that customers may not yet recognize. To accomplish that task, a set of techniques called empathic design can help. Rather than bring the customers to the company, empathic design calls for company representatives to watch customers using products and services in the context of their own environments. By doing so, managers can often identify unexpected uses for their products, just as the product manager of a cooking oil did when he observed a neighbor spraying the oil on the blades of a lawn mower to reduce grass buildup. They can also uncover problems that customers don't mention in surveys, as the president of Nissan Design did when he watched a couple struggling to remove the backseat of a competitor's minivan in order to transport a couch. The five-step process Dorothy Leonard and Jeffrey Rayport describe in detail is a relatively low-cost, low-risk way to identify customer needs, and it has the potential to redirect a company's existing technological capabilities toward entirely new businesses.

  20. Impact of Collection Equipment on Ash Variability of Baled Corn Stover Biomass for Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Smith; Jeffery Einerson; Kevin Kenney; Ian J. Bonner


    Cost-effective conversion of agricultural residues for renewable energy hinges not only on the material’s quality but also the biorefinery’s ability to reliably measure quality specifications. The ash content of biomass is one such specification, influencing pretreatment and disposal costs for the conversion facility and the overall value of a delivered lot of biomass. The biomass harvest process represents a primary pathway for accumulation of soil-derived ash within baled material. In this work, the influence of five collection techniques on the total ash content and variability of ash content within baled corn stover in southwest Kansas is discussed. The equipment tested included a mower for cutting the corn stover stubble, a basket rake, wheel rake, or shred flail to gather the stover, and a mixed or uniform in-feed baler for final collection. The results showed mean ash content to range from 11.5 to 28.2 % depending on operational choice. Resulting impacts on feedstock costs for a biochemical conversion process range from $5.38 to $22.30 Mg-1 based on the loss of convertible dry matter and ash disposal costs. Collection techniques that minimized soil contact (shred flail or nonmowed stubble) were shown to prevent excessive ash contamination, whereas more aggressive techniques (mowing and use of a wheel rake) caused greater soil disturbance and entrainment within the final baled material. Material sampling and testing were shown to become more difficult as within-bale ash variability increased, creating uncertainty around feedstock quality and the associated costs of ash mitigation.

  1. Physical-hydraulic properties of a sandy loam typic paleudalf soil under organic cultivation of 'montenegrina' mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Valverde dos Santos


    Full Text Available Citrus plants are the most important fruit species in the world, with emphasis to oranges, mandarins and lemons. In Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, most fruit production is found on small properties under organic cultivation. Soil compaction is one of the factors limiting production and due to the fixed row placement of this crop, compaction can arise in various manners in the interrows of the orchard. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil physical properties and water infiltration capacity in response to interrow management in an orchard of mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore 'Montenegrina' under organic cultivation. Interrow management was performed through harrowing, logs in em "V", mowing, and cutting/knocking down plants with a knife roller. Soil physical properties were evaluated in the wheel tracks of the tractor (WT, between the wheel tracks (BWT, and in the area under the line projection of the canopy (CLP, with undisturbed soil samples collected in the 0.00-0.15, 0.15-0.30, 0.30-0.45, and 0.45-0.60 m layers, with four replicates. The soil water infiltration test was performed using the concentric cylinder method, with a maximum time of 90 min for each test. In general, soil analysis showed a variation in the physical-hydraulic properties of the Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico arênico (sandy loam Typic Paleudalf in the three sampling sites in all layers, regardless of the management procedure in the interrows. Machinery traffic leads to heterogeneity in the soil physical-hydraulic properties in the interrows of the orchard. Soil porosity and bulk density are affected especially in the wheel tracks of the tractor (WT, which causes a reduction in the constant rate of infiltration and in the accumulated infiltration of water in this sampling site. The use of the disk harrow and mower leads to greater harmful effects on the soil, which can interfere with mandarin production.

  2. Technical analysis of volume-rendering algorithms: application in low-contrast structures using liver vascularisation as a model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cademartiri, Filippo; Luccichenti, Giacomo; Runza, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Midiri, Massimo; Gualerzi, Massimo; Brambilla, Lorenzo; Coruzzi, Paolo; Soliani, Paolo; Sianesi, Mario


    Purpose: To assess the influence of pre-set volume rendering opacity curves (OC) on image quality and to identify which absolute parameters (density of aorta, hepatic parenchyma and portal vein) affect visualization of portal vascular structures (low-contrast structures). Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients underwent a dual-phase spiral CT with the following parameters: collimation 3 mm, pitch 2, increment 1 mm. Three scans were performed: one without contrast medium and the latter two after the injection of contrast material (conventionally identified as 'arterial' and 'portal'). The images were sent to a workstation running on an NT platform equipped with post-processing software allowing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions to generate volume-rendered images of the vascular supply to the liver. Correlation between the absolute values of aorta, liver and portal vein density, OC parameters, and image quality were assessed. Results: 3D images generated using pre-set OC obtained a much mower overall quality score than those produced with OC set by the operator. High contrast between the liver and the portal vein, for example during the portal vascular phase, allows wider windows, thus improving image quality. Conversely, the OC in the parenchymal phase scans must have a high gradient in order to better differentiate between the vascular structures and the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. Conclusions: Image features considered to be of interest by the operator cannot be simplified by the mean of pre-set OC. Due to their strong individual variability automatic 3D algorithms cannot be universally applied: they should be adapted to both image and patient characteristics [it

  3. Hydrology of the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah, with emphasis on ground water; With a section on surface water (United States)

    Mower, Reed W.; Sandberg, George Woodard


    An investigation of the water resources of the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah (pl. 1), was made during 1976-78 as part of a cooperative program with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights. Wells were the most important source of water for all purposes in the Beryl-Enterprise area during 1978, but it has not always been so. For nearly a century after the first settlers arrived in about 1860, streams supplied most of the irrigation water and springs supplied much of the water for domestic and stock use. A few shallow wells were dug by the early settlers for domestic and stock water, but the widespread use of ground water did not start until the 1920's when shallow wells were first dug to supply irrigation water. Ground-water withdrawals from wells, principally for irrigation, have increased nearly every year since the 1920's. The quantity withdrawn from wells surpassed that diverted from surface sources during the mid-1940's and was about eight times that amount during the 1970's. As a result, water levels have declined measurably throughout the area resulting in administrative water-rights problems.The primary purpose of this report is to describe the water resources with emphasis on ground water. The surface-water resources are evaluated only as they pertain to the understanding of the ground-water resources. A secondary purpose is to discuss the extent and effects of the development of ground water in order to provide the hydrologic information needed for the orderly and optimum development of the resource and for the effective administration and adjudication of water rights in the area. The hydrologic data on which this report is based are given in a companion report by Mower (1981).

  4. A large-eddy simulation based power estimation capability for wind farms over complex terrain (United States)

    Senocak, I.; Sandusky, M.; Deleon, R.


    There has been an increasing interest in predicting wind fields over complex terrain at the micro-scale for resource assessment, turbine siting, and power forecasting. These capabilities are made possible by advancements in computational speed from a new generation of computing hardware, numerical methods and physics modelling. The micro-scale wind prediction model presented in this work is based on the large-eddy simulation paradigm with surface-stress parameterization. The complex terrain is represented using an immersed-boundary method that takes into account the parameterization of the surface stresses. Governing equations of incompressible fluid flow are solved using a projection method with second-order accurate schemes in space and time. We use actuator disk models with rotation to simulate the influence of turbines on the wind field. Data regarding power production from individual turbines are mostly restricted because of proprietary nature of the wind energy business. Most studies report percentage drop of power relative to power from the first row. There have been different approaches to predict power production. Some studies simply report available wind power in the upstream, some studies estimate power production using power curves available from turbine manufacturers, and some studies estimate power as torque multiplied by rotational speed. In the present work, we propose a black-box approach that considers a control volume around a turbine and estimate the power extracted from the turbine based on the conservation of energy principle. We applied our wind power prediction capability to wind farms over flat terrain such as the wind farm over Mower County, Minnesota and the Horns Rev offshore wind farm in Denmark. The results from these simulations are in good agreement with published data. We also estimate power production from a hypothetical wind farm in complex terrain region and identify potential zones suitable for wind power production.

  5. An Advanced Radiological Survey and Mapping System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.; Rogers, D.; Waggoner, Ch.


    A variety of radiological surveying systems have been described in the literature. This paper describes relative performances of a system that can employ a variety of radiological sensors including NaI, LiI, and LaBr 3 units of various sizes. The system includes navigation and data collection software that facilitates surveying without the use of survey grid-lines. Parameters presented to the operator via a graphical user interface (GUI) for monitoring system performance and navigation are described. Radiological spectra are logged along with position data from three differential GPS sensors to enhance position accuracy by taking into account the pitch and roll as the survey vehicle moves over uneven terrain. Accuracy of position data increases the potential for, and value of, data fusion with other survey data such as electromagnetic induction images. The survey system described has been developed around a zero turn radius lawn mower equipped with on-board generator/inverter for powering electronic and data communication equipment to maximize surveying effectiveness. Detection limits for U-238 will be discussed for the NaI (FIDLER, 75x75 mm, and 100x100x400 mm) and LaBr 3 (75x75 mm) detectors. These parameters will be reported for a variety of survey speeds (stationary, 1, 2, and 3 m/s), with and without the use of advanced signal processing to increase detection sensitivity. A background subtraction algorithm evaluating each spectrum for the presence of naturally occurring radiological materials will also be described for correcting each datum prior to mapping using Geosoft Oasis montaj. (authors)

  6. Soil Decomposition of Added Organic C in an Organic Farming System (United States)

    Kpomblekou-A, Kokoasse; Sissoko, Alassane; McElhenney, Wendell


    In the United States, large quantities of poultry waste are added every year to soil under organic management. Decomposition of the added organic C releases plant nutrients, promotes soil structure, and plays a vital role in the soil food web. In organic agriculture the added C serves as the only source of nutrients for plant growth. Thus understanding the decomposition rates of such C in organic farming systems are critical in making recommendations of organic inputs to organic producers. We investigated and compared relative accumulation and decomposition of organic C in an organic farming system trial at the George Washington Carver Agricultural Experiment Station at Tuskegee, Alabama on a Marvyn sandy loam (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic, Typic Kanhapludults) soil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates and four treatments. The main plot (54' × 20') was split into three equal subplots to plant three sweet potato cultivars. The treatments included a weed (control with no cover crop, no fertilizer), crimson clover alone (CC), crimson clover plus broiler litter (BL), and crimson clover plus NPK mineral fertilizers (NPK). For five years, late in fall, the field was planted with crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L) that was cut with a mower and incorporated into soil the following spring. Moreover, broiler litter (4.65 Mg ha-1) or ammonium nitrate (150 kg N ha-1), triple super phosphate (120 kg P2O5 ha-1), and potassium chloride (160 kg K2O ha-1) were applied to the BL or the NPK plot and planted with sweet potato. Just before harvest, six soil samples were collected within the two middle rows of each sweet potato plot with an auger at incremental depths of 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm. Samples from each subplot and depth were composited and mixed in a plastic bag. The samples were sieved moist through a

  7. The effect of wide swathing on wilting times and nutritive value of alfalfa haylage. (United States)

    Kung, L; Stough, E C; McDonell, E E; Schmidt, R J; Hofherr, M W; Reich, L J; Klingerman, C M


    On 3 consecutive cuttings, alfalfa from a single field was mowed with a John Deere 946 mower-conditioner (4-m cut width; Moline, IL) to leave narrow swaths (NS) ranging from 1.2 to 1.52 m wide (30-37% of cutter bar width) and wide swaths (WS) ranging from 2.44 to 2.74 m wide (62-67% of cutter bar width). Samples were collected from windrows and dry matter (DM) was monitored during wilting until a target of 43 to 45% DM was obtained. Forage from random windrows (n=4-6) was harvested by hand, chopped through a forage harvester before being packed in replicated vacuum-sealed bags, and allowed to ensile for 65 d. There was no swath width x cutting interaction for any parameter tested. Over all cuttings, the resulting silage DM was not different between the NS silage (43.8%) and the WS silage (44.9%). However, wide swathing greatly reduced the time of wilting before making silage. The hours of wilting time needed to reach the targeted DM for the NS silage compared with the WS silage at cuttings 1, 2, and 3 were 50 versus 29, 54 versus 28, and 25 versus 6, respectively. At the time of ensiling, the WS silage had more water-soluble carbohydrates (5.1%) than did the NS silage (3.7%). The WS silage had a lower pH (4.58) than did the NS silage (4.66), but swath width did not affect fermentation end products (lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol). The NS silage had more NH(3)-N (0.26%) than did the WS silage (0.21%). Wide swathing did not affect the concentration of ash or the digestibility of NDF, but it lowered the N content (NS=3.45%; WS=3.23%) and increased the ADF content (NS=39.7%; WS=40.9%) of the resulting silage. Wide swathing can markedly reduce the time that alfalfa must wilt before it can be chopped for silage, but under good conditions, as in this study, the resulting silage quality was generally not improved. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of particle number concentrations and PM2.5 in a school: influence of outdoor air pollution on indoor air. (United States)

    Guo, Hai; Morawska, Lidia; He, Congrong; Zhang, Yanli L; Ayoko, Godwin; Cao, Min


    The impact of air pollution on school children's health is currently one of the key foci of international and national agencies. Of particular concern are ultrafine particles which are emitted in large quantities, contain large concentrations of toxins and are deposited deeply in the respiratory tract. In this study, an intensive sampling campaign of indoor and outdoor airborne particulate matter was carried out in a primary school in February 2006 to investigate indoor and outdoor particle number (PN) and mass concentrations (PM(2.5)), and particle size distribution, and to evaluate the influence of outdoor air pollution on the indoor air. For outdoor PN and PM(2.5), early morning and late afternoon peaks were observed on weekdays, which are consistent with traffic rush hours, indicating the predominant effect of vehicular emissions. However, the temporal variations of outdoor PM(2.5) and PN concentrations occasionally showed extremely high peaks, mainly due to human activities such as cigarette smoking and the operation of mower near the sampling site. The indoor PM(2.5) level was mainly affected by the outdoor PM(2.5) (r = 0.68, p changes to the modal structure of particle number and size distribution, even though the I/O ratio was different for different size classes. The I/O curves had a maximum value for particles with diameters of 100-400 nm under both occupied and unoccupied scenarios, whereas no significant difference in I/O ratio for PM(2.5) was observed between occupied and unoccupied conditions. Inspection of the size-resolved I/O ratios in the preschool centre and the classroom suggested that the I/O ratio in the preschool centre was the highest for accumulation mode particles at 600 nm after school hours, whereas the average I/O ratios of both nucleation mode and accumulation mode particles in the classroom were much lower than those of Aitken mode particles. The findings obtained in this study are useful for epidemiological studies to estimate the

  9. Disponibilidade de água em pomar de citros submetido a poda e subsolagem em latossolo amarelo dos tabuleiros costeiros Water availability in citros orchard, under prunning and subsoiling, on yellow latosol of coastal table land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laercio Duarte Souza


    Full Text Available Um pomar de laranja 'Baianinha' enxertada sobre limão 'Cravo' com 10 anos de idade, recebeu, neste período, práticas culturais de roçadeira no inverno e grade no verão, com três capinas manuais na linha por ano. Instalado em Latossolo Amarelo, nos Tabuleiros Costeiros, apresentava problemas de fitossanidade e produtividade, oriundos do impedimento ao desenvolvimento de raízes e exploração do solo e da água, ocasionados pelas camadas coesas características destes solos. Com o objetivo de aumentar a disponibilidade de água no solo para as plantas, aplicaram-se tratamentos de subsolagem, em interação com diferentes sistemas de poda da parte aérea. Realizaram-se uma amostragem de parâmetros físicos e químicos do solo, e um monitoramento da água nas profundidades de 0,30; 0,50; 0,70; 0,90; 1,10; 1,30 e 1,50 m com sonda de nêutrons, no período de dois anos ( 1º março/96 a 1º março/98, com duas repetições, em leituras semanais. As melhores respostas foram obtidas com os tratamentos subsolados sem poda e com poda leve. O tratamento subsolado com poda brusca apresentou as maiores deficiências de água disponível no solo, superando, inclusive, a testemunha.A ten years old orchard of orange 'Baianinha' grafted on lemon 'Cravo' was submitted, to cultural practices of mower in the winter and grating in the summer, with three hand weedings, within crop line, a year. The work was carried out in a Yellow Latosol in the Coastal Table Land ecosystem. The orchard presented phytopathological and production problems, which were attributed to the impediment of the development of roots and storage of water, caused by the cohesive layers, characteristics of these soils. This study was to increase the water availability to the plants by treatments with subsoiling combined with different pruning systems. Physical and chemical parameters of the soil were evaluated and the behavior of the water, in the depths of 0,30; 0,50; 0,70; 0,90; 1,10; 1

  10. Métodos de controle de plantas invasoras na cultura do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. e componentes da acidez do solo Weed control methods and soil acidity components in coffee plantation (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elifas Nunes Alcântara


    not been studied, particularly in the long term. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different weed control methods on soil acidity components of a coffee plantation on a dystroferric Red Latosol in an experiment installed at EPAMIG Experimental Station, in São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG, Brazil. Seven weed control treatments were evaluated: mower (MW, coffee tandem disk harrow (TD, rotary tiller (RT, post (CH and pre-emergency herbicide (RH application, hand hoe (HH and no weed control (NC. The treatments were evaluated in a randomized block design with three repetitions. Soil samples were collected every two years, for each treatment, starting in 1980, in the 0-0.15 to 0.15-0.30 m soil layers and assessed for pH, Al3+ (mmol c dm-3, effective acidity (H + Al (mmol c dm-3, and Al3+ saturation (%. The HR system increased Al3+ content and saturation and the effective acidity and reduced the pH, compared to the other weed control methods, especially the control (NC. Contrarily to the RH, the NC treatment resulted in higher pH values, Al3+ content and Al3+ saturation in both soil layers. The MW treatment was closest to the SC treatment, while the other weed control systems did not differ significantly.

  11. Métodos de controle de plantas daninhas no cafeeiro afetam os atributos químicos do solo Effects of weed control methods on coffee crop on soil chemical attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elifas Nunes de Alcântara


    Full Text Available Nos ecossistemas agrícolas sob cafeeiro, nos quais o manejo do solo se resume, basicamente, à aplicação de corretivos, fertilizantes e controle de plantas daninhas, faz com que alternativas de manejo que preservam ou aumentam os teores de matéria orgânica no solo, a exemplo de alguns métodos de controle de plantas daninhas, sejam consideradas, quando se busca a sustentabilidade da cultura. Neste estudo o objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de alguns métodos comumente utilizadas na cultura do cafeeiro sobre os atributos químicos de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico sob cafeeiro, durante 15 anos. Os tratamentos avaliados consistiram de sete métodos de controle, envolvendo o uso de roçadora (RC, grade (GR, enxada rotativa (ER, herbicida de pré-emergência (HPRE, herbicida de pós-emergência (HPOS, capina manual (CM e uma testemunha sem capina (TEST. Foram determinados, nas profundidades de 0-0,15m e 0,15-0,30m, os teores de P, K+, Ca2+ + Mg2+, soma de bases (SB, saturação por bases (V, CTC efetiva (t e potencial (T. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento sem capina (TEST influenciou, positivamente, os teores de P, K+, Ca2+ + Mg2+, valores de CTC efetiva, potencial e V, enquanto o HPRE exerceu um efeito contrário, ou seja, de redução nos valores das variáveis analisadas. Demais métodos RC, GR, ER, HPOS e CM apresentam um comportamento intermediário entre os métodos TEST e HPRE sobre as condições de fertilidade do solo.In agricultural ecosystems under coffee cultivation, soil management is based on liming, fertilizers and weed control. Alternatives that preserve or increase soil organic matter content are considered when the sustainability is the goal. This study was conducted to evaluate the chemical attributes of a dystroferric Red Latosol (Oxisols under coffee cultivation submitted to 15 years of weed control methods. Seven interrows coffee plant weed control methods were used; a mower (RC, tanden disk harrow (GR, rotative

  12. Technical analysis of volume-rendering algorithms: application in low-contrast structures using liver vascularisation as a model; Analisi tecnica degli algoritmi di volume rendering: applicazione alle strutture a basso contrsto usando come modello la vascolarizzazione epatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cademartiri, Filippo [Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Luccichenti, Giacomo [Fondazione Biomedica Europea ONLUS, Roma (Italy); Runza, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Midiri, Massimo [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy). Sezione di scienze radiologiche; Gualerzi, Massimo; Brambilla, Lorenzo; Coruzzi, Paolo [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). UO di prevenzione e riabilitazione vascolare, Fondazione Don C. Gnocchi ONLUS; Soliani, Paolo; Sianesi, Mario [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipartimento di chirurgia


    Purpose: To assess the influence of pre-set volume rendering opacity curves (OC) on image quality and to identify which absolute parameters (density of aorta, hepatic parenchyma and portal vein) affect visualization of portal vascular structures (low-contrast structures). Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients underwent a dual-phase spiral CT with the following parameters: collimation 3 mm, pitch 2, increment 1 mm. Three scans were performed: one without contrast medium and the latter two after the injection of contrast material (conventionally identified as 'arterial' and 'portal'). The images were sent to a workstation running on an NT platform equipped with post-processing software allowing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions to generate volume-rendered images of the vascular supply to the liver. Correlation between the absolute values of aorta, liver and portal vein density, OC parameters, and image quality were assessed. Results: 3D images generated using pre-set OC obtained a much mower overall quality score than those produced with OC set by the operator. High contrast between the liver and the portal vein, for example during the portal vascular phase, allows wider windows, thus improving image quality. Conversely, the OC in the parenchymal phase scans must have a high gradient in order to better differentiate between the vascular structures and the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. Conclusions: Image features considered to be of interest by the operator cannot be simplified by the mean of pre-set OC. Due to their strong individual variability automatic 3D algorithms cannot be universally applied: they should be adapted to both image and patient characteristics. [Italian] Scopo: Valutare l'influenza delle curve di opacit� (CO) preimpostate del volume-rendering sulla qualit� delle immagini, ed identificare quali parametri assoluti (attenzione dell'aorta, del parenchima epatico e della vena porta) influenzano la

  13. ecnologias sobre operações de semeadura e colheita para a cultura do gergelim (Sesamum indicum L. = Technologies on operations of sowing and harvest for the culture of sesame (Sesamum indicum L..

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    Vicente de Paula Queiroga


    gergelim como o mercado internacional. Atualmente, mais de 60% do consumo de gergelim no Brasil é importado. = - The sesame (Sesamum indicum L. is one of the fi rst species domesticated by humans, being nowadays one of the top ten oil plant in the world. Planted in an area around eight million hectares, the main product is the sesame seed. High nutritional value for food, and medicinal properties of sesame seeds are sources of vitamins (B vitamins, rich in minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, zinc and selenium, oil (50% composed of unsaturated fatty acids (oleic (40% and linoleic (41% and antioxidants such as sesamin, the sesamoline the tocopherol that print resistance to rancidity. Sesame presscake has important amino acids such as methionine, cystine, arginine and leucine becoming an excellent source of protein (39%. The sesame is easy to grow and has fast cycle cultivars, between 90-130 days. Information contained in this technical note can contribute to agribusiness and the small scale production, exploring the potential of sesame in a big picture of economic activity, especially for the semiarid Northeast, or as a “culture of off season in terms of the Brazilian Cerrado. Aimed to highlight the following technologies adapted to the cultivation of sesame: different planters, the importance of synchronized sampling, different ways to track and drying. It is shown that the mere introduction of the mower-knotters yield (2 ha men-1to perform the cutting of plants at harvest time can signifi cantly increase the area planted to sesame in Brazil, even with the dehiscent sesame cultivars planted. The vertical integration of production of sesame is the dependence of changes in dietary and social habits of the population, because the domestic market is limited and for this reason can not appreciate both the quality of sesame as the international market. Currently, over 60% of consumption of sesame seeds in Brazil is imported.

  14. Effect of Trinexapac-ethyl on Increased Resistance to Drought Stress in Wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum L.

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    mohamad hossein sheikh mohamadi


    native seeds (Agropyron desertorum L., collected from the turfgrass research farm at Fereydan, Isfahan, which were cultivated hand broadcast in plots (3m × 2m with seeding rates of 30 gm–2. A factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was conducted for TE (Primo Maxx; Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc., Greensboro, NC and drought stress. Treatments involved three levels of Trinexapac-ethyl growth regulator (0, 0.25 and 0.5 kg/h and two levels of drought stress (with irrigation and without irrigation. After planting, the plots were irrigated to maintain soil moisture at 80% field capacity or higher. Irrigation was applied as required to prevent any drought stress during grass establishment. Turfgrass species were maintained at cutting height of 4 cm and were mowed once a week using a reel-type mower. All data were subjected to analysis of variance using SAS 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC and Fisher’s protected LSD test was employed at the 5% probability level.. Results Discussion: Results indicated that Trinexapac-ethyl and drought reduced growth, fresh weight and dried above ground organs significantly. Wheatgrass growth in concentrations 0.25 and 0.5 kg/h were 19.20 and 26.90%, respectively. Previous studies reported plants that have slow-growing shoots may survive more extended periods than faster-growing plants in drought conditions. Slow growth may reduce the adverse impact of drought by conserving water and carbon energy, and plants can use limited water to survive drought for an extended period of time. Unlike drought stress, Trinexapac-ethyl improved the quality of plant tissues and their color. Increase in turf quality under TE treatment might occur as a result of improved canopy photosynthesis capacity and single-leaf photochemical efficiency. Drought stress reduced relative water and chlorophyll content, increased proline level and finally led to electrolyte leakage. Trinexapac-ethyl improved wheatgrass in

  15. Teasing out specific language impairment from an autism spectrum disorder. (United States)

    Tierney, Cheryl D; Gupta, Vidya Bhushan; Angel, Alma Patricia Del; Augustyn, Marilyn


    Marcus is a handsome, sweet, 7½-year-old boy with a significant history of delayed development, specifically in speech and language skills, as well as difficulties with social interactions that have led other specialists to be concerned about a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder.He has been seen in our primary care practice since birth. He was born full-term after vaginal delivery weighing 6 pounds, 6 ounces. There were no pregnancy or delivery complications noted. Genetic testing revealed normal chromosomes, fragile X, and microarray testing. Marcus was a picky eater and good sleeper and had delays in toilet training.There is no family history of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, or substance abuse. Maternal grandmother and mother have a history of learning difficulties, and his father and a paternal uncle have a history of depression and anxiety. Marcus lives in a supportive environment with his mother, father, and sister.Marcus was noted to have significantly delayed language, stuttering, and immediate echolalia as a toddler. Gross and fine motor milestones were met on time, but he did not talk or follow directions until 4 to 5 years old. As a younger child, he would pretend to talk on the phone or mow the grass with a pretend lawn mower, but other household activities were not of interest to Marcus.Currently, he enjoys puzzles, reading, and board games. He likes to play with other children and can interact with familiar adults. Marcus is reported to initiate social interactions, although he has difficulty in understanding personal space. Imaginative play is preferred over other types. He seeks out adult attention and will bring objects over to an adult especially to share his perceived accomplishment. Marcus has difficulty in playing cooperatively with his sister.He is independent with activities of daily living. Marcus is noted to have auditory defensiveness including covering his ears to loud noises and becoming distressed