WorldWideScience

Sample records for moving block control

  1. Traffic Modelling for Moving-Block Train Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Tao; Li Keping

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new cellular automaton (CA) model for train control system simulation. In the proposed CA model, the driver reactions to train movements are captured by some updated rules. The space-time diagram of traffic flow and the trajectory of train movement is used to obtain insight into the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow. A number of simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CA model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic. Not only the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow can be reproduced, but also the simulation values of the minimum time headway are close to the theoretical values.

  2. Moving up the Block: Learning To Think Like a Peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokser, Julie A.

    For one educator, an assistant professor of English with a specialization in writing, the short but dramatic move "up the block" from the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) to DePaul University eight miles north occasioned an adjustment to a radically different institutional personality and student body, despite similar street…

  3. Moving Horizon Estimation and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    successful and applied methodology beyond PID-control for control of industrial processes. The main contribution of this thesis is introduction and definition of the extended linear quadratic optimal control problem for solution of numerical problems arising in moving horizon estimation and control...... problems. Chapter 1 motivates moving horizon estimation and control as a paradigm for control of industrial processes. It introduces the extended linear quadratic control problem and discusses its central role in moving horizon estimation and control. Introduction, application and efficient solution....... It provides an algorithm for computation of the maximal output admissible set for linear model predictive control. Appendix D provides results concerning linear regression. Appendix E discuss prediction error methods for identification of linear models tailored for model predictive control....

  4. Vagal Blocking for Obesity Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Helene; Revesz, David; Kodama, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

    : VBLOC reduced body weight and food intake, which was associated with increased satiety but not with decreased hunger. Brain activities in response to VBLOC included increased gene expression of leptin and CCKb receptors, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor, and transforming growth factor β1......BACKGROUND: Recently, the US FDA has approved "vagal blocking therapy or vBLoc® therapy" as a new treatment for obesity. The aim of the present study was to study the mechanism-of-action of "VBLOC" in rat models. METHODS: Rats were implanted with VBLOC, an intra-abdominal electrical device...... with leads placed around gastric vagal trunks through an abdominal incision and controlled by wireless device. Body weight, food intake, hunger/satiety, and metabolic parameters were monitored by a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system. Brain-gut responses were analyzed physiologically. RESULTS...

  5. Nonholonomic feedback control among moving obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Stephen Gregory

    A feedback controller is developed for navigating a nonholonomic vehicle in an area with multiple stationary and possibly moving obstacles. Among other applications the developed algorithms can be used for automatic parking of a passenger car in a parking lot with complex configuration or a ground robot in cluttered environment. Several approaches are explored which combine nonholonomic systems control based on sliding modes and potential field methods.

  6. Digital control rod blocking monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funayama, Yoshio.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention system is used for monitoring of a power region of a reactor, and used for monitoring of simultaneous withdrawal of a plurality of control rods without increasing the size or complicating the system. Namely, the system processes signals from a neutron flux detectors at the periphery of control rods controlled for withdrawal. As a result of the processing, the digital monitoring system generates an alarm when the reactor power at the periphery of the control rods fluctuates exceeding an allowable range. In the system, a control rod information forming means prepares frame data comprising front data, positions of the control rods to be withdrawn, frame numbers and completion data. A serial data transmitting means transmits the frame data successively as repeating frame data rows. A control rod information receiving means takes up the frame data of each of control rods to be withdrawn from the transmitted frame data rows. Since the system of the present invention can monitor the withdrawal of a plurality of control rods simultaneously without increasing the size or complicating the system, cost can be saved and the maintenance can be improved. (I.S.)

  7. Controlling systems of cogeneration blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriansky, J.; Suriansky, J. Ml.; Puskajler, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article the main parts of cogeneration unit control system are described. Article is aimed on electric power measurement with electricity protection as with temperature system regulation. In conclusion of the article, the control algorithm with perspective of cogeneration solve is indicated. (authors)

  8. The Building Blocks of Life Move from Ground to Tree to Animal and Back to Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    I generally use combinations of big words to describe my science, such as biogeochemistry, ecosystem ecology, nutrient cycling, stoichiometry, tropical deforestation, land-use change, agricultural intensification, eutrophication, greenhouse gas emissions, and sustainable development. I didn't expect to use any of these words, but I was surprised that I couldn't use some others that seem simple enough to me, such as farm, plant, soil, and forest. I landed on "building blocks" as my metaphor for the forms of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other elements that I study as they cycle through and among ecosystems. I study what makes trees and other kinds of life grow. We all know that they need the sun and that they take up water from the ground, but what else do trees need from the ground? What do animals that eat leaves and wood get from the trees? Just as we need building blocks to grow our bodies, trees and animals also need building blocks for growing their bodies. Trees get part of their building blocks from the ground and animals get theirs from what they eat. When animals poop and when leaves fall, some of their building blocks return to the ground. When they die, their building blocks also go back to the ground. I also study what happens to the ground, the water, and the air when we cut down trees, kill or shoo away the animals, and make fields to grow our food. Can we grow enough food and still keep the ground, water, and air clean? I think the answer is yes, but it will take better understanding of how all of those building blocks fit together and move around, from ground to tree to animal and back to ground.

  9. Reflection and refraction of light from a moving block of glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1975-01-01

    For a block of glass moving with speed βc we present calculations which give the changes in the laws of reflection and refraction of light from the laws which hold when β = 0. In particular we show (i) that changes in the critical internal reflection condition, although formally of order β 2 , are obtainable by measuring the refraction angle to O(β); (ii) the reflection coefficient depends not only on the polarization plane of the incident light but also on whether the plane of incidence does, or does not, include the direction of motion of the glass block. For instance, for light incident in a plane perpendicular to the direction of motion there is no Brewster angle for either plane of polarization, while for light incident in a plane containing the direction of motion at least one (and sometimes both) plane of polarization possess a Brewster angle. We have done these calculations in order to demonstrate that the shearing of one medium relative to another can have profound effects on the reflection and refraction of light. A major point here is that even when it might appear a priori that O(β 2 ) phenomena are unobservable in the laboratory, the present calculations show that this is not always so

  10. Did I see your hand moving? The effect of movement-related information on the Corsi block tapping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Riccardo; Del Gatto, Claudia; Cavallina, Clarissa; Farina, Benedetto; Delogu, Franco

    2018-05-01

    The Corsi Block Tapping Task is a widespread test used to assess spatial working memory. Previous research hypothesized that the discrepancy found in some cases between the traditional and the digital (touchscreen) version of the Corsi block tapping task may be due to a direct motor resonance between the experimenter's and the participant's hand movements. However, we hypothesize that this discrepancy might be due to extra movement-related information included in the traditional version, lacking in the digital one. We investigated the effects of such task-irrelevant information using eCorsi, a touchscreen version of the task. In Experiment 1, we manipulate timing in sequence presentation, creating three conditions. In the Congruent condition, the inter-stimulus intervals reflected the physical distance in which the stimuli were spatially placed: The longer the spatial distance, the longer the temporal interval. In the Incongruent condition the timing changed randomly. Finally, in the Isochronous condition every stimulus appeared after a fixed interval, independently from its spatial position. The results showed a performance enhancement in the Congruent condition, suggesting an incidental spatio-temporal binding. In Experiment 2, we added straight lines between each location in the sequences: In the Trajectories condition participants saw trajectories from one spatial position to the other during sequence presentation, while a condition without such trajectories served as control. Results showed better performances in the Trajectories condition. We suggest that the timing and trajectories information play a significant role in the discrepancies found between the traditional and the touchscreen version of the Corsi Block Tapping Task, without the necessity of explanations involving direct motor resonance (e.g. seeing an actual hand moving) as a causal factor.

  11. Current control by a homopolar machine with moving brushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.

    1978-01-01

    The equation for TNS Doublet's E-coil circuit with moving brush homopolar machine is integrated in the flux of the homopolar for a monotonically increasing current function extending beyond the current reversal into the burn period. The results show that the moving brush feature is not useful for controlling the burn

  12. Controllability for a Wave Equation with Moving Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhi Cui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the controllability for a one-dimensional wave equation in domains with moving boundary. This model characterizes small vibrations of a stretched elastic string when one of the two endpoints varies. When the speed of the moving endpoint is less than 1-1/e, by Hilbert uniqueness method, sidewise energy estimates method, and multiplier method, we get partial Dirichlet boundary controllability. Moreover, we will give a sharper estimate on controllability time that only depends on the speed of the moving endpoint.

  13. Controls in future earth moving machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neve, M. de; Vink, P.; Kanis, H.; Krause, F.

    2005-01-01

    This seventh chapter of the book 'Advanced cabin design : how to improve comfort and performance by progressive cabin design' explores whether a new way of steering has positive effects. Also controlling the speed of a movement versus the position of a movement is compared. The last 25 years the

  14. Bivariate copulas on the exponentially weighted moving average control chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasigarn Kuvattana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes four types of copulas on the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA control chart when observations are from an exponential distribution using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. The performance of the control chart is based on the Average Run Length (ARL which is compared for each copula. Copula functions for specifying dependence between random variables are used and measured by Kendall’s tau. The results show that the Normal copula can be used for almost all shifts.

  15. Simulating control rod and fuel assembly motion using moving meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)], E-mail: gilbertdw1@gmail.com; Roman, J.E. [Departamento de Sistemas Informaticos y Computacion, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Garland, Wm. J. [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Poehlman, W.F.S. [Department of Computing and Software, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    A prerequisite for designing a transient simulation experiment which includes the motion of control and fuel assemblies is the careful verification of a steady state model which computes k{sub eff} versus assembly insertion distance. Previous studies in nuclear engineering have usually approached the problem of the motion of control rods with the use of nonlinear nodal models. Nodal methods employ special approximations for the leading and trailing cells of the moving assemblies to avoid the rod cusping problem which results from the naive volume weighted cell cross-section approximation. A prototype framework called the MOOSE has been developed for modeling moving components in the presence of diffusion phenomena. A linear finite difference model is constructed, solutions for which are computed by SLEPc, a high performance parallel eigenvalue solver. Design techniques for the implementation of a patched non-conformal mesh which links groups of sub-meshes that can move relative to one another are presented. The generation of matrices which represent moving meshes which conserve neutron current at their boundaries, and the performance of the framework when applied to model reactivity insertion experiments is also discussed.

  16. An input shaping controller enabling cranes to move without sway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, N.; Singhose, W.; Kriikku, E.

    1997-01-01

    A gantry crane at the Savannah River Technology Center was retrofitted with an Input Shaping controller. The controller intercepts the operator's pendant commands and modifies them in real time so that the crane is moved without residual sway in the suspended load. Mechanical components on the crane were modified to make the crane suitable for the anti-sway algorithm. This paper will describe the required mechanical modifications to the crane, as well as, a new form of Input Shaping that was developed for use on the crane. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the new process. Several practical considerations will be discussed including a novel (patent pending) approach for making small, accurate moves without residual oscillations

  17. Helicopter Control Energy Reduction Using Moving Horizontal Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Tugrul; Sal, Firat

    2015-01-01

    Helicopter moving horizontal tail (i.e., MHT) strategy is applied in order to save helicopter flight control system (i.e., FCS) energy. For this intention complex, physics-based, control-oriented nonlinear helicopter models are used. Equations of MHT are integrated into these models and they are together linearized around straight level flight condition. A specific variance constrained control strategy, namely, output variance constrained Control (i.e., OVC) is utilized for helicopter FCS. Control energy savings due to this MHT idea with respect to a conventional helicopter are calculated. Parameters of helicopter FCS and dimensions of MHT are simultaneously optimized using a stochastic optimization method, namely, simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (i.e., SPSA). In order to observe improvement in behaviors of classical controls closed loop analyses are done. PMID:26180841

  18. Helicopter Control Energy Reduction Using Moving Horizontal Tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugrul Oktay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicopter moving horizontal tail (i.e., MHT strategy is applied in order to save helicopter flight control system (i.e., FCS energy. For this intention complex, physics-based, control-oriented nonlinear helicopter models are used. Equations of MHT are integrated into these models and they are together linearized around straight level flight condition. A specific variance constrained control strategy, namely, output variance constrained Control (i.e., OVC is utilized for helicopter FCS. Control energy savings due to this MHT idea with respect to a conventional helicopter are calculated. Parameters of helicopter FCS and dimensions of MHT are simultaneously optimized using a stochastic optimization method, namely, simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (i.e., SPSA. In order to observe improvement in behaviors of classical controls closed loop analyses are done.

  19. Control of thermal therapies with moving power deposition field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Dhiraj; Minor, Mark A; Skliar, Mikhail; Roemer, Robert B

    2006-01-01

    A thermal therapy feedback control approach to control thermal dose using a moving power deposition field is developed and evaluated using simulations. A normal tissue safety objective is incorporated in the controller design by imposing constraints on temperature elevations at selected normal tissue locations. The proposed control technique consists of two stages. The first stage uses a model-based sliding mode controller that dynamically generates an 'ideal' power deposition profile which is generally unrealizable with available heating modalities. Subsequently, in order to approximately realize this spatially distributed idealized power deposition, a constrained quadratic optimizer is implemented to compute intensities and dwell times for a set of pre-selected power deposition fields created by a scanned focused transducer. The dwell times for various power deposition profiles are dynamically generated online as opposed to the commonly employed a priori-decided heating strategies. Dynamic intensity and trajectory generation safeguards the treatment outcome against modelling uncertainties and unknown disturbances. The controller is designed to enforce simultaneous activation of multiple normal tissue temperature constraints by rapidly switching between various power deposition profiles. The hypothesis behind the controller design is that the simultaneous activation of multiple constraints substantially reduces treatment time without compromising normal tissue safety. The controller performance and robustness with respect to parameter uncertainties is evaluated using simulations. The results demonstrate that the proposed controller can successfully deliver the desired thermal dose to the target while maintaining the temperatures at the user-specified normal tissue locations at or below the maximum allowable values. Although demonstrated for the case of a scanned focused ultrasound transducer, the developed approach can be extended to other heating modalities with

  20. An interprojection sensor fusion approach to estimate blocked projection signal in synchronized moving grid-based CBCT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong; Kong, Vic [Department of Radiation Oncology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia 30912 (United States); Ren, Lei; Giles, William; Zhang, You [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Jin, Jian-Yue, E-mail: jjin@gru.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia 30912 and Department of Radiology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia 30912 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: A preobject grid can reduce and correct scatter in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). However, half of the signal in each projection is blocked by the grid. A synchronized moving grid (SMOG) has been proposed to acquire two complimentary projections at each gantry position and merge them into one complete projection. That approach, however, suffers from increased scanning time and the technical difficulty of accurately merging the two projections per gantry angle. Herein, the authors present a new SMOG approach which acquires a single projection per gantry angle, with complimentary grid patterns for any two adjacent projections, and use an interprojection sensor fusion (IPSF) technique to estimate the blocked signal in each projection. The method may have the additional benefit of reduced imaging dose due to the grid blocking half of the incident radiation. Methods: The IPSF considers multiple paired observations from two adjacent gantry angles as approximations of the blocked signal and uses a weighted least square regression of these observations to finally determine the blocked signal. The method was first tested with a simulated SMOG on a head phantom. The signal to noise ratio (SNR), which represents the difference of the recovered CBCT image to the original image without the SMOG, was used to evaluate the ability of the IPSF in recovering the missing signal. The IPSF approach was then tested using a Catphan phantom on a prototype SMOG assembly installed in a bench top CBCT system. Results: In the simulated SMOG experiment, the SNRs were increased from 15.1 and 12.7 dB to 35.6 and 28.9 dB comparing with a conventional interpolation method (inpainting method) for a projection and the reconstructed 3D image, respectively, suggesting that IPSF successfully recovered most of blocked signal. In the prototype SMOG experiment, the authors have successfully reconstructed a CBCT image using the IPSF-SMOG approach. The detailed geometric features in the

  1. An interprojection sensor fusion approach to estimate blocked projection signal in synchronized moving grid-based CBCT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong; Kong, Vic; Ren, Lei; Giles, William; Zhang, You; Jin, Jian-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A preobject grid can reduce and correct scatter in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). However, half of the signal in each projection is blocked by the grid. A synchronized moving grid (SMOG) has been proposed to acquire two complimentary projections at each gantry position and merge them into one complete projection. That approach, however, suffers from increased scanning time and the technical difficulty of accurately merging the two projections per gantry angle. Herein, the authors present a new SMOG approach which acquires a single projection per gantry angle, with complimentary grid patterns for any two adjacent projections, and use an interprojection sensor fusion (IPSF) technique to estimate the blocked signal in each projection. The method may have the additional benefit of reduced imaging dose due to the grid blocking half of the incident radiation. Methods: The IPSF considers multiple paired observations from two adjacent gantry angles as approximations of the blocked signal and uses a weighted least square regression of these observations to finally determine the blocked signal. The method was first tested with a simulated SMOG on a head phantom. The signal to noise ratio (SNR), which represents the difference of the recovered CBCT image to the original image without the SMOG, was used to evaluate the ability of the IPSF in recovering the missing signal. The IPSF approach was then tested using a Catphan phantom on a prototype SMOG assembly installed in a bench top CBCT system. Results: In the simulated SMOG experiment, the SNRs were increased from 15.1 and 12.7 dB to 35.6 and 28.9 dB comparing with a conventional interpolation method (inpainting method) for a projection and the reconstructed 3D image, respectively, suggesting that IPSF successfully recovered most of blocked signal. In the prototype SMOG experiment, the authors have successfully reconstructed a CBCT image using the IPSF-SMOG approach. The detailed geometric features in the

  2. Controlled Wake of a Moving Axisymmetric Bluff Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.

    2017-11-01

    The aerodynamic loads exerted on a wire-mounted axisymmetric bluff body in prescribed rigid motion are controlled by fluidic manipulation of its near wake. The body is supported by a six-degree of freedom eight-wire traverse and its motion is controlled using a dedicated servo actuator and inline load cell for each wire. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces and moments on the moving body are manipulated by controlled interactions of an azimuthal array of integrated synthetic jet actuators with the cross flow to induce localized flow attachment over the body's aft end and thereby alter the symmetry of the wake. The coupled interactions between the wake structure and the effected aerodynamic loads during prescribed time-periodic and transitory (gust like) motions are investigated with emphasis on enhancing or diminishing the loads for maneuver control, and decoupling the body's motion from its far wake.

  3. Free and moving boundaries analysis, simulation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Glowinski, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Optimal Tubes: Geodesic Metric, Euler Flow, Moving Domain J.P. Zolésio Numerical Simulation of Pattern Formation in a Rotating Suspension of Non-Brownian Settling Particles Tsorg-Whay Pan and Roland Glowinski On the Homogenization of Optimal Control Problems on Periodic Graphs P.I. Kogut and G. Leugering Lift and Sedimentation of Particles in the Flow of a Viscoelastic Liquid in a Channel G.P. Galdi and V. Heuveline Modeling and Simulation of Liquid-Gas Free Surface Flows A. Caboussat, M.

  4. An Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart for Bernoulli Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    of the transformation is given and its limit for small values of p is derived. Control of high yield processes is discussed and the chart is shown to perform very well in comparison with both the most common alternative EWMA chart and the CUSUM chart. The construction and the use of the proposed EWMA chart......We consider a production process in which units are produced in a sequential manner. The units can, for example, be manufactured items or services, provided to clients. Each unit produced can be a failure with probability p or a success (non-failure) with probability (1-p). A novel exponentially...... weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart intended for surveillance of the probability of failure, p, is described. The chart is based on counting the number of non-failures produced between failures in combination with a variance-stabilizing transformation. The distribution function...

  5. Coordinated control of micro-grid based on distributed moving horizon control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Miaomiao; Shao, Liyang; Liu, Xiangjie

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposed the distributed moving horizon coordinated control scheme for the power balance and economic dispatch problems of micro-grid based on distributed generation. We design the power coordinated controller for each subsystem via moving horizon control by minimizing a suitable objective function. The objective function of distributed moving horizon coordinated controller is chosen based on the principle that wind power subsystem has the priority to generate electricity while photovoltaic power generation coordinates with wind power subsystem and the battery is only activated to meet the load demand when necessary. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed distributed moving horizon coordinated controller can allocate the output power of two generation subsystems reasonably under varying environment conditions, which not only can satisfy the load demand but also limit excessive fluctuations of output power to protect the power generation equipment. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Block diagrams of the radar interface and control unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Interface and Control Unit is the heart of the radar module, which occupies one complex channel of the High-Speed Data Acquisition System of the Goldstone Solar System Radar. Block diagrams of the interface unit are presented as an aid to understanding its operation and interconnections to the rest of the radar module.

  7. Counting on the mental number line to make a move: sensorimotor ('pen') control and numerical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Rebecca; van Rooijen, Maaike; Giles, Oscar; Mushtaq, Faisal; Steenbergen, Bert; Mon-Williams, Mark; Waterman, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Mathematics is often conducted with a writing implement. But is there a relationship between numerical processing and sensorimotor 'pen' control? We asked participants to move a stylus so it crossed an unmarked line at a location specified by a symbolic number (1-9), where number colour indicated whether the line ran left-right ('normal') or vice versa ('reversed'). The task could be simplified through the use of a 'mental number line' (MNL). Many modern societies use number lines in mathematical education and the brain's representation of number appears to follow a culturally determined spatial organisation (so better task performance is associated with this culturally normal orientation-the MNL effect). Participants (counter-balanced) completed two consistent blocks of trials, 'normal' and 'reversed', followed by a mixed block where line direction varied randomly. Experiment 1 established that the MNL effect was robust, and showed that the cognitive load associated with reversing the MNL not only affected response selection but also the actual movement execution (indexed by duration) within the mixed trials. Experiment 2 showed that an individual's motor abilities predicted performance in the difficult (mixed) condition but not the easier blocks. These results suggest that numerical processing is not isolated from motor capabilities-a finding with applied consequences.

  8. Sensory influences on food intake control: moving beyond palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, K; Forde, C G

    2016-01-01

    The sensory experience of eating is an important determinant of food intake control, often attributed to the positive hedonic response associated with certain sensory cues. However, palatability is just one aspect of the sensory experience. Sensory cues based on a food's sight, smell, taste and texture are operational before, during and after an eating event. The focus of this review is to look beyond palatability and highlight recent advances in our understanding of how certain sensory characteristics can be used to promote better energy intake control. We consider the role of visual and odour cues in identifying food in the near environment, guiding food choice and memory for eating, and highlight the ways in which tastes and textures influence meal size and the development of satiety after consumption. Considering sensory characteristics as a functional feature of the foods and beverages we consume provides the opportunity for research to identify how sensory enhancements might be combined with energy reduction in otherwise palatable foods to optimize short-term energy intake regulation in the current food environment. Moving forward, the challenge for sensory nutritional science will be to assess the longer-term impact of these principles on weight management. © 2015 World Obesity.

  9. Quadratus Lumborum Block Versus Transversus Abdominis Plane Block for Postoperative Pain After Cesarean Delivery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Rafael; Ansari, Tarek; Riad, Waleed; Shetty, Nanda

    Effective postoperative analgesia after cesarean delivery enhances early recovery, ambulation, and breastfeeding. In a previous study, we established the effectiveness of the quadratus lumborum block in providing pain relief after cesarean delivery compared with patient-controlled analgesia (morphine). In the current study, we hypothesized that this method would be equal to or better than the transversus abdominis plane block with regard to pain relief and its duration of action after cesarean delivery. Between April 2015 and August 2015, we randomized 76 patients scheduled for elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia to receive the quadratus lumborum block or the transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative pain relief. This trial was registered prospectively (NCT 02489851) [corrected]. Patients in the quadratus lumborum block group used significantly less morphine than the transversus abdominis plane block group (P consumption and demands than transversus abdominis plane blocks after cesarean section. This effect was observed up to 48 hours postoperatively.

  10. Quantifying private benefits of control from a structural model of block trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albuquerque, R.; Schroth, E.

    2009-01-01

    We study the determinants of private benefits of control in negotiated block transactions. We estimate the block pricing model in Burkart, Gromb, and Panunzi (2000) explicitly accounting for both block premia and block discounts in the data. The evidence suggests that the occurrence of a block

  11. Optically controlled three-dimensional assembly of microfabricated building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Kelemen, Lorand; Palima, Darwin

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a system for constructing reconfigurable microstructures using multiple, real-time configurable counterpropagating-beam traps. We optically assemble geometrically complementary microstructures with complex three-dimensional (3D) topologies produced by two-photon polymerization....... This demonstrates utilization of controllable 3D optical traps for building hierarchical structures from microfabricated building blocks. Optical microassembly with translational and tip-tilt control in 3D achieved by dynamic multiple CB traps can potentially facilitate the construction of functional microdevices...... and may also lead to the future realization of optically actuated micromachines. Fabricating morphologically complex microstructures and then optically manipulating these archetypal building blocks can also be used to construct reconfigurable microenvironments that can aid in understanding cellular...

  12. Controlling block copolymer phase behavior using ionic surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India E-mail: debes.phys@gmail.com (India)

    2016-05-23

    The phase behavior of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide-poly(ethylene oxide) PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer [P85 (EO{sub 26}PO{sub 39}EO{sub 26})] in presence of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution as a function of temperature has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations (1 wt%) of block copolymer and surfactants. Each of the individual components (block copolymer and surfactant) and the nanoparticle–surfactant mixed system have been examined at varying temperature. The block copolymer P85 forms spherical micelles at room temperature whereas shows sphere-to-rod like micelle transition at higher temperatures. On the other hand, SDS surfactant forms ellipsoidal micelles over a wide temperature range. Interestingly, it is found that phase behavior of mixed micellar system (P85 + SDS) as a function of temperature is drastically different from that of P85, giving the control over the temperature-dependent phase behavior of block copolymers.

  13. Thermal-stress analysis of HTGR fuel and control rod fuel blocks in in-block carbonization and annealing furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwaltney, R.C.; McAfee, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    The equivalent solid plate method, in conjunction with two-dimensional plane stress and plane strain analyses, was used in assessing the thermal stress behavior of HTGR fuel and control rod fuel blocks. For the control rod fuel blocks, particular attention was given to ascertaining the effects of the reserve shutdown hole and the control rod channel holes. The assumed safety factor of 2 on the failure criteria was considered adequate to account for neglecting the axial temperature gradient in the plane analyses of the ends of the blocks. The analyses indicated that the maximum calculated tensile stress values were smaller than the criteria values except for the plane strain analysis of the control rod fuel block end surfaces and the axisymmetric analysis of the fuel block as a circular cylinder. However, most of the maximum calculated strain values were greater than the criteria values

  14. Supradural inflammatory soup in awake and freely moving rats induces facial allodynia that is blocked by putative immune modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieseler, Julie; Ellis, Amanda; McFadden, Andrew; Stone, Kendra; Brown, Kimberley; Cady, Sara; Bastos, Leandro F; Sprunger, David; Rezvani, Niloofar; Johnson, Kirk; Rice, Kenner C; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2017-06-01

    Facial allodynia is a migraine symptom that is generally considered to represent a pivotal point in migraine progression. Treatment before development of facial allodynia tends to be more successful than treatment afterwards. As such, understanding the underlying mechanisms of facial allodynia may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying migraine. Migraine facial allodynia is modeled by applying inflammatory soup (histamine, bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E2) over the dura. Whether glial and/or immune activation contributes to such pain is unknown. Here we tested if trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C) glial and/or immune cells are activated following supradural inflammatory soup, and if putative glial/immune inhibitors suppress the consequent facial allodynia. Inflammatory soup was administered via bilateral indwelling supradural catheters in freely moving rats, inducing robust and reliable facial allodynia. Gene expression for microglial/macrophage activation markers, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α increased following inflammatory soup along with robust expression of facial allodynia. This provided the basis for pursuing studies of the behavioral effects of 3 diverse immunomodulatory drugs on facial allodynia. Pretreatment with either of two compounds broadly used as putative glial/immune inhibitors (minocycline, ibudilast) prevented the development of facial allodynia, as did treatment after supradural inflammatory soup but prior to the expression of facial allodynia. Lastly, the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist (+)-naltrexone likewise blocked development of facial allodynia after supradural inflammatory soup. Taken together, these exploratory data support that activated glia and/or immune cells may drive the development of facial allodynia in response to supradural inflammatory soup in unanesthetized male rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The determinants of the block premium and of private benefits of control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albuquerque, R.A.; Schroth, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    We study the determinants of private benefits of control in negotiated block transactions. We estimate the block pricing model in Burkart, Gromb, and Panunzi (2000) explicitly dealing with the existence of both block premia and block discounts in the data. We find evidence that the occurrence of

  16. Thoracic paravertebral block versus transversus abdominis plane block in major gynecological surgery: a prospective, randomized, controlled, observer-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikov AL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrey L Melnikov,1 Steinar Bjoergo,1 Ulf E Kongsgaard21Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Emergencies and Critical Care, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 2Department of Research and Development, Division of Emergencies and Critical Care, Oslo University Hospital and Medical Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo, NorwayBackground and objectives: Patients undergoing abdominal surgery often receive an epidural infusion for postoperative analgesia. However, when epidural analgesia is contraindicated or unwanted, the administration of opioids is the usual means used to relieve pain. Various regional analgesia techniques used in conjunction with systemic analgesia have been reported to reduce the cumulative postoperative opioid consumption and opioid-induced side effects. The objective of this trial was to assess the effectiveness of transversus abdominis plane block and paravertebral block in women undergoing major gynecological surgery.Methods: We analyzed 58 patients scheduled for a midline vertical laparatomy due to gynecological cancer. They were all equipped with a patient-controlled postoperative analgesia pump that delivered ketobemidon. In addition, some patients were randomized to receive either a bilateral transversus abdominis plane block (n = 19 or a bilateral paravertebral block at the level of Th10 (n = 19. Both blocks were performed preoperatively as a single injection of bupivacaine.Results: Cumulative ketobemidon consumption, postoperative pain scores at rest and while coughing, and postoperative nausea and vomiting scores were assessed by a blinded observer at 2, 4, 6, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively. Both blocks were associated with significant reductions in opioid consumption and pain scores throughout the study period compared with the control patients. Postoperative nausea and vomiting scores were low in all groups, but during the early postoperative period more control group patients needed antiemetics

  17. Thermal-stress analysis of HTGR fuel and control rod fuel blocks in in-block carbonization and annealing furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwaltney, R.C.; McAfee, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A new method for performing thermal stress analyses in structures with multiple penetrations was applied to these analyses. This method couples the development of an equivalent thermal conductivity for the blocks, a technique that has been used extensively for modeling the thermal characteristics of reactor cores, with the use of the equivalent solid plate method for stress analysis. Using this equivalent thermal conductivity, which models as one material the heat transfer characteristics of the fuel, coolant, and graphite two-dimensional, steady-state thermal analyses of the fuel and control rod fuel blocks were performed to establish all temperature boundaries required for the stress analyses. In applying the equivalent solid plate method, the region of penetrations being modeled was replaced by a pseudo material having the same dimensions but whose materials properties were adjusted to account for the penetration. The peak stresses and strains were determined by applying stress and strain intensification factors to the calculated distributions. The condition studied was where the blocks were located near the center of the furnace. In this position, the axial surface of the block is heated near one end and cooled near the other. The approximate axial surface temperatures ranged from 1521 0 C at both the heated and the cooled ends to a peak of 1800 0 C near the center. Five specific cases were analyzed: plane (two-dimensional thermal, plane stress strain) analyses of each end of a standard fuel block (2 cases), plane analyses of each end of a control rod fuel block (2 cases), and a two-dimensional analysis of a fuel block treated as an axisymmetric cylind

  18. Bidding for blocks and environmental control; Licitacao de blocos e o controle ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostinho, Magila Maria [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP em Direito do Petroleo e Gas Natural, PRH-36

    2004-07-01

    With the coming of the Constitutional Emend n. 9/95, the Brazilian market of oil and natural gas stopped being monopolized by PETROBRAS. Since then, the concession of blocks began to be preceded by the public tender procedure realized by ANP- National Agency of Oil. The activities of oil exploration and production are potentially damaging to environment, what brings necessary the environmental licence and the previous study of the environmental impacts caused in this activity. Considering that the environmental licence must be done after the tender process, the enterprises that bought the blocks would assume the risk of not being allowed to practice their activities because of the absence of the environmental licence. To avoid that the It's offered blocks in not viable areas for oil exploration, the ANP, responsible for the public tender must accomplish a previous environmental control, to assure to the enterprises involved the environmental viability of the blocks offered. This project will touch the question of how has been realized the previous environmental control of the blocks offered by ANP into the public tender process, detaching, the control done at the 6. Round. (author)

  19. Control of systems with I/O delay via reduction to a one-block problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinsma, Gjerrit; Mirkin, Leonid; Zhong, Qing-Chang

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the standard (four-block) H/sup /spl infin// control problem for systems with a single delay in the feedback loop is studied. A simple procedure of the reduction of the problem to an equivalent one-block problem having particularly simple structure is proposed. The one-block problem

  20. Postural control of elderly: moving to predictable and unpredictable targets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, Vera; Lamoth, Claudine J C; van Keeken, Helco; Caljouw, Simone R

    2012-01-01

    Impaired postural control with muscle weakness is an important predictor of falls within the elderly population.Particular daily activities that require weight shifting in order to be able to reach a specific target (a cup on a table) require continuous adjustments to keep the body's center of mass

  1. Pointing control using a moving base of support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondzinski, Jan M; Kwon, Taegyong

    2009-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether gaze direction provides a control signal for movement direction for a pointing task requiring a step and to gain insight into why discrepancies previously identified in the literature for endpoint accuracy with gaze directed eccentrically exist. Straight arm pointing movements were performed to real and remembered target locations, either toward or 30 degrees eccentric to gaze direction. Pointing occurred in normal room lighting or darkness while subjects sat, stood still or side-stepped left or right. Trunk rotation contributed 22-65% to gaze orientations when it was not constrained. Error differences for different target locations explained discrepancies among previous experiments. Variable pointing errors were influenced by gaze direction, while mean systematic pointing errors and trunk orientations were influenced by step direction. These data support the use of a control strategy that relies on gaze direction and equilibrium inputs for whole-body goal-directed movements.

  2. [Motion control of moving mirror based on fixed-mirror adjustment in FTIR spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-bing; Xu, Xian-ze; Le, Yi; Xu, Feng-qiu; Li, Jun-wei

    2012-08-01

    The performance of the uniform motion of the moving mirror, which is the only constant motion part in FTIR spectrometer, and the performance of the alignment of the fixed mirror play a key role in FTIR spectrometer, and affect the interference effect and the quality of the spectrogram and may restrict the precision and resolution of the instrument directly. The present article focuses on the research on the uniform motion of the moving mirror and the alignment of the fixed mirror. In order to improve the FTIR spectrometer, the maglev support system was designed for the moving mirror and the phase detection technology was adopted to adjust the tilt angle between the moving mirror and the fixed mirror. This paper also introduces an improved fuzzy PID control algorithm to get the accurate speed of the moving mirror and realize the control strategy from both hardware design and algorithm. The results show that the development of the moving mirror motion control system gets sufficient accuracy and real-time, which can ensure the uniform motion of the moving mirror and the alignment of the fixed mirror.

  3. Output-feedback control of combined sewer networks through receding horizon control with moving horizon estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph-Duran, Bernat; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Cembrano, Gabriela

    2015-10-01

    An output-feedback control strategy for pollution mitigation in combined sewer networks is presented. The proposed strategy provides means to apply model-based predictive control to large-scale sewer networks, in-spite of the lack of measurements at most of the network sewers. In previous works, the authors presented a hybrid linear control-oriented model for sewer networks together with the formulation of Optimal Control Problems (OCP) and State Estimation Problems (SEP). By iteratively solving these problems, preliminary Receding Horizon Control with Moving Horizon Estimation (RHC/MHE) results, based on flow measurements, were also obtained. In this work, the RHC/MHE algorithm has been extended to take into account both flow and water level measurements and the resulting control loop has been extensively simulated to assess the system performance according different measurement availability scenarios and rain events. All simulations have been carried out using a detailed physically based model of a real case-study network as virtual reality.

  4. Comparative study between ultrasound guided tap block and paravertebral block in upper abdominal surgeries. Randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaya M. Elsayed

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block and thoracic paravertebral block were safe and effective anesthetic technique for upper abdominal surgery with longer and potent postoperative analgesia in thoracic paravertebral block than transversus abdominis block.

  5. Moving a generalised limb : a simulation with consequences for theories on limb control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, E

    The movement control of articulated limbs in vertebrates has been explained in terms of equilibrium points and moving equilibrium points or virtual trajectories. These hypotheses state that the nervous system makes the control Of multi-segment limbs easier by simply planning in terms of these

  6. Multi-block methods in multivariate process control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohonen, J.; Reinikainen, S.P.; Aaljoki, K.

    2008-01-01

    methods the effect of a sub-process can be seen and an example with two blocks, near infra-red, NIR, and process data, is shown. The results show improvements in modelling task, when a MB-based approach is used. This way of working with data gives more information on the process than if all data...... are in one X-matrix. The procedure is demonstrated by an industrial continuous process, where knowledge about the sub-processes is available and X-matrix can be divided into blocks between process variables and NIR spectra.......In chemometric studies all predictor variables are usually collected in one data matrix X. This matrix is then analyzed by PLS regression or other methods. When data from several different sub-processes are collected in one matrix, there is a possibility that the effects of some sub-processes may...

  7. Moving Horizon Control and Estimation of Livestock Ventilation Systems and Indoor Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Z.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new control strategy involves exploiting actuator redundancy in a multivariable system is developed for rejecting the covariance of the fast frequency disturbances and pursuing optimum energy solution. This strategy enhances the resilience of the control system to disturbances...... beyond its bandwidth and reduce energy consumption through on-line optimization computation. The moving horizon estimation and control (also called predictive control) technology is applied and simulated. The design is based on a coupled mathematical model which combines the hybrid ventilation system...... and the associated indoor climate for poultry in barns. The comparative simulation results illustrate the significant potential and advancement of the moving horizon methodologies in estimation and control for nonlinear Multiple Input and Multiple Output system with unknown noise covariance and actuator saturation....

  8. Counting on the mental number line to make a move: Sensorimotor ('pen') control and numerical processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheridan, R.; Rooijen, M. van; Giles, O.; Mushtaq, F.; Steenbergen, B.; Mon-Williams, M.; Waterman, A.H.

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics is often conducted with a writing implement. But is there a relationship between numerical processing and sensorimotor 'pen' control? We asked participants to move a stylus so it crossed an unmarked line at a location specified by a symbolic number (1-9), where number colour indicated

  9. A review of mechanical move sprinkler irrigation control and automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic sensors, equipment controls, and communication protocols have been developed to meet the growing interest in site-specific irrigation using center pivot and lateral move irrigation systems. Onboard and field-distributed sensors can collect data necessary for real-time irrigation manageme...

  10. The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after abdominal surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, John G

    2007-01-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a novel approach for blocking the abdominal wall neural afferents via the bilateral lumbar triangles of Petit. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy in patients during the first 24 postoperative hours after abdominal surgery, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  11. A moving control volume method for smooth computation of hydrodynamic forces and torques on immersed bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Nishant; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Bhalla, Amneet P. S.

    2017-11-01

    Fictitious domain methods for simulating fluid-structure interaction (FSI) have been gaining popularity in the past few decades because of their robustness in handling arbitrarily moving bodies. Often the transient net hydrodynamic forces and torques on the body are desired quantities for these types of simulations. In past studies using immersed boundary (IB) methods, force measurements are contaminated with spurious oscillations due to evaluation of possibly discontinuous spatial velocity of pressure gradients within or on the surface of the body. Based on an application of the Reynolds transport theorem, we present a moving control volume (CV) approach to computing the net forces and torques on a moving body immersed in a fluid. The approach is shown to be accurate for a wide array of FSI problems, including flow past stationary and moving objects, Stokes flow, and high Reynolds number free-swimming. The approach only requires far-field (smooth) velocity and pressure information, thereby suppressing spurious force oscillations and eliminating the need for any filtering. The proposed moving CV method is not limited to a specific IB method and is straightforward to implement within an existing parallel FSI simulation software. This work is supported by NSF (Award Numbers SI2-SSI-1450374, SI2-SSI-1450327, and DGE-1324585), the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, ASCR (Award Number DE-AC02-05CH11231), and NIH (Award Number HL117163).

  12. A Signal Coordination Control Based on Traversing Empty between Mid-Block Street Crossing and Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem in pedestrian Mid-Block street crossing, the method of signal coordination control between mid-block street crossing and intersection is researched in this paper. The paper proposes to use “distance-flow rate-time” graph as the tool for building coordination control system model which is for different situations of traffic control. Through alternating the linear optimization model, the system outputs the distribution of signal timing and system operational factors (delays in vehicles and mid-block street crossing. Finally, taking one section on the Taiping North Road in Nanjing as an example, the signal coordination control is carried out. And the results which are delays in the vehicles and mid-block street crossing are compared to those in the current distribution of signal timing.

  13. Selective polymerization catalysis: controlling the metal chain end group to prepare block copolyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K

    2015-09-30

    Selective catalysis is used to prepare block copolyesters by combining ring-opening polymerization of lactones and ring-opening copolymerization of epoxides/anhydrides. By using a dizinc complex with mixtures of up to three different monomers and controlling the chemistry of the Zn-O(polymer chain) it is possible to select for a particular polymerization route and thereby control the composition of block copolyesters.

  14. Blocking Reduction of Span Restoration Requests in GMPLS Controlled WDM Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jakob Due; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Andriolli, N.

    2006-01-01

    The proposed label preference scheme reduces blocking of span restoration requests in GMPLS optical networks with limited wavelength conversion. By minimizing resource contention and conversion usage, it increases recovery percentage and reduces control plane load.......The proposed label preference scheme reduces blocking of span restoration requests in GMPLS optical networks with limited wavelength conversion. By minimizing resource contention and conversion usage, it increases recovery percentage and reduces control plane load....

  15. Revitalisation of the control system of Shoshtanj TPP - Block 3 and TP 1 (Croatia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shprem, Davor

    1997-01-01

    Block 3 of the Shoshtanj Thermal Power Plant was put into operation in 1960. With its 75 MW rated output on the Oerlikon turbine and the generation of 150 t/h of steam per each of the two Sulzer boilers fired by coal from the nearby Velenje mines, with Blocks I and 2, it was one of the biggest thermal power plants in Slovenia and in the former Yugoslavia. Although today, after the construction of much bigger Blocks 4 and 5, its share in the generation of electric and heating energy in the Republic of Slovenia is not so big, owing to its flexibility and reliability in operation, it is still a very important thermal power plant. Its importance conditioned numerous reconstructions with a view to increasing the efficiency of the block, extending its service life and increasing its ecological acceptability. A number of changes and upgradings were done, and ATM, Zagreb, today SIEMENS d.d. had an important share therein. This article deals with the revitalization of the control and monitoring system of Block 3 and Heating Station I of the Shoshtanj Thermal Power Plant. An emphasis is put on the installation of modern TELEPERM ME - AS220 EAI automation system and OS 525 operation and monitoring system. With the installation of the new automatic control system for Block 3 and TP I the main purpose of the reconstruction was achieved - the extension of the service life of the plant with an increased efficiency of its control. With the installation of the modem microprocessor automatic control system and the operation and monitoring system, a solid basis was ensured also for further upgrading and additions at later stages of reconstruction of Block 3, which would be finished by the complete replacement of the hydraulic oil control system and the relocation of the control of Block 3 and TP I in the new joint control room for Blocks 1, 2 and 3. The first stage of these extensive works starts with the reconstruction of the automatic control system of Blocks I and 2 which will be

  16. Computer Aided Automatic Control - CAAC artificial intelligence block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balate, J.; Chramcov, B.; Princ, M. [Brno Univ. of Technology (Czech Republic). Faculty of Technology in Zlin

    2000-07-01

    The aim of the plan to build up the system CAAC - Computer Aided Automatic Control is to create modular setup of partial computing programs including theory of automatic control, algorithms of programs for processing signals and programs of control algorithms. To approach its informative contents to students and professional public the CAAC system utilizes Internet services http in the form of WWW pages. The CAAC system is being processed at the Institute of Automation and Control Technique of the Faculty of Technology in Zlin of the Brno University of Technology and is determined particularly for pedagogic purposes. Recently also the methods of artificial intelligence have been included to the open CAAC system and that is comprised in this article. (orig.)

  17. Distributed Cooperative Search Control Method of Multiple UAVs for Moving Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jian Ru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the impact of uncertainties caused by unknown motion parameters on searching plan of moving targets and improve the efficiency of UAV’s searching, a novel distributed Multi-UAVs cooperative search control method for moving target is proposed in this paper. Based on detection results of onboard sensors, target probability map is updated using Bayesian theory. A Gaussian distribution of target transition probability density function is introduced to calculate prediction probability of moving target existence, and then target probability map can be further updated in real-time. A performance index function combining with target cost, environment cost, and cooperative cost is constructed, and the cooperative searching problem can be transformed into a central optimization problem. To improve computational efficiency, the distributed model predictive control method is presented, and thus the control command of each UAV can be obtained. The simulation results have verified that the proposed method can avoid the blindness of UAV searching better and improve overall efficiency of the team effectively.

  18. Fascia iliaca compartment block versus no block for pain control after lower limb surgery: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang L

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Linyi Yang, Min Li, Chen Chen, Jiang Shen, Xiaoxuan Bu Department of Anesthesiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou, China Background: The analgesic effect of fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB versus no block (NB after lower limb surgery (LLS is still controversial, so we performed this meta-analysis.Materials and methods: By searching the PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library (last update by July 20, 2017, randomized controlled trials comparing the analgesic effect of FICB versus NB in patients receiving LLS were identified. The primary outcome was the pain scores at 4, 12, and 24 h after LLS. The dosage of morphine at 24 h was also collected. The side effect of anesthesia was assessed according to the occurrence rate of postoperative nausea and vomiting.Results: Data from 7 clinical trials that included 508 patients were summarized. The results showed that patients receiving FICB had lower pain scores at 4 h (mean difference [MD]=−1.17; 95% CI=−2.30 to −0.05; P=0.041, 12 h (MD=−0.41; 95% CI=−0.76 to −0.05; P=0.026 and 24 h (MD=−0.96; 95% CI=−1.77 to −0.15; P=0.020 after LLS. Besides, FICB could reduce the dosage of morphine at 24 h (MD=−2.06; 95% CI=−3.82 to −0.30; P=0.022 and the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (relative risk rate=0.44, 95% CI=0.24–0.80, P=0.008.Conclusion: Compared with NB, FICB is an effective and safe method for alleviating the pain after LLS. More high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this finding. Keywords: fascia iliaca compartment block, lower limb surgery, meta-analysis, RCTs 

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effect of the Addition of the Mandibular Block to Cervical Plexus Block for Carotid Endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavrut Ozturk, Nilgun; Kavakli, Ali Sait; Sagdic, Kadir; Inanoglu, Kerem; Umot Ayoglu, Raif

    2018-04-01

    Although the cervical plexus block generally provides adequate analgesia for carotid endarterectomy, pain caused by metal retractors on the inferior surface of the mandible is not prevented by the cervical block. Different pain relief methods can be performed for patients who experience discomfort in these areas. In this study, the authors evaluated the effect of mandibular block in addition to cervical plexus block on pain scores in carotid endarterectomy. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Training and research hospital. Patients who underwent a carotid endarterectomy. Patients scheduled for carotid endarterectomy under cervical plexus block were randomized into 2 groups: group 1 (those who did not receive a mandibular block) and group 2 (those who received a mandibular block). The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the mandibular block in addition to cervical plexus block in terms of intraoperative pain scores. Intraoperative visual analog scale scores were significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.001). The amounts of supplemental 1% lidocaine and intraoperative intravenous analgesic used were significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.001 and p = 0.035, respectively). Patient satisfaction scores were significantly lower in group 1 (p = 0.044). The amount of postoperative analgesic used, time to first analgesic requirement, postoperative visual analog scale scores, and surgeon satisfaction scores were similar in both groups. There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to complications. No major neurologic deficits or perioperative mortality were observed. Mandibular block in addition to cervical plexus block provides better intraoperative pain control and greater patient satisfaction than cervical plexus block alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Universal block diagram based modeling and simulation schemes for fractional-order control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Xue, Dingyü

    2017-05-08

    Universal block diagram based schemes are proposed for modeling and simulating the fractional-order control systems in this paper. A fractional operator block in Simulink is designed to evaluate the fractional-order derivative and integral. Based on the block, the fractional-order control systems with zero initial conditions can be modeled conveniently. For modeling the system with nonzero initial conditions, the auxiliary signal is constructed in the compensation scheme. Since the compensation scheme is very complicated, therefore the integrator chain scheme is further proposed to simplify the modeling procedures. The accuracy and effectiveness of the schemes are assessed in the examples, the computation results testify the block diagram scheme is efficient for all Caputo fractional-order ordinary differential equations (FODEs) of any complexity, including the implicit Caputo FODEs. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Organization of Nanoporous Structure Using Controlled Micelle Size from MPEG-b-PDLLA Block Copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jeong Ho; Kim, Kyung Ja; Shin, Young Kook

    2004-01-01

    Selected MPEG-b-PDLLA block copolymers have been synthesized by ring-opening polymerization with systematic variation of the chain lengths of the resident hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks. The size and shape of the micelles that spontaneously form in solution are then controlled by the characteristics of the block copolymer template. All the materials prepared in this study showed the tunable pore size of 20-80 A with the increase of hydrophobic chain lengths and up to 660 m 2 /g of specific surface area. The formation mechanism of these nanoporous structures obtained by controlling the micelle size has been confirmed using both liquid and solid state 13 C and 29 Si NMR techniques. This work verifies the formation mechanism of nanoporous structures in which the pore size and wall thickness are closely dependent on the size of hydrophobic cores and hydrophilic shells of the block copolymer templates

  2. SU-E-I-08: An Inpaint-Based Interpolation Technique to Recover Blocked Information for Cone Beam CT with a Synchronized Moving Grid (SMOG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, V; Zhang, H; Jin, J; Ren, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Synchronized moving grid (SMOG) is a promising technique to reduce scatter and ghost artifacts in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). However, the grid blocks part of image information in each projection, and multiple projections at the same gantry angle have to been taken to obtain full information. Because of the continuity of a patient's anatomy in the projection, the blocked information may be estimated by interpolation. This study aims to evaluate an inpainting-based interpolation approach to recover the missing information for CBCT reconstruction. Method: We used a simple region-based inpainting approach to interpolate the missing information. For a pixel to be interpolated, we divided the nearby regions having image information into 6 sub-regions: up-left, up-middle, up-right, down-left, down-middle, and down-right, each with 9 pixels. The average pixel value of each sub-region was calculated. These average values, along with the pixel location, were used to determine the interpolated pixel value. We compared our approach with the Criminisi Exemplar (CE) and total variation (TV) based inpainting techniques. Projection images of Catphan and a head phantom were used for the comparison. The SMOG was simulated by erasing the information (filling with “0”) of the areas in each projection corresponding to the grid. Results: For the Catphan, the processing time was 178, 45 and 0.98 minutes for CE, TV and our approach, respectively. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was 19.4, 18.5 and 26.4 db, correspondingly. For the head phantom, the processing time was 222, 45 and 0.93 minutes for CE, TV and our approach, respectively. The SNR was 24.6, 20.2 and 26.2db correspondingly. Conclusion: We have developed a simple inpainting based interpolation approach, which can recover some of the image information for the SMOG-based CBCT imaging. This study is supported by NIH/NCI grant 1R01CA166948-01

  3. High accuracy velocity control method for the french moving-coil watt balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcu, Suat; Chassagne, Luc; Haddad, Darine; Alayli, Yasser; Juncar, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    We describe a novel method of velocity control dedicated to the French moving-coil watt balance. In this project, a coil has to move in a magnetic field at a velocity of 2 mm s -1 with a relative uncertainty of 10 -9 over 60 mm. Our method is based on the use of both a heterodyne Michelson's interferometer, a two-level translation stage, and a homemade high frequency phase-shifting electronic circuit. To quantify the stability of the velocity, the output of the interferometer is sent into a frequency counter and the Doppler frequency shift is recorded. The Allan standard deviation has been used to calculate the stability and a σ y (τ) of about 2.2x10 -9 over 400 s has been obtained

  4. Supraclavicular block versus interscalene brachial plexus block for shoulder surgery: A meta-analysis of clinical control trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, C W; Ma, J X; Ma, X L; Lu, B; Wang, Y; Tian, A X; Sun, L; Wang, Y; Dong, B C; Teng, Y B

    2017-09-01

    The ultrasound-guided interscalene block (ISB) has been considered a standard technique in managing pain after shoulder surgery. However, this method was associated with the incidence of hemi-diaphragmatic paresis. In contrast to ISB, supraclavicular block (SCB) was suggested to provide effective anaesthesia for shoulder surgery with a low rate of side-effects. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to compare SCB with ISB for evaluating the efficacy and safety. The literature was searched from PubMed, Wiley Online Library, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library by two reviewers up to April 2017. All available RCTs written in English that met the criteria were included. Two authors pulled data from relevant articles and assessed the quality with the Cochrane Handbook. Review Manager 5.3 software was used to analyse the data. Five RCTs and one prospective clinical study met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. We considered that there were no statistically significant differences between supraclavicular and interscalene groups in procedural time (P = 0.81), rescue analgesia (P = 0.53), and dyspnoea (P = 0.6). The incidence of hoarseness and Horner syndrome was statistically lower in the SCB group than in the ISB group (P = 0.0002 and P < 0.00001, respectively). The meta-analysis showed that ultrasound-guided SCB could become a feasible alternative technique to the ISB in shoulder surgery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Kinetic control of block copolymer self-assembly into multicompartment and novel geometry nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingchao; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Ke; Wooley, Karen; Mays, Jimmy; Percec, Virgil; Pochan, Darrin

    2012-02-01

    Micelles with the segregation of hydrophobic blocks trapped in the same nanoparticle core have been produced through co-self-assembly of two block copolymers in THF/water dilute solution. The dissolution of two block copolymer sharing the same polyacrylic acid PAA blocks in THF undergoes consequent aggregation and phase separation through either slow water titration or quick water addition that triggers the micellar formation. The combination and comparison of the two water addition kinetic pathways are the keys of forming multicompartment structures at high water content. Importantly, the addition of organic diamine provides for acid-base complexation with the PAA side chains which, in turn, plays the key role of trapping unlike hydrophobic blocks from different block copolymers into one nanoparticle core. The kinetic control of solution assembly can be applied to other molecular systems such as dendrimers as well as other block copolymer molecules. Transmission electron microscopy, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, light scattering have been applied to characterize the micelle structures.

  6. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING AND PROSPECTIVE TECHNICAL CONTROL SYSTEMS OF NUMERIC CODES AUTOMATIC BLOCKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Beznarytnyy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify the characteristic features of the engineering control measures system of automatic block of numeric code, identifying their advantages and disadvantages, to analyze the possibility of their use in the problems of diagnosing status of the devices automatic block and setting targets for the development of new diagnostic systems. Methodology. In order to achieve targets the objective theoretical and analytical method and the method of functional analysis have been used. Findings. The analysis of existing and future facilities of the remote control and diagnostics automatic block devices had shown that the existing systems of diagnosis were not sufficiently informative, designed primarily to control the discrete parameters, which in turn did not allow them to construct a decision support subsystem. In developing of new systems of technical diagnostics it was proposed to use the principle of centralized distributed processing of diagnostic data, to include a subsystem support decision-making in to the diagnostics system, it will reduce the amount of work to maintain the devices blocking and reduce recovery time after the occurrence injury. Originality. As a result, the currently existing engineering controls facilities of automatic block can not provide a full assessment of the state distillation alarms and locks. Criteria for the development of new systems of technical diagnostics with increasing amounts of diagnostic information and its automatic analysis were proposed. Practical value. These results of the analysis can be used in practice in order to select the technical control of automatic block devices, as well as the further development of diagnostic systems automatic block that allows for a gradual transition from a planned preventive maintenance service model to the actual state of the monitored devices.

  7. Topology and Shape Control for Assemblies of Block Copolymer Blends in Solution

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno Chaparro, Nicolas; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We study binary blends of asymmetric diblock copolymers (AB/AC) in selective solvents with a mesoscale model. We investigate the morphological transitions induced by the concentration of the AC block copolymer and the difference in molecular weight between the AB and AC copolymers, when segments B and C exhibit hydrogen-bonding interactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work modeling mixtures of block copolymers with large differences in molecular weight. The coassembly mechanism localizes the AC molecules at the interface of A and B domains and induces the swelling of the B-rich domains. The coil size of the large molecular weight block copolymer depends only on the concentration of the short block copolymer (AC or AB), regardless of the B–C interactions. However, the B–C interactions control the morphological transitions that occur in these blends.

  8. Topology and Shape Control for Assemblies of Block Copolymer Blends in Solution

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno Chaparro, Nicolas

    2015-10-27

    We study binary blends of asymmetric diblock copolymers (AB/AC) in selective solvents with a mesoscale model. We investigate the morphological transitions induced by the concentration of the AC block copolymer and the difference in molecular weight between the AB and AC copolymers, when segments B and C exhibit hydrogen-bonding interactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work modeling mixtures of block copolymers with large differences in molecular weight. The coassembly mechanism localizes the AC molecules at the interface of A and B domains and induces the swelling of the B-rich domains. The coil size of the large molecular weight block copolymer depends only on the concentration of the short block copolymer (AC or AB), regardless of the B–C interactions. However, the B–C interactions control the morphological transitions that occur in these blends.

  9. Controlling light oxidation flavor in milk by blocking riboflavin excitation wavelengths by interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, J B; Duncan, S E; Marcy, J E; O'Keefe, S F

    2009-01-01

    Milk packaged in glass bottles overwrapped with iridescent films (treatments blocked either a single visible riboflavin [Rb] excitation wavelength or all visible Rb excitation wavelengths; all treatments blocked UV Rb excitation wavelengths) was exposed to fluorescent lighting at 4 degrees C for up to 21 d and evaluated for light-oxidized flavor. Controls consisted of bottles with no overwrap (light-exposed treatment; represents the light barrier properties of the glass packaging) and bottles overwrapped with aluminum foil (light-protected treatment). A balanced incomplete block multi-sample difference test, using a ranking system and a trained panel, was used for evaluation of light oxidation flavor intensity. Volatiles were evaluated by gas chromatography and Rb degradation was evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Packaging overwraps limited production of light oxidation flavor over time but not to the same degree as the complete light block. Blocking all visible and UV Rb excitation wavelengths reduced light oxidation flavor better than blocking only a single visible excitation wavelength plus all UV excitation wavelengths. Rb degraded over time in all treatments except the light-protected control treatment and only minor differences in the amount of degradation among treatments was observed. Hexanal production was significantly higher in the light-exposed control treatment compared to the light-protected control treatment from day 7; it was only sporadically significantly higher in the 570 nm and 400 nm block treatments. Pentanal, heptanal, and an unidentified volatile compound also increased in concentration over time, but there were no significant differences in concentration among the packaging overwrap treatments for these compounds.

  10. Thermal stress analysis of HTGR fuel and control rod fuel blocks in the HTGR in-block carbonization and annealing furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwaltney, R.C.; McAfee, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A new approach that utilizes the equivalent solid plate method has been applied to the thermal stress analysis of HTGR fuel and control rod fuel blocks. Cases were considered where these blocks, loaded with reprocessed HTGR fuel pellets, were being cured at temperatures up to 1800 0 C. A two-dimensional segment of a fuel block cross section including fuel, coolant holes, and graphite matrix was analyzed using the ORNL HEATING3 heat transfer code to determine the temperature-dependent effective thermal conductivity for the perforated region of the block. Using this equivalent conductivity to calculate the temperature distributions through different cross sections of the blocks, two-dimensional thermal-stress analyses were performed through application of the equivalent solid plate method. In this approach, the perforated material is replaced by solid homogeneous material of the same external dimensions but whose material properties have been modified to account for the perforations

  11. A comparison of the fascia iliaca block to the lumbar plexus block in providing analgesia following arthroscopic hip surgery: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiola, Ignacio; Liu, Jiabin; Huang, Stephanie; Kelly, John D; Elkassabany, Nabil

    2018-05-31

    This randomized controlled single blinded clinical trial compared the fascia iliaca block (FIB) and the lumbar plexus block (LPB) in patients with moderate to severe pain following hip arthroscopic surgery. Single blinded randomized trial. Postoperative recovery area, postoperative days 0 and 1. Fifty patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were approached in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) if they had moderate to severe pain (defined as > or equal 4/10 on the numeric rating scale). Twenty-five patients were allocated to the FIB and twenty-five patients to the LPB. Fascia iliaca block or lumbar plexus block. A blinded observer recorded pain scores just prior to the block, 15 min following the block (primary endpoint), and then every 15 min for 2 h (or until the patient was discharged). Total PACU time and opioid use were recorded. Pain scores and analgesic use on postoperative day (POD) 0, and POD 1 were recorded. At 24 h post block the Quality of Recovery 9 questionnaire was administered. The mean pre-block pain scores were comparable between the two groups (P = 0.689). There was no difference in mean post block pain scores between the two groups at 15 min (P = 0.054). In the PACU patients who underwent a LPB consumed less opioids compared to FIB patients (P = 0.02), however no differences were noted between the two groups in PACU length of stay, or POD 0 or 1 opioid use. A fascia iliaca block is not inferior to a lumbar plexus block in reducing PACU pain scores in patients with moderate to severe pain following hip arthroscopic surgery and is a viable option to help manage postoperative pain following hip arthroscopic surgery. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Model-based active control of a continuous structure subjected to moving loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancioiu, D.; Ouyang, H.

    2016-09-01

    Modelling of a structure is an important preliminary step of structural control. The main objectives of the modelling, which are almost always antagonistic are accuracy and simplicity of the model. The first part of this study focuses on the experimental and theoretical modelling of a structure subjected to the action of one or two decelerating moving carriages modelled as masses. The aim of this part is to obtain a simple but accurate model which will include not only the structure-moving load interaction but also the actuators dynamics. A small scale rig is designed to represent a four-span continuous metallic bridge structure with miniature guiding rails. A series of tests are run subjecting the structure to the action of one or two minicarriages with different loads that were launched along the structure at different initial speeds. The second part is dedicated to model based control design where a feedback controller is designed and tested against the validated model. The study shows that a positive position feedback is able to improve system dynamics but also shows some of the limitations of state- space methods for this type of system.

  13. DIAGRAM SOLVE THE USE OF SIMULINK BLOCK DIAGRAM TO SOLVE MATHEMA THEMATICAL CONTROL EQU MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND CONTROL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Ghasem

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the simulink block diagram is used to solve a model consists of a set of ordinary differential and algebraic equations to control the temperature inside a simple stirred tank heater. The flexibility of simulink block diagram gives students a better understanding of the control systems. The simulink also allows solution of mathematical models and easy visualization of the system variables. A polyethylene fluidized bed reactor is considered as an industrial example and the effect of the Proportional, Integral and Derivative control policy is presented for comparison.

  14. Development of Universal Controller Architecture for SiC Based Power Electronic Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    SiC Based Power Electronic Building Blocks Award Number Title of Research 30 October 2017 SUBMITTED BY D R. HERBERT L. G INN, Pl DEPT. OF...Naval Research , Philadelphia PA, Aug. 2017. • Ginn, H.L. Bakos J., "Development of Universal Controller Architecture for SiC Based Power Electronic...Controller Implementation for MMC Converters", Workshop on Control Architectures for Modular Power Conversion Systems, Office of Naval Research , Arlington VA

  15. Output-feedback control of combined sewer networks through receding horizon control with moving horizon estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph-Duran, Bernat; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Cembrano, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    An output-feedback control strategy for pollution mitigation in combined sewer networks is presented. The proposed strategy provides means to apply model-based predictive control to large-scale sewer networks, in-spite of the lack of measurements at most of the network sewers. In previous works, the authors presented a hybrid linear control-oriented model for sewer networks together with the formulation of Optimal Control Problems (OCP) and State Estimation Problems (SEP). By iteratively solv...

  16. Comparison of Arthroscopically Guided Suprascapular Nerve Block and Blinded Axillary Nerve Block vs. Blinded Suprascapular Nerve Block in Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Sang Hun; Cho, Sung Do; Lee, Chae Chil; Choi, Jang Kyu; Kim, Han Wook; Park, Seon Jae; Bae, Mun Hee; Cha, Jae Ryong

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the results of arthroscopically guided suprascapular nerve block (SSNB) and blinded axillary nerve block with those of blinded SSNB in terms of postoperative pain and satisfaction within the first 48 hours after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Methods Forty patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for medium-sized full thickness rotator cuff tears were included in this study. Among them, 20 patients were randomly assigned to...

  17. Connected variable speed limits control and vehicle acceleration control to resolve moving jams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Arem, B.

    2015-01-01

    The vision of intelligent vehicles traveling in road networks has prompted numerous concepts to control future traffic flow, one of which is the in-vehicle actuation of traffic control signals. The key of this concept is using intelligent vehicles as actuators for traffic control systems, replacing

  18. Remote-controlled flexible pose measurement system and method for a moving target in wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei LIU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of position and attitude parameters for the isolated target from a high-speed aircraft is a great challenge in the field of wind tunnel simulation technology. This paper proposes a remote-controlled flexible pose measurement system in wind tunnel conditions for the separation of a target from an aircraft. The position and attitude parameters of a moving object are obtained by utilizing a single camera with a focal length and camera orientation that can be changed based on different measurement conditions. Using this proposed system and method, both the flexibility and efficiency of the pose measurement system can be enhanced in wind tunnel conditions to meet the measurement requirements of different objects and experiments, which is also useful for the development of an intelligent position and attitude measurement system. The position and the focal length of the camera also can be controlled remotely during measurements to enlarge both the vertical and horizontal measurement range of this system. Experiments are conducted in the laboratory to measure the position and attitude of moving objects with high flexibility and efficiency, and the measurement precision of the measurement system is also verified through experiments.

  19. Offset-Free Model Predictive Control of Open Water Channel Based on Moving Horizon Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekin Aydin, Boran; Rutten, Martine

    2016-04-01

    Model predictive control (MPC) is a powerful control option which is increasingly used by operational water managers for managing water systems. The explicit consideration of constraints and multi-objective management are important features of MPC. However, due to the water loss in open water systems by seepage, leakage and evaporation a mismatch between the model and the real system will be created. These mismatch affects the performance of MPC and creates an offset from the reference set point of the water level. We present model predictive control based on moving horizon estimation (MHE-MPC) to achieve offset free control of water level for open water canals. MHE-MPC uses the past predictions of the model and the past measurements of the system to estimate unknown disturbances and the offset in the controlled water level is systematically removed. We numerically tested MHE-MPC on an accurate hydro-dynamic model of the laboratory canal UPC-PAC located in Barcelona. In addition, we also used well known disturbance modeling offset free control scheme for the same test case. Simulation experiments on a single canal reach show that MHE-MPC outperforms disturbance modeling offset free control scheme.

  20. Controlled specific placement of nanoparticles into microdomains of block copolymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Joonwon, E-mail: joonwonbae@gmail.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Dongduk Women' s University, Seoul 136-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungwook [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jongnam, E-mail: jnpark@unist.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Conceptually attractive hybrid materials composed of nanoparticles and elegant block copolymers have become important for diverse applications. In this work, controlled specific placement of nanoparticles such as gold (Au) and titania (TiO{sub 2}) into microphase separated domains in poly(styrene)-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer thin films was demonstrated. The effect of nanoparticle surface functionality on the spatial location of particles inside polymer film was observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was revealed that the location of nanoparticles was highly dependent on the surface ligand property of nanoparticle. In addition, the microphase separation behavior of thin block copolymer film was also affected by the nanoparticle surface functional groups. This study might provide a way to understand the properties and behaviors of numerous block copolymer/nanoparticle hybrid systems. - Highlights: • Controlled location of nanoparticles in the block copolymer matrix • Tailoring surface functionality of metal nanocrystals • Fabrication of homogeneous nanocomposites using organic inorganic components • Possibility for the preparation of nanohybrids.

  1. Controlled specific placement of nanoparticles into microdomains of block copolymer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joonwon; Kim, Jungwook; Park, Jongnam

    2014-01-01

    Conceptually attractive hybrid materials composed of nanoparticles and elegant block copolymers have become important for diverse applications. In this work, controlled specific placement of nanoparticles such as gold (Au) and titania (TiO 2 ) into microphase separated domains in poly(styrene)-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer thin films was demonstrated. The effect of nanoparticle surface functionality on the spatial location of particles inside polymer film was observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was revealed that the location of nanoparticles was highly dependent on the surface ligand property of nanoparticle. In addition, the microphase separation behavior of thin block copolymer film was also affected by the nanoparticle surface functional groups. This study might provide a way to understand the properties and behaviors of numerous block copolymer/nanoparticle hybrid systems. - Highlights: • Controlled location of nanoparticles in the block copolymer matrix • Tailoring surface functionality of metal nanocrystals • Fabrication of homogeneous nanocomposites using organic inorganic components • Possibility for the preparation of nanohybrids

  2. Block backstepping design of nonlinear state feedback control law for underactuated mechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rudra, Shubhobrata; Maitra, Madhubanti

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a novel, generalized approach to the design of nonlinear state feedback control laws for a large class of underactuated mechanical systems based on application of the block backstepping method. The control law proposed here is robust against the effects of model uncertainty in dynamic and steady-state performance and addresses the issue of asymptotic stabilization for the class of underactuated mechanical systems. An underactuated system is defined as one for which the dimension of space spanned by the configuration vector is greater than that of the space spanned by the control variables. Control problems concerning underactuated systems currently represent an active field of research due to their broad range of applications in robotics, aerospace, and marine contexts. The book derives a generalized theory of block backstepping control design for underactuated mechanical systems, and examines several case studies that cover interesting examples of underactuated mechanical systems. The math...

  3. Liposomal bupivacaine versus interscalene nerve block for pain control after shoulder arthroplasty: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zeng; Chen, Zong; Ma, Chuangen

    2017-07-01

    Postoperative pain control after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) can be challenging. Liposomal bupivacaine and interscalene nerve block are 2 common pain control protocol for TSA patients. However, whether liposomal bupivacaine was superior than interscalene nerve block was unknown. This meta-analysis aimed to illustrate the efficacy liposomal bupivacaine versus interscalene nerve block for pain control in patients undergoing TSA. In May 2017, a systematic computer-based search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google database. Data on patients prepared for TSA in studies that compared liposomal bupivacaine versus interscalene nerve block were retrieved. The endpoints were the visual analogue scale (VAS) at 4 hours, 8 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 2 weeks, total morphine consumption at 24 hours, and the length of hospital stay. Software of Stata 12.0 was used for pooling the final outcomes. Five clinical studies with 573 patients (liposomal bupivacaine group = 239, interscalene nerve block group = 334) were ultimately included in the meta-analysis. There was no significant difference between the VAS at 4 hours, 8 hours, and 2 weeks between liposomal bupivacaine group and interscalene nerve block group (P > .05). Compared with interscalene nerve block group, liposomal bupivacaine was associated with a reduction of VAS score at 12 hours, 24 hours by appropriately 3.31 points and 6.42 points respectively on a 100-point VAS. Furthermore, liposomal bupivacaine was associated with a significantly reduction of the length of hospital stay by appropriately by 0.16 days compared with interscalene nerve block group. Current meta-analysis indicates that compared with interscalene nerve block, liposomal bupivacaine had comparative effectiveness on reducing both pain scores and the length of hospital stay. However, studies with more patients and better-designed methods are needed to

  4. Ipsilateral transversus abdominis plane block provides effective analgesia after appendectomy in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carney, John

    2010-10-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block provides effective postoperative analgesia in adults undergoing major abdominal surgery. Its efficacy in children remains unclear, with no randomized clinical trials in this population. In this study, we evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after appendectomy performed through an open abdominal incision, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  5. The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, John G

    2008-01-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an effective method of providing postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing midline abdominal wall incisions. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after cesarean delivery performed through a Pfannensteil incision, in a randomized controlled, double-blind, clinical trial.

  6. A controlled human malaria infection model enabling evaluation of transmission-blocking interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, K.A.; Wang, C.Y.; Adams, M.; Mitchell, H.; Rampton, M.; Elliott, S.; Reuling, I.J.; Bousema, T.; Sauerwein, R.; Chalon, S.; Mohrle, J.J.; McCarthy, J.S.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drugs and vaccines that can interrupt the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum will be important for malaria control and elimination. However, models for early clinical evaluation of candidate transmission-blocking interventions are currently unavailable. Here, we describe a new model

  7. Modified Exponential Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) Control Chart on Autocorrelation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiani, Erna Tri; Fandrilla, Geysa; Sunusi, Nurtiti

    2018-03-01

    In general, observations of the statistical process control are assumed to be mutually independence. However, this assumption is often violated in practice. Consequently, statistical process controls were developed for interrelated processes, including Shewhart, Cumulative Sum (CUSUM), and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts in the data that were autocorrelation. One researcher stated that this chart is not suitable if the same control limits are used in the case of independent variables. For this reason, it is necessary to apply the time series model in building the control chart. A classical control chart for independent variables is usually applied to residual processes. This procedure is permitted provided that residuals are independent. In 1978, Shewhart modification for the autoregressive process was introduced by using the distance between the sample mean and the target value compared to the standard deviation of the autocorrelation process. In this paper we will examine the mean of EWMA for autocorrelation process derived from Montgomery and Patel. Performance to be investigated was investigated by examining Average Run Length (ARL) based on the Markov Chain Method.

  8. Constructing Threats and a Need for Control: Textbook Descriptions of a Growing, Moving World Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikander, Pia; Holm, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    The population of the world is growing and moving. The overwhelming majority of people are on the move inside their own country and mostly towards cities while a minority moves from non-Western areas to the West. In Finnish geography, history and social science school textbooks, this mobility tends to be depicted differently depending on whether…

  9. Basal-topographic control of stationary ponds on a continuously moving landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, J.A.; McKenna, J.P.; Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    analyses of translational landslides should attempt to incorporate irregular basal surface topography. Additional implications for moving landslides where basal topography controls surface morphology include the following: dateable sediments or organic material from basal layers of stationary ponds will yield ages that are younger than the date of landslide initiation, and it is probable that other landslide surface features such as faults, streams, springs and sinks are also controlled by basal topography. The longitudinal topographic profile indicated that the upper part of the Slumgullion landslide was depleted at a mean vertical lowering rate of 5.6 cm/yr between 1939 and 2000, while the toe advanced at an average rate of 1.5 m/yr during the same period. Therefore, during this 61-year period, neither the depletion of material at the head of the landslide nor continued growth of the landslide toe has decreased the overall movement rate of the landslide. Continued depletion of the upper part of the landslide, and growth of the toe, should eventually result in stabilization of the landslide. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Security of legacy process control systems : Moving towards secure process control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterink, M.

    2012-01-01

    This white paper describes solutions which organisations may use to improve the security of their legacy process control systems. When we refer to a legacy system, we generally refer to old methodologies, technologies, computer systems or applications which are still in use, despite the fact that

  11. Transportable Payload Operations Control Center reusable software: Building blocks for quality ground data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmot, Ron; Koslosky, John T.; Beach, Edward; Schwarz, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations Division (MOD) at Goddard Space Flight Center builds Mission Operations Centers which are used by Flight Operations Teams to monitor and control satellites. Reducing system life cycle costs through software reuse has always been a priority of the MOD. The MOD's Transportable Payload Operations Control Center development team established an extensive library of 14 subsystems with over 100,000 delivered source instructions of reusable, generic software components. Nine TPOCC-based control centers to date support 11 satellites and achieved an average software reuse level of more than 75 percent. This paper shares experiences of how the TPOCC building blocks were developed and how building block developer's, mission development teams, and users are all part of the process.

  12. A review of model predictive control: moving from linear to nonlinear design methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandong, J.; Samyudia, Y.; Tade, M.O.

    2006-01-01

    Linear model predictive control (LMPC) has now been considered as an industrial control standard in process industry. Its extension to nonlinear cases however has not yet gained wide acceptance due to many reasons, e.g. excessively heavy computational load and effort, thus, preventing its practical implementation in real-time control. The application of nonlinear MPC (NMPC) is advantageous for processes with strong nonlinearity or when the operating points are frequently moved from one set point to another due to, for instance, changes in market demands. Much effort has been dedicated towards improving the computational efficiency of NMPC as well as its stability analysis. This paper provides a review on alternative ways of extending linear MPC to the nonlinear one. We also highlight the critical issues pertinent to the applications of NMPC and discuss possible solutions to address these issues. In addition, we outline the future research trend in the area of model predictive control by emphasizing on the potential applications of multi-scale process model within NMPC

  13. Lumbar Sympathetic Plexus Block as a Treatment for Postamputation Pain: Methodology for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Zachary L; Hendrix, Andrew; Dayanim, David; Clay, Bryan; Kirsling, Amy; Harden, Norman

    2018-03-08

    We present a technical protocol for rigorous assessment of patient-reported outcomes and psychophysical testing relevant to lumbar sympathetic blocks for the treatment of postamputation pain (PAP). This description is intended to inform future prospective investigation. Series of four participants from a blinded randomized sham-controlled trial. Tertiary, urban, academic pain medicine center. Four participants with a single lower limb amputation and associated chronic PAP. Participants were randomized to receive a lumbar sympathetic block with 0.25% bupivacaine or sham needle placement. Patient-rated outcome measures included the numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain, the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Pain and Anxiety Symptoms Scale-short version, and Pain Disability Index (PDI). Psychophysical and biometric testing was also performed, which included vibration sensation testing, pinprick sensation testing, brush sensation testing, Von Frey repeated weighted pinprick sensation, and thermal quantitative sensory testing. In the four described cases, treatment of PAP with a single lumbar sympathetic block but not sham intervention resulted in reduction of both residual limb pain and phantom limb pain as well as perceived disability on the PDI at three-month follow-up. An appropriately powered randomized controlled study using this methodology may not only aid in determining the possible clinical efficacy of lumbar sympathetic block in PAP, but could also improve our understanding of underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of PAP.

  14. Learning to push and learning to move: The adaptive control of contact forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura eCasadio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To be successful at manipulating objects one needs to apply simultaneously well controlled movements and contact forces. We present a computational theory of how the brain may successfully generate a vast spectrum of interactive behaviors by combining two independent processes. One process is competent to control movements in free space and the other is competent to control contact forces against rigid constraints. Free space and rigid constraints are singularities at the boundaries of a continuum of mechanical impedance. Within this continuum, forces and motions occur in compatible pairs connected by the equations of Newtonian dynamics. The force applied to an object determines its motion. Conversely, inverse dynamics determine a unique force trajectory from a movement trajectory. In this perspective, we describe motor learning as a process leading to the discovery of compatible force/motion pairs. The learned compatible pairs constitute a local representation of the environment's mechanics. Experiments on force field adaptation have already provided us with evidence that the brain is able to predict and compensate the forces encountered when one is attempting to generate a motion. Here, we tested the theory in the dual case, i.e. when one attempts at applying a desired contact force against a simulated rigid surface. If the surface becomes unexpectedly compliant, the contact point moves as a function of the applied force and this causes the applied force to deviate from its desired value. We found that, through repeated attempts at generating the desired contact force, subjects discovered the unique compatible hand motion. When, after learning, the rigid contact was unexpectedly restored, subjects displayed after effects of learning, consistent with the concurrent operation of a motion control system and a force control system. Together, theory and experiment support a new and broader view of modularity in the coordinated control of forces and

  15. Comparison of Arthroscopically Guided Suprascapular Nerve Block and Blinded Axillary Nerve Block vs. Blinded Suprascapular Nerve Block in Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sang Hun; Cho, Sung Do; Lee, Chae Chil; Choi, Jang Kyu; Kim, Han Wook; Park, Seon Jae; Bae, Mun Hee; Cha, Jae Ryong

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of arthroscopically guided suprascapular nerve block (SSNB) and blinded axillary nerve block with those of blinded SSNB in terms of postoperative pain and satisfaction within the first 48 hours after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Forty patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for medium-sized full thickness rotator cuff tears were included in this study. Among them, 20 patients were randomly assigned to group 1 and preemptively underwent blinded SSNB and axillary nerve block of 10 mL 0.25% ropivacaine and received arthroscopically guided SSNB with 10 mL of 0.25% ropivacaine. The other 20 patients were assigned to group 2 and received blinded SSNB with 10 mL of 0.25% ropivacaine. Visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain and patient satisfaction score were assessed 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours postoperatively. The mean VAS score for pain was significantly lower 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours postoperatively in group 1 (group 1 vs. group 2; 5.2 vs. 7.4, 4.1 vs. 6.1, 3.0 vs. 5.1, 2.1 vs. 4.2, 0.9 vs. 3.9, and 1.3 vs. 3.3, respectively). The mean patient satisfaction score was significantly higher at postoperative 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours in group 1 (group 1 vs. group 2; 6.7 vs. 3.9, 7.4 vs. 5.1, 8.8 vs. 5.9, 9.2 vs. 6.7, 9.5 vs. 6.9, and 9.0 vs. 7.2, respectively). Arthroscopically guided SSNB and blinded axillary nerve block in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for medium-sized rotator cuff tears provided more improvement in VAS for pain and greater patient satisfaction in the first 48 postoperative hours than blinded SSNB.

  16. Transversus abdominis plane block vs. wound infiltration in Caesarean section: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telnes, A; Skogvoll, E; Lonnée, H

    2015-04-01

    Multiple studies suggest that transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block (without intrathecal morphine) after Caesarean section (CS) reduces post-operative morphine consumption. In our study, we wanted to compare the analgesic effect of TAP block with infiltration of the wound after CS. We included 60 pregnant women scheduled for elective CS under spinal anaesthesia in a randomised, single-centre, double-blind study. Thirty patients received ultrasound-guided TAP block using 20 ml bupivacaine 0.25% with adrenaline 5 μg/ml bilaterally and 20 ml normal saline as wound infiltration (TAP group). The other 30 patients (the control group) received normal saline 20 ml bilaterally in the TAP, and 20 ml bupivacaine 0.25% with adrenaline 5 μg/ml as wound infiltration. The main outcome was cumulative morphine consumption at 48 h after surgery. In addition, continuous morphine consumption, pain scores and side effects were registered. Fifty-seven patients completed the study. Cumulative morphine consumption at 48 h (mean±standard deviation) was 41±34 mg in the TAP group and 38±27 mg in the control group (P=0.7); a difference of 3 mg (95% confidence interval -13 to 19 mg). Morphine consumption at any time up to 48 h was virtually identical in both groups. Side effects were similar, except for a higher degree of sedation in the TAP group (P=0.04). Compared with wound infiltration with local anaesthetics, TAP block did not reduce cumulative morphine consumption following CS. The TAP block was associated with more pronounced sedation. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Synthesis and self-assembly of well-defined block copolypeptides via controlled NCA polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Deming, TJ

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes advances in the synthesis of well-defined polypeptides and block copolypeptides. Traditional methods used to polymerize α-amino acid-N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) are described, and limitations in the utility of these systems for the preparation of polypeptides are discussed. Improved initiators and methods that allow polypeptide synthesis with good control over chain length, chain length distribution, and chain-end functionality are also discussed. Using these methods, b...

  18. An Angular Method with Position Control for Block Mesh Squareness Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stillman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-19

    We optimize a target function de ned by angular properties with a position control term for a basic stencil with a block-structured mesh, to improve element squareness in 2D and 3D. Comparison with the condition number method shows that besides a similar mesh quality regarding orthogonality can be achieved as the former does, the new method converges faster and provides a more uniform global mesh spacing in our numerical tests.

  19. Moving Stormwater Infrastructure from Real-time Control to Smart Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadzuk, B.; Bryant, S.; Lewellyn, C.; Zaremba, G.; Traver, R.

    2017-12-01

    Urban areas, especially combined sewer communities, are using green infrastructure (GI) systems (e.g. rain gardens, green roofs) to mitigate stormwater runoff volume, rate, and quality issues. Most municipal guidance and regulation limits these systems to static, passive designs that neither fully utilize the active hydrology of a GI system during and after a rainfall event, nor enable dynamic operational control. Real-time control (RTC) applied to GI is emerging, and under ideal model conditions has shown improved performance (i.e., greater volumes managed while minimizing downstream impact). There are a few RTC pilot field projects with promising results, such as on a cistern - green roof system there were only 30 overflow events out of 126 rain events and at a rain garden - cistern system only 1 of 81 events resulted in overflow. However, RTC does not get to a fully dynamic system as the initiation and consequent action is preset and static. In stormwater RTC systems, the initiation is typically a rain forecast or a sensor reading. At a rain garden - cistern system, a cistern that fills when raining is hard set to pump water to the rain garden 24 hours after the predicted rain ends. There have been instances where there is rain occurring or only a minimal amount of dry time for the rain garden to reestablish capacity for the pumped stored water. There is also no mechanism to automatically change the pump initiation time based on season or ambient conditions. A cistern - green roof system that uses stored water in an upstream cistern for green roof irrigation is initiated on a set soil moisture reading or a set irrigation volume daily. The soil moisture reading was rarely reached, so irrigation was often not initiated and the set daily irrigation volume did not vary over season. Moving from RTC to a smart system uses longer term and/or historical data to inform decisions beyond what a short-term forecast or real-time sensor can provide to give more context and

  20. STS-99 workers move new Master Events Controller into aft compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, workers move the replacement Enhanced Main Events Controller (E-MEC) into Shuttle Endeavour's aft compartment in the payload bay. The original E-MEC became suspect during the Jan. 31 launch countdown and mission STS-99 was delayed when NASA managers decided to replace it. Each Shuttle carries two enhanced master events controllers (E-MECs), which provide relays for onboard flight computers to send signals to arm and fire pyrotechnics that separate the solid rockets and external tank during assent. Both E-MECs are needed for the Shuttle to be cleared for flight. Currently Endeavour and Columbia are the only two orbiters with the E-MECs. Built by Rockwell's Satellite Space Electronics Division, Anaheim, Calif., each unit weighs 65 pounds and is approximately 20 inches long, 13 inches wide and 8 inches tall. Previously, three Shuttle flights have been scrubbed or delayed due to faulty MECs: STS-73, STS-49 and STS-41-D. The next scheduled date for launch of STS-99 is Feb. 11 at 12:30 p.m. EST.

  1. Randomized clinical trial of transversus abdominis plane block versus placebo control in live-donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosgood, Sarah A; Thiyagarajan, Umasanker M; Nicholson, Harriet F L; Jeyapalan, Inthira; Nicholson, Michael L

    2012-09-15

    Laparoscopic surgery reduces pain after donor nephrectomy; however, most patients still require a significant amount of postoperative parenteral opiate analgesia. Therefore, there is a need to investigate techniques that might further reduce postoperative pain. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of using a transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-six patients were analyzed in the trial and were randomized to undergo the TAP block procedure with either bupivacaine (n=24) or saline placebo (Control n=22) injected into the muscle plane. Prefilled syringes were dispensed with the group allocation concealed to maintain blinding. After surgery, the amount of morphine, level of pain, and measures of recovery were recorded. The amount of morphine used 6 hr after surgery was significantly lower in patients receiving TAP block with bupivacaine compared with the control (presented as mean [SD], 12.4 [8.4] vs. 21.2 [14.0] mg; P=0.015). However, the total amount of morphine used was similar in both groups 45.6 [31.4] vs. 52.7 [28.8] mg; P=0.771. Patients in the bupivacaine group experienced significantly less pain on postoperative days 1 (score, 19 [15] vs. 37 [20]; P=0.003) and 2 (score, 11 [10] vs. 19 [13]; P=0.031). Recovery and postoperative hospital stay were similar in both groups. There were no complications associated with the procedure. The TAP block procedure is beneficial in reducing postoperative pain and early morphine requirements in laparoscopic live-donor nephrectomy.

  2. Pudendal nerve stimulation and block by a wireless-controlled implantable stimulator in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangning; Wang, Jicheng; Shen, Bing; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2014-07-01

    The study aims to determine the functionality of a wireless-controlled implantable stimulator designed for stimulation and block of the pudendal nerve. In five cats under α-chloralose anesthesia, the stimulator was implanted underneath the skin on the left side in the lower back along the sacral spine. Two tripolar cuff electrodes were implanted bilaterally on the pudendal nerves in addition to one bipolar cuff electrode that was implanted on the left side central to the tripolar cuff electrode. The stimulator provided high-frequency (5-20 kHz) biphasic stimulation waveforms to the two tripolar electrodes and low-frequency (1-100 Hz) rectangular pulses to the bipolar electrode. Bladder and urethral pressures were measured to determine the effects of pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) or block. The maximal (70-100 cmH2O) urethral pressure generated by 20-Hz PNS applied via the bipolar electrode was completely eliminated by the pudendal nerve block induced by the high-frequency stimulation (6-15 kHz, 6-10 V) applied via the two tripolar electrodes. In a partially filled bladder, 20-30 Hz PNS (2-8 V, 0.2 ms) but not 5 Hz stimulation applied via the bipolar electrode elicited a large sustained bladder contraction (45.9 ± 13.4 to 52.0 ± 22 cmH2O). During cystometry, the 5 Hz PNS significantly (p < 0.05) increased bladder capacity to 176.5 ± 27.1% of control capacity. The wireless-controlled implantable stimulator successfully generated the required waveforms for stimulation and block of pudendal nerve, which will be useful for restoring bladder functions after spinal cord injury. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.

  3. Paravertebral Block: An Improved Method of Pain Control in Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culp, William C.; McCowan, Timothy C.; DeValdenebro, Miguel; Wright, Lonnie B.; Workman, James L.; Culp, William C.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage remains a painful procedure in many cases despite the routine use of large amounts of intravenous sedation. We present a feasibility study of thoracic paravertebral blocks in an effort to reduce pain during and following the procedure and reduce requirements for intravenous sedation. Methods. Ten consecutive patients undergoing biliary drainage procedures received fluoroscopically guided paravertebral blocks and then had supplemental intravenous sedation as required to maintain patient comfort. Levels T8-T9 and T9-T10 on the right were targeted with 10-20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine. Sedation requirements and pain levels were recorded. Results. Ten biliary drainage procedures in 8 patients were performed for malignancy in 8 cases and for stones in 2. The mean midazolam use was 1.13 mg IV, and the mean fentanyl requirement was 60.0 μg IV in the block patients. Two episodes of hypotension, which responded promptly to volume replacement, may have been related to the block. No serious complications were encountered. The mean pain score when traversing the chest wall, liver capsule, and upon entering the bile ducts was 0.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, with 1 patient reporting a pain level of 1 and 9 reporting 0. The mean peak pain score, encountered when manipulating at the common bile duct level or when addressing stones there, was 5.4 and ranged from 0 to 10. Conclusions. Thoracic paravertebral block with intravenous sedation supplementation appears to be a feasible method of pain control during biliary interventions

  4. Analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided paravertebral block versus serratus plane block for modified radical mastectomy: A randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Modified radical mastectomy (MRM may be associated with severe post-operative pain, leading to chronic pain syndrome. We compared the post-operative analgesic profile of two ultrasound-guided nerve blocks: Paravertebral block (PVB and serratus plane block (SPB. Methods: This double-blind, randomised study was conducted on fifty adult females, scheduled for MRM with axillary dissection. After inducing general anaesthesia with intravenous midazolam 1 mg, fentanyl 1.5 mcg/kg, propofol 1–2 mg/kg and vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg, patients were administered either ultrasound-guided thoracic PVB at T4 (n = 25 or SPB at 5th rib (n = 25 with 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine, both as a single level injection. Time to first rescue analgesia and morphine consumption in 4, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h by PCA pump, visual analogue scale score and any adverse effects were recorded. Quantitative variables were compared using the unpaired t-test or the Mann–Whitney U test between the two groups. Qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Results: The duration of analgesia (mean ± Standard deviation [SD] was significantly longer in the PVB group compared to SPB group (346 ± 57 min vs. 245.6 ± 58 min, P< 0.001. The post-operative 24 h morphine consumption (mean ± SD was significantly higher in the SPB group (9.7 ± 2.1 mg compared to PVB group (6.5 ± 1.5 mg (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided SPB is an alternative analgesic technique to thoracic PVB for MRM although PVB provides a longer duration of analgesia.

  5. Ballasting pipeline moving in horizontal well as method of control sticking phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropov, V. S.; Toropov, E. S.

    2018-05-01

    The mechanism of the phenomenon of sticking a pipeline moving in a well while pulled by the facility horizontal directional drilling is investigated. A quantitative evaluation of the force arising from sticking is given. At the same time, the working hypothesis takes a view of the combined effect of adhesion and friction interactions as the reasons that cause this phenomenon. As a measure to control the occurrence of sticking and to reduce the resistance force to movement of the pipeline in the well, several methods of ballasting the working pipeline are proposed, depending on the profile of the well and the ratio of the length of the curved sections of the inlet and outlet and the straight horizontal sections of the profile. It is shown that for crossings, which profile contains an extended horizontal section, it is possible to partially fill the pipeline with water to achieve zero buoyancy, and for crossings with curvature along the entire profile, the ballasting efficiency will be minimal.

  6. An indirect adaptive neural control of a visual-based quadrotor robot for pursuing a moving target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadeh, Masoud; Amirkhani, Abdollah; Jalali, Aliakbar; Mosavi, Mohammad R

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to use a visual-based control mechanism to control a quadrotor type aerial robot which is in pursuit of a moving target. The nonlinear nature of a quadrotor, on the one hand, and the difficulty of obtaining an exact model for it, on the other hand, constitute two serious challenges in designing a controller for this UAV. A potential solution for such problems is the use of intelligent control methods such as those that rely on artificial neural networks and other similar approaches. In addition to the two mentioned problems, another problem that emerges due to the moving nature of a target is the uncertainty that exists in the target image. By employing an artificial neural network with a Radial Basis Function (RBF) an indirect adaptive neural controller has been designed for a quadrotor robot in search of a moving target. The results of the simulation for different paths show that the quadrotor has efficiently tracked the moving target. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using block pulse functions for seismic vibration semi-active control of structures with MR dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi Gendeshmin, Saeed; Davarnia, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    This article applied the idea of block pulse functions in the semi-active control of structures. The BP functions give effective tools to approximate complex problems. The applied control algorithm has a major effect on the performance of the controlled system and the requirements of the control devices. In control problems, it is important to devise an accurate analytical technique with less computational cost. It is proved that the BP functions are fundamental tools in approximation problems which have been applied in disparate areas in last decades. This study focuses on the employment of BP functions in control algorithm concerning reduction the computational cost. Magneto-rheological (MR) dampers are one of the well-known semi-active tools that can be used to control the response of civil Structures during earthquake. For validation purposes, numerical simulations of a 5-story shear building frame with MR dampers are presented. The results of suggested method were compared with results obtained by controlling the frame by the optimal control method based on linear quadratic regulator theory. It can be seen from simulation results that the suggested method can be helpful in reducing seismic structural responses. Besides, this method has acceptable accuracy and is in agreement with optimal control method with less computational costs.

  8. Synthesis and controlled self-assembly of UV-responsive gold nanoparticles in block copolymer templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong-Po; Wang, Xinyu; Lin, Ying; Watkins, James J

    2014-11-06

    We demonstrate the facile synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) functionalized by UV-responsive block copolymer ligands, poly(styrene)-b-poly(o-nitrobenzene acrylate)-SH (PS-b-PNBA-SH), followed by their targeted distribution within a lamellae-forming poly(styrene)-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer. The multilayer, micelle-like structure of the GNPs consists of a gold core, an inner PNBA layer, and an outer PS layer. The UV-sensitive PNBA segment can be deprotected into a layer containing poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) when exposed to UV light at 365 nm, which enables the simple and precise tuning of GNP surface properties from hydrophobic to amphiphilic. The GNPs bearing ligands of different chemical compositions were successfully and selectively incorporated into the PS-b-P2VP block copolymer, and UV light showed a profound influence on the spatial distributions of GNPs. Prior to UV exposure, GNPs partition along the interfaces of PS and P2VP domains, while the UV-treated GNPs are incorporated into P2VP domains as a result of hydrogen bond interactions between PAA on the gold surface and P2VP domains. This provides an easy way of controlling the arrangement of nanoparticles in polymer matrices by tailoring the nanoparticle surface using UV light.

  9. Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Versus Wound Infiltration for Analgesia After Cesarean Delivery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Mohamed Mohamed; Mohamed, Yaser Mohamed; Elbadrawi, Rania Elmohamadi; Abdelkhalek, Mostafa; Mogahed, Maiseloon Mostafa; Ezz, Hanaa Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block and local anesthetic wound infiltration provide analgesia after cesarean delivery. Studies comparing the 2 techniques are scarce, with conflicting results. This double-blind, randomized controlled trial aimed to compare bilateral ultrasound-guided TAP block with single-shot local anesthetic wound infiltration for analgesia after cesarean delivery performed under spinal anesthesia. We hypothesized that the TAP block would decrease postoperative cumulative fentanyl consumption at 24 hours. Eligible subjects were American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II parturients with full-term singleton pregnancies undergoing elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. Exclusion criteria were: 40 years of age; height consumption at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes were the time to the first postoperative fentanyl dose, cumulative fentanyl consumption at 2, 4, 6, and 12 hours, pain scores at rest and on movement at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours, the deepest level of sedation, the incidence of side effects (nausea and vomiting and pruritis), and patient satisfaction. Data from 78 patients (39 patients in each group) were analyzed. The mean ± SD of cumulative fentanyl consumption at 24 hours was 157.4 ± 63.4 μg in the infiltration group and 153.3 ± 68.3 μg in the TAP group (difference in means [95% confidence interval] is 4.1 [-25.6 to 33.8] μg; P = .8). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in the time to the first postoperative fentanyl dose, cumulative fentanyl consumption at 2, 4, 6, and 12 hours, pain scores at rest and on movement at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours, the deepest level of sedation, and patient satisfaction. The incidence of side effects (nausea and vomiting and pruritis) was low in the 2 groups. TAP block and wound infiltration did not significantly differ regarding postoperative fentanyl consumption, pain scores, and patient satisfaction in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery under

  10. Efficacy of an energy block containing Duddingtonia flagrans in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagüés, María F; Fusé, Luis A; Fernández, Alicia S; Iglesias, Lucía E; Moreno, Fabiana C; Saumell, Carlos A

    2011-09-01

    The efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans incorporated into an energy block was evaluated for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Four naturally parasitised sheep with average nematode egg counts of 2,470 eggs per gram grazed by pairs on two similar parasite-free paddocks for 30 days. During that period, one pair of sheep (treated animals, T1) received an energy block containing chlamydospores of D. flagrans at a dose of 200,000 chlamydopores/kg bw/day, while the second pair (control animals, C1) received a fungus-free energy block. The animals in both groups were taken off the paddocks after contaminating the pastures for a month with either nematode eggs plus fungal chlamydospores (T1) or nematode eggs alone (C1). Twelve parasite-free sheep were divided into two groups of six animals each, the treated group (T2) was placed on the paddock previously contaminated with parasites and fungus, while the control group (C2) was placed on the parasite-only paddock. These two groups grazed on their respective paddocks during 30 days and were then housed for 15 days, after which period they were slaughtered in order to determine the parasite burden present in each animal. Results showed that animals in group T2 harboured significantly less nematodes than their counterpart in group C2. The efficacy of D. flagrans was 92% against the total parasite burden, 100% against Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta, 89.9% against Trichostrongylus colubriformis, 87.5% against Cooperia onchopora, and 90% against Trichostrongylus axei. No efficacy was detected against Nematodirus spathiger, Trichuris ovis and T. skrjabini.

  11. Optical angular constancy is maintained as a navigational control strategy when pursuing robots moving along complex pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; McBeath, Michael K; Sugar, Thomas G

    2015-03-24

    The optical navigational control strategy used to intercept moving targets was explored using a real-world object that travels along complex, evasive pathways. Fielders ran across a gymnasium attempting to catch a moving robot that varied in speed and direction, while ongoing position was measured using an infrared motion-capture system. Fielder running paths were compared with the predictions of three lateral control models, each based on maintaining a particular optical angle relative to the robotic target: (a) constant alignment angle (CAA), (b) constant eccentricity angle (CEA), and (c) linear optical trajectory (LOT). Findings reveal that running pathways were most consistent with maintenance of LOT and least consistent with CEA. This supports that fielders use the same optical control strategy of maintaining angular constancy using a LOT when navigating toward targets moving along complex pathways as when intercepting simple ballistic trajectories. In those cases in which a target dramatically deviates from its optical path, fielders appear to simply reset LOT parameters using a new constant angle value. Maintenance of such optical angular constancy has now been shown to work well with ballistic, complex, and evasive moving targets, confirming the LOT strategy as a robust, general-purpose optical control mechanism for navigating to intercept catchable targets, both airborne and ground based. © 2015 ARVO.

  12. Pore pressure control on faulting behavior in a block-gouge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Juanes, R.

    2016-12-01

    Pore fluid pressure in a fault zone can be altered by natural processes (e.g., mineral dehydration and thermal pressurization) and industrial operations involving subsurface fluid injection/extraction for the development of energy and water resources. However, the effect of pore pressure change on the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic fault remain poorly understood; yet they are critical for the assessment of seismic risk. In this work, we develop a micromechanical model to investigate the effect of pore pressure on faulting behavior. The model couples pore network fluid flow and mechanics of the solid grains. We conceptualize the fault zone as a gouge layer sandwiched between two blocks; the block material is represented by a group of contact-bonded grains and the gouge is composed of unbonded grains. A pore network is extracted from the particulate pack of the block-gouge system with pore body volumes and pore throat conductivities calculated rigorously based on the geometry of the local pore space. Pore fluid exerts pressure force onto the grains, the motion of which is solved using the discrete element method (DEM). The model updates the pore network regularly in response to deformation of the solid matrix. We study the fault stability in the presence of a pressure inhomogeneity (gradient) across the gouge layer, and compare it with the case of homogeneous pore pressure. We consider both normal and thrust faulting scenarios with a focus on the onset of shear failure along the block-gouge interfaces. Numerical simulations show that the slip behavior is characterized by intermittent dynamics, which is evident in the number of slipping contacts at the block-gouge interfaces and the total kinetic energy of the gouge particles. Numerical results also show that, for the case of pressure inhomogeneity, the onset of slip occurs earlier for the side with higher pressure, and that this onset appears to be controlled by the maximum pressure of both sides

  13. Adductor canal block with local infiltrative analgesia compared with local infiltrate analgesia for pain control after total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Qiujuan; Dai, Weiwei; Zhao, Dongfeng; Wu, Ji; Huang, Chunshui; Zhao, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration versus periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify articles comparing the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration and periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after TK...

  14. Controllable synthesis of spongy carbon nanotube blocks with tunable macro- and microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Xuchun; Lin Zhiqiang; Zeng Zhiping; Tang Zikang; Wang Kunlin; Wu Dehai

    2013-01-01

    Macroscopic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with uniform structures are in great demand for use in composites and environmental materials. Here we demonstrate the controlled synthesis of spongy CNT blocks with isotropic properties and flexible, freestanding structures. The formation mechanism of the isotropic CNT sponges is discussed, based on its open-ended structure and initial formation in the vapor phase. The microstructure of the CNT sponges can be tuned by changing the flow rate of the carrier gas, resulting in CNT sponges with diameters ranging from 30.2 to 47.8 nm and wall thicknesses from 7 to 16 nm. The bulk density (5–25 mg cm −3 ), mechanical strength of the CNT sponges, and filling rate of ferromagnetic catalyst in the CNT sponges can also be modulated by controlling the supply rate of the carbon source, suggesting potential applications in mechanical energy absorption and environmental materials. (paper)

  15. Transversus abdominal plane block for postoperative analgesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogi, Etrusca; Kazan, Roy; Cyr, Shantale; Giunta, Francesco; Hemmerling, Thomas M

    2016-10-01

    The transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block has been described as an effective pain control technique after abdominal surgery. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) to account for the increasing number of TAP block studies appearing in the literature. The primary outcome we examined was the effect of TAP block on the postoperative pain score at six, 12, and 24 hr. The secondary outcome was 24-hr morphine consumption. We searched the United States National Library of Medicine database, the Excerpta Medica database, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Studies and identified RCTs focusing on the analgesic efficacy of TAP block compared with a control group [i.e., placebo, epidural analgesia, intrathecal morphine (ITM), and ilioinguinal nerve block after abdominal surgery]. Meta-analyses were performed on postoperative pain scores at rest at six, 12, and 24 hr (visual analogue scale, 0-10) and on 24-hr opioid consumption. In the 51 trials identified, compared with placebo, TAP block reduced the VAS for pain at six hours by 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.9 to -0.8; P consumption at 24 hr after surgery (mean difference, -14.7 mg; 95% CI, -18.4 to -11.0; P consumption in the TAP block group after gynecological surgery, appendectomy, inguinal surgery, bariatric surgery, and urological surgery. Nevertheless, separate analysis of the studies comparing ITM with TAP block revealed that ITM seemed to have a greater analgesic efficacy. The TAP block can play an important role in the management of pain after abdominal surgery by reducing both pain scores and 24-hr morphine consumption. It may have particular utility when neuraxial techniques or opioids are contraindicated.

  16. Levobupivacaine-dextran mixture for transversus abdominis plane block and rectus sheath block in patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, T; Tsuchiya, M; Mizutani, K; Takahashi, R; Muguruma, K; Maeda, K; Ueda, W; Nishikawa, K

    2016-04-01

    We performed a randomised controlled double-blinded study of patients having laparoscopic colectomy with bilateral transversus abdominis plane block plus rectus sheath block, comparing a control group receiving 80 ml levobupivacaine 0.2% in saline with a dextran group receiving 80 ml levobupivacaine 0.2% in 8% low-molecular weight dextran. Twenty-seven patients were studied in each group. The mean (SD) maximum plasma concentration of levobupivacaine in the control group (1410 (322) ng.ml(-1) ) was higher than the dextran group (1141 (287) ng.ml(-1) ; p = 0.004), and was reached more quickly (50.6 (30.2) min vs 73.2 (24.6) min; p = 0.006). The area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 min to 240 min in the control group (229,124 (87,254) ng.min.ml(-1) ) was larger than in the dextran group (172,484 (50,502) ng.min.ml(-1) ; p = 0.007). The median (IQR [range]) of the summated numerical pain rating score at rest during the first postoperative 24 h in the control group (16 (9-20 [3-31]) was higher than in the dextran group (8 (2-11 [0-18]); p = 0.0001). In this study, adding dextran to levobupivacaine decreased the risk of levobupivacaine toxicity while providing better analgesia. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Controls on slow-moving landslides revealed by satellite and airborne InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handwerger, Alexander L.; Fielding, Eric J.

    2017-04-01

    Landslides display a wide variety of behaviors ranging from slow persistent motion to rapid acceleration and catastrophic failure. Given the variety of possible behaviors, improvements to our understanding of landslide mechanics are critical for accurate predictions of landslide dynamics. To better constrain the mechanisms that control landslide motion, we use recent SAR data collected by Copernicus Sentinel-1A/B, NASA UAVSAR, JAXA ALOS-2, and DLR TerraSAR-X to quantify the time-dependent kinematics of over 200 slow-moving landslides in the Central and Northern California Coast Ranges. These landslides are ideally suited for InSAR investigations due to their size (up to 5 km in length and 0.5 km in width), persistent downslope motion with low velocities (m/yr), and sparse vegetation. We quantify the seasonal and multi-year changes in velocity driven by changes in precipitation and find that landslide velocity varies over both timescales. Over seasonal timescales, each landslide displays a period of acceleration that occurs within weeks of the onset of seasonal rainfall suggesting that motion is governed by precipitation-induced changes in pore-water pressure. We also examine the effects of multi-year climate variations (i.e., recent historic California drought and the possible wet period that began in late 2016) on the activity of landslides. We find that the drought has led to a decrease in annual displacement over the past several years and predict that a resurgence in annual displacement will occur with an increase in annual rainfall. Lastly, we use UAVSAR data acquired at 4 different look directions to quantify 3D surface displacement of multiple landslides and invert for their subsurface geometry (i.e. basal slip surface) using recently developed 3D mass conservation techniques. The application of NASA's UAVSAR data represents a major advance from previous InSAR studies on landslides in this region and provides one of the first 3D dataset that contains

  18. Energy efficient traffic management and control: the eCoMove approach and expected benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Mahmod, Mohammed; van Arem, Bart; Abadi, A.; Bauer e.a., D.

    2010-01-01

    Transportation is an important contributor to environmental problems like declining air quality. Current traffic measures seek to optimize travel times, but fall short on the ideal of an ecologically friendly traffic system. The European research project eCoMove aims to reduce the overall fuel

  19. 49 CFR 236.401 - Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.401 Automatic... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. 236.401 Section 236.401 Transportation Other Regulations...

  20. Double network physical gels from elastin-like polypeptide block copolymers: nanoscale control of thermoresponsive reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Matthew; Olsen, Bradley

    2014-03-01

    Triblock copolymers with associative protein midblocks and thermoresponsive endblocks form shear thinning hydrogels with a low yield stress at low temperatures, but can be reinforced by a self-assembled network of the endblock aggregates. Here, we compare the use of bioengineered elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) to synthetic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) as endblocks to control the self-assembly of the reinforcing network. The temperature dependence of the mechanics of these hydrogels is a strong function of the domain size and morphology in the endblock network. Despite the architectural similarities, triblock ELP fusions and PNIPAM bioconjugates exhibit distinct reinforcement maxima at fixed block composition and polymer concentration, and these differences can be attributed to the nanostructural features of the two systems. Furthermore, in ELP fusions, the amino acid sequence can be readily modified to manipulate the solvation kinetics of the endblock domains. Finally, various endblocks have been combined to form triblock terpolymer hydrogels, demonstrating how the choice of thermoresponsive blocks can be used to tune the reinforcement of shear thinning hydrogels.

  1. Band gap control using electric field of photonic gel cells fabricated with block copolymer and hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Nam; Baek, Young Bin; Shin, Dong Myung

    2014-08-01

    Optical and electrical characteristics of the devices using photonic gel film and hydrogel electrolyte were studied. Poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) lamellar film with alternating hydrophobic block and hydrophilic polyelectrolyte block polymers (52 kg/mol-b-57 kg/mol) were prepared for the photonic gel. Poly(isobutylene-co-maleic acid) sodium salts were prepared for the hydrogel. This hydrogel fiber is common water swelling material and it owned ions for a device has conductivity. Photonic gel and hydrogel was spin coating onto Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass for make electric fields. The reflectance maximum wavelength of photonic crystal device shifted from 538 nm and reached to 557 nm, 585 nm and 604 nm during 30 min voltage applying time. The bandwidth variation was very limited. Loss of electrolyte was much less with hydrogel compared to the pure water. We can control color of hydrogel used photonic device by electric field with reasonable time range under moderate electric field by applying 2 V between two facing electrodes.

  2. Controlled release of cortisone drugs from block copolymers synthetized by ATRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, G.; La Carta, S.; Rapisarda, M.; Carbone, D.; Recca, G.; Rizzarelli, P.; Mazzotti, G.; Giorgini, L.; Perna, S.; Di Gesù, R.

    2016-01-01

    Diseases affecting posterior eye segment, like macular edema, infection and neovascularization, may cause visual impairment. Traditional treatments, such as steroidal-drugs intravitreal injections, involve chronic course of therapy usually over a period of years. Moreover, they can require frequent administrations of drug in order to have an adequately disease control. This dramatically reduce patient’s compliance. Efforts have been made to develop implantable devices that offer an alternative therapeutic approach to bypass many challenges of conventional type of therapy. Implantable drug delivery systems (DDS) have been developed to optimize therapeutic properties of drugs and ensure their slow release in the specific site. Polymeric materials can play an essential role in modulating drug delivery and their use in such field has become indispensable. During last decades, acrylic polymers have obtained growing interest. Biocompatibility and chemical properties make them extremely versatile, allowing their use in many field such as biomedical. In particular, block methacrylate copolymer with a balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties can be suitable for prolonged DDS in biomedical devices. In this work, we focused on the realization of a system for controlled and long term release of betamethasone 17,21-dipropionate (BDP), a cortisone drug, from methacrylic block copolymers, to be tested in the treatment of the posterior eye’s diseases. Different series of methyl methacrylate/hydroxyethyl methacrylate (MMA/HEMA) block and random copolymers, with different monomer compositions (10–60% HEMA), were synthetized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) to find the best hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio, able to ensure optimal kinetic release. Copolymer samples were characterized by NMR spectroscopy ("1H-NMR, "1"3C-NMR, CosY), SEC, TGA and DSC. Monitoring of drug release from films loaded with BDP was carried out by HPLC analysis. Evaluation of different

  3. Controlled release of cortisone drugs from block copolymers synthetized by ATRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, G.; La Carta, S.; Mazzotti, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Perna, S.; Di Gesù, R.; Giorgini, L.; Carbone, D.; Recca, G.; Rizzarelli, P.

    2016-05-01

    Diseases affecting posterior eye segment, like macular edema, infection and neovascularization, may cause visual impairment. Traditional treatments, such as steroidal-drugs intravitreal injections, involve chronic course of therapy usually over a period of years. Moreover, they can require frequent administrations of drug in order to have an adequately disease control. This dramatically reduce patient's compliance. Efforts have been made to develop implantable devices that offer an alternative therapeutic approach to bypass many challenges of conventional type of therapy. Implantable drug delivery systems (DDS) have been developed to optimize therapeutic properties of drugs and ensure their slow release in the specific site. Polymeric materials can play an essential role in modulating drug delivery and their use in such field has become indispensable. During last decades, acrylic polymers have obtained growing interest. Biocompatibility and chemical properties make them extremely versatile, allowing their use in many field such as biomedical. In particular, block methacrylate copolymer with a balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties can be suitable for prolonged DDS in biomedical devices. In this work, we focused on the realization of a system for controlled and long term release of betamethasone 17,21-dipropionate (BDP), a cortisone drug, from methacrylic block copolymers, to be tested in the treatment of the posterior eye's diseases. Different series of methyl methacrylate/hydroxyethyl methacrylate (MMA/HEMA) block and random copolymers, with different monomer compositions (10-60% HEMA), were synthetized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) to find the best hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio, able to ensure optimal kinetic release. Copolymer samples were characterized by NMR spectroscopy (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, CosY), SEC, TGA and DSC. Monitoring of drug release from films loaded with BDP was carried out by HPLC analysis. Evaluation of different kinetic

  4. Controlled release of cortisone drugs from block copolymers synthetized by ATRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, G.; La Carta, S.; Rapisarda, M.; Carbone, D.; Recca, G.; Rizzarelli, P., E-mail: paola.rizzarelli@cnr.it [Istituto per i Polimeri, Compositi e Biomateriali, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via P. Gaifami 18, 95129 Catania (Italy); Mazzotti, G.; Giorgini, L. [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale «Toso Montanari», Università di Bologna Via Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Perna, S. [ST Microelectronics Srl, Stradale Primosole, 50–95121 Catania (Italy); Di Gesù, R. [Merck Serono S.p.A., Via L. Einaudi, 11–00012 Guidonia Montecelio, Rome (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    Diseases affecting posterior eye segment, like macular edema, infection and neovascularization, may cause visual impairment. Traditional treatments, such as steroidal-drugs intravitreal injections, involve chronic course of therapy usually over a period of years. Moreover, they can require frequent administrations of drug in order to have an adequately disease control. This dramatically reduce patient’s compliance. Efforts have been made to develop implantable devices that offer an alternative therapeutic approach to bypass many challenges of conventional type of therapy. Implantable drug delivery systems (DDS) have been developed to optimize therapeutic properties of drugs and ensure their slow release in the specific site. Polymeric materials can play an essential role in modulating drug delivery and their use in such field has become indispensable. During last decades, acrylic polymers have obtained growing interest. Biocompatibility and chemical properties make them extremely versatile, allowing their use in many field such as biomedical. In particular, block methacrylate copolymer with a balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties can be suitable for prolonged DDS in biomedical devices. In this work, we focused on the realization of a system for controlled and long term release of betamethasone 17,21-dipropionate (BDP), a cortisone drug, from methacrylic block copolymers, to be tested in the treatment of the posterior eye’s diseases. Different series of methyl methacrylate/hydroxyethyl methacrylate (MMA/HEMA) block and random copolymers, with different monomer compositions (10–60% HEMA), were synthetized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) to find the best hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio, able to ensure optimal kinetic release. Copolymer samples were characterized by NMR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR, CosY), SEC, TGA and DSC. Monitoring of drug release from films loaded with BDP was carried out by HPLC analysis. Evaluation of

  5. Double-beam cantilever structure with embedded intelligent damping block: Dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmidt, Tomasz; Pisarski, Dominik; Bajer, Czesław; Dyniewicz, Bartłomiej

    2017-08-01

    In this paper a semi-active method to control the vibrations of twin beams connected at their tips by a smart damping element is investigated. The damping element can be made of a magnetorheological elastomer or a smart material of another type, for instance vacuum packed particles. What is crucial is the ability to modify the storage and loss moduli of the damping block by means of devices attached directly to the vibrating structure. First, a simple dynamical model of the system is proposed. The continuous model is discretized using the Galerkin procedure. Then, a practical state-feedback control law is developed. The control strategy aims at achieving the best instantaneous energy dissipation of the system. Numerical simulations confirm its effectiveness in reducing free vibrations. The proposed control strategy appears to be robust in the sense that its application does not require any knowledge of the initial conditions imposed on the structure, and its performance is better than passive solutions, especially for the system induced in the first mode.

  6. pH-Sensitive Amphiphilic Block-Copolymers for Transport and Controlled Release of Oxygen

    KAUST Repository

    Patil, Yogesh Raghunath

    2017-05-31

    Saturated fluorocarbons, their derivatives and emulsions are capable of dissolving anomalously high amounts of oxygen and other gases. The mechanistic aspects of this remarkable effect remain to be explored experimentally. Here, the synthesis of a library of amphiphilic fluorous block-copolymers incorporating different fluorinated monomers is described, and the capacity of these copolymers for oxygen transport in water is systematically investigated. The structure of the fluorous monomer employed was found to have a profound effect on both the oxygen-carrying capacity and the gas release kinetics of the polymer emulsions. Furthermore, the release of O2 from the polymer dispersions could be triggered by changing the pH of the solution. This is the first example of a polymer-based system for controlled release of a non-polar, non-covalently entrapped respiratory gas.

  7. pH-Sensitive Amphiphilic Block-Copolymers for Transport and Controlled Release of Oxygen

    KAUST Repository

    Patil, Yogesh Raghunath; Almahdali, Sarah; Vu, Khanh B.; Zapsas, Georgios; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Rodionov, Valentin

    2017-01-01

    Saturated fluorocarbons, their derivatives and emulsions are capable of dissolving anomalously high amounts of oxygen and other gases. The mechanistic aspects of this remarkable effect remain to be explored experimentally. Here, the synthesis of a library of amphiphilic fluorous block-copolymers incorporating different fluorinated monomers is described, and the capacity of these copolymers for oxygen transport in water is systematically investigated. The structure of the fluorous monomer employed was found to have a profound effect on both the oxygen-carrying capacity and the gas release kinetics of the polymer emulsions. Furthermore, the release of O2 from the polymer dispersions could be triggered by changing the pH of the solution. This is the first example of a polymer-based system for controlled release of a non-polar, non-covalently entrapped respiratory gas.

  8. Responsive micellar films of amphiphilic block copolymer micelles: control on micelle opening and closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiquan; He, Changcheng; Li, Fengbin; Tong, Ling; Liao, Xingzhi; Wang, Yong

    2010-06-01

    We reported the deliberate control on the micelle opening and closing of amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) micellar films by exposing them to selective solvents. We first treated the micellar films with polar solvents including ethanol and water (pH = 4, 8, and 12) that have different affinities to P2VP. We observed opening of the micelles in all the cases. Both the size of opened pores and the opening rate are dependent on the solvency of different solvents for P2VP. We then explored the closing behavior of the opened micelles using solvents having different affinities to PS. We found that the opened micelles were recovered to their initial closed micelle forms. The recovery was accompanied by a slow micelle disassociation process which gradually reduced the micelle size. The rates of the micelle closing and disassociation are also dependent on the solvency of different solvents for PS.

  9. Precise Control over the Rheological Behavior of Associating Stimuli-Responsive Block Copolymer Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Brassinne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available “Smart” materials have considerably evolved over the last few years for specific applications. They rely on intelligent macromolecules or (supra-molecular motifs to adapt their structure and properties in response to external triggers. Here, a supramolecular stimuli-responsive polymer gel is constructed from heterotelechelic double hydrophilic block copolymers that incorporate thermo-responsive sequences. These macromolecular building units are synthesized via a three-step controlled radical copolymerization and then hierarchically assembled to yield coordination micellar hydrogels. The dynamic mechanical properties of this particular class of materials are studied in shear flow and finely tuned via temperature changes. Notably, rheological experiments show that structurally reinforcing the micellar network nodes leads to precise tuning of the viscoelastic response and yield behavior of the material. Hence, they constitute promising candidates for specific applications, such as mechano-sensors.

  10. A general U-block model-based design procedure for nonlinear polynomial control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q. M.; Zhao, D. Y.; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-10-01

    The proposition of U-model concept (in terms of 'providing concise and applicable solutions for complex problems') and a corresponding basic U-control design algorithm was originated in the first author's PhD thesis. The term of U-model appeared (not rigorously defined) for the first time in the first author's other journal paper, which established a framework for using linear polynomial control system design approaches to design nonlinear polynomial control systems (in brief, linear polynomial approaches → nonlinear polynomial plants). This paper represents the next milestone work - using linear state-space approaches to design nonlinear polynomial control systems (in brief, linear state-space approaches → nonlinear polynomial plants). The overall aim of the study is to establish a framework, defined as the U-block model, which provides a generic prototype for using linear state-space-based approaches to design the control systems with smooth nonlinear plants/processes described by polynomial models. For analysing the feasibility and effectiveness, sliding mode control design approach is selected as an exemplary case study. Numerical simulation studies provide a user-friendly step-by-step procedure for the readers/users with interest in their ad hoc applications. In formality, this is the first paper to present the U-model-oriented control system design in a formal way and to study the associated properties and theorems. The previous publications, in the main, have been algorithm-based studies and simulation demonstrations. In some sense, this paper can be treated as a landmark for the U-model-based research from intuitive/heuristic stage to rigour/formal/comprehensive studies.

  11. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked...

  12. A Low-Power Wireless Image Sensor Node with Noise-Robust Moving Object Detection and a Region-of-Interest Based Rate Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    from both environment and hardware further reduces the transmission energy with negligible computation and memory overhead. The rate controller...detection, Region-of-interest, Rate control Introduction In wireless image sensor nodes for moving object surveillance, energy efficiency can be...noise, reliable moving object detection is required to avoid unnecessary transmission of background scenes [1]. Transmission energy can be further

  13. Comparison between Epidural Block vs. High Intensity Laser Therapy for Controlling Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiozaman Radpay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic low back pain is among a wide spread musculoskeletal conditions that is related to disability with high economy cost. There are several treatment modalities for controlling chronic low back pain (CLBP, among them high intensity laser therapy (HILT and epidural blocks (EB use more commonly. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits and hazards of each of these two methods.Materials and Methods: We designed a randomized controlled double blind study during 24 months.101 patients divided in 2 groups (52 in EB and 49 in HILT group. Pain intensity was assessed by using faces pain scales (FPS and LINKERT questionaries' before procedure and during one, four, 12, and 24 weeks after beginning the procedures.Results: There were no differences between two groups in FPS lumber tenderness, straight leg rising test (SLRT, paresthesia, deep tendon reflex (DTR, and imaging changes. Motor problems seem was less in HILT group comparing EB.Conclusion: This study showed both EB and HILT approaches can control the pain intensity and motor activities in CLBP patients. Future studies will clarify the precise importance of each these methods.

  14. Experimental control of Stewart's theoretical model of large amplitude moving striations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, G. van den; Vanmarcke, M.

    1977-01-01

    The longitudinal variation of the electron concentration in large amplitude moving striations, computed theoretically by Stewart, has been tested experimentally. The measurements are carried out by means of a sampling probe technique in the glow discharge of neon (I = 105 mA, 2R = 5.6 cm, p 0 = 0.79 torr) and of argon (I = 75 mA, 2R = 5.7 cm, p 0 = 0.46 torr). It is found that the measured dependence of the concentration is not consistent with the theory. (Auth.)

  15. Axillary brachial plexus block duration with mepivacaine in patients with chronic renal failure. Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, V; Nieuwveld, D; Herrera, A E; Mestres, G; López, A M; Sala-Blanch, X

    2017-04-01

    Regional anaesthesia is commonly preferred for arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation. Previous studies suggest a shorter block duration in patients with chronic renal failure, maybe because of the changes in regional blood flow. The aim of our study was to evaluate the duration of the axillary block with 1.5% mepivacaine in patients with chronic renal failure scheduled for AVF compared with healthy controls. Patients scheduled for AVF creation for the first time (GIRC) were included. They were compared with patients without renal failure (GC), with similar anthropometric characteristics. Ultrasound-guided axillary blocks with 20mL of 1.5% mepivacaine were performed on all patients. We evaluated onset time, humeral artery diameter and blood flow before and after the block, as well as the block duration. Twenty-three patients (GIRC: 12 and GC: 11) were included. No differences between groups were observed in block duration (GIRC: 227±43min vs GC: 229±27min; P=.781), or in onset time (GIRC: 13±5min vs GC: 12.2±3min; P=.477). The humeral blood flow before and after block was significantly lower in the GIRC (pre-block: GIRC: 52±21ml/min GC: 100±62ml/min; P=.034 and p ost block: GIRC: 130±57ml/min and GC: 274±182ml/min; P=.010). There was no significant correlation between the duration of the block and the preblock humeral blood flow (Spearman Rho: 0.106; P=.657) or the postblock humeral blood flow (Spearman Rho: 0.267; P=.254). The duration of the axillary block with 1.5% mepivacaine in patients with chronic renal failure was similar to that of the control patients. The duration of axillary brachial plexus block seems not to be related to changes in regional blood flow. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Controlling the melting transition of semi-crystalline self-assembled block copolymer aggregates : Controlling release rates of ibuprofen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaghan, O.R.; Bomans, P.H.H.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Holder, S.J.

    2017-01-01

    Bicontinuous nanospheres and multi-lamellar micelles were self-assembled from poly[ethylene oxide]-block-(poly[octadecyl methacrylate]-random-poly[docosyl methacrylate]), (PEO-b-[PODMA-co-PDSMA]) where PEO is the hydrophilic block (25 wt%) and PODMA/PDSMA is the semi-crystalline hydrophobic block

  17. Motion compensation with skin contact control for high intensity focused ultrasound surgery in moving organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodato, A.; Cafarelli, A.; Schiappacasse, A.; Tognarelli, S.; Ciuti, G.; Menciassi, A.

    2018-02-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an emerging therapeutic solution that enables non-invasive treatment of several pathologies, mainly in oncology. On the other hand, accurate targeting of moving abdominal organs (e.g. liver, kidney, pancreas) is still an open challenge. This paper proposes a novel method to compensate the physiological respiratory motion of organs during HIFU procedures, by exploiting a robotic platform for ultrasound-guided HIFU surgery provided with a therapeutic annular phased array transducer. The proposed method enables us to keep the same contact point between the transducer and the patient’s skin during the whole procedure, thus minimizing the modification of the acoustic window during the breathing phases. The motion of the target point is compensated through the rotation of the transducer around a virtual pivot point, while the focal depth is continuously adjusted thanks to the axial electronically steering capabilities of the HIFU transducer. The feasibility of the angular motion compensation strategy has been demonstrated in a simulated respiratory-induced organ motion environment. Based on the experimental results, the proposed method appears to be significantly accurate (i.e. the maximum compensation error is always under 1 mm), thus paving the way for the potential use of this technique for in vivo treatment of moving organs, and therefore enabling a wide use of HIFU in clinics.

  18. RESULTS OF DIAGNOSTICAL BLOCK OF LONG DORSAL SACROILIAC LIGAMENT UNDER SONOGRAPHIC CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurkovskiy A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve effectiveness of diagnostic block of long dorsal sacroiliac ligament performed under sonographic control in patients with low back pain caused by pathology of this ligament. Material and methods: the research included 35 patients (average age 46,2±12,5 years with symptoms of low back pain caused by pathology of long dorsal sacroiliac ligament. Diagnostical block of the given ligament was made under ultrasound control. Results: significant pain syndrome reduction was observed in all patients with ligamentopathy of long dorsal sacroiliac ligament. Conclusion: compared to "blind" technique, long dorsal sacroiliac ligament block performed under sonographic control is a more efficient method of verification and treatment for low back pain syndrome in case of long dorsal sacroiliac ligament injury.

  19. Microstructured Block Copolymer Surfaces for Control of Microbe Adhesion and Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R. Hansen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The attachment and arrangement of microbes onto a substrate is influenced by both the biochemical and physical surface properties. In this report, we develop lectin-functionalized substrates containing patterned, three-dimensional polymeric structures of varied shapes and densities and use these to investigate the effects of topology and spatial confinement on lectin-mediated microbe immobilization. Films of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA were patterned on silicon surfaces into line arrays or square grid patterns with 5 μm wide features and varied pitch. The patterned films had three-dimensional geometries with 900 nm film thickness. After surface functionalization with wheat germ agglutinin, the size of Pseudomonas fluorescens aggregates immobilized was dependent on the pattern dimensions. Films patterned as parallel lines or square grids with a pitch of 10 μm or less led to the immobilization of individual microbes with minimal formation of aggregates. Both geometries allowed for incremental increases in aggregate size distribution with each increase in pitch. These engineered surfaces combine spatial confinement with affinity-based capture to control the extent of microbe adhesion and aggregation, and can also be used as a platform to investigate intercellular interactions and biofilm formation in microbial populations of controlled sizes.

  20. Nerve Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Nerve Blocks A nerve block is an injection to ... the limitations of Nerve Block? What is a Nerve Block? A nerve block is an anesthetic and/ ...

  1. Comparison of Paravertebral Block by Anatomic Landmark Technique to Ultrasound-Guided Paravertebral Block for Breast Surgery Anesthesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Rupali; Chhabra, Anjolie; Subramaniam, Rajeshwari; Arora, Mahesh K; Goswami, Devalina; Srivastava, Anurag; Seenu, Vuthaluru; Dhar, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Paravertebral block (PVB) is an established technique for providing anesthesia for breast surgery. The primary objective was to compare anatomical landmark technique (ALT) to the ultrasound-guided (USG) PVB block for providing surgical anesthesia. Secondary objectives included comparison of perioperative analgesia and complications. This randomized, controlled, observer-blinded study included 72 females, aged 18 to 65 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, undergoing elective unilateral breast surgery. Study participants were randomized to the ALT group or USG group. Ipsilateral PVB was performed with the respective technique from T1 to T6. Five milliliters of local anesthetic mixture (0.5% ropivacaine, 5 μg/mL adrenaline, 1 μg/kg clonidine) was administered at each level. Paravertebral catheter was inserted at T4/T3 level. After confirming sensory loss, patients were taken up for surgery with propofol sedation (20-50 μg/kg per minute). More patients in the USG group (34/36 [94.44%]) had a successful block as compared with the ALT group (26/36 [72.22%]) (P = 0.024). Difference in proportion was 18.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.15-36.0) (P = 0.024) after adjustment for age. More dermatomes were blocked in the USG group (P = 0.0018) with less sparing of upper T2 and T3 dermatomes (P = 0.003, P = 0.006, respectively). Median time to first postoperative analgesic requirement was 502.5 minutes (range, 195-1440 minutes) in the USG group versus 377.5 minutes (range, 215-1440 minutes) in the ALT group. Pain at rest and movement 2 and 4 hours postoperatively and number of catheter top-ups in 24 hours postoperatively were lesser in the USG group (P = 0.012). Complications were comparable. Ultrasound-guided PVB provided better anesthesia and perioperative analgesia than the landmark technique for breast surgery. The trial was registered retrospectively at the Clinical Trial Registry of India, CTRI/2015/05/005774.

  2. Effects of arthroscopy-guided suprascapular nerve block combined with ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Jun; Hwang, Jung-Taek; Kim, Do-Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Hwang, Sung Mi; Lee, Na Rea; Kwak, Byung-Chan

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the pain relieving effect of ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) combined with arthroscopy-guided suprascapular nerve block (SSNB) with that of ultrasound-guided ISB alone within the first 48 h after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Forty-eight patients with rotator cuff tears who had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were enrolled. The 24 patients in group 1 received ultrasound-guided ISB and arthroscopy-guided SSNB; the remaining 24 patients in group 2 underwent ultrasound-guided ISB alone. Visual analogue scale pain score and patient satisfaction score were checked at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h post-operatively. Group 1 had a lower visual analogue scale pain score at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h post-operatively (1.7  6.0, 6.2 > 4.3, 6.4 > 5.1, 6.9 > 5.9, 7.9 > 7.1). Six patients in group 1 developed rebound pain twice, and the others in group 1 developed it once. All of the patients in group 2 had one rebound phenomenon each (p = 0.010). The mean timing of rebound pain in group 1 was later than that in group 2 (15.5 > 9.3 h, p  4.0, p = 0.001). Arthroscopy-guided SSNB combined with ultrasound-guided ISB resulted in lower visual analogue scale pain scores at 3-24 and 48 h post-operatively, and higher patient satisfaction scores at 6-36 h post-operatively with the attenuated rebound pain compared to scores in patients who received ultrasound-guided ISB alone after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The combined blocks may relieve post-operative pain more effectively than the single block within 48 h after arthroscopic cuff repair. Randomized controlled trial, Level I. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02424630.

  3. Lexical selection in the semantically blocked cyclic naming task: The role of cognitive control and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Crowther

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of semantic interference in language production have provided evidence for a role of cognitive control mechanisms in regulating the activation of semantic competitors during naming. The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in cognitive control abilities, for both younger and older adults, and the degree of semantic interference in a blocked cyclic naming task. We predicted that individuals with lower working memory capacity (as measured by word span, lesser ability to inhibit distracting responses (as measured by Stroop interference, and a lesser ability to resolve proactive interference (as measured by a recent negatives task would show a greater increase in semantic interference in naming, with effects being larger for older adults. Instead, measures of cognitive control were found to relate to specific indices of semantic interference in the naming task, rather than overall degree of semantic interference, and few interactions with age were found, with younger and older adults performing similarly. The increase in naming latencies across naming trials within a cycle were negatively correlated with word span for both related and unrelated conditions, suggesting a strategy of narrowing response alternatives based upon memory for the set of item names. Evidence for a role of inhibition in response selection was obtained, as Stroop interference correlated positively with the change in naming latencies across cycles for the related, but not unrelated, condition. In contrast, recent negatives interference correlated negatively with the change in naming latencies across unrelated cycles, suggesting that individual differences in this tap the degree of strengthening of links in a lexical network based upon prior exposure. Results are discussed in terms of current models of lexical selection and consequences for word retrieval in more naturalistic production.

  4. Opioid-sparing effects of the thoracic interfascial plane blocks: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preet Mohinder; Borle, Anuradha; Kaur, Manpreet; Trikha, Anjan; Sinha, Ashish

    2018-01-01

    Thoracic interfascial plane blocks and modification (PECS) have recently gained popularity for analgesic potential during breast surgery. We evaluate/consolidate the evidence on opioid-sparing effect of PECS blocks in comparison with conventional intravenous analgesia (IVA) and paravertebral block (PVB). Prospective, randomized controlled trials comparing PECS block to conventional IVA or PVB in patients undergoing breast surgery published till June 2017 were searched in the medical database. Comparisons were made for 24-h postoperative morphine consumption and intraoperative fentanyl-equivalent consumption. Final analysis included nine trials (PECS vs. IVA 4 trials and PECS vs. PVB 5 trials). PECS block showed a decreased intraoperative fentanyl consumption over IVA by 49.20 mcg (95% confidence interval [CI] =42.67-55.74) ( I 2 = 98.47%, P consumption with PECS block was lower than IVA by 7.66 mg (95% CI being 6.23-9.10) ( I 2 = 63.15, P < 0.001) but was higher than PVB group by 1.26 mg (95% CI being 0.91-1.62) ( I 2 = 99.53%, P < 0.001). Two cases of pneumothorax were reported with PVB, and no complication was reported in any other group. Use of PECS block and its modifications with general anesthesia for breast surgery has significant opioid-sparing effect intraoperatively and during the first 24 h after surgery. It also has higher intraoperative opioid-sparing effect when compared to PVB. During the 1 st postoperative day, PVB has slightly more morphine sparing potential that may however be associated with higher complication rates. The present PECS block techniques show marked interstudy variations and need standardization.

  5. NERVE BLOCKING (PAIN CONTROL AFTER THORACOTOMY WITH BUPIVACAINE:EPIDURAL VS INTERCOSTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A GHAFOURI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of analgesics is an evitable and necessary part of thoracic surgery. This study was designed to compare analgesic effects of persistent thoracic epidural anesthesia versus persistent intercostal nerve block and determine their role in opioid need after thoracotomy. Methods. 116 patients above 20 years old who were candidate for thoracotomy through either posterolateral or thoracoabdominal incision were situatedin one of three group for pain relief. For the first group, pain relieved by petidine and pentazosin. In 2nd group, pain relived by thoracic epidural anesthesia with bupivacaine catheters which were inserted between costal and plural space. In 3rd group, bupivacaine was introduced through 3rd and 4th intercostal space by catheter (2 mg/kg in devided doses. Pain was meseared by visual analogue scale and quantified by surgical residents through a method bupivacaine was injected. If Bupivacaine did not relieve pain, then opioid was used as adjuvant. Results. The study showed that epidural group needed less opioids and had more cooperation in comparison with two other group. The intercostal group complained of pain at chest tube site. Discussion. In thoracotomized patients, pain control is more effective via epidural anesthesia in turns of opioid side effects, expenses and patient comfort.

  6. A Laser-Based Measuring System for Online Quality Control of Car Engine Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Qiang Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For online quality control of car engine production, pneumatic measurement instrument plays an unshakeable role in measuring diameters inside engine block because of its portability and high-accuracy. To the limitation of its measuring principle, however, the working space between the pneumatic device and measured surface is too small to require manual operation. This lowers the measuring efficiency and becomes an obstacle to perform automatic measurement. In this article, a high-speed, automatic measuring system is proposed to take the place of pneumatic devices by using a laser-based measuring unit. The measuring unit is considered as a set of several measuring modules, where each of them acts like a single bore gauge and is made of four laser triangulation sensors (LTSs, which are installed on different positions and in opposite directions. The spatial relationship among these LTSs was calibrated before measurements. Sampling points from measured shaft holes can be collected by the measuring unit. A unified mathematical model was established for both calibration and measurement. Based on the established model, the relative pose between the measuring unit and measured workpiece does not impact the measuring accuracy. This frees the measuring unit from accurate positioning or adjustment, and makes it possible to realize fast and automatic measurement. The proposed system and method were finally validated by experiments.

  7. Comparison of efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block and iliohypogastric/ilioinguinal nerve block for postoperative pain management in patients undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy with spinal anesthesia: a prospective randomized controlled open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okur, Onur; Tekgul, Zeki Tuncel; Erkan, Nazif

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of lateral abdominal transversus abdominis plane block (TAP block) and iliohypogastric/ilioinguinal nerve block (IHINB) under ultrasound guidance for postoperative pain management of inguinal hernia repair. Secondary purposes were to compare the complication rates of the two techniques and to examine the effects of TAP block and IHINB on chronic postoperative pain. This was a prospective randomized controlled open-label study. After approval of the Research Ethics Board, a total of 90 patients were allocated to three groups of 30 by simple randomized sampling as determined with a priori power analysis. Peripheral nerve blocks (TAP block or IHINB) were administered to patients following subarachnoid block according to their allocated group. Patient pain scores, additional analgesic requirements and complication rates were recorded periodically and compared. Pain scores were significantly lower in the study groups (p block group [GT] 266.6 ± 119.7 min; IHINB group [GI] 247.2 ± 128.7 min; and control group [GC] 79.1 ± 66.2 min; p block or IHINB for patients undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy reduces the intensity of both acute and chronic postoperative pain and additional analgesic requirements.

  8. The application of moving average control charts for evaluating magnetic field quality on an individual magnet basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, D.A.; Gunst, R.F.; Schucany, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    SSC Collider Dipole Magnet field quality specifications define limits of variation for the population mean (Systematic) and standard deviation (RMS deviation) of allowed and unallowed multipole coefficients generated by the full collection of dipole magnets throughout the Collider operating cycle. A fundamental Quality Control issue is how to determine the acceptability of individual magnets during production, in other words taken one at a time and compared to the population parameters. Provided that the normal distribution assumptions hold, the random variation of multipoles for individual magnets may be evaluated by comparing the measured results to ± 3 x RMS tolerance, centered on the design nominal. To evaluate the local and cumulative systematic variation of the magnets against the distribution tolerance, individual magnet results need to be combined with others that come before it. This paper demonstrates a Statistical Quality Control method (the Unweighted Moving Average control chart) to evaluate individual magnet performance and process stability against population tolerances. The DESY/HERA Dipole cold skew quadrupole measurements for magnets in production order are used to evaluate non-stationarity of the mean over time for the cumulative set of magnets, as well as for a moving sample

  9. Simple Moving Voltage Average Incremental Conductance MPPT Technique with Direct Control Method under Nonuniform Solar Irradiance Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new simple moving voltage average (SMVA technique with fixed step direct control incremental conductance method is introduced to reduce solar photovoltaic voltage (VPV oscillation under nonuniform solar irradiation conditions. To evaluate and validate the performance of the proposed SMVA method in comparison with the conventional fixed step direct control incremental conductance method under extreme conditions, different scenarios were simulated. Simulation results show that in most cases SMVA gives better results with more stability as compared to traditional fixed step direct control INC with faster tracking system along with reduction in sustained oscillations and possesses fast steady state response and robustness. The steady state oscillations are almost eliminated because of extremely small dP/dV around maximum power (MP, which verify that the proposed method is suitable for standalone PV system under extreme weather conditions not only in terms of bus voltage stability but also in overall system efficiency.

  10. A controlled release system for proteins based on poly(ether ester) block-copolymers: polymer network characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, J.M.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Feijen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The properties of a series of multiblock copolymers, based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hydrophobic poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) blocks were investigated with respect to their application as a matrix for controlled release of proteins. The degree of swelling, Q, of the

  11. Bottom-up nanoarchitecture of semiconductor nano-building blocks by controllable in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuan

    2017-08-10

    Here we demonstrate that the building blocks of semiconductor WO3 nanowires can be controllably soldered together by a novel nano-soldering technique of in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering, in which the soldering temperature can precisely remain in an optimal range to avoid a strong thermal diffusion.

  12. Prospective double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of the pectoral nerves (Pecs) block type II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versyck, B.; Geffen, G.J. van; Houwe, P. Van

    2017-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this clinical trial was to test the hypothesis whether adding the pectoral nerves (Pecs) block type II to the anesthetic procedure reduces opioid consumption during and after breast surgery. DESIGN: A prospective randomized double blind placebo-controlled study. SETTING:

  13. Bottom-up nanoarchitecture of semiconductor nano-building blocks by controllable in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuan; Zheng, Xiujun; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Junli; Fu, Jiecai; Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Chaoyi; Bai, Feiming; Zhang, Xixiang; Peng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that the building blocks of semiconductor WO3 nanowires can be controllably soldered together by a novel nano-soldering technique of in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering, in which the soldering temperature can precisely remain in an optimal range to avoid a strong thermal diffusion.

  14. Detection of combustion start in the controlled auto ignition engine by wavelet transform of the engine block vibration signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seonguk; Min, Kyoungdoug

    2008-01-01

    The CAI (controlled auto ignition) engine ignites fuel and air mixture by trapping high temperature burnt gas using a negative valve overlap. Due to auto ignition in CAI combustion, efficiency improvements and low level NO x emission can be obtained. Meanwhile, the CAI combustion regime is restricted and control parameters are limited. The start of combustion data in the compressed ignition engine are most critical for controlling the overall combustion. In this research, the engine block vibration signal is transformed by the Meyer wavelet to analyze CAI combustion more easily and accurately. Signal acquisition of the engine block vibration is a more suitable method for practical use than measurement of in-cylinder pressure. A new method for detecting combustion start in CAI engines through wavelet transformation of the engine block vibration signal was developed and results indicate that it is accurate enough to analyze the start of combustion. Experimental results show that wavelet transformation of engine block vibration can track the start of combustion in each cycle. From this newly developed method, the start of combustion data in CAI engines can be detected more easily and used as input data for controlling CAI combustion

  15. Detection of combustion start in the controlled auto ignition engine by wavelet transform of the engine block vibration signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonguk; Min, Kyoungdoug

    2008-08-01

    The CAI (controlled auto ignition) engine ignites fuel and air mixture by trapping high temperature burnt gas using a negative valve overlap. Due to auto ignition in CAI combustion, efficiency improvements and low level NOx emission can be obtained. Meanwhile, the CAI combustion regime is restricted and control parameters are limited. The start of combustion data in the compressed ignition engine are most critical for controlling the overall combustion. In this research, the engine block vibration signal is transformed by the Meyer wavelet to analyze CAI combustion more easily and accurately. Signal acquisition of the engine block vibration is a more suitable method for practical use than measurement of in-cylinder pressure. A new method for detecting combustion start in CAI engines through wavelet transformation of the engine block vibration signal was developed and results indicate that it is accurate enough to analyze the start of combustion. Experimental results show that wavelet transformation of engine block vibration can track the start of combustion in each cycle. From this newly developed method, the start of combustion data in CAI engines can be detected more easily and used as input data for controlling CAI combustion.

  16. Effect of Transversus Abdominis Plane Block on Postoperative Pain after Colorectal Surgery: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Xie, Yan-Hu; Zhang, Wei; Chai, Xiao-Qing

    2018-01-01

    To assess the analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in patients undergoing colorectal surgery (CRS). The databases of PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Embase were searched, and randomized controlled studies (RCTs) that compared TAP block to control for relief of postoperative pain in patients who underwent CRS were included. Outcomes, including postoperative pain at rest and with movement, morphine use, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and the length of hospital stay, were analyzed using STATA software. The weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) or relative risk with 95% CI were used to present the strength of associations. A total of 7 RCTs with 511 patients were included. The results of this study suggested that TAP block significantly relieved postoperative pain during postanesthetic recovery after CRS at rest and during movement (WMDs were -0.98 [95% CI -1.57 to -0.38] and -0.68 [-1.07 to -0.30], respectively), and also decreased pain intensity during movement 24 h after CRS (WMD: -0.57 [95% CI -1.06 to -0.08]). TAP block significantly reduced opioid consumption within 24 h when compared to controls, with a WMD of 15.66 (95% CI -23.93 to -7.39). However, TAP block did not shorten the length of hospital stay. TAP block was an effective approach for relief of postoperative pain and reduced postoperative consumption of morphine. More RCTs with large sample sizes are required to confirm these findings. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Studies on atom transfer radical polymerization of acrylates and styrenes with controlled polymeric block structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Khalid

    2006-01-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was applied to homo and block copolymerization of vinyl monomers methacrylates, acrylates, and styrene with iron (FeCl2.4H2O) as the transition metal in most cases. As complexing ligand either a commercially available ligand (triphenyl phosphine) (PPh3) or synthetic aliphatic amines were used. As initiators, methyl 2-bromopropionate, ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate, α,α-dichloroacetophenone, and poly(ethylene oxide) macroinitiator were employed. Block ...

  18. Moving from control to elimination of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa: time to change and adapt strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Rollinson, David; Stothard, J Russell; Molyneux, David

    2017-02-20

    Schistosomiasis is a water borne parasitic disease of global importance and with ongoing control the disease endemic landscape is changing. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, the landscape is becoming ever more heterogeneous as there are several species of Schistosoma that respond in different ways to ongoing preventive chemotherapy and the inter-sectoral interventions currently applied. The major focus of preventive chemotherapy is delivery of praziquantel by mass drug administration to those shown to be, or presumed to be, at-risk of infection and disease. In some countries, regional progress may be uneven but in certain locations there are very real prospects to transition from control into interruption of transmission, and ultimately elimination. To manage this transition requires reconsideration of some of the currently deployed diagnostic tools used in surveillance and downward realignment of existing prevalence thresholds to trigger mass treatment. A key challenge will be maintaining and if possible, expanding the current donation of praziquantel to currently overlooked groups, then judging when appropriate to move from mass drug administration to selective treatment. In so doing, this will ensure the health system is adapted, primed and shown to be cost-effective to respond to these changing disease dynamics as we move forward to 2020 targets and beyond.

  19. Pickering emulsions stabilized by biodegradable block copolymer micelles for controlled topical drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laredj-Bourezg, Faiza; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Pelletier, Jocelyne; Chevalier, Yves

    2017-10-05

    Surfactant-free biocompatible and biodegradable Pickering emulsions were investigated as vehicles for skin delivery of hydrophobic drugs. O/w emulsions of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil droplets loaded with all-trans retinol as a model hydrophobic drug were stabilized by block copolymer nanoparticles: either poly(lactide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-b-PEG) or poly(caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL-b-PEG). Those innovative emulsions were prepared using two different processes allowing drug loading either inside oil droplets or inside both oil droplets and non-adsorbed block copolymer nanoparticles. Skin absorption of retinol was investigated in vitro on pig skin biopsies using the Franz cell method. Supplementary experiments by confocal fluorescence microscopy allowed the visualization of skin absorption of the Nile Red dye on histological sections. Retinol and Nile Red absorption experiments showed the large accumulation of hydrophobic drugs in the stratum corneum for the Pickering emulsions compared to the surfactant-based emulsion and an oil solution. Loading drug inside both oil droplets and block copolymer nanoparticles enhanced again skin absorption of drugs, which was ascribed to the supplementary contribution of free block copolymer nanoparticles loaded with drug. Such effect allowed tuning drug delivery to skin over a wide range by means of a suitable selection of either the formulation or the drug loading process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [The effects of transversus abdominis plane block on analgesic and anesthetic consumption during total abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Tugba; Ozsoy, Asker Zeki; Karaman, Serkan; Dogru, Serkan; Tapar, Hakan; Sahin, Aynur; Dogru, Hatice; Suren, Mustafa

    A transversus abdominis plane block is a peripheral block method that has been used successfully for pain relief after total abdominal hysterectomy. However, the effects of the combination of the transversus abdominis plane block and general anesthesia on analgesic and anesthetic requirements remain unclear. This randomized placebo-controlled study is aimed to evaluate the effects of transversus abdominis plane block on analgesic and anesthetic consumption during total abdominal hysterectomy under general anesthesia. Sixty-six women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy were randomized into two groups to receive general anesthesia alone (control group) or with transversus abdominis plane block using 20mL of 0.25% bupivacaine (transversus abdominis plane group). Intraoperative remifentanil and sevoflurane consumption were recorded. We also evaluated the postoperative pain, nausea, quality of recovery scores and rescue analgesic requirement during postoperative 24hours. The total remifentanil and sevoflurane consumption is significantly lower in transversus abdominis plane group; respectively mean (SD) 0.130 (0.25) vs. 0.094 (0.02) mcg.kg -1 .min -1 ; pplane group soon after surgery; median (range) 6 (2-10) vs. 3 (0-5); pplane group had significantly higher QoR-40 scores 190.5 (175-197) vs. 176.5 (141-187); pplane block with general anesthesia can provide reduced opioid and anesthetic consumption and can improve postoperative pain and quality of recovery scores in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Controlling three-dimensional vortices using multiple and moving external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nirmali Prabha; Dutta, Sumana

    2017-08-01

    Spirals or scroll wave activities in cardiac tissues are the cause of lethal arrhythmias. The external control of these waves is thus of prime interest to scientists and physicians. In this article, we demonstrate the spatial control of scroll waves by using external electric fields and thermal gradients in experiments with the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We show that a scroll ring can be made to trace cyclic trajectories under a rotating electric field. Application of a thermal gradient in addition to the electric field deflects the motion and changes the nature of the trajectory. Our experimental results are analyzed and corroborated by numerical simulations based on an excitable reaction diffusion model.

  2. Femoral nerve block in a representative sample of elderly people with hip fracture: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unneby, Anna; Svensson, Olle; Gustafson, Yngve; Olofsson, Birgitta

    2017-07-01

    The number of elderly people with hip fracture and dementia is increasing, and many of these patients suffer from pain. Opioids are difficult to adjust and side effects are common, especially with increased age and among patients with dementia. Preoperative femoral nerve block is an alternative pain treatment. To investigate whether preoperative femoral nerve block reduced acute pain and opioid use after hip fracture among elderly patients, including those with dementia. In this randomised controlled trial involving patients aged ≥70years with hip fracture (trochanteric and cervical), including those with dementia, we compared femoral nerve block with conventional pain management, with opioid use if required. The primary outcome was preoperative pain, measured at five timepoints using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Preoperative opioid consumption was also registered. The study sample comprised 266 patients admitted consecutively to the Orthopaedic Ward. The mean age was 84.1 (±6.9)years, 64% of participants were women, 44% lived in residential care facilities, and 120 (45.1%) had dementia diagnoses. Patients receiving femoral nerve block had significantly lower self-rated pain scores from baseline to 12h after admission than did controls. Self-rated and proxy VAS pain scores decreased significantly in these patients from baseline to 12h compared with controls (pblock required less opioids than did controls, overall (2.3±4.0 vs. 5.7±5.2mg, pblock had lower pain scores and required less opioids before surgery compared with those receiving conventional pain management. Femoral nerve block seems to be a feasible pain treatment for elderly people, including those with dementia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasound-Guided Single-Injection Infraclavicular Block Versus Ultrasound-Guided Double-Injection Axillary Block: A Noninferiority Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Ariane; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Dion, Nicolas; Lévesque, Simon; Nicole, Pierre C; Turgeon, Alexis F

    2016-01-01

    Single-injection ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block is a simple, reliable, and effective technique. A simplified double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block technique with a high success rate recently has been described. It has the advantage of being performed in a superficial and compressible location, with a potentially improved safety profile. However, its effectiveness in comparison with single-injection infraclavicular block has not been established. We hypothesized that the double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block would show rates of complete sensory block at 30 minutes noninferior to the single-injection ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block. After approval by our research ethics committee and written informed consent, adults undergoing distal upper arm surgery were randomized to either group I, ultrasound-guided single-injection infraclavicular block, or group A, ultrasound-guided double-injection axillary block. In group I, 30 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine was injected posterior to the axillary artery. In group A, 25 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine was injected posteromedial to the axillary artery, after which 5 mL was injected around the musculocutaneous nerve. Primary outcome was the rate of complete sensory block at 30 minutes. Secondary outcomes were the onset of sensory and motor blocks, surgical success rates, performance times, and incidence of complications. All outcomes were assessed by a blinded investigator. The noninferiority of the double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block was considered if the limits of the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) were within a 10% margin of the rate of complete sensory block of the infraclavicular block. At 30 minutes, the rate of complete sensory block was 79% in group A (90% CI, 71%-85%) compared with 91% in group I (90% CI, 85%-95%); the upper limit of CI of group A is thus included in the established noninferiority margin of 10%. The rate of complete sensory block was lower in group A (proportion

  4. Women in Educational Administration: Moving from a Paradigm of Power and Control to Empowerment and Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Francie

    Factors in the development of empowerment through ethical leadership are discussed in this paper, which draws on feminist and humanist theories. A review of literature describes the conditions in patriarchal societies that lead to and lessen the exaltation of power and control; conditions of temporary and permanent inequality; ways in which…

  5. Controlling sub-microdomain structure in microphase-ordered block copolymers and their nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Michelle Kathleen

    Block copolymers exhibit a wealth of morphologies that continue to find ubiquitous use in a diverse variety of mature and emergent (nano)technologies, such as photonic crystals, integrated circuits, pharmaceutical encapsulents, fuel cells and separation membranes. While numerous studies have explored the effects of molecular confinement on such copolymers, relatively few have examined the sub-microdomain structure that develops upon modification of copolymer molecular architecture or physical incorporation of nanoscale objects. This work will address two relevant topics in this vein: (i) bidisperse brushes formed by single block copolymer molecules and (ii) copolymer nanocomposites formed by addition of molecular or nanoscale additives. In the first case, an isomorphic series of asymmetric poly(styrene-b -isoprene-b-styrene) (S1IS2) triblock copolymers of systematically varied chain length has been synthesized from a parent SI diblock copolymer. Small-angle x-ray scattering, coupled with dynamic rheology and self-consistent field theory (SCFT), reveals that the progressively grown S2 block initially resides in the I-rich matrix and effectively reduces the copolymer incompatibility until a critical length is reached. At this length, the S2 block co-locates with the S1 block so that the two blocks generate a bidisperse brush (insofar as the S1 and S2 lengths differ). This single-molecule analog to binary block copolymer blends affords unique opportunities for materials design at sub-microdomain length scales and provides insight into the transition from diblock to triblock copolymer (and thermoplastic elastomeric nature). In the second case, I explore the distribution of molecular and nanoscale additives in microphase-ordered block copolymers and demonstrate via SCFT that an interfacial excess, which depends strongly on additive concentration, selectivity and relative size, develops. These predictions are in agreement with experimental findings. Moreover, using a

  6. The efficacy of oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy - a prospective, placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breazu, Caius Mihai; Ciobanu, Lidia; Hadade, Adina; Bartos, Adrian; Mitre, Călin; Mircea, Petru Adrian; Ionescu, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Pain control after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy can represent a challenge, considering the side effects due to standard analgesia methods. Recently the transversus abdominis plane block (TAP Block) has been used as a part of multimodal analgesia with promising results. The subcostal approach (OSTAP Block), a variant on the TAP block, produces reliable unilateral supraumbilical analgesia. This study evaluated the efficacy of the OSTAP block with bupivacaine in laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared with the placebo OSTAP block. Sixty ASA I/II adult patients listed for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated in one of two groups: Group A (OSTAP placebo) received preoperatively bilateral OSTAP block with sterile normal saline and Group B (OSTAP bupivacaine) received bilateral preoperatively OSTAP block with the same volumes of 0.25% bupivacaine. Twenty-four hours postoperative opioid consumption, the dose of opioid required during surgery, opioid dose in the recovery unit (PACU) and PACU length of stay were evaluated. The quality of analgesia was assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at specific interval hours during 24 h, at rest and with movement. The mean intraoperative opioid consumption showed a significant difference between the two groups, (385 ± 72.52 mg in group A vs 173.67 ± 48.60 mg in group B, p consumption showed a statistically significant difference between groups (32 ± 26.05 mg vs 79 ± 16.68 mg, p < 0.001). PACU length of stay was significantly lower for group B patients compared with group A patients (20.67 ± 11.27 min vs 41.67 ± 12.41 min, p < 0.001). The OSTAP bupivacaine group had a statistically significant lower pain score than the OSTAP placebo group at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 h, both at rest and with movement. No signs or symptoms of local anaesthetic systemic toxicity or other complications were detected. OSTAP block with bupivacaine 0.25% can provide effective analgesia up to 24 hours after laparoscopic

  7. Moving the Frontier of Quantum Control into the Soft X-Ray Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aquila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The femtosecond nature of X-ray free electron laser (FEL pulses opens up exciting research possibilities in time-resolved studies including femtosecond photoemission and diffraction. The recent developments of seeding X-ray FELs extend their capabilities by creating stable, temporally coherent, and repeatable pulses. This in turn opens the possibility of spectral engineering soft X-ray pulses to use as a probe for the control of quantum dynamics. We propose a method for extending coherent control pulse-shaping techniques to the soft X-ray spectral range by using a reflective geometry 4f pulse shaper. This method is based on recent developments in asymmetrically cut multilayer optic technology and piezoelectric substrates.

  8. The Latemar: A Middle Triassic polygonal fault-block platform controlled by synsedimentary tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preto, Nereo; Franceschi, Marco; Gattolin, Giovanni; Massironi, Matteo; Riva, Alberto; Gramigna, Pierparide; Bertoldi, Luca; Nardon, Sergio

    2011-03-01

    to recognize this old tectonic phase as syndepositional, and to date it to the latest Anisian ( avisianum and crassus ammonoid biochronozones). The horse-shoe shape of the platform and its margins, rectilinear for long tracts, are explained by the existence of a network of extensional faults, whose activity lasted for part of the growth of the platform. The Latemar is thus a polygonal, fault-block platform controlled by synsedimentary tectonics. The resulting sedimentary architecture is that of a growth wedge, deposited probably on the uplifted side of a submerged half graben. Continuous reactivation of faults at platform margins locally determined anomalous facies transitions, with well layered platform interior directly in contact with the clinostratified slopes.

  9. A randomised controlled trial investigating the analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block for adult laparoscopic appendicectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper-Carey, Darell Alexander; Fathil, Shahridan Mohd; Tan, Yin Kiat Glenn; Kan, Yuk Man; Cheong, Chern Yuen; Siddiqui, Fahad Javaid; Assam, Pryseley Nkouibert

    2017-08-01

    We conducted a single-centre, prospective randomised clinical trial to investigate the analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in adult patients undergoing laparoscopic appendicectomy. Patients undergoing urgent laparoscopic appendicectomy under general anaesthesia alone (control group) and general anaesthesia supplemented by TAP block (TAP intervention group) were compared. All patients received a multimodal analgesia regime, which included postoperative morphine via a patient-controlled analgesia device. The primary endpoints were morphine consumption at 12 hours and 24 hours postoperatively. Secondary endpoints included pain scores, incidence of nausea and vomiting, and time to hospital discharge. A total of 58 patients were recruited, with 29 patients in each group. Mean postoperative morphine consumption at 12 hours (control group: 11.45 ± 7.64 mg, TAP intervention group: 9.79 ± 8.09 mg; p = 0.4264) and 24 hours (control group: 13.38 ± 8.72 mg, TAP intervention group: 11.31 ± 8.66 mg; p = 0.3686) for the control and TAP intervention groups were not statistically different. Secondary outcomes were also not different between the two groups. Length of stay in the post-anaesthesia care unit was significantly shorter for the TAP intervention group, with a trend toward faster hospital discharge being observed. TAP block, a regional anaesthetic procedure performed immediately prior to skin incision for laparoscopic appendicectomy, did not significantly improve postoperative analgesia outcomes. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  10. Novel temperature-controlled RFA probe for treatment of blocked metal biliary stents in patients with pancreaticobiliary cancers: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Manu K; Oppong, Kofi W; Bekkali, Noor L H; Leeds, John S

    2018-05-01

     Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is used to treat blocked biliary stents in patients with pancreaticobiliary (PB) tumors with varying results. We report our experience with a novel temperature-controlled probe for treatment of blocked metal stents.  Patients with histologically proven PB cancers and a blocked biliary stents were treated using ELRATM electrode (Taewoong Medical) under fluoroscopic guidance. Demographics, clinical outcome, stricture diameter improvements, complications and mortality at 30 days were prospectively recorded.  Nine procedures were performed on seven patients (4 male, 3 female); mean age 65.33 (range 56 - 82 years). Mean stricture diameter prior to RFA was 1.13 mm (SD ± 0.54) and 4.42 mm (SD ± 1.54) following RFA ( P  drainage. There were no procedure-related complications. Mean follow-up was 193.55 days (range 31 - 540) and three of nine patients (33 %) died due to terminal cancer. These are the first reported data on use of a temperature-controlled RFA catheter in humans to treat blocked metal biliary stents. The device is safe but further randomized trials are required to establish the efficacy and survival benefits of this probe.

  11. Successful emergency pain control for posterior rib fractures with ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luftig, Josh; Mantuani, Daniel; Herring, Andrew A; Dixon, Brittany; Clattenburg, Eben; Nagdev, Arun

    2017-12-28

    The Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma and Trauma Anesthesiology Society Guidelines recommend prompt and effective multimodal analgesia for rib fractures that combines regional anesthesia (RA) techniques with pharmacotherapy to treat pain, optimize pulmonary function, and reduce opioid related complications. However, RA techniques such as epidurals and paravertebral blocks, are generally underutilized or unavailable for emergency department (ED) patients. The recently described serratus anterior plane block (SAPB) is a promising technique, but failures with posterior rib fractures have been observed. The erector spinae plane block (ESPB) is conceptually similar to the SAPB, but targets the posterior thorax making it likely more effective for ED patients with posterior rib fractures. Our initial experience demonstrates consistent success with the ESPB for traumatic posterior rib fracture analgesia. Herein, we present the first description of the ESPB utilized in the ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing low volume saphenous-obturator block with placebo and femoral-obturator block for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, Katja; Jensen, Kenneth; Tanggaard, Katrine

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-RC) is often associated with moderate to severe postoperative pain even with a multimodal analgesic regimen. We aimed to compare the analgesic efficacy of low volume saphenous-obturator block with placebo and femoral- obturator block in p...

  13. Moving-Bank Multiple Model Adaptive Estimation and Control Applied to a Large Flexible Space Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    was determined from the difference between the 24-state matrix product, HtP (t’)HT, and the six-state matrix product, HfPf (tT)HT’. For this...Houston: IMSL Inc., Houston, Texas (1989). 5. GNUPLOT USER’S MANUAL . "An Interactive Plotting Program." Williams, Thomas, and Colin Kelley. 6. Hawkes...Conference on Decision and Control: 712-717. Austin, Texas (December 1988). 13. LQGLIB USER’S MANUAL . "A Description of Computer Routines for Use in Linear

  14. Device for moving fuel elements and control bars from one place to another in reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmeister, B.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a device, including a gripper, for manipulation of fuel elements and control bars, or rods, in a reactor core in which a vertical mast is provided in which the gripper is nonrotatably reciprocable. The mast is rotatable on a work platform and latch elements are provided to halt the mast in selected rotated positions on the platform. Abutment means are also provided to limit the rotary movement of the mast on the platform to 360 0 . 11 Claims, 6 drawing figures

  15. Notification of tuberculosis cases in India: Moving ahead in Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is currently the leading cause of death from a curable infectious disease accounting for 8.7 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths in the year 2011. From the year 2012, TB is a notifiable disease in India which means that all cases of TB diagnosed by any means has to be reported to the public health authorities. This would help policy makers to make rational decisions with regard to strengthening of existing infrastructure and scaling-up of TB control activities in the country. Employment of multiple measures directed towards different stakeholders can be strategically implemented to intensify and fast-track the process of TB notification. In conclusion, the Indian Government's decision to specify TB as a notifiable disease is a historical and a much awaited step in the TB control activities. However to obtain the desired results, program managers along with the health care workers have to work in an integrated and collaborative manner so that the burden of TB can be reduced in years to come.

  16. Effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on transversus abdominis plane block for abdominal hysterectomy: A prospective randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany S Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Different adjuvants have been used to improve the quality and increase the duration of local anesthetics during various nerve block techniques. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on the quality and duration of transversus abdominis plane (TAP block. Methods: Sixty adult patients undergoing elective open abdominal hysterectomy were randomly allocated to receive TAP block using 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL saline 0.9% (control group, n=30 or 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL dexamethasone "8 mg" (dexamethasone group, n=30. The primary outcome was postoperative pain, as evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS for pain scoring at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h postoperatively, whereas the secondary outcomes were time to first analgesia (TFA, morphine consumption and the occurrence of nausea, vomiting or somnolence. Results: The pain VAS score was significantly lower at the postoperative 2 h (4.9 vs. 28.1, P=0.01, 4 h (12.2 vs. 31.1, P=0.01 and 12 h (15.7 vs. 25.4, P=0.02. Furthermore, TFA was significantly longer in the dexamethasone group (459.8 vs. 325.4 min, P=0.002, with lesser morphine requirements in the postoperative 48 h (4.9 vs. 21.2 mg, P=0.003 and lower incidence of nausea and vomiting (6 vs. 14, P=0.03. No complications attributed to the block were recorded. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to bupivacaine in TAP block prolonged the duration of the block and decreased the incidence of nausea and vomiting.

  17. A "One Health" surveillance and control of brucellosis in developing countries: moving away from improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, Jacques; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Pappas, Georgios; Roth, Felix; Matope, Gift; Muma, John; Marcotty, Tanguy; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Skjerve, Eystein

    2013-05-01

    Although a "One Health" approach has been successfully implemented for emerging infectious zoonotic diseases with pandemic potential, we still lack a conceptual framework to address enzootic diseases like brucellosis. The vast majority of published brucellosis studies in the developing world rely solely on serology. An important shortcoming of brucellosis serology is the impossibility to infer which (smooth) Brucella spp. induced antibodies in the host. In this respect, mixed farming and especially raising small ruminants along with cattle, a common practice in the developing world, is reported to be a risk factor and a central question that has to be answered is whether cattle are infected with B. melitensis or with B. abortus or with both Brucella species. Therefore the isolation, identification and molecular characterization of Brucella spp. in human and the different livestock species needs to be undertaken to define a sound conceptual framework, identify the source of infection and plan appropriate control measures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transversus abdominis plane block after ambulatory total laparoscopic hysterectomy: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Gustavo A; López, Claudia C; Sánchez, Enrique; De Los Ríos, José F; Vásquez, Elsa M; Serna, Eduardo; Arango, Adriana M; Castañeda, Juan D; Vásquez, Ricardo A; González, Antonio; Escobar, Alvaro; Almanza, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    To determine if transversus abdominis plane anesthetic blockage (TAP block) diminishes early postoperative pain scores and facilitates ambulatory management following total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Randomized triple blind trial. Gynecological endoscopy unit at a referral center for laparoscopic surgery. A total of 197 patients. Comparison of a treatment group receiving TAP block with bupivacaine 0.25% and placebo group with comparably placed bilateral injection of sterile saline solution. Pain scores at discharge 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery, opioid requirement after procedure. Patients who had TAP block had a significant reduction in their pain score at discharge compared with the placebo group (p = 0.017). There were no significant differences in the pain scores between groups at 24 h (95% CI 1.36-0.133, p = 0.237), 48 h (95% CI 0.689-0.465, p = 0.702) and 72 h (95% CI -0.631 to 0.223, p = 0.347). No differences were found between the groups regarding opioid requirements following the procedure (χ(2)  = 3.62, p = 0.46). Although TAP block after a total laparoscopic hysterectomy reduced the pain score at discharge compared with placebo, its role in this setting is debatable due to the possible lack of clinical significance of the small difference found. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Transversus abdominis plane block for analgesia in renal transplantation: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Freir, Noelle M

    2012-10-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has proven effective in reducing opioid requirements and pain scores for some procedures involving the lower abdominal wall. In this study we assessed its efficacy in patients with end-stage renal failure undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation.

  20. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and...

  1. Moving beyond quality control in diagnostic radiology and the role of the clinically qualified medical physicist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, H; Christaki, K; Healy, B; Loreti, G; Poli, G L; Toroi, P; Meghzifene, A

    2017-09-01

    Quality control (QC), according to ISO definitions, represents the most basic level of quality. It is considered to be the snapshot of the performance or the characteristics of a product or service, in order to verify that it complies with the requirements. Although it is usually believed that "the role of medical physicists in Diagnostic Radiology is QC", this, not only limits the contribution of medical physicists, but is also no longer adequate to meet the needs of Diagnostic Radiology in terms of Quality. In order to assure quality practices more organized activities and efforts are required in the modern era of diagnostic radiology. The complete system of QC is just one element of a comprehensive quality assurance (QA) program that aims at ensuring that the requirements of quality of a product or service will consistently be fulfilled. A comprehensive Quality system, starts even before the procurement of any equipment, as the need analysis and the development of specifications are important components under the QA framework. Further expanding this framework of QA, a comprehensive Quality Management System can provide additional benefits to a Diagnostic Radiology service. Harmonized policies and procedures and elements such as mission statement or job descriptions can provide clarity and consistency in the services provided, enhancing the outcome and representing a solid platform for quality improvement. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) promotes this comprehensive quality approach in diagnostic imaging and especially supports the field of comprehensive clinical audits as a tool for quality improvement. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvement of the performances of a tandem simulated moving bed chromatography by controlling the yield level of a key product of the first simulated moving bed unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungyong; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2017-03-10

    One of the trustworthy processes for ternary separation is a tandem simulated moving bed (SMB) process, which consists of two subordinate four-zone SMB units (Ring I and Ring II). To take full advantage of a tandem SMB as a means of recovering all three products with high purities and high economical efficiency, it is important to understand how the separation condition in Ring II is affected by that in Ring I, and further to reflect such point in the stage of designing a tandem SMB. In regard to such issue, it was clarified in this study that the Ring I factors affecting the Ring II condition could be represented by the yield level of a key product of Ring I (Y key RingI ). As the Y key RingI level became higher, the amount of the Ring I key-product that was reloaded into Ring II was reduced, which affected favorably the Ring II separation condition. On the other hand, the higher Y key RingI level caused a larger dilution for the stream from Ring I to Ring II, which affected adversely the Ring II separation condition. As a result, a minimum in the desorbent usage of a tandem SMB occurred at the Y key RingI level where the two aforementioned factors could be balanced with each other. If such an optimal Y key RingI level was adopted, the desorbent usage could be reduced by up to 25%. It was also found that as the throughput of a tandem SMB became higher, the factor related to the migration of the Ring I key-product into Ring II was more influential in the performances of a tandem SMB than the factor related to the dilution of the stream from Ring I to Ring II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Controlling the morphology of side chain liquid crystalline block copolymer thin films through variations in liquid crystalline content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verploegen, Eric; Zhang, Tejia; Jung, Yeon Sik; Ross, Caroline; Hammond, Paula T

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, we describe methods for manipulating the morphology of side-chain liquid crystalline block copolymers through variations in the liquid crystalline content. By systematically controlling the covalent attachment of side chain liquid crystals to a block copolymer (BCP) backbone, the morphology of both the liquid crystalline (LC) mesophase and the phase-segregated BCP microstructures can be precisely manipulated. Increases in LC functionalization lead to stronger preferences for the anchoring of the LC mesophase relative to the substrate and the intermaterial dividing surface. By manipulating the strength of these interactions, the arrangement and ordering of the ultrathin film block copolymer nanostructures can be controlled, yielding a range of morphologies that includes perpendicular and parallel cylinders, as well as both perpendicular and parallel lamellae. Additionally, we demonstrate the utilization of selective etching to create a nanoporous liquid crystalline polymer thin film. The unique control over the orientation and order of the self-assembled morphologies with respect to the substrate will allow for the custom design of thin films for specific nanopatterning applications without manipulation of the surface chemistry or the application of external fields.

  4. An efficient, maintenance free and approved method for spectroscopic control and monitoring of blend uniformity: The moving F-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besseling, Rut; Damen, Michiel; Tran, Thanh; Nguyen, Thanh; van den Dries, Kaspar; Oostra, Wim; Gerich, Ad

    2015-10-10

    Dry powder mixing is a wide spread Unit Operation in the Pharmaceutical industry. With the advent of in-line Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy and Quality by Design principles, application of Process Analytical Technology to monitor Blend Uniformity (BU) is taking a more prominent role. Yet routine use of NIR for monitoring, let alone control of blending processes is not common in the industry, despite the improved process understanding and (cost) efficiency that it may offer. Method maintenance, robustness and translation to regulatory requirements have been important barriers to implement the method. This paper presents a qualitative NIR-BU method offering a convenient and compliant approach to apply BU control for routine operation and process understanding, without extensive calibration and method maintenance requirements. The method employs a moving F-test to detect the steady state of measured spectral variances and the endpoint of mixing. The fundamentals and performance characteristics of the method are first presented, followed by a description of the link to regulatory BU criteria, the method sensitivity and practical considerations. Applications in upscaling, tech transfer and commercial production are described, along with evaluation of the method performance by comparison with results from quantitative calibration models. A full application, in which end-point detection via the F-test controls the blending process of a low dose product, was successfully filed in Europe and Australia, implemented in commercial production and routinely used for about five years and more than 100 batches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Field evaluation of air-blocking shelf for dust control on blasthole drills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Drew Potts; W. Randolph Reed [Office of Mine Safety and Health Research, NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dust Control, Ventilation, and Toxic Substance Branch

    2011-03-15

    In previous studies, an air-blocking shelf has been shown to be successful in reducing respirable dust leakage from the drill shroud in a laboratory setting. Dust reductions of up to 81% were achieved with the shelf under operating conditions consisting of a 1.9:1 collector-to-bailing airflow ratio and a 5.1-cm gap between the shroud and ground. Recent research focused on evaluating the shelf on two actual operating blasthole drills, in much more severe environments. In the field, the shelf reduced dust levels in the areas surrounding one operating blasthole drill by 70%. Dust reductions measured in the immediate vicinity of the shroud were reduced by 66% at one mine and 81% at the other mine. These field tests confirm that the air-blocking shelf is useful for reducing respirable dust generation from blasthole drills.

  6. Prospective double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of the pectoral nerves (Pecs) block type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versyck, Barbara; van Geffen, Geert-Jan; Van Houwe, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this clinical trial was to test the hypothesis whether adding the pectoral nerves (Pecs) block type II to the anesthetic procedure reduces opioid consumption during and after breast surgery. A prospective randomized double blind placebo-controlled study. A secondary hospital. 140 breast cancer stage 1-3 patients undergoing mastectomy or tumorectomy with sentinel node or axillary node dissection. Patients were randomized to receive either a Pecs block with levobupivacaine 0.25% (n=70) or placebo block with saline (n=70). The pain levels were evaluated by Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) pain scores at 15-minute intervals during the post anesthesia care unit stay time (PACU), at 2-hour intervals for the first 24h on the ward and at 4-hour intervals for the next 24h. Intraoperative and postoperative opioid consumption were recorded during the full stay. Patient satisfaction was evaluated upon discharge using a 10-point scale. Intraoperative sufentanil requirements were comparable for the Pecs and placebo group (8.0±3.5μg and 7.8±3.0μg, P=0.730). Patients in the Pecs group experienced significantly less pain than patients in the control group (P=0.048) during their PACU stay. Furthermore, patients in the Pecs group required significant less postoperative opioids (9.16±10.15mg and 14.97±14.38mg morphine equivalent, P=0.037) and required significant fewer postsurgical opioid administration interventions than patients in the control group (P=0.045). Both patient-groups were very satisfied about their management (9.6±0.6 and 9.1±1.8 on a 10-point scale, P=0.211). The Pecs block reduces postsurgical opioid consumption during the PACU stay time for patients undergoing breast surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Solvent-Vapor Approach toward the Control of Block Ionomer Morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineart, Kenneth P.; Lee, Byeongdu; Spontak, Richard J.

    2016-04-26

    Sulfonated block ionomers possess advantageous properties for a wide range of diverse applications such as desalination membranes, fuel cells, electroactive media, and photovoltaic devices. Unfortunately, their inherently high incompatibilities and glass transition temperatures e ff ectively prevent the use of thermal annealing, routinely employed to re fi ne the morphologies of nonionic block copolymers. An alternative approach is therefore required to promote morphological equilibration in block ionomers. The present study explores the morphological characteristics of midblock- sulfonated pentablock ionomers (SBIs) di ff ering in their degree of sulfonation (DOS) and cast from solution followed by solvent-vapor annealing (SVA). Transmission electron microscopy con fi rms that fi lms deposited from di ff erent solvent systems form nonequilibrium morphologies due to solvent-regulated self-assembly and drying. A series of SVA tests performed with solvents varying in polarity reveals that exposing cast fi lms to tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapor for at least 2 h constitutes the most e ff ective SVA protocol, yielding the anticipated equilibrium morphology. That is, three SBI grades subjected to THF-SVA self-assemble into well-ordered lamellae wherein the increase in DOS is accompanied by an increase in lamellar periodicity, as measured by small-angle X-ray scattering.

  8. The analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena K Parikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is suitable for lower abdominal surgeries. Blind TAP block has many complications and uncertainty of its effects. Use of ultrasonography increases the safety and efficacy. This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound (USG-guided TAP block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy (RDN. Methods: In a prospective randomized double-blind study, 60 patients undergoing laparoscopic donor nephrectomy were randomly divided into two groups by closed envelope method. At the end of surgery, USG-guided TAP block was given to the patients of both the groups. Study group (group S received inj. Bupivacaine (0.375%, whereas control group (group C received normal saline. Inj. Tramadol (1 mg/kg was given as rescue analgesic at visual analog scale (VAS more than 3 in any group at rest or on movement. The analgesic efficacy was judged by VAS both at rest and on movement, time to first dose of rescue analgesic, cumulative dose of tramadol, sedation score, and nausea score, which were also noted at 30 min, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h postoperatively. Total tramadol consumption at 24 h was also assessed. Results: Patients in group S had significantly lower VAS score, longer time to first dose of rescue analgesic (547.13±266.96 min vs. 49.17±24.95 min and lower tramadol consumption (103.8±32.18 mg vs. 235.8±47.5 mg in 24 h. Conclusion: The USG-guided TAP block is easy to perform and effective as a postoperative analgesic regimen in RDN, with opioids-sparing effect and without any complications.

  9. Move up,Move out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ China has already become the world's largest manufacturer of cement,copper and steel.Chinese producers have moved onto the world stage and dominated the global consumer market from textiles to electronics with amazing speed and efficiency.

  10. Fabrication of Hyperbranched Block-Statistical Copolymer-Based Prodrug with Dual Sensitivities for Controlled Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Luping; Wang, Yunfei; Zhang, Xianshuo; Ma, Liwei; Wang, Baoyan; Ji, Xiangling; Wei, Hua

    2018-01-17

    Dendrimer with hyperbranched structure and multivalent surface is regarded as one of the most promising candidates close to the ideal drug delivery systems, but the clinical translation and scale-up production of dendrimer has been hampered significantly by the synthetic difficulties. Therefore, there is considerable scope for the development of novel hyperbranched polymer that can not only address the drawbacks of dendrimer but maintain its advantages. The reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer self-condensing vinyl polymerization (RAFT-SCVP) technique has enabled facile preparation of segmented hyperbranched polymer (SHP) by using chain transfer monomer (CTM)-based double-head agent during the past decade. Meanwhile, the design and development of block-statistical copolymers has been proven in our recent studies to be a simple yet effective way to address the extracellular stability vs intracellular high delivery efficacy dilemma. To integrate the advantages of both hyperbranched and block-statistical structures, we herein reported the fabrication of hyperbranched block-statistical copolymer-based prodrug with pH and reduction dual sensitivities using RAFT-SCVP and post-polymerization click coupling. The external homo oligo(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (OEGMA) block provides sufficient extracellularly colloidal stability for the nanocarriers by steric hindrance, and the interior OEGMA units incorporated by the statistical copolymerization promote intracellular drug release by facilitating the permeation of GSH and H + for the cleavage of the reduction-responsive disulfide bond and pH-liable carbonate link as well as weakening the hydrophobic encapsulation of drug molecules. The delivery efficacy of the target hyperbranched block-statistical copolymer-based prodrug was evaluated in terms of in vitro drug release and cytotoxicity studies, which confirms both acidic pH and reduction-triggered drug release for inhibiting proliferation of He

  11. Robust Moving Horizon H∞ Control of Discrete Time-Delayed Systems with Interval Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yıldız Tascikaraoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, design of a delay-dependent type moving horizon state-feedback control (MHHC is considered for a class of linear discrete-time system subject to time-varying state delays, norm-bounded uncertainties, and disturbances with bounded energies. The closed-loop robust stability and robust performance problems are considered to overcome the instability and poor disturbance rejection performance due to the existence of parametric uncertainties and time-delay appeared in the system dynamics. Utilizing a discrete-time Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, some delay-dependent linear matrix inequality (LMI based conditions are provided. It is shown that if one can find a feasible solution set for these LMI conditions iteratively at each step of run-time, then we can construct a control law which guarantees the closed-loop asymptotic stability, maximum disturbance rejection performance, and closed-loop dissipativity in view of the actuator limitations. Two numerical examples with simulations on a nominal and uncertain discrete-time, time-delayed systems, are presented at the end, in order to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  12. The effects of transversus abdominis plane block on analgesic and anesthetic consumption during total abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Karaman

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: A transversus abdominis plane block is a peripheral block method that has been used successfully for pain relief after total abdominal hysterectomy. However, the effects of the combination of the transversus abdominis plane block and general anesthesia on analgesic and anesthetic requirements remain unclear. This randomized placebo-controlled study is aimed to evaluate the effects of transversus abdominis plane block on analgesic and anesthetic consumption during total abdominal hysterectomy under general anesthesia. Methods: Sixty-six women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy were randomized into two groups to receive general anesthesia alone (control group or with transversus abdominis plane block using 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine (transversus abdominis plane group. Intraoperative remifentanil and sevoflurane consumption were recorded. We also evaluated the postoperative pain, nausea, quality of recovery scores and rescue analgesic requirement during postoperative 24 hours. Results: The total remifentanil and sevoflurane consumption is significantly lower in transversus abdominis plane group; respectively mean (SD 0.130 (0.25 vs. 0.094 (0.02 mcg.kg-1.min-1; p < 0.01 and 0.295 (0.05 vs. 0.243 (0.06 mL.min-1; p < 0.01. In the postoperative period, pain scores were significantly reduced in transversus abdominis plane group soon after surgery; median (range 6 (2-10 vs. 3 (0-5; p < 0.001, at 2 h (5 [3-9] vs. 2.5 [0-6]; p < 0.001, at 6 h (4 [2-7] vs. 3[0-6], p < 0.001, at 12 h (3.5 [1-6] vs. 2 [1-5]; p = 0.003. The patients in the transversus abdominis plane group had significantly higher QoR-40 scores 190.5 (175-197 vs. 176.5 (141-187; p < 0.001. Conclusion: Combining transversus abdominis plane block with general anesthesia can provide reduced opioid and anesthetic consumption and can improve postoperative pain and quality of recovery scores in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy.

  13. Childhood obesity prevention and control in city recreation centres and family homes: the MOVE/me Muevo Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J P; Crespo, N C; Corder, K; Ayala, G X; Slymen, D J; Lopez, N V; Moody, J S; McKenzie, T L

    2014-06-01

    Interventions to prevent and control childhood obesity have shown mixed results in terms of short- and long-term changes. 'MOVE/me Muevo' was a 2-year family- and recreation centre-based randomized controlled trial to promote healthy eating and physical activity among 5- to 8-year-old children. It was hypothesized that children in the intervention group would demonstrate lower post-intervention body mass index (BMI) values and improved obesity-related behaviours compared with the control group children. Thirty recreation centres in San Diego County, California, were randomized to an intervention or control condition. Five hundred forty-one families were enrolled and children's BMI, diet, physical activity and other health indicators were tracked from baseline to 2 years post-baseline. Analyses followed an intent-to-treat approach using mixed-effects models. No significant intervention effects were observed for the primary outcomes of child's or parent's BMI and child's waist circumference. Moderator analyses, however, showed that girls (but not boys) in the intervention condition reduced their BMI. At the 2-year follow-up, intervention condition parents reported that their children were consuming fewer high-fat foods and sugary beverages. Favourable implementation fidelity and high retention rates support the feasibility of this intervention in a large metropolitan area; however, interventions of greater intensity may be needed to achieve effects on child's BMI. Also, further research is needed to develop gender-specific intervention strategies so that both genders may benefit from such efforts. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  14. Dynamic Stability of Cylindrical Shells under Moving Loads by Applying Advanced Controlling Techniques—Part II: Using Piezo-Stack Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Saadeldin Eldalil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The load acting on the actively controlled cylindrical shell under a transient pressure pulse propelling a moving mass (gun case has been experimentally studied. The concept of using piezoelectric stack and stiffener combination is utilized for damping the tube wall radial and circumferential deforming vibrations, in the correct meeting location timing of the moving mass. The experiment was carried out by using the same stiffened shell tube of the experimental 14 mm gun tube facility which is used in part 1. Using single and double stacks is tried at two pressure levels of low-speed modes, which have response frequencies adapted with the used piezoelectric stacks characteristics. The maximum active damping ratio is occurred at high-pressure level. The radial circumferential strains are measured by using high-frequency strain gage system in phase with laser beam detection system similar to which used in part 1. Time resolved strain measurements of the wall response were obtained, and both precursor and transverse hoop strains have been resolved. A complete comparison had been made between the effect of active controlled and stepped structure cases, which indicate a significant attenuation ratio especially at higher operating pressures.

  15. Continuous Femoral Nerve Block versus Intravenous Patient Controlled Analgesia for Knee Mobility and Long-Term Pain in Patients Receiving Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the comparative analgesia effectiveness and safety of postoperative continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB with patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA and their impact on knee function and chronic postoperative pain. Methods. Participants were randomly allocated to receive postoperative continuous femoral nerve block (group CFNB or intravenous patient controlled analgesia (group PCIA. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC scores for knee and incidence of chronic postoperative pain at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively were compared. postoperative pain and salvage medication at rest or during mobilization 24 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days postoperatively were also recorded. Results. After discharge from the hospital and rehabilitation of joint function, patients in group CFNB reported significantly improved knee flexion and less incidence of chronic postoperative pain at 3 months and 6 months postoperatively (P<0.05. Analgesic rescue medications were significantly reduced in patients receiving CFNB (P<0.001 and P=0.031, resp.. Conclusion. With standardized rehabilitation therapy, continuous femoral nerve block analgesia reduced the incidence of chronic postoperative pain, improved motility of replaced joints, and reduced the dosages of rescue analgesic medications, suggesting a recovery-enhancing effect of peripheral nerve block analgesia.

  16. Thoracic epidural catheter for postoperative pain control following an ineffective transversus abdominis plane block using liposome bupivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrien BD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brian D Terrien,1 David Espinoza,2 Charles C Stehman,3 Gabriel A Rodriguez,1 Nicholas C Connolly1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Naval Medical Center San Diego, 2Surface Warfare Medical Institute, San Diego, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Robert E. Bush Naval Hospital, Twenty Nine Palms, CA, USA Abstract: A 24-year-old female with a history of ulcerative colitis underwent colectomy. The patient received an ineffective transversus abdominis plane (TAP block with liposome bupivacaine (Exparel intraoperatively and was started on a hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia 5 hours after the TAP block, which did not relieve her pain. A continuous thoracic epidural (CTE was then placed after blood levels of bupivacaine were drawn, and the patient immediately experienced significant pain relief. The combined use of liposome bupivacaine and bupivacaine CTE infusion in the postoperative management of this patient demonstrated no safety concerns, provided excellent analgesia and plasma concentrations of bupivacaine remained far below toxic levels. Keywords: liposome bupivacaine (bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension, plasma bupivacaine levels, transversus abdominis plane (TAP nerve block, thoracic epidural

  17. Dexmedetomidine in a surgically inserted catheter for transversus abdominis plane block in donor hepatectomy: A prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelela, Mohamed Adel; Kandeel, Al-Refaey; Elsayed, Usama; Elmorshedi, Mohamed; Elsarraf, Waleed; Elsayed, Eman; Elgawalby, Ahmed; Sultan, Ahmed Mohamed; Wahab, Mohamed Abdel; Yassen, Amr

    2018-01-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a promising technique for analgesia after abdominal surgery. This prospective, randomized controlled trial assessed the effect of adding dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine in TAP block for donor hepatectomy. We hypothesized that this would improve postoperative morphine consumption and reduce analgesia related complication and inflammation. A total of 50 donor hepatectomy were enrolled in this study. Patients divided into two equal groups according to drugs used for TAP block. Group (B) received 20 ml of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25%, Group (BD) received 20 ml of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% and 0.3 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, on both sides at the end of surgery and every 8 h for 48 h at right side only through inserted catheter. Primary outcome objective was morphine consumption at first 72 h. Secondary outcome objectives were morphine requirement, numbers of intake, time to first intake, pain score numerical analog scale (NAS), postoperative analgesia related complications, recovery of intestinal motility, and inflammatory markers. Data were analyzed, rescue morphine analgesia was significantly lower in (BD) group compared with (B) groups as considering total morphine consumption (B 4 ± 1.9, BD 1.5 ± 0.5, P = 0.03), numbers of morphine intake ( P = 0.04), morphine requirement ( P = 0.03), and first time of analgesia intake ( P = 0.04). NAS was significantly lower in group (BD) compared with group (B) group in the first 12 h (NAS 0 - P = 0.001, NAS 1 - P = 0.03). Adding dexmedetomidine improved gut motility, first oral intake without detectable anti-inflammatory effect. Adding dexmedetomidine to bupivacine in a surgically inserted catheter for TAP block in donor hepatectomy reduced morphine consumption without detectable anti-inflammatory effect.

  18. What controls the partitioning between baseflow and mountain block recharge in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yingying; Zheng, Chunmiao; Andrews, Charles; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Aijing; Liu, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Mountainous areas are referred to as "water towers" since they are the source of water for many low-lying communities. The hydrologic budgets of these areas, which are particularly susceptible to climate change, are typically poorly constrained. To address this, we analyzed the partitioning between baseflow and mountain block recharge (MBR) using a regional groundwater model of the northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau run with multiple scenarios. We found that 19% of precipitation is recharged, approximately 35% of which becomes MBR, while 65% discharges as baseflow. This partitioning is relatively independent of the recharge rate but is sensitive to exponential depth decrease of hydraulic conductivity (K). The MBR is more sensitive to this exponential decrease in K than baseflow. The proportion of MBR varies from twice to half of baseflow as the decay exponent increases by more than fivefold. Thus, the depth dependence of K is critical for quantifying hydrologic partitioning in these sensitive areas.

  19. Interscalene plexus block versus general anaesthesia for shoulder surgery: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Lars J; Loosen, Gregor; Weiss, Christel; Schmittner, Marc D

    2015-02-01

    This randomized clinical trial evaluates interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB), general anaesthesia (GA) and the combination of both anaesthetic methods (GA + ISB) in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy. From July 2011 until May 2012, 120 patients (male/female), aged 20-80 years, were allocated randomly to receive ISB (10 ml mepivacaine 1 % and 20 ml ropivacaine 0.375%), GA (propofol, sunfentanil, desflurane) or ISB + GA. The primary outcome variable was opioid consumption at the day of surgery. Anaesthesia times were analysed as secondary endpoints. After surgery, 27 of 40 patients with a single ISB bypassed the recovery room (p surgery [GA: n = 25 vs. GA + ISB: n = 10 vs. ISB: n = 10, p = 0.0037]. ISB is superior to GA and GA + ISB in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy in terms of faster recovery and analgesics consumption.

  20. The MOVE study: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial assessing interventions to maximise attendance at physical activity facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Joshua D; Klein, Ruth; Bauman, Adrian; Newton, Fiona J; Mahal, Ajay; Gilbert, Kara; Piterman, Leon; Ewing, Michael T; Donovan, Robert J; Smith, Ben J

    2015-04-18

    Physical activity is associated with a host of health benefits, yet many individuals do not perform sufficient physical activity to realise these benefits. One approach to rectifying this situation is through modifying the built environment to make it more conducive to physical activity, such as by building walking tracks or recreational physical activity facilities. Often, however, modifications to the built environment are not connected to efforts aimed at encouraging their use. The purpose of the Monitoring and Observing the Value of Exercise (MOVE) study is to evaluate the effectiveness of two interventions designed to encourage the ongoing use of a new, multi-purpose, community-based physical activity facility. A two-year, randomised controlled trial with yearly survey points (baseline, 12 months follow-up, 24 months follow-up) will be conducted among 1,300 physically inactive adult participants aged 18-70 years. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, intervention 1 (attendance incentives), or intervention 2 (attendance incentives and tailored support following a model based on customer relationship management). Primary outcome measures will include facility usage, physical activity participation, mental and physical wellbeing, community connectedness, social capital, friendship, and social support. Secondary outcome measures will include stages of change for facility usage and social cognitive decision-making variables. This study will assess whether customer relationship management systems, a tool commonly used in commercial marketing settings, can encourage the ongoing use of a physical activity facility. Findings may also indicate the population segments among which the use of such systems are most effective, as well as their cost-effectiveness. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615000012572 (registered 9 January 2015).

  1. The block transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradish, G.J. III; Reid, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    The central instrumentation control and data acquisition (CICADA) computer system is comprised of a functionally distributed hierarchical network of thirteen (13) 32-bit mini-computers that are the heart of the control, monitoring, data collection and data analysis for the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR). The CICADA system was designed with the goal of providing complete control, monitoring, and data acquisition for TFTR, which includes the acquisition and storage of 20M points of data within a five-minute shot cycle. It was realized early in the system design that in order to meet this goal an ancillary system would have to be provided to supplement the subsystem CAMAC systems that, due to the relatively slow throughput of the serial highways and the overhead of relaying data to the central facilities within a star network, would not provide the necessary throughput. The authors discuss how the block transfer system provided a means of moving data directly from the CAMAC crate to the application running on the central facility computers

  2. Impact of pectoral nerve block on postoperative pain and quality of recovery in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yoshinori; Hasegawa, Miki; Yoshida, Takayuki; Takamatsu, Misako; Koyama, Yu

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, thoracic wall nerve blocks, such as the pectoral nerve (PECS) block and the serratus plane block have become popular for peri-operative pain control in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. The effect of PECS block on quality of recovery (QoR) after breast cancer surgery has not been evaluated. To evaluate the ability of PECS block to decrease postoperative pain and anaesthesia and analgesia requirements and to improve postoperative QoR in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. Randomised controlled study. A tertiary hospital. Sixty women undergoing breast cancer surgery between April 2014 and February 2015. The patients were randomised to receive a PECS block consisting of 30 ml of levobupivacaine 0.25% after induction of anaesthesia (PECS group) or a saline mock block (control group). The patients answered a 40-item QoR questionnaire (QoR-40) before and 1 day after breast cancer surgery. Numeric Rating Scale score for postoperative pain, requirement for intra-operative propofol and remifentanil, and QoR-40 score on postoperative day 1. PECS block combined with propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia significantly improved the median [interquartile range] pain score at 6 h postoperatively (PECS group 1 [0 to 2] vs. Control group 1 [0.25 to 2.75]; P = 0.018]. PECS block also reduced propofol mean (± SD) estimated target blood concentration to maintain bispectral index (BIS) between 40 and 50 (PECS group 2.65 (± 0.52) vs. Control group 3.08 (± 0.41) μg ml; P PECS group 10.5 (± 4.28) vs. Control group 10.4 (± 4.68) μg kg h; P = 0.95). PECS block did not improve the QoR-40 score on postoperative day 1 (PECS group 182 [176 to 189] vs. Control group 174.5 [157.75 to 175]). In patients undergoing breast cancer surgery, PECS block combined with general anaesthesia reduced the requirement for propofol but not that for remifentanil, due to the inability of the PECS block to reach the internal mammary area. Further, PECS

  3. Vertical Ridge Augmentation of the Atrophic Posterior Mandible with Sandwich Technique: Bone Block from the Chin Area versus Corticocancellous Bone Block Allograft—Clinical and Histological Prospective Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Laino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to compare the histological aspects of bone formation in atrophic posterior mandibles augmented by autologous bone block from chin area with corticocancellous bone block allograft used as inlays with the sandwich technique. Materials and Methods. Sixteen patients with bilateral partial edentulism in the posterior mandible were selected. The residual bone height, preliminarily measured by computed tomography scans, ranged between 5 and 7 mm from the inferior alveolar nerve. All patients required regeneration procedure with autologous bone block from chin area (control group versus bone block allograft Puros (Zimmer Dental, 1900 Aston Avenue, Carlsbad, CA, USA (test group. Histological and histomorphometric samples were collected at the time of implant positioning in order to analyze the percentage of newly formed bone, the residual graft material, and marrow spaces/soft tissue. Results. No statistically significant differences between the two groups were found regarding the percentage of newly formed bone. The percentage of residual grafted material was significantly higher in the test group, whilst the percentage of marrow spaces was higher in control group. Conclusions. In conclusion, both procedures supported good results, although the use of bone blocks allograft was less invasive and preferable than harvesting bone from the mental symphysis.

  4. Experiential Virtual Scenarios With Real-Time Monitoring (Interreality) for the Management of Psychological Stress: A Block Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavicini, Federica; Morganti, Luca; Serino, Silvia; Scaratti, Chiara; Briguglio, Marilena; Crifaci, Giulia; Vetrano, Noemi; Giulintano, Annunziata; Bernava, Giuseppe; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Pioggia, Giovanni; Raspelli, Simona; Cipresso, Pietro; Vigna, Cinzia; Grassi, Alessandra; Baruffi, Margherita; Wiederhold, Brenda; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent convergence between technology and medicine is offering innovative methods and tools for behavioral health care. Among these, an emerging approach is the use of virtual reality (VR) within exposure-based protocols for anxiety disorders, and in particular posttraumatic stress disorder. However, no systematically tested VR protocols are available for the management of psychological stress. Objective Our goal was to evaluate the efficacy of a new technological paradigm, Interreality, for the management and prevention of psychological stress. The main feature of Interreality is a twofold link between the virtual and the real world achieved through experiential virtual scenarios (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and improve self-efficacy) with real-time monitoring and support (identifying critical situations and assessing clinical change) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, wearable biosensors, and smartphones). Methods The study was designed as a block randomized controlled trial involving 121 participants recruited from two different worker populations—teachers and nurses—that are highly exposed to psychological stress. Participants were a sample of teachers recruited in Milan (Block 1: n=61) and a sample of nurses recruited in Messina, Italy (Block 2: n=60). Participants within each block were randomly assigned to the (1) Experimental Group (EG): n=40; B1=20, B2=20, which received a 5-week treatment based on the Interreality paradigm; (2) Control Group (CG): n=42; B1=22, B2=20, which received a 5-week traditional stress management training based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT); and (3) the Wait-List group (WL): n=39, B1=19, B2=20, which was reassessed and compared with the two other groups 5 weeks after the initial evaluation. Results Although both treatments were able to significantly reduce perceived stress better than WL, only EG participants reported a significant reduction (EG=12% vs CG=0

  5. Experiential virtual scenarios with real-time monitoring (interreality) for the management of psychological stress: a block randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Pallavicini, Federica; Morganti, Luca; Serino, Silvia; Scaratti, Chiara; Briguglio, Marilena; Crifaci, Giulia; Vetrano, Noemi; Giulintano, Annunziata; Bernava, Giuseppe; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Pioggia, Giovanni; Raspelli, Simona; Cipresso, Pietro; Vigna, Cinzia; Grassi, Alessandra; Baruffi, Margherita; Wiederhold, Brenda; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-07-08

    The recent convergence between technology and medicine is offering innovative methods and tools for behavioral health care. Among these, an emerging approach is the use of virtual reality (VR) within exposure-based protocols for anxiety disorders, and in particular posttraumatic stress disorder. However, no systematically tested VR protocols are available for the management of psychological stress. Our goal was to evaluate the efficacy of a new technological paradigm, Interreality, for the management and prevention of psychological stress. The main feature of Interreality is a twofold link between the virtual and the real world achieved through experiential virtual scenarios (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and improve self-efficacy) with real-time monitoring and support (identifying critical situations and assessing clinical change) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, wearable biosensors, and smartphones). The study was designed as a block randomized controlled trial involving 121 participants recruited from two different worker populations-teachers and nurses-that are highly exposed to psychological stress. Participants were a sample of teachers recruited in Milan (Block 1: n=61) and a sample of nurses recruited in Messina, Italy (Block 2: n=60). Participants within each block were randomly assigned to the (1) Experimental Group (EG): n=40; B1=20, B2=20, which received a 5-week treatment based on the Interreality paradigm; (2) Control Group (CG): n=42; B1=22, B2=20, which received a 5-week traditional stress management training based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT); and (3) the Wait-List group (WL): n=39, B1=19, B2=20, which was reassessed and compared with the two other groups 5 weeks after the initial evaluation. Although both treatments were able to significantly reduce perceived stress better than WL, only EG participants reported a significant reduction (EG=12% vs. CG=0.5%) in chronic "trait" anxiety. A similar

  6. Mesoporous Bragg reflectors: block-copolymer self-assembly leads to building blocks with well defined continuous pores and high control over optical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Guldin, S.

    2011-08-19

    Mesoporous distributed Bragg re ectors (MDBRs) exhibit porosity on the sub-optical length scale. This makes them ideally suited as sensing platforms in biology and chemistry as well as for light management in optoelectronic devices. Here we present a new fast forward route for the fabrication of MDBRs which relies on the self-assembling properties of the block copolymer poly(isoprene-block -ethylene oxide) (PI-b -PEO) in combination with sol-gel chemistry. The interplay between structure directing organic host and co-assembled inorganic guest allows the ne tuning of refractive index in the outcome material. The refractive index dierence between the high and low porosity layer can be as high as 0.4, with the optical interfaces being well dened. Following a 30 min annealing protocol after each layer deposition enables the fast and reliable stacking of MDBRs which exhibit a continuous TiO2 network with large accessible pores and high optical quality.

  7. Uniform two-dimensional square assemblies from conjugated block copolymers driven by π–π interactions with controllable sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Liang; Wang, Meijing; Jia, Xiangmeng; Chen, Wei; Qian, Hujun; He, Feng

    2018-02-28

    Two-dimensional (2-D) micro- and nano- architectures are attractive because of their unique properties caused by their ultrathin and flat morphologies. However, the formation of 2-D supramolecular highly symmetrical structures with considerable control is still a major challenge. Here, we presented a simple approach for the preparation of regular and homogeneous 2-D fluorescent square noncrystallization micelles with conjugated diblock copolymers PPV12-b-P2VPn through a process of dissolving-cooling-aging. The scale of the formed micelles could be controlled by the ratio of PPV/P2VP blocks and the concentration of the solution. The forming process of the platelet square micelles was analyzed by UV-Vis, DLS and SLS, while the molecular arrangement was characterized by GIXD. The results revealed that the micelles of PPV12-b-P2VPn initially form 1-D structures and then grow into 2-D structures in solution, and the growth is driven by intermolecular π-π interactions with the PPV12 blocks. The formation of 2-D square micelles is induced by herringbone arrangement of the molecules, which is closely related to the presence of the branched alkyl chains attached to conjugated PPV12 cores.

  8. Liposomal Bupivacaine vs Interscalene Nerve Block for Pain Control After Shoulder Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Casey V; Albrecht, Matthew J; Petersen, Steve A; Srikumaran, Uma

    The aim of this study was to compare liposomal bupivacaine and interscalene nerve block (ISNB) for analgesia after shoulder arthroplasty. We compared 37 patients who received liposomal bupivacaine vs 21 who received ISNB after shoulder arthroplasty by length of hospital stay (LOS), opioid consumption, and postoperative pain. Pain was the same in both groups for time intervals of 1 hour and 8 to 14 hours postoperatively. Compared with ISNB patients, liposomal bupivacaine patients reported less pain at 18 to 24 hours (P = .001) and 27 to 36 hours (P = .029) and had lower opioid consumption on postoperative days 2 (P = .001) and 3 (P = .002). Mean LOS for liposomal bupivacaine patients was 46 ± 20 hours vs 57 ± 14 hours for ISNB patients (P = .012). Sixteen of 37 liposomal bupivacaine patients vs 2 of 21 ISNB patients were discharged on the first postoperative day (P = .010). Liposomal bupivacaine was associated with less pain, less opioid consumption, and shorter hospital stays after shoulder arthroplasty compared with ISNB.

  9. Epidural block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000484.htm Epidural block - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An epidural block is a numbing medicine given by injection (shot) ...

  10. A new epidemic modeling approach: Multi-regions discrete-time model with travel-blocking vicinity optimal control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakary, Omar; Rachik, Mostafa; Elmouki, Ilias

    2017-08-01

    First, we devise in this paper, a multi-regions discrete-time model which describes the spatial-temporal spread of an epidemic which starts from one region and enters to regions which are connected with their neighbors by any kind of anthropological movement. We suppose homogeneous Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) populations, and we consider in our simulations, a grid of colored cells, which represents the whole domain affected by the epidemic while each cell can represent a sub-domain or region. Second, in order to minimize the number of infected individuals in one region, we propose an optimal control approach based on a travel-blocking vicinity strategy which aims to control only one cell by restricting movements of infected people coming from all neighboring cells. Thus, we show the influence of the optimal control approach on the controlled cell. We should also note that the cellular modeling approach we propose here, can also describes infection dynamics of regions which are not necessarily attached one to an other, even if no empty space can be viewed between cells. The theoretical method we follow for the characterization of the travel-locking optimal controls, is based on a discrete version of Pontryagin's maximum principle while the numerical approach applied to the multi-points boundary value problems we obtain here, is based on discrete progressive-regressive iterative schemes. We illustrate our modeling and control approaches by giving an example of 100 regions.

  11. MOVING: Motivation-Oriented interVention study for the elderly IN Greifswald: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinke, Fabian; Schwaneberg, Thea; Weymar, Franziska; Penndorf, Peter; Ulbricht, Sabina; Lehnert, Kristin; Dörr, Marcus; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; van den Berg, Neeltje

    2018-01-22

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality. In 2014, they were responsible for 38.9% of all causes of death in Germany. One major risk factor for CVD is a lack of physical activity (PA). A health-promoting lifestyle including regular PA and minimizing sitting time (ST) in daily life is a central preventive measure. Previous studies have shown that PA decreases in older age; 2.4-29% of the people aged over 60 years achieve the World Health Organization recommendations. This age group spends on average 9.4 h per day in sedentary activities. To increase PA and decrease ST, a low-threshold intervention, consisting of individualized feedback letters based on objectively measured data of PA and ST, was developed. The research question is: Do individual feedback letters, based on accelerometer data, have a positive effect on PA and ST? MOVING is a two-arm, randomized controlled trial. Inclusion criteria are age ≥ 65 years and the ability to be physically active. Exclusion criteria are the permanent use of a wheelchair and simultaneous participation in another study on PA. At baseline participants who give informed consent will receive general information and recommendations about the positive effects of regular PA and less ST. Participants of both groups will receive an accelerometer device, which records PA and ST over a period of seven consecutive days following by a randomization. Participants in the intervention group will receive automatically generated, individualized feedback letters by mail based on their PA and ST at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Further follow-up examinations will be carried out at 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome is the increase of PA and the reduction of ST after 6 months in the intervention group compared to the control group. The goal of the study is to examine the effects of a simple feedback intervention on PA and ST in elderly people. We aim to achieve an effect of 20% increase in moderate

  12. Example of Synthesis of Control Actions for Six-Legged Walking Robot when Moving on ‎Rough Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Karginov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Control actions are provided on the basis of inverse kinematic problem. Now there is a set of methods to solve this task.This article considers an example of the author’s approach application to the inverse kinematic problem.The main idea of approach is as follows:1. The limited set of the joints necessary to implement the chosen gait is selected from all joints of the robot. For these joints a strict sequence of the movement within each step and restriction of changing generalized coordinates are specified. 2. The joints non-involved in implementing the chosen gait are disabled, with no calculations performed for them.Thus, the sources of basic data for the inverse kinematic problem are the kinematic scheme of the executive mechanism of the walking robot and the chosen gait.To use the offered approach it is necessary:1. To number the legs and their joints.2. To choose joints to be involved in realization of the chosen gait.3. To appoint a sequence of the change of supporting legs when moving by the chosen gait.4. To specify a motion sequence of the chosen joints within a step for each leg.5. To specify restrictions of changes of the generalized coordinates in the chosen joints.The inverse kinematic problem process consists in gradual approach to the solution by change (increase or decrease of the generalized coordinates in the same order in which the joints of a leg corresponding to these coordinates move within a step by the chosen gait when walking.Criterion of completing calculations is the limits reached or the fact that a leg is fixed on a supporting plane by a contact sensor (or a condition in the modeling program. Changes of generalized coordinates are within a cycle; each generalized coordinate changes by a certain value at each of iterations of a cycle. The total time of a cycle corresponds to the estimated time of a step to be done.Advantages of the approach are following: unambiguity of the received solution, possibility to

  13. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  14. The Influence of Sub-Block Position on Performing Integrated Sensor Orientation Using In Situ Camera Calibration and Lidar Control Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe A. L. Costa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of photogrammetric and Lidar dataset integration is dependent on the quality of a group of parameters that models accurately the conditions of the system at the moment of the survey. In this sense, this paper aims to study the effect of the sub-block position in the entire image block to estimate the interior orientation parameters (IOP in flight conditions to be used in integrated sensor orientation (ISO. For this purpose, five sub-blocks were extracted in different regions of the entire block. Then, in situ camera calibrations were performed using sub-blocks and sets of Lidar control points (LCPs, computed by a three planes’ intersection extracted from the Lidar point cloud on building roofs. The ISO experiments were performed using IOPs from in situ calibrations, the entire image block, and the exterior orientation parameters (EOP from the direct sensor orientation (DSO. Analysis of the results obtained from the ISO experiments performed show that the IOP from the sub-block positioned at the center of the entire image block can be recommended.

  15. Does suprascapular nerve block reduce shoulder pain following stroke: a double-blind randomised controlled trial with masked outcome assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crotty Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is a common complication of a stroke which can impede participation in rehabilitation programs and has been associated with poorer outcomes. The evidence base for current medical and therapeutic management options of hemiplegic shoulder pain is limited. This study will evaluate the use of suprascapular nerve block injection as part of an interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of shoulder pain following stroke. The technique has previously been proven safe and effective in the treatment of shoulder pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis and degenerative shoulder conditions but its usefulness in a stroke population is unclear. Methods/Design A double blind randomised placebo controlled trial will assess the effect of a suprascapular nerve block compared with placebo in a population of 66 stroke patients. The trial will measure effect of injection on the primary outcome of pain, and secondary outcomes of function and quality of life. Measurements will take place at baseline, and 1, 4 and 12 weeks post intervention. Both groups will continue to receive routine physiotherapy and standard ward care. Discussion The results of this study could reduce pain symptoms in persons with mechanical shoulder pain post stroke and provide improvement in upper limb function. Trial Registration This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR - ACTRN12609000621213.

  16. The study of controlling intractable upper abdominal pain caused by cancer through neurolytic celiac plexus block guided by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Hengwu; Tian Jianming; Wang Peijun; Chen Aihua; Zuo Changjing; Xiao Yi; Wang Minjie; Fan Yuelan

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of neurolytic celiac plexus block (NCPB) and to analyze the factors related to the degree of pain relief. Methods: Forty-two patients who had intractable upper abdominal pain or accompanying referred back pain from cancer of pancreas, liver, stomach, colon and bile duct received bilateral alcohol neurolytic celiac plexus blocks under CT guidance. The results of pain relief were classified into 0-III grade. The spread of neurolytic solution (with contrast material) was observed through 3D reconstruction. Results: During the 3 months follow-up, the total effective rates of pain relief in 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months and 3 months were 92.86%, 88.10%, 85.00% and 80.56% respectively. Satisfactory pain relief results were obtained when the neurolytic solution encircled the aorta adequately from two sides. There were no severe complications in any case. Conclusion: NCPB guided by CT proves to be an effective and safe means of controlling intractable upper abdominal cancer pain and should be popularized

  17. Radiometric control of the position of blind holes axes in graphite blocks of high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutaine, J.L.; Bujas, R.; Lemonnier, A.; Tortel, J.

    1976-01-01

    The principles of a radiometric method intended for controlling the positions of blind hole axes are given. A comparison is made between radiometry and radiography and the performances obtained using a thulium 170 source are described. The automation capabilities are discussed [fr

  18. The LEGO toolbox: Supramolecular building blocks by nitroxide-mediated controlled radical polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmeijer, B.G.G.; Schubert, U.S.

    2005-01-01

    A terpyridine-functionalized alkoxyamine unimolecular initiator was used for the nitroxide-mediated controlled living radical polymerization of n-butylacrylate, N,N-dimethylacrylamide, 4-vinylpyridine, 2-vinylpyridine, and isoprene. For the former three monomers, the kinetics were studied. All

  19. Thoracic paravertebral block versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for pain treatment in patients with multiple rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeying, Ge; Liyong, Yuan; Yuebo, Chen; Yu, Zhang; Guangao, Ye; Weihu, Ma; Liujun, Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of thoracic paravertebral block (PVB) on pain management and preservation of pulmonary function compared with intravenous, patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) in patients with multiple rib fractures (MRFs). Methods Ninety patients with unilateral MRFs were included in this prospective study and randomly assigned to the TPVB or IVPCA group. The visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, blood gas analysis, and bedside spirometry were measured and recorded at different time points after analgesia. Results TPVB and IVPCA provided good pain relief. VAS scores were significantly lower in the TPVB group than in the IVPCA group at rest and during coughing ( P pain relief and preservation of pulmonary function in patients with MRFs.

  20. The neurolytic celiac plexus block using CT guidance through anterior abdominal approach to control the cancer pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jie; Yang Ning; Liu Wei; Jin Zhengyu; Zhao Yupei; Cai Lixing

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of neurolytic celiac plexus block (Ncb) using CT guidance through anterior abdominal approach. Methods: The clinical data of 24 patients who were given NCPB because of the suffering of upper abdominal and back pain caused by pancreatic carcinoma and other cancer in advanced stage were retrospectively analyzed. The therapeutic effect was evaluated with complete pain relief and partial pain relief. Results: The effective rate and complete pain relief rate in short period ( 3 months) were 71.4% and 14.3% respectively. No severe complications occurred. Conclusion: NCPB guided by CT through anterior abdominal approach is an effective, safe and simple method to control the upper abdominal and back pain caused by cancer

  1. Threshold heating temperature for magnetic hyperthermia: Controlling the heat exchange with the blocking temperature of magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, B.; Caraballo-Vivas, R. J.; Checca, N. R.; Zverev, V. I.; Salakhova, R. T.; Makarova, L. A.; Pyatakov, A. P.; Perov, N. S.; Tishin, A. M.; Shtil, A. A.; Rossi, A. L.; Reis, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    La0.75Sr0.25MnO3 nanoparticles with average diameter close to 20.9 nm were synthesized using a sol-gel method. Measurements showed that the heating process stops at the blocking temperaturesignificantly below the Curie temperature. Measurements of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) as a function of AC magnetic field revealed a superquadratic power law, indicating that, in addition to usual Néel and Brown relaxation, the hysteresis also plays an important role in the mechanism of heating. The ability to control the threshold heating temperature, a low remanent magnetization and a low field needed to achieve the magnetic saturation are the advantages of this material for therapeutic magnetic hyperthermia.

  2. High-definition polymeric membranes: construction of 3D lithographed channel arrays through control of natural building blocks dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, Valentina; Trotta, Francesco; Drioli, Enrico; Gugliuzza, Annarosa

    2010-02-01

    The fabrication of well-defined interfaces is in high demand in many fields of biotechnologies. Here, high-definition membrane-like arrays are developed through the self-assembly of water droplets, which work as natural building blocks for the construction of ordered channels. Solution viscosity together with the dynamics of the water droplets can decide the final formation of three-dimensional well-ordered patterns resembling anodic structures, especially because solvents denser than water are used. Particularly, the polymer solution viscosity is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for control of the mobility of submerged droplets during the microfabrication process. The polymeric patterns are structured at very high levels of organization and exhibit well-established transport-surface property relationships, considered basics for any types of advanced biotechnologies.

  3. Acceleromyography and mechanomyography for establishing potency of neuromuscular blocking agents: a randomized-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Viby-Mogensen, J; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2009-01-01

    ) for this purpose. The aim of this study was to compare AMG and MMG for establishing dose-response relationship and potency, using rocuronium as an example. METHODS: We included 40 adult patients in this randomized-controlled single-dose response study. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol...... and opioid. Neuromuscular blockade was induced with rocuronium 100, 150, 200 or 250 microg/kg. Neuromuscular monitoring was performed with AMG (TOF-Watch SX) with pre-load (Hand Adapter) at one arm and MMG (modified TOF-Watch SX) on the other, using 0.1 Hz single twitch stimulation. Dose...

  4. Aboard the "Moving School."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscow, Mel; Hopkins, David

    1992-01-01

    In many countries, education legislation embodies contradictory pressures for centralization and decentralization. In the United Kingdom, there is growing government control over policy and direction of schools; schools are also being given more responsibility for resource management. "Moving" schools within Improving the Quality of…

  5. The effects of transversus abdominis plane block on analgesic and anesthetic consumption during total abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Karaman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: A transversus abdominis plane block is a peripheral block method that has been used successfully for pain relief after total abdominal hysterectomy. However, the effects of the combination of the transversus abdominis plane block and general anesthesia on analgesic and anesthetic requirements remain unclear. This randomized placebo-controlled study is aimed to evaluate the effects of transversus abdominis plane block on analgesic and anesthetic consumption during total abdominal hysterectomy under general anesthesia. Methods: Sixty-six women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy were randomized into two groups to receive general anesthesia alone (control group or with transversus abdominis plane block using 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine (transversus abdominis plane group. Intraoperative remifentanil and sevoflurane consumption were recorded. We also evaluated the postoperative pain, nausea, quality of recovery scores and rescue analgesic requirement during postoperative 24 hours. Results: The total remifentanil and sevoflurane consumption is significantly lower in transversus abdominis plane group; respectively mean (SD 0.130 (0.25 vs. 0.094 (0.02 mcg.kg−1.min−1; p < 0.01 and 0.295 (0.05 vs. 0.243 (0.06 mL.min−1; p < 0.01. In the postoperative period, pain scores were significantly reduced in transversus abdominis plane group soon after surgery; median (range 6 (2–10 vs. 3 (0–5; p < 0.001, at 2 h (5 [3–9] vs. 2.5 [0–6]; p < 0.001, at 6 h (4 [2–7] vs. 3[0–6], p < 0.001, at 12 h (3.5 [1–6] vs. 2 [1–5]; p = 0.003. The patients in the transversus abdominis plane group had significantly higher QoR-40 scores 190.5 (175–197 vs. 176.5 (141–187; p < 0.001. Conclusion: Combining transversus abdominis plane block with general anesthesia can provide reduced opioid and anesthetic consumption and can improve postoperative pain and quality of recovery scores in patients undergoing total

  6. CFD Analysis of Hot Spot Fuel Temperature in the Control Fuel Block Assembly of a VHTR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Tak, Nam Il; Noh, Jae Man

    2010-01-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) dedicated for efficient hydrogen production requires core outlet temperatures of more than 950 .deg. C. As the outlet temperature increases, the thermal margin of the core decreases, which highlights the need for a detailed analysis to reduce its uncertainty. Tak et al. performed CFD analysis for a 1/12 fuel assembly model and compared the result with a simple unit-cell model in order to emphasize the need of a detailed CFD analysis for the prediction of hot spot fuel temperatures. Their CFD model, however, was focused on the standard fuel assembly but not on the control fuel assembly in which a considerable amount of bypass flow is expected to occur through the control rod passages. In this study, a CFD model for the control fuel block assembly is developed and applied for the hot spot analyses of PMR200 core. Not only the bypass flow but also the cross flow is considered in the analyses

  7. TCR moves to MCR

    CERN Multimedia

    Peter Sollander, AB/OP/TI

    2005-01-01

    The monitoring of CERN's technical infrastructure has moved from the Technical Control Room in building 212 to the Meyrin Control Room (MCR) in building 354 (see map) and from the TS/CSE group to AB/OP. The operation's team as well as the services provided remain the same as before and you can still reach the operator on shift by calling 72201. Peter Sollander, AB/OP/TI

  8. [Postoperative analgesia in knee arthroplasty using an anterior sciatic nerve block and a femoral nerve block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Fresno Cañiaveras, J; Campos, A; Galiana, M; Navarro-Martínez, J A; Company, R

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a nerve block as an alternative technique for analgesia after knee arthroplasty and to indicate the usefulness and advantages of the anterior approach to the sciatic nerve block. Between April 2004 and March 2006, we studied a series of consecutive patients undergoing knee arthroplasty in which a subarachnoid block was used as the anesthetic technique and postoperative analgesia was provided by means of a combined peripheral femoral nerve block and an anterior sciatic nerve block. We evaluated the mean length of time free from pain, quality of analgesia, and length of stay in hospital. Seventy-eight patients were included in the study. The mean (SD) length of time free from pain for the group was 42.1 (3.9) hours. Patients reported mild pain after 34.8 (4.1) hours and moderate to severe pain after 42.4 (3.5) hours. By the third day, 62.8% of patients were able to bend the knee to 90 degrees. There were no complications resulting from the technique and the level of patient satisfaction was high. A combined femoral-sciatic nerve block is effective in knee arthroplasty. It controls postoperative pain and allows for early rehabilitation. The anterior approach to the sciatic nerve is relatively simple to perform without removing the pressure bandaging from the thigh after surgery. This approach also makes it unnecessary to move the patient.

  9. Intravenous patient-controlled fentanyl with and without transversus abdominis plane block in cirrhotic patients post liver resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serag Eldin M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Manar Serag Eldin,1 Fatma Mahmoud,1 Rabab El Hassan,2 Mohamed Abdel Raouf,1 Mohamed H Afifi,2 Khaled Yassen,1 Wesam Morad31Department of Anaesthesia, Liver Institute, 2Department of Anaesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Liver Institute, Menoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, EgyptBackground: Coagulation changes can complicate liver resection, particularly in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this prospective hospital-based comparative study was to compare the postoperative analgesic efficacy of intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA with and without transversus abdominis plane (TAP block.Methods: Fifty patients with Child’s A cirrhosis undergoing liver resection were randomly divided into two groups for postoperative analgesia, ie, an IVPCA group receiving a 10 µg/mL fentanyl bolus of 15 µg with a 10-minute lockout and a maximum hourly dose of 90 µg, and an IVPCA + TAP group that additionally received TAP block (15 mL of 0.375% bupivacaine on both sides via a posterior approach with ultrasound guidance before skin incision. Postoperatively, bolus injections of bupivacaine 0.375% were given every 8 hours through a TAP catheter inserted by the surgeon in the open space during closure of the inverted L-shaped right subcostal with midline extension (subcostal approach guided by the visual analog scale score (<3, 5 mL; 3 to <6, 10 mL; 6–10, 15–20 mL according to weight (maximum 2 mg/kg. The top-up dosage of local anesthetic could be omitted if the patient was not in pain. Coagulation was monitored using standard coagulation tests.Results: Age, weight, and sex were comparable between the groups (P<0.05. The visual analog scale score was significantly lower at 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 hours (P<0.01 in IVPCA + TAP group. The Ramsay sedation score was lower only after 72 hours in the IVPCA + TAP group when compared with the IVPCA group (1.57±0.74 versus 2.2±0.41, respectively, P

  10. Bilateral sphenopalatine ganglion block reduces blood pressure in never treated patients with essential hypertension. A randomized controlled single-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllidi, Helen; Arvaniti, Chrysa; Schoinas, Antonios; Benas, Dimitris; Vlachos, Stefanos; Palaiodimos, Leonidas; Pavlidis, George; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Batistaki, Chrysanthi; Voumvourakis, Costas; Lekakis, John

    2018-01-01

    Sympathetic fibers connect sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) with the central nervous system. We aimed to study the effect of SPG block in blood pressure (BP) in never treated patients with stage I-II essential hypertension. We performed bilateral SPG block with lidocaine 2% in 33 hypertensive patients (mean age 48±12years, 24 men) and a sham operation with water for injection in 11 patients who served as the control group (mean age 51±12years, 8 men). All patients have been subjected to 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring prior and a month after the SBG block in order to estimate any differences in blood pressure parameters. We defined as responders to SBG block those patients with a 24h SBP decrease ≥5mmHg. We found that 24h and daytime DBP (p=0.02) as well as daytime DBP load (p=0.03) were decreased in the study group a month after SPG block. In addition, a significant response was noted in 12/33 responders (36%) regarding: a. SBP and DBP during overall 24h and daytime (pblock is a promising, minimally invasive option of BP decrease in hypertensives, probably through SNS modulation. Additionally, due to its anesthetic effect, SPG block might act as a method of selection for those hypertensive patients with an activated SNS before any other invasive antihypertensive procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Clonidine used as a perineural adjuvant to ropivacaine, does not prolong the duration of sensory block when controlling for systemic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Hessel; Jaeger, Pia; Sonne, Tobias Laier

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine have been shown to prolong the duration of peripheral nerve blocks. The mechanism of action remains unclear. We hypothesized, that clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine extends the duration of an adductor canal block (ACB) by a perip......BACKGROUND: Clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine have been shown to prolong the duration of peripheral nerve blocks. The mechanism of action remains unclear. We hypothesized, that clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine extends the duration of an adductor canal block (ACB......) by a peripheral mechanism, compared to ropivacaine alone when controlling for systemic effects. METHODS: We conducted a paired, blinded, randomized trial in healthy volunteers. Participants received bilateral ACBs containing 20 ml ropivacaine 0.5% + 1 ml clonidine 150μg/ml in one leg and 20 ml ropivacaine 0.......5% + 1 ml saline in the other leg. The primary outcome measure was duration of sensory block assessed by temperature sensation (alcohol swab). Secondary outcome measures were duration of sensory block assessed by: pinprick, maximum pain during tonic heat stimulation, warmth detection threshold and heat...

  12. Influence of preoperative oral rehydration on arterial plasma rocuronium concentrations and neuromuscular blocking effects: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Sayaka; Ogura, Takahiro; Kanaya, Ayana; Miyake, Yu; Masui, Kenichi; Kazama, Tomiei

    2017-01-01

    The influence of preoperative rehydration on the action of rocuronium has not yet been investigated. The objective is to evaluate the hypothesis that preoperative rehydration lowers arterial rocuronium plasma concentrations and changes its associated neuromuscular blocking effects during induction of anaesthesia. Randomised, single-blinded study. A secondary hospital from October 2013 to July 2014. In total, 46 men undergoing elective surgery were eligible to participate and were randomly allocated into two groups. Exclusion criteria were severe hepatic, renal or cardiovascular disorder; neuromuscular disease; history of allergy to rocuronium; BMI more than 30 kg m; receiving medication known to influence neuromuscular function. Participants received 1500 ml of oral rehydration solution (rehydration group) or none (control group) until 2 hours before anaesthesia. Arterial blood samples were obtained 60, 90 and 120 s and 30 min after rocuronium (0.6 mg kg) administration during total intravenous anaesthesia. Responses to 0.1-Hz twitch stimuli were measured at the adductor pollicis muscle using acceleromyography. Arterial plasma rocuronium concentrations. Arterial plasma rocuronium concentrations at 60, 90 and 120 s in the rehydration and control groups were 9.9 and 13.7, 6.8 and 9.5 and 6.2 and 8.1 μg ml, respectively (P = 0.02, 0.003 and 0.02, respectively); the onset times in the rehydration and control groups were 92.0 and 69.5 s (P = 0.01), and the times to twitch re-appearance were 25.3 and 30.4 min (P = 0.004), respectively. Preoperative rehydration significantly reduces arterial plasma rocuronium concentrations in the first 2 minutes after administration, prolonging the onset time and shortening the duration of effect. A higher dose or earlier administration should be considered for patients who receive preoperative rehydration. Umin identifier: UMIN000011981.

  13. Comparison of liposomal bupivacaine infiltration versus interscalene nerve block for pain control in total shoulder arthroplasty: A meta-analysis of randomized control trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiuling; Pan, Fang

    2017-09-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficiency and safety of liposomal bupivacaine infiltration and interscalene nerve block for pain control after total shoulder arthroplasty. A systematic search was performed in Medline (1966 to May 2017), PubMed (1966 to May 2017), Embase (1980 to May 2017), ScienceDirect (1985 to May 2017) and the Cochrane Library. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Reported surgical outcomes, including visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, opioid consumption, length of stay, and postoperative adverse effects including the risk of nausea and vomiting. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 11.0 software. Four RCTs including 510 patients met the inclusion criteria. The present meta-analysis indicated that there were no significant differences between groups in terms of VAS score at 12 hours (standard mean difference [SMD] = 0.272, 95% CI: -0.150 to 0.695, P = .207), 24 hours (SMD = -0.056, 95% CI: -0.458 to 0.346, P = 0.785), and 48 hours (SMD = 0.183, 95% CI: -0.148 to 0.513, P = .278). Liposomal bupivacaine infiltration groups required an equivalent amount of opioids at postoperative 12 hours (SMD = -0.039, 95% CI: -0.222 to 0.143, P = .672), 24 hours (SMD = 0.046, 95% CI: -0.136 to 0.228, P = .618) and 48 hours (SMD = -0.025, 95% CI: -0.207 to 0.157, P = .785). Liposomal bupivacaine infiltration provides equivalent postoperative pain control compared with interscalene nerve block following total shoulder arthroplasty. Both of them can reduce the consumption of opioids without severe adverse effects. More high-quality RCTs with long follow-up period are necessary for proper comparisons of the efficacy and safety of liposomal bupivacaine infiltration with interscalene nerve block.

  14. Detection block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezak, A.

    1987-01-01

    A diagram is given of a detection block used for monitoring burnup of nuclear reactor fuel. A shielding block is an important part of the detection block. It stabilizes the fuel assembly in the fixing hole in front of a collimator where a suitable gamma beam is defined for gamma spectrometry determination of fuel burnup. The detector case and a neutron source case are placed on opposite sides of the fixing hole. For neutron measurement for which the water in the tank is used as a moderator, the neutron detector-fuel assembly configuration is selected such that neutrons from spontaneous fission and neutrons induced with the neutron source can both be measured. The patented design of the detection block permits longitudinal travel and rotation of the fuel assembly to any position, and thus more reliable determination of nuclear fuel burnup. (E.S.). 1 fig

  15. Postoperative Analgesic Efficacy of Bilateral Transversus Abdominis Plane Block in Patients Undergoing Midline Colorectal Surgeries Using Ropivacaine: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Nahida; Bhat, Wasim Mohammad; Iqbal, Malik Zaffar; Wani, Anisur Rehman; Gurcoo, Showkat A; Rasool, Sahir

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is done as a part of multimodal analgesia for pain relief after abdominal surgeries. This prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the postoperative analgesic efficacy of bilateral TAP block in patients undergoing midline colorectal surgeries using ropivacaine. Eighty patients scheduled for elective colorectal surgeries involving midline abdominal wall incision under general anesthesia were enrolled in this prospective randomized controlled trial. Group A received TAP block with 20 ml of 0.2% ropivacaine on either side of the abdominal wall, and Group B received 20 ml of normal saline. The time to request for rescue analgesia, total analgesic consumption in 24 h, and satisfaction with the anesthetic technique were assessed. The mean visual analog scale scores at rest and on coughing were higher in control group ( P > 0.05). Time (min) to request for the first rescue analgesia was prolonged in study group compared to control group ( P consumption in 24 h postoperatively was significantly high in control group ( P 0.05). The level of satisfaction concerning postoperative pain control/anesthetic technique was higher in study group ( P < 0.001). TAP block produces effective and prolonged postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing midline colorectal surgery. It is a technically simple block to perform with a high margin of safety. It produces a considerable reduction in mean intravenous postoperative tramadol requirements, reduction in postoperative pain scores, and increased time to first request for further analgesia, both at rest and on movement.

  16. Lattice Boltzmann methods for moving boundary flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamuro, Takaji

    2012-01-01

    The lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) for moving boundary flows are presented. The LBM for two-phase fluid flows with the same density and the LBM combined with the immersed boundary method are described. In addition, the LBM on a moving multi-block grid is explained. Three numerical examples (a droplet moving in a constricted tube, the lift generation of a flapping wing and the sedimentation of an elliptical cylinder) are shown in order to demonstrate the applicability of the LBMs to moving boundary problems. (invited review)

  17. Lattice Boltzmann methods for moving boundary flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamuro, Takaji, E-mail: inamuro@kuaero.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and Advanced Research Institute of Fluid Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    The lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) for moving boundary flows are presented. The LBM for two-phase fluid flows with the same density and the LBM combined with the immersed boundary method are described. In addition, the LBM on a moving multi-block grid is explained. Three numerical examples (a droplet moving in a constricted tube, the lift generation of a flapping wing and the sedimentation of an elliptical cylinder) are shown in order to demonstrate the applicability of the LBMs to moving boundary problems. (invited review)

  18. Dynamic-MLC leaf control utilizing on-flight intensity calculations: A robust method for real-time IMRT delivery over moving rigid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, Ryan; Papiez, Lech; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy

    2007-01-01

    An algorithm is presented that allows for the control of multileaf collimation (MLC) leaves based entirely on real-time calculations of the intensity delivered over the target. The algorithm is capable of efficiently correcting generalized delivery errors without requiring the interruption of delivery (self-correcting trajectories), where a generalized delivery error represents anything that causes a discrepancy between the delivered and intended intensity profiles. The intensity actually delivered over the target is continually compared to its intended value. For each pair of leaves, these comparisons are used to guide the control of the following leaf and keep this discrepancy below a user-specified value. To demonstrate the basic principles of the algorithm, results of corrected delivery are shown for a leading leaf positional error during dynamic-MLC (DMLC) IMRT delivery over a rigid moving target. It is then shown that, with slight modifications, the algorithm can be used to track moving targets in real time. The primary results of this article indicate that the algorithm is capable of accurately delivering DMLC IMRT over a rigid moving target whose motion is (1) completely unknown prior to delivery and (2) not faster than the maximum MLC leaf velocity over extended periods of time. These capabilities are demonstrated for clinically derived intensity profiles and actual tumor motion data, including situations when the target moves in some instances faster than the maximum admissible MLC leaf velocity. The results show that using the algorithm while calculating the delivered intensity every 50 ms will provide a good level of accuracy when delivering IMRT over a rigid moving target translating along the direction of MLC leaf travel. When the maximum velocities of the MLC leaves and target were 4 and 4.2 cm/s, respectively, the resulting error in the two intensity profiles used was 0.1±3.1% and -0.5±2.8% relative to the maximum of the intensity profiles. For

  19. Adding magnesium sulfate to bupivacaine in transversus abdominis plane block for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A single blinded randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Al-Refaey

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Adding MgSo4 as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in TAP block; during anesthesia for LC; improved postoperative analgesia in the form of increased duration, decreased analgesic requirements and PONV.

  20. Opioid-sparing effects of the thoracic interfascial plane blocks: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preet Mohinder Singh

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Use of PECS block and its modifications with general anesthesia for breast surgery has significant opioid-sparing effect intraoperatively and during the first 24 h after surgery. It also has higher intraoperative opioid-sparing effect when compared to PVB. During the 1st postoperative day, PVB has slightly more morphine sparing potential that may however be associated with higher complication rates. The present PECS block techniques show marked interstudy variations and need standardization.

  1. Oncoplastic round block technique has comparable operative parameters as standard wide local excision: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Geok-Hoon; Allen, John Carson; Ng, Ruey Pyng

    2017-08-01

    Although oncoplastic breast surgery is used to resect larger tumors with lower re-excision rates compared to standard wide local excision (sWLE), criticisms of oncoplastic surgery include a longer-albeit, well concealed-scar, longer operating time and hospital stay, and increased risk of complications. Round block technique has been reported to be very suitable for patients with relatively smaller breasts and minimal ptosis. We aim to determine if round block technique will result in operative parameters comparable with sWLE. Breast cancer patients who underwent a round block procedure from 1st May 2014 to 31st January 2016 were included in the study. These patients were then matched for the type of axillary procedure, on a one to one basis, with breast cancer patients who had undergone sWLE from 1st August 2011 to 31st January 2016. The operative parameters between the 2 groups were compared. 22 patients were included in the study. Patient demographics and histologic parameters were similar in the 2 groups. No complications were reported in either group. The mean operating time was 122 and 114 minutes in the round block and sWLE groups, respectively (P=0.64). Length of stay was similar in the 2 groups (P=0.11). Round block patients had better cosmesis and lower re-excision rates. A higher rate of recurrence was observed in the sWLE group. The round block technique has comparable operative parameters to sWLE with no evidence of increased complications. Lower re-excision rate and better cosmesis were observed in the round block patients suggesting that the round block technique is not only comparable in general, but may have advantages to sWLE in selected cases.

  2. Ultrasound-guided subcostal-posterior transversus abdominis plane block for pain control following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek E. Arı

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the analgesic effect of a subcostal-posterior transversus abdominis plane (TAP block combination following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Methods: This study was conducted at Fatih Sultan Mehmet Educational and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, between March 2014 and June 2015. A total of 40 patients with a body mass index of 40-60 kg/m2 scheduled for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy were randomly allocated into 2 groups. Patients in Group I (n=20 received a bilateral subcostal TAP block, and patients in Group II (n=20 received a bilateral subcostal and posterior TAP block. Pain intensity was assessed at rest and during coughing using the visual analog scale (VAS prior to and at various time points after TAP block (0 min, 30 min, 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours. Morphine consumption over 24 hours and time to first morphine requirement were recorded. Results: There was no difference in VAS scores between groups. Morphine consumption was 6.78±5.95 mg in Group I, and 7.28±5.95 mg in Group II (p=0.795. Time to first morphine requirement was 267.22±303.84 min for Group I, and 207.80±209.81 min for Group II (p=0.154. Conclusions: Subcostal-posterior TAP block provided equivalent analgesia to subcostal TAP block alone following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

  3. Comparison of periodontal ligament injection and inferior alveolar nerve block in mandibular primary molars pulpotomy: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Roza; Taleghani, Ferial

    2015-05-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve block is a common technique for anesthesia of the primary mandibular molars. A number of disadvantages have been shown to be associated with this technique. Periodontal ligament (PDL) injection could be considered as an alternative to inferior alveolar nerve block. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PDL injection in the anesthesia of primary molar pulpotomy with mandibular block. This study was performed using a sequential double-blind randomized trial design. 80 children aged 3-7 years old who required pulpotomy in symmetrical mandibular primary molars were selected. The teeth of these children were anesthetized with periodontal injection on one side of the mandible and block on the other. Pulpotomy was performed on each patient during the same appointment. Signs of discomfort, including hand and body tension and eye movement, the verbal complaint and crying (SEM scale), were evaluated by a dental assistant who was blinded to the treatment allocation of the patients. Finally, the data were analyzed using the exact Fisher test and Pearson Chi-squared exact test. Success rate was 88/75 and 91/25 in the PDL injection and nerve block groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the two techniques (P = 0.250). Results showed that PDL injection can be used as an alternative to nerve block in pulpotomy of the mandibular primary molars.

  4. A double-blind randomized controlled trial comparing dexamethasone and clonidine as adjuvants to a ropivacaine sciatic popliteal block for foot surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeylen K

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kris Vermeylen,1 Joris De Puydt,2 Stefan Engelen,3 Eva Roofthooft,3 Filiep Soetens,1 Arne Neyrinck,4 Marc Van de Velde4 1Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, AZ Turnhout, Turnhout, 2Department of Anesthesia, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, 3Department of Anesthesia, ZNA Hospital Network Antwerp, Antwerp, 4Department of Cardiovascular Sciences and Anesthesiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Louvain, Belgium Background and aims: A popliteal block is effective in managing postoperative pain for foot surgery, but since the duration of analgesia is limited following a single-shot popliteal fossa block technique, methods to prolong effective postoperative analgesia are mandatory. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adjuvants to ropivacaine on the duration of sensory and motor block.Methods: In this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the analgesic effect of clonidine or dexamethasone (DXM when added to ropivacaine for hallux valgus surgery. After obtaining institutional ethics research board approval and written informed consent, a total of 72 patients were randomly allocated. Fifty-seven of these patients were statistically analyzed. All patients received an ultrasound-guided single-shot popliteal fossa block with 30 mL of ropivacaine 0.75%, supplemented with saline, clonidine 100 µg, or DXM 5 mg. The primary end point was time to first pain sensation. Secondary end points were time to complete sensory and motor block regression.Results: Compared to saline, duration to first pain sensation was prolonged by 9 hours (mean ± standard deviation: 31±9 hours (42% in the DXM group (P=0.024 and by 6 hours (28±10 hours (27% in the clonidine group (P=0.024. Compared to saline, DXM prolonged both complete sensory and motor blockade by 12 hours (25±7 hours (46% and 13 hours (36±6 hours (55%, respectively, while clonidine prolonged complete sensory and motor blockade by 7 hours (30±7 hours (27% and

  5. Clonidine used as a perineural adjuvant to ropivacaine, does not prolong the duration of sensory block when controlling for systemic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Hessel; Jaeger, Pia; Sonne, Tobias Laier

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine have been shown to prolong the duration of peripheral nerve blocks. The mechanism of action remains unclear. We hypothesized, that clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine extends the duration of an adductor canal block (ACB......) by a peripheral mechanism, compared to ropivacaine alone when controlling for systemic effects. METHODS: We conducted a paired, blinded, randomized trial in healthy volunteers. Participants received bilateral ACBs containing 20 ml ropivacaine 0.5% + 1 ml clonidine 150μg/ml in one leg and 20 ml ropivacaine 0...... pain detection threshold. RESULTS: We enrolled 21 volunteers and all completed the trial. There was no difference in duration of sensory block assessed with an alcohol swab: Mean duration in the leg receiving ropivacaine + clonidine was 19.4h (SD 2.7) compared to 19.3h (SD 2.4) in the leg receiving...

  6. Effects of opium addiction on level of sensory block in spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine for lower abdomen and limb surgery: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasy, Seyyed Hasan; Derakhshan, Pooya

    2014-12-01

    In clinical practice, the level of sensory block in spinal anesthesia in opium abusers is lower than that in non-abusers because of adaptive changes caused by opium use. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of sensory block resulting from the intrathecal administration of 0.5% bupivacaine in opium abuser patients undergoing lower extremity and lower abdominal surgeries. A total of 100 patients who were candidates of elective lower extremity orthopedic and lower abdominal surgeries were recruited and assigned to two groups based on their history of opium addiction (Case or control). Both groups underwent the same anesthesia procedure and pinprick test was used to assess the level of anesthesia. No statistically significant difference was observed between groups regarding age, duration of the surgery, and type of surgery. The frequency of addiction was higher in males than in females. The level of sensory block at three minutes was significantly lower in the opium abuser group (P = 0.006). The mean time to achieve T10 sensory block was 10.33 ± 5.79 minutes in the opium abusers and 6.89 ± 3.88 minutes in the controls (P = 0.001). The level of the highest sensory block was lower in the opium abuser group (P = 0.002). The findings of this study suggested that after induction of spinal anesthesia with intrathecal administration of bupivacaine, chronic opium abusers would have a lower level of sensory block in comparison with patients without a history of opium abuse.

  7. Comparison of Customized Cutting Block and Conventional Cutting Instrument in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammachote, Nattapol; Panichkul, Phonthakorn; Kanitnate, Supakit

    2018-03-01

    Customized cutting block (CCB) was designed to ensure the accurate alignment of knee prostheses during total knee arthroplasty. Given the paucity of CCB efficacy data, we compare CCB with conventional cutting guide using a randomized controlled trial. One hundred eight osteoarthritic knee patients underwent total knee arthroplasty by one experienced surgeon were randomized to receive CCB (n = 54) or conventional cutting instrument (CCI) surgery (n = 54). The primary outcomes were limb alignment, prostheses position, and operative time. The secondary outcomes were hemodynamic alteration after surgery, functional outcomes (modified Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index) and range of motion at 2 years after surgery. Mean hip-knee-ankle angle in the CCB group was 179.4° ± 1.8° vs 179.1° ± 2.4° in the CCI group, Δ = 0 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.6 to 1.1, P = .55). Mean operative time was faster in the CCB arm: 93 ± 12 vs 104 ± 12 minutes, Δ = 11 (95% CI -16.7 to -7.2, P < .0001). There were no differences in hemodynamic parameters, mean blood loss (446 [CCB] vs 514 mL [CCI], Δ = -68 [95% CI -138 to 31 mL, P = .21]), postoperative hemoglobin changes, incidence of hypotension (systolic <90 mm Hg), oliguria, and rates of blood transfusion. Functional outcomes and range of motion were also similar. There was no improvement in alignment, hemodynamic changes, blood loss, and knee functional outcomes. CCB reduced surgical time by 11 minutes in our population. CCB cost-effectiveness should be further investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vagal Blocking Improves Glycemic Control and Elevated Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shikora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An active device that downregulates abdominal vagal signalling has resulted in significant weight loss in feasibility studies. Objective. To prospectively evaluate the effect of intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC on weight loss, glycemic control, and blood pressure (BP in obese subjects with DM2. Methods. Twenty-eight subjects were implanted with a VBLOC device (Maestro Rechargeable System at 5 centers in an open-label study. Effects on weight loss, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and BP were evaluated at 1 week to 12 months. Results. 26 subjects (17 females/9 males, 51±2 years, BMI 37±1 kg/m2, mean ± SEM completed 12 months followup. One serious adverse event (pain at implant site was easily resolved. At 1 week and 12 months, mean excess weight loss percentages (% EWL were 9±1% and 25±4% (P<0.0001, and HbA1c declined by 0.3±0.1% and 1.0±0.2% (P=0.02, baseline 7.8±0.2%. In DM2 subjects with elevated BP (n=15, mean arterial pressure reduced by 7±3 mmHg and 8±3 mmHg (P=0.04, baseline 100 ± 2 mmHg at 1 week and 12 months. All subjects MAP decreased by 3 ± 2 mmHg (baseline 95 ± 2 mmHg at 12 months. Conclusions. VBLOC was safe in obese DM2 subjects and associated with meaningful weight loss, early and sustained improvements in HbA1c, and reductions in BP in hypertensive DM2 subjects. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00555958.

  9. Measuring the health systems impact of disease control programmes: a critical reflection on the WHO building blocks framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Griffiths, Ulla K; Closser, Svea; Burchett, Helen; Marchal, Bruno

    2014-03-25

    The WHO health systems Building Blocks framework has become ubiquitous in health systems research. However, it was not developed as a research instrument, but rather to facilitate investments of resources in health systems. In this paper, we reflect on the advantages and limitations of using the framework in applied research, as experienced in three empirical vaccine studies we have undertaken. We argue that while the Building Blocks framework is valuable because of its simplicity and ability to provide a common language for researchers, it is not suitable for analysing dynamic, complex and inter-linked systems impacts. In our three studies, we found that the mechanical segmentation of effects by the WHO building blocks, without recognition of their interactions, hindered the understanding of impacts on systems as a whole. Other important limitations were the artificial equal weight given to each building block and the challenge in capturing longer term effects and opportunity costs. Another criticism is not of the framework per se, but rather how it is typically used, with a focus on the six building blocks to the neglect of the dynamic process and outcome aspects of health systems.We believe the framework would be improved by making three amendments: integrating the missing "demand" component; incorporating an overarching, holistic health systems viewpoint and including scope for interactions between components. If researchers choose to use the Building Blocks framework, we recommend that it be adapted to the specific study question and context, with formative research and piloting conducted in order to inform this adaptation. As with frameworks in general, the WHO Building Blocks framework is valuable because it creates a common language and shared understanding. However, for applied research, it falls short of what is needed to holistically evaluate the impact of specific interventions on health systems. We propose that if researchers use the framework, it

  10. Moving a House by Moved Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    himself in controlling every detail of the shape of the concrete slaps. He pushed all the other participants of the meetings, asking for details, information, the change of drawings etc. He explained the technical issues he was pursuing, was prepared for problems at the meetings, was well informed, always......? The participant observer believed it was a matter of changing coordinates, but the engineers immediately saw it was an issue of pipes in the ground, could they be moved and still function as planned? To decide the possibility of this suggestion the engineer was given the task of investigating the consequences...... they saw him as a bit pushy. On the other hand they understood why he was so since his firm would be fined if the concrete slabs did not meet specifications. The case will be the basis for a discussion of double motivation of the engineer, his evident interest in his professional work, and the wish...

  11. Genetic algorithm based active vibration control for a moving flexible smart beam driven by a pneumatic rod cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-cheng; Shi, Ming-li; Wang, Bin; Xie, Zhuo-wei

    2012-05-01

    A rod cylinder based pneumatic driving scheme is proposed to suppress the vibration of a flexible smart beam. Pulse code modulation (PCM) method is employed to control the motion of the cylinder's piston rod for simultaneous positioning and vibration suppression. Firstly, the system dynamics model is derived using Hamilton principle. Its standard state-space representation is obtained for characteristic analysis, controller design, and simulation. Secondly, a genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to optimize and tune the control gain parameters adaptively based on the specific performance index. Numerical simulations are performed on the pneumatic driving elastic beam system, using the established model and controller with tuned gains by GA optimization process. Finally, an experimental setup for the flexible beam driven by a pneumatic rod cylinder is constructed. Experiments for suppressing vibrations of the flexible beam are conducted. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed pneumatic drive scheme and the adopted control algorithms are feasible. The large amplitude vibration of the first bending mode can be suppressed effectively.

  12. Moving from rational to normative ideologies of control over public involvement: A case of continued managerial dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Charlotte; Currie, Graeme; Staniszewska, Sophie

    2016-08-01

    Public Involvement (PI) is a strategic priority in global healthcare settings, yet can be seen as peripheral during decision making processes. Whilst extant research acknowledges variations in how policy is translated into practice, the majority attribute it to the limiting influence of professional hierarchies on the perceived 'legitimacy' of PI. Drawing on examples of three commissioning organisations within the English NHS, we outline how the variance in policy implementation for PI can be attributed to influence from the managers rather than professionals. In doing so we explore how rational ideologies of managerial control negatively impact PI. However, we also illustrate how PI alluded to in policy can be more successfully realised when organisational managers enact normative ideologies of control. Notwithstanding this assertion, we argue managerial domination exists even in the case of normative ideologies of control, to the detriment of more radical PI in service development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Postoperative analgesic efficiency of transversus abdominis plane block after ventral hernia repair: a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesov, Ion; Belîi, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    Effective postoperative analgesia is a key element in reducing postoperative morbidity, accelerating recovery and avoiding chronic postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) block, performed before surgical incision, in providing postoperative analgesia for patients undergoing open ventral hernia repair under general anaesthesia. Seventy elective patients scheduled for open ventral hernia repair surgery under general anaesthesia were divided randomly into two equal groups: Group I received bilateral TAP block performed before surgical incision (n = 35); Group II received systemic postoperative analgesia with parenteral opioid (morphine) alone (n = 35). Postoperatively pain scores at rest and with movement, total morphine consumption and opioid related side effects were recorded. Postoperative pain scores at rest and mobilization/cough were significantly higher in patients without TAP block (p consumption was comparable between the two groups: 0.75 ± 0.31 mg in group I (TAP) and 0.86 ± 0.29 mg in group II (MO), p = 0.1299. Patients undergoing preincisional TAP block had reduced morphine requirements during the first 24 hours after surgery, compared to patients from group II, without TAP block (p = 0.0001). There was no difference in the incidence of opioid related side effects (nausea, vomiting) in the both groups during the first 24 postoperative hours. The use of preincisional ultrasound guided TAP block reduced the pain scores at rest and with movement/cough, opioid consumption and opioid-related side effects after ventral hernia repair when compared with opioid-only analgesia.

  14. Moving beyond command-and-control: reflexivity in the regulation of occupational safety and health and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalders, M.V.C.; Wilthagen, T.

    1997-01-01

    Direct or "command-and-control" regulation has had limited success in dealing with occupational health and safety and with environmental regulation. This lack of success has led policymakers to experiment with self-regulation as an alternative means of achieving the goals of social regulation. The

  15. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  16. A moving experience !

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The Transport Service pulled out all the stops and, more specifically, its fleet of moving and lifting equipment for the Discovery Monday on 6 June - a truly moving experience for all the visitors who took part ! Visitors could play at being machine operator, twiddling the controls of a lift truck fitted with a jib to lift a dummy magnet into a wooden mock-up of a beam-line.They had to show even greater dexterity for this game of lucky dip...CERN-style.Those with a head for heights took to the skies 20 m above ground in a telescopic boom lift.Children were allowed to climb up into the operator's cabin - this is one of the cranes used to move the LHC magnets around. Warm thanks to all members of the Transport Service for their participation, especially B. Goicoechea, T. Ilkei, R. Bihery, S. Prodon, S. Pelletier, Y. Bernard, A.  Sallot, B. Pigeard, S. Guinchard, B. Bulot, J. Berrez, Y. Grandjean, A. Bouakkaz, M. Bois, F. Stach, T. Mazzarino and S. Fumey.

  17. Nonlinear automatic landing control of unmanned aerial vehicles on moving platforms via a 3D laser radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervas, Jaime Rubio; Tang, Hui [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 639798 (Singapore); Reyhanoglu, Mahmut [Physical Sciences Department, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    This paper presents a motion tracking and control system for automatically landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on an oscillating platform using Laser Radar (LADAR) observations. The system itself is assumed to be mounted on a ship deck. A full nonlinear mathematical model is first introduced for the UAV. The ship motion is characterized by a Fourier transform based method which includes a realistic characterization of the sea waves. LADAR observation models are introduced and an algorithm to process those observations for yielding the relative state between the vessel and the UAV is presented, from which the UAV's state relative to an inertial frame can be obtained and used for feedback purposes. A sliding mode control algorithm is derived for tracking a landing trajectory defined by a set of desired waypoints. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is proposed to account for process and observation noises in the design of a state estimator. The effectiveness of the control algorithm is illustrated through a simulation example.

  18. Nonlinear automatic landing control of unmanned aerial vehicles on moving platforms via a 3D laser radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervas, Jaime Rubio; Tang, Hui; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a motion tracking and control system for automatically landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on an oscillating platform using Laser Radar (LADAR) observations. The system itself is assumed to be mounted on a ship deck. A full nonlinear mathematical model is first introduced for the UAV. The ship motion is characterized by a Fourier transform based method which includes a realistic characterization of the sea waves. LADAR observation models are introduced and an algorithm to process those observations for yielding the relative state between the vessel and the UAV is presented, from which the UAV's state relative to an inertial frame can be obtained and used for feedback purposes. A sliding mode control algorithm is derived for tracking a landing trajectory defined by a set of desired waypoints. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is proposed to account for process and observation noises in the design of a state estimator. The effectiveness of the control algorithm is illustrated through a simulation example

  19. A Dual Active Bridge Converter with an Extended High-Efficiency Range by DC Blocking Capacitor Voltage Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Shen, Yanfeng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2018-01-01

    of hard switching and high circulating power. Thus, a new modulation scheme has been proposed, whose main idea is to introduce a voltage offset across the dc blocking capacitor connected in series with the transformer. Operational principle of the proposed modulation has been introduced, before analyzing...

  20. Ultrasound-guided genicular nerve block for pain control after total knee replacement: Preliminary case series and technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sotelo, V; Maculé, F; Minguell, J; Bergé, R; Franco, C; Sala-Blanch, X

    2017-12-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an operation with moderate to severe postoperative pain. The Fast-Track models employ local infiltration techniques with anaesthetics at high volumes (100-150ml). We proposed a genicular nerve block with low volume of local anaesthetic. The aim of our study is to evaluate the periarticular distribution of these blocks in a fresh cadaver model and to describe the technique in a preliminary group of patients submitted to TKA. In the anatomical phase, 4 genicular nerves (superior medial, superior lateral, inferior medial and inferior lateral) were blocked with 4ml of local anaesthetic with iodinated contrast and methylene blue in each (16ml in total). It was performed on a fresh cadaver and the distribution of the injected medium was evaluated by means of a CT-scan and coronal anatomical sections on both knees. The clinical phase included 12 patients scheduled for TKA. Ultrasound-guided block of the 4 genicular nerves was performed preoperatively and their clinical efficacy evaluated by assessing pain after the reversal of the spinal block and at 12h after the block. Pain was measured using the numerical scale and the need for rescue analgesia was evaluated. A wide periarticular distribution of contrast was observed by CT-scan, which was later evaluated in the coronal sections. The distribution followed the joint capsule without entering the joint, both in the femur and in the tibia. The pain after the reversal of the subarachnoid block was 2±1, requiring rescue analgesia in 42% of the patients. At 12h, the pain according to the numerical scale was 4±1, 33% required rescue analgesia. The administration of 4ml of local anaesthetic at the level of the 4 genicular nerves of the knee produces a wide periarticular distribution. Our preliminary data in a series of 12 patients undergoing TKA seems to be clinically effective. Nevertheless, extensive case series and comparative studies with local infiltration techniques with anaesthetics are

  1. On the Use of a Block Analog of the Gerschgorin Circle-Theorem in the Design of Decentralized Control of a Class of Large-Scale Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole A. Solheim

    1981-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of decentralized control of interconnected dynamic systems. It is assumed that each subsystem has its own control input and that the interconnections are through the states of the other subsystems. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the possibility of using the so-called block Gerschgorin theorem to evaluate the stability of the total system, given the local controllers. This theorem enables us to determine inclusion regions for the eigenvalues of the total system and these regions are usually sharper than those obtained by the usual Gerschgorin circle theorem.

  2. Efficacy of Pectoral Nerve Block Type II for Breast-Conserving Surgery and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo-Hwan Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The pectoral nerve block type II (PECS II block is widely used for postoperative analgesia after breast surgery. This study evaluated the analgesic efficacy of PECS II block in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery (BCS and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB. Methods. Patients were randomized to the control group (n=40 and the PECS II group (n=40. An ultrasound-guided PECS II block was performed after induction of anesthesia. The primary outcome measure was opioid consumption, and the secondary outcome was pain at the breast and axillary measured using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS 24 hours after surgery. Opioid requirement was assessed according to tumor location. Results. Opioid requirement was lower in the PECS II than in the control group (43.8 ± 28.5 µg versus 77.0 ± 41.9 µg, p<0.001. However, the frequency of rescue analgesics did not differ between these groups. Opioid consumption in the PECS II group was significantly lower in patients with tumors in the outer area than that in patients with tumors in the inner area (32.5 ± 23.0 µg versus 58.0 ± 29.3 µg, p=0.007. The axillary NRS was consistently lower through 24 hr in the PECS II group. Conclusion. Although the PECS II block seemed to reduce pain intensity and opioid requirements for 24 h after BCS and SNB, these reductions may not be clinically significant. This trial is registered with Clinical Research Information Service KCT0002509.

  3. Moving effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder to primary care: A randomized controlled trial with active duty military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Rauch, Sheila A; Mintz, Jim; Brundige, Antoinette R; Mitchell, Jennifer A; Najera, Elizabeth; Litz, Brett T; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Roache, John D; Hembree, Elizabeth A; Goodie, Jeffrey L; Sonnek, Scott M; Peterson, Alan L

    2017-12-01

    Many military service members with PTSD do not receive evidence-based specialty behavioral health treatment because of perceived barriers and stigma. Behavioral health providers in primary care can deliver brief, effective treatments expanding access and reducing barriers and stigma. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to determine if a brief cognitive-behavior therapy delivered in primary care using the Primary Care Behavioral Health model would be effective at reducing PTSD and co-occurring symptoms. A total of 67 service members (50 men, 17 women) were randomized to receive a brief, trauma-focused intervention developed for the primary care setting called Prolonged Exposure for Primary Care (PE-PC) or a delayed treatment minimal contact control condition. Inclusion criteria were significant PTSD symptoms following military deployment, medication stability, and interest in receiving treatment for PTSD symptoms in primary care. Exclusion criteria were moderate or greater risk of suicide, severe brain injury, or alcohol/substance use at a level that required immediate treatment. Assessments were completed at baseline, posttreatment/postminimal contact control, and at 8-week and 6-month posttreatment follow-up points. Primary measures were the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview and the PTSD Checklist-Stressor-Specific. PE-PC resulted in larger reduction in PTSD severity and general distress than the minimal contact control. Delayed treatment evidenced medium to large effects comparable to the immediate intervention group. Treatment benefits persisted through the 6-month follow-up of the study. PE-PC delivered in integrated primary care is effective for the treatment of PTSD and co-occurring symptoms and may help reduce barriers and stigma found in specialty care settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Intrathecal opioid versus ultrasound guided fascia iliaca plane block for analgesia after primary hip arthroplasty: study protocol for a randomised, blinded, noninferiority controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinsella John

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip replacement surgery is increasingly common due to an ageing population, and rising levels of obesity. The provision of excellent pain relief with minimal side effects is important in order to facilitate patient mobilisation and rehabilitation. Spinal opioids provide excellent analgesia but are associated with adverse effects. The fascia-iliaca block is an alternative technique which provides analgesia to the nerves innervating the hip. The success of fascia iliaca blocks has been demonstrated to be superior when using ultrasound compared to landmark techniques. However, the clinical benefit of this improvement has yet to be investigated. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block with spinal morphine for hip replacement surgery. Methods/Design This study is a randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, noninferiority trial. Patients scheduled to undergo unilateral primary hip arthroplasty will receive a study information sheet and consent will be obtained in keeping with the Declaration of Helsinki. Patients will be randomised to receive either; (i Ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block using levobupivacaine, plus spinal anaesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine containing no morphine, or (ii sham ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block performed with sterile saline, and spinal anaesthesia containing hyperbaric bupivacaine and 0.1 mg of spinal morphine. A total of 108 patients will be recruited. Primary outcome is post-operative morphine consumption in a 24 hour period. Secondary outcomes include; pain scores at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours, episodes of respiratory depression, hypotension, nausea and vomiting, pruritus, sedation, time to first mobilisation and patient satisfaction. Conclusions There are no studies to date comparing ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block with spinal morphine for pain control after hip arthroplasty. If the ultrasound guided fascia iliaca

  5. Optimal dose of perineural dexmedetomidine for interscalene brachial plexus block to control postoperative pain in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery: A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hong Soo; Seo, Kwon Hui; Kang, Jae Hyuk; Jeong, Jin-Young; Kim, Yong-Shin; Han, Na-Re

    2018-04-01

    Adjuvant perineural dexmedetomidine can be used to prolong the analgesic effect of interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB). We investigated the optimal dose of dexmedetomidine in ISB for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. One hundred patients scheduled for elective shoulder arthroscopic surgery were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind study. Ultrasound-guided ISB was performed before general anesthesia using 22 mL of ropivacaine 0.5% combined with 1, 1.5, or 2 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine (group D1, D2, and D3, respectively) or with normal saline as a control (group R, n = 25 per group). The primary outcome was the duration of analgesia (DOA), numeric pain rating scale (NRS), and consumption of additional analgesics during 36 h after ISB. Secondary outcome included durations of motor and sensory block (DOM and DOS), hemodynamic variables and sedation and dyspnea scores. Ninety-seven patients completed the study. The DOS, DOM, and DOA were significantly longer in the dexmedetomidine groups than in group R. The DOA was significantly longer in group D3 than in groups D1 (P = .026) and D2 (P = .039). The DOA was 808.13 ± 179.97, 1032.60 ± 288.14, 1042.04 ± 188.13, and 1223.96 ± 238.06 min in groups R, D1, D2, and D3, respectively. The NRS score was significantly higher in group R than in the dexmedetomidine groups 12 h after ISB (P surgery (P = .008 and P = .011, respectively). There were no significant differences in consumption of rescue analgesics, sedation, and dyspnea scores between the study groups. Perineural dexmedetomidine 2 μg/kg could be the optimal dose in ISB for arthroscopic shoulder surgery in that it provides an adequate DOA. However, this dose was associated with increased risk of hypotension.

  6. Inverse engineering for fast transport and spin control of spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in moving harmonic traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Jiang, Ruan-Lei; Li, Jing; Ban, Yue; Sherman, E. Ya.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate fast transport and spin manipulation of tunable spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in a moving harmonic trap. Motivated by the concept of shortcuts to adiabaticity, we design inversely the time-dependent trap position and spin-orbit-coupling strength. By choosing appropriate boundary conditions we obtain fast transport and spin flip simultaneously. The nonadiabatic transport and relevant spin dynamics are illustrated with numerical examples and compared with the adiabatic transport with constant spin-orbit-coupling strength and velocity. Moreover, the influence of nonlinearity induced by interatomic interaction is discussed in terms of the Gross-Pitaevskii approach, showing the robustness of the proposed protocols. With the state-of-the-art experiments, such an inverse engineering technique paves the way for coherent control of spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in harmonic traps.

  7. Physiotherapy to improve physical activity in community-dwelling older adults with mobility problems (Coach2Move): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Nienke M; Staal, J Bart; Teerenstra, Steven; Adang, Eddy M M; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2013-12-17

    Older adults can benefit from physical activity in numerous ways. Physical activity is considered to be one of the few ways to influence the level of frailty. Standardized exercise programs do not necessarily lead to more physical activity in daily life, however, and a more personalized approach seems appropriate. The main objective of this study is to investigate whether a focused, problem-oriented coaching intervention ('Coach2Move') delivered by a physiotherapist specializing in geriatrics is more effective for improving physical activity, mobility and health status in community-dwelling older adults than usual physiotherapy care. In addition, cost-effectiveness will be determined. The design of this study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial in thirteen physiotherapy practices. Randomization will take place at the individual patient level. The study population consists of older adults, ≥70 years of age, with decreased physical functioning and mobility and/or a physically inactive lifestyle. The intervention group will receive geriatric physiotherapy according to the Coach2Move strategy. The control group will receive the usual physiotherapy care. Measurements will be performed by research assistants not aware of group assignment. The results will be evaluated on the amount of physical activity (LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire), mobility (modified 'get up and go' test, walking speed and six-minute walking test), quality of life (SF-36), degree of frailty (Evaluative Frailty Index for Physical Activity), fatigue (NRS-fatigue), perceived effect (Global Perceived Effect and Patient Specific Complaints questionnaire) and health care costs. Most studies on the effect of exercise or physical activity consist of standardized programs. In this study, a personalized approach is evaluated within a group of frail older adults, many of whom suffer from multiple and complex diseases and problems. A complicating factor in evaluating a new approach is that it

  8. Investigation of the Contamination Control in a Cleaning Room with a Moving AGV by 3D Large-Scale Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-He Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The motions of the airflow induced by the movement of an automatic guided vehicle (AGV in a cleanroom are numerically studied by large-scale simulation. For this purpose, numerical experiments scheme based on domain decomposition method is designed. Compared with the related past research, the high Reynolds number is treated by large-scale computation in this work. A domain decomposition Lagrange-Galerkin method is employed to approximate the Navier-Stokes equations and the convection diffusion equation; the stiffness matrix is symmetric and an incomplete balancing preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG method is employed to solve the linear algebra system iteratively. The end wall effects are readily viewed, and the necessity of the extension to 3 dimensions is confirmed. The effect of the high efficiency particular air (HEPA filter on contamination control is studied and the proper setting of the speed of the clean air flow is also investigated. More details of the recirculation zones are revealed by the 3D large-scale simulation.

  9. Job Surfing: Move On to Move Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Justin

    1997-01-01

    Looks at the process of switching jobs and changing careers. Discusses when to consider options and make the move as well as the need to be flexible and open minded. Provides a test for determining the chances of promotion and when to move on. (JOW)

  10. Effects of preoperative ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block on pain after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tak Kyu; Yim, Jiyeon; Kim, Jaehyun; Eom, Woosik; Lee, Soon Ae; Park, Sung Chan; Oh, Jae Hwan; Park, Ji Won; Park, Boram; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Although laparoscopic colorectal surgery decreases postoperative pain and facilitates a speedier recovery compared with laparotomy, postoperative pain at trocar insertion sites remains a clinical concern. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a preoperative ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block on pain after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer. In total, 58 patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic surgery following a diagnosis of colorectal cancer were included in this study. The patients were randomized into TAP and control groups; the TAP group patients received a preoperative ultrasound-guided bilateral TAP block with 0.5 mL/kg of 0.25 % bupivacaine, while the control patients received the block with an equal amount of saline. Pain on coughing and at rest was assessed during postanesthetic recovery (PAR; 1 h after surgery) and on postoperative days (PODs) 1 (24 h), 2 (48 h), and 3 (72 h) by an investigator blinded to group allocations using the numeric rating scale (NRS). The primary outcome was pain on coughing on postoperative day (POD) 1. Fifty-five patients were included in the final analysis, including 28 in the TAP and 27 in the control groups. The pain intensity on coughing and at rest during PAR and on PODs 1, 2, and 3 showed no significant differences between groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in postoperative opioid consumption, sedation scores, nausea scores at the four time points, complication rates, and length of hospital stay between groups. In colorectal cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery, a TAP block did not offer enough benefit for clinical efficacy in terms of postoperative pain or analgesic consumption.

  11. Ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee arthroplasty: a multicenter randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative analgesia is crucial for early functional excise after total knee arthroplasty. To investigate the clinical efficacy of ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: 46 patients with ASA grade I-III who underwent total knee arthroplasty received postoperative analgesia from October 2012 to January 2013. In 22 patients, ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block were performed for analgesia (CFNB group; in 24 patients, epidural analgesia was done (PCEA group. The analgesic effects, side effects, articular recovery and complications were compared between two groups. RESULTS: At 6 h and 12 h after surgery, the knee pain score (VAS score during functional tests after active exercise and after passive excise in CFNB were significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. The amount of parecoxib used in CFNB patients was significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. At 48 h after surgery, the muscle strength grade in CFNB group was significantly higher, and the time to ambulatory activity was shorter than those in PCEA group. The incidence of nausea and vomiting in CFNB patients was significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block provide better analgesia at 6 h and 12 h, demonstrated by RVAS and PVAS. The amount of parecoxib also reduces, the incidence of nausea and vomiting decreased, the influence on muscle strength is compromised and patients can perform ambulatory activity under this condition.

  12. Minimum Effective Concentration of Bupivacaine in Ultrasound-Guided Femoral Nerve Block after Arthroscopic Knee Meniscectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Ed Carlos Rey; de Oliveira Honda, Claudio A; Bringel, Roberto Cesar Teixeira; Leal, Plinio da Cunha; Filho, Gasper de Jesus Lopes; Sakata, Rioko Kinmiko

    2016-01-01

    Adequate analgesia is important for early hospital discharge after meniscectomy. A femoral nerve block may reduce the need for systemic analgesics, with fewer side effects; however, motor block can occur. Ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block may reduce the required local anesthetic concentration, preventing motor block. The primary objective of this study was to determine the lowest effective analgesic concentration of bupivacaine in 50% (EC50) and in 90% (EC90) of patients for a successful ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block in arthroscopic knee meniscectomy. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. This study was conducted at Hospital São Domingos. A total of 52 patients undergoing arthroscopic knee meniscectomy were submitted to ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block using 22 mL bupivacaine. The bupivacaine concentration given to a study patient was determined by the response of the previous patient (a biased-coin design up-down sequential method). If the previous patient had a negative response, the bupivacaine concentration was increased by 0.05% for the next case. If the previous patient had a positive response, the next patient was randomized to receive the same bupivacaine concentration (with a probability of 0.89) or to have a decrease by 0.05% (with a probability of 0.11). A successful block was defined by a numerical pain intensity scale score different evaluations. If the pain intensity score was = 4 (moderate or severe pain) at any time, the block was considered failed. General anesthesia was induced with 30 µg/kg alfentanil and 2 mg/kg propofol, followed by propofol maintanance, plus remifentanil if needed. Postoperative analgesia supplementation was performed with dipyrone; ketoprofen and tramadol were given if needed. The following parameters were evaluated: numerical pain intensity score, duration of analgesia, supplementary analgesic dose in 24 hours, and need for intraoperative remifentanil. The EC50 was 0.160 (95

  13. Recovery characteristics of patients receiving either sugammadex or neostigmine and glycopyrrolate for reversal of neuromuscular block: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, M J; Kaye, R; Baber, C; Nathan, E A

    2018-03-01

    Sugammadex more rapidly and reliably reverses rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block compared with neostigmine, but it is not known if subsequent patient outcomes, including nausea, vomiting and other aspects of recovery are modified. In this study, we compared the recovery characteristics of sugammadex and neostigmine/glycopyrrolate following reversal of neuromuscular block. This was a single-centre, randomised, blinded, parallel-group clinical trial in women undergoing elective day-surgical laparoscopic gynaecological surgery, with a standardised general anaesthesia regimen that included rocuronium. Neuromuscular block was reversed with either sugammadex 2 mg.kg -1 or neostigmine 40 μg.kg -1 and glycopyrrolate 400 μg. The primary outcome was the incidence of nausea and vomiting during the first six postoperative hours. Secondary outcomes included other measures of postoperative recovery such as patient symptoms and recovery scores. Three-hundred and four women were analysed by intention-to-treat (sugammadex n = 151, neostigmine n = 153), which included four major protocol violations. There was no significant difference between sugammadex and neostigmine groups in the incidence of early nausea and vomiting (49.0% vs. 51.0%, respectively; OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.59-1.45; p = 0.731). Double vision (11.5% vs. 20.0%; p = 0.044) and dry mouth (71.6% vs. 85.5%; p = 0.003) were less common after sugammadex. Sedation scores at 2 h were also lower after sugammadex (median (IQR [range]) 0 (0-3 [0-10]) vs. 2 (0-4.[0-10]); p = 0.021). Twenty-four-hour recovery scores were not significantly different between groups. Reversal with sugammadex in this patient population did not reduce postoperative nausea or vomiting compared with neostigmine/glycopyrrolate. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Controlled Synthesis of AB2 amphiphilic triarm star-shaped block copolymers by ring-opening polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Petrova, Svetla; Riva, Raphaël; Jérôme, Christine; Lecomte, Philippe; Mateva, Rosa

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of a novel amphiphilic AB2 triarm star-shaped copolymer with A = non-toxic and biocompatible hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and B = biodegradable and hydrophobic poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). A series of AB2 triarm star-shaped copolymers with different molecular weights for the PCL block were successfully synthesized by a three-step procedure. α-methoxy-ω-epoxy-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-epoxide) was first synthesized by the nucleophilic substitution of...

  15. I-MOVE multi-centre case control study 2010-11: overall and stratified estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kissling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the third season of I-MOVE (Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe, we undertook a multicentre case-control study based on sentinel practitioner surveillance networks in eight European Union (EU member states to estimate 2010/11 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI laboratory-confirmed as influenza. METHODS: Using systematic sampling, practitioners swabbed ILI/ARI patients within seven days of symptom onset. We compared influenza-positive to influenza laboratory-negative patients among those meeting the EU ILI case definition. A valid vaccination corresponded to > 14 days between receiving a dose of vaccine and symptom onset. We used multiple imputation with chained equations to estimate missing values. Using logistic regression with study as fixed effect we calculated influenza VE adjusting for potential confounders. We estimated influenza VE overall, by influenza type, age group and among the target group for vaccination. RESULTS: We included 2019 cases and 2391 controls in the analysis. Adjusted VE was 52% (95% CI 30-67 overall (N = 4410, 55% (95% CI 29-72 against A(H1N1 and 50% (95% CI 14-71 against influenza B. Adjusted VE against all influenza subtypes was 66% (95% CI 15-86, 41% (95% CI -3-66 and 60% (95% CI 17-81 among those aged 0-14, 15-59 and ≥60 respectively. Among target groups for vaccination (N = 1004, VE was 56% (95% CI 34-71 overall, 59% (95% CI 32-75 against A(H1N1 and 63% (95% CI 31-81 against influenza B. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest moderate protection from 2010-11 trivalent influenza vaccines against medically-attended ILI laboratory-confirmed as influenza across Europe. Adjusted and stratified influenza VE estimates are possible with the large sample size of this multi-centre case-control. I-MOVE shows how a network can provide precise summary VE measures across Europe.

  16. In patients undergoing fast track total knee arthroplasty, addition of buprenorphine to a femoral nerve block has no clinical advantage A prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Rienk; Zonneveldt, Harry J.; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Steens, Jeroen; Lirk, Phillip; Hollmann, Marcus W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several adjuvants have been proposed to prolong the effect of peripheral nerve blocks, one of which is buprenorphine. In this randomized double blinded placebo controlled trial we studied whether the addition of buprenorphine to a femoral nerve block prolongs analgesia in patients

  17. The fabrication of highly ordered block copolymer micellar arrays: control of the separation distances of silicon oxide dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hana; Park, Soojin

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of highly ordered silicon oxide dotted arrays prepared from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) filled nanoporous block copolymer (BCP) films and the preparation of nanoporous, flexible Teflon or polyimide films. Polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) films were annealed in toluene vapor to enhance the lateral order of micellar arrays and were subsequently immersed in alcohol to produce nano-sized pores, which can be used as templates for filling a thin layer of PDMS. When a thin layer of PDMS was spin-coated onto nanoporous BCP films and thermally annealed at a certain temperature, the PDMS was drawn into the pores by capillary action. PDMS filled BCP templates were exposed to oxygen plasma environments in order to fabricate silicon oxide dotted arrays. By addition of PS homopolymer to PS-b-P2VP copolymer, the separation distances of micellar arrays were tuned. As-prepared silicon oxide dotted arrays were used as a hard master for fabricating nanoporous Teflon or polyimide films by spin-coating polymer precursor solutions onto silicon patterns and peeling off. This simple process enables us to fabricate highly ordered nanoporous BCP templates, silicon oxide dots, and flexible nanoporous polymer patterns with feature size of sub-20 nm over 5 cm × 5 cm.

  18. The fabrication of highly ordered block copolymer micellar arrays: control of the separation distances of silicon oxide dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hana; Park, Soojin, E-mail: spark@unist.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Banyeon-ri 100, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-18

    We demonstrate the fabrication of highly ordered silicon oxide dotted arrays prepared from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) filled nanoporous block copolymer (BCP) films and the preparation of nanoporous, flexible Teflon or polyimide films. Polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) films were annealed in toluene vapor to enhance the lateral order of micellar arrays and were subsequently immersed in alcohol to produce nano-sized pores, which can be used as templates for filling a thin layer of PDMS. When a thin layer of PDMS was spin-coated onto nanoporous BCP films and thermally annealed at a certain temperature, the PDMS was drawn into the pores by capillary action. PDMS filled BCP templates were exposed to oxygen plasma environments in order to fabricate silicon oxide dotted arrays. By addition of PS homopolymer to PS-b-P2VP copolymer, the separation distances of micellar arrays were tuned. As-prepared silicon oxide dotted arrays were used as a hard master for fabricating nanoporous Teflon or polyimide films by spin-coating polymer precursor solutions onto silicon patterns and peeling off. This simple process enables us to fabricate highly ordered nanoporous BCP templates, silicon oxide dots, and flexible nanoporous polymer patterns with feature size of sub-20 nm over 5 cm x 5 cm.

  19. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Orilall, M. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane blocks for patients undergoing laparoscopic hand-assisted nephrectomy: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniskevich S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Aniskevich,1 C Burcin Taner,2 Dana K Perry,2 Christopher B Robards,3 Steven B Porter,3 Colleen S Thomas,4 Ilana I Logvinov,5 Steven R Clendenen41Department of Anesthesia, Division of Transplant Anesthesia, 2Department of Transplantation, 3Department of Anesthesia, Division of Regional Anesthesia, 4Division of Health Sciences Research, Section of Biostatistics, 5Department of Anesthesia, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: Postoperative pain is a common complaint following living kidney donation or tumor resection using the laparoscopic hand-assisted technique. To evaluate the potential analgesic benefit of transversus abdominis plane blocks, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 21 patients scheduled to undergo elective living-donor nephrectomy or single-sided nephrectomy for tumor. Patients were randomized to receive either 20 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine or 20 mL of 0.9% saline bilaterally to the transversus abdominis plane under ultrasound guidance. We found that transversus abdominis plane blocks reduced overall pain scores at 24 hours, with a trend toward decreased total morphine consumption. Nausea, vomiting, sedation, and time to discharge were not significantly different between the two study groups.Keywords: transversus abdominis plane block, nephrectomy, kidney donor, ultrasound guidance

  1. Analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block after total abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røjskjaer, Jesper O; Gade, Erik; Kiel, Louise B; Lind, Morten N; Pedersen, Lars M; Kristensen, Billy B; Rasmussen, Yvonne H; Foss, Nicolai B

    2015-03-01

    To assess the effect of bilateral ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block with ropivacaine compared with placebo as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial following the CONSORT criteria. Hvidovre University Hospital. Forty-six women scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy. Women received either ropivacaine 0.75%, 20 mL (n = 24) or 0.9% saline, 20 mL (n = 24) in the transversus abdominis plane on each side. Primary outcome was the 24-h postoperative morphine consumption. Secondary outcomes were pain scores at rest and during coughing, postoperative nausea and vomiting at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h, and time to first mobilization. There was no difference in the mean 24-h postoperative morphine consumption between the two groups (p = 0.733). The ropivacaine group had significantly lower median pain scores at 1 h (p = 0.008) and 2 h (p = 0.027) postoperatively at rest and at 8 h (p = 0.028) during coughing. There was no significant difference in other secondary outcomes. There was no reduction in 24-h morphine consumption when using an ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. As part of a multimodal regimen the transversus abdominis plane block showed some effect on pain scores at rest only in the early postoperative period. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orilall, M Christopher; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices.

  3. Intraoperative Nerve Blocks Fail to Improve Quality of Recovery after Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction: A Prospective, Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Steven T; Lewis, Kevin C; Kendall, Mark C; Vieira, Brittany L; De Oliveira, Gildasio; Nader, Anthony; Kim, John Y S; Alghoul, Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    The authors' study represents the first level I evidence to assess whether intraoperative nerve blocks improve the quality of recovery from immediate tissue expander/implant breast reconstruction. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in which patients undergoing immediate tissue expander/implant breast reconstruction were randomized to either (1) intraoperative intercostal and pectoral nerve blocks with 0.25% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 4 mg of dexamethasone or (2) sham nerve blocks with normal saline. The 40-item Quality of Recovery score, pain score, and opioid use in the postoperative period were compared statistically between groups. Power analysis ensured 80 percent power to detect a 10-point (clinically significant) difference in the 40-item Quality of Recovery score. Forty-seven patients were enrolled. Age, body mass index, laterality, mastectomy type, and lymph node dissection were similar between groups. There were no statistical differences in quality of recovery, pain burden as measured by visual analogue scale, opioid consumption, antiemetic use, or length of hospital stay between groups at 24 hours after surgery. Mean global 40-item Quality of Recovery scores were 169 (range, 155 to 182) for the treatment arm and 165 (range, 143 to 179) for the placebo arm (p = 0.36), indicating a high quality of recovery in both groups. Although intraoperative nerve blocks can be a safe adjunct to a comprehensive postsurgical recovery regimen, the authors' results indicate no effect on overall quality of recovery from tissue expander/implant breast reconstruction. Therapeutic, I.

  4. A randomised controlled study of the post-operative analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided pectoral nerve block in the first 24 h after modified radical mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Breast cancer has become the most common cancer in women worldwide. Acute post-operative pain following mastectomy remains a challenge for the anaesthesiologist despite a range of treatment options available. The present study aimed to compare the post-operative analgesic efficacy of pectoral nerve (Pecs block performed under ultrasound with our standard practice of opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for mastectomy. Methods: This randomised controlled study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in India, after obtaining ethical clearance. Fifty adult female patients posted for elective unilateral modified radical mastectomy were divided into two groups as follows: Group I (general anaesthesia only and Group II (general anaesthesia plus ultrasound-guided Pecs block, each comprising 25 patients. Post-randomisation, patients in Group I received general anaesthesia, while Group II patients received ultrasound-guided Pecs block followed by general anaesthesia after 20 min. The primary outcome was measured as patient-reported pain intensity using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS at rest. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test. Data were entered into MS Excel spreadsheet and analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 23.0. Results: VAS score was significantly lower in Group II at rest and on abduction post-operatively at all time intervals (P < 0.001. The 24-h tramadol consumption was significantly less in Group II compared to Group I (114.4 ± 4.63 mg vs. 402.88 ± 74.22, P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Pecs block provided excellent post-operative analgesia in the first 24 h.

  5. cAMP control of HCN2 channel Mg2+ block reveals loose coupling between the cyclic nucleotide-gating ring and the pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex K Lyashchenko

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-regulated HCN channels underlie the Na+-K+ permeable IH pacemaker current. As with other voltage-gated members of the 6-transmembrane KV channel superfamily, opening of HCN channels involves dilation of a helical bundle formed by the intracellular ends of S6 albeit this is promoted by inward, not outward, displacement of S4. Direct agonist binding to a ring of cyclic nucleotide-binding sites, one of which lies immediately distal to each S6 helix, imparts cAMP sensitivity to HCN channel opening. At depolarized potentials, HCN channels are further modulated by intracellular Mg2+ which blocks the open channel pore and blunts the inhibitory effect of outward K+ flux. Here, we show that cAMP binding to the gating ring enhances not only channel opening but also the kinetics of Mg2+ block. A combination of experimental and simulation studies demonstrates that agonist acceleration of block is mediated via acceleration of the blocking reaction itself rather than as a secondary consequence of the cAMP enhancement of channel opening. These results suggest that the activation status of the gating ring and the open state of the pore are not coupled in an obligate manner (as required by the often invoked Monod-Wyman-Changeux allosteric model but couple more loosely (as envisioned in a modular model of protein activation. Importantly, the emergence of second messenger sensitivity of open channel rectification suggests that loose coupling may have an unexpected consequence: it may endow these erstwhile "slow" channels with an ability to exert voltage and ligand-modulated control over cellular excitability on the fastest of physiologically relevant time scales.

  6. Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath and transversus abdominis plane blocks for perioperative analgesia in upper abdominal surgery: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abdelsalam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regional anesthetic techniques can be used to alleviate postoperative pain in patients undergoing major upper abdominal surgery. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of bilateral ultrasound (US-guided rectus sheath (RS and transversus abdominis plane (TAP blocks for better perioperative analgesia. Patients and Methods: It is a prospective, observer-blinded, randomized clinical study. 40 eligible patients undergoing elective liver resection or Whipple procedure were included. All patients received a standardized anesthetic technique. Group 1 (n = 20 received preincisional US-guided bilateral RS and TAP blocks using 20 ml volume of bupivacaine 0.25% for each, and group 2 (n = 20 received local wound infiltration at end of surgery with 40 ml of bupivacaine 0.25%. A standardized postoperative analgesic regimen composed of intravenous paracetamol and a morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA. The use of intraoperative fentanyl and recovery room morphine boluses, PCA-administered morphine, pain scores as well as number of patients′ experienced postoperative nausea and vomiting in the ward at 6 and 24 h were recorded. Results: Group 1 patients received a significantly lower cumulative intraoperative fentanyl, significantly lesser boluses of morphine in postanesthesia care unit, as well, significantly lower cumulative 24 h postoperative morphine dosage than the group 2 patients. Pain visual analog scale scores were significantly lower at both 6 and 24 h postoperatively in TAP group when compared with the no-TAP group. There were no complications related to the TAP block procedures. No signs or symptoms of local anesthetic systemic toxicity were detected. Conclusion: The combination of bilateral US-guided RS and TAP blocks provides excellent perioperative analgesia for major upper abdominal surgery.

  7. Pituitary block with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist during intrauterine insemination cycles: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitagliano, A; Saccone, G; Noventa, M; Borini, A; Coccia, M E; Nardelli, G B; Saccardi, C; Bifulco, G; Litta, P S; Andrisani, A

    2018-06-03

    Several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have investigated the usefulness of pituitary block with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists during intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles, with conflicting results. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs was to evaluate the effectiveness of GnRH antagonist administration as an intervention to improve the success of IUI cycles. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, Sciencedirect) and clinical registers were searched from their inception until October 2017. Randomised controlled trials of infertile women undergoing one or more IUI stimulated cycles with GnRH antagonists compared with a control group. The primary outcomes were ongoing pregnancy/live birth rate (OPR/LBR) and clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). Pooled results were expressed as odds ratio (OR) or mean differences with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Sources of heterogeneity were investigated through sensitivity and subgroups analysis. The body of evidence was rated using GRADE methodology. Publication bias was assessed with funnel plot, Begg's and Egger's tests. Fifteen RCTs were included (3253 IUI cycles, 2345 participants). No differences in OPR/LBR (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.82-1.57, P = 0.44) and CPR (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.97-1.69, P = 0.08) were found. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses did not provide statistical changes in pooled results. The body of evidence was rated as low (GRADE 2/4). No publication bias was detected. Pituitary block with GnRH antagonists does not improve OPR/LBR and CPR in women undergoing IUI cycles. Pituitary block with GnRH antagonists does not improve the success of IUI cycles. © 2018 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Anticipatory changes in control of swing foot and lower limb joints when walking onto a moving surface traveling at constant speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Wang, Ting-Ming; Lu, Hsuan-Lun; Lu, Tung-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Adapting to a predictable moving surface such as an escalator is a crucial part of daily locomotor tasks in modern cities. However, the associated biomechanics have remained unexplored. In a gait laboratory, fifteen young adults walked from the ground onto a moving or a static surface while their kinematic and kinetic data were obtained for calculating foot and pelvis motions, as well as the angles and moments of the lower limb joints. Between-surface-condition comparisons were performed using a paired t-test (α = 0.05). The results showed that anticipatory locomotor adjustments occurred at least a stride before successfully walking onto the moving surface, including increasing step length and speed in the trailing step (p moving surface (p > 0.05), mainly through reduced extension of the trailing hip but increased pelvic anterior tilt and leading swing ankle plantarflexion (p moving surfaces such as escalators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An efficient, block-by-block algorithm for inverting a block tridiagonal, nearly block Toeplitz matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Matthew G; Hill, Judith C

    2012-01-01

    We present an algorithm for computing any block of the inverse of a block tridiagonal, nearly block Toeplitz matrix (defined as a block tridiagonal matrix with a small number of deviations from the purely block Toeplitz structure). By exploiting both the block tridiagonal and the nearly block Toeplitz structures, this method scales independently of the total number of blocks in the matrix and linearly with the number of deviations. Numerical studies demonstrate this scaling and the advantages of our method over alternatives.

  10. Efficacy of pudendal nerve block for alleviation of catheter-related bladder discomfort in male patients undergoing lower urinary tract surgeries: A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqiang, Li; Xuerong, Zhang; Juan, Liu; Mathew, Bechu Shelley; Xiaorong, Yin; Qin, Wan; Lili, Luo; Yingying, Zhu; Jun, Luo

    2017-12-01

    Catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD) to an indwelling urinary catheter is defined as a painful urethral discomfort, resistant to conventional opioid therapy, decreasing the quality of postoperative recovery. According to anatomy, the branches of sacral somatic nerves form the afferent nerves of the urethra and bladder triangle, which deriving from the ventral rami of the second to fourth sacral spinal nerves, innervating the urethral muscles and sphincter of the perineum and pelvic floor; as well as providing sensation to the penis and clitoris in males and females, which including the urethra and bladder triangle. Based on this theoretical knowledge, we formed a hypothesis that CRBD could be prevented by pudendal nerve block. To evaluate if bilateral nerve stimulator-guided pudendal nerve block could relieve CRBD through urethra discomfort alleviation. Single-center randomized parallel controlled, double blind trial conducted at West China Hospital, Sichuan University, China. One hundred and eighty 2 male adult patients under general anesthesia undergoing elective trans-urethral resection of prostate (TURP) or trans-urethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). Around 4 out of 182 were excluded, 178 patients were randomly allocated into pudendal and control groups, using computer-generated randomized numbers in a sealed envelope method. A total of 175 patients completed the study. Pudendal group received general anesthesia along with nerve-stimulator-guided bilateral pudendal nerve block and control group received general anesthesia only. Incidence and severity of CRBD; and postoperative VAS score of pain. CRBD incidences were significantly lower in pudendal group at 30 minutes (63% vs 82%, P = .004), 2 hours (64% vs 90%, P < .000), 8 hours (58% vs 79%, P = .003) and 12 hours (52% vs 69%, P = .028) also significantly lower incidence of moderate to severe CRBD in pudendal group at 30 minutes (29% vs 57%, P < .001), 2 hours (22

  11. LEARN 2 MOVE 0-2 years: effects of a new intervention program in infants at very high risk for cerebral palsy; a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheijden Johannes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely accepted that infants at risk for cerebral palsy need paediatric physiotherapy. However, there is little evidence for the efficacy of physiotherapeutic intervention. Recently, a new intervention program, COPCA (Coping with and Caring for infants with special needs - a family centered program, was developed. COPCA has educational and motor goals. A previous study indicated that the COPCA-approach is associated with better developmental outcomes for infants at high risk for developmental disorders. LEARN 2 MOVE 0-2 years evaluates the efficacy and the working mechanisms of the COPCA program in infants at very high risk for cerebral palsy in comparison to the efficacy of traditional infant physiotherapy in a randomized controlled trial. The objective is to evaluate the effects of both intervention programs on motor, cognitive and daily functioning of the child and the family and to get insight in the working elements of early intervention methods. Methods/design Infants are included at the corrected age of 1 to 9 months and randomized into a group receiving COPCA and a group receiving traditional infant physiotherapy. Both interventions are given once a week during one year. Measurements are performed at baseline, during and after the intervention period and at the corrected age of 21 months. Primary outcome of the study is the Infant Motor Profile, a qualitative evaluation instrument of motor behaviour in infancy. Secondary measurements focus on activities and participation, body functions and structures, family functioning, quality of life and working mechanisms. To cope with the heterogeneity in physiotherapy, physiotherapeutic sessions are video-recorded three times (baseline, after 6 months and at the end of the intervention period. Physiotherapeutic actions will be quantified and related to outcome. Discussion LEARN 2 MOVE 0-2 years evaluates and explores the effects of COPCA and TIP. Whatever the outcome of

  12. Analysis of Block OMP using Block RIP

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Li, Gang; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xiqin

    2011-01-01

    Orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is a canonical greedy algorithm for sparse signal reconstruction. When the signal of interest is block sparse, i.e., it has nonzero coefficients occurring in clusters, the block version of OMP algorithm (i.e., Block OMP) outperforms the conventional OMP. In this paper, we demonstrate that a new notion of block restricted isometry property (Block RIP), which is less stringent than standard restricted isometry property (RIP), can be used for a very straightforw...

  13. Transversus abdominis plane block reduces morphine consumption in the early postoperative period following microsurgical abdominal tissue breast reconstruction: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Toni; Ojha, M; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Butler, Kate; Srinivas, Coimbatore; McCluskey, Stuart A; Clarke, Hance; O'Neill, Anne C; Novak, Christine B; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2014-11-01

    The analgesic efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block following abdominal tissue breast reconstruction has not been studied in a randomized controlled trial. The authors conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1:1 allocation, two-arm parallel group, superiority design, randomized controlled trial in patients undergoing microsurgical abdominally based breast reconstruction. Intraoperatively, epidural catheters were inserted under direct vision through the triangle of Petit on both sides of the abdomen into the transversus abdominis plane just before rectus fascial closure. Patients received either bupivacaine (study group) or saline (placebo group) through the catheters for 2 postoperative days. All patients received hydromorphone by means of a patient-controlled analgesic pump. The primary outcome was the difference in the parenteral opioid consumption on each postoperative day between the groups. The secondary outcome measures included the following: total in-hospital opioid; antinausea medication; pain, nausea, and sedation scores; Quality of Recovery Score; time to ambulation; and hospital stay duration. Between September of 2011 and June of 2013, 93 patients were enrolled: 49 received bupivacaine and 44 received saline. There were 11 postoperative complications (13 percent); none were related to the catheter. Primary outcomes were completed by 85 of 93 patients (91.3 percent); the mean parenteral morphine consumption was significantly reduced on postoperative day 1 in the bupivacaine group (20.7±20.1 mg) compared with 30.0±19.1 mg in the control group (p=0.02). There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes. Following abdominally based breast reconstruction, transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block is safe and significantly reduces morphine consumption in the early postoperative period. Therapeutic, II.

  14. Comparison of Articaine and Lidocaine for Buccal Infiltration After Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block For Intraoperative Pain Control During Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Junior, Geraldo Prisco; de Almeida Souza, Liane Maciel; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    In order to compare the efficacy of lidocaine and articaine for pain control during third molar surgery, 160 patients presenting bilateral asymptomatic impacted mandibular third molars were selected. They received 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:100,000 during inferior alveolar nerve block. In group 1 (n = 80), an infiltrative injection of 0.9 mL of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:100,000 was performed in buccal-distal mucosa of the third molar. Group 2 (n = 80) received 0.9 mL of 4% articaine with epinephrine 1:100,000 in the contralateral side. All procedures were performed at the same visit, by a single operator, in a double-blind and parallel design. The duration of each surgery and the moment when the patient expressed pain were noted. Data were analyzed by nonpaired t test and chi-square test (alpha = 5%). Duration of surgery did not differ (p = .83) between Groups 1 (19.8 ± 2.3 minutes) and 2 (19.7 ± 3.0 minutes). Pain was expressed more in group 1 (26.3%) than in group 2 (10%) (odds ratio = 3.2, p = .0138). In both groups, tooth sectioning was the most painful event (p inferior alveolar nerve block in controlling intraoperative pain related to impacted mandibular third molar surgery.

  15. LEARN 2 MOVE 7-12 years: a randomized controlled trial on the effects of a physical activity stimulation program in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wely, Leontien; Becher, Jules G; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; Lindeman, Eline; Verschuren, Olaf; Verheijden, Johannes; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2010-11-02

    Regular participation in physical activities is important for all children to stay fit and healthy. Children with cerebral palsy have reduced levels of physical activity, compared to typically developing children. The aim of the LEARN 2 MOVE 7-12 study is to improve physical activity by means of a physical activity stimulation program, consisting of a lifestyle intervention and a fitness training program. This study will be a 6-month single-blinded randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow up. Fifty children with spastic cerebral palsy, aged 7 to 12 years, with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-III, will be recruited in pediatric physiotherapy practices and special schools for children with disabilities. The children will be randomly assigned to either the intervention group or control group. The children in the control group will continue with their regular pediatric physiotherapy, and the children in the intervention group will participate in a 6-month physical activity stimulation program. The physical activity stimulation program consists of a 6-month lifestyle intervention, in combination with a 4-month fitness training program. The lifestyle intervention includes counseling the child and the parents to adopt an active lifestyle through Motivational Interviewing, and home-based physiotherapy to practise mobility-related activities in the daily situation. Data will be collected just before the start of the intervention (T0), after the 4-month fitness training program (T4), after the 6-month lifestyle intervention (T6), and after six months of follow-up (T12). Primary outcomes are physical activity, measured with the StepWatch Activity Monitor and with self-reports. Secondary outcomes are fitness, capacity of mobility, social participation and health-related quality of life. A random coefficient analysis will be performed to determine differences in treatment effect between the control group and the intervention group, with primary

  16. Moving and Being Moved: Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretchmar, R. Scott

    2000-01-01

    Uses philosophical writings, a novel about baseball, and a nonfiction work on rowing to analyze levels of meaning in physical activity, showing why three popular methods for enhancing meaning have not succeeded and may have moved some students away from deeper levels of meaning. The paper suggests that using hints taken from the three books could…

  17. Adductor canal block for post-operative analgesia after simultaneous bilateral total knee replacement: A randomised controlled trial to study the effect of addition of dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhee Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Knee replacement surgery causes tremendous post-operative pain and adductor canal block (ACB is used for post-operative analgesia. This is a randomised, controlled, three-arm parallel group study using different doses of dexmedetomidine added to ropiavcaine for ACB. Methods: A total of 150 patients aged 18–75 years, scheduled for simultaneous bilateral total knee replacement, received ultrasound-guided ACB. They were randomised into three groups -Group A received ACB with plain ropivacaine; Groups B and C received ACB with ropivacaine and addition of dexmedetomidine 0.25 μg/kg and 0.50 μg/kg, respectively, on each side of ACB. The primary outcome was the duration of analgesia. Total opioid consumption, success of early ambulation, and level of patient satisfaction were also assessed. Results: The patient characteristics and block success rates were comparable in all groups. Group C patients had longer duration of analgesia (Group C 18.4 h ± 7.4; Group B 14.6 ± 7.1; Group A 10.8 ± 7; P < 0.001; lesser tramadol consumption (Group C 43.8 mg ± 53.2; Group B 76.4 ± 49.6; Group A 93.9 mg ± 58.3; P < 0.001 and lesser pain on movement (P < 0.001. The patients in Group B and C walked more steps than in Group A (P < 0.002. The level of patient satisfaction was highest in Group C (P < 0.001. Conclusions: The addition of dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine resulted in longer duration of analgesia after adductor canal block for simultaneous bilateral total knee replacement surgery.

  18. Can math beat gamers in Quantum Moves?

    OpenAIRE

    Sels, Dries

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In a recent work on quantum state preparation, Sørensen and co-workers [Nature (London) 532, 210 (2016)] explore the possibility of using video games to help design quantum control protocols. The authors present a game called Quantum Moves (https://www.scienceathome.org/games/quantum-moves/) in which gamers have to move an atom from A to B by means of optical tweezers. They report that, players succeed where purely numerical optimization fails. Moreover, by harnessing the player str...

  19. Uniformly sized gold nanoparticles derived from PS-b-P2VP block copolymer templates for the controllable synthesis of Si nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jennifer Q; Yi, Sung Soo

    2006-04-25

    A monolayer of gold-containing surface micelles has been produced by spin-coating solution micelles formed by the self-assembly of the gold-modified polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) block copolymer in toluene. After oxygen plasma removed the block copolymer template, highly ordered and uniformly sized nanoparticles have been generated. Unlike other published methods that require reduction treatments to form gold nanoparticles in the zero-valent state, these as-synthesized nanoparticles are in form of metallic gold. These gold nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be an excellent catalyst system for growing small-diameter silicon nanowires. The uniformly sized gold nanoparticles have promoted the controllable synthesis of silicon nanowires with a narrow diameter distribution. Because of the ability to form a monolayer of surface micelles with a high degree of order, evenly distributed gold nanoparticles have been produced on a surface. As a result, uniformly distributed, high-density silicon nanowires have been generated. The process described herein is fully compatible with existing semiconductor processing techniques and can be readily integrated into device fabrication.

  20. Moving Field Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie Meador; Mark Twery; Meagan. Leatherbury

    2011-01-01

    The Moving Field Guides (MFG) project is a creative take on site interpretation. Moving Field Guides provide an example of how scientific and artistic endeavors work in parallel. Both begin with keen observations that produce information that must be analyzed, understood, and interpreted. That interpretation then needs to be communicated to others to complete the...

  1. People on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this 2-3 day lesson is to introduce students in Grades 2-4 to the idea that people move around the world for a variety of reasons. In this activity, students explore why people move through class discussion, a guided reading, and interviews. The teacher elicits student ideas using the compelling question (Dimension 1 of the C3…

  2. Clustered randomised controlled trial of two education interventions designed to increase physical activity and well-being of secondary school students: the MOVE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymms, Peter B; Curtis, Sarah E; Routen, Ash C; Thomson, Katie H; Bolden, David S; Bock, Susan; Dunn, Christine E; Cooper, Ashley R; Elliott, Julian G; Moore, Helen J; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Tiffin, Paul A; Kasim, Adetayo S

    2016-01-06

    To assess the effectiveness of 2 interventions in improving the physical activity and well-being of secondary school children. A clustered randomised controlled trial; classes, 1 per school, were assigned to 1 of 3 intervention arms or a control group based on a 2×2 factorial design. The interventions were peer-mentoring and participative learning. Year 7 children (aged 11-12) in the peer-mentoring intervention were paired with year 9 children for 6 weekly mentoring meetings. Year 7 children in the participative learning arm took part in 6 weekly geography lessons using personalised physical activity and Global Positioning System (GPS) data. Year 7 children in the combined intervention received both interventions, with the year 9 children only participating in the mentoring sessions. 1494 year 7 students from 60 schools in the North of England took part in the trial. Of these, 43 students opted out of taking part in the evaluation measurements, 2 moved teaching group and 58 changed school. Valid accelerometry outcome data were collected for 892 students from 53 schools; and well-being outcome data were available for 927 students from 52 schools. The primary outcomes were mean minutes of accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity per day, and well-being as evaluated by the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire. These data were collected 6 weeks after the intervention; a 12-month follow-up is planned. No significant effects (main or interaction) were observed for the outcomes. However, small positive differences were found for both outcomes for the participative learning intervention. These findings suggest that the 2 school-based interventions did not modify levels of physical activity or well-being within the period monitored. Change in physical activity may require more comprehensive individual behavioural intervention, and/or more system-based efforts to address wider environmental influences such as family, peers, physical environment

  3. Embodied affectivity: On moving and being moved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eFuchs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behaviour strongly influences one’s emotional reaction towards certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject’s bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion. Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colours or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one’s own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner’s affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self.

  4. SNUPPS power block engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C A [Bechtel Power Corp., San Francisco, Calif. (USA)

    1975-11-01

    The Standard Power Block is based on a modular concept and consists of the following: turbine building, auxiliary building, fuel building, control building, radwaste building, diesel generators building, and outside storage tanks and transformers. Each power block unit includes a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor and has a thermal power rating of 3425 MW(t). The corresponding General Electric turbine generator net electrical output is 1188 MW(e). This standardization approach results in not only a reduction in the costs of engineering, licensing, procurement, and project planning, but should also result in additional savings by the application of experience gained in the construction of the first unit to the following units and early input of construction data to design.

  5. Environmental pollution control through geo - botanical means - a case study of Manikpur block, Korba coalfield, M.P., India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikarwar, S.S.; Guha, S.; Singh, K.N. [Vikram Univ., Ujjain (India). School of Studies in Geology

    1999-09-01

    In the present paper, an environmental analysis of Manikpur area, Korba coalfield, Bilaspur, M.P., India is undertaken. The area lies in the Geological Survey of India Toposheet no. 64J/11 Latitude 82 42'54''-82 45'10'' North; Longitude 22 18'46''-22 19'46'' East. The paper deals with pollution and its control measures through the natural plants found in the vicinity of the coalmines, namely Mangifera indica, Eucalyptus spp., Cassia siamea, Delbergia sissoo, etc. The plants control the Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), Nitrous Oxides (NOx), Sulphur Oxides (SOx) of the mines and mining site. Therefore, plantation in the mining site should be encouraged. (orig.)

  6. 49 CFR 236.708 - Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block. 236.708 Section 236.708 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.708 Block. A length of track of defined limits, the use of which by trains is governed by block signals, cab signals, or both. ...

  7. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  8. Liposomal bupivacaine infiltration versus femoral nerve block for pain control in total knee arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianbing; Zhang, Weijie; Yao, Shuxin

    2016-12-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) usually results in postoperative pain. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness and safety of liposomal bupivacaine (LB) infiltration and femoral nerve block (FNB) for pain control in total knee arthroplasty. We systemically searched electronic databases, including Embase (1980-2016.7), MEDLINE (1966-2016.7), PubMed (1966-2016.7), ScienceDirect (1985-2016.7), Web of Science (1950-2016.7) and Cochrane Library for potentially relevant articles. All calculations were conducted using Stata 11.0. One randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and five non-RCTs involving 1289 participants met the inclusion criteria. The result of the meta-analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in terms of postoperative pain scores at POD 0 (SMD = -0.047, 95% CI: -0.276 to 0.182, P = 0.688), POD1 (SMD = -0.038, 95% CI: -0.273 to 0.197, P = 0.749) or POD 2 (SMD = -0.043, 95% CI: -0.192 to 0.107, P = 0.575). Significant differences were found between groups in morphine equivalent consumption at POD 1 (SMD = 0.625, 95% CI: 0.068 to 1.183, P = 0.028) and POD 2 (SMD = 0.410, 95% CI: 0.024 to 0.796, P = 0.037) between groups. There were no significant differences regarding the incidence of adverse effects such as nausea (RD = -0.01, 95% CI: -0.04 to -0.075, P = 0.914) or vomiting (RD = 0.006, 95% CI: -0.049 to 0.062, P = 0.821). Liposomal bupivacaine infiltration provides similar postoperative pain relief to femoral nerve block following total knee arthroplasty. In addition, liposomal bupivacaine infiltration could significantly reduce the consumption of morphine equivalents compared to femoral nerve block without an increased risk of adverse events. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF INTERCOSTAL NERVE BLOCK WITH ROPIVACAINE AND INTRAVENOUS PARACETAMOL INFUSION TO INTRAVENOUS PARACETAMOL INFUSION ALONE FOR PAIN CONTROL AFTER OPEN CHOLECYSTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Dey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Postoperative pain after open cholecystectomy is associated with respiratory dysfunction, increased stress response and prolonged hospital stay. We compare intravenous paracetamol (7.5 mg/kg plus intercostal nerve block with local anaesthetic ropivacaine 0.5% to intravenous paracetamol (15 mg/kg on pain control after open cholecystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS 140 patients, who underwent for open cholecystectomy, were randomly divided into two groups of 70. The patients were randomly allocated to any of the following two groups depending upon the drug used for analgesia (Group P or Group I Intravenous paracetamol 15 mg/kg was given to patients of group P and paracetamol 7.5 mg/kg with Intercostal nerve block in right side 6-10 intercostal nerves with 2 ml local anaesthetic ropivacaine 0.5% in each space was given to patients of group I just after intubation before incision. When the patients were transferred to postoperative recovery room, intensity of pain was recorded by response from the patients using 100 mm linear visual analogue scale ranging from 0 to 100. The pain scoring was done in the immediate postoperative period (when the patient was able to communicate in the post anaesthesia care unit, at 30 minutes, 1 hr. then hourly up to 24 hrs. till patient complained of pain with VAS score 40 or more. RESULTS The severity of pain in VAS score was lower in immediate postoperative period, at 30 minutes, 1 hour and 2 hours postoperatively in group I than the group P and those were statistically significant (p<0.001. Duration of analgesia also significantly lower in group I. Mean duration of analgesia in group P is 161.9 ± 42.6 min and in group I is 241.3 ± 44.2 min (p<0.001. CONCLUSION Adding Intercostal nerve block to intravenous infusion of Paracetamol infusion (7.5 mg/kg is better than sole intravenous infusion of Paracetamol (15 mg/kg in controlling pain severity even after reducing dose of paracetamol after open

  10. The effects of dexketoprofen on duration of analgesia to a thermal stimulus when compared with a systemic control in a rat sciatic nerve block with levobupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Inci; Apiliogullari, Seza; Bagcı Taylan, Sengal; Bariskaner, Hulagu; Celik, Jale Bengi

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether dexketoprofen added to perineuraly or subcutaneously alters the effects of levobupivacaine in a rat model of sciatic nerve blockade. Thirty-six rats received unilateral sciatic nerve blocks along with a subcutaneous injection by a blinded investigator assigned at random. Combinations were as follows: Group 1 (sham) perineural and subcutaneous saline; Group 2, perineural levobupivacaine alone and subcutaneous saline; Group 3, perineural levobupivacaine plus dexketoprofen and subcutaneous saline; Group 4, perineural levobupivacaine and subcutaneous dexketoprofen; Group 5, perineural dexketoprofen and subcutaneous saline; and Group 6, perineural saline and subcutaneous dexketoprofen. The levobupivacaine concentration was fixed at 0.05%, and the dose of dexketoprofen was 1 mg kg(-1) . Sensory analgesia was assessed by paw withdrawal latency to a thermal stimulus every 30 min. The unblocked paw served as the control for the assessment of systemic, centrally mediated analgesia. Perineural and subcutaneous dexketoprofen coadministered with perineural levobupivacaine did not enhance the duration of sensory blockade when compared with levobupivacaine alone. There were significant differences between the operative and control paws for time points 30-90 min in the perineural levobupivacaine alone, levobupivacaine + dexketoprofen and subcutaneous dexketoprofen added levobupivacaine group. Significant differences were not determined between the levobupivacaine alone group and dexketoprofen added groups in operative paw. The effects of dexketoprofen are unknown for perineural administration. There is no significant difference between the analgesic effects of peripheral nerve blocks using levobupivacaine alone and plus subcutaneous or perineural dexketoprofen. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  11. LEARN 2 MOVE 7-12 years : a randomized controlled trial on the effects of a physical activity stimulation program in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wely, Leontien; Becher, Jules G.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Lindeman, Eline; Verschuren, Olaf; Verheijden, Johannes; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Regular participation in physical activities is important for all children to stay fit and healthy. Children with cerebral palsy have reduced levels of physical activity, compared to typically developing children. The aim of the LEARN 2 MOVE 7-12 study is to improve physical activity by

  12. PARALLEL MOVING MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberius Petrescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Moving mechanical systems parallel structures are solid, fast, and accurate. Between parallel systems it is to be noticed Stewart platforms, as the oldest systems, fast, solid and precise. The work outlines a few main elements of Stewart platforms. Begin with the geometry platform, kinematic elements of it, and presented then and a few items of dynamics. Dynamic primary element on it means the determination mechanism kinetic energy of the entire Stewart platforms. It is then in a record tail cinematic mobile by a method dot matrix of rotation. If a structural mottoelement consists of two moving elements which translates relative, drive train and especially dynamic it is more convenient to represent the mottoelement as a single moving components. We have thus seven moving parts (the six motoelements or feet to which is added mobile platform 7 and one fixed.

  13. The Moving image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Every day we are presented with bodily expressions in audiovisual media – by anchors, journalists and characters in films for instance. This article explores how body language in the moving image has been and can be approached in a scholarly manner.......Every day we are presented with bodily expressions in audiovisual media – by anchors, journalists and characters in films for instance. This article explores how body language in the moving image has been and can be approached in a scholarly manner....

  14. Constructing of DNA vectors with controlled nanosize and single dispersion by block copolymer coating gold nanoparticles as template assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junbo, E-mail: Lijunbo@haust.edu.cn [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics (China); Wu, Wenlan [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Medicine (China); Gao, Jiayu; Liang, Ju; Zhou, Huiyun; Liang, Lijuan [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics (China)

    2017-03-15

    Synthesized vectors with nanoscale size and stable colloid dispersion are highly desirable for improving gene delivery efficiency. Here, a core-shell template particle was constructed with polyethylene glycol-b-poly1-(3-aminopropyl)-3-(2-methacryloyloxy propylimidazolium bromine) (PEG-b-PAMPImB) coating gold nanoparticles (PEG-b-PAMPImB-@-Au NPs) for loading DNA and delivering in vitro. Data from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) suggest that these nanoplexes, by forming an electrostatic complex with DNA at the inner PAMPImB shell, offer steric protection for the outer PEG corona leading to single dispersion and small size. Notably, higher colloid stability and lower cytotoxicity were achieved with these nanoplexes when compared with PAMPImB monolayer-coated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Confocal laser scanning microscopy and intracellular trafficking TEM further indicate that the nanoplexes can translocate across the cell membrane and partly enter the nucleus for high efficient expression. Thus, template assembly represents a promising approach to control the size and colloid stability of gene vectors and ensure safety and efficiency of DNA delivery.

  15. Constructing of DNA vectors with controlled nanosize and single dispersion by block copolymer coating gold nanoparticles as template assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junbo; Wu, Wenlan; Gao, Jiayu; Liang, Ju; Zhou, Huiyun; Liang, Lijuan

    2017-03-01

    Synthesized vectors with nanoscale size and stable colloid dispersion are highly desirable for improving gene delivery efficiency. Here, a core-shell template particle was constructed with polyethylene glycol- b-poly1-(3-aminopropyl)-3-(2-methacryloyloxy propylimidazolium bromine) (PEG- b-PAMPImB) coating gold nanoparticles (PEG- b-PAMPImB-@-Au NPs) for loading DNA and delivering in vitro. Data from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) suggest that these nanoplexes, by forming an electrostatic complex with DNA at the inner PAMPImB shell, offer steric protection for the outer PEG corona leading to single dispersion and small size. Notably, higher colloid stability and lower cytotoxicity were achieved with these nanoplexes when compared with PAMPImB monolayer-coated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Confocal laser scanning microscopy and intracellular trafficking TEM further indicate that the nanoplexes can translocate across the cell membrane and partly enter the nucleus for high efficient expression. Thus, template assembly represents a promising approach to control the size and colloid stability of gene vectors and ensure safety and efficiency of DNA delivery.

  16. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  17. A Triple-Masked, Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Ultrasound-Guided Brachial Plexus and Distal Peripheral Nerve Block Anesthesia for Outpatient Hand Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C. K. Lam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. For hand surgery, brachial plexus blocks provide effective anesthesia but produce undesirable numbness. We hypothesized that distal peripheral nerve blocks will better preserve motor function while providing effective anesthesia. Methods. Adult subjects who were scheduled for elective ambulatory hand surgery under regional anesthesia and sedation were recruited and randomly assigned to receive ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block or distal block of the ulnar and median nerves. Each subject received 15 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine at the assigned location with 15 mL of normal saline injected in the alternate block location. The primary outcome (change in baseline grip strength measured by a hydraulic dynamometer was tested before the block and prior to discharge. Subject satisfaction data were collected the day after surgery. Results. Fourteen subjects were enrolled. Median (interquartile range [IQR] strength loss in the distal group was 21.4% (14.3, 47.8%, while all subjects in the supraclavicular group lost 100% of their preoperative strength, P = 0.001. Subjects in the distal group reported greater satisfaction with their block procedures on the day after surgery, P = 0.012. Conclusion. Distal nerve blocks better preserve motor function without negatively affecting quality of anesthesia, leading to increased patient satisfaction, when compared to brachial plexus block.

  18. Comparison of extended-release epidural morphine with femoral nerve block to patient-controlled epidural analgesia for postoperative pain control of total knee arthroplasty: a case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Scott L; Hutson, Larry R; Shannon, Patrick; Thomas, Leslie C; Nossaman, Bobby D

    2011-01-01

    Because newer anticoagulation strategies for total knee replacement present potentially increased risk of neuraxial analgesia, there is movement away from using patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) for pain control. This concern opens the door for other regional modalities in postoperative analgesia, including the use of extended-release epidural morphine (EREM) combined with a femoral nerve block (FNB). This study was a prospective observational chart review with the use of recent historical controls in patients undergoing unilateral total knee replacement. Outcomes of interest were 0-, 24-, and 48-hour postoperative pain scores using the visual analog scale (VAS); incidence of side effects; and time spent in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Postoperative pain scores at 24 and 48 hours in the EREM and FNB group (n  =  14; 2.6 ± 0.6 and 5.0 ± 0.9, respectively) were comparable to the PCEA group (n  =  14; 3.8 ± 0.6 and 4.2 ± 0.9). The PACU time was shorter in the EREM and FNB group (2.4 ± 0.3 hours) compared with PCEA (3.6 ± 0.3 hours, P  =  .02). No statistically significant difference was found in the incidence of side effects between the 2 groups. The VAS scores at 24 and 48 hours indicate that EREM and FNB provide comparable analgesia to PCEA. The trend toward shorter PACU times represents an opportunity for cost-identification analysis. The study data are limited by their observational nature and the small number of patients involved; nevertheless, this study demonstrates a therapeutic equivalence to PCEA that may be more cost effective.

  19. Two syringe spinal anesthesia technique for cesarean section: A controlled randomized study of a simple way to achieve more satisfactory block and less hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keera, Amr Aly Ismail; Elnabtity, Ali Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Multiple trials have been tried to prevent hypotension during spinal anesthesia. However, the drug choice and mode of administration is still a matter of debate. To compare the outcome of spinal injection of hyperbaric bupivacaine and fentanyl separately to standard injection of mixed fentanyl with hyperbaric bupivacaine. A randomized, controlled clinical trial. One hundred twenty-four parturient scheduled for elective cesarean section were randomly allocated into two groups, each 62 parturient: Group M received spinal anesthesia using 10 mg bupivacaine 0.5% premixed with 25 μg fentanyl in the same syringe and Group S received 25 μg fentanyl in one syringe and 10 mg bupivacaine 0.5% without barbotage in a second syringe. Patients with intraoperative pain that was controllable without the need for a shift to general anesthesia was significantly lower in Group S (3.2%) than in Group M (16.1%). The frequency of hypotension was significantly lower in Group S compared to Group M (P 0.05). There was no significant difference in the time till occurrence of hypotension, duration of hypotension, mean dose of ephedrine used for the treatment of hypotension and frequency of patients developed itching between the groups (P > 0.05). Separate intrathecal injection of fentanyl and hyperbaric bupivacaine provided a significant improvement in the quality of sensory block and significant reduction of the frequency of hypotension compared to injection of mixed medications.

  20. Block Copolymer Patterns as Templates for the Electrocatalyzed Deposition of Nanostructures on Electrodes and for the Generation of Surfaces of Controlled Wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandaluri, Chanchayya Gupta; Pelossof, Gilad; Tel-Vered, Ran; Shenhar, Roy; Willner, Itamar

    2016-01-20

    ITO electrodes modified with a nanopatterned film of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine), PS-b-P2VP, where the P2VP domains are quaternized with iodomethane, are used for selective deposition of redox-active materials. Electrochemical studies (cyclic voltammetry, Faradaic impedance measurements) indicate that the PS domains insulate the conductive surface toward redox labels in solution. In turn, the quaternized P2VP domains electrostatically attract negatively charged redox labels solubilized in the electrolyte solution, resulting in an effective electron transfer between the electrode and the redox label. This phenomenon is implemented for the selective deposition of the electroactive Prussian blue on the nanopatterned surface and for the electrochemical deposition of Au nanoparticles, modified with a monolayer of p-aminothiophenol/2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid, on the quaternized P2VP domains. The patterned Prussian blue-modified surface enables controlling the wettability properties by the content of the electrochemically deposited Prussian blue. Controlled wettability is unattainable with the homopolymer-modified surface, attesting to the role of the nanopattern.

  1. Effects of adding dexamethasone or ketamine to bupivacaine for ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral block in patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy: A prospective randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Blough El Mourad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Pain after modified radical mastectomy (MRM has been successfully managed with thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding dexamethasone or ketamine as adjuncts to bupivacaine in TPVB on the quality of postoperative analgesia in participants undergoing MRM. Methods: This prospective randomised controlled study enrolled ninety adult females scheduled for MRM. Patients were randomised into three groups (30 each to receive ultrasound-guided TPVB before induction of general anaesthesia. Group B received bupivacaine 0.5% + 1 ml normal saline, Group D received bupivacaine 0.5% + 1 ml dexamethasone (4 mg and Group K received bupivacaine 0.5% + 1 ml ketamine (50 mg. Patients were observed for 24 h postoperatively to record time to first analgesic demand as a primary outcome, pain scores, total rescue morphine consumption and incidence of complications. Results: Group K had significantly longer time to first analgesic demand than group D and control group (18.0 ± 6.0, 10.3 ± 4.5 and 5.3 ± 3.1 hours respectively; P = 0.0001. VAS scores were significantly lower in group D and group K compared to control group at 6h and 12 h postoperative (p 0.0001 and 0.0001 respectively while group K had lower VAS at 18 hours compared to other two groups (P = 0.0001. Control group showed the highest mean 24 h opioid consumption (8.9 ± 7.9 mg compared to group D and group K (3.60 ± 6.92 and 2.63 ± 5.24 mg, P = 0.008,0.001 respectively. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusion: Ketamine 50 mg or dexamethasone 4 mg added to bupivacaine 0.5% in TPVB for MRM prolonged the time to first analgesic request with no serious side effects.

  2. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  3. MOVES regional level sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The MOVES Regional Level Sensitivity Analysis was conducted to increase understanding of the operations of the MOVES Model in regional emissions analysis and to highlight the following: : the relative sensitivity of selected MOVES Model input paramet...

  4. The effects of adding epinephrine to ropivacaine for popliteal nerve block on the duration of postoperative analgesia: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, K.P.; Fenten, M.G.E.; Louwerens, J.W.; Scheffer, G.J.; Stienstra, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Duration of peripheral nerve blocks depends on multiple factors. Both technique and type of local anesthetic used, either with or without adjuncts, may result in different duration times of the block. The purpose of the present study was to compare the duration of postoperative analgesia

  5. Is pulmonary function affected by bilateral dual transversus abdominis plane block? A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot study in healthy male volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria; Elers, Jimmi; Børglum, Jens

    2011-01-01

    : Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks have been shown to reduce postoperative pain after various abdominal surgical procedures in several studies. The motor nerves of the abdominal wall are located in the same plane as the sensory nerves affected by the TAP block. The aim of this study...

  6. Move of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigehiko

    1983-01-01

    As a ground water flow which is difficult to explain by Darcy's theory, there is stagnant water in strata, which moves by pumping and leads to land subsidence. This is now a major problem in Japan. Such move on an extensive scale has been investigated in detail by means of 3 H such as from rainfall in addition to ordinary measurement. The move of ground water is divided broadly into that in an unsaturated stratum from ground surface to water-table and that in a saturated stratum below the water-table. The course of the analyses made so far by 3 H contained in water, and the future trend of its usage are described. A flow model of regarding water as plastic fluid and its flow as channel assembly may be available for some flow mechanism which is not possible to explain with Darcy's theory. (Mori, K.)

  7. Moving toroidal limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari; Miyahara, Akira.

    1983-06-01

    The concept of the limiter-divertor proposed by Mirnov is extended to a toroidal limiter-divertor (which we call moving toroidal limiter) using the stream of ferromagnetic balls coated with a low Z materials such as plastics, graphite and ceramics. An important advantage of the use of the ferromagnetic materials would be possible soft landing of the balls on a catcher, provided that the temperature of the balls is below Curie point. Moreover, moving toroidal limiter would work as a protector of the first wall not only against the vertical movement of plasma ring but also against the violent inward motion driven by major disruption because the orbit of the ball in the case of moving toroidal limiter distributes over the small major radius side of the toroidal plasma. (author)

  8. ALS insertion device block measurement and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Carrieri, J.; Cook, C.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Hoyer, E.; Plate, D.

    1991-05-01

    The performance specifications for ALS insertion devices require detailed knowledge and strict control of the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet blocks incorporated in these devices. This paper describes the measurement and inspection apparatus and the procedures designed to qualify and characterize these blocks. A detailed description of a new, automated Helmholtz coil facility for measurement of the three components of magnetic moment is included. Physical block inspection and magnetic moment measurement procedures are described. Together they provide a basis for qualifying blocks and for specifying placement of blocks within an insertion devices' magnetic structures. 1 ref., 4 figs

  9. Poly(ferrocenylsilane)-block-Polylactide Block Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; van Zanten, Thomas S.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2007-01-01

    A PFS/PLA block copolymer was studied to probe the effect of strong surface interactions on pattern formation in PFS block copolymer thin films. Successful synthesis of PFS-b-PLA was demonstrated. Thin films of these polymers show phase separation to form PFS microdomains in a PLA matrix, and

  10. Effect of dexmedetomidine as adjuvant in ropivacaine-induced supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A prospective, double-blinded and randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Different additives have been used to prolong brachial plexus block. We evaluated the effect of adding dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus blockade. The primary endpoints were the onset and duration of sensory and motor block and duration of analgesia. Materials and Methods: A total of 84 patients (20-50 years posted for elective forearm and hand surgery under supraclavicular brachial plexus block were divided into two equal groups (Group R and RD in a randomized, double-blind fashion. In group RD (n = 42 30 ml 0.5% ropivacaine +1 ml (100 μg of dexmedetomidine and group R (n = 42 30 ml 0.5% ropivacaine +1 ml normal saline were administered in supraclavicular block. Sensory and motor block onset times and block durations, time to first analgesic use, total analgesic need, postoperative visual analog scale (VAS, hemodynamics and side-effects were recorded for each patient. Results: Though with similar demographic profile in both groups, sensory and motor block in group RD (P < 0.05 was earlier than group R. Sensory and motor block duration and time to first analgesic use were significantly longer and the total need for rescue analgesics was lower in group RD (P < 0.05 than group R. Post-operative VAS value at 12 h were significantly lower in group RD (P < 0.05. Intra-operative hemodynamics were significantly lower in group RD (P < 0.05 without any appreciable side-effects. Conclusion: It can be concluded that adding dexmedetomidine to supraclavicular brachial plexus block increases the sensory and motor block duration and time to first analgesic use, and decreases total analgesic use with no side-effects.

  11. Moving to Jobs?

    OpenAIRE

    Dave Maré; Jason Timmins

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines whether New Zealand residents move from low-growth to high-growth regions, using New Zealand census data from the past three inter-censal periods (covering 1986-2001). We focus on the relationship between employment growth and migration flows to gauge the strength of the relationship and the stability of the relationship over the business cycle. We find that people move to areas of high employment growth, but that the probability of leaving a region is less strongly relate...

  12. Technology: cancer treatment: breath control set radiotherapy free. Two new methods allow to aim the tumors with precision without suffering of respiratory move

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, S.

    2004-01-01

    The challenge of radiotherapy consists in improving the ratio between the destruction of tumor cells and the preservation of sane cells. The efficiency of the treatment depends on the precision of radiations impact on the tumor but this one is difficult to get because the patient respiration makes the target mobile. It is now possible to get this precision. It is a question to block the patient respiration or to register the movements and then establish the shooting window of radiations in function of the tumor optimum exposure. (N.C.)

  13. Nanoporous capsules of block co-polymers of [(MeO-PEG-NH)-b-(L-GluA)]-PCL for the controlled release of anticancer drugs for therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amgoth, Chander; Dharmapuri, Gangappa; Kalle, Arunasree M.; Paik, Pradip

    2016-03-01

    Herein, new nanoporous capsules of the block co-polymers of MeO-PEG-NH-(L-GluA)10 and polycaprolactone (PCL) have been synthesized through a surfactant-free cost-effective self-assembled soft-templating approach for the controlled release of drugs and for therapeutic applications. The nanoporous polymer capsules are designed to be biocompatible and are capable of encapsulating anticancer drugs (e.g., doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and imatinib mesylate (ITM)) with a high extent (˜279 and ˜480 ng μg-1, respectively). We have developed a nanoformulation of porous MeO-PEG-NH-(L-GluA)10-PCL capsules with DOX and ITM. The porous polymer nanoformulations have been programmed in terms of the release of anticancer drugs with a desired dose to treat the leukemia (K562) and human carcinoma cells (HepG2) in vitro and show promising IC50 values with a very high mortality of cancer cells (up to ˜96.6%). Our nanoformulation arrests the cell divisions due to ‘cellular scenescence’ and kills the cancer cells specifically. The present findings could enrich the effectiveness of idiosyncratic nanoporous polymer capsules for use in various other nanomedicinal and biomedical applications, such as for killing cancer cells, immune therapy, and gene delivery.

  14. Efficacy of supplementary buccal infiltrations and intraligamentary injections to inferior alveolar nerve blocks in mandibular first molars with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, M; Sadr, S; Nakhaee, N; Abbott, P V; Askarifard, S

    2014-10-01

    This randomized double-blinded controlled trial was performed to compare the efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) injection for mandibular first molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis with or without supplementary buccal infiltration and intraligamentary injection. Eighty-two patients with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis received either a combination of intraligamentary injection + buccal infiltration+ IANB or with traditional IANB injection in mandibular first molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Each patient recorded their pain score on a Heft-Parker visual analogue scale before commencing treatment, in response to a cold test 15 min after the designated anaesthetic injection, during access cavity preparation and during root canal instrumentation. No or mild pain at any stage was considered a success. Data were analysed by chi-square test. At the final stage of treatment, 69 of the 82 patients were eligible to be included in the study. No significant difference was found between age (P = 0.569) and gender (P = 0.570) amongst the patients in the two groups. The success rate of anaesthesia in the IANB and the combination groups were 22% and 58%, respectively. The success rate of anaesthesia in the combination group was significantly higher than the traditional IANB injection (P = 0.003). A combination of anaesthetic techniques can improve the success rate of anaesthesia for mandibular first molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Large enhancement of Blocking temperature by control of interfacial structures in Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Blocking temperature (TB of Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers was greatly enhanced from far below room temperature (RT to above RT by inserting 1 nm thick Mg layer at IrMn/MgO interface. Furthermore, the exchange bias field (Heb was increased as well by the control of interfacial structures. The evidence for a significant fraction of Mn-O bonding at IrMn/MgO interface without Mg insertion layer was provided by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The bonding between Mn and O can decrease the antiferromagnetism of IrMn film, leading to lower value of TB in Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers. Ultrathin Mg film inserted at IrMn/MgO interface acting as an oxygen sinking layer can suppress the oxidation reactions between Mn and O and reduce the formation of Mn-O bonding greatly. The oxidation suppression results in the recovery of the antiferromagnetism of IrMn film, which can enhance TB and Heb. Furthermore, the high resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the Mg insertion layer can efficiently promote a high-quality MgO (200 texture. This study will enhance the understanding of physics in antiferromagnet-based spintronic devices.

  16. Effect of preoperative medications on the efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis: A placebo-controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Amit; Shashirekha, Govind

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to compare the effect of the administration of preoperative ibuprofen, ketorolac, combination of etodolac with paracetamol and combination of aceclofenac with paracetamol versus placebo for the potential increased effectiveness of the inferior alveolar nerve block [IANB] anesthesia. A total of 100 endodontic emergency patients in moderate to severe pain diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth randomly received, in a double-blind manner, either a drug or placebo 30 minutes before the administration of a conventional IANB. Cold testing was done before administration of anesthesia to determine level of pain using Heft-Parker Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score. Success was defined as no pain or pain (VAS) on access or initial instrumentation. Overall success was 54% for all the groups. Success was highest (70%) for the ketorolac group, 55% for both ibuprofen group and combination of aceclofenac with paracetamol group, 50% for combination of etodolac with paracetamol group, and 40% for the placebo group. Under the conditions of this study, the use of preoperative medication did improve the anesthetic efficacy of IANB for the treatment of teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis but not significantly.

  17. Nanoporous capsules of block co-polymers of [(MeO-PEG-NH)-b-(L-GluA)]-PCL for the controlled release of anticancer drugs for therapeutic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amgoth, Chander; Paik, Pradip; Dharmapuri, Gangappa; Kalle, Arunasree M

    2016-01-01

    Herein, new nanoporous capsules of the block co-polymers of MeO-PEG-NH-(L-GluA) 10 and polycaprolactone (PCL) have been synthesized through a surfactant-free cost-effective self-assembled soft-templating approach for the controlled release of drugs and for therapeutic applications. The nanoporous polymer capsules are designed to be biocompatible and are capable of encapsulating anticancer drugs (e.g., doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and imatinib mesylate (ITM)) with a high extent (∼279 and ∼480 ng μg −1 , respectively). We have developed a nanoformulation of porous MeO-PEG-NH-(L-GluA) 10 -PCL capsules with DOX and ITM. The porous polymer nanoformulations have been programmed in terms of the release of anticancer drugs with a desired dose to treat the leukemia (K562) and human carcinoma cells (HepG2) in vitro and show promising IC 50 values with a very high mortality of cancer cells (up to ∼96.6%). Our nanoformulation arrests the cell divisions due to ‘cellular scenescence’ and kills the cancer cells specifically. The present findings could enrich the effectiveness of idiosyncratic nanoporous polymer capsules for use in various other nanomedicinal and biomedical applications, such as for killing cancer cells, immune therapy, and gene delivery. (paper)

  18. Reduction in sodium content of local anesthetics for peripheral nerve blocks: a comparative evaluation of saline with 5% dextrose--a randomized controlled double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Shalini; Tureanu, Luminita; Bouzari, Amir; Masood, Amna; Francispragasam, Mario; Ganapathy, Sugantha

    2012-06-01

    Commercially available local anesthetic drugs when diluted with normal saline have high sodium content. High perineural sodium concentration has been implicated in antagonizing the analgesic effects of local anesthetics by preventing and/or delaying neural blockade. Five percent dextrose is not known to cause any short- or long-term injury when injected around neural tissue. In this study, we prospectively compared and evaluated block characteristics when local anesthetic drug was diluted with these 2 different agents. Patients scheduled for upper limb surgery were randomly assigned to receive axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% ropivacaine (1% diluted with either 5% dextrose or normal saline). Motor and sensory block were tested every 5 minutes for 30 minutes. Postoperatively, a telephone interview was conducted after 24 hours and 7 days along with surgical follow-up at days 3, 10, and/or 14 to 28 days to document side effects, patient satisfaction, and time for block resolution. Any nerve deficits were followed until resolution. The primary outcome was time to onset of sensory nerve block. Five hundred fifty patients were recruited for this study. The mean time to complete sensory block was 18.3 ± 6.1 minutes in the dextrose group and 22.5 ± 6.4 minutes in the saline group (P dextrose provides earlier onset of axillary brachial plexus block with ropivacaine.

  19. Effect of Dexamethasone on Characteristics of Supraclavicular Nerve Block with Bupivacaine and Ropivacaine: A Prospective, Double-blind, Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindal, Deeksha; Narang, Neeraj; Mahindra, Rekha; Gupta, Himanshu; Kubre, Jyotsna; Saxena, Anudeep

    2018-01-01

    Dexamethasone as an adjuvant to bupivacaine and ropivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus (SCBP) block prolongs motor and sensory blockade. However, comparison of effect of dexamethasone (8 mg) when added to these two local anesthetics has not been well studied. This study was conducted to compare analgesic efficacy of dexamethasone as adjuvant to bupivacaine and ropivacaine in SCBP block. Nerve stimulator-guided SCBP block was given to 120 patients, randomly assigned to one of four groups: ( n = 30 in each group) Group B, BD, R, and RD received 30 ml (0.5%) bupivacaine + 2 ml saline, 30 ml (0.5%) bupivacaine + dexamethasone 8 mg, 30 ml (0.5%) ropivacaine + 2 ml saline, and 30 ml (0.5%) ropivacaine + dexamethasone 8 mg, respectively. Time for request of the first rescue analgesic, 24-h analgesic consumption, and different block characteristics were assessed. Student's t -test, Chi-square test, ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Dexamethasone significantly prolonged time for request of the first rescue analgesic of both ropivacaine (1211.83 ± 32.86 vs. 283.17 ± 7.71 min){ p R, RD block. The addition of dexamethasone to bupivacaine and ropivacaine in SCBP block prolonged time for first rescue analgesia and reduced the requirement of rescue analgesics with faster onset and prolonged duration of sensory and motor block, with the effect being stronger with ropivacaine.

  20. Libraries on the MOVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Jim; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents papers from Illinois State Library and Shawnee Library System's "Libraries on the MOVE" conference focusing on how libraries can impact economic/cultural climate of an area. Topics addressed included information services of rural libraries; marketing; rural library development; library law; information access; interagency…

  1. Sense of moving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Grünbaum, Thor

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we assume the existence of a sense of “movement activity” that arises when a person actively moves a body part. This sense is usually supposed to be part of sense of agency (SoA). The purpose of the chapter is to determine whether the already existing experimental paradigms can...

  2. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  3. Moving up in industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Charlotte

    2016-01-23

    Charlotte Covell is commercial business manager at Virbac UK, a role that gives her responsibility for the company's sales to corporate practices, some buying groups and internet pharmacies. She began her career as a veterinary nurse, but moved into industry and now has a role in senior business management. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Optics of moving media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwnicki, P.; Leonhardt, U.

    2001-01-01

    Light experiences a moving medium as an effective gravitational field. In the limit of low medium velocities the medium flow plays the role of a magnetic vector potential. We review the background of our theory [U. Leonhardt and P. Piwnicki, Phys. Rev. A 60, 4301 (1999); Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 822 (2000)], including our proposal of making optical black holes.

  5. Moving Another Big Desk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Gay

    1996-01-01

    New ways of thinking about leadership require that leaders move their big desks and establish environments that encourage trust and open communication. Educational leaders must trust their colleagues to make wise choices. When teachers are treated democratically as leaders, classrooms will also become democratic learning organizations. (SM)

  6. Making Images That Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The history of the moving image (the cinema) is well documented in books and on the Internet. This article offers a number of activities that can easily be carried out in a science class. They make use of the phenomenon of "Persistence of Vision." The activities presented herein demonstrate the functionality of the phenakistoscope, the…

  7. Randomized controlled trial to study the effect of dexamethasone as additive to ropivacaine on duration of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasleen Sachdeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is a regional anesthesia technique whose efficacy has been proven for postoperative pain relief after cesarean section (CS. Dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid, is now emerging as a new adjunct to local anesthetics for prolonging the duration of action and has been studied in different brachial plexus blocks. The primary outcome was to study the effect of dexamethasone as additive to ropivacaine on the duration of TAP block as assessed by time to first analgesic (TFA . The secondary outcome was total postoperative analgesic consumption, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and patient satisfaction. Method: This RCT was conducted on seventy American Society of Anesthesiology Grade I and II patients undergoing CS under subarachnoid block. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups comprising 35 patients each. Patients in Group I received ultrasound-guided bilateral TAP block at the end of surgery using 40 ml ropivacaine 0.2% and 2 ml saline, and patients in Group II received the block using 40 ml ropivacaine 0.2% and 2 ml (8 mg dexamethasone. Result: TFA was significantly longer in Group II (5.92 ± 1.02 vs. 3.11 ± 0.82 h, P = 0. Group II also had decreased tramadol requirement postoperatively (100.00 ± 0.00 vs. 140.00 ± 50.26 mg, P = 0.046. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was also lower (82.86% vs. 97.14%, P = 0.02318. The patient satisfaction with regard to pain relief was more (57.14% vs. 25.71%, P = 0.038. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to ropivacaine in TAP block prolonged the duration of the block. There was no complication seen with TAP block in any of the patients.

  8. Large-scale block adjustment without use of ground control points based on the compensation of geometric calibration for ZY-3 images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Mi; Xu, Wen; Li, Deren; Gong, Jianya; Pi, Yingdong

    2017-12-01

    The potential of large-scale block adjustment (BA) without ground control points (GCPs) has long been a concern among photogrammetric researchers, which is of effective guiding significance for global mapping. However, significant problems with the accuracy and efficiency of this method remain to be solved. In this study, we analyzed the effects of geometric errors on BA, and then developed a step-wise BA method to conduct integrated processing of large-scale ZY-3 satellite images without GCPs. We first pre-processed the BA data, by adopting a geometric calibration (GC) method based on the viewing-angle model to compensate for systematic errors, such that the BA input images were of good initial geometric quality. The second step was integrated BA without GCPs, in which a series of technical methods were used to solve bottleneck problems and ensure accuracy and efficiency. The BA model, based on virtual control points (VCPs), was constructed to address the rank deficiency problem caused by lack of absolute constraints. We then developed a parallel matching strategy to improve the efficiency of tie points (TPs) matching, and adopted a three-array data structure based on sparsity to relieve the storage and calculation burden of the high-order modified equation. Finally, we used the conjugate gradient method to improve the speed of solving the high-order equations. To evaluate the feasibility of the presented large-scale BA method, we conducted three experiments on real data collected by the ZY-3 satellite. The experimental results indicate that the presented method can effectively improve the geometric accuracies of ZY-3 satellite images. This study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale mapping without GCPs.

  9. Evaluation of nitrous oxide inhalation sedation during inferior alveolar block administration in children aged 7-10 years: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Takkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrous oxide-oxygen (N 2 O-O 2 is being used in combination with many drugs and this possess risk for leading to deep sedation or reflexes being compromised. Aim: The purpose of our study was to use N 2 O-O 2 alone, to evaluate its effectiveness for pain control during inferior alveolar nerve block administration in children. Design: This was a single-centered, simple randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled parallel-group study involving 40 children in the age group of 7-10 years divided into 2 groups: N 2 O-O 2 sedation and oxygen. Pain perception for local anesthesia was assessed using face, legs, activity, cry, consolability scale. Children′s behavior was assessed using Frankl ratings, depth of sedation using Observer′s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale. The vital signs and oxygen saturation were recorded. Results: There was a significantly lower pain reaction to local anesthetic administration in the N 2 O-O 2 group (P < 0.01. Improvement in the behavior of the children belonging to N 2 O-O 2 group during and after the procedure as compared to the O 2 group (P < 0.01 was also observed. All the vital signs recorded were in the normal physiologic limits in both the groups. Conclusion: Pain experienced by children receiving N 2 O-O 2 sedation was significantly lower. N 2 O-O 2 inhalation sedation produces adequate sedation with vital signs within normal limits and treatments successfully completed.

  10. A Block Randomized Controlled Trial of a Brief Smoking Cessation Counselling and Advice through Short Message Service on Participants Who Joined the Quit to Win Contest in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia S. C.; Wong, David C. N.; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Leung, Doris Y. P.; Lau, Lisa; Lai, Vienna; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2015-01-01

    The present trial examined the effectiveness of brief interventions for smokers who joined the Hong Kong Quit to Win Contest to quit smoking. A block randomized controlled trial allocated 1003 adult daily smokers to three groups: (i) The TEL group (n = 338) received a 5-min nurse-led telephone counselling; (ii) The SMS group (n = 335) received…

  11. Block That Pain!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Block That Pain! Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... contrast, most pain relievers used for surgical procedures block activity in all types of neurons. This can ...

  12. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known cause. Causes can include: Left bundle branch block Heart attacks (myocardial infarction) Thickened, stiffened or weakened ... myocarditis) High blood pressure (hypertension) Right bundle branch block A heart abnormality that's present at birth (congenital) — ...

  13. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Orilall, M. Christopher; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various

  14. Autonomous Landing on Moving Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Mendoza Chavez, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    This thesis investigates autonomous landing of a micro air vehicle (MAV) on a nonstationary ground platform. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) are becoming every day more ubiquitous. Nonetheless, many applications still require specialized human pilots or supervisors. Current research is focusing on augmenting the scope of tasks that these vehicles are able to accomplish autonomously. Precise autonomous landing on moving platforms is essential for self-deployment and recovery of MAVs, but it remains a challenging task for both autonomous and piloted vehicles. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a widely used and effective scheme to control constrained systems. One of its variants, output-feedback tube-based MPC, ensures robust stability for systems with bounded disturbances under system state reconstruction. This thesis proposes a MAV control strategy based on this variant of MPC to perform rapid and precise autonomous landing on moving targets whose nominal (uncommitted) trajectory and velocity are slowly varying. The proposed approach is demonstrated on an experimental setup.

  15. Controlled biomass formation and kinetics of toluene degradation in a bioscrubber and in a reactor with a periodically moved trickle-bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wübker, S M; Laurenzis, A; Werner, U; Friedrich, C

    1997-08-20

    The kinetics of degradation of toluene from a model waste gas and of biomass formation were examined in a bioscrubber operated under different nutrient limitations with a mixed culture. The applicability of the kinetics of continuous cultivation of the mixed culture was examined for a special trickle-bed reactor with a periodically moved filter bed. The efficiency of toluene elimination of the bioscrubber was 50 to 57% and depended on the toluene mass transfer as evident from a constant productivity of 0.026 g dry cell weight/L . h over the dilution rate. Under potassium limitation the biomass productivity was reduced by 60% to 0.011 g dry cell weight/L . h at a dilution rate of 0.013/h. Conversely, at low dilution rates the specific toluene degradation rates increased. Excess biomass in a trickle-bed reactor causes reduction of interfacial area and mass transfer, and increase in pressure drop. To avoid these disadvantages, the trickle-bed was moved periodically and biomass was removed with outflowing medium. The concentration of steady state biomass fixed on polyamide beads decreased hyperbolically with the dilution rate. Also, the efficiency of toluene degradation decreased from 72 to 56% with increasing dilution rate while the productivity increased. Potassium limitation generally caused a reduction in biomass, productivity, and yield while the specific degradation increased with dilution rate. This allowed the application of the principles of the chemostat to the trickle-bed reactor described here, for toluene degradation from waste gases. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55: 686-692, 1997.

  16. The effect of morphine added to bupivacaine in ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block for postoperative analgesia following lower abdominal cancer surgery, a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sherif, Fatma Adel; Mohamed, Sahar Abdel-Baky; Kamal, Shereen Mamdouh

    2017-06-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block used for management of surgical abdominal pain by injecting local anesthetics into the plane between the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles. We aimed to explore the effect of adding morphine to bupivacaine in ultrasound guided TAP-block in patients undergoing lower abdominal cancer surgery. Randomized, double-blind, prospective study. Clinical trial identifier: NCT02566096. Academic medical center. Sixty patients were enrolled in this study after ethical committee approval. Patients divided into 2 groups (30 each): Bupivacaine group (GB): given ultrasound guided TAP-block 20ml 0.5% bupivacaine diluted in 20ml saline; Morphine group (GM): given ultrasound guided TAP-block with 20ml 0.5% bupivacaine+10mg morphine sulphate diluted in 20ml saline. Patients were observed for total morphine consumption, time for first request of rescue analgesia, sedation scores, hemodynamics and side effects for 24h postoperatively. Morphine added to bupivacaine in TAP block compared to bupivacaine alone reduced total morphine consumption (5.33±1.28mg) (10.70±3.09mg) respectively (p0.05). Addition of morphine to bupivacaine in TAP block is effective method for pain management in patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery without serious side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Moving in Circles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Gunvor

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the development of African diaspora history during the last fifty years. It outlines the move from a focus on African survivals to a focus on deep rooted cultural principles and back again to a revived interest in concrete cultural transfers from Africa to the Americas....... This circular movement can be explained by a combination of elements characterizing African Atlantic and black Atlantic history. Among them is a lack of attention to questions of periodisation and change. Likewise, it has proven difficult to conceptualize Africa and America at one and the same time...... as characterized by cultural diversity and variation. Moreover, the field has been haunted by a tendency of moving to easily from descriptive evidence to conclusions about African identity in the Americas. A promising way to overcome these problems, it is suggested, is to develop research that focuses on single...

  18. Electric moving shadow garden

    OpenAIRE

    Bracey, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Electric Moving Shadow Garden is a multi-directional exploration of the links between artists and cinema, with multiple reference and contextual points. it accompanied the exhibition, UnSpooling: Artists & Cinema, curated by Bracey and Dave Griffiths at Corernhouse, Manchester, who also edited the publication. Published to accompany the Cornerhouse exhibition, UnSpooling: Artists & Cinema, curated by artists Andrew Bracey and Dave Griffiths. This illustrated catalogue explores how internat...

  19. CERN Pension Fund move

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund has moved to new offices on the 5th floor of Building 5. The Benefits Service of the Fund is now located in Offices 5-5-017 - 5-5-021 - 5-5-023. We remind you that the office hours are: Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday from 10 am to 12 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm. The Fund would like to take this opportunity to warmly thank all the persons involved in the relocation.

  20. Lecture - "Move! Eat better"

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    As part of the "Move! Eat better" campaign, Novae’s nutrition adviser, Irène Rolfo, will give a talk on the subject of everyday good nutrition. This will be held in the main building auditorium at 12:30 on Thursday, 20 September 2012. Don’t miss this informative event. For more information, go to http://cern.ch/bpmm            

  1. Mosquito-Disseminated Insecticide for Citywide Vector Control and Its Potential to Block Arbovirus Epidemics: Entomological Observations and Modeling Results from Amazonian Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    2017-01-01

    truly independent replicates and that we did not measure mosquito-borne virus transmission empirically.Mosquito-disseminated PPF has potential to block mosquito-borne virus transmission citywide, even under adverse scenarios. Our results signal new avenues for mosquito-borne disease prevention, likely including the effective control of Aedes-borne dengue, Zika, and chikungunya epidemics. Cluster-randomized controlled trials will help determine whether mosquito-disseminated PPF can, as our findings suggest, develop into a major tool for improving global public health.

  2. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... shows that no readily available tests with a well-defined substantial eccentricity have been performed. This paper presents theoretical and experimental work leading towards generalized block failure capacity methods. Simple combination of normal force, shear force and moment stress distributions along...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes....

  3. Antibacterial modification of an injectable, biodegradable, non-cytotoxic block copolymer-based physical gel with body temperature-stimulated sol-gel transition and controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowen; Hu, Huawen; Wang, Wenyi; Lee, Ka I; Gao, Chang; He, Liang; Wang, Yuanfeng; Lai, Chuilin; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H

    2016-07-01

    Biomaterials are being extensively used in various biomedical fields; however, they are readily infected with microorganisms, thus posing a serious threat to the public health care. We herein presented a facile route to the antibacterial modification of an important A-B-A type biomaterial using poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether (mPEG)- poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-mPEG as a typical model. Inexpensive, commercial bis(2-hydroxyethyl) methylammonium chloride (DMA) was adopted as an antibacterial unit. The effective synthesis of the antibacterial copolymer mPEG-PCL-∼∼∼-PCL-mPEG (where ∼∼∼ denotes the segment with DMA units) was well confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectra. At an appropriate modification extent, the DMA unit could render the copolymer mPEG-PCL-∼∼∼-PCL-mPEG highly antibacterial, but did not largely alter its fascinating intrinsic properties including the thermosensitivity (e.g., the body temperature-induced sol-gel transition), non-cytotoxicity, and controlled drug release. A detailed study on the sol-gel-sol transition behavior of different copolymers showed that an appropriate extent of modification with DMA retained a sol-gel-sol transition, despite the fact that a too high extent caused a loss of sol-gel-sol transition. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic balance between mPEG and PCL was most likely broken upon a high extent of quaternization due to a large disturbance effect of DMA units at a large quantity (as evidenced by the heavily depressed PCL segment crystallinity), and thus the micelle aggregation mechanism for the gel formation could not work anymore, along with the loss of the thermosensitivity. The work presented here is highly expected to be generalized for synthesis of various block copolymers with immunity to microorganisms. Light may also be shed on understanding the phase transition behavior of various multiblock copolymers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dose-response studies of Ropivacaine in blood flow of upper extremity after supraclavicular block: a double-blind randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Ye, Qiguang; Wu, Daozhu; Li, Jun; Yu, Jingui

    2017-12-02

    The sympathetic block of upper limb leading to increased blood flow has important clinical implication in microvascular surgery. However, little is known regarding the relationship between concentration of local anesthetic and blood flow of upper limb. The aim of this dose-response study was to determine the ED 50 and ED 95 of ropivacaine in blood flow after supraclavicular block (SB). Patients undergoing upper limb surgery and supraclavicular block were randomly assigned to receive 30ml ropivacaine in concentrations of 0.125%(A Group), 0.2%(B Group), 0.25%(C Group), 0.375%(D Group), 0.5%(E Group), or 0.75%(F Group) (n=13 per group). All patients received supraclavicular block (SB). Time average maximum velocity (TAMAX), cross-sectional area (CSA) of brachial artery and skin temperatures (T s ) were measured repeatedly at the same marked points, they were taken at baseline (before block, t 0 ) and at 30min after SB (t 1 ). Blood flow(BF) = TAMAX× CSA×60 sec.. Relative blood flow (ΔBF) = BF t1 / BF t0 . Success of SB was assessed simultaneously. Supplementary anesthesia and other adverse events (AE) were recorded. Significant increase in TAMAX, CSA, BF and T s were seen in all concentration groups at t 1 comparing with t 0 (Pblock were 0.18/0.33% (0.15-0.21/0.27-0.51), R 2 =0.904. The dose-response curve between SB ropivacaine and the changes of BF was determined. The ED 50 /ED 95 of ropivacaine of ΔBF are 0.35/1.94% (0.25-0.45/0.83-4.52). TAMAX, CSA and BF consistently increased with ropivacaine concentration. The maximal sympathetic block needs higher concentration than that complete sensation block needs which may benefit for microvascular surgery. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02139982 . Retrospectively registered (Date of registration: May, 2014).

  5. The European I-MOVE Multicentre 2013-2014 Case-Control Study. Homogeneous moderate influenza vaccine effectiveness against A(H1N1)pdm09 and heterogenous results by country against A(H3N2).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Valenciano, Marta

    2015-06-04

    In the first five I-MOVE (Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe) influenza seasons vaccine effectiveness (VE) results were relatively homogenous among participating study sites. In 2013-2014, we undertook a multicentre case-control study based on sentinel practitioner surveillance networks in six European Union (EU) countries to measure 2013-2014 influenza VE against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza. Influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses co-circulated during the season.

  6. Synchronizing Self and Object Movement: How Child and Adult Cyclists Intercept Moving Gaps in a Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihak, Benjamin J.; Plumert, Jodie M.; Ziemer, Christine J.; Babu, Sabarish; Grechkin, Timofey; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined how 10- and 12-year-old children and adults intercept moving gaps while bicycling in an immersive virtual environment. Participants rode an actual bicycle along a virtual roadway. At 12 test intersections, participants attempted to pass through a gap between 2 moving, car-sized blocks without stopping. The blocks were…

  7. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  8. CERN Pension Fund move

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund has moved to new offices at the 5th floor of Building 5. The Benefits Service of the Fund will henceforth receive you in the offices: 5-5-017 - 5-5-021 - 5-5-023. We remind you that the office hours are: Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday from 10 am to 12 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm. The Fund would like to take this opportunity to warmly thank all the persons involved in the Removal.

  9. Moving related to separation : who moves and to what distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Clara H.; Malmberg, Gunnar

    We address the issue of moving from the joint home on the occasion of separation. Our research question is: To what extent can the occurrence of moves related to separation, and the distance moved, be explained by ties to the location, resources, and other factors influencing the likelihood of

  10. A rapid method of detecting motor blocks in patients with Parkinson's disease during volitional hand movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Mirjana B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION An algorithm to study hand movements in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD who experience temporary, involuntary inability to move a hand have been developed. In literature, this rather enigmatic phenomenon has been described in gait, speech, handwriting and tapping, and noted as motor blocks (MB or freezing episodes. Freezing refers to transient periods in which the voluntary motor activity being attempted by an individual is paused. It is a sudden, unplanned state of immobility that appears to arise from deficits in initiating or simultaneously and sequentially executing movements, in correcting inappropriate movements or in planning movements. The clinical evaluation of motor blocks is difficult because of a variability both within and between individuals and relationship of blocks to time of drug ingestion. In literature the terms freezing, motor block or motor freezing are used in parallel. AIM In clinical settings classical manifestations of Parkinson's Disease (akinesia bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, axial motor performance and postural instability are typically evaluated. Recently, in literature, new computerized methods are suggested for their objective assessment. We propose monitoring of motor blocks during hand movements to be integrated. For this purpose we have developed a simple method that comprises PC computer, digitizing board and custom made software. Movement analysis is "off line", and the result is the data that describe the number, duration and onset of motor blocks. METHOD Hand trajectories are assessed during simple volitional self paced point-to-point planar hand movement by cordless magnetic mouse on a digitizing board (Drawing board III, 305 x 457 mm, GTCO Cal Comp Inc, Fig. 1. Testing included 8 Parkinsonian patients and 8 normal healthy controls, age matched, with unknown neurologic motor or sensory disorders, Table 1. Three kinematic indicators of motor blocks: 1 duration (MBTJ; 2 onset (t%; and 3

  11. Asymmetric PS-block-(PS-co-PB)-block-PS block copolymers: morphology formation and deformation behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Rameshwar; Huy, Trinh An; Buschnakowski, Matthias; Michler, Goerg H; Knoll, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    Morphology formation and deformation behaviour of asymmetric styrene/butadiene triblock copolymers (total polystyrene (PS) content ∼70%) consisting of PS outer blocks held apart by a styrene-co-butadiene random copolymer block (PS-co-PB) each were investigated. The techniques used were differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, uniaxial tensile testing and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A significant shift of the phase behaviour relative to that of a neat symmetric triblock copolymer was observed, which can be attributed to the asymmetric architecture and the presence of PS-co-PB as a soft block. The mechanical properties and the microdeformation phenomena were mainly controlled by the nature of their solid-state morphology. Independent of morphology type, the soft phase was found to deform to a significantly higher degree of orientation when compared with the hard phase

  12. Ready, set, move!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    This year, the CERN Medical Service is launching a new public health campaign. Advertised by the catchphrase “Move! & Eat Better”, the particular aim of the campaign is to encourage people at CERN to take more regular exercise, of whatever kind.   The CERN annual relay race is scheduled on 24 May this year. The CERN Medical Service will officially launch its “Move! & Eat Better” campaign at this popular sporting event. “We shall be on hand on the day of the race to strongly advocate regular physical activity,” explains Rachid Belkheir, one of the Medical Service doctors. "We really want to pitch our campaign and answer any questions people may have. Above all we want to set an example. So we are going to walk the same circuit as the runners to underline to people that they can easily incorporate movement into their daily routine.” An underlying concern has prompted this campaign: during their first few year...

  13. Block Cipher Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard(AES...... on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular....

  14. Slow light in moving media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, U.; Piwnicki, P.

    2001-06-01

    We review the theory of light propagation in moving media with extremely low group velocity. We intend to clarify the most elementary features of monochromatic slow light in a moving medium and, whenever possible, to give an instructive simplified picture.

  15. Controlled radical copolymerization of styrene and maleic anhydride and the synthesis of novel polyolefin-based block copolymers by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, de J.A.M.; Schellekens, M.A.J.; Klumperman, B.; Monteiro, M.J.; German, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Reversible addn.-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) was applied to the copolymn. of styrene and maleic anhydride. The product had a low polydispersity and a predetd. molar mass. Novel, well-defined polyolefin-based block copolymers were prepd. with a macromol. RAFT agent prepd. from a com.

  16. Synthesis and pH- and salinity-controlled self-assembly of novel amphiphilic block-gradient copolymers of styrene and acrylic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borisova, O.; Billon, L.; Zaremski, M.; Grassl, B.; Bakaeva, Zulfiya; Lapp, A.; Štěpánek, Petr; Borisov, O.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 29 (2012), s. 7649-7659 ISSN 1744-683X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : block-gradient copolymers * light scattering * small-angle neutron scattering Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.909, year: 2012

  17. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  18. Effect of addition of dexamethasone to ropivacaine on post-operative analgesia in ultrasonography-guided transversus abdominis plane block for inguinal hernia repair: A prospective, double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Uma Datt; Prateek; Tak, Himani

    2018-05-01

    Ultrasonography (USG)-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an abdominal field block with high efficacy. This study was undertaken with the aim of determining the effect of the addition of dexamethasone to 0.5% ropivacaine on post-operative analgesia in USG-guided TAP block for inguinal hernia repair. A double-blind randomised control study was conducted on sixty patients posted for inguinal hernia repair with the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status I or II, who were allocated two groups of 30 each. Patients in Group RS received 0.5% ropivacaine (20 ml) and normal saline (2 ml) whereas patients in Group RD received 0.5% ropivacaine (20 ml) and dexamethasone (2 ml, i.e., 8 mg), in USG-guided TAP Block on the same side, after repair of inguinal hernia under spinal anaesthesia. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, time for request of first analgesia and total tramadol consumption in first 24 h were compared. Unpaired Student's t -test and Mann-Whitney U-test were performed using SPSS 23 Software. Patients in Group RD had significantly lower VAS scores as compared to Group RS from 4 th to 12 th h, postoperatively. Duration of analgesia was significantly more in Group RD (547.50 [530,530] min) when compared with Group RS (387.50 [370,400] min) ( P consumption.

  19. Effect of preoperative acetaminophen/hydrocodone on the efficacy of the inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, Spencer; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to determine the effect of the administration of the combination acetaminophen/hydrocodone on the anesthetic success of mandibular posterior teeth in patients experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One hundred emergency patients in moderate to severe pain diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth randomly received, in a double-blind manner, identical capsules of either a combination dose of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 mg hydrocodone or placebo 60 minutes before the administration of a conventional inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block. Endodontic access was begun 15 minutes after completion of the block, and all patients used for data analysis had profound lip numbness. Success was defined as no or mild pain (visual analog scale recordings) on pulpal access or instrumentation. The success rate for the IAN block was 32% for the combination dose of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 hydrocodone and 28% for the placebo dose, with no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P = .662). A combination dose of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 mg hydrocodone given 60 minutes before the administration of the IAN block did not result in a statistically significant increase in anesthetic success for mandibular posterior teeth in patients experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Catching moving objects : Differential effects of background motion on action mode selection and movement control in 6- to 10-month-old infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wermeskerken, Margot; van der Kamp, John; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2015-01-01

    In human adults the use of visual information for selecting appropriate modes for action appears to be separate from the use of visual information for the control of movements of which the action is composed (Milner & Goodale, [1995] The visual brain in action; [2008] Neuropsychologia 46:774-785).

  1. Catching moving objects: Differential effects of background motion on action mode selection and movement control in 6- to 10-month-old infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wermeskerken, M; van der Kamp, J.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    In human adults the use of visual information for selecting appropriate modes for action appears to be separate from the use of visual information for the control of movements of which the action is composed (Milner & Goodale, [1995] The visual brain in action; [2008] Neuropsychologia 46:774-785).

  2. Sensory and cognitive neurophysiology in rats, Part 1: Controlled tactile stimulation and micro-ECoG recordings in freely moving animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitriadis, G.; Fransen, A.M.M.; Maris, E.G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: We have developed a setup for rats that allows for controlled sensory input to an animal engaged in a task while recording both electrophysiological signals and behavioral output. New method: We record electrophysiological signals using a novel high-density micro-electrocorticography

  3. "Our federalism" moves indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Theodore W

    2013-04-01

    A great deal of the US Supreme Court's federalism jurisprudence over the past two decades has focused on the outer limits of federal power, suggesting a mutually exclusive division of jurisdiction between the states and the federal government, where subjects are regulated by one sovereign or the other but not both. This is not an accurate picture of American governance as it has operated over the past half century - most important areas of American life are regulated concurrently by both the federal government and the states. The Supreme Court's June 2012 decision clearing the way for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) to move forward thus should not be regarded as an affront to state sovereignty but as a realistic embrace of state power in its active, modern form. The PPACA is infused with multiple major roles for the states, and as the statute goes into operation over the next few years, states retain, and are already exercising, substantial policy discretion.

  4. Moving Spatial Keyword Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dingming; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    propose two algorithms for computing safe zones that guarantee correct results at any time and that aim to optimize the server-side computation as well as the communication between the server and the client. We exploit tight and conservative approximations of safe zones and aggressive computational space...... text data. State-of-the-art solutions for moving queries employ safe zones that guarantee the validity of reported results as long as the user remains within the safe zone associated with a result. However, existing safe-zone methods focus solely on spatial locations and ignore text relevancy. We...... pruning. We present techniques that aim to compute the next safe zone efficiently, and we present two types of conservative safe zones that aim to reduce the communication cost. Empirical studies with real data suggest that the proposals are efficient. To understand the effectiveness of the proposed safe...

  5. Move! Eat better: news

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Are you curious to know whether you’re doing enough daily exercise…? Test yourself with a pedometer!   Through the Move! Eat better campaign, launched in May 2012, the CERN medical service is aiming to improve the health of members of the personnel by encouraging them to prioritise physical activity in conjunction with a balanced diet. Various successful activities have already taken place: relay race/Nordic walk, Bike2work, Zumba and fitness workshops, two conferences (“Physical activity for health” and “Good nutrition every day”), events in the restaurants, as well as posters and a website. Although everyone has got the message from our various communications that physical activity is good for your health, there is still a relevant question being asked: “What is the minimum amount of exercise recommended?” 10,000 steps per day is the ideal figure, which has been demonstrated as beneficial by scientific studies ...

  6. What moves us?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Katalog til udstillingen på Museum Jorn - What moves us? Le Corbusier & Asger Jorn - 12. sept. - 13. dec. 2015. Kataloget undersøger Le Corbusiers skifte fra en rationelt funderet tilgang til arkitekturen til en poetisk, materialistisk tilgang i efterkrigstiden. Den viser hans indflydelse på den...... yngre Asger Jorn og beskriver danskerens første beundring, som sidenhen forvandledes til skarp kritik. Kataloget, som er rigt illustreret med billeder af Le Corbusiers og Asger Jorns kunst og arkitektur, indeholder også genoptryk af originale tekster, samt bidrag i ord og billeder fra fremtrædende...... eksperter. Kataloget indeholder en række artikler af internationale skribenter under flg. overskrifter: Le Corbusier - kunstnerarkitekten i efterkrigstidens Europa Le Corbusier og Asger Jorn - David mod Goliat Gensyn med Le Corbusier - spor i dansk arkitektur og byrum...

  7. Mechanics of moving materials

    CERN Document Server

    Banichuk, Nikolay; Neittaanmäki, Pekka; Saksa, Tytti; Tuovinen, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with theoretical aspects of modelling the mechanical behaviour of manufacturing, processing, transportation or other systems in which the processed or supporting material is travelling through the system. Examples of such applications include paper making, transmission cables, band saws, printing presses, manufacturing of plastic films and sheets, and extrusion of aluminium foil, textiles and other materials.   The work focuses on out-of-plane dynamics and stability analysis for isotropic and orthotropic travelling elastic and viscoelastic materials, with and without fluid-structure interaction, using analytical and semi-analytical approaches.  Also topics such as fracturing and fatigue are discussed in the context of moving materials. The last part of the book deals with optimization problems involving physical constraints arising from the stability and fatigue analyses, including uncertainties in the parameters.   The book is intended for researchers and specialists in the field, providin...

  8. A dose-finding randomised controlled trial of magnesium sulphate as an adjuvant in ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Versha Verma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 has been used as an adjuvant in brachial plexus block with encouraging results; however, there is no consensus regarding its optimal dose. Thereby, we compared the efficacy of two doses of MgSO4 as an adjuvant in ultrasound (USG guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Methods: Ninety patients, aged 20–60 years, belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2, were given USG-guided supraclavicular block. Group B (n = 30 received 20 ml of 0.5%bupivacaine + 5 ml normal saline (NS, Group BM0.5(n = 30 received 20 ml of 0.5%bupivacaine + 3.75 ml NS and 125 mg MgSO4 (1.25 ml and Group BM1(n = 30 received 20 ml of 0.5%bupivacaine + 2.5 ml NS and 250 mg MgSO4 (2.5 ml. The primary outcome of study was the duration of post-operative analgesia. The normally distributed data were analysed using analysis of variance and categorical data analysed using Chi-square test. Results: Duration of post-operative analgesia was prolonged in Groups BM1 and BM0.5 (665.13 ± 97.874, 475.10 ± 53.294 min respectively as compared to Group B (272.03 ± 40.404 min: P = 0.00. The onset times of sensory and motor block were shorter in Group BM1 (5.17 ± 2.2 minas compared to Groups BM0.5 and B (8.9 ± 2.3 and 17.7 ± 5.1 min: P = 0.00 respectively. Sensory and motor block durations were prolonged in Group BM1 as compared to BM0.5 and B (P = 0.00. Conclusions: MgSO4 as adjuvant in brachial plexus block increases the duration of post-operative analgesia. MgSO4 in the dose of 250mg has greater efficacy as compared to 125 mg.

  9. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.

  10. Designers Block 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Artiklen indleder med: ved siden aaf Londons etablerede designmesse '100% Design', er der vokset et undergrundsmiljø af designudstillinger op. Det dominerende og mest kendte initiativ er Designers Block, der i år udstillede to steder i byen. Designers Block er et mere uformelt udstillingsforum...

  11. Moving In, Moving Through, and Moving Out: The Transitional Experiences of Foster Youth College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Sara I.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the transitional experiences of foster youth college students. The study explored how foster youth experienced moving into, moving through, and moving out of the college environment and what resources and strategies they used to thrive during their college transitions. In addition, this study…

  12. Axially symmetric U-O-Ln- and U-O-U-containing molecules from the control of uranyl reduction with simple f-block halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Polly L.; Cowie, Bradley E.; Suvova, Marketa; Zegke, Markus; Love, Jason B.; Magnani, Nicola; Colineau, Eric; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Caciuffo, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of U"V"I uranyl halides or amides with simple Ln"I"I or U"I"I"I salts forms highly symmetric, linear, oxo-bridged trinuclear U"V/Ln"I"I"I/U"V, Ln"I"I"I/U"I"V/Ln"I"I"I, and U"I"V/U"I"V/U"I"V complexes or linear Ln"I"I"I/U"V polymers depending on the stoichiometry and solvent. The reactions can be tuned to give the products of one- or two-electron uranyl reduction. The reactivity and magnetism of these compounds are discussed in the context of using a series of strongly oxo-coupled homo- and heterometallic poly(f-block) chains to better understand fundamental electronic structure in the f-block. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Axially symmetric U-O-Ln- and U-O-U-containing molecules from the control of uranyl reduction with simple f-block halides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Polly L.; Cowie, Bradley E.; Suvova, Marketa; Zegke, Markus; Love, Jason B. [EaStCHEM School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Magnani, Nicola; Colineau, Eric; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Caciuffo, Roberto [European Commission, Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Security, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-08-28

    The reduction of U{sup VI} uranyl halides or amides with simple Ln{sup II} or U{sup III} salts forms highly symmetric, linear, oxo-bridged trinuclear U{sup V}/Ln{sup III}/U{sup V}, Ln{sup III}/U{sup IV}/Ln{sup III}, and U{sup IV}/U{sup IV}/U{sup IV} complexes or linear Ln{sup III}/U{sup V} polymers depending on the stoichiometry and solvent. The reactions can be tuned to give the products of one- or two-electron uranyl reduction. The reactivity and magnetism of these compounds are discussed in the context of using a series of strongly oxo-coupled homo- and heterometallic poly(f-block) chains to better understand fundamental electronic structure in the f-block. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Ultrasound-Assisted Thoracic Paravertebral Block Reduces Intraoperative Opioid Requirement and Improves Analgesia after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Randomized, Controlled, Single-Center Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Pei

    Full Text Available The contribution of ultrasound-assisted thoracic paravertebral block to postoperative analgesia remains unclear. We compared the effect of a combination of ultrasound assisted-thoracic paravertebral block and propofol general anesthesia with opioid and sevoflurane general anesthesia on volatile anesthetic, propofol and opioid consumption, and postoperative pain in patients having breast cancer surgery.Patients undergoing breast cancer surgery were randomly assigned to ultrasound-assisted paravertebral block with propofol general anesthesia (PPA group, n = 121 or fentanyl with sevoflurane general anesthesia (GA group, n = 126. Volatile anesthetic, propofol and opioid consumption, and postoperative pain intensity were compared between the groups using noninferiority and superiority tests.Patients in the PPA group required less sevoflurane than those in the GA group (median [interquartile range] of 0 [0, 0] vs. 0.4 [0.3, 0.6] minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]-hours, less intraoperative fentanyl requirements (100 [50, 100] vs. 250 [200, 300]μg,, less intense postoperative pain (median visual analog scale score 2 [1, 3.5] vs. 3 [2, 4.5], but more propofol (median 529 [424, 672] vs. 100 [100, 130] mg. Noninferiority was detected for all four outcomes; one-tailed superiority tests for each outcome were highly significant at P<0.001 in the expected directions.The combination of propofol anesthesia with ultrasound-assisted paravertebral block reduces intraoperative volatile anesthetic and opioid requirements, and results in less post operative pain in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00418457.

  15. Effect of addition of dexamethasone to ropivacaine on post-operative analgesia in ultrasonography-guided transversus abdominis plane block for inguinal hernia repair: A prospective, double-blind, randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Datt Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Ultrasonography (USG-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is an abdominal field block with high efficacy. This study was undertaken with the aim of determining the effect of the addition of dexamethasone to 0.5% ropivacaine on post-operative analgesia in USG-guided TAP block for inguinal hernia repair. Methods: A double-blind randomised control study was conducted on sixty patients posted for inguinal hernia repair with the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status I or II, who were allocated two groups of 30 each. Patients in Group RS received 0.5% ropivacaine (20 ml and normal saline (2 ml whereas patients in Group RD received 0.5% ropivacaine (20 ml and dexamethasone (2 ml, i.e., 8 mg, in USG-guided TAP Block on the same side, after repair of inguinal hernia under spinal anaesthesia. Visual analogue scale (VAS scores, time for request of first analgesia and total tramadol consumption in first 24 h were compared. Unpaired Student's t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test were performed using SPSS 23 Software. Results: Patients in Group RD had significantly lower VAS scores as compared to Group RS from 4th to 12th h, postoperatively. Duration of analgesia was significantly more in Group RD (547.50 [530,530] min when compared with Group RS (387.50 [370,400] min (P < 0.001. The demand for intravenous tramadol was significantly low in Group RD (223.33 ± 56.83 mg as compared to Group RS (293.33 ± 25.71 mg (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to ropivacaine in USG-guided TAP block significantly reduces post-operative pain and prolongs the duration of post-operative analgesia, thereby reducing analgesic consumption.

  16. Sensory and cognitive neurophysiology in rats, Part 1: Controlled tactile stimulation and micro-ECoG recordings in freely moving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, George; Fransen, Anne M M; Maris, Eric

    2014-07-30

    We have developed a setup for rats that allows for controlled sensory input to an animal engaged in a task while recording both electrophysiological signals and behavioral output. We record electrophysiological signals using a novel high-density micro-electrocorticography (micro-ECoG) grid that covers almost the whole somatosensory system. We dealt with the well-known difficulty that the rat uses its whisker system in an active (motor-controlled) way to explore its environment by designing a head-mounted device that stimulates the rat's snout in a way unaffected by whisker movements. We replicate the spatial specificity of early evoked responses in somatosensory and auditory cortex. In a companion paper (Cognitive Neurophysiology in Rats, Part 2: Validation and Demonstration) we validate our setup and show for the first time that the ECoG can be used to record evoked responses in a signal that reflects neural output (spiking activity). Compared with high-density wire recordings, micro-ECoG offers a much more stable signal without readjustments, and a much better scalability. Compared with head-fixed preparations, our head-mounted stimulator allows to stay closer to the rat's natural way of collecting sensory information. For perceptual and cognitive research, our setup provides a unique combination of possibilities that cannot be achieved in other setups for rodents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of moving planes and moving spheres following Dupin cyclides

    KAUST Repository

    Jia, Xiaohong

    2014-03-01

    We provide explicit representations of three moving planes that form a μ-basis for a standard Dupin cyclide. We also show how to compute μ-bases for Dupin cyclides in general position and orientation from their implicit equations. In addition, we describe the role of moving planes and moving spheres in bridging between the implicit and rational parametric representations of these cyclides. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Role of moving planes and moving spheres following Dupin cyclides

    KAUST Repository

    Jia, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    We provide explicit representations of three moving planes that form a μ-basis for a standard Dupin cyclide. We also show how to compute μ-bases for Dupin cyclides in general position and orientation from their implicit equations. In addition, we describe the role of moving planes and moving spheres in bridging between the implicit and rational parametric representations of these cyclides. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Predictability of blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, E.; Ruti, P.; Tibaldi, S.; D'Andrea, F.

    1994-01-01

    Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested

  20. Move and eat better

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    CERN has many traditions, but in a week that’s seen the launch of the Medical Service’s  ‘Move & eat better’ campaign, it’s refreshing to note that among the oldest is a sporting one.  The CERN relay race dates back to 15 October 1971 when 21 pioneering teams set off to pound the pavements of CERN. Back then, the Focus users group came in first with a time of 12 minutes and 42 seconds. Today’s route is slightly different, and the number of teams has risen to over 100, with a new category of Nordic Walking introduced, as part of the campaign, for the first time.   The relay has provided some memorable events, and perhaps one of the longest-standing records in the history of sport, with the UA1 strollers’ 10 minutes and 13 seconds unbeaten for thirty years. In the women’s category, the UN Gazelles set the fastest time of 13 minutes and 16 seconds in 1996, while in the veterans category, you wi...

  1. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    Della Mussia, S

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...

  2. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J.N.

    1958-04-22

    An electromagnetic apparatus for moving a rod-like member in small steps in either direction is described. The invention has particular application in the reactor field where the reactor control rods must be moved only a small distance and where the use of mechanical couplings is impractical due to the high- pressure seals required. A neutron-absorbing rod is mounted in a housing with gripping uaits that engage the rod, and coils for magnetizing the gripping units to make them grip, shift, and release the rod are located outside the housing.

  3. Estimates of pandemic influenza vaccine effectiveness in Europe, 2009-2010: results of Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE multicentre case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Valenciano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A multicentre case-control study based on sentinel practitioner surveillance networks from seven European countries was undertaken to estimate the effectiveness of 2009-2010 pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines against medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI laboratory-confirmed as pandemic influenza A (H1N1 (pH1N1. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sentinel practitioners swabbed ILI patients using systematic sampling. We included in the study patients meeting the European ILI case definition with onset of symptoms >14 days after the start of national pandemic vaccination campaigns. We compared pH1N1 cases to influenza laboratory-negative controls. A valid vaccination corresponded to >14 days between receiving a dose of vaccine and symptom onset. We estimated pooled vaccine effectiveness (VE as 1 minus the odds ratio with the study site as a fixed effect. Using logistic regression, we adjusted VE for potential confounding factors (age group, sex, month of onset, chronic diseases and related hospitalizations, smoking history, seasonal influenza vaccinations, practitioner visits in previous year. We conducted a complete case analysis excluding individuals with missing values and a multiple multivariate imputation to estimate missing values. The multivariate imputation (n = 2902 adjusted pandemic VE (PIVE estimates were 71.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 45.6-85.5 overall; 78.4% (95% CI 54.4-89.8 in patients <65 years; and 72.9% (95% CI 39.8-87.8 in individuals without chronic disease. The complete case (n = 1,502 adjusted PIVE were 66.0% (95% CI 23.9-84.8, 71.3% (95% CI 29.1-88.4, and 70.2% (95% CI 19.4-89.0, respectively. The adjusted PIVE was 66.0% (95% CI -69.9 to 93.2 if vaccinated 8-14 days before ILI onset. The adjusted 2009-2010 seasonal influenza VE was 9.9% (95% CI -65.2 to 50.9. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest good protection of the pandemic monovalent vaccine against medically attended pH1N1 and no effect of the

  4. Signal-Conditioning Block of a 1 × 200 CMOS Detector Array for a Terahertz Real-Time Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ryul Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A signal conditioning block of a 1 × 200 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS detector array is proposed to be employed with a real-time 0.2 THz imaging system for inspecting large areas. The plasmonic CMOS detector array whose pixel size including an integrated antenna is comparable to the wavelength of the THz wave for the imaging system, inevitably carries wide pixel-to-pixel variation. To make the variant outputs from the array uniform, the proposed signal conditioning block calibrates the responsivity of each pixel by controlling the gate bias of each detector and the voltage gain of the lock-in amplifiers in the block. The gate bias of each detector is modulated to 1 MHz to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the imaging system via the electrical modulation by the conditioning block. In addition, direct current (DC offsets of the detectors in the array are cancelled by initializing the output voltage level from the block. Real-time imaging using the proposed signal conditioning block is demonstrated by obtaining images at the rate of 19.2 frame-per-sec of an object moving on the conveyor belt with a scan width of 20 cm and a scan speed of 25 cm/s.

  5. I-MOVE multicentre case-control study 2010/11 to 2014/15: Is there within-season waning of influenza type/subtype vaccine effectiveness with increasing time since vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Esther; Nunes, Baltazar; Robertson, Chris; Valenciano, Marta; Reuss, Annicka; Larrauri, Amparo; Cohen, Jean Marie; Oroszi, Beatrix; Rizzo, Caterina; Machado, Ausenda; Pitigoi, Daniela; Domegan, Lisa; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Buchholz, Udo; Gherasim, Alin; Daviaud, Isabelle; Horváth, Judit Krisztina; Bella, Antonino; Lupulescu, Emilia; O Donnell, Joan; Korczyńska, Monika; Moren, Alain

    2016-04-21

    Since the 2008/9 influenza season, the I-MOVE multicentre case-control study measures influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically-attended influenza-like-illness (ILI) laboratory confirmed as influenza. In 2011/12, European studies reported a decline in VE against influenza A(H3N2) within the season. Using combined I-MOVE data from 2010/11 to 2014/15 we studied the effects of time since vaccination on influenza type/subtype-specific VE. We modelled influenza type/subtype-specific VE by time since vaccination using a restricted cubic spline, controlling for potential confounders (age, sex, time of onset, chronic conditions). Over 10,000 ILI cases were included in each analysis of influenza A(H3N2), A(H1N1)pdm09 and B; with 4,759, 3,152 and 3,617 influenza positive cases respectively. VE against influenza A(H3N2) reached 50.6% (95% CI: 30.0-65.1) 38 days after vaccination, declined to 0% (95% CI: -18.1-15.2) from 111 days onwards. At day 54 VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 reached 55.3% (95% CI: 37.9-67.9) and remained between this value and 50.3% (95% CI: 34.8-62.1) until season end. VE against influenza B declined from 70.7% (95% CI: 51.3-82.4) 44 days after vaccination to 21.4% (95% CI: -57.4-60.8) at season end. To assess if vaccination campaign strategies need revising more evidence on VE by time since vaccination is urgently needed.

  6. Effect of Oral Premedication on the Efficacy of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Suparna Ganguly; Jain, Sohini; Dubey, Sandeep; Kala, Shubham; Misuriya, Abhinav; Kataria, Devendra

    2016-02-01

    It is generally accepted that achieving complete anaesthesia with an Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (IANB) in mandibular molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis is more challenging than for other teeth. Therefore, administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (NSAIDs) 1 hour prior to anaesthetic administration has been proposed as a means to increase the efficacy of the IANB in such patients. The purpose of this prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was to determine the effect of administration of oral premedication with ketorolac (KETO) and diclofenac potassium (DP) on the efficacy of IANB in patients with irreversible pulpitis. One hundred and fifty patients with irreversible pulpitis were evaluated preoperatively for pain using Heft Parker visual analogue scale, after which they were randomly divided into three groups. The subjects received identical tablets of ketorolac, diclofenac pottasium or cellulose powder (placebo), 1 hour prior to administration of IANB with 2% lidocaine containing 1:200 000 epinephrine. Lip numbness as well as positive and negative responses to cold test were ascertained. Additionally pain score of each patient was recorded during cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation. Success was defined as the absence of pain or mild pain based on the visual analog scale readings. The data was analysed using One-Way Anova, Post-Hoc Tukey pair wise, Paired T - Test and chi-square test. Trial Registery Number is 4722/2015 for this clinical trial study. There were no significant differences with respect to age (p =0.098), gender (p = 0.801) and pre-VAS score (DP-KETO p=0.645, PLAC-KETO p =0.964, PLAC-DP p = 0.801) between the three groups. All patients had subjective lip anaesthesia with the IAN blocks. Patients of all the three groups reported a significant decrease in active pain after local anaesthesia (pinferior alveolar block in patients with irreversible pulpitis than pre-medication with 50 mg DP & PLAC.

  7. Health benefits of Tai Chi for older patients with type 2 diabetes: The “Move It for Diabetes Study” – A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Tsang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Tracey Tsang1, Rhonda Orr1, Paul Lam2, Elizabeth J Comino3, Maria Fiatarone Singh11School of Exercise and Sport Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia; 2School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3The University of NSW Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Older adults with type 2 diabetes have mobility impairment and reduced fitness. This study aimed to test the efficacy of the “Tai Chi for Diabetes” form, developed to address health-related problems in diabetes, including mobility and physical function. Thirty-eight older adults with stable type 2 diabetes were randomized to Tai Chi or sham exercise, twice a week for 16 weeks. Outcomes included gait, balance, musculoskeletal and cardiovascular fitness, self-reported activity and quality of life. Static and dynamic balance index (−5.8 ± 14.2; p = 0.03 and maximal gait speed (6.2 ± 11.6%; p = 0.005 improved over time, with no significant group effects. There were no changes in other measures. Non-specific effects of exercise testing and/or study participation such as outcome expectation, socialization, the Hawthorne effect, or unmeasured changes in health status or compliance with medical treatment may underlie the modest improvements in gait and balance observed in this sham-exercise-controlled trial. This Tai Chi form, although developed specifically for diabetes, may not have been of sufficient intensity, frequency, or duration to effect positive changes in many aspects of physiology or health status relevant to older people with diabetes.Keywords: Tai Chi, Type 2 diabetes, physical function

  8. Moving into a new era of periodontal genetic studies: relevance of large case-control samples using severe phenotypes for genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, R D; Safii, S H; Baharuddin, N A; Ng, C C; Cheong, S C; Bartold, P M; Schaefer, A S; Loos, B G

    2014-12-01

    Studies to elucidate the role of genetics as a risk factor for periodontal disease have gone through various phases. In the majority of cases, the initial 'hypothesis-dependent' candidate-gene polymorphism studies did not report valid genetic risk loci. Following a large-scale replication study, these initially positive results are believed to be caused by type 1 errors. However, susceptibility genes, such as CDKN2BAS (Cyclin Dependend KiNase 2B AntiSense RNA; alias ANRIL [ANtisense Rna In the Ink locus]), glycosyltransferase 6 domain containing 1 (GLT6D1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), have been reported as conclusive risk loci of periodontitis. The search for genetic risk factors accelerated with the advent of 'hypothesis-free' genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, despite many different GWAS being performed for almost all human diseases, only three GWAS on periodontitis have been published - one reported genome-wide association of GLT6D1 with aggressive periodontitis (a severe phenotype of periodontitis), whereas the remaining two, which were performed on patients with chronic periodontitis, were not able to find significant associations. This review discusses the problems faced and the lessons learned from the search for genetic risk variants of periodontitis. Current and future strategies for identifying genetic variance in periodontitis, and the importance of planning a well-designed genetic study with large and sufficiently powered case-control samples of severe phenotypes, are also discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A new magnetorheological mount featured by changeable damping gaps using a moved-plate valve structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phu, Do Xuan; Shah, Kruti; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a new type of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid mount is proposed and its performances are experimentally investigated. The design of this MR mount is based on two operating modes of MR fluid: flow mode and shear mode. These modes are applied to the mechanism design consisting of two components: a fixed plate for applying the flow mode, and a moved plate for applying the shear mode of MR fluid motion. These plates belong to the valve-type structure of MR mount. The primary objective using the moved plate is to overcome the block-up phenomenon which frequently occurs in the conventional-type MR mount, in which there is no flow of MR fluid through the damping gap. In this research, a laboratorial fluid (MRF140) is used in the design and optimization of MR mount. This fluid features plate-like particles unlike the sphere particles. The yield stress of the fluid is measured as a function of the magnetic field and the theoretical analysis for the mount design is undertaken using the properties of the MR fluid, followed by design optimization. The objective function is concentrated on maximal damping force of the MR mount subjected to parameter constraints. Based on the results of optimization, the proposed MR mount is manufactured and tested for the performance evaluation. Vibration control capability and block-up phenomenon are investigated and compared between the proposed and conventional MR mounts. (paper)

  10. RX for Writer's Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Gail E.; Camp, Donna J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes four prewriting techniques that elementary and middle grade students can use to gather and organize ideas for writing, and by so doing, cure writer's block. Techniques discussed are: (1) brainstorming; (2) clustering; (3) freewriting; and (4) cubing.

  11. A randomised, controlled, double-blind trial of ultrasound-guided phrenic nerve block to prevent shoulder pain after thoracic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, M R; Laursen, C B; Berg, H

    2016-01-01

    to receive an ultrasound-guided supraclavicular phrenic nerve block with 10 ml ropivacaine or 10 ml saline (placebo) immediately following surgery. A nerve catheter was subsequently inserted and treatment continued for 3 days. The study drug was pharmaceutically pre-packed in sequentially numbered identical...... vials assuring that all participants, healthcare providers and data collectors were blinded. The primary outcome was the incidence of unilateral shoulder pain within the first 6 h after surgery. Pain was evaluated using a numeric rating scale. Nine of 38 patients in the ropivacaine group and 26 of 38...

  12. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  13. A randomised, controlled, double-blind trial of ultrasound-guided phrenic nerve block to prevent shoulder pain after thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, M R; Laursen, C B; Berg, H; Holm, J H; Hansen, L N; Ørding, H; Andersen, C; Licht, P B; Toft, P

    2016-12-01

    Moderate to severe ipsilateral shoulder pain is a common complaint following thoracic surgery. In this prospective, parallel-group study at Odense University Hospital, 76 patients (aged > 18 years) scheduled for lobectomy or pneumonectomy were randomised 1:1 using a computer-generated list to receive an ultrasound-guided supraclavicular phrenic nerve block with 10 ml ropivacaine or 10 ml saline (placebo) immediately following surgery. A nerve catheter was subsequently inserted and treatment continued for 3 days. The study drug was pharmaceutically pre-packed in sequentially numbered identical vials assuring that all participants, healthcare providers and data collectors were blinded. The primary outcome was the incidence of unilateral shoulder pain within the first 6 h after surgery. Pain was evaluated using a numeric rating scale. Nine of 38 patients in the ropivacaine group and 26 of 38 patients in the placebo group experienced shoulder pain during the first 6 h after surgery (absolute risk reduction 44% (95% CI 22-67%), relative risk reduction 65% (95% CI 41-80%); p = 0.00009). No major complications, including respiratory compromise or nerve injury, were observed. We conclude that ultrasound-guided supraclavicular phrenic nerve block is an effective technique for reducing the incidence of ipsilateral shoulder pain after thoracic surgery. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Ground reaction curve based upon block theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.; Goodman, R.E.

    1985-09-01

    Discontinuities in a rock mass can intersect an excavation surface to form discrete blocks (keyblocks) which can be unstable. Once a potentially unstable block is identified, the forces affecting it can be calculated to assess its stability. The normal and shear stresses on each block face before displacement are calculated using elastic theory and are modified in a nonlinear way by discontinuity deformations as the keyblock displaces. The stresses are summed into resultant forces to evaluate block stability. Since the resultant forces change with displacement, successive increments of block movement are examined to see whether the block ultimately becomes stable or fails. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) analytic models for the stability of simple pyramidal keyblocks were evaluated. Calculated stability is greater for 3D analyses than for 2D analyses. Calculated keyblock stability increases with larger in situ stress magnitudes, larger lateral stress ratios, and larger shear strengths. Discontinuity stiffness controls blocks displacement more strongly than it does stability itself. Large keyblocks are less stable than small ones, and stability increases as blocks become more slender

  15. Synthesis and characterization of a star shaped supramolecular block copolymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, M.A.R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2004-01-01

    A novel 5-arm star shaped block copolymer consisting of an poly(ethylene glycol) inner block and an poly(e-caprolactone) outer block was prepd. by utilizing an 5-arm star shaped poly(ethylene glycol) macroinitiator for the controlled ring opening polymn. of e-caprolactone. Furthermore, the resulting

  16. Efficacy of local dexmedetomidine add-on for spermatic cord block anesthesia in patients undergoing intrascrotal surgeries: randomized controlled multicenter clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetta DF

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diab Fuad Hetta,1 Emad E Kamal,2 Ali M Mahran,2 Doaa G Ahmed,1 Abdelraheem Elawamy,3 Abdelraouf MS Abdelraouf3 1Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, South Egypt Cancer Institute, 2Department of Dermatology and Andrology, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Study objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding dexmedetomidine (DEX to bupivacaine on the quality of spermatic cord block anesthesia and postoperative analgesia. Design: This is a randomized, double-blind study. Setting: This study was performed in an educational and research hospital. Patients: One hundred twenty adult males were scheduled for intrascrotal surgeries. Interventions: Patients were divided into two groups: group B received 10 mL of bupivacaine 0.25% for spermatic cord block and intravenous 50 µg of DEX and group BD received 10 mL of bupivacaine 0.25% added to 50 µg of DEX (9.5 mL bupivacaine 0. 25% + 0.5 mL [50 µg] DEX for spermatic cord block, and for masking purposes, the patients received isotonic saline intravenously. Measurements: Time to first analgesic request, analgesic consumption, and visual analog scale (VAS pain score in the first 24 hours postoperatively were assessed. Main results: Time to first rescue analgesic was significantly delayed in group BD in comparison with group B, median (interquartile range, 7 (6–12 hours versus 6 (5–7 hours, (p=0.000, the mean cumulative morphine consumption (mg in the first postoperative 24 hours was significantly lower in group BD compared with group B, 8.13±4.45 versus 12.7±3.79, with a mean difference (95% CI of −4.57 (−6.06 to −3.07 (p=0.000; also, there was a significant reduction of VAS pain score in group BD in comparison with group B at all measured time points, VAS 2 hours (1.28±0.9 vs 1.92±0.8, VAS 6 hours (2.62±1.5 vs 3.93±1.2, VAS 12 hours (2.40±1.1 vs 3.57±0.65, VAS 24 hours (1.90±0

  17. Smartphone-Enabled Health Coaching Intervention (iMOVE) to Promote Long-Term Maintenance of Physical Activity in Breast Cancer Survivors: Protocol for a Feasibility Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritvo, Paul; Obadia, Maya; Santa Mina, Daniel; Alibhai, Shabbir; Sabiston, Catherine; Oh, Paul; Campbell, Kristin; McCready, David; Auger, Leslie; Jones, Jennifer Michelle

    2017-08-24

    Although physical activity has been shown to contribute to long-term disease control and health in breast cancer survivors, a majority of breast cancer survivors do not meet physical activity guidelines. Past research has focused on promoting physical activity components for short-term breast cancer survivor benefits, but insufficient attention has been devoted to long-term outcomes and sustained exercise adherence. We are assessing a health coach intervention (iMOVE) that uses mobile technology to increase and sustain physical activity maintenance in initially inactive breast cancer survivors. This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) is an initial step in evaluating the iMOVE intervention and will inform development of a full-scale pragmatic RCT. We will enroll 107 physically inactive breast cancer survivors and randomly assign them to intervention or control groups at the University Health Network, a tertiary cancer care center in Toronto, Canada. Participants will be women (age 18 to 74 years) stratified by age (55 years and older/younger than 55 years) and adjuvant hormone therapy (AHT) exposure (AHT vs no AHT) following breast cancer treatment with no metastases or recurrence who report less than 60 minutes of preplanned physical activity per week. Both intervention and control groups receive the 12-week physical activity program with weekly group sessions and an individualized, progressive, home-based exercise program. The intervention group will additionally receive (1) 10 telephone-based health coaching sessions, (2) smartphone with data plan, if needed, (3) supportive health tracking software (Connected Wellness, NexJ Health Inc), and (4) a wearable step-counting device linked to a smartphone program. We will be assessing recruitment rates; acceptability reflected in selective, semistructured interviews; and enrollment, retention, and adherence quantitative intervention markers as pilot outcome measures. The primary clinical outcome will be directly

  18. Smartphone-Enabled Health Coaching Intervention (iMOVE) to Promote Long-Term Maintenance of Physical Activity in Breast Cancer Survivors: Protocol for a Feasibility Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritvo, Paul; Obadia, Maya; Santa Mina, Daniel; Alibhai, Shabbir; Sabiston, Catherine; Oh, Paul; Campbell, Kristin; McCready, David; Auger, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Background Although physical activity has been shown to contribute to long-term disease control and health in breast cancer survivors, a majority of breast cancer survivors do not meet physical activity guidelines. Past research has focused on promoting physical activity components for short-term breast cancer survivor benefits, but insufficient attention has been devoted to long-term outcomes and sustained exercise adherence. We are assessing a health coach intervention (iMOVE) that uses mobile technology to increase and sustain physical activity maintenance in initially inactive breast cancer survivors. Objective This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) is an initial step in evaluating the iMOVE intervention and will inform development of a full-scale pragmatic RCT. Methods We will enroll 107 physically inactive breast cancer survivors and randomly assign them to intervention or control groups at the University Health Network, a tertiary cancer care center in Toronto, Canada. Participants will be women (age 18 to 74 years) stratified by age (55 years and older/younger than 55 years) and adjuvant hormone therapy (AHT) exposure (AHT vs no AHT) following breast cancer treatment with no metastases or recurrence who report less than 60 minutes of preplanned physical activity per week. Both intervention and control groups receive the 12-week physical activity program with weekly group sessions and an individualized, progressive, home-based exercise program. The intervention group will additionally receive (1) 10 telephone-based health coaching sessions, (2) smartphone with data plan, if needed, (3) supportive health tracking software (Connected Wellness, NexJ Health Inc), and (4) a wearable step-counting device linked to a smartphone program. Results We will be assessing recruitment rates; acceptability reflected in selective, semistructured interviews; and enrollment, retention, and adherence quantitative intervention markers as pilot outcome measures. The primary

  19. Radiation by moving charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2017-04-01

    It is generally accepted that in order to describe the dynamics of relativistic particles in the laboratory (lab) frame it is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particle momenta on the velocity. This solution of the dynamics problem in the lab frame makes no reference to Lorentz transformations. For this reason they are not discussed in particle tracking calculations in accelerator and plasma physics. It is generally believed that the electrodynamics problem can be treated within the same ''single inertial frame'' description without reference to Lorentz transformations. In particular, in order to evaluate radiation fields arising from charged particles in motion we need to know their velocities and positions as a function of the lab frame time t. The relativistic motion of a particle in the lab frame is described by Newton's second law ''corrected'' for the relativistic dependence of momentum on velocity. It is assumed in all standard derivations that one can perform identification of the trajectories in the source part of the usual Maxwell's equations with the trajectories vector x(t) measured (or calculated by using the corrected Newton's second law) in the lab frame. This way of coupling fields and particles is considered since more than a century as the relativistically correct procedure.We argue that this procedure needs to be changed, and we demonstrate the following, completely counterintuitive statement: the results of conventional theory of radiation by relativistically moving charges are not consistent with the principle of relativity. In order to find the trajectory of a particle in the lab frame consistent with the usual Maxwell's equations, one needs to solve the dynamic equation inmanifestly covariant form by using the coordinate-independent proper time τ to parameterize the particle world-line in space-time. We show that there is a difference between ''true'' particle trajectory vector x(t) calculated or measured in

  20. UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY: BLOCK TRIANGULATION COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is triangulated with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord", useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey, allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.

  1. Exerting control over the helical chirality in the main chain of sergeants-and-soldiers-type poly(quinoxaline-2,3-diyl)s by changing from random to block copolymerization protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Yuuya; Nishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Suginome, Michinori

    2015-04-01

    Chiral random poly(quinoxaline-2,3-diyl) polymers of the sergeants-and-soldiers-type (sergeant units bearing (S)-3-octyloxymethyl groups) adopt an M- or P-helical conformation in the presence of achiral units bearing propoxymethyl or butoxy groups (soldier units), respectively. Unusual bidirectional induction of the helical sense can be observed for a copolymer with butoxy soldier units upon changing the mole fraction of the sergeant units. In the presence of 16-20% of sergeant units, the selective induction of a P-helix was observed, while the selective induction of an M-helix was observed for a mole fraction of sergeant units of more than 60%. This phenomenon could be successfully employed to control the helical chirality of copolymers by applying either random or block copolymerization protocols. Random or block copolymerization of sergeant and soldier monomers in a 18:82 ratio resulted in the formation of 250mers with almost absolute P- or M-helical conformation, respectively (>99% ee). Incorporation of a small amount of coordination sites into the random and block copolymers resulted in chiral macromolecular ligands, which allowed the enantioselective synthesis of both enantiomers in the Pd-catalyzed asymmetric hydrosilylation of β-methylstyrene.

  2. Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, K H; Mathiesen, O; Dahl, J B

    2016-01-01

    in this prospective, randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Group A received an LFCN block with 8 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine followed after 45 min by an additional LFCN block with 8 ml of saline. Group B received an LFCN block with 8 ml of saline followed after 45 min by an additional LFCN block with 8 ml of 0.......75% ropivacaine. RESULTS: We found a difference of 17 mm (95% CI, 4-31 mm; P

  3. Moving Average Filter-Based Phase-Locked Loops: Performance Analysis and Design Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Ramezani, Malek; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    this challenge, incorporating moving average filter(s) (MAF) into the PLL structure has been proposed in some recent literature. A MAF is a linear-phase finite impulse response filter which can act as an ideal low-pass filter, if certain conditions hold. The main aim of this paper is to present the control...... design guidelines for a typical MAF-based PLL. The paper starts with the general description of MAFs. The main challenge associated with using the MAFs is then explained, and its possible solutions are discussed. The paper then proceeds with a brief overview of the different MAF-based PLLs. In each case......, the PLL block diagram description is shown, the advantages and limitations are briefly discussed, and the tuning approach (if available) is evaluated. The paper then presents two systematic methods to design the control parameters of a typical MAF-based PLL: one for the case of using a proportional...

  4. Radiation by moving charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    It is generally accepted that in order to describe the dynamics of relativistic particles in the laboratory (lab) frame it is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particle momenta on the velocity. This solution of the dynamics problem in the lab frame makes no reference to Lorentz transformations. For this reason they are not discussed in particle tracking calculations in accelerator and plasma physics. It is generally believed that the electrodynamics problem can be treated within the same ''single inertial frame'' description without reference to Lorentz transformations. In particular, in order to evaluate radiation fields arising from charged particles in motion we need to know their velocities and positions as a function of the lab frame time t. The relativistic motion of a particle in the lab frame is described by Newton's second law ''corrected'' for the relativistic dependence of momentum on velocity. It is assumed in all standard derivations that one can perform identification of the trajectories in the source part of the usual Maxwell's equations with the trajectories vector x(t) measured (or calculated by using the corrected Newton's second law) in the lab frame. This way of coupling fields and particles is considered since more than a century as the relativistically correct procedure.We argue that this procedure needs to be changed, and we demonstrate the following, completely counterintuitive statement: the results of conventional theory of radiation by relativistically moving charges are not consistent with the principle of relativity. In order to find the trajectory of a particle in the lab frame consistent with the usual Maxwell's equations, one needs to solve the dynamic equation inmanifestly covariant form by using the coordinate-independent proper time τ to parameterize the particle world-line in space-time. We show that there is a difference between &apos

  5. Studies on the control of development: isolation of Bacillus subtilis mutants blocked early in sporulation and defective in synthesis of highly phosphorylated nucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhaese, H J; Hoch, J A; Groscurth, R

    1977-03-01

    To test our model on the mechanism of initiation of differentiation in Bacillus subtilis, we tested early blocked (stage 0) sporulation mutants for their ability to synthesize highly phosphorylated nucleotides. We also isolated early blocked asporogenous mutants with the aid of the intercalating drug tilorone. Among all mutants tested we found that the spo0F-bearing strain was unable to synthesize adenosine 3'(2')-triphosphate 5'-triphosphate, pppAppp. A revertant of this mutant regained the ability to both sporulate and synthesize pppAppp. Ribosomes of the asporogenous mutant isolated at T2 (2 hr after the end of logarithmic growth) of sporulation, in contrast to the wild type, do not synthesize adenosine 3'(2')-diphosphate 5'-diphosphate, ppApp, or adenosine 3'(2')-diphosphate 5'-triphosphate, pppApp, but synthesize guanosine 3'(2')-diphosphate 5'-diphosphate, ppGpp, and guanosine 3'(2')-diphosphate 5'-triphosphate, pppGpp. This behavior is characteristic of ribosomes from vegetative, not sporulating, cells. Ribosomes from the sporogenous revertant behave like those of the wild type. The results suggest that the spo0F mutation may be a mutation in the structural gene for pppAppp synthetase. The inability to synthesize pppAppp in this strain also prevents the formation of "sporulation-specific ribosomes," i.e., ribosomes that synthetize ppApp and pppApp. The present experiments suggest that the nucleotide pppAppp participates in the initiation of sporulation by triggering a sequencies of events required for the production of heat-resistant spores.

  6. Effect of Oral Premedication on the Efficacy of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Suparna Ganguly; Dubey, Sandeep; Kala, Shubham; Misuriya, Abhinav; Kataria, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It is generally accepted that achieving complete anaesthesia with an Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (IANB) in mandibular molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis is more challenging than for other teeth. Therefore, administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (NSAIDs) 1 hour prior to anaesthetic administration has been proposed as a means to increase the efficacy of the IANB in such patients. Aim The purpose of this prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was to determine the effect of administration of oral premedication with ketorolac (KETO) and diclofenac potassium (DP) on the efficacy of IANB in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods One hundred and fifty patients with irreversible pulpitis were evaluated preoperatively for pain using Heft Parker visual analogue scale, after which they were randomly divided into three groups. The subjects received identical tablets of ketorolac, diclofenac pottasium or cellulose powder (placebo), 1 hour prior to administration of IANB with 2% lidocaine containing 1:200 000 epinephrine. Lip numbness as well as positive and negative responses to cold test were ascertained. Additionally pain score of each patient was recorded during cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation. Success was defined as the absence of pain or mild pain based on the visual analog scale readings. The data was analysed using One-Way Anova, Post-Hoc Tukey pair wise, Paired T – Test and chi-square test. Trial Registery Number is 4722/2015 for this clinical trial study. Results There were no significant differences with respect to age (p =0.098), gender (p = 0.801) and pre-VAS score (DP-KETO p=0.645, PLAC-KETO p =0.964, PLAC-DP p = 0.801) between the three groups. All patients had subjective lip anaesthesia with the IAN blocks. Patients of all the three groups reported a significant decrease in active pain after local anaesthesia (ppulpitis than pre-medication with 50 mg DP & PLAC. PMID

  7. Uniaxial backfill block compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, V.

    2012-05-01

    The main parts of the project were: to make a literature survey of the previous uniaxial compaction experiments; do uniaxial compaction tests in laboratory scale; and do industrial scale production tests. Object of the project was to sort out the different factors affecting the quality assurance chain of the backfill block uniaxial production and solve a material sticking to mould problem which appeared during manufacturing the blocks of bentonite and cruched rock mixture. The effect of mineralogical and chemical composition on the long term functionality of the backfill was excluded from the project. However, the used smectite-rich clays have been tested for mineralogical consistency. These tests were done in B and Tech OY according their SOPs. The objective of the Laboratory scale tests was to find right material- and compaction parameters for the industrial scale tests. Direct comparison between the laboratory scale tests and industrial scale tests is not possible because the mould geometry and compaction speed has a big influence for the compaction process. For this reason the selected material parameters were also affected by the previous compaction experiments. The industrial scale tests were done in summer of 2010 in southern Sweden. Blocks were done with uniaxial compaction. A 40 tons of the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock blocks and almost 50 tons of Friedland-clay blocks were compacted. (orig.)

  8. Impression block with orientator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brilin, V I; Ulyanova, O S

    2015-01-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object

  9. Block-like plate movements in eastern Anatolia observed by InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Cavalie, Olivier; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2014-01-01

    The question whether continental plates deform internally or move as rigid blocks has been debated for several decades. To further address this question, we use large-scale interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data sets to study how

  10. Test of a non-physical barrier consisting of light, sound, and bubble screen to block upstream movement of sea lamprey in an experimental raceway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehls, Scott M.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Hrodey, Pete J.

    2017-01-01

    Control of the invasive Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus is critical for management of commercial and recreational fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Use of physical barriers to block Sea Lampreys from spawning habitat is a major component of the control program. However, the resulting interruption of natural streamflow and blockage of nontarget species present substantial challenges. Development of an effective nonphysical barrier would aid the control of Sea Lampreys by eliminating their access to spawning locations while maintaining natural streamflow. We tested the effect of a nonphysical barrier consisting of strobe lights, low-frequency sound, and a bubble screen on the movement of Sea Lampreys in an experimental raceway designed as a two-choice maze with a single main channel fed by two identical inflow channels (one control and one blocked). Sea Lampreys were more likely to move upstream during trials when the strobe light and low-frequency sound were active compared with control trials and trials using the bubble screen alone. For those Sea Lampreys that did move upstream to the confluence of inflow channels, no combination of stimuli or any individual stimulus significantly influenced the likelihood that Sea Lampreys would enter the blocked inflow channel, enter the control channel, or return downstream.

  11. Integral-fuel blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, C.; Simpkin, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    A prismatic moderator block is described which has fuel-containing channels and coolant channels disposed parallel to each other and to edge faces of the block. The coolant channels are arranged in rows on an equilateral triangular lattice pattern and the fuel-containing channels are disposed in a regular lattice pattern with one fuel-containing channel between and equidistant from each of the coolant channels in each group of three mutually adjacent coolant channels. The edge faces of the block are parallel to the rows of coolant channels and the channels nearest to each edge face are disposed in two rows parallel thereto, with one of the rows containing only coolant channels and the other row containing only fuel-containing channels. (Official Gazette)

  12. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study examined in 1976-2003 free from previous myocardial infarction (MI), chronic heart failure, and left bundle branch block through registry linkage until 2009 for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. The prevalence of RBBB/IRBBB was higher in men (1.4%/4.7% in men vs. 0.......5%/2.3% in women, P block was associated with significantly...

  13. Strategies for Teaching in a Block-of-Time Schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackmann, Donald G.; Schmitt, Donna M.

    1997-01-01

    Offers suggestions for developing creative instructional approaches in time-blocked classes. Teachers should continuously engage students in active learning, include group activities to encourage student participation, incorporate activities addressing multiple intelligences, use creative thinking activities, move outside the classroom, employ…

  14. ["Habitual" left branch block alternating with 2 "disguised" bracnch block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, S; Jullien, G; Mathieu, P; Mostefa, S; Gérard, R

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of alternating left bundle branch block and "masquerading block" (with left bundle branch morphology in the stnadard leads and right bundle branch block morphology in the precordial leads) were studied by serial tracings and his bundle electrocardiography. In case 1 "the masquerading" block was associated with a first degree AV block related to a prolongation of HV interval. This case is to our knowledge the first cas of alternating bundle branch block in which his bundle activity was recorded in man. In case 2, the patient had atrial fibrilation and His bundle recordings were performed while differents degrees of left bundle branch block were present: The mechanism of the alternation and the concept of "masquerading" block are discussed. It is suggested that this type of block represents a right bundle branch block associated with severe lesions of the "left system".

  15. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Danli Wang; Yang Zhang; Shengyong Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transfer...

  16. Analysis of the Dose Distribution of Moving Organ using a Moving Phantom System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yon Lae; Park, Byung Moon; Bae, Yong Ki; Kang, Min Young; Bang, Dong Wan; Lee, Gui Won

    2006-01-01

    Few researches have been performed on the dose distribution of the moving organ for radiotherapy so far. In order to simulate the organ motion caused by respiratory function, multipurpose phantom and moving device was used and dosimetric measurements for dose distribution of the moving organs were conducted in this study. The purpose of our study was to evaluate how dose distributions are changed due to respiratory motion. A multipurpose phantom and a moving device were developed for the measurement of the dose distribution of the moving organ due to respiratory function. Acryl chosen design of the phantom was considered the most obvious choice for phantom material. For construction of the phantom, we used acryl and cork with density of 1.14 g/cm 3 , 0.32 g/cm 3 respectively. Acryl and cork slab in the phantom were used to simulate the normal organ and lung respectively. The moving phantom system was composed of moving device, moving control system, and acryl and cork phantom. Gafchromic film and EDR2 film were used to measure dose distributions. The moving device system may be driven by two directional step motors and able to perform 2 dimensional movements (x, z axis), but only 1 dimensional movement(z axis) was used for this study. Larger penumbra was shown in the cork phantom than in the acryl phantom. The dose profile and isodose curve of Gafchromic EBT film were not uniform since the film has small optical density responding to the dose. As the organ motion was increased, the blurrings in penumbra, flatness, and symmetry were increased. Most of measurements of dose distributions, Gafchromic EBT film has poor flatness and symmetry than EDR2 film, but both penumbra distributions were more or less comparable. The Gafchromic EBT film is more useful as it does not need development and more radiation dose could be exposed than EDR2 film without losing film characteristics. But as response of the optical density of Gafchromic EBT film to dose is low, beam profiles

  17. Post-operative analgesia following total knee arthroplasty: comparison of low-dose intrathecal morphine and single-shot ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block: a randomized, single blinded, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassanito, L; Vergari, A; Zanghi, F; Messina, A; Bitondo, M; Antonelli, M

    2010-07-01

    Total knee arthroplasty often results in marked postoperative pain. A recent meta-analysis supports the use of femoral nerve block or alternatively spinal injection of morphine plus local anaesthetic for post-operative analgesia. On the other hand, the use of intrathecal morphine may be associated with a large number of distressing side effects (itching, urinary retention, nausea and vomiting, delayed respiratory depression). The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of femoral nerve block and low dose intrathecal morphine in post-operative analgesia after primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. Fifty-two consecutive patients scheduled for primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty were allocated to the intrathecal morphine group (ITM group) or to the femoral nerve block group (FNB group). In ITM group a subarachnoid puncture was performed at the L3-L4 inter-vertebral space with hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg plus 100 mcg of preservative-free morphine. Patients allocated to the FNB group received a single-injection ultrasound-assisted femoral nerve block with ropivacaine 0.75% 25 ml before the spinal injection of hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg. All patients received postoperative patient-controlled-analgesia (PCA) morphine, using a 1-mg bolus and a 5-minute lockout period. Data were analyzed using Student t test or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures with time and treatment as the 2 factors. Post hoc comparisons were performed by Bonferroni test. Statistical significance for all test was a p value < 0.05. Patient characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. We found a statistically significant differences in postoperative pain between the two groups: ITM group had the lower visual analogic pain score (VAS) values. Morphine consumption was lower in the ITM group: average consumption within the first 6 hours was 0.9 mg in IT group compared to 3.1 mg in FNB group; at 12 h 4.2 mg vs 6.3 mg; at 24 h 6.9 mg vs 10.3 mg; at 48 h 9

  18. Recovery of muscle function after deep neuromuscular block by means of diaphragm ultrasonography and adductor of pollicis acceleromyography with comparison of neostigmine vs. sugammadex as reversal drugs: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Iacopo; Picciafuochi, Fabio; Ostento, Daniele; Danti, Ginevra; De Gaudio, Angelo Raffaele; Adembri, Chiara

    2018-02-21

    The extensive use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) during surgical procedures still leads to potential residual paralyzing effects in the postoperative period. Indeed, neuromuscular monitoring in an intra-operative setting is strongly advocated. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can reverse muscle block, but their short half-life may lead to residual curarization in the ward, especially when intermediate or long-acting NMBAs have been administered. Sugammadex is the first selective reversal drug for steroidal NMBAs; it has been shown to give full and rapid recovery of muscle strength, thus minimizing the occurrence of residual curarization. Acceleromyography of the adductor pollicis is the gold standard for detecting residual curarization, but it cannot be carried out on conscious patients. Ultrasonography of diaphragm thickness may reveal residual effects of NMBAs in conscious patients. This prospective, double-blind, single-center randomized controlled study will enroll patients (of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II, aged 18-80 years) who will be scheduled to undergo deep neuromuscular block with rocuronium for ear, nose, or throat surgery. The study's primary objective will be to compare the effects of neostigmine and sugammadex on postoperative residual curarization using two different tools: diaphragm ultrasonography and acceleromyography of the adductor pollicis. Patients will be extubated when the train-of-four ratio is > 0.9. Diaphragm ultrasonography will be used to evaluate the thickening fraction, which is the difference between the end expiratory thickness and the end inspiratory thickness, normalized to the end expiratory thickness. Ultrasonography will be performed before the initiation of general anesthesia, before extubation, and 10 and 30 min after discharging patients from the operating room. The secondary objective will be to compare the incidence of postoperative complications due to residual neuromuscular

  19. Comparison of tissue distribution, phrenic nerve involvement, and epidural spread in standard- vs low-volume ultrasound-guided interscalene plexus block using contrast magnetic resonance imaging: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stundner, O; Meissnitzer, M; Brummett, C M; Moser, S; Forstner, R; Koköfer, A; Danninger, T; Gerner, P; Kirchmair, L; Fritsch, G

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound guidance allows for the use of much lower volumes of local anaesthetics for nerve blocks, which may be associated with less aberrant spread and fewer complications. This randomized, controlled study used contrast magnetic resonance imaging to view the differential-volume local anaesthetic distribution, and compared analgesic efficacy and respiratory impairment. Thirty patients undergoing shoulder surgery were randomized to receive ultrasound-guided interscalene block by a single, blinded operator with injection of ropivacaine 0.75% (either 20 or 5 ml) plus the contrast dye gadopentetate dimeglumine, followed by magnetic resonance imaging. The primary outcome was epidural spread. Secondary outcomes were central non-epidural spread, contralateral epidural spread, spread to the phrenic nerve, spirometry, ultrasound investigation of the diaphragm, block duration, pain scores during the first 24 h, time to first analgesic consumption, and total analgesic consumption. All blocks provided fast onset and adequate intra- and postoperative analgesia, with no significant differences in pain scores at any time point. Epidural spread occurred in two subjects of each group (13.3%); however, spread to the intervertebral foramen and phrenic nerve and extensive i.m. local anaesthetic deposition were significantly more frequent in the 20 ml group. Diaphragmatic paralysis occurred twice as frequently (n=8 vs 4), and changes from baseline peak respiratory flow rate were larger [Δ=-2.66 (1.99 sd) vs -1.69 (2.0 sd) l min(-1)] in the 20 ml group. This study demonstrates that interscalene block is associated with epidural spread irrespective of injection volume; however, less central (foraminal) and aberrant spread after low-volume injection may be associated with a more favourable risk profile. This study was registered with the European Medicines Agency (Eudra-CT number 2013-004219-36) and with the US National Institutes' of Health registry and results base, clinicaltrials

  20. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  1. Linoleum Block Printing Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetelat, Frank J.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses practical considerations of teaching linoleum block printing in the elementary grades (tool use, materials, motivation) and outlines a sequence of design concepts in this area for the primary, intermediate and junior high grades. A short list of books and audiovisual aids is appended. (SJL)

  2. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  3. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In

  4. Efficacy of Nalbuphine with Flurbiprofen on Multimodal Analgesia with Transverse Abdominis Plane Block in Elderly Patients Undergoing Open Gastrointestinal Surgery: A Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blinded Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess different doses of nalbuphine with flurbiprofen compared to sufentanil with flurbiprofen in multimodal analgesia efficacy for elderly patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery with a transverse abdominis plane block (TAPB. Methods. 158 elderly patients scheduling for elective open gastrointestinal surgery under general anesthesia and TAPB were randomly assigned to four groups according to different doses of nalbuphine with flurbiprofen in postoperative intravenous analgesia (PCIA. Postoperative pain intensity, effective pressing numbers of PCIA, and adverse effects were recorded at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after surgery. Results. Postoperative pain intensity, effective pressing numbers, and the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV were similar among the four groups after surgery, while the severity of PONV was decreased in Group L compared with Group S at 6, 12, and 48 h after surgery. No individual experienced pruritus, respiratory depression, or hypotension. Conclusions. Low dose of nalbuphine (15 μg·kg−1·ml−1 combined with flurbiprofen is superior for elderly patients undergoing elective open gastrointestinal surgery with TAPB in terms of the efficient postoperative analgesia and decreased severity of PONV. This trial is registered with NCT02984865.

  5. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  6. Imaging of Moving Ground Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rihaczek, A

    1996-01-01

    ... requires that use be made of the complex image. The yaw/pitch/roll/bounce/flex motion of a moving ground vehicle demands that different motion compensations be applied to different parts of the vehicle...

  7. Nordic Seniors on the Move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ”I believe that all people need to move about. Actually, some have difficulties in doing so. They stay in their home neighbourhoods where they’ve grown up and feel safe. I can understand that, but my wife and I, we didn’t want that. We are more open to new ideas.” This anthology is about seniors...... on the move. In seven chapters, Nordic researchers from various disciplines, by means of ethnographic methods, attempt to comprehend the phenomenon of Nordic seniors who move to leisure areas in their own or in other countries. The number of people involved in this kind of migratory movement has grown...... above gives voice to one of these seniors, stressing the necessity of moving. The anthology contributes to the international body of literature about later life migration, specifically representing experiences made by Nordic seniors. As shown here, mobility and migration in later life have implications...

  8. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  9. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  10. Autowaves in moving excitable media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A.Davydov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of kinematic theory of autowaves we suggest a method for analytic description of stationary autowave structures appearing at the boundary between the moving and fixed excitable media. The front breakdown phenomenon is predicted for such structures. Autowave refraction and, particulary, one-side "total reflection" at the boundary is considered. The obtained analytical results are confirmed by computer simulations. Prospects of the proposed method for further studies of autowave dynamics in the moving excitable media are discussed.

  11. Infinite games with uncertain moves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Asher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We study infinite two-player games where one of the players is unsure about the set of moves available to the other player. In particular, the set of moves of the other player is a strict superset of what she assumes it to be. We explore what happens to sets in various levels of the Borel hierarchy under such a situation. We show that the sets at every alternate level of the hierarchy jump to the next higher level.

  12. "What Do I Teach for 90 Minutes?" Creating a Successful Block-Scheduled English Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Carol

    The story of the process that Mundelein High School (located in a northwest suburb of Chicago, Illinois) as it moved from a traditional schedule to a block schedule is described throughout this book as a way to blend theory with practice. The book addresses types of block schedules; key issues for effective preparation; professional development…

  13. Low and decreasing vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3) in 2011/12 among vaccination target groups in Europe: results from the I-MOVE multicentre case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kissling, E

    2013-01-01

    Within the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) project we conducted a multicentre case–control study in eight European Union (EU) Member States to estimate the 2011\\/12 influenza vaccine effectiveness against medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza A(H3) among the vaccination target groups. Practitioners systematically selected ILI \\/ acute respiratory infection patients to swab within seven days of symptom onset. We restricted the study population to those meeting the EU ILI case definition and compared influenza A(H3) positive to influenza laboratory-negative patients. We used logistic regression with study site as fixed effect and calculated adjusted influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE), controlling for potential confounders (age group, sex, month of symptom onset, chronic diseases and related hospitalisations, number of practitioner visits in the previous year). Adjusted IVE was 25% (95% confidence intervals (CI): -6 to 47) among all ages (n=1,014), 63% (95% CI: 26 to 82) in adults aged between 15 and 59 years and 15% (95% CI: -33 to 46) among those aged 60 years and above. Adjusted IVE was 38% (95%CI: -8 to 65) in the early influenza season (up to week 6 of 2012) and -1% (95% CI: -60 to 37) in the late phase. The results suggested a low adjusted IVE in 2011\\/12. The lower IVE in the late season could be due to virus changes through the season or waning immunity. Virological surveillance should be enhanced to quantify change over time and understand its relation with duration of immunological protection. Seasonal influenza vaccines should be improved to achieve acceptable levels of protection.

  14. Moving event and moving participant in aspectual conceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izutsu Katsunobu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study advances an analysis of the event conception of aspectual forms in four East Asian languages: Ainu, Japanese, Korean, and Ryukyuan. As earlier studies point out, event conceptions can be divided into two major types: the moving-event type and the moving-participant type, respectively. All aspectual forms in Ainu and Korean, and most forms in Japanese and Ryukyuan are based on that type of event conception. Moving-participant oriented Ainu and movingevent oriented Japanese occupy two extremes, between which Korean and Ryukyuan stand. Notwithstanding the geographical relationships among the four languages, Ryukyuan is closer to Ainu than to Korean, whereas Korean is closer to Ainu than to Japanese.

  15. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned......Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...

  16. Change Around the Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Joey

    2017-04-01

    Proponents of a block grant or per-capita cap trumpet them as vehicles for the federal government to give the states a capped amount of funding for Medicaid that legislatures would effectively distribute how they see fit. Questions abound as to what capped Medicaid funding would look like, and what effect it would have on the current Medicaid-eligible population, covered services, and physician payments.

  17. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  18. Arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming or repair under nerve blocks: Which nerves should be blocked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, AM; Abd-Elmaksoud, AM

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the role of the sciatic and obturator nerve blocks (in addition to femoral block) in providing painless arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming/repair. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with medial meniscus tear, who had been scheduled to knee arthroscopy, were planned to be included in this controlled prospective double-blind study. The patients were randomly allocated into three equal groups; FSO, FS, and FO. The femoral, sciatic, and obturator nerves were blocked in FSO groups. The femoral and sciatic nerves were blocked in FS group, while the femoral and obturator nerves were blocked in FO group. Intraoperative pain and its causative surgical maneuver were recorded. Results: All the patients (n = 7, 100%) in FO group had intraoperative pain. The research was terminated in this group but completed in FS and FSO groups (40 patients each). During valgus positioning of the knee for surgical management of the medial meniscus tear, the patients in FS group experienced pain more frequently than those in FSO group (P = 0.005). Conclusion: Adding a sciatic nerve block to the femoral nerve block is important for painless knee arthroscopy. Further adding of an obturator nerve block may be needed when a valgus knee position is required to manage the medial meniscus tear. PMID:27375382

  19. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  20. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transferred to computer by microcomputers and then translated into semantic information. The system applies wireless and infrared technologies and provides user with feedbacks on both screen and programming blocks. Preliminary user studies using observation and user interview methods are shown for E-Block's prototype. The test results prove that E-Block is attractive to children and easy to learn and use. The project also highlights potential advantages of using single chip microcomputer (SCM technology to develop tangible programming tools for children.

  1. Deteksi Pemalsuan Citra dengan Teknik Copy-Move Menggunakan Metode Ordinal Measure dari Koefisien Discrete Cosine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a new method for the detection of forgery images generated by copy-move technique. Copy-move technique is one of image forgery techniques which taking a particular object from its original image and add it on that image for the purpose of increasing the number of or changing the same object in the original image. This study aims to detect the forged image generated by the copy-move techniques and copy-move forged image that has been modified by the rotation operation and histogram equalization. Detection feature used is Ordinal Measure of Discrete Cosine Transform coefficient (OM-DCT. Detection starts with division of the image into a block size of BXB (B = 16x16, 32x32 and 64x64 and two-dimensional DCT was performed to each of blocks. The feature distance from the original to the fake image, was calculated by the Euclidian distance and each feature has a distance of less than or equal to the threshold value (T according to the observations will be marked as a forged part. The results show that there are blocks detected on the copy-move image, whether on the unmodified copy-move forge image or those which modified by the rotation operation and histogram equalization. The number of blocks that are found in the copy-move object varies according to the size of the detection block used.

  2. Digital blocks in Camac standard for synchrocyclotron investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, N.I.; Li Zu Ehk; Nguen Man' Shat; Petrov, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    Described are brief characteristics and block diagrams of the following 12 blocks in the CAMAC standard designed for experiments on a synchrocyclotron: output register, digital printout, frame controller, logic signal commutator, controlled delay, binary counters of 4 types, exposure-set counter, decimal counter with full indication and L signal grader

  3. Are we ready to move beyond the reductionist approach of classical synergy control?. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; Zago, Myrka

    2016-07-01

    Starting from the classical concepts introduced by Sherrington [1] and considerably elaborated by Bernstein [2], much has been learned about motor synergies in the last several years. The contributions of the group funded by the European project ;The Hand Embodied; are remarkable in the field of biological and robotic control of the hand based on synergies, and they are reflected in this enjoyable review [3]. There, Santello et al. adopt Bernstein's definition of motor synergies as multiple elements working together towards a common goal, with the result that multiple degrees of freedom are controlled within a lower-dimensional space than the available number of dimensions.

  4. Block and sub-block boundary strengthening in lath martensite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, C.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Vaes, R.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2016-01-01

    Well-defined uniaxial micro-tensile tests were performed on lath martensite single block specimens and multi-block specimens with different number of block boundaries parallel to the loading direction. Detailed slip trace analyses consistently revealed that in the {110}<111> slip system with the

  5. A comparison of oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block versus thoracic paravertebral block for postoperative analgesia after open cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Kamhawy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A major challenge in the postoperative period is pain management which, if not adequately controlled, may contribute to patient discomfort and decreased patient satisfaction, and possibly increased morbidity and mortality. Both Thoracic paravertebral block and oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block can be used as analgesic techniques for abdominal surgeries. Our aim in this research was comparison of cumulative 24-h post-operative morphine consumption between ultrasound-guided oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block and ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral block in patients who underwent an open cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. Patients and methods: This study was performed on 46 patients who underwent open cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. All patients were randomly allocated alternatively to one of two equal groups to either undergo ultrasound-guided unilateral oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block Group (I or to undergo ultrasound-guided unilateral thoracic paravertebral block Group (II. Both groups were subjected to a similar analgesic regimen in the immediate post-operative period that involved intravenous patient-controlled morphine analgesia which was used in both groups. Results: The total morphine consumption in the first postoperative 24 h was lower in thoracic paravertebral block Group (II (9.9 mg in thoracic paravertebral block group vs. 15.4 mg in oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block Group (I with p < 0.001. The mean time of first request of analgesia in Group (I was 248.7 min compared to 432.1 for Group (II with p < 0.001. Conclusions: Both ultrasound-guided oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plain block and single injection ultrasound guided thoracic paravertebral block are effective analgesic techniques for upper abdominal surgeries and reduces postoperative opioid requirements. However, thoracic paravertebral block is more

  6. Automatic Moving Object Segmentation for Freely Moving Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new moving object segmentation algorithm for freely moving cameras which is very common for the outdoor surveillance system, the car build-in surveillance system, and the robot navigation system. A two-layer based affine transformation model optimization method is proposed for camera compensation purpose, where the outer layer iteration is used to filter the non-background feature points, and the inner layer iteration is used to estimate a refined affine model based on the RANSAC method. Then the feature points are classified into foreground and background according to the detected motion information. A geodesic based graph cut algorithm is then employed to extract the moving foreground based on the classified features. Unlike the existing global optimization or the long term feature point tracking based method, our algorithm only performs on two successive frames to segment the moving foreground, which makes it suitable for the online video processing applications. The experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in both of the high accuracy and the fast speed.

  7. Move it to improve it (Mitii): study protocol of a randomised controlled trial of a novel web-based multimodal training program for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Roslyn N; Mitchell, Louise E; James, Sarah T; Ziviani, Jenny; Sakzewski, Leanne; Smith, Anthony; Rose, Stephen; Cunnington, Ross; Whittingham, Koa; Ware, Robert S; Comans, Tracey A; Scuffham, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Persons with cerebral palsy require a lifetime of costly and resource intensive interventions which are often limited by equity of access. With increasing burden being placed on health systems, new methods to deliver intensive rehabilitation therapies are needed. Move it to improve it (Mitii) is an internet-based multimodal programme comprising upper-limb and cognitive training with physical activity. It can be accessed in the client's home at their convenience. The proposed study aims to test the efficacy of Mitii in improving upper-limb function and motor planning. Additionally, this study hopes to further our understanding of the central neurovascular mechanisms underlying the proposed changes and determine the cost effectiveness of Mitii. Methods and analysis Children with congenital hemiplegia will be recruited to participate in this waitlist control, matched pairs, single-blind randomised trial. Children be matched at baseline and randomly allocated to receive 20 weeks of 30 min of daily Mitii training immediately, or waitlisted for 20 weeks before receiving the same Mitii training (potential total dose=70 h). Outcomes will be assessed at 20 weeks after the start of Mitii, and retention effects tested at 40 weeks. The primary outcomes will be the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) and unimanual upper-limb capacity using the Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function (JTTHF). Advanced brain imaging will assess use-dependant neuroplasticity. Measures of body structure and functions, activity, participation and quality of life will be used to assess Mitii efficacy across all domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework. Ethics and dissemination This project has received Ethics Approval from the Medical Ethics Committee of The University of Queensland (2011000608) and the Royal Children's Hospital Brisbane (HREC/11/QRCH/35). Findings will be

  8. Evidence of peripheral nerve blocks for cancer-related pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klepstad, P; Kurita, G P; Mercadante, S

    2015-01-01

    The European Association for Palliative Care has initiated a comprehensive program to achieve an over-all review of the evidence of multiple cancer pain management strategies in order to extend the current guideline for treatment of cancer pain. The present systematic review analyzed the existing...... evidence of analgesic efficacy for peripheral nerve blocks in adult patients with cancer. A search strategy was elaborated with words related to cancer, pain, peripheral nerve and block. The search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane for the period until February 2014. The number of abstracts...... retrieved was 155. No controlled studies were identified. Sixteen papers presented a total of 79 cases. The blocks applied were paravertebral blocks (10 cases), blocks in the head region (2 cases), plexus blocks (13 cases), intercostal blocks (43 cases) and others (11 cases). In general, most cases reported...

  9. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  10. Atrioventricular block, ECG tracing (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an abnormal rhythm (arrhythmia) called an atrioventricular (AV) block. P waves show that the top of the ... wave (and heart contraction), there is an atrioventricular block, and a very slow pulse (bradycardia).

  11. 3D Reasoning from Blocks to Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaoyin Jia; Gallagher, Andrew C; Saxena, Ashutosh; Chen, Tsuhan

    2015-05-01

    Objects occupy physical space and obey physical laws. To truly understand a scene, we must reason about the space that objects in it occupy, and how each objects is supported stably by each other. In other words, we seek to understand which objects would, if moved, cause other objects to fall. This 3D volumetric reasoning is important for many scene understanding tasks, ranging from segmentation of objects to perception of a rich 3D, physically well-founded, interpretations of the scene. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to parse a single RGB-D image with 3D block units while jointly reasoning about the segments, volumes, supporting relationships, and object stability. Our algorithm is based on the intuition that a good 3D representation of the scene is one that fits the depth data well, and is a stable, self-supporting arrangement of objects (i.e., one that does not topple). We design an energy function for representing the quality of the block representation based on these properties. Our algorithm fits 3D blocks to the depth values corresponding to image segments, and iteratively optimizes the energy function. Our proposed algorithm is the first to consider stability of objects in complex arrangements for reasoning about the underlying structure of the scene. Experimental results show that our stability-reasoning framework improves RGB-D segmentation and scene volumetric representation.

  12. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-04-13

    We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  13. Research on virtual actor action editing and movement control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhu QIN; Yuhui WU; Zhengxu ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    To directly use a virtual surface model for action editing and movement control, a general method for creating virtual actor skeleton models and controlling movement is presented. The method includes judging borderlines of the block virtual surface model, calculat-ing the joints, confirming the above block, and using the block hierarchical layout to create the skeleton model. Then, according to the virtual actor model and move-ment restriction, the study focuses on the generation of movement animation using the key frame technique and smoothing movement technique by automatically adding animation and adjusting the actor's pose by different weights on movement amplitude. Finally, movement control of the actor in the virtual environment is implemented by real-time control and path point control, which achieve a good result.

  14. Powder wastes confinement block and manufacturing process of this block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagot, L.; Brunel, G.

    1996-01-01

    This invention concerns a powder wastes containment block and a manufacturing process of this block. In this block, the waste powder is encapsulated in a thermo hardening polymer as for example an epoxy resin, the encapsulated resin being spread into cement. This block can contain between 45 and 55% in mass of wastes, between 18 and 36% in mass of polymer and between 14 and 32% in mass of cement. Such a containment block can be used for the radioactive wastes storage. (O.M.). 4 refs

  15. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  16. Isotope heating block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenk, E.

    1976-01-01

    A suggestion is made not to lead the separated nuclear 'waste' from spent nuclear fuel elements directly to end storage, but to make use of the heat produced from the remaining radiation, e.g. for seawater desalination. According to the invention, the activated fission products are to be processed, e.g. by calcination or vitrification, so that one can handle them. They should then be arranged in layers alternately with plate-shaped heat conducting pipes to form a homogeneous block; the heat absorbed by the thermal plates should be further passed on to evaporators or heat exchangers. (UWI) [de

  17. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  18. Carlson Wagonlit Travel is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The renovation of the Main Building continues!   Because of this, Carlson Wagonlit Travel will move from building 62 to building 510 on 4 October and the agency will be closed in the afternoon. An emergency service will be organised for official travels only. Phone: 022 799 75 73 & 022 799 75 78 / e-mail: cern@carlsonwagonlit.ch

  19. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal

  20. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    to congestion. We focus on the equilibrium in which some workers currently living in one region accept jobs in the other, with a fraction of them choosing to commute from their current residence to the new job in the other region and the remainder choosing to move to the region in which the new job is located...

  1. Moving ring reactor 'Karin-1'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The conceptual design of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' has been carried out to advance fusion system design, to clarify the research and development problems, and to decide their priority. In order to attain these objectives, a D-T reactor with tritium breeding blanket is designed, a commercial reactor with net power output of 500 MWe is designed, the compatibility of plasma physics with fusion engineering is demonstrated, and some other guideline is indicated. A moving ring reactor is composed mainly of three parts. In the first formation section, a plasma ring is formed and heated up to ignition temperature. The plasma ring of compact torus is transported from the formation section through the next burning section to generate fusion power. Then the plasma ring moves into the last recovery section, and the energy and particles of the plasma ring are recovered. The outline of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' is described. As a candidate material for the first wall, SiC was adopted to reduce the MHD effect and to minimize the interaction with neutrons and charged particles. The thin metal lining was applied to the SiC surface to solve the problem of the compatibility with lithium blanket. Plasma physics, the engineering aspect and the items of research and development are described. (Kako, I.)

  2. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon

  3. Pyrimidine dimers block simian virus 40 replication forks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.A.; Edenberg, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    UV light produces lesions, predominantly pyrimidine dimers, which inhibit DNA replication in mammalian cells. The mechanism of inhibition is controversial: is synthesis of a daughter strand halted at a lesion while the replication fork moves on and reinitiates downstream, or is fork progression itself blocked for some time at the site of a lesion? We directly addressed this question by using electron microscopy to examine the distances of replication forks from the origin in unirradiated and UV-irradiated simian virus 40 chromosomes. If UV lesions block replication fork progression, the forks should be asymmetrically located in a large fraction of the irradiated molecules; if replication forks move rapidly past lesions, the forks should be symmetrically located. A large fraction of the simian virus 40 replication forks in irradiated molecules were asymmetrically located, demonstrating that UV lesions present at the frequency of pyrimidine dimers block replication forks. As a mechanism for this fork blockage, we propose that polymerization of the leading strand makes a significant contribution to the energetics of fork movement, so any lesion in the template for the leading strand which blocks polymerization should also block fork movement

  4. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices. Collagen as a protein. Collagen in tissues and organs. Stabilizing and cross linking agents. Immunogenicity. Hosts (drugs). Controlled release mechanisms of hosts. Biodegradability, workability into devices ...

  5. A standard graphite block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivkovic, M; Zdravkovic, Z; Sotic, O [Department of Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1966-04-15

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 {+-}3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm{sup 3}; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb.

  6. A standard graphite block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivkovic, M.; Zdravkovic, Z.; Sotic, O.

    1966-04-01

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 ±3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm 3 ; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb

  7. Transversus abdominis plane block: a cadaveric and radiological evaluation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, John G

    2011-04-11

    The abdominal wall is a significant source of pain after abdominal surgery. Anterior abdominal wall analgesia may assist in improving postoperative analgesia. We have recently described a novel approach to block the abdominal wall neural afferents via the bilateral lumbar triangles of Petit, which we have termed a transversus abdominis plane block. The clinical efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane block has recently been demonstrated in a randomized controlled clinical trial of adults undergoing abdominal surgery.

  8. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors, the latest residents on the block: Impact on glycaemic control at a general practice level in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Adrian H; Fryer, Anthony A; Anderson, Simon G; Livingston, Mark; Lunt, Mark; Davies, Mark; Moreno, Gabriela Y C; Gadsby, Roger; Young, Robert J; Stedman, Mike

    2018-03-08

    To determine, using published general practice-level data, how differences in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prescribing patterns relate to glycaemic target achievement levels. Multiple linear regression modelling was used to link practice characteristics and defined daily dose (DDD) of different classes of medication in 2015/2016 and changes between that year and the year 2014/2015 in medication to proportion of patients achieving target glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] ≤58 mmol/mol [7.5%]) and proportion of patients at high glycaemic risk (HbA1c >86 mmol/mol [10.0%]) for practices in the National Diabetes Audit with >100 people with T2DM on their register. Overall, HbA1c outcomes were not different between the years studied. Although, in percentage terms, most practices increased their use of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (96%), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (76%) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues (53%), there was wide variation in the use of older and newer therapies. For example, 12% of practices used >200% of the national average for some newer agents. In cross-sectional analysis, greater prescribing of metformin and analogue insulin were associated with a higher proportion of patients achieving HbA1c ≤58 mmol/mol; the use of SGLT2 inhibitors and metformin was associated with a reduced proportion of patients with HbA1c >86 mol/mol; otherwise associations for sulphonylureas, GLP-1 analogues, SGLT2 inhibitors and DPP-4 inhibitors were neutral or negative. In year-on-year analysis there was ongoing deterioration in glycaemic control, which was offset to some extent by increased use of SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 analogues, which were associated with a greater proportion of patients achieving HbA1c levels ≤58 mmol/mol and a smaller proportion of patients with HbA1c levels >86 mmol/mol. SGLT2 inhibitor prescribing was associated with significantly greater improvements than those found

  9. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...... of the series first, the applying the standard wild bootstrap for independent and heteroscedastic distrbuted observations to overlapping tapered blocks in an appropriate way. Its perserves the favorable bias and mean squared error properties of the tapered block bootstrap, which is the state-of-the-art block......-order asymptotic validity of the tapered block bootstrap as well as the wild tapered block bootstrap approximation to the actual distribution of the sample mean is also established when data are assumed to satisfy a near epoch dependent condition. The consistency of the bootstrap variance estimator for the sample...

  10. Infinite-degree-corrected stochastic block model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    In stochastic block models, which are among the most prominent statistical models for cluster analysis of complex networks, clusters are defined as groups of nodes with statistically similar link probabilities within and between groups. A recent extension by Karrer and Newman [Karrer and Newman...... corrected stochastic block model as a nonparametric Bayesian model, incorporating a parameter to control the amount of degree correction that can then be inferred from data. Additionally, our formulation yields principled ways of inferring the number of groups as well as predicting missing links...

  11. Slip control for LIM propelled transit vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A. K.; Parker, J. H.; Dawson, G. E.

    1980-09-01

    Short stator linear induction motors, with an iron-backed aluminum sheet reaction rail and powered by a controlled inverter, have been selected as the propulsion system for transit vehicles in an intermediate capacity system (12-20,000 pphpd). The linear induction motor is capable of adhesion independent braking and acceleration levels which permit safe, close headways. In addition, simple control is possible allowing moving block automatic train control. This paper presents a slip frequency control scheme for the LIM. Experimental results for motoring and braking obtained from a test vehicle are also presented. These values are compared with theoretical predictions.

  12. Cooperative Robots to Observe Moving Targets: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Rinner, Bernhard; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The deployment of multiple robots for achieving a common goal helps to improve the performance, efficiency, and/or robustness in a variety of tasks. In particular, the observation of moving targets is an important multirobot application that still exhibits numerous open challenges, including the effective coordination of the robots. This paper reviews control techniques for cooperative mobile robots monitoring multiple targets. The simultaneous movement of robots and targets makes this problem particularly interesting, and our review systematically addresses this cooperative multirobot problem for the first time. We classify and critically discuss the control techniques: cooperative multirobot observation of multiple moving targets, cooperative search, acquisition, and track, cooperative tracking, and multirobot pursuit evasion. We also identify the five major elements that characterize this problem, namely, the coordination method, the environment, the target, the robot and its sensor(s). These elements are used to systematically analyze the control techniques. The majority of the studied work is based on simulation and laboratory studies, which may not accurately reflect real-world operational conditions. Importantly, while our systematic analysis is focused on multitarget observation, our proposed classification is useful also for related multirobot applications.

  13. The Postural Responses to a Moving Environment of Adults Who Are Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Ito, Kiyohide; Hove, Philip; Yank, Jane Redfield; Bardy, Benoit G.

    2010-01-01

    Adults who are blind stood in a room that could be moved around them. A sound source moved with the room, simulating the acoustic consequences of body sway. Body sway was greater when the room moved than when it was stationary, suggesting that sound may have been used to control stance. (Contains 1 figure.)

  14. New method for protecting mine roadways in thin coal seams by means of prefabricated yielding blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peknik, J

    1983-05-01

    The use of concrete blocks for strata control in mine roadways driven in thin coal seams is evaluated. Two types of prefabricated blocks are used: BZT blocks made of reinforced concrete and yielding elements or popilbet blocks made of a mixture of fly ash (from coal power plants) and concrete. When the popilbet blocks were used no yielding elements were necessary. Mechanical properties of blocks made of reinforced concrete were controlled by yielding elements. Mechanical properties (compression strength) of the popilbet blocks were controlled by proportion of water, cement and fly ash. The BZT and the popilbet blocks were used for strata control in mine roadways in coal seams from 60 to 80 cm thick and dip angle from 5 to 18 degrees. Use of the BZT and the popilbet blocks reduced roadway deformation by about 50% in comparison to traditional strata control methods (timber cribbings, use of waste rock, etc.). Use of the blocks is explained. The BZT and the popilbet blocks were placed in a roadway wall. Height of the block wall equaled coal seam thickness. Yielding arched steel supports and timber liners were used for strata control in the roadway. The popilbet blocks were 50% less expensive than the BZT blocks. 9 references

  15. Adaptive moving mesh methods for simulating one-dimensional groundwater problems with sharp moving fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.; Zheng, Lingyun; Zhan, X.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate modelling of groundwater flow and transport with sharp moving fronts often involves high computational cost, when a fixed/uniform mesh is used. In this paper, we investigate the modelling of groundwater problems using a particular adaptive mesh method called the moving mesh partial differential equation approach. With this approach, the mesh is dynamically relocated through a partial differential equation to capture the evolving sharp fronts with a relatively small number of grid points. The mesh movement and physical system modelling are realized by solving the mesh movement and physical partial differential equations alternately. The method is applied to the modelling of a range of groundwater problems, including advection dominated chemical transport and reaction, non-linear infiltration in soil, and the coupling of density dependent flow and transport. Numerical results demonstrate that sharp moving fronts can be accurately and efficiently captured by the moving mesh approach. Also addressed are important implementation strategies, e.g. the construction of the monitor function based on the interpolation error, control of mesh concentration, and two-layer mesh movement. Copyright ?? 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  16. Younger apes and human children plan their moves in a maze task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völter, Christoph J; Call, Josep

    2014-02-01

    Planning defined as the predetermination of a sequence of actions towards some goal is crucial for complex problem solving. To shed light on the evolution of executive functions, we investigated the ontogenetic and phylogenetic origins of planning. Therefore, we presented all four great apes species (N=12) as well as 4- and 5-year-old human preschoolers (N=24) with a vertical maze task. To gain a reward placed on the uppermost level of the maze, subjects had to move the reward to the bottom through open gaps situated at each level of the maze. In total, there were ten gaps located over three of the maze's levels, and free passage through these gaps could be flexibly blocked using multiple traps. Due to the decision tree design of the maze, the subjects had to plan their actions depending on the trap configuration up to two steps ahead to successfully retrieve the reward. We found that (1) our measure of planning was negatively correlated with age in nonhuman apes, (2) younger apes as well as 5-year-old children planned their moves up to two steps ahead whereas 4-year-olds were limited to plan one step ahead, and (3) similar performance but different underlying limitations between apes and children. Namely, while all species of nonhuman apes were limited by a lack of motor control, human children exhibited a shortage in shifting their attention across a sequence of subgoals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...... it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...

  18. Celiac ganglia block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinci, Devrim; Akhan, Okan

    2005-01-01

    Pain occurs frequently in patients with advanced cancers. Tumors originating from upper abdominal viscera such as pancreas, stomach, duodenum, proximal small bowel, liver and biliary tract and from compressing enlarged lymph nodes can cause severe abdominal pain, which do not respond satisfactorily to medical treatment or radiotherapy. Percutaneous celiac ganglia block (CGB) can be performed with high success and low complication rates under imaging guidance to obtain pain relief in patients with upper abdominal malignancies. A significant relationship between pain relief and degree of tumoral celiac ganglia invasion according to CT features was described in the literature. Performing the procedure in the early grades of celiac ganglia invasion on CT can increase the effectiveness of the CGB, which is contrary to World Health Organization criteria stating that CGB must be performed in patients with advanced stage cancer. CGB may also be effectively performed in patients with chronic pancreatitis for pain palliation

  19. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  20. Moving Manifolds in Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. Svintradze

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose dynamic non-linear equations for moving surfaces in an electromagnetic field. The field is induced by a material body with a boundary of the surface. Correspondingly the potential energy, set by the field at the boundary can be written as an addition of four-potential times four-current to a contraction of the electromagnetic tensor. Proper application of the minimal action principle to the system Lagrangian yields dynamic non-linear equations for moving three dimensional manifolds in electromagnetic fields. The equations in different conditions simplify to Maxwell equations for massless three surfaces, to Euler equations for a dynamic fluid, to magneto-hydrodynamic equations and to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation.