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Sample records for movement protein cell-to-cell

  1. Plant virus cell-to-cell movement is not dependent on the transmembrane disposition of its movement protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gil, Luis; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús A; Cruz, Antonio; Pallás, Vicente; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; Mingarro, Ismael

    2009-06-01

    The cell-to-cell transport of plant viruses depends on one or more virus-encoded movement proteins (MPs). Some MPs are integral membrane proteins that interact with the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, but a detailed understanding of the interaction between MPs and biological membranes has been lacking. The cell-to-cell movement of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is facilitated by a single MP of the 30K superfamily. Here, using a myriad of biochemical and biophysical approaches, we show that the PNRSV MP contains only one hydrophobic region (HR) that interacts with the membrane interface, as opposed to being a transmembrane protein. We also show that a proline residue located in the middle of the HR constrains the structural conformation of this region at the membrane interface, and its replacement precludes virus movement.

  2. Mutational analysis of the RNA-binding domain of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) movement protein reveals its requirement for cell-to-cell movement

    OpenAIRE

    Herranz, M. Carmen; Sánchez Navarro, Jesús A.; Saurí Peris, Ana; Mingarro Muñoz, Ismael; Pallás Benet, Vicente

    2005-01-01

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is required for cell-to-cell movement. MP subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein revealed highly punctate structures between neighboring cells, believed to represent plasmodesmata. Deletion of the RNA-binding domain (RBD) of PNRSV MP abolishes the cell-to-cell movement. A mutational analysis on this RBD was performed in order to identify in vivo the features that govern viral transport. Loss of positive c...

  3. Mutational analysis of the RNA-binding domain of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) movement protein reveals its requirement for cell-to-cell movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmen Herranz, Ma; Sanchez-Navarro, Jesús-Angel; Saurí, Ana; Mingarro, Ismael; Pallás, Vicente

    2005-08-15

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is required for cell-to-cell movement. MP subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein revealed highly punctate structures between neighboring cells, believed to represent plasmodesmata. Deletion of the RNA-binding domain (RBD) of PNRSV MP abolishes the cell-to-cell movement. A mutational analysis on this RBD was performed in order to identify in vivo the features that govern viral transport. Loss of positive charges prevented the cell-to-cell movement even though all mutants showed a similar accumulation level in protoplasts to those observed with the wild-type (wt) MP. Synthetic peptides representing the mutants and wild-type RBDs were used to study RNA-binding affinities by EMSA assays being approximately 20-fold lower in the mutants. Circular dichroism analyses revealed that the secondary structure of the peptides was not significantly affected by mutations. The involvement of the affinity changes between the viral RNA and the MP in the viral cell-to-cell movement is discussed.

  4. Mutational analysis of the RNA-binding domain of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) movement protein reveals its requirement for cell-to-cell movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmen Herranz, Ma; Sanchez-Navarro, Jesus-Angel; Sauri, Ana; Mingarro, Ismael; Pallas, Vicente

    2005-01-01

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is required for cell-to-cell movement. MP subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein revealed highly punctate structures between neighboring cells, believed to represent plasmodesmata. Deletion of the RNA-binding domain (RBD) of PNRSV MP abolishes the cell-to-cell movement. A mutational analysis on this RBD was performed in order to identify in vivo the features that govern viral transport. Loss of positive charges prevented the cell-to-cell movement even though all mutants showed a similar accumulation level in protoplasts to those observed with the wild-type (wt) MP. Synthetic peptides representing the mutants and wild-type RBDs were used to study RNA-binding affinities by EMSA assays being approximately 20-fold lower in the mutants. Circular dichroism analyses revealed that the secondary structure of the peptides was not significantly affected by mutations. The involvement of the affinity changes between the viral RNA and the MP in the viral cell-to-cell movement is discussed

  5. Implication of the C terminus of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus movement protein in cell-to-cell transport and in its interaction with the coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Frederic; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús

    2010-07-01

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is required for viral transport. Previous analysis with MPs of other members of the family Bromoviridae has shown that the C-terminal part of these MPs plays a critical role in the interaction with the cognate coat protein (CP) and in cell-to-cell transport. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and overlay analysis confirm an interaction between the C-terminal 38 aa of PNRSV MP and its cognate CP. Mutational analysis of the C-terminal region of the PNRSV MP revealed that its C-terminal 38 aa are dispensable for virus transport, however, the 4 aa preceding the dispensable C terminus are necessary to target the MP to the plasmodesmata and for the functionality of the protein. The capacity of the PNRSV MP to use either a CP-dependent or a CP-independent cell-to-cell transport is discussed.

  6. The potato virus x TGBp2 protein association with the endoplasmic reticulum plays a role in but is not sufficient for viral cell-to-cell movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Ruchira; Krishnamurthy, Konduru; Blancaflor, Elison; Payton, Mark; Nelson, Richard S.; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie

    2003-01-01

    Potato virus X (PVX) TGBp1, TGBp2, TGBp3, and coat protein are required for virus cell-to-cell movement. Plasmids expressing GFP fused to TGBp2 were bombarded to leaf epidermal cells and GFP:TGBp2 moved cell to cell in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves but not in Nicotiana tabacum leaves. GFP:TGBp2 movement was observed in TGBp1-transgenic N. tabacum, indicating that TGBp2 requires TGBp1 to promote its movement in N. tabacum. In this study, GFP:TGBp2 was detected in a polygonal pattern that resembles the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed TGBp2 has two putative transmembrane domains. Two mutations separately introduced into the coding sequences encompassing the putative transmembrane domains within the GFP:TGBp2 plasmids and PVX genome, disrupted membrane binding of GFP:TGBp2, inhibited GFP:TGBp2 movement in N. benthamiana and TGBp1-expressing N. tabacum, and inhibited PVX movement. A third mutation, lying outside the transmembrane domains, had no effect on GFP:TGBp2 ER association or movement in N. benthamiana but inhibited GFP:TGBp2 movement in TGBp1-expressing N. tabacum and PVX movement in either Nicotiana species. Thus, ER association of TGBp2 may be required but not be sufficient for virus movement. TGBp2 likely provides an activity for PVX movement beyond ER association

  7. Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Coat Protein Is Essential for Cell-to-Cell and Long-Distance Movement but Not for Viral RNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shengniao; Gil-Salas, Francisco M.; Tewary, Sunil Kumar; Samales, Ashwin Kuppusamy; Johnson, John; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Wong, Sek-Man

    2014-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP) functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G) in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G) in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G) were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G) was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G) inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro. PMID:25402344

  8. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein is essential for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement but not for viral RNA replication.

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    Shengniao Niu

    Full Text Available Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro.

  9. Cell-to-cell movement of Alfalfa mosaic virus can be mediated by the movement proteins of Ilar-, bromo-, cucumo-, tobamo- and comoviruses and does not require virion formation.

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    Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús A; Carmen Herranz, María; Pallás, Vicente

    2006-03-01

    RNA 3 of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) encodes the movement protein (MP) and coat protein (CP). Chimeric RNA 3 with the AMV MP gene replaced by the corresponding MP gene of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Brome mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus or Cowpea mosaic virus efficiently moved from cell-to-cell only when the expressed MP was extended at its C-terminus with the C-terminal 44 amino acids of AMV MP. MP of Tobacco mosaic virus supported the movement of the chimeric RNA 3 whether or not the MP was extended with the C-terminal AMV MP sequence. The replacement of the CP gene in RNA 3 by a mutant gene encoding a CP defective in virion formation did not affect cell-to-cell transport of the chimera's with a functional MP. A GST pull-down technique was used to demonstrate for the first time that the C-terminal 44 amino acids of the MP of a virus belonging to the family Bromoviridae interact specifically with AMV virus particles. Together, these results demonstrate that AMV RNA 3 can be transported from cell-to-cell by both tubule-forming and non-tubule-forming MPs if a specific MP-CP interaction occurs.

  10. The Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYTA regulates the cell-to-cell movement of diverse plant viruses

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    Asako eUchiyama

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synaptotagmins are a large gene family in animals that have been extensively characterized due to their role as calcium sensors to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis in neurons, and dense core vesicle exocytosis for hormone secretion from neuroendocrine cells. Thought to be exclusive to animals, synaptotagmins have recently been characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, in which they comprise a five gene family. Using infectivity and leaf-based functional assays, we have shown that Arabidopsis SYTA regulates endocytosis and marks an endosomal vesicle recycling pathway to regulate movement protein-mediated trafficking of the Begomovirus Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV and the Tobamovirus Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV through plasmodesmata (Lewis and Lazarowitz, 2010. To determine whether SYTA has a central role in regulating the cell-to-cell trafficking of a wider range of diverse plant viruses, we extended our studies here to examine the role of SYTA in the cell-to-cell movement of additional plant viruses that employ different modes of movement, namely the Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, the Caulimovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV and the Tobamovirus Turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV, which in contrast to TMV does efficiently infect Arabidopsis. We found that both TuMV and TVCV systemic infection, and the cell-to-cell trafficking of the their movement proteins, were delayed in the Arabidopsis Col-0 syta-1 knockdown mutant. In contrast, CaMV systemic infection was not inhibited in syta-1. Our studies show that SYTA is a key regulator of plant virus intercellular movement, being necessary for the ability of diverse cell-to-cell movement proteins encoded by Begomoviruses (CaLCuV MP, Tobamoviruses (TVCV and TMV 30K protein and Potyviruses (TuMV P3N-PIPO to alter PD and thereby mediate virus cell-to-cell spread.

  11. Plant Virus Cell-to-Cell Movement Is Not Dependent on the Transmembrane Disposition of Its Movement Protein▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gil, Luis; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús A.; Cruz, Antonio; Pallás, Vicente; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; Mingarro, Ismael

    2009-01-01

    The cell-to-cell transport of plant viruses depends on one or more virus-encoded movement proteins (MPs). Some MPs are integral membrane proteins that interact with the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, but a detailed understanding of the interaction between MPs and biological membranes has been lacking. The cell-to-cell movement of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is facilitated by a single MP of the 30K superfamily. Here, using a myriad of biochemical and biophysical approaches, we show that the PNRSV MP contains only one hydrophobic region (HR) that interacts with the membrane interface, as opposed to being a transmembrane protein. We also show that a proline residue located in the middle of the HR constrains the structural conformation of this region at the membrane interface, and its replacement precludes virus movement. PMID:19321624

  12. Effect of amino acid substitution of CAPRICE on cell-to-cell movement ability in Arabidopsis root epidermis.

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    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Wada, Takuji

    2018-03-01

    An R3-type MYB transcription factor, CAPRICE (CPC), is known to promote root hair cell differentiation in Arabidopsis root epidermis. The CPC protein moves from non-hair cells to the neighboring cells, and acts as an inducer of root hair formation. In contrast, we previously showed that the CPC homolog, ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1), does not move between the root epidermal cells. To clarify the critical difference in the cell-to-cell movement ability of CPC and ETC1 proteins, we generated five different chimeras of CPC and ETC1. As expected, four of the five chimeric proteins with substitution of CPC amino acids with those of ETC1 induced many root hair and no-trichome phenotype, like CPC. These chimeric proteins essentially maintained the cell-to-cell movement ability of CPC. However, one chimeric protein in which ETC1 was sandwiched between the CPC-specific movement motifs of S1 and S2 did not induce ectopic root hair formation. This chimeric protein did not move between the cells. These results indicate that the maintenance of not only the S1 and S2 motifs but also the precise structure of CPC protein might be necessary for the cell-to-cell movement of CPC. Our results should help in further unraveling of the roles of these MYB transcription factors in root hair formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The roles of membranes and associated cytoskeleton in plant virus replication and cell-to-cell movement.

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    Pitzalis, Nicolas; Heinlein, Manfred

    2017-12-18

    The infection of plants by viruses depends on cellular mechanisms that support the replication of the viral genomes, and the cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus via plasmodesmata (PD) and the connected phloem. While the propagation of some viruses requires the conventional endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi pathway, others replicate and spread between cells in association with the ER and are independent of this pathway. Using selected viruses as examples, this review re-examines the involvement of membranes and the cytoskeleton during virus infection and proposes potential roles of class VIII myosins and membrane-tethering proteins in controlling viral functions at specific ER subdomains, such as cortical microtubule-associated ER sites, ER-plasma membrane contact sites, and PD. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Intrinsically disordered proteins aggregate at fungal cell-to-cell channels and regulate intercellular connectivity.

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    Lai, Julian; Koh, Chuan Hock; Tjota, Monika; Pieuchot, Laurent; Raman, Vignesh; Chandrababu, Karthik Balakrishna; Yang, Daiwen; Wong, Limsoon; Jedd, Gregory

    2012-09-25

    Like animals and plants, multicellular fungi possess cell-to-cell channels (septal pores) that allow intercellular communication and transport. Here, using a combination of MS of Woronin body-associated proteins and a bioinformatics approach that identifies related proteins based on composition and character, we identify 17 septal pore-associated (SPA) proteins that localize to the septal pore in rings and pore-centered foci. SPA proteins are not homologous at the primary sequence level but share overall physical properties with intrinsically disordered proteins. Some SPA proteins form aggregates at the septal pore, and in vitro assembly assays suggest aggregation through a nonamyloidal mechanism involving mainly α-helical and disordered structures. SPA loss-of-function phenotypes include excessive septation, septal pore degeneration, and uncontrolled Woronin body activation. Together, our data identify the septal pore as a complex subcellular compartment and focal point for the assembly of unstructured proteins controlling diverse aspects of intercellular connectivity.

  15. Determinants of cell-to-cell variability in protein kinase signaling.

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    Jeschke, Matthias; Baumgärtner, Stephan; Legewie, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Cells reliably sense environmental changes despite internal and external fluctuations, but the mechanisms underlying robustness remain unclear. We analyzed how fluctuations in signaling protein concentrations give rise to cell-to-cell variability in protein kinase signaling using analytical theory and numerical simulations. We characterized the dose-response behavior of signaling cascades by calculating the stimulus level at which a pathway responds ('pathway sensitivity') and the maximal activation level upon strong stimulation. Minimal kinase cascades with gradual dose-response behavior show strong variability, because the pathway sensitivity and the maximal activation level cannot be simultaneously invariant. Negative feedback regulation resolves this trade-off and coordinately reduces fluctuations in the pathway sensitivity and maximal activation. Feedbacks acting at different levels in the cascade control different aspects of the dose-response curve, thereby synergistically reducing the variability. We also investigated more complex, ultrasensitive signaling cascades capable of switch-like decision making, and found that these can be inherently robust to protein concentration fluctuations. We describe how the cell-to-cell variability of ultrasensitive signaling systems can be actively regulated, e.g., by altering the expression of phosphatase(s) or by feedback/feedforward loops. Our calculations reveal that slow transcriptional negative feedback loops allow for variability suppression while maintaining switch-like decision making. Taken together, we describe design principles of signaling cascades that promote robustness. Our results may explain why certain signaling cascades like the yeast pheromone pathway show switch-like decision making with little cell-to-cell variability.

  16. Determinants of cell-to-cell variability in protein kinase signaling.

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    Matthias Jeschke

    Full Text Available Cells reliably sense environmental changes despite internal and external fluctuations, but the mechanisms underlying robustness remain unclear. We analyzed how fluctuations in signaling protein concentrations give rise to cell-to-cell variability in protein kinase signaling using analytical theory and numerical simulations. We characterized the dose-response behavior of signaling cascades by calculating the stimulus level at which a pathway responds ('pathway sensitivity' and the maximal activation level upon strong stimulation. Minimal kinase cascades with gradual dose-response behavior show strong variability, because the pathway sensitivity and the maximal activation level cannot be simultaneously invariant. Negative feedback regulation resolves this trade-off and coordinately reduces fluctuations in the pathway sensitivity and maximal activation. Feedbacks acting at different levels in the cascade control different aspects of the dose-response curve, thereby synergistically reducing the variability. We also investigated more complex, ultrasensitive signaling cascades capable of switch-like decision making, and found that these can be inherently robust to protein concentration fluctuations. We describe how the cell-to-cell variability of ultrasensitive signaling systems can be actively regulated, e.g., by altering the expression of phosphatase(s or by feedback/feedforward loops. Our calculations reveal that slow transcriptional negative feedback loops allow for variability suppression while maintaining switch-like decision making. Taken together, we describe design principles of signaling cascades that promote robustness. Our results may explain why certain signaling cascades like the yeast pheromone pathway show switch-like decision making with little cell-to-cell variability.

  17. Histochemical approaches to assess cell-to-cell transmission of misfolded proteins in neurodegenerative diseases

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    G. Natale

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Formation, aggregation and transmission of abnormal proteins are common features in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington’s disease. The mechanisms underlying protein alterations in neurodegenerative diseases remain controversial. Novel findings highlighted altered protein clearing systems as common biochemical pathways which generate protein misfolding, which in turn causes protein aggregation and protein spreading. In fact, proteinaceous aggregates are prone to cell-to-cell propagation. This is reminiscent of what happens in prion disorders, where the prion protein misfolds thus forming aggregates which spread to neighbouring cells. For this reason, the term prionoids is currently used to emphasize how several misfolded proteins are transmitted in neurodegenerative diseases following this prion-like pattern. Histochemical techniques including the use of specific antibodies covering both light and electron microscopy offer a powerful tool to describe these phenomena and investigate specific molecular steps. These include: prion like protein alterations; glycation of prion-like altered proteins to form advanced glycation end-products (AGEs; mechanisms of extracellular secretion; interaction of AGEs with specific receptors placed on neighbouring cells (RAGEs. The present manuscript comments on these phenomena aimed to provide a consistent scenario of the available histochemical approaches to dissect each specific step.

  18. Inspirations on Virus Replication and Cell-to-Cell Movement from Studies Examining the Cytopathology Induced by Lettuce infectious yellows virus in Plant Cells

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    Wenjie Qiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV is the type member of the genus Crinivirus in the family Closteroviridae. Like many other positive-strand RNA viruses, LIYV infections induce a number of cytopathic changes in plant cells, of which the two most characteristic are: Beet yellows virus-type inclusion bodies composed of vesicles derived from cytoplasmic membranes; and conical plasmalemma deposits (PLDs located at the plasmalemma over plasmodesmata pit fields. The former are not only found in various closterovirus infections, but similar structures are known as ‘viral factories’ or viroplasms in cells infected with diverse types of animal and plant viruses. These are generally sites of virus replication, virion assembly and in some cases are involved in cell-to-cell transport. By contrast, PLDs induced by the LIYV-encoded P26 non-virion protein are not involved in replication but are speculated to have roles in virus intercellular movement. These deposits often harbor LIYV virions arranged to be perpendicular to the plasma membrane over plasmodesmata, and our recent studies show that P26 is required for LIYV systemic plant infection. The functional mechanism of how LIYV P26 facilitates intercellular movement remains unclear, however, research on other plant viruses provides some insights on the possible ways of viral intercellular movement through targeting and modifying plasmodesmata via interactions between plant cellular components and viral-encoded factors. In summary, beginning with LIYV, we review the studies that have uncovered the biological determinants giving rise to these cytopathological effects and their importance in viral replication, virion assembly and intercellular movement during the plant infection by closteroviruses, and compare these findings with those for other positive-strand RNA viruses.

  19. Phloem sap proteins from Cucurbita maxima and Ricinus communis have the capacity to traffic cell to cell through plasmodesmata

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    Balachandran, Suchandra; Xiang, Yu; Schobert, Christian; Thompson, Gary A.; Lucas, William J.

    1997-01-01

    In angiosperms, the functional enucleate sieve tube system of the phloem appears to be maintained by the surrounding companion cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that polypeptides present within the phloem sap traffic cell to cell from the companion cells, where they are synthesized, into the sieve tube via plasmodesmata. Coinjection of fluorescently labeled dextrans along with size-fractionated Cucurbita maxima phloem proteins, ranging in size from 10 to 200 kDa, as well as injection of individual fluorescently labeled phloem proteins, provided unambiguous evidence that these proteins have the capacity to interact with mesophyll plasmodesmata in cucurbit cotyledons to induce an increase in size exclusion limit and traffic cell to cell. Plasmodesmal size exclusion limit increased to greater than 20 kDa, but less than 40 kDa, irrespective of the size of the injected protein, indicating that partial protein unfolding may be a requirement for transport. A threshold concentration in the 20–100 nM range was required for cell-to-cell transport indicating that phloem proteins have a high affinity for the mesophyll plasmodesmal binding site(s). Parallel experiments with glutaredoxin and cystatin, phloem sap proteins from Ricinus communis, established that these proteins can also traffic through cucurbit mesophyll plasmodesmata. These results are discussed in terms of the requirements for regulated protein trafficking between companion cells and the sieve tube system. As the threshold value for plasmodesmal transport of phloem sap proteins falls within the same range as many plant hormones, the possibility is discussed that some of these proteins may act as long-distance signaling molecules. PMID:9391168

  20. Phloem sap proteins from Cucurbita maxima and Ricinus communis have the capacity to traffic cell to cell through plasmodesmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, S; Xiang, Y; Schobert, C; Thompson, G A; Lucas, W J

    1997-12-09

    In angiosperms, the functional enucleate sieve tube system of the phloem appears to be maintained by the surrounding companion cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that polypeptides present within the phloem sap traffic cell to cell from the companion cells, where they are synthesized, into the sieve tube via plasmodesmata. Coinjection of fluorescently labeled dextrans along with size-fractionated Cucurbita maxima phloem proteins, ranging in size from 10 to 200 kDa, as well as injection of individual fluorescently labeled phloem proteins, provided unambiguous evidence that these proteins have the capacity to interact with mesophyll plasmodesmata in cucurbit cotyledons to induce an increase in size exclusion limit and traffic cell to cell. Plasmodesmal size exclusion limit increased to greater than 20 kDa, but less than 40 kDa, irrespective of the size of the injected protein, indicating that partial protein unfolding may be a requirement for transport. A threshold concentration in the 20-100 nM range was required for cell-to-cell transport indicating that phloem proteins have a high affinity for the mesophyll plasmodesmal binding site(s). Parallel experiments with glutaredoxin and cystatin, phloem sap proteins from Ricinus communis, established that these proteins can also traffic through cucurbit mesophyll plasmodesmata. These results are discussed in terms of the requirements for regulated protein trafficking between companion cells and the sieve tube system. As the threshold value for plasmodesmal transport of phloem sap proteins falls within the same range as many plant hormones, the possibility is discussed that some of these proteins may act as long-distance signaling molecules.

  1. Cell-to-Cell Measles Virus Spread between Human Neurons Is Dependent on Hemagglutinin and Hyperfusogenic Fusion Protein.

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    Sato, Yuma; Watanabe, Shumpei; Fukuda, Yoshinari; Hashiguchi, Takao; Yanagi, Yusuke; Ohno, Shinji

    2018-03-15

    Measles virus (MV) usually causes acute infection but in rare cases persists in the brain, resulting in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Since human neurons, an important target affected in the disease, do not express the known MV receptors (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule [SLAM] and nectin 4), how MV infects neurons and spreads between them is unknown. Recent studies have shown that many virus strains isolated from SSPE patients possess substitutions in the extracellular domain of the fusion (F) protein which confer enhanced fusion activity. Hyperfusogenic viruses with such mutations, unlike the wild-type MV, can induce cell-cell fusion even in SLAM- and nectin 4-negative cells and spread efficiently in human primary neurons and the brains of animal models. We show here that a hyperfusogenic mutant MV, IC323-F(T461I)-EGFP (IC323 with a fusion-enhancing T461I substitution in the F protein and expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein), but not the wild-type MV, spreads in differentiated NT2 cells, a widely used human neuron model. Confocal time-lapse imaging revealed the cell-to-cell spread of IC323-F(T461I)-EGFP between NT2 neurons without syncytium formation. The production of virus particles was strongly suppressed in NT2 neurons, also supporting cell-to-cell viral transmission. The spread of IC323-F(T461I)-EGFP was inhibited by a fusion inhibitor peptide as well as by some but not all of the anti-hemagglutinin antibodies which neutralize SLAM- or nectin-4-dependent MV infection, suggesting the presence of a distinct neuronal receptor. Our results indicate that MV spreads in a cell-to-cell manner between human neurons without causing syncytium formation and that the spread is dependent on the hyperfusogenic F protein, the hemagglutinin, and the putative neuronal receptor for MV. IMPORTANCE Measles virus (MV), in rare cases, persists in the human central nervous system (CNS) and causes subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) several

  2. Exosomal Heat Shock Proteins as New Players in Tumour Cell-to-cell Communication

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    Claudia Campanella

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes have recently been proposed as novel elements in the study of intercellular communication in normal and pathological conditions. The biomolecular composition of exosomes reflects the specialized functions of the original cells. Heat shock proteins (Hsps are a group of chaperone proteins with diverse biological roles. In recent years, many studies have focused on the extracellular roles played by Hsps that appear to be involved in cancer development and immune system stimulation. Hsps localized on the surface of exosomes, secreted by normal and tumour cells, could be key players in intercellular cross-talk, particularly during the course of different diseases, such as cancer. Exosomal Hsps offer significant opportunities for clinical applications, including their use as potential novel biomarkers for the diagnoses or prognoses of different diseases, or for therapeutic applications and drug delivery.

  3. Exosomal Heat Shock Proteins as New Players in Tumour Cell-to-Cell Communication

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    Claudia Campanella

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes have recently been proposed as novel elements in the study of intercellular communication in normal and pathological conditions. The biomolecular composition of exosomes reflects the specialized functions of the original cells. Heat shock proteins (Hsps are a group of chaperone proteins with diverse biological roles. In recent years, many studies have focused on the extracellular roles played by Hsps that appear to be involved in cancer development and immune system stimulation. Hsps localized on the surface of exosomes, secreted by normal and tumour cells, could be key players in intercellular cross-talk, particularly during the course of different diseases, such as cancer. Exosomal Hsps offer significant opportunities for clinical applications, including their use as potential novel biomarkers for the diagnoses or prognoses of different diseases, or for therapeutic applications and drug delivery.

  4. Studies on the origin and structure of tubules made by the movement protein of Cowpea mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, J.; Velden, van der T.; Willemse, J.; Borst, J.W.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Bisseling, T.; Wellink, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) moves from cell to cell by transporting virus particles via tubules formed through plasmodesmata by the movement protein (MP). On the surface of protoplasts, a fusion between the MP and the green fluorescent protein forms similar tubules and peripheral punctate spots. Here

  5. Interaction between the Alfalfa mosaic virus movement protein and plasmodesmata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, van der N.

    2000-01-01

    For a full infection of a host, plant viruses should be able to multiply in the initially infected cell and to spread to neighbouring cells as to eventually invade the entire plant. The viral transport pathway can in principle be divided into two steps, i.e. cell-to-cell movement within

  6. α-Synuclein Amyloids Hijack Prion Protein to Gain Cell Entry, Facilitate Cell-to-Cell Spreading and Block Prion Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulić, Suzana; Masperone, Lara; Narkiewicz, Joanna; Isopi, Elisa; Bistaffa, Edoardo; Ambrosetti, Elena; Pastore, Beatrice; De Cecco, Elena; Scaini, Denis; Zago, Paola; Moda, Fabio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Legname, Giuseppe

    2017-08-30

    The precise molecular mechanism of how misfolded α-synuclein (α-Syn) accumulates and spreads in synucleinopathies is still unknown. Here, we show the role of the cellular prion protein (PrP C ) in mediating the uptake and the spread of recombinant α-Syn amyloids. The in vitro data revealed that the presence of PrP C fosters the higher uptake of α-Syn amyloid fibrils, which was also confirmed in vivo in wild type (Prnp +/+ ) compared to PrP knock-out (Prnp -/- ) mice. Additionally, the presence of α-Syn amyloids blocked the replication of scrapie prions (PrP Sc ) in vitro and ex vivo, indicating a link between the two proteins. Indeed, whilst PrP C is mediating the internalization of α-Syn amyloids, PrP Sc is not able to replicate in their presence. This observation has pathological relevance, since several reported case studies show that the accumulation of α-Syn amyloid deposits in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients is accompanied by a longer disease course.

  7. Replication of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 3 with movement and coat protein genes replaced by corresponding genes of Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Navarro, J A; Reusken, C B; Bol, J F; Pallás, V

    1997-12-01

    Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) are tripartite positive-strand RNA plant viruses that encode functionally similar translation products. Although the two viruses are phylogenetically closely related, they infect a very different range of natural hosts. The coat protein (CP) gene, the movement protein (MP) gene or both genes in AMV RNA 3 were replaced by the corresponding genes of PNRSV. The chimeric viruses were tested for heterologous encapsidation, replication in protoplasts from plants transformed with AMV replicase genes P1 and P2 (P12 plants) and for cell-to-cell transport in P12 plants. The chimeric viruses exhibited basic competence for encapsidation and replication in P12 protoplasts and for a low level of cell-to-cell movement in P12 plants. The potential involvement of the MP gene in determining host specificity in ilarviruses is discussed.

  8. Evolution of plant virus movement proteins from the 30K superfamily and of their homologs integrated in plant genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushegian, Arcady R., E-mail: mushegian2@gmail.com [Division of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230 (United States); Elena, Santiago F., E-mail: sfelena@ibmcp.upv.es [Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, CSIC-UPV, 46022 València (Spain); The Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM 87501 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Homologs of Tobacco mosaic virus 30K cell-to-cell movement protein are encoded by diverse plant viruses. Mechanisms of action and evolutionary origins of these proteins remain obscure. We expand the picture of conservation and evolution of the 30K proteins, producing sequence alignment of the 30K superfamily with the broadest phylogenetic coverage thus far and illuminating structural features of the core all-beta fold of these proteins. Integrated copies of pararetrovirus 30K movement genes are prevalent in euphyllophytes, with at least one copy intact in nearly every examined species, and mRNAs detected for most of them. Sequence analysis suggests repeated integrations, pseudogenizations, and positive selection in those provirus genes. An unannotated 30K-superfamily gene in Arabidopsis thaliana genome is likely expressed as a fusion with the At1g37113 transcript. This molecular background of endopararetrovirus gene products in plants may change our view of virus infection and pathogenesis, and perhaps of cellular homeostasis in the hosts. - Highlights: • Sequence region shared by plant virus “30K” movement proteins has an all-beta fold. • Most euphyllophyte genomes contain integrated copies of pararetroviruses. • These integrated virus genomes often include intact movement protein genes. • Molecular evidence suggests that these “30K” genes may be selected for function.

  9. Tetherin restricts productive HIV-1 cell-to-cell transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Casartelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The IFN-inducible antiviral protein tetherin (or BST-2/CD317/HM1.24 impairs release of mature HIV-1 particles from infected cells. HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the effect of tetherin. The fate of virions trapped at the cell surface remains poorly understood. Here, we asked whether tetherin impairs HIV cell-to-cell transmission, a major means of viral spread. Tetherin-positive or -negative cells, infected with wild-type or DeltaVpu HIV, were used as donor cells and cocultivated with target lymphocytes. We show that tetherin inhibits productive cell-to-cell transmission of DeltaVpu to targets and impairs that of WT HIV. Tetherin accumulates with Gag at the contact zone between infected and target cells, but does not prevent the formation of virological synapses. In the presence of tetherin, viruses are then mostly transferred to targets as abnormally large patches. These viral aggregates do not efficiently promote infection after transfer, because they accumulate at the surface of target cells and are impaired in their fusion capacities. Tetherin, by imprinting virions in donor cells, is the first example of a surface restriction factor limiting viral cell-to-cell spread.

  10. Intracellular localization and movement phenotypes of alfalfa mosaic virus movement protein mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, M.; Jongejan, L.; Zheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Bol, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen mutations were introduced in the movement protein (MP) gene of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene and the mutant MP-GFP fusions were expressed transiently in tobacco protoplasts, tobacco suspension cells, and epidermal cells of tobacco leaves. In

  11. GBNV encoded movement protein (NSm) remodels ER network via C-terminal coiled coil domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pratibha; Savithri, H.S., E-mail: bchss@biochem.iisc.ernet.in

    2015-08-15

    interacts with NP via its N-terminal unfolded region and the NSm–NP complex could in turn interact with the ER membrane via the C-terminal coiled coil domain of NSm to form vesicles that are targeted to PD and there by assist the cell to cell movement of the viral genome complex. - Highlights: • GBNV NSm localizes to plasmodesmata via the C-terminal coiled coil domain. • GBNV NSm interacts with endoplasmic reticulum network and remodels it to vesicles. • The C-terminal coiled domain alone is responsible for vesicle formation. • The N-terminal unfolded region of NSm is involved in the re-localization of NP to PD.

  12. 6K2-induced vesicles can move cell to cell during turnip mosaic virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eGrangeon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To successfully infect plants, viruses replicate in an initially infected cell and then move to neighboring cells through plasmodesmata (PDs. However, the nature of the viral entity that crosses over the cell barrier into non-infected ones is not clear. The membrane-associated 6K2 protein of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV induces the formation of vesicles involved in the replication and intracellular movement of viral RNA. This study shows that 6K2-induced vesicles trafficked towards the plasma membrane and were associated with plasmodesmata (PD. We demonstrated also that 6K2 moved cell-to-cell into adjoining cells when plants were infected with TuMV. 6K2 was then fused to photo-activable GFP (6K2:PAGFP to visualize how 6K2 move intercellularly during TuMV infection. After activation, 6K2:PAGFP-tagged vesicles moved to the cell periphery and across the cell wall into adjacent cells. These vesicles were shown to contain the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and viral RNA. Symplasmic movement of TuMV may thus be achieved in the form of a membrane-associated viral RNA complex induced by 6K2.

  13. The movement protein and coat protein of alfalfa mosaic virus accumulate in structurally modified plasmodesmata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, N. N.; Goldbach, R. W.; van Lent, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    In systemically infected tissues of Nicotiana benthamiana, alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) coat protein (CP) and movement protein (MP) are detected in plasmodesmata in a layer of three to four cells at the progressing front of infection. Besides the presence of these viral proteins, the plasmodesmata are

  14. Systemic transport of Alfalfa mosaic virus can be mediated by the movement proteins of several viruses assigned to five genera of the 30K family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Thor V M; Peiró, Ana; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús

    2013-03-01

    We previously showed that the movement protein (MP) gene of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is functionally exchangeable for the cell-to-cell transport of the corresponding genes of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Brome mosaic virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Cucumber mosaic virus and Cowpea mosaic virus. We have analysed the capacity of the heterologous MPs to systemically transport the corresponding chimeric AMV genome. All MPs were competent in systemic transport but required the fusion at their C terminus of the coat protein-interacting C-terminal 44 aa (A44) of the AMV MP. Except for the TMV MP, the presence of the hybrid virus in upper leaves correlated with the capacity to move locally. These results suggest that all the MPs assigned to the 30K superfamily should be exchangeable not only for local virus movement but also for systemic transport when the A44 fragment is present.

  15. Interaction of the Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein with microtubules during the cell cycle in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutant, Emmanuel; Fitterer, Chantal; Ritzenthaler, Christophe; Heinlein, Manfred

    2009-10-01

    Cell-to-cell movement of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) involves the interaction of virus-encoded 30-kDa movement protein (MP) with microtubules. In cells behind the infection front that accumulate high levels of MP, this activity is reflected by the formation of stabilized MP/microtubule complexes. The ability of MP to bind along and stabilize microtubules is conserved upon expression in mammalian cells. In mammalian cells, the protein also leads to inhibition of mitosis and cell division through a microtubule-independent process correlated with the loss of centrosomal gamma-tubulin and of centrosomal microtubule-nucleation activity. Since MP has the capacity to interact with plant factors involved in microtubule nucleation and dynamics, we used inducible expression in BY-2 cells to test whether MP expression inhibits mitosis and cell division also in plants. We demonstrate that MP:GFP associates with all plant microtubule arrays and, unlike in mammalian cells, does not interfere with mitosis. Thus, MP function and the interaction of MP with factors of the cytoskeleton do not entail an inhibition of mitosis in plants. We also report that the protein targets primary plasmodesmata in BY-2 cells immediately upon or during cytokinesis and that the accumulation of MP in plasmodesmata occurs in the presence of inhibitors of the cytoskeleton and the secretory pathway.

  16. Exploring the role of cellular homologous of the 30K-superfamily of plant virus movement proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, José L; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús A; Elena, Santiago F

    2018-02-21

    Genes orthologous to the 30K-superfamily of movement proteins (MP) from plant viruses have been recently discovered by bioinformatics analyses as integrated elements in the genome of most vascular plants. However, their functional relevance for plants is still unclear. Here, we undertake some preliminary steps into the functional characterization of one of these putative MP genes found in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that the AtMP gene is expressed at different stages of the plant development, with accumulation being highest in flowers but lowest in mature siliques. We also found down-regulation of the gene may result in a small delay in plant development and in an exacerbation of the negative effect of salinity in germination efficiency. We have also explored whether changes in expression of the endogenous AtMP have any effect on susceptibility to infection with several viruses, and found that the infectivity of tobacco rattle tobravirus was strongly dependent on the expression of the endogenous AtMP. Finally, we have cloned the endogenous MP from four different plant species into an expression vector that allows for specifically assessing their activity as cell-to-cell movement proteins and have shown that though some may still retain the ancestral activity, they do so in a quite inefficient manner, thus suggesting they have acquired a novel function during adaptation to the host genome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing the utility of photoswitchable fluorescent proteins for tracking intercellular protein movement in the Arabidopsis root.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Wu

    Full Text Available One way in which cells communicate is through the direct transfer of proteins. In plants, many of these proteins are transcription factors, which are made by one cell type and traffic into another. In order to understand how this movement occurs and its role in development, we would like to track this movement in live, intact plants in real-time. Here we examine the utility of the photoconvertible proteins, Dendra2 and (to a lesser extent EosFP as tags for studying intracellular and intercellular protein movement in the Arabidopsis root. To this end, we made fusions between Dendra2 and six mobile transcription factors. Our results show that Dendra2 is an effective tool for studying protein movement between plant cells. Interestingly, we found that Dendra2 could not simply be swapped into existing constructs that had originally contained GFP. Most of the fusions made in this way failed to produce a fluorescent fusion. In addition we found that the optimal settings for photoconversion of Dendra2 in stably transformed roots were different from what has been published for photoconversion in transient assays in plants or in animal cells. By modifying the confocal setting, we were able to photoconvert Dendra2 in all cell layers in the root. However the efficiency of photoconversion was affected by the position of the cell layer within the root, with more internal tissues requiring more energy. By examining the Dendra2 fusions, we confirmed the mobility of the SHORT-ROOT (SHR and CAPRICE (CPC transcription factors between cells and we further discovered that SHR movement in stele and CPC movement in the epidermis are non-directional.

  18. Inhibition of HSV cell-to-cell spread by lactoferrin and lactoferricin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, Håvard; Sandvik, Kjersti; Andersen, Jeanette H; Hancock, Robert E W; Gutteberg, Tore J

    2008-09-01

    The milk protein lactoferrin (Lf) has multiple functions, including immune stimulation and antiviral activity towards herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2); antiviral activity has also been reported for the N-terminal pepsin-derived fragment lactoferricin (Lfcin). The anti-HSV mode of action of Lf and Lfcin is assumed to involve, in part, their interaction with the cell surface glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate, thereby blocking of viral entry. In this study we investigated the ability of human and bovine Lf and Lfcin to inhibit viral cell-to-cell spread as well as the involvement of cell surface glycosaminoglycans during viral cell-to-cell spread. Lf and Lfcin from both human and bovine origin, inhibited cell-to-cell spread of both HSV-1 and HSV-2. Inhibition of cell-to-cell spread by bovine Lfcin involved cell surface chondroitin sulfate. Based on transmission electron microscopy studies, human Lfcin, like bovine Lfcin, was randomly distributed intracellularly, thus differences in their antiviral activity could not be explained by differences in their distribution. In contrast, the cellular localization of iron-saturated (holo)-Lf appeared to differ from that of apo-Lf, indicating that holo- and apo-Lf may exhibit different antiviral mechanisms.

  19. Modulating cell-to-cell variability and sensitivity to death ligands by co-drugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flusberg, Deborah A; Sorger, Peter K

    2013-01-01

    TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) holds promise as an anti-cancer therapeutic but efficiently induces apoptosis in only a subset of tumor cell lines. Moreover, even in clonal populations of responsive lines, only a fraction of cells dies in response to TRAIL and individual cells exhibit cell-to-cell variability in the timing of cell death. Fractional killing in these cell populations appears to arise not from genetic differences among cells but rather from differences in gene expression states, fluctuations in protein levels and the extent to which TRAIL-induced death or survival pathways become activated. In this study, we ask how cell-to-cell variability manifests in cell types with different sensitivities to TRAIL, as well as how it changes when cells are exposed to combinations of drugs. We show that individual cells that survive treatment with TRAIL can regenerate the sensitivity and death-time distribution of the parental population, demonstrating that fractional killing is a stable property of cell populations. We also show that cell-to-cell variability in the timing and probability of apoptosis in response to treatment can be tuned using combinations of drugs that together increase apoptotic sensitivity compared to treatment with one drug alone. In the case of TRAIL, modulation of cell-to-cell variability by co-drugging appears to involve a reduction in the threshold for mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. (paper)

  20. Myosin-Va-dependent cell-to-cell transfer of RNA from Schwann cells to axons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Sotelo

    Full Text Available To better understand the role of protein synthesis in axons, we have identified the source of a portion of axonal RNA. We show that proximal segments of transected sciatic nerves accumulate newly-synthesized RNA in axons. This RNA is synthesized in Schwann cells because the RNA was labeled in the complete absence of neuronal cell bodies both in vitro and in vivo. We also demonstrate that the transfer is prevented by disruption of actin and that it fails to occur in the absence of myosin-Va. Our results demonstrate cell-to-cell transfer of RNA and identify part of the mechanism required for transfer. The induction of cell-to-cell RNA transfer by injury suggests that interventions following injury or degeneration, particularly gene therapy, may be accomplished by applying them to nearby glial cells (or implanted stem cells at the site of injury to promote regeneration.

  1. Myosin-Va-dependent cell-to-cell transfer of RNA from Schwann cells to axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, José R; Canclini, Lucía; Kun, Alejandra; Sotelo-Silveira, José R; Xu, Lei; Wallrabe, Horst; Calliari, Aldo; Rosso, Gonzalo; Cal, Karina; Mercer, John A

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the role of protein synthesis in axons, we have identified the source of a portion of axonal RNA. We show that proximal segments of transected sciatic nerves accumulate newly-synthesized RNA in axons. This RNA is synthesized in Schwann cells because the RNA was labeled in the complete absence of neuronal cell bodies both in vitro and in vivo. We also demonstrate that the transfer is prevented by disruption of actin and that it fails to occur in the absence of myosin-Va. Our results demonstrate cell-to-cell transfer of RNA and identify part of the mechanism required for transfer. The induction of cell-to-cell RNA transfer by injury suggests that interventions following injury or degeneration, particularly gene therapy, may be accomplished by applying them to nearby glial cells (or implanted stem cells) at the site of injury to promote regeneration.

  2. Interaction of the host protein NbDnaJ with Potato virus X minus-strand stem-loop 1 RNA and capsid protein affects viral replication and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Yun; Cho, Won Kyong; Sohn, Seong-Han; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2012-01-06

    Plant viruses must interact with host cellular components to replicate and move from cell to cell. In the case of Potato virus X (PVX), it carries stem-loop 1 (SL1) RNA essential for viral replication and movement. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis northwestern blot analysis, we previously identified several host proteins that bind to SL1 RNA. Of those, we further characterized a DnaJ-like protein from Nicotiana benthamiana named NbDnaJ. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that NbDnaJ binds only to SL1 minus-strand RNA, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) indicated that NbDnaJ interacts with PVX capsid protein (CP). Using a series of deletion mutants, the C-terminal region of NbDnaJ was found to be essential for the interaction with PVX CP. The expression of NbDnaJ significantly changed upon infection with different plant viruses such as PVX, Tobacco mosaic virus, and Cucumber mosaic virus, but varied depending on the viral species. In transient experiments, both PVX replication and movement were inhibited in plants that over-expressed NbDnaJ but accelerated in plants in which NbDnaJ was silenced. In summary, we suggest that the newly identified NbDnaJ plays a role in PVX replication and movement by interacting with SL1(-) RNA and PVX CP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanisms for Cell-to-Cell Transmission of HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracq, Lucie; Xie, Maorong; Benichou, Serge; Bouchet, Jérôme

    2018-01-01

    While HIV-1 infection of target cells with cell-free viral particles has been largely documented, intercellular transmission through direct cell-to-cell contact may be a predominant mode of propagation in host. To spread, HIV-1 infects cells of the immune system and takes advantage of their specific particularities and functions. Subversion of intercellular communication allows to improve HIV-1 replication through a multiplicity of intercellular structures and membrane protrusions, like tunneling nanotubes, filopodia, or lamellipodia-like structures involved in the formation of the virological synapse. Other features of immune cells, like the immunological synapse or the phagocytosis of infected cells are hijacked by HIV-1 and used as gateways to infect target cells. Finally, HIV-1 reuses its fusogenic capacity to provoke fusion between infected donor cells and target cells, and to form infected syncytia with high capacity of viral production and improved capacities of motility or survival. All these modes of cell-to-cell transfer are now considered as viral mechanisms to escape immune system and antiretroviral therapies, and could be involved in the establishment of persistent virus reservoirs in different host tissues. PMID:29515578

  4. Programmed Cell-to-Cell Variability in Ras Activity Triggers Emergent Behaviors during Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Variability in signaling pathway activation between neighboring epithelial cells can arise from local differences in the microenvironment, noisy gene expression, or acquired genetic changes. To investigate the consequences of this cell-to-cell variability in signaling pathway activation on coordinated multicellular processes such as morphogenesis, we use DNA-programmed assembly to construct three-dimensional MCF10A microtissues that are mosaic for low-level expression of activated H-Ras. We find two emergent behaviors in mosaic microtissues: cells with activated H-Ras are basally extruded or lead motile multicellular protrusions that direct the collective motility of their wild-type neighbors. Remarkably, these behaviors are not observed in homogeneous microtissues in which all cells express the activated Ras protein, indicating that heterogeneity in Ras activity, rather than the total amount of Ras activity, is critical for these processes. Our results directly demonstrate that cell-to-cell variability in pathway activation within local populations of epithelial cells can drive emergent behaviors during epithelial morphogenesis.

  5. Localization of the CAPRICE-ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 chimera protein in Arabidopsis root epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Kurata, Tetsuya; Wada, Takuji

    2017-09-01

    The CAPRICE (CPC) encodes an R3-type MYB transcription factor, which promotes root-hair differentiation. Previously, we showed that the CPC protein moves from the non-hair cell to the neighboring cell and induces root-hair differentiation in Arabidopsis. In addition, we proposed two cell-to-cell movement signal sequences, S1 and S2, in CPC. However, an S1:2xGFP:S2 chimera protein did not move between root epidermal cells. Here, we show that the S1 and S2 sequences do not confer cell-to-cell movement or nuclear localization ability to a GFP protein. The ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1) gene encodes the CPC homolog R3 MYB; this protein does not possess cell-to-cell movement ability or the S1 sequence. To elucidate whether the S1 sequence can induce cell-to-cell movement ability in ETC1, CPCp:S1:ETC1:2xGFP was constructed and introduced into Arabidopsis. Our results indicate that the addition of the S1 sequence was not sufficient for ETC1 to acquire cell-to-cell movement ability.

  6. Spreading of a prion domain from cell-to-cell by vesicular transport in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen I Nussbaum-Krammer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Prion proteins can adopt self-propagating alternative conformations that account for the infectious nature of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs and the epigenetic inheritance of certain traits in yeast. Recent evidence suggests a similar propagation of misfolded proteins in the spreading of pathology of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. Currently there is only a limited number of animal model systems available to study the mechanisms that underlie the cell-to-cell transmission of aggregation-prone proteins. Here, we have established a new metazoan model in Caenorhabditis elegans expressing the prion domain NM of the cytosolic yeast prion protein Sup35, in which aggregation and toxicity are dependent upon the length of oligopeptide repeats in the glutamine/asparagine (Q/N-rich N-terminus. NM forms multiple classes of highly toxic aggregate species and co-localizes to autophagy-related vesicles that transport the prion domain from the site of expression to adjacent tissues. This is associated with a profound cell autonomous and cell non-autonomous disruption of mitochondrial integrity, embryonic and larval arrest, developmental delay, widespread tissue defects, and loss of organismal proteostasis. Our results reveal that the Sup35 prion domain exhibits prion-like properties when expressed in the multicellular organism C. elegans and adapts to different requirements for propagation that involve the autophagy-lysosome pathway to transmit cytosolic aggregation-prone proteins between tissues.

  7. TYLCV-Is movement in planta does not require V2 protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hak, Hagit [Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel); Department of Biological Chemistry, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel); Levy, Yael; Chandran, Sam A.; Belausov, Eduard [Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel); Loyter, Abraham [Department of Biological Chemistry, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel); Lapidot, Moshe [Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel); Gafni, Yedidya, E-mail: ygafni@volcani.agri.gov.il [Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel)

    2015-03-15

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a major tomato pathogen causing extensive crop losses, is a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus. V2 mutants of TYLCV-Is and related viruses tend to induce symptomless infection with attenuated viral DNA levels, while accumulating close to wild-type DNA levels in protoplasts, suggesting V2 as a movement protein. The discovery of plant-silencing mechanisms and viral silencing suppressors, V2 included, led us to reconsider V2's involvement in viral movement. We studied two mutant versions of the virus, one impaired in V2 silencing-suppression activity, and another carrying a non-translatable V2. While both mutant viruses spread in the infected plant to newly emerged leaves at the same rate as the wild-type virus, their DNA-accumulation levels were tenfold lower than in the wild-type virus. Thus, we suggest that the setback in virus proliferation, previously ascribed to a movement impediment, is due to lack of silencing-suppression activity. - Highlights: • TYLCV-Is V2 protein is localized in distinct microbodies throughout the cell cytoplasm, around the nucleus and in association with cytoplasmic strands but is not associated with the plasmodesmata. • Disruption of RNA-silencing suppression activity of TYLCV-Is V2 protein causes low titer of the virus in the infected plants. • The movement of TYLCV-Is in planta does not require a functional V2 protein.

  8. Tubule-forming capacity of the movement proteins of alfalfa mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteel, D. T.; van der Wel, N. N.; Jansen, K. A.; Goldbach, R. W.; van Lent, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    The structural phenotype of the movement proteins (MPs) of two representatives of the Bromoviridae, alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and brome mosaic virus (BMV), was studied in protoplasts. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that the MPs of these viruses, for which there has been no evidence of a

  9. Domain movement within a gene: a novel evolutionary mechanism for protein diversification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Furuta

    Full Text Available A protein function is carried out by a specific domain localized at a specific position. In the present study, we report that, within a gene, a specific amino acid sequence can move between a certain position and another position. This was discovered when the sequences of restriction-modification systems within the bacterial species Helicobacter pylori were compared. In the specificity subunit of Type I restriction-modification systems, DNA sequence recognition is mediated by target recognition domain 1 (TRD1 and TRD2. To our surprise, several sequences are shared by TRD1 and TRD2 of genes (alleles at the same locus (chromosomal location; these domains appear to have moved between the two positions. The gene/protein organization can be represented as x-(TRD1-y-x-(TRD2-y, where x and y represent repeat sequences. Movement probably occurs by recombination at these flanking DNA repeats. In accordance with this hypothesis, recombination at these repeats also appears to decrease two TRDs into one TRD or increase these two TRDs to three TRDs (TRD1-TRD2-TRD2 and to allow TRD movement between genes even at different loci. Similar movement of domains between TRD1 and TRD2 was observed for the specificity subunit of a Type IIG restriction enzyme. Similar movement of domain between TRD1 and TRD2 was observed for Type I restriction-modification enzyme specificity genes in two more eubacterial species, Streptococcus pyogenes and Mycoplasma agalactiae. Lateral domain movements within a protein, which we have designated DOMO (domain movement, represent novel routes for the diversification of proteins.

  10. The HSV-1 mechanisms of cell-to-cell spread and fusion are critically dependent on host PTP1B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian C Carmichael

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available All herpesviruses have mechanisms for passing through cell junctions, which exclude neutralizing antibodies and offer a clear path to neighboring, uninfected cells. In the case of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1, direct cell-to-cell transmission takes place between epithelial cells and sensory neurons, where latency is established. The spreading mechanism is poorly understood, but mutations in four different HSV-1 genes can dysregulate it, causing neighboring cells to fuse to produce syncytia. Because the host proteins involved are largely unknown (other than the virus entry receptor, we were intrigued by an earlier discovery that cells infected with wild-type HSV-1 will form syncytia when treated with salubrinal. A biotinylated derivative of this drug was used to pull down cellular complexes, which were analyzed by mass spectrometry. One candidate was a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B, and although it ultimately proved not to be the target of salubrinal, it was found to be critical for the mechanism of cell-to-cell spread. In particular, a highly specific inhibitor of PTP1B (CAS 765317-72-4 blocked salubrinal-induced fusion, and by itself resulted in a dramatic reduction in the ability of HSV-1 to spread in the presence of neutralizing antibodies. The importance of this phosphatase was confirmed in the absence of drugs by using PTP1B-/- cells. Importantly, replication assays showed that virus titers were unaffected when PTP1B was inhibited or absent. Only cell-to-cell spread was altered. We also examined the effects of salubrinal and the PTP1B inhibitor on the four Syn mutants of HSV-1, and strikingly different responses were found. That is, both drugs individually enhanced fusion for some mutants and reduced fusion for others. PTP1B is the first host factor identified to be specifically required for cell-to-cell spread, and it may be a therapeutic target for preventing HSV-1 reactivation disease.

  11. The HSV-1 mechanisms of cell-to-cell spread and fusion are critically dependent on host PTP1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Jillian C; Yokota, Hiroki; Craven, Rebecca C; Schmitt, Anthony; Wills, John W

    2018-05-01

    All herpesviruses have mechanisms for passing through cell junctions, which exclude neutralizing antibodies and offer a clear path to neighboring, uninfected cells. In the case of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), direct cell-to-cell transmission takes place between epithelial cells and sensory neurons, where latency is established. The spreading mechanism is poorly understood, but mutations in four different HSV-1 genes can dysregulate it, causing neighboring cells to fuse to produce syncytia. Because the host proteins involved are largely unknown (other than the virus entry receptor), we were intrigued by an earlier discovery that cells infected with wild-type HSV-1 will form syncytia when treated with salubrinal. A biotinylated derivative of this drug was used to pull down cellular complexes, which were analyzed by mass spectrometry. One candidate was a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B), and although it ultimately proved not to be the target of salubrinal, it was found to be critical for the mechanism of cell-to-cell spread. In particular, a highly specific inhibitor of PTP1B (CAS 765317-72-4) blocked salubrinal-induced fusion, and by itself resulted in a dramatic reduction in the ability of HSV-1 to spread in the presence of neutralizing antibodies. The importance of this phosphatase was confirmed in the absence of drugs by using PTP1B-/- cells. Importantly, replication assays showed that virus titers were unaffected when PTP1B was inhibited or absent. Only cell-to-cell spread was altered. We also examined the effects of salubrinal and the PTP1B inhibitor on the four Syn mutants of HSV-1, and strikingly different responses were found. That is, both drugs individually enhanced fusion for some mutants and reduced fusion for others. PTP1B is the first host factor identified to be specifically required for cell-to-cell spread, and it may be a therapeutic target for preventing HSV-1 reactivation disease.

  12. The Tobacco mosaic virus Movement Protein Associates with but Does Not Integrate into Biological Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró, Ana; Martínez-Gil, Luis; Tamborero, Silvia; Pallás, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plant positive-strand RNA viruses require association with plant cell endomembranes for viral translation and replication, as well as for intra- and intercellular movement of the viral progeny. The membrane association and RNA binding of the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP) are vital for orchestrating the macromolecular network required for virus movement. A previously proposed topological model suggests that TMV MP is an integral membrane protein with two putative α-helical transmembrane (TM) segments. Here we tested this model using an experimental system that measured the efficiency with which natural polypeptide segments were inserted into the ER membrane under conditions approximating the in vivo situation, as well as in planta. Our results demonstrated that the two hydrophobic regions (HRs) of TMV MP do not span biological membranes. We further found that mutations to alter the hydrophobicity of the first HR modified membrane association and precluded virus movement. We propose a topological model in which the TMV MP HRs intimately associate with the cellular membranes, allowing maximum exposure of the hydrophilic domains of the MP to the cytoplasmic cellular components. IMPORTANCE To facilitate plant viral infection and spread, viruses encode one or more movement proteins (MPs) that interact with ER membranes. The present work investigated the membrane association of the 30K MP of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and the results challenge the previous topological model, which predicted that the TMV MP behaves as an integral membrane protein. The current data provide greatly needed clarification of the topological model and provide substantial evidence that TMV MP is membrane associated only at the cytoplasmic face of the membrane and that neither of its domains is integrated into the membrane or translocated into the lumen. Understanding the topology of MPs in the ER is vital for understanding the role of the ER in plant virus transport

  13. Leptotene/zygotene chromosome movement via the SUN/KASH protein bridge in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudrimont, Antoine; Penkner, Alexandra; Woglar, Alexander; Machacek, Thomas; Wegrostek, Christina; Gloggnitzer, Jiradet; Fridkin, Alexandra; Klein, Franz; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Pasierbek, Pawel; Jantsch, Verena

    2010-11-24

    The Caenorhabditis elegans inner nuclear envelope protein matefin/SUN-1 plays a conserved, pivotal role in the process of genome haploidization. CHK-2-dependent phosphorylation of SUN-1 regulates homologous chromosome pairing and interhomolog recombination in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using time-lapse microscopy, we characterized the movement of matefin/SUN-1::GFP aggregates (the equivalent of chromosomal attachment plaques) and showed that the dynamics of matefin/SUN-1 aggregates remained unchanged throughout leptonene/zygotene, despite the progression of pairing. Movement of SUN-1 aggregates correlated with chromatin polarization. We also analyzed the requirements for the formation of movement-competent matefin/SUN-1 aggregates in the context of chromosome structure and found that chromosome axes were required to produce wild-type numbers of attachment plaques. Abrogation of synapsis led to a deceleration of SUN-1 aggregate movement. Analysis of matefin/SUN-1 in a double-strand break deficient mutant revealed that repair intermediates influenced matefin/SUN-1 aggregate dynamics. Investigation of movement in meiotic regulator mutants substantiated that proper orchestration of the meiotic program and effective repair of DNA double-strand breaks were necessary for the wild-type behavior of matefin/SUN-1 aggregates.

  14. Adaptive covariation between the coat and movement proteins of prunus necrotic ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codoñer, Francisco M; Fares, Mario A; Elena, Santiago F

    2006-06-01

    The relative functional and/or structural importance of different amino acid sites in a protein can be assessed by evaluating the selective constraints to which they have been subjected during the course of evolution. Here we explore such constraints at the linear and three-dimensional levels for the movement protein (MP) and coat protein (CP) encoded by RNA 3 of prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV). By a maximum-parsimony approach, the nucleotide sequences from 46 isolates of PNRSV varying in symptomatology, host tree, and geographic origin have been analyzed and sites under different selective pressures have been identified in both proteins. We have also performed covariation analyses to explore whether changes in certain amino acid sites condition subsequent variation in other sites of the same protein or the other protein. These covariation analyses shed light on which particular amino acids should be involved in the physical and functional interaction between MP and CP. Finally, we discuss these findings in the light of what is already known about the implication of certain sites and domains in structure and protein-protein and RNA-protein interactions.

  15. Numerical calculation on a two-step subdiffusion behavior of lateral protein movement in plasma membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Tomonari; Okumoto, Atsushi; Goto, Hitoshi; Sekino, Hideo

    2017-10-01

    A two-step subdiffusion behavior of lateral movement of transmembrane proteins in plasma membranes has been observed by using single-molecule experiments. A nested double-compartment model where large compartments are divided into several smaller ones has been proposed in order to explain this observation. These compartments are considered to be delimited by membrane-skeleton "fences" and membrane-protein "pickets" bound to the fences. We perform numerical simulations of a master equation using a simple two-dimensional lattice model to investigate the heterogeneous diffusion dynamics behavior of transmembrane proteins within plasma membranes. We show that the experimentally observed two-step subdiffusion process can be described using fence and picket models combined with decreased local diffusivity of transmembrane proteins in the vicinity of the pickets. This allows us to explain the two-step subdiffusion behavior without explicitly introducing nested double compartments.

  16. Synaptic Contacts Enhance Cell-to-Cell Tau Pathology Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Calafate

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of insoluble Tau protein aggregates and stereotypical propagation of Tau pathology through the brain are common hallmarks of tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Propagation of Tau pathology appears to occur along connected neurons, but whether synaptic contacts between neurons are facilitating propagation has not been demonstrated. Using quantitative in vitro models, we demonstrate that, in parallel to non-synaptic mechanisms, synapses, but not merely the close distance between the cells, enhance the propagation of Tau pathology between acceptor hippocampal neurons and Tau donor cells. Similarly, in an artificial neuronal network using microfluidic devices, synapses and synaptic activity are promoting neuronal Tau pathology propagation in parallel to the non-synaptic mechanisms. Our work indicates that the physical presence of synaptic contacts between neurons facilitate Tau pathology propagation. These findings can have implications for synaptic repair therapies, which may turn out to have adverse effects by promoting propagation of Tau pathology.

  17. A plant virus movement protein forms ringlike complexes with the major nucleolar protein, fibrillarin, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Kim, Sang Hyon; Kalinina, Natalia O; Shaw, Jane; Adya, Ashok K; Gillespie, Trudi; Brown, John W S; Taliansky, Michael

    2008-02-29

    Fibrillarin, one of the major proteins of the nucleolus, has methyltransferase activity directing 2'-O-ribose methylation of rRNA and snRNAs and is required for rRNA processing. The ability of the plant umbravirus, groundnut rosette virus, to move long distances through the phloem, the specialized plant vascular system, has been shown to strictly depend on the interaction of one of its proteins, the ORF3 protein (protein encoded by open reading frame 3), with fibrillarin. This interaction is essential for several stages in the groundnut rosette virus life cycle such as nucleolar import of the ORF3 protein via Cajal bodies, relocalization of some fibrillarin from the nucleolus to cytoplasm, and assembly of cytoplasmic umbraviral ribonucleoprotein particles that are themselves required for the long-distance spread of the virus and systemic infection. Here, using atomic force microscopy, we determine the architecture of these complexes as single-layered ringlike structures with a diameter of 18-22 nm and a height of 2.0+/-0.4 nm, which consist of several (n=6-8) distinct protein granules. We also estimate the molar ratio of fibrillarin to ORF3 protein in the complexes as approximately 1:1. Based on these data, we propose a model of the structural organization of fibrillarin-ORF3 protein complexes and discuss potential mechanistic and functional implications that may also apply to other viruses.

  18. Synaptic Contacts Enhance Cell-to-Cell Tau Pathology Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafate, Sara; Buist, Arjan; Miskiewicz, Katarzyna; Vijayan, Vinoy; Daneels, Guy; de Strooper, Bart; de Wit, Joris; Verstreken, Patrik; Moechars, Diederik

    2015-05-26

    Accumulation of insoluble Tau protein aggregates and stereotypical propagation of Tau pathology through the brain are common hallmarks of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Propagation of Tau pathology appears to occur along connected neurons, but whether synaptic contacts between neurons are facilitating propagation has not been demonstrated. Using quantitative in vitro models, we demonstrate that, in parallel to non-synaptic mechanisms, synapses, but not merely the close distance between the cells, enhance the propagation of Tau pathology between acceptor hippocampal neurons and Tau donor cells. Similarly, in an artificial neuronal network using microfluidic devices, synapses and synaptic activity are promoting neuronal Tau pathology propagation in parallel to the non-synaptic mechanisms. Our work indicates that the physical presence of synaptic contacts between neurons facilitate Tau pathology propagation. These findings can have implications for synaptic repair therapies, which may turn out to have adverse effects by promoting propagation of Tau pathology. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative comparison of HTLV-1 and HIV-1 cell-to-cell infection with new replication dependent vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Mazurov

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an efficient method to quantify cell-to-cell infection with single-cycle, replication dependent reporter vectors. This system was used to examine the mechanisms of infection with HTLV-1 and HIV-1 vectors in lymphocyte cell lines. Effector cells transfected with reporter vector, packaging vector, and Env expression plasmid produced virus-like particles that transduced reporter gene activity into cocultured target cells with zero background. Reporter gene expression was detected exclusively in target cells and required an Env-expression plasmid and a viral packaging vector, which provided essential structural and enzymatic proteins for virus replication. Cell-cell fusion did not contribute to infection, as reporter protein was rarely detected in syncytia. Coculture of transfected Jurkat T cells and target Raji/CD4 B cells enhanced HIV-1 infection two fold and HTLV-1 infection ten thousand fold in comparison with cell-free infection of Raji/CD4 cells. Agents that interfere with actin and tubulin polymerization strongly inhibited HTLV-1 and modestly decreased HIV-1 cell-to-cell infection, an indication that cytoskeletal remodeling was more important for HTLV-1 transmission. Time course studies showed that HTLV-1 transmission occurred very rapidly after cell mixing, whereas slower kinetics of HIV-1 coculture infection implies a different mechanism of infectious transmission. HTLV-1 Tax was demonstrated to play an important role in altering cell-cell interactions that enhance virus infection and replication. Interestingly, superantigen-induced synapses between Jurkat cells and Raji/CD4 cells did not enhance infection for either HTLV-1 or HIV-1. In general, the dependence on cell-to-cell infection was determined by the virus, the effector and target cell types, and by the nature of the cell-cell interaction.

  20. Caulimoviridae Tubule-Guided Transport Is Dictated by Movement Protein Properties ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús; Fajardo, Thor; Zicca, Stefania; Pallás, Vicente; Stavolone, Livia

    2010-01-01

    Plant viruses move through plasmodesmata (PD) either as nucleoprotein complexes (NPCs) or as tubule-guided encapsidated particles with the help of movement proteins (MPs). To explore how and why MPs specialize in one mechanism or the other, we tested the exchangeability of MPs encoded by DNA and RNA virus genomes by means of an engineered alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) system. We show that Caulimoviridae (DNA genome virus) MPs are competent for RNA virus particle transport but are unable to mediate NPC movement, and we discuss this restriction in terms of the evolution of DNA virus MPs as a means of mediating DNA viral genome entry into the RNA-trafficking PD pathway. PMID:20130061

  1. Interspecific variation of intracellular localization and postirradiation movement of Ku70-protein in fibroblastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Daiji; Hayashi, Masanobu; Okui, Toyo; Kawase, Shiro; Kon, Yasushiro

    2003-01-01

    Ku (Ku70 and Ku80) Proteins are known as components of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and play an important role for DNA repair. We previously reported that more than 70% of Ku proteins were located in cytoplasm of rat cells, the Ku proteins moved into nuclei of normal rat cells after X-irradiation, Ku proteins also moved into nuclei after X-irradiation but were not retained in nucleus of radiosensitive LEC rat cells. While reports have been shown about mechanisms on nuclear localization of Ku proteins, how Ku proteins export from nucleus is poorly understood. Here we show that C-terminal region of Ku70 protein is important for its cytoplasmic localization. When transfected into LEC rat cells, exogenous intact Ku70 (1-609) tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-Ku70) localized mainly in the cytoplasm, whereas C-terminal-deletion mutant of Ku70 (1-593) tagged with EGFP (EGFP-Ku70D) was mainly localized in the nucleus. After X-irradiation, the endogenous intact EGFP-Ku70 once moved into nucleus, but returned into the cytoplasm. On the other hand, EGFP-Ku70D was retained in nucleus for two hours after X-irradiation. These results suggest that C-terminal region of Ku70 is included in the postirradiation nuclear export. Next, we investigated the intracellular localization of Ku70 proteins and the movement after X-irradiation of fibroblastic cells prepared from some mammalian species. Ku70 proteins were localized in nucleus and the postirradiation-extranuclear transport was not observed in human and African green monkey cells. On the other hand, Ku70 proteins were mainly localized in cytoplasm and moved into nucleus in mouse, Chinese hamster, Golden hamster, cotton rat, squirrel, cat and dog cells. These results may show that alternatively Ku70 protein is localized in the cytoplasm or nucleus depends on species and translocation of cytoplasmic Ku70 into nucleus is a response against low dose irradiation in fibroblasts of rodents, cats and dogs

  2. In vitro phosphorylation of the movement protein of tomato mosaic tobamovirus by a cellular kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Y; Hanazawa, K; Yoshioka, K; Oguchi, T; Kawakami, S; Watanabe, Y; Nishiguchi, M; Nyunoya, H

    2000-08-01

    The movement protein (MP) of tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was produced in E. coli as a soluble fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase. When immobilized on glutathione affinity beads, the recombinant protein was phosphorylated in vitro by incubating with cell extracts of Nicotiana tabacum and tobacco suspension culture cells (BY-2) in the presence of [gamma-(32)P]ATP. Phosphorylation occurred even after washing the beads with a detergent-containing buffer, indicating that the recombinant MP formed a stable complex with some protein kinase(s) during incubation with the cell extract. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that the MP was phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues. Phosphorylation of the MP was decreased by addition of kinase inhibitors such as heparin, suramin and quercetin, which are known to be effective for casein kinase II (CK II). The phosphorylation level was not changed by other types of inhibitor. In addition, as shown for animal and plant CK II, [gamma-(32)P]GTP was efficiently used as a phosphoryl donor. Phosphorylation was not affected by amino acid replacements at serine-37 and serine-238, but was completely inhibited by deletion of the carboxy-terminal 9 amino acids, including threonine-256, serine-257, serine-261 and serine-263. These results suggest that the MP of ToMV could be phosphorylated in plant cells by a host protein kinase that is closely related to CK II.

  3. The Luteovirus P4 Movement Protein Is a Suppressor of Systemic RNA Silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Adriana F; Barton, Deborah A; Nakasugi, Kenlee; Jackson, Craig; Kalischuk, Melanie L; Kawchuk, Lawrence M; Vaslin, Maite F S; Correa, Regis L; Waterhouse, Peter M

    2017-10-10

    The plant viral family Luteoviridae is divided into three genera: Luteovirus , Polerovirus and Enamovirus . Without assistance from another virus, members of the family are confined to the cells of the host plant's vascular system. The first open reading frame (ORF) of poleroviruses and enamoviruses encodes P0 proteins which act as silencing suppressor proteins (VSRs) against the plant's viral defense-mediating RNA silencing machinery. Luteoviruses, such as barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV), however, have no P0 to carry out the VSR role, so we investigated whether other proteins or RNAs encoded by BYDV-PAV confer protection against the plant's silencing machinery. Deep-sequencing of small RNAs from plants infected with BYDV-PAV revealed that the virus is subjected to RNA silencing in the phloem tissues and there was no evidence of protection afforded by a possible decoy effect of the highly abundant subgenomic RNA3. However, analysis of VSR activity among the BYDV-PAV ORFs revealed systemic silencing suppression by the P4 movement protein, and a similar, but weaker, activity by P6. The closely related BYDV-PAS P4, but not the polerovirus potato leafroll virus P4, also displayed systemic VSR activity. Both luteovirus and the polerovirus P4 proteins also showed transient, weak local silencing suppression. This suggests that systemic silencing suppression is the principal mechanism by which the luteoviruses BYDV-PAV and BYDV-PAS minimize the effects of the plant's anti-viral defense.

  4. Production of Polyclonal Antibody against Grapevine fanleaf virus Movement Protein Expressed in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Koolivand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The genomic region of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV encoding the movement protein (MP was cloned into pET21a and transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3 to express the protein. Induction was made with a wide range of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM each for duration of 4, 6, or 16 h. However, the highest expression level was achieved with 1 mM IPTG for 4 h. Identity of the expressed protein was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting. The expressed 41 kDa protein was purified under denaturing condition by affinity chromatography, reconfirmed by Western blotting and plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA before being used as a recombinant antigen to raise polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Purified anti-GFLV MP immunoglobulines (IgGs and conjugated IgGs detected the expressed MP and GFLV virions in infected grapevines when used in PTA-ELISA, double antibody sandwich-ELISA, and Western blotting. This is the first report on the production of anti-GFLV MP polyclonal antibodies and application for the virus detection.

  5. Obtaining the Wakefield Due to Cell-to-Cell Misalignments in a Linear Accelerator Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Bane, Karl L. F.; Li, Zenghai

    2001-01-01

    A linear accelerator structure, such as will be used in the linacs of the JLC/NLC collider, is composed of on the order of 100 cells. The cells are constructed as individual cups that are brazed together to form a structure. Fabrication error will result in slight cell-to-cell misalignments along the finished structure. In this report we derive an approximation to the transverse wakefield of a structure with cell-to-cell misalignments in terms of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the erro...

  6. The Luteovirus P4 Movement Protein Is a Suppressor of Systemic RNA Silencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. Fusaro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The plant viral family Luteoviridae is divided into three genera: Luteovirus, Polerovirus and Enamovirus. Without assistance from another virus, members of the family are confined to the cells of the host plant’s vascular system. The first open reading frame (ORF of poleroviruses and enamoviruses encodes P0 proteins which act as silencing suppressor proteins (VSRs against the plant’s viral defense-mediating RNA silencing machinery. Luteoviruses, such as barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV, however, have no P0 to carry out the VSR role, so we investigated whether other proteins or RNAs encoded by BYDV-PAV confer protection against the plant’s silencing machinery. Deep-sequencing of small RNAs from plants infected with BYDV-PAV revealed that the virus is subjected to RNA silencing in the phloem tissues and there was no evidence of protection afforded by a possible decoy effect of the highly abundant subgenomic RNA3. However, analysis of VSR activity among the BYDV-PAV ORFs revealed systemic silencing suppression by the P4 movement protein, and a similar, but weaker, activity by P6. The closely related BYDV-PAS P4, but not the polerovirus potato leafroll virus P4, also displayed systemic VSR activity. Both luteovirus and the polerovirus P4 proteins also showed transient, weak local silencing suppression. This suggests that systemic silencing suppression is the principal mechanism by which the luteoviruses BYDV-PAV and BYDV-PAS minimize the effects of the plant’s anti-viral defense.

  7. Intercellular signaling through secreted proteins induces free-energy gradient-directed cell movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko-Balasha, Nataly; Shin, Young Shik; Sutherland, Alex; Levine, R D; Heath, James R

    2016-05-17

    Controlling cell migration is important in tissue engineering and medicine. Cell motility depends on factors such as nutrient concentration gradients and soluble factor signaling. In particular, cell-cell signaling can depend on cell-cell separation distance and can influence cellular arrangements in bulk cultures. Here, we seek a physical-based approach, which identifies a potential governed by cell-cell signaling that induces a directed cell-cell motion. A single-cell barcode chip (SCBC) was used to experimentally interrogate secreted proteins in hundreds of isolated glioblastoma brain cancer cell pairs and to monitor their relative motions over time. We used these trajectories to identify a range of cell-cell separation distances where the signaling was most stable. We then used a thermodynamics-motivated analysis of secreted protein levels to characterize free-energy changes for different cell-cell distances. We show that glioblastoma cell-cell movement can be described as Brownian motion biased by cell-cell potential. To demonstrate that the free-energy potential as determined by the signaling is the driver of motion, we inhibited two proteins most involved in maintaining the free-energy gradient. Following inhibition, cell pairs showed an essentially random Brownian motion, similar to the case for untreated, isolated single cells.

  8. Involvement of C4 protein of beet severe curly top virus (family Geminiviridae in virus movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunling Teng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV is a leafhopper transmitted geminivirus with a monopartite genome. C4 proteins encoded by geminivirus play an important role in virus/plant interaction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To understand the function of C4 encoded by BSCTV, two BSCTV mutants were constructed by introducing termination codons in ORF C4 without affecting the amino acids encoded by overlapping ORF Rep. BSCTV mutants containing disrupted ORF C4 retained the ability to replicate in Arabidopsis protoplasts and in the agro-inoculated leaf discs of N. benthamiana, suggesting C4 is not required for virus DNA replication. However, both mutants did not accumulate viral DNA in newly emerged leaves of inoculated N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis, and the inoculated plants were asymptomatic. We also showed that C4 expression in plant could help C4 deficient BSCTV mutants to move systemically. C4 was localized in the cytosol and the nucleus in both Arabidopsis protoplasts and N. benthamiana leaves and the protein appeared to bind viral DNA and ds/ssDNA nonspecifically, displaying novel DNA binding properties. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that C4 protein in BSCTV is involved in symptom production and may facilitate virus movement instead of virus replication.

  9. Neurospora crassa female development requires the PACC and other signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, cell-to-cell fusion, and autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Chinnici

    Full Text Available Using a screening protocol we have identified 68 genes that are required for female development in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We find that we can divide these genes into five general groups: 1 Genes encoding components of the PACC signal transduction pathway, 2 Other signal transduction pathway genes, including genes from the three N. crassa MAP kinase pathways, 3 Transcriptional factor genes, 4 Autophagy genes, and 5 Other miscellaneous genes. Complementation and RIP studies verified that these genes are needed for the formation of the female mating structure, the protoperithecium, and for the maturation of a fertilized protoperithecium into a perithecium. Perithecia grafting experiments demonstrate that the autophagy genes and the cell-to-cell fusion genes (the MAK-1 and MAK-2 pathway genes are needed for the mobilization and movement of nutrients from an established vegetative hyphal network into the developing protoperithecium. Deletion mutants for the PACC pathway genes palA, palB, palC, palF, palH, and pacC were found to be defective in two aspects of female development. First, they were unable to initiate female development on synthetic crossing medium. However, they could form protoperithecia when grown on cellophane, on corn meal agar, or in response to the presence of nearby perithecia. Second, fertilized perithecia from PACC pathway mutants were unable to produce asci and complete female development. Protein localization experiments with a GFP-tagged PALA construct showed that PALA was localized in a peripheral punctate pattern, consistent with a signaling center associated with the ESCRT complex. The N. crassa PACC signal transduction pathway appears to be similar to the PacC/Rim101 pathway previously characterized in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In N. crassa the pathway plays a key role in regulating female development.

  10. Neurospora crassa female development requires the PACC and other signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, cell-to-cell fusion, and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnici, Jennifer L; Fu, Ci; Caccamise, Lauren M; Arnold, Jason W; Free, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Using a screening protocol we have identified 68 genes that are required for female development in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We find that we can divide these genes into five general groups: 1) Genes encoding components of the PACC signal transduction pathway, 2) Other signal transduction pathway genes, including genes from the three N. crassa MAP kinase pathways, 3) Transcriptional factor genes, 4) Autophagy genes, and 5) Other miscellaneous genes. Complementation and RIP studies verified that these genes are needed for the formation of the female mating structure, the protoperithecium, and for the maturation of a fertilized protoperithecium into a perithecium. Perithecia grafting experiments demonstrate that the autophagy genes and the cell-to-cell fusion genes (the MAK-1 and MAK-2 pathway genes) are needed for the mobilization and movement of nutrients from an established vegetative hyphal network into the developing protoperithecium. Deletion mutants for the PACC pathway genes palA, palB, palC, palF, palH, and pacC were found to be defective in two aspects of female development. First, they were unable to initiate female development on synthetic crossing medium. However, they could form protoperithecia when grown on cellophane, on corn meal agar, or in response to the presence of nearby perithecia. Second, fertilized perithecia from PACC pathway mutants were unable to produce asci and complete female development. Protein localization experiments with a GFP-tagged PALA construct showed that PALA was localized in a peripheral punctate pattern, consistent with a signaling center associated with the ESCRT complex. The N. crassa PACC signal transduction pathway appears to be similar to the PacC/Rim101 pathway previously characterized in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In N. crassa the pathway plays a key role in regulating female development.

  11. Surface Transmission or Polarized Egress? Lessons Learned from HTLV Cell-to-Cell Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Sherer, Nathan; Mothes, Walther

    2010-01-01

    Commentary on Pais-Correia, A.M.; Sachse, M.; Guadagnini, S.; Robbiati, V.; Lasserre, R.; Gessain, A.; Gout, O.; Alcover, A.; Thoulouze, M.I. Biofilm-like extracellular viral assemblies mediate HTLV-1 cell-to-cell transmission at virological synapses. Nat. Med. 2010, 16, 83–89. PMID:21994650

  12. Non-chemical and non-contact cell-to-cell communication: a short review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholkmann, F.; Fels, D.; Cifra, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2013), s. 586-593 ISSN 1943-8141 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29294S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Cell-to-cell communication * physical signaling Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2013

  13. MEMS-based dynamic cell-to-cell culture platforms using electrochemical surface modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jiyoung; Lin, Liwei; Yoon, Sang-Hee; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2011-01-01

    MEMS-based biological platforms with the capability of both spatial placements and time releases of living cells for cell-to-cell culture experiments have been designed and demonstrated utilizing electrochemical surface modification effects. The spatial placement is accomplished by electrochemical surface modification of substrate surfaces to be either adhesive or non-adhesive for living cells. The time control is achieved by the electrical activation of the selective indium tin oxide co-culture electrode to allow the migration of living cells onto the electrode to start the cell-to-cell culture studies. Prototype devices have a three-electrode design with an electrode size of 50 × 50 µm 2 and the separation gaps of 2 µm between them. An electrical voltage of −1.5 V has been used to activate the electrodes independently and sequentially to demonstrate the dynamic cell-to-cell culture experiments of NIH 3T3 fibroblast and Madin Darby canine kidney cells. As such, this MEMS platform could be a basic yet versatile tool to characterize transient cell-to-cell interactions

  14. Extracellular Membrane Vesicles as Vehicles for Brain Cell-to-Cell Interactions in Physiological as well as Pathological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Schiera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles are involved in a great variety of physiological events occurring in the nervous system, such as cross talk among neurons and glial cells in synapse development and function, integrated neuronal plasticity, neuronal-glial metabolic exchanges, and synthesis and dynamic renewal of myelin. Many of these EV-mediated processes depend on the exchange of proteins, mRNAs, and noncoding RNAs, including miRNAs, which occurs among glial and neuronal cells. In addition, production and exchange of EVs can be modified under pathological conditions, such as brain cancer and neurodegeneration. Like other cancer cells, brain tumours can use EVs to secrete factors, which allow escaping from immune surveillance, and to transfer molecules into the surrounding cells, thus transforming their phenotype. Moreover, EVs can function as a way to discard material dangerous to cancer cells, such as differentiation-inducing proteins, and even drugs. Intriguingly, EVs seem to be also involved in spreading through the brain of aggregated proteins, such as prions and aggregated tau protein. Finally, EVs can carry useful biomarkers for the early diagnosis of diseases. Herein we summarize possible roles of EVs in brain physiological functions and discuss their involvement in the horizontal spreading, from cell to cell, of both cancer and neurodegenerative pathologies.

  15. Bacterial spread from cell to cell: beyond actin-based motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Carole J; Dragoi, Ana-Maria; Talman, Arthur; Agaisse, Hervé

    2015-09-01

    Several intracellular pathogens display the ability to propagate within host tissues by displaying actin-based motility in the cytosol of infected cells. As motile bacteria reach cell-cell contacts they form plasma membrane protrusions that project into adjacent cells and resolve into vacuoles from which the pathogen escapes, thereby achieving spread from cell to cell. Seminal studies have defined the bacterial and cellular factors that support actin-based motility. By contrast, the mechanisms supporting the formation of protrusions and their resolution into vacuoles have remained elusive. Here, we review recent advances in the field showing that Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri have evolved pathogen-specific mechanisms of bacterial spread from cell to cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aging increases cell-to-cell transcriptional variability upon immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Jimenez, Celia Pilar; Eling, Nils; Chen, Hung-Chang; Vallejos, Catalina A; Kolodziejczyk, Aleksandra A; Connor, Frances; Stojic, Lovorka; Rayner, Timothy F; Stubbington, Michael J T; Teichmann, Sarah A; de la Roche, Maike; Marioni, John C; Odom, Duncan T

    2017-03-31

    Aging is characterized by progressive loss of physiological and cellular functions, but the molecular basis of this decline remains unclear. We explored how aging affects transcriptional dynamics using single-cell RNA sequencing of unstimulated and stimulated naïve and effector memory CD4 + T cells from young and old mice from two divergent species. In young animals, immunological activation drives a conserved transcriptomic switch, resulting in tightly controlled gene expression characterized by a strong up-regulation of a core activation program, coupled with a decrease in cell-to-cell variability. Aging perturbed the activation of this core program and increased expression heterogeneity across populations of cells in both species. These discoveries suggest that increased cell-to-cell transcriptional variability will be a hallmark feature of aging across most, if not all, mammalian tissues. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Metabolic adaptations of Azospirillum brasilense to oxygen stress by cell-to-cell clumping and flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Amber N; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai K; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Green, Calvin S; Mishra, Priyanka; Purcell, Alicia; Aksenova, Anastasia; Hurst, Gregory B; Alexandre, Gladys

    2015-12-01

    The ability of bacteria to monitor their metabolism and adjust their behavior accordingly is critical to maintain competitiveness in the environment. The motile microaerophilic bacterium Azospirillum brasilense navigates oxygen gradients by aerotaxis in order to locate low oxygen concentrations that can support metabolism. When cells are exposed to elevated levels of oxygen in their surroundings, motile A. brasilense cells implement an alternative response to aerotaxis and form transient clumps by cell-to-cell interactions. Clumping was suggested to represent a behavior protecting motile cells from transiently elevated levels of aeration. Using the proteomics of wild-type and mutant strains affected in the extent of their clumping abilities, we show that cell-to-cell clumping represents a metabolic scavenging strategy that likely prepares the cells for further metabolic stresses. Analysis of mutants affected in carbon or nitrogen metabolism confirmed this assumption. The metabolic changes experienced as clumping progresses prime cells for flocculation, a morphological and metabolic shift of cells triggered under elevated-aeration conditions and nitrogen limitation. The analysis of various mutants during clumping and flocculation characterized an ordered set of changes in cell envelope properties accompanying the metabolic changes. These data also identify clumping and early flocculation to be behaviors compatible with the expression of nitrogen fixation genes, despite the elevated-aeration conditions. Cell-to-cell clumping may thus license diazotrophy to microaerophilic A. brasilense cells under elevated oxygen conditions and prime them for long-term survival via flocculation if metabolic stress persists. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Random Walk Model for Cell-To-Cell Misalignments in Accelerator Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupakov, Gennady

    2000-01-01

    Due to manufacturing and construction errors, cells in accelerator structures can be misaligned relative to each other. As a consequence, the beam generates a transverse wakefield even when it passes through the structure on axis. The most important effect is the long-range transverse wakefield that deflects the bunches and causes growth of the bunch train projected emittance. In this paper, the effect of the cell-to-cell misalignments is evaluated using a random walk model that assumes that each cell is shifted by a random step relative to the previous one. The model is compared with measurements of a few accelerator structures

  19. Relation between radio-adaptive response and cell to cell communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiichiro Ishii

    1996-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been considered to cause severe damages to DNA and do harm to cells in proportion to the dose, however low it might be. In 1984, Wolff et al. showed that human peripheral lymphocytes adapted to the low-dose radiation from 3 H-TdR added in culture medium and became resistant to the subsequent irradiation with high-doses of X-rays. This response, which is called radio-adaptive response, is also induced by X-rays and gamma-rays in human lymphocytes and Chinese hamster V79 cells. However, the mechanisms of and conditions for adaptive responses to radiation have not been clarified. With an objective of clarifying the conditions for adaptive responses of cells to radiation, we examined how the cell to cell communication is involved in the adaptive responses. We irradiated normal human embryo-derived (HE) cells and cancer cells (HeLa) in culture at high density with low-dose X-ray and examined their radio-adaptive responses by measuring the changes in sensitivity to subsequent high-dose X-ray irradiation using the Trypan Blue dye-exclusion test method. We also conducted experiments to examine the effects of Ca 2+ ions and Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (TPA) which are supposed to be involved in cell to cell communication. (author)

  20. High fidelity visualization of cell-to-cell variation and temporal dynamics in nascent extracellular matrix formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Claire M; Mauck, Robert L

    2016-12-12

    Extracellular matrix dynamics are key to tissue morphogenesis, homeostasis, injury, and repair. The spatiotemporal organization of this matrix has profound biological implications, but is challenging to monitor using standard techniques. Here, we address these challenges by using noncanonical amino acid tagging to fluorescently label extracellular matrix synthesized in the presence of bio-orthogonal methionine analogs. This strategy labels matrix proteins with high resolution, without compromising their distribution or mechanical function. We demonstrate that the organization and temporal dynamics of the proteinaceous matrix depend on the biophysical features of the microenvironment, including the biomaterial scaffold and the niche constructed by cells themselves. Pulse labeling experiments reveal that, in immature constructs, nascent matrix is highly fibrous and interdigitates with pre-existing matrix, while in more developed constructs, nascent matrix lacks fibrous organization and is retained in the immediate pericellular space. Inhibition of collagen crosslinking increases matrix synthesis, but compromises matrix organization. Finally, these data demonstrate marked cell-to-cell heterogeneity amongst both chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells undergoing chondrogenesis. Collectively, these results introduce fluorescent noncanonical amino acid tagging as a strategy to investigate spatiotemporal matrix organization, and demonstrate its ability to identify differences in phenotype, microenvironment, and matrix assembly at the single cell level.

  1. RNAi screen reveals host cell kinases specifically involved in Listeria monocytogenes spread from cell to cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Chong

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacterial pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes and Rickettsia conorii display actin-based motility in the cytosol of infected cells and spread from cell to cell through the formation of membrane protrusions at the cell cortex. Whereas the mechanisms supporting cytosolic actin-based motility are fairly well understood, it is unclear whether specific host factors may be required for supporting the formation and resolution of membrane protrusions. To address this gap in knowledge, we have developed high-throughput fluorescence microscopy and computer-assisted image analysis procedures to quantify pathogen spread in human epithelial cells. We used the approach to screen a siRNA library covering the human kinome and identified 7 candidate kinases whose depletion led to severe spreading defects in cells infected with L. monocytogenes. We conducted systematic validation procedures with redundant silencing reagents and confirmed the involvement of the serine/threonine kinases, CSNK1A1 and CSNK2B. We conducted secondary assays showing that, in contrast with the situation observed in CSNK2B-depleted cells, L. monocytogenes formed wild-type cytosolic tails and displayed wild-type actin-based motility in the cytosol of CSNK1A1-depleted cells. Furthermore, we developed a protrusion formation assay and showed that the spreading defect observed in CSNK1A1-depleted cells correlated with the formation of protrusion that did not resolve into double-membrane vacuoles. Moreover, we developed sending and receiving cell-specific RNAi procedures and showed that CSNK1A was required in the sending cells, but was dispensable in the receiving cells, for protrusion resolution. Finally, we showed that the observed defects were specific to Listeria monocytogenes, as Rickettsia conorii displayed wild-type cell-to-cell spread in CSNK1A1- and CSNK2B-depleted cells. We conclude that, in addition to the specific host factors supporting cytosolic actin

  2. Single cell Hi-C reveals cell-to-cell variability in chromosome structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Stefan; Yaffe, Eitan; Dean, Wendy; Laue, Ernest D.; Tanay, Amos; Fraser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale chromosome structure and spatial nuclear arrangement have been linked to control of gene expression and DNA replication and repair. Genomic techniques based on chromosome conformation capture assess contacts for millions of loci simultaneously, but do so by averaging chromosome conformations from millions of nuclei. Here we introduce single cell Hi-C, combined with genome-wide statistical analysis and structural modeling of single copy X chromosomes, to show that individual chromosomes maintain domain organisation at the megabase scale, but show variable cell-to-cell chromosome territory structures at larger scales. Despite this structural stochasticity, localisation of active gene domains to boundaries of territories is a hallmark of chromosomal conformation. Single cell Hi-C data bridge current gaps between genomics and microscopy studies of chromosomes, demonstrating how modular organisation underlies dynamic chromosome structure, and how this structure is probabilistically linked with genome activity patterns. PMID:24067610

  3. Cell-to-cell communication in plants, animals, and fungi: a comparative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemendal, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is a prerequisite for differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. This communication has to be tightly regulated to ensure that cellular components such as organelles, macromolecules, hormones, or viruses leave the cell in a precisely organized way. During evolution, plants, animals, and fungi have developed similar ways of responding to this biological challenge. For example, in higher plants, plasmodesmata connect adjacent cells and allow communication to regulate differentiation and development. In animals, two main general structures that enable short- and long-range intercellular communication are known, namely gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, respectively. Finally, filamentous fungi have also developed specialized structures called septal pores that allow intercellular communication via cytoplasmic flow. This review summarizes the underlying mechanisms for intercellular communication in these three eukaryotic groups and discusses its consequences for the regulation of differentiation and developmental processes.

  4. Alpha-synuclein cell-to-cell transfer and seeding in grafted dopaminergic neurons in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Angot

    Full Text Available Several people with Parkinson's disease have been treated with intrastriatal grafts of fetal dopaminergic neurons. Following autopsy, 10-22 years after surgery, some of the grafted neurons contained Lewy bodies similar to those observed in the host brain. Numerous studies have attempted to explain these findings in cell and animal models. In cell culture, α-synuclein has been found to transfer from one cell to another, via mechanisms that include exosomal transport and endocytosis, and in certain cases seed aggregation in the recipient cell. In animal models, transfer of α-synuclein from host brain cells to grafted neurons has been shown, but the reported frequency of the event has been relatively low and little is known about the underlying mechanisms as well as the fate of the transferred α-synuclein. We now demonstrate frequent transfer of α-synuclein from a rat brain engineered to overexpress human α-synuclein to grafted dopaminergic neurons. Further, we show that this model can be used to explore mechanisms underlying cell-to-cell transfer of α-synuclein. Thus, we present evidence both for the involvement of endocytosis in α-synuclein uptake in vivo, and for seeding of aggregation of endogenous α-synuclein in the recipient neuron by the transferred α-synuclein. Finally, we show that, at least in a subset of the studied cells, the transmitted α-synuclein is sensitive to proteinase K. Our new model system could be used to test compounds that inhibit cell-to-cell transfer of α-synuclein and therefore might retard progression of Parkinson neuropathology.

  5. Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Catriona, E-mail: catriona.kelly@qub.ac.uk [SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine (United Kingdom); Flatt, Peter R.; McClenaghan, Neville H. [SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. {yields} Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. {yields} Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

  6. Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Catriona; Flatt, Peter R.; McClenaghan, Neville H.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. → Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. → Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

  7. Long distance movement of an Arabidopsis Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (AtTCTP2 mRNA and protein in tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto eToscano-Morales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available TCTP (Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein is an almost ubiquitous protein found in eukaryotes, fundamental for the regulation of development and general growth. The multiple functions of TCTP have been inferred from its involvement in several cell pathways, but the specific function of TCTP is still not known in detail. On the other hand, TCTP seems to respond to a plethora of external signals, and appears to be regulated at the transcriptional and/or translational levels by mechanisms yet to be determined. In the present work, we analyzed the capacity of AtTCTP2 gene products (mRNA and protein to translocate long distance through tobacco heterografts (Transgenic/WT and WT/Transgenic. The results indicate that both AtTCTP2 mRNA and protein are capable of moving long distance in both directions (stock-scion and scion-stock with a tendency for movement from source to sink tissue (stock to scion. Interestingly, aerial roots emerged only in heterografts where the protein was detected in both stock and scion, suggesting a correlation between the presence of AtTCTP2 and appearance of aerial adventitious roots. More detailed analysis showed that these adventitious aerial roots harbored the transgene and expressed both transcript and protein. In addition, the protein localization pattern in transgenic aerial and primary roots was basically the same, indicating specific nuclear destination in roots, but also in leaves. These findings provide an approach to understand the role of long-distance movement in the function of plant TCTPs, supporting the notion that some of these act in a non-cell autonomous manner, as the human counterpart, the Histamine Releasing Factor (HRF.

  8. Genetic diversity of the movement and coat protein genes of South American isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Nicola; Fajardo, Thor V M; Prodan, Simona; Herranz, María Carmen; Aparicio, Frederic; Montealegre, Jaime; Elena, Santiago F; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is distributed worldwide, but no molecular data have been previously reported from South American isolates. The nucleotide sequences corresponding to the movement (MP) and coat (CP) proteins of 23 isolates of PNRSV from Chile, Brazil, and Uruguay, and from different Prunus species, have been obtained. Phylogenetic analysis performed with full-length MP and CP sequences from all the PNRSV isolates confirmed the clustering of the isolates into the previously reported PV32-I, PV96-II and PE5-III phylogroups. No association was found between specific sequences and host, geographic origin or symptomatology. Comparative analysis showed that both MP and CP have phylogroup-specific amino acids and all of the motifs previously characterized for both proteins. The study of the distribution of synonymous and nonsynonymous changes along both open reading frames revealed that most amino acid sites are under the effect of negative purifying selection.

  9. Can Cell to Cell Thermal Runaway Propagation be Prevented in a Li-ion Battery Module?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith; Lopez, Carlos; Orieukwu, Josephat

    2014-01-01

    Increasing cell spacing decreased adjacent cell damage center dotElectrically connected adjacent cells drained more than physically adjacent cells center dotRadiant barrier prevents propagation when fully installed between BP cells center dotBP cells vent rapidly and expel contents at 100% SOC -Slower vent with flame/smoke at 50% -Thermal runaway event typically occurs at 160 degC center dotLG cells vent but do not expel contents -Thermal runaway event typically occurs at 200 degC center dotSKC LFP modules did not propagate; fuses on negative terminal of cell may provide a benefit in reducing cell to cell damage propagation. New requirement in NASA-Battery Safety Requirements document: JSC 20793 Rev C 5.1.5.1 Requirements - Thermal Runaway Propagation a. For battery designs greater than a 80-Wh energy employing high specific energy cells (greater than 80 watt-hours/kg, for example, lithium-ion chemistries) with catastrophic failure modes, the battery shall be evaluated to ascertain the severity of a worst-case single-cell thermal runaway event and the propensity of the design to demonstrate cell-to-cell propagation in the intended application and environment. NASA has traditionally addressed the threat of thermal runaway incidents in its battery deployments through comprehensive prevention protocols. This prevention-centered approach has included extensive screening for manufacturing defects, as well as robust battery management controls that prevent abuse-induced runaway even in the face of multiple system failures. This focused strategy has made the likelihood of occurrence of such an event highly improbable. b. The evaluation shall include all necessary analysis and test to quantify the severity (consequence) of the event in the intended application and environment as well as to identify design modifications to the battery or the system that could appreciably reduce that severity. In addition to prevention protocols, programs developing battery designs with

  10. Cell to Cell Variability of Radiation-Induced Foci: Relation between Observed Damage and Energy Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruel, Gaëtan; Villagrasa, Carmen; Voisin, Pascale; Clairand, Isabelle; Benderitter, Marc; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François; Barquinero, Joan Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Most studies that aim to understand the interactions between different types of photon radiation and cellular DNA assume homogeneous cell irradiation, with all cells receiving the same amount of energy. The level of DNA damage is therefore generally determined by averaging it over the entire population of exposed cells. However, evaluating the molecular consequences of a stochastic phenomenon such as energy deposition of ionizing radiation by measuring only an average effect may not be sufficient for understanding some aspects of the cellular response to this radiation. The variance among the cells associated with this average effect may also be important for the behaviour of irradiated tissue. In this study, we accurately estimated the distribution of the number of radiation-induced γH2AX foci (RIF) per cell nucleus in a large population of endothelial cells exposed to 3 macroscopic doses of gamma rays from 60Co. The number of RIF varied significantly and reproducibly from cell to cell, with its relative standard deviation ranging from 36% to 18% depending on the macroscopic dose delivered. Interestingly, this relative cell-to-cell variability increased as the dose decreased, contrary to the mean RIF count per cell. This result shows that the dose effect, in terms of the number of DNA lesions indicated by RIF is not as simple as a purely proportional relation in which relative SD is constant with dose. To analyse the origins of this observed variability, we calculated the spread of the specific energy distribution for the different target volumes and subvolumes in which RIF can be generated. Variances, standard deviations and relative standard deviations all changed similarly from dose to dose for biological and calculated microdosimetric values. This similarity is an important argument that supports the hypothesis of the conservation of the association between the number of RIF per nucleus and the specific energy per DNA molecule. This comparison allowed us to

  11. Cell to Cell Variability of Radiation-Induced Foci: Relation between Observed Damage and Energy Deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëtan Gruel

    Full Text Available Most studies that aim to understand the interactions between different types of photon radiation and cellular DNA assume homogeneous cell irradiation, with all cells receiving the same amount of energy. The level of DNA damage is therefore generally determined by averaging it over the entire population of exposed cells. However, evaluating the molecular consequences of a stochastic phenomenon such as energy deposition of ionizing radiation by measuring only an average effect may not be sufficient for understanding some aspects of the cellular response to this radiation. The variance among the cells associated with this average effect may also be important for the behaviour of irradiated tissue. In this study, we accurately estimated the distribution of the number of radiation-induced γH2AX foci (RIF per cell nucleus in a large population of endothelial cells exposed to 3 macroscopic doses of gamma rays from 60Co. The number of RIF varied significantly and reproducibly from cell to cell, with its relative standard deviation ranging from 36% to 18% depending on the macroscopic dose delivered. Interestingly, this relative cell-to-cell variability increased as the dose decreased, contrary to the mean RIF count per cell. This result shows that the dose effect, in terms of the number of DNA lesions indicated by RIF is not as simple as a purely proportional relation in which relative SD is constant with dose. To analyse the origins of this observed variability, we calculated the spread of the specific energy distribution for the different target volumes and subvolumes in which RIF can be generated. Variances, standard deviations and relative standard deviations all changed similarly from dose to dose for biological and calculated microdosimetric values. This similarity is an important argument that supports the hypothesis of the conservation of the association between the number of RIF per nucleus and the specific energy per DNA molecule. This

  12. The neuropeptides CCK and NPY and the changing view of cell-to-cell communication in the taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herness, Scott; Zhao, Fang-Li

    2009-07-14

    The evolving view of the taste bud increasingly suggests that it operates as a complex signal processing unit. A number of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides and their corresponding receptors are now known to be expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells in the mammalian bud. These expression patterns set up hard-wired cell-to-cell communication pathways whose exact physiological roles still remain obscure. As occurs in other cellular systems, it is likely that neuropeptides are co-expressed with neurotransmitters and function as neuromodulators. Several neuropeptides have been identified in taste receptor cells including cholecystokinin (CCK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Of these, CCK and NPY are the best studied. These two peptides are co-expressed in the same presynaptic cells; however, their postsynaptic actions are both divergent and antagonistic. CCK and its receptor, the CCK-1 subtype, are expressed in the same subset of taste receptor cells and the autocrine activation of these cells produces a number of excitatory physiological actions. Further, most of these cells are responsive to bitter stimuli. On the other hand, NPY and its receptor, the NPY-1 subtype, are expressed in different cells. NPY, acting in a paracrine fashion on NPY-1 receptors, results in inhibitory actions on the cell. Preliminary evidence suggests the NPY-1 receptor expressing cell co-expresses T1R3, a member of the T1R family of G-protein coupled receptors thought to be important in detection of sweet and umami stimuli. Thus the neuropeptide expressing cells co-express CCK, NPY, and CCK-1 receptor. Neuropeptides released from these cells during bitter stimulation may work in concert to both modulate the excitation of bitter-sensitive taste receptor cells while concurrently inhibiting sweet-sensitive cells. This modulatory process is similar to the phenomenon of lateral inhibition that occurs in other sensory systems.

  13. Robustness of MEK-ERK Dynamics and Origins of Cell-to-Cell Variability in MAPK Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Filippi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular signaling processes can exhibit pronounced cell-to-cell variability in genetically identical cells. This affects how individual cells respond differentially to the same environmental stimulus. However, the origins of cell-to-cell variability in cellular signaling systems remain poorly understood. Here, we measure the dynamics of phosphorylated MEK and ERK across cell populations and quantify the levels of population heterogeneity over time using high-throughput image cytometry. We use a statistical modeling framework to show that extrinsic noise, particularly that from upstream MEK, is the dominant factor causing cell-to-cell variability in ERK phosphorylation, rather than stochasticity in the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of ERK. We furthermore show that without extrinsic noise in the core module, variable (including noisy signals would be faithfully reproduced downstream, but the within-module extrinsic variability distorts these signals and leads to a drastic reduction in the mutual information between incoming signal and ERK activity.

  14. The V domain of dog PVRL4 (nectin-4) mediates canine distemper virus entry and virus cell-to-cell spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpeut, Sebastien; Noyce, Ryan S.; Richardson, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The entry of canine distemper virus (CDV) is a multistep process that involves the attachment of CDV hemagglutinin (H) to its cellular receptor, followed by fusion between virus and cell membranes. Our laboratory recently identified PVRL4 (nectin-4) to be the epithelial receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry and virus cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, four key amino acid residues within the V domain of dog PVRL4 and two within the CDV hemagglutinin were shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus entry. - Highlights: • PVRL4 (nectin-4) is the epithelial cell receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. • V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry, cell-to-cell spread, and syncytia formation. • Chimeric PVRL1 backbone substituted with the V domain of PVRL4 can function as a receptor. • Amino acids (F132/P133/A134/G135) within the V domain are essential for PVRL4 receptor activity. • Amino acids (P493/Y539) within CDV H protein are essential for PVRL4 receptor interaction

  15. The V domain of dog PVRL4 (nectin-4) mediates canine distemper virus entry and virus cell-to-cell spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpeut, Sebastien; Noyce, Ryan S. [The Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); IWK Health Centre, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Goldbloom Pavilion, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); Richardson, Christopher D., E-mail: chris.richardson@dal.ca [The Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); IWK Health Centre, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Goldbloom Pavilion, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); The Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    The entry of canine distemper virus (CDV) is a multistep process that involves the attachment of CDV hemagglutinin (H) to its cellular receptor, followed by fusion between virus and cell membranes. Our laboratory recently identified PVRL4 (nectin-4) to be the epithelial receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry and virus cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, four key amino acid residues within the V domain of dog PVRL4 and two within the CDV hemagglutinin were shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus entry. - Highlights: • PVRL4 (nectin-4) is the epithelial cell receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. • V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry, cell-to-cell spread, and syncytia formation. • Chimeric PVRL1 backbone substituted with the V domain of PVRL4 can function as a receptor. • Amino acids (F132/P133/A134/G135) within the V domain are essential for PVRL4 receptor activity. • Amino acids (P493/Y539) within CDV H protein are essential for PVRL4 receptor interaction.

  16. Modeling PSA Problems - II: A Cell-to-Cell Transport Theory Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeau, P.E.; Izquierdo, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the first paper of this series, we presented an extension of the classical theory of dynamic reliability in which the actual occurrence of an event causing a change in the system dynamics is possibly delayed. The concept of stimulus activation, which triggers the realization of an event after a distributed time delay, was introduced. This gives a new understanding of competing events in the sequence delineation process.In the context of the level-2 probabilistic safety analysis (PSA), the information on stimulus activation mainly consists of regions of the process variables space where the activation can occur with a given probability. The evolution equations of the extended theory of probabilistic dynamics are therefore particularized to a transport process between discrete cells defined in phase-space on this basis. Doing so, an integrated and coherent approach to level-2 PSA problems is propounded. This amounts to including the stimulus concept and the associated stochastic delays discussed in the first paper in the frame of a cell-to-cell transport process.In addition, this discrete model provides a theoretical basis for the definition of appropriate numerical schemes for integrated level-2 PSA applications

  17. Analysis of individual cells identifies cell-to-cell variability following induction of cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Christopher D; Flynn, James M; Morrissey, Christapher; Lebofsky, Ronald; Shuga, Joe; Dong, Xiao; Unger, Marc A; Vijg, Jan; Melov, Simon; Campisi, Judith

    2017-10-01

    Senescent cells play important roles in both physiological and pathological processes, including cancer and aging. In all cases, however, senescent cells comprise only a small fraction of tissues. Senescent phenotypes have been studied largely in relatively homogeneous populations of cultured cells. In vivo, senescent cells are generally identified by a small number of markers, but whether and how these markers vary among individual cells is unknown. We therefore utilized a combination of single-cell isolation and a nanofluidic PCR platform to determine the contributions of individual cells to the overall gene expression profile of senescent human fibroblast populations. Individual senescent cells were surprisingly heterogeneous in their gene expression signatures. This cell-to-cell variability resulted in a loss of correlation among the expression of several senescence-associated genes. Many genes encoding senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors, a major contributor to the effects of senescent cells in vivo, showed marked variability with a subset of highly induced genes accounting for the increases observed at the population level. Inflammatory genes in clustered genomic loci showed a greater correlation with senescence compared to nonclustered loci, suggesting that these genes are coregulated by genomic location. Together, these data offer new insights into how genes are regulated in senescent cells and suggest that single markers are inadequate to identify senescent cells in vivo. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Harnessing cell-to-cell variations to probe bacterial structure and biophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Julie A.

    Advances in microscopy and biotechnology have given us novel insights into cellular biology and physics. While bacteria were long considered to be relatively unstructured, the development of fluorescence microscopy techniques, and spatially and temporally resolved high-throughput quantitative studies, have uncovered that the bacterial cell is highly organized, and its structure rigorously maintained. In this thesis I will describe our gateTool software, designed to harness cell-to-cell variations to probe bacterial structure, and discuss two exciting aspects of structure that we have employed gateTool to investigate: (i) chromosome organization and the cellular mechanisms for controlling DNA dynamics, and (ii) the study of cell wall synthesis, and how the genes in the synthesis pathway impact cellular shape. In the first project, we develop a spatial and temporal mapping of cell-cycle-dependent chromosomal organization, and use this quantitative map to discover that chromosomal loci segregate from midcell with universal dynamics. In the second project, I describe preliminary time- lapse and snapshot imaging analysis suggesting phentoypical coherence across peptidoglycan synthesis pathways.

  19. Ultraviolet-induced movement of the human DNA repair protein, xeroderma pigmentosum type G, in the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, M.S.; Knauf, J.A.; Pendergrass, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum type G (XPG) is a human genetic disease exhibiting extreme sensitivity to sunlight. XPG patients are defective XPG endonuclease, which is an enzyme essential for DNA repair of the major kinds of solar ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damages. Here we describe a novel dynamics of this protein within the cell nucleus after UV irradiation of human cells. USing confocal microscopy, we have localized the immunofluorescent, antigenic signal of XPG protein to foci throughout the cell nucleus. Our biochemical studies also established that XPG protein forms a tight association with nuclear structure(s). In human skin fibroblast cells, the number of XPG foci decreased within 2 h after UV irradiation, whereas total nuclear XPG fluorescence intensity remained constant, suggesting redistribution of XPG from a limited number of nuclear foci to the nucleus overall. Within 8 h after UV, most XPG antigenic signal was found as foci. Using β-galactosidase-XPG fusion constructs (β-gal-XPG) transfected into HeLa cells, we have identified a single region of XPG that is evidently responsible both for foci formation and for the UV dynamic response. The fusion protein carrying the C terminus of XPG (amino acids 1146-1185) localized β-gal specific antigenic signal to foci and to the nucleolus regions. After UV irradiation, antigenic β-gal translocated reversibly from the subnuclear structures to the whole nucleus with kinetics very similar to the movements of XPG protein. These findings lead us to propose a model in which distribution of XPG protein may regulate the rate of DNA repair within transcriptionally active and inactive compartments of the cell nucleus. 50 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTATIONAL MODELLING OF RIBOSOMAL MOVEMENT AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias von der Haar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Translation or protein synthesis consists of a complex system of chemical reactions, which ultimately result in decoding of the mRNA and the production of a protein. The complexity of this reaction system makes it difficult to quantitatively connect its input parameters (such as translation factor or ribosome concentrations, codon composition of the mRNA, or energy availability to output parameters (such as protein synthesis rates or ribosome densities on mRNAs. Mathematical and computational models of translation have now been used for nearly five decades to investigate translation, and to shed light on the relationship between the different reactions in the system. This review gives an overview over the principal approaches used in the modelling efforts, and summarises some of the major findings that were made.

  1. Cellular Interrogation: Exploiting Cell-to-Cell Variability to Discriminate Regulatory Mechanisms in Oscillatory Signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Javier; Andrew, Natalie; Gibson, Daniel; Chang, Frederick; Gnad, Florian; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2016-07-01

    The molecular complexity within a cell may be seen as an evolutionary response to the external complexity of the cell's environment. This suggests that the external environment may be harnessed to interrogate the cell's internal molecular architecture. Cells, however, are not only nonlinear and non-stationary, but also exhibit heterogeneous responses within a clonal, isogenic population. In effect, each cell undertakes its own experiment. Here, we develop a method of cellular interrogation using programmable microfluidic devices which exploits the additional information present in cell-to-cell variation, without requiring model parameters to be fitted to data. We focussed on Ca2+ signalling in response to hormone stimulation, which exhibits oscillatory spiking in many cell types and chose eight models of Ca2+ signalling networks which exhibit similar behaviour in simulation. We developed a nonlinear frequency analysis for non-stationary responses, which could classify models into groups under parameter variation, but found that this question alone was unable to distinguish critical feedback loops. We further developed a nonlinear amplitude analysis and found that the combination of both questions ruled out six of the models as inconsistent with the experimentally-observed dynamics and heterogeneity. The two models that survived the double interrogation were mathematically different but schematically identical and yielded the same unexpected predictions that we confirmed experimentally. Further analysis showed that subtle mathematical details can markedly influence non-stationary responses under parameter variation, emphasising the difficulty of finding a "correct" model. By developing questions for the pathway being studied, and designing more versatile microfluidics, cellular interrogation holds promise as a systematic strategy that can complement direct intervention by genetics or pharmacology.

  2. Mastoparan-Induced Intracellular Ca2+ Fluxes May Regulate Cell-to-Cell Communication in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, E. B.; Boss, W. F.

    1996-06-01

    The relationship of Ca2+ and plasmodesmatal closure was examined in staminal hairs of Setcreasea purpurea by microinjecting cells with active mastoparan (Mas-7), inactive mastoparan (Mas-17), active inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), or inactive IP3. Calcium green dextran 10,000 was used to study cellular free Ca2+, and carboxyfluorescein was used to monitor plasmodesmatal closure. When Mas-7 was microinjected into the cytoplasm of cell 1 (the tip cell of a chain of cells), a rapid increase in calcium green dextran-10,000 fluorescence was observed in the cytoplasmic areas on both sides of the plasmodesmata connecting cells 1 and 2 during the same time that the diffusion of carboxyfluorescein through them was blocked. The inhibition of cell-to-cell diffusion was transient, and the closed plasmodesmata reopened within 30 s. The elevated Ca2+ level near plasmodesmata was also transient and returned to base level in about 1.5 min. The transient increase in Ca2+, once initiated in cell 1, repeated with an oscillatory period of 3 min. Elevated Ca2+ and oscillations of Ca2+ were also observed near interconnecting cell walls throughout the chain of cells, indicating that the signal had been transmitted. Previously, we reported that IP3 closed plasmodesmata; now we report that it stimulated Ca2+ and oscillations similar to Mas-7. The effect was specific for similar concentrations of Mas-7 over Mas-17 and active IP3 over inactive IP3. It is important that the Ca2+ channel blocker La3+ eliminated the responses from Mas-7 and IP3, indicating that an influx of Ca2+ was required. These results support the contention that plasmodesmata functioning is regulated via Ca2+ and that IP3 may be an intermediary between the stimulus and Ca2+ elevations.

  3. HIV Cell-to-Cell Spread Results in Earlier Onset of Viral Gene Expression by Multiple Infections per Cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaël Boullé

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell-to-cell spread of HIV, a directed mode of viral transmission, has been observed to be more rapid than cell-free infection. However, a mechanism for earlier onset of viral gene expression in cell-to-cell spread was previously uncharacterized. Here we used time-lapse microscopy combined with automated image analysis to quantify the timing of the onset of HIV gene expression in a fluorescent reporter cell line, as well as single cell staining for infection over time in primary cells. We compared cell-to-cell spread of HIV to cell-free infection, and limited both types of transmission to a two-hour window to minimize differences due to virus transit time to the cell. The mean time to detectable onset of viral gene expression in cell-to-cell spread was accelerated by 19% in the reporter cell line and by 35% in peripheral blood mononuclear cells relative to cell-free HIV infection. Neither factors secreted by infected cells, nor contact with infected cells in the absence of transmission, detectably changed onset. We recapitulated the earlier onset by infecting with multiple cell-free viruses per cell. Surprisingly, the acceleration in onset of viral gene expression was not explained by cooperativity between infecting virions. Instead, more rapid onset was consistent with a model where the fastest expressing virus out of the infecting virus pool sets the time for infection independently of the other co-infecting viruses.

  4. Protein Conformational Plasticity: the 'off-on' Switching Movement in Cdk5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Recanatini, Maurizio; Berteotti, Anna; Branduardi, Davide; Gervasio, Francesco L.; Parrinello, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are mostly known for their role in the cell cycle regulation. The activation mechanism of all CDKs involves the association with a regulatory protein, generally a cyclin, that binds to the kinase unit and stabilizes a catalytically active conformation. Active and inactive conformations of CDKs are characterized by the different spatial localization of two typical elements, namely the activation loop and an □-helix, whose amino-acid composition varies throughout the family

  5. Perturbation of Incenp function impedes anaphase chromatid movements and chromosomal passenger protein flux at centromeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Leena J; Kukkonen, Anu M; Pouwels, Jeroen; Bolton, Margaret A; Jingle, Christopher D; Stukenberg, P Todd; Kallio, Marko J

    2009-02-01

    Incenp is an essential mitotic protein that, together with Aurora B, Survivin, and Borealin, forms the core of the chromosomal passenger protein complex (CPC). The CPC regulates various mitotic processes and functions to maintain genomic stability. The proper subcellular localization of the CPC and its full catalytic activity require the presence of each core subunit in the complex. We have investigated the mitotic tasks of the CPC using a function blocking antibody against Incenp microinjected into cells at different mitotic phases. This method allowed temporal analysis of CPC functions without perturbation of complex assembly or activity prior to injection. We have also studied the dynamic properties of Incenp and Aurora B using fusion protein photobleaching. We found that in early mitotic cells, Incenp and Aurora B exhibit dynamic turnover at centromeres, which is prevented by the anti-Incenp antibody. In these cells, the loss of centromeric CPC turnover is accompanied by forced mitotic exit without the execution of cytokinesis. Introduction of anti-Incenp antibody into early anaphase cells causes abnormalities in sister chromatid separation through defects in anaphase spindle functions. In summary, our data uncovers new mitotic roles for the CPC in anaphase and proposes that CPC turnover at centromeres modulates spindle assembly checkpoint signaling.

  6. Nephrotoxicity of Bence-Jones proteins: correlation with endocytosis by BHK cells and intracellular movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Nicastri

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the endocytosis of two Bence-Jones proteins by renal cells in order to elucidate the interference of their physical and chemical characteristics on nephrotoxicity. Bence-Jones proteins (AK and GL were purified and isolated from the urine of two patients with multiple myeloma. The isotype of both proteins was characterised as being human monoclonal lambda light chain. The AK protein presented mainly an Ip>7.0, a high content of galactose and a low amount of sialic acid molecules. On the other hand, the GL protein presented a single band with an Ip of 4.3, a higher level of sialic acid and a reduced amount of galactose, in comparison with the AK protein. Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK cells were maintained in culture in bottles at 37ºC, using DMEM culture media supplemented with 10% of calf serum with a pH of 7.4. Once the monolayer was observed to be confluent, the BHK cells were incubated with the two proteins, dissolved in a serum-free medium for 1, 5, 15, 30, 60 minutes and 24 hours. Control cells were established omitting the incubation with Bence-Jones proteins, but maintaining all of the other conditions. After, this the cells were washed, trypsinised, centrifuged and fixed in a solution of 4% paraformaldehyde and 0.5% glutaraldehyde on a 0.1 M, pH 7.4 phosphate buffer. Cells were processed for immunocytochemical reactions by using protein A coupled with colloidal gold and further silver enhancement. Semi-thin sections of the pellets were obtained and submitted to the cytochemical reactions. Detection of labelling was made by using light microscopy. It was observed that GL protein tended to be directed towards a perinuclear position, whereas the AK protein tended to suffer lysosomal deviation, suggesting that there is a direct contribution of physical and chemical characteristics on intracellular direction taken by Bence-Jones proteins.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a endocitose de duas prote

  7. A comparison of the lubrication behavior of whey protein model foods using tribology in linear and elliptical movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Caroline L; Foegeding, E Allen; van de Velde, Fred

    2017-08-01

    Lubrication is an important factor in the sensory evaluation of food products. Tribology provides a theoretical framework and instrumental methods for evaluating frictional properties between two moving surfaces and the lubrication behavior of products between these surfaces. Relating frictional measurements to sensory properties detected during oral processing requires careful and pertinent choices in surface materials and testing conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate: (a) differences in lubrication behavior of a range of food textures and (b) the differences between linear and elliptical movement and added saliva to understand the contribution of food structure to friction. Six whey protein model food samples, ranging in texture from fluid to semisolid to soft solid, were analyzed using a pin on disk tribometer to determine the coefficient of friction (COF) across a range of sliding speeds. The samples were analyzed in their initial form and post-oral processing (n = 4) in both linear and elliptical movements. Elliptical movement slightly decreased coefficients of friction and extended the shape of the friction curve. Increases in test food viscosity decreased the COF but differences in viscosity were not apparent when test foods were mixed with saliva. Data correction for viscosity shifted the friction curves horizontally, indicating that lubrication had a greater impact upon friction than viscosity. This study provides initial insights for further comparison of linear and elliptical movement with a variety of sample compositions. Sensory perception of smoothness and creaminess are often major contributors to overall hedonic food liking and are a major reason why products high in fat and sugar are more highly preferred over other foods. These parameters are influenced by friction and lubrication between the tongue, palate, teeth, food products, and saliva during oral processing. Tribology provides an instrumental method to evaluate friction

  8. Protein friction limits diffusive and directed movements of kinesin motors on microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormuth, Volker; Varga, Vladimir; Howard, Jonathon; Schäffer, Erik

    2009-08-14

    Friction limits the operation of macroscopic engines and is critical to the performance of micromechanical devices. We report measurements of friction in a biological nanomachine. Using optical tweezers, we characterized the frictional drag force of individual kinesin-8 motor proteins interacting with their microtubule tracks. At low speeds and with no energy source, the frictional drag was related to the diffusion coefficient by the Einstein relation. At higher speeds, the frictional drag force increased nonlinearly, consistent with the motor jumping 8 nanometers between adjacent tubulin dimers along the microtubule, and was asymmetric, reflecting the structural polarity of the microtubule. We argue that these frictional forces arise from breaking bonds between the motor domains and the microtubule, and they limit the speed and efficiency of kinesin.

  9. Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus NSs Protein Supports Infection and Systemic Movement of a Potyvirus and Is a Symptom Determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ruiz, Hernan; Gabriel Peralta, Sergio M; Harte-Maxwell, Patricia A

    2018-03-14

    Plant viruses are inducers and targets of antiviral RNA silencing. To condition susceptibility, most plant viruses encode silencing suppressor proteins that interfere with antiviral RNA silencing. The NSs protein is an RNA silencing suppressor in orthotospoviruses, such as the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The mechanism of RNA silencing suppression by NSs and its role in virus infection and movement are poorly understood. Here, we cloned and tagged TSWV NSs and expressed it from a GFP-tagged turnip mosaic virus (TuMV-GFP) carrying either a wild-type or suppressor-deficient (AS9) helper component proteinase (HC-Pro). When expressed in cis, NSs restored pathogenicity and promoted systemic infection of suppressor-deficient TuMV-AS9-GFP in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana . Inactivating mutations were introduced in NSs RNA-binding domain one. A genetic analysis with active and suppressor-deficient NSs, in combination with wild-type and mutant plants lacking essential components of the RNA silencing machinery, showed that the NSs insert is stable when expressed from a potyvirus. NSs can functionally replace potyviral HC-Pro, condition virus susceptibility, and promote systemic infection and symptom development by suppressing antiviral RNA silencing through a mechanism that partially overlaps that of potyviral HC-Pro. The results presented provide new insight into the mechanism of silencing suppression by NSs and its effect on virus infection.

  10. The Major Outer Membrane Protein MopB Is Required for Twitching Movement and Affects Biofilm Formation and Virulence in Two Xylella fastidiosa strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongyu; Kandel, Prem P; Cruz, Luisa F; Cobine, Paul A; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2017-11-01

    MopB is a major outer membrane protein (OMP) in Xylella fastidiosa, a bacterial plant pathogen that causes losses on many economically important crops. Based on in silico analysis, the uncharacterized MopB protein of X. fastidiosa contains a β-barrel structure with an OmpA-like domain and a predicted calcium-binding motif. Here, MopB function was studied by mutational analysis taking advantage of the natural competence of X. fastidiosa. Mutants of mopB were constructed in two different X. fastidiosa strains, the type strain Temecula and the more virulent WM1-1. Deletion of the mopB gene impaired cell-to-cell aggregation, surface attachment, and biofilm formation in both strains. Interestingly, mopB deletion completely abolished twitching motility. Electron microscopy of the bacterial cell surface revealed that mopB deletion eliminated type IV and type I pili formation, potentially caused by destabilization of the outer membrane. Both mopB mutants showed reduced virulence using tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) as a host under greenhouse conditions. These results suggest that MopB has pleiotropic functions in biofilm formation and twitching motility and is important for virulence of X. fastidiosa.

  11. Protein adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda F. Lorenz

    2018-01-01

    Nature uses a wide variety of chemicals for providing adhesion internally (e.g., cell to cell) and externally (e.g., mussels to ships and piers). This adhesive bonding is chemically and mechanically complex, involving a variety of proteins, carbohydrates, and other compounds.Consequently,the effect of protein structures on adhesive properties is only partially...

  12. Relative Roles of Gap Junction Channels and Cytoplasm in Cell-to-Cell Diffusion of Fluorescent Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranyos, Richard G. A.; Caveney, Stanley; Miller, James G.; Petersen, Nils O.

    1987-04-01

    Intercellular (tissue) diffusion of molecules requires cytoplasmic diffusion and diffusion through gap junctional (or cell-to-cell) channels. The rates of tissue and cytoplasmic diffusion of fluorescent tracers, expressed as an effective diffusion coefficient, De, and a cytoplasmic diffusion coefficient, Dcyt, have been measured among the developing epidermal cells of a larval beetle, Tenebrio molitor L., to determine the contribution of the junctional channels to intercellular diffusion. Tracer diffusion was measured by injecting fluorescent tracers into cells and quantitating the rate of subsequent spread into adjacent cells. Cytoplasmic diffusion was determined by fluorescence photobleaching. These experiments show that gap junctional channels constitute approximately 70-80% of the total cell-to-cell resistance to the diffusion of organic tracers at high concentrations in this tissue. At low concentrations, however, the binding of tracer to cytoplasm slows down the cytoplasmic diffusion, which may limit intercellular diffusion.

  13. An unusual dependence of human herpesvirus-8 glycoproteins-induced cell-to-cell fusion on heparan sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Vaibhav [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific and College of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Darmani, Nissar A.; Thrush, Gerald R. [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific and College of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Shukla, Deepak, E-mail: dshukla@uic.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2009-12-18

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is known to interact with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) for entry into a target cell. Here we investigated the role of HS during HHV-8 glycoproteins-induced cell fusion. Interestingly, the observed fusion demonstrated an unusual dependence on HS as evident from following lines of evidence: (1) a significant reduction in cell-to-cell fusion occurred when target cells were treated with heparinase; (2) in a competition assay, when the effector cells expressing HHV-8 glycoproteins were challenged with soluble HS, cell-to-cell fusion was reduced; and, (3) co-expression of HHV-8 glycoproteins gH-gL on target cells resulted in inhibition of cell surface HS expression. Taken together, our results indicate that cell surface HS can play an additional role during HHV-8 pathogenesis.

  14. An unusual dependence of human herpesvirus-8 Glycoproteins-induced cell-to-cell fusion on heparan sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vaibhav; Darmani, Nissar A.; Thrush, Gerald R.; Shukla, Deepak

    2009-01-01

    Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is known to interact with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) for entry into a target cell. Here we investigated the role of HS during HHV-8 glycoproteins induced cell fusion. Interestingly, the observed fusion demonstrated an unusual dependence on HS as evident from following lines of evidence: 1) a significant reduction in cell-to-cell fusion occurred when target cells were treated with heparinase; 2) in a competition assay, when the effector cells expressing HHV-8 glycoproteins were challenged with soluble HS, cell-to-cell fusion was reduced; and, 3) coexpression of HHV-8 glycoproteins gH-gL on target cells resulted in inhibition of cell surface HS expression. Taken together, our results indicate that cell surface HS can play an additional role during HHV-8 pathogenesis. PMID:19747451

  15. An unusual dependence of human herpesvirus-8 glycoproteins-induced cell-to-cell fusion on heparan sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Vaibhav; Darmani, Nissar A.; Thrush, Gerald R.; Shukla, Deepak

    2009-01-01

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is known to interact with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) for entry into a target cell. Here we investigated the role of HS during HHV-8 glycoproteins-induced cell fusion. Interestingly, the observed fusion demonstrated an unusual dependence on HS as evident from following lines of evidence: (1) a significant reduction in cell-to-cell fusion occurred when target cells were treated with heparinase; (2) in a competition assay, when the effector cells expressing HHV-8 glycoproteins were challenged with soluble HS, cell-to-cell fusion was reduced; and, (3) co-expression of HHV-8 glycoproteins gH-gL on target cells resulted in inhibition of cell surface HS expression. Taken together, our results indicate that cell surface HS can play an additional role during HHV-8 pathogenesis.

  16. Tobacco plants respond to the constitutive expression of the tospovirus movement protein Nsm with a heat-reversible sealing of plasmodesmata that impairs development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinne, P.L.H.; Boogaard, van den R.; Mensink, G.J.; Kopperud, C.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Goldbach, R.W.; Schoot, van der C.

    2005-01-01

    Viral infection often results in typical symptoms, the biological background of which has remained elusive. We show that constitutive expression of the NSM viral movement protein (MP) of tomato spotted wilt virus in Nicotiana tabacum is sufficient to induce severe, infection-like symptoms, including

  17. The regulated secretory pathway in CD4(+ T cells contributes to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 cell-to-cell spread at the virological synapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Jolly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct cell-cell spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1 at the virological synapse (VS is an efficient mode of dissemination between CD4(+ T cells but the mechanisms by which HIV-1 proteins are directed towards intercellular contacts is unclear. We have used confocal microscopy and electron tomography coupled with functional virology and cell biology of primary CD4(+ T cells from normal individuals and patients with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome and report that the HIV-1 VS displays a regulated secretion phenotype that shares features with polarized secretion at the T cell immunological synapse (IS. Cell-cell contact at the VS re-orientates the microtubule organizing center (MTOC and organelles within the HIV-1-infected T cell towards the engaged target T cell, concomitant with polarization of viral proteins. Directed secretion of proteins at the T cell IS requires specialized organelles termed secretory lysosomes (SL and we show that the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env localizes with CTLA-4 and FasL in SL-related compartments and at the VS. Finally, CD4(+ T cells that are disabled for regulated secretion are less able to support productive cell-to-cell HIV-1 spread. We propose that HIV-1 hijacks the regulated secretory pathway of CD4(+ T cells to enhance its dissemination.

  18. Serotonin Signaling in Schistosoma mansoni: A Serotonin–Activated G Protein-Coupled Receptor Controls Parasite Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mohammed; Ribeiro, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neuroactive substance in all the parasitic helminths. In Schistosoma mansoni, serotonin is strongly myoexcitatory; it potentiates contraction of the body wall muscles and stimulates motor activity. This is considered to be a critical mechanism of motor control in the parasite, but the mode of action of serotonin is poorly understood. Here we provide the first molecular evidence of a functional serotonin receptor (Sm5HTR) in S. mansoni. The schistosome receptor belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily and is distantly related to serotonergic type 7 (5HT7) receptors from other species. Functional expression studies in transfected HEK 293 cells showed that Sm5HTR is a specific serotonin receptor and it signals through an increase in intracellular cAMP, consistent with a 5HT7 signaling mechanism. Immunolocalization studies with a specific anti-Sm5HTR antibody revealed that the receptor is abundantly distributed in the worm's nervous system, including the cerebral ganglia and main nerve cords of the central nervous system and the peripheral innervation of the body wall muscles and tegument. RNA interference (RNAi) was performed both in schistosomulae and adult worms to test whether the receptor is required for parasite motility. The RNAi-suppressed adults and larvae were markedly hypoactive compared to the corresponding controls and they were also resistant to exogenous serotonin treatment. These results show that Sm5HTR is at least one of the receptors responsible for the motor effects of serotonin in S. mansoni. The fact that Sm5HTR is expressed in nerve tissue further suggests that serotonin stimulates movement via this receptor by modulating neuronal output to the musculature. Together, the evidence identifies Sm5HTR as an important neuronal protein and a key component of the motor control apparatus in S. mansoni. PMID:24453972

  19. Expression dynamics and ultrastructural localization of epitope-tagged Abutilon mosaic virus nuclear shuttle and movement proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinow, Tatjana; Tanwir, Fariha; Kocher, Cornelia; Krenz, Bjoern; Wege, Christina; Jeske, Holger

    2009-01-01

    The geminivirus Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) encodes two proteins which are essential for viral spread within plants. The nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) transfers viral DNA between the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas the movement protein (MP) facilitates transport between cells through plasmodesmata and long-distance via phloem. An inducible overexpression system for epitope-tagged NSP and MP in plants yielded unprecedented amounts of both proteins. Western blots revealed extensive posttranslational modification and truncation for MP, but not for NSP. Ultrastructural examination of Nicotiana benthamiana tissues showed characteristic nucleopathic alterations, including fibrillar rings, when epitope-tagged NSP and MP were simultaneously expressed in leaves locally infected with an AbMV DNA A in which the coat protein gene was replaced by a green fluorescent protein encoding gene. Immunogold labelling localized NSP in the nucleoplasm and in the fibrillar rings. MP appeared at the cell periphery, probably the plasma membrane, and plasmodesmata.

  20. A Nonlinear Mixed Effects Approach for Modeling the Cell-To-Cell Variability of Mig1 Dynamics in Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Almquist

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen a rapid development of experimental techniques that allow data collection from individual cells. These techniques have enabled the discovery and characterization of variability within a population of genetically identical cells. Nonlinear mixed effects (NLME modeling is an established framework for studying variability between individuals in a population, frequently used in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but its potential for studies of cell-to-cell variability in molecular cell biology is yet to be exploited. Here we take advantage of this novel application of NLME modeling to study cell-to-cell variability in the dynamic behavior of the yeast transcription repressor Mig1. In particular, we investigate a recently discovered phenomenon where Mig1 during a short and transient period exits the nucleus when cells experience a shift from high to intermediate levels of extracellular glucose. A phenomenological model based on ordinary differential equations describing the transient dynamics of nuclear Mig1 is introduced, and according to the NLME methodology the parameters of this model are in turn modeled by a multivariate probability distribution. Using time-lapse microscopy data from nearly 200 cells, we estimate this parameter distribution according to the approach of maximizing the population likelihood. Based on the estimated distribution, parameter values for individual cells are furthermore characterized and the resulting Mig1 dynamics are compared to the single cell times-series data. The proposed NLME framework is also compared to the intuitive but limited standard two-stage (STS approach. We demonstrate that the latter may overestimate variabilities by up to almost five fold. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of the inferred population model are used to predict the distribution of key characteristics of the Mig1 transient response. We find that with decreasing levels of post-shift glucose, the transient

  1. A LuxS-Dependent Cell-to-Cell Language Regulates Social Behavior and Development in Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardía, Esteban; Rovetto, Adrián J.; Arabolaza, Ana L.; Grau, Roberto R.

    2006-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication in bacteria is mediated by quorum-sensing systems (QSS) that produce chemical signal molecules called autoinducers (AI). In particular, LuxS/AI-2-dependent QSS has been proposed to act as a universal lexicon that mediates intra- and interspecific bacterial behavior. Here we report that the model organism Bacillus subtilis operates a luxS-dependent QSS that regulates its morphogenesis and social behavior. We demonstrated that B. subtilis luxS is a growth-phase-regula...

  2. Passive leg movement enhances interstitial VEGF protein, endothelial cell proliferation, and eNOS mRNA content in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Rufener, Nora; Nielsen, Jens J

    2008-01-01

    .05) in blood flow without a significant enhancement in oxygen uptake. Muscle interstitial fluid was sampled with microdialysis technique and analyzed for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and for the effect on endothelial cell proliferation. Biopsies obtained from the musculus vastus lateralis...... to cultured endothelial cells revealed that dialysate obtained during leg movement induced a 3.2-fold higher proliferation rate (P level fourfold above resting levels. VEGF mRNA and MMP-2 mRNA levels were...

  3. Inositol bisphosphate and inositol trisphosphate inhibit cell-to-cell passage of carboxyfluorescein in staminal hairs ofSetcreasea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, E B

    1988-06-01

    pH-buffered carboxyfluorescein (Buffered-CF) alone (control), or Buffered-CF solutions containing one of the following: (1)D-myo-inositol (I); (2)D-myo-inositol 2-monophosphate (IP1); (3)D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate (IP2); (4)D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3); (5)D-fructose 2,6-diphosphate (F-2,6P2) were microinjected into the terminal cells of staminal hairs ofSetcreasea purpurea Boom. Passage of the CF from this terminal cell along the chain of cells towards the filament was monitored for 5 min using fluorescence microscopy and quantified using computer-assisted fluorescence-intensity video analysis. Cell-to-cell transport of CF in hairs microinjected with Buffered-CF containing either I, IP1 or F-2,6P2 was similar to that in hairs microinjected with Buffered-CF only. On the other hand, cell-to-cell transport of CF in hairs microinjected with Buffered-CF containing either IP2 or IP3 was inhibited. These results indicate that polyphosphoinositols may be involved in the regulation of intercellular transport of low-molecular-weight, hydrophilic molecules in plants.

  4. Eavesdropping on altered cell-to-cell signaling in cancer by secretome profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinke, David J

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, cumulative clinical experiences with molecular targeted therapies and immunotherapies for cancer have promoted a shift in our conceptual understanding of cancer. This view shifted from viewing solid tumors as a homogeneous mass of malignant cells to viewing tumors as heterogeneous structures that are dynamically shaped by intercellular interactions among the variety of stromal, immune, and malignant cells present within the tumor microenvironment. As in any dynamic system, identifying how cells communicate to maintain homeostasis and how this communication is altered during oncogenesis are key hurdles for developing therapies to restore normal tissue homeostasis. Here, I discuss tissues as dynamic systems, using the mammary gland as an example, and the evolutionary concepts applied to oncogenesis. Drawing from these concepts, I present 2 competing hypotheses for how intercellular communication might be altered during oncogenesis. As an initial test of these competing hypotheses, a recent secretome comparison between normal human mammary and HER2+ breast cancer cell lines suggested that the particular proteins secreted by the malignant cells reflect a convergent evolutionary path associated with oncogenesis in a specific anatomical niche, despite arising in different individuals. Overall, this study illustrates the emerging power of secretome proteomics to probe, in an unbiased way, how intercellular communication changes during oncogenesis.

  5. Differential sensitivity of regulatory and effector T cells to cell death: a prerequisite for transplant tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvaine eYou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant progress achieved in transplantation, immunosuppressive therapies currently used to prevent graft rejection are still endowed with severe side effects impairing their efficiency over the long term. Thus, the development of graft-specific, non toxic innovative therapeutic strategies has become a major challenge, the goal being to selectively target alloreactive effector T cells while sparing CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs to promote operational tolerance. Various approaches, notably the one based on monoclonal antibodies or fusion proteins directed against the TCR/CD3 complex, TCR coreceptors, or costimulatory molecules, have been proposed to reduce the alloreactive T cell pool which is an essential prerequisite to create a therapeutic window allowing Tregs to induce and maintain allograft tolerance. In this minireview, we focus on the differential sensitivity of Tregs and effector T cells to the depleting and inhibitory effect of these immunotherapies, with a particular emphasis on CD3-specific antibodies that beyond their immunosuppressive effect, also express potent tolerogenic capacities.

  6. Exosomes released from breast cancer carcinomas stimulate cell movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinari A Harris

    Full Text Available For metastasis to occur cells must communicate with to their local environment to initiate growth and invasion. Exosomes have emerged as an important mediator of cell-to-cell signalling through the transfer of molecules such as mRNAs, microRNAs, and proteins between cells. Exosomes have been proposed to act as regulators of cancer progression. Here, we study the effect of exosomes on cell migration, an important step in metastasis. We performed cell migration assays, endocytosis assays, and exosome proteomic profiling on exosomes released from three breast cancer cell lines that model progressive stages of metastasis. Results from these experiments suggest: (1 exosomes promote cell migration and (2 the signal is stronger from exosomes isolated from cells with higher metastatic potentials; (3 exosomes are endocytosed at the same rate regardless of the cell type; (4 exosomes released from cells show differential enrichment of proteins with unique protein signatures of both identity and abundance. We conclude that breast cancer cells of increasing metastatic potential secrete exosomes with distinct protein signatures that proportionally increase cell movement and suggest that released exosomes could play an active role in metastasis.

  7. Cell-to-Cell Communication Circuits: Quantitative Analysis of Synthetic Logic Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman-Sommer, Marta; Supady, Adriana; Klipp, Edda

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals in the field of synthetic biology is the construction of cellular computation devices that could function in a manner similar to electronic circuits. To this end, attempts are made to create biological systems that function as logic gates. In this work we present a theoretical quantitative analysis of a synthetic cellular logic-gates system, which has been implemented in cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Regot et al., 2011). It exploits endogenous MAP kinase signaling pathways. The novelty of the system lies in the compartmentalization of the circuit where all basic logic gates are implemented in independent single cells that can then be cultured together to perform complex logic functions. We have constructed kinetic models of the multicellular IDENTITY, NOT, OR, and IMPLIES logic gates, using both deterministic and stochastic frameworks. All necessary model parameters are taken from literature or estimated based on published kinetic data, in such a way that the resulting models correctly capture important dynamic features of the included mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. We analyze the models in terms of parameter sensitivity and we discuss possible ways of optimizing the system, e.g., by tuning the culture density. We apply a stochastic modeling approach, which simulates the behavior of whole populations of cells and allows us to investigate the noise generated in the system; we find that the gene expression units are the major sources of noise. Finally, the model is used for the design of system modifications: we show how the current system could be transformed to operate on three discrete values. PMID:22934039

  8. 'Special K' and a Loss of Cell-To-Cell Adhesion in Proximal Tubule-Derived Epithelial Cells: Modulation of the Adherens Junction Complex by Ketamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Claire E.; Jin, Tianrong; Siamantouras, Eleftherios; Liu, Issac K-K; Jefferson, Kieran P.; Squires, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine, a mild hallucinogenic class C drug, is the fastest growing ‘party drug’ used by 16–24 year olds in the UK. As the recreational use of Ketamine increases we are beginning to see the signs of major renal and bladder complications. To date however, we know nothing of a role for Ketamine in modulating both structure and function of the human renal proximal tubule. In the current study we have used an established model cell line for human epithelial cells of the proximal tubule (HK2) to demonstrate that Ketamine evokes early changes in expression of proteins central to the adherens junction complex. Furthermore we use AFM single-cell force spectroscopy to assess if these changes functionally uncouple cells of the proximal tubule ahead of any overt loss in epithelial cell function. Our data suggests that Ketamine (24–48 hrs) produces gross changes in cell morphology and cytoskeletal architecture towards a fibrotic phenotype. These physical changes matched the concentration-dependent (0.1–1 mg/mL) cytotoxic effect of Ketamine and reflect a loss in expression of the key adherens junction proteins epithelial (E)- and neural (N)-cadherin and β-catenin. Down-regulation of protein expression does not involve the pro-fibrotic cytokine TGFβ, nor is it regulated by the usual increase in expression of Slug or Snail, the transcriptional regulators for E-cadherin. However, the loss in E-cadherin can be partially rescued pharmacologically by blocking p38 MAPK using SB203580. These data provide compelling evidence that Ketamine alters epithelial cell-to-cell adhesion and cell-coupling in the proximal kidney via a non-classical pro-fibrotic mechanism and the data provides the first indication that this illicit substance can have major implications on renal function. Understanding Ketamine-induced renal pathology may identify targets for future therapeutic intervention. PMID:24009666

  9. Strategy for signaling molecule detection by using an integrated microfluidic device coupled with mass spectrometry to study cell-to-cell communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Sifeng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Haifang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2013-01-15

    Cell-to-cell communication is a very important physiological behavior in life entity, and most of human behaviors are related to it. Although cell-to-cell communications are attracting much attention and financial support, rare methods have been successfully developed for in vitro cell-to-cell communication study. In this work, we developed a novel method for cell-to-cell communication study on an integrated microdevice, and signaling molecule and metabolites were online-detected by an electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometer (ESI-Q-TOF-MS) after on-chip solid-phase extraction. Moreover, we presented a "Surface Tension Plug" on a microchip to control cell-to-cell communication. The microdevice consists of three functional sections: cell coculture channel, targets pretreatment, and targets detection sections. To verify the feasibility of cell-to-cell communications on the integrated microdevice, we studied the communication between the 293 and the L-02 cells. Epinephrine and glucose were successfully detected using an ESI-Q-TOF-MS with short analysis time (communication study.

  10. CMEIAS-Aided Microscopy of the Spatial Ecology of Individual Bacterial Interactions Involving Cell-to-Cell Communication within Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank B. Dazzo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how the quantitative analytical tools of CMEIAS image analysis software can be used to investigate in situ microbial interactions involving cell-to-cell communication within biofilms. Various spatial pattern analyses applied to the data extracted from the 2-dimensional coordinate positioning of individual bacterial cells at single-cell resolution indicate that microbial colonization within natural biofilms is not a spatially random process, but rather involves strong positive interactions between communicating cells that influence their neighbors’ aggregated colonization behavior. Geostatistical analysis of the data provide statistically defendable estimates of the micrometer scale and interpolation maps of the spatial heterogeneity and local intensity at which these microbial interactions autocorrelate with their spatial patterns of distribution. Including in situ image analysis in cell communication studies fills an important gap in understanding the spatially dependent microbial ecophysiology that governs the intensity of biofilm colonization and its unique architecture.

  11. Bowel Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out of ... what you eat and drink. Sometimes a bowel movement isn't normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes ...

  12. Synaptotagmin SYTA forms ER-plasma membrane junctions that are recruited to plasmodesmata for plant virus movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Amit; Zheng, Judy Y; Lazarowitz, Sondra G

    2015-08-03

    Metazoan synaptotagmins are Ca(2+) sensors that regulate exocytosis and endocytosis in various cell types, notably in nerve and neuroendocrine cells [1, 2]. Recently, the structurally related extended synaptotagmins were shown to tether the cortical ER to the plasma membrane in human and yeast cells to maintain ER morphology and stabilize ER-plasma membrane (ER-PM) contact sites for intracellular lipid and Ca(2+) signaling [3, 4]. The Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYTA regulates endocytosis and the ability of plant virus movement proteins (MPs) to alter plasmodesmata to promote virus cell-to-cell transport [5, 6]. Yet how MPs modify plasmodesmata, the cellular functions of SYTA and how these aid MP activity, and the proteins essential to form plant cell ER-PM contact sites remain unknown. We addressed these questions using an Arabidopsis SYTA knockdown line syta-1 and a Tobamovirus movement protein MP(TVCV) [5, 7]. We report here that SYTA localized to ER-PM contact sites. These sites were depleted and the ER network collapsed in syta-1, and both reformed upon rescue with SYTA. MP(TVCV) accumulation in plasmodesmata, but not secretory trafficking, was also inhibited in syta-1. During infection, MP(TVCV) recruited SYTA to plasmodesmata, and SYTA and the cortical ER were subsequently remodeled to form viral replication sites adjacent to plasmodesmata in which MP(TVCV) and SYTA directly interacted caged within ER membrane. SYTA also accumulated in plasmodesmata active in MP(TVCV) transport. Our findings show that SYTA is essential to form ER-PM contact sites and suggest that MPs interact with SYTA to recruit these sites to alter plasmodesmata for virus cell-to-cell movement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Tripartite motif-containing protein 34 (TRIM34) colocalized with micronuclei chromosome and hampers its movement to equatorial plate during the metaphase stage of mitosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dakang; An, Xinye; Ji, Bing; Cheng, Yanli; Gao, Honglian; Tian, Mingming

    2016-06-01

    Objective To examine whether tripartite motif-containing protein 34 (TRIM34) is colocalized with micronuclei and investigate the influence on the movement of micronuclei chromosome in mitosis. Methods The eukaryotic expression vector TRIM34-pEGFP-N3 was constructed, identified and then transfected into HEK293T cells. With 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole 2HCI (DAPI) staining, the colocalization between TRIM34 and micronuclei was observed under a fluorescence microscope. Moreover, MitoTracker(R)Deep Red was used to identify the colocalization between the complex of TRIM34-micronulei and mitochondria under a confocal microscope. Finally, the effect of TRIM34 on the movement of micronuclei chromosome in mitosis was examined. Results DNA sequencing confirmed that the vector TRIM34-pEGFP-N3 was constructed successfully. A fluorescence microscope revealed that TRIM34 could be colocalized with micronuclei in HEK293T cells transfected with TRIM34-pEGFP-N3. In the same manner, a confocal microscope distinctly showed that TRIM34 was colocalized with micronuclei similarly in appearance. However, there was no distinguished colocalization relationship between the complex of TRIM34-micronulei and mitochondria. Interestingly, the micronuclei chromosome conjugated with TRIM34 was hardly transferred to equatorial plate during the metaphase stage of mitosis. Conclusion TRIM34 is colocalized with micronuclei chromosome and hampers its movement to equatorial plate in mitosis.

  14. Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Movement of the Wpd Flexible Loop of Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B in Complex with Halide Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Aline; Saenz-Méndez, Patricia; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Podjarny, Alberto D.; Ventura, Oscar N.

    2012-11-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a post-translational modification mechanism, crucial for the regulation of nearly all aspects of cell life. This dynamic, reversible process is regulated by the balanced opposing activity of protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatases. In particular, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is implicated in the regulation of the insulin-receptor activity, leptin-stimulated signal transduction pathways and other clinically relevant metabolic routes, and it has been found overexpressed or overregulated in human breasts, colon and ovary cancers. The WPD loop of the enzyme presents an inherent flexibility, and it plays a fundamental role in the enzymatic catalysis, turning it into a potential target in the design of new efficient PTP1B inhibitors. In order to determine the interactions that control the spatial conformation adopted by the WPD loop, complexes between the enzyme and halide ions (Br- and I- in particular) were crystallized and their crystallographic structure determined, and the collective movements of the aforementioned complexes were studied through Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. Both studies yielded concordant results, indicating the existence of a relationship between the identity of the ion present in the complex and the strength of the interactions it establishes with the surrounding protein residues.

  15. A cell-to-cell Markovian model for the reliability of a digital control system of a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Ian B.; Melo, Paulo F.F. Frutuoso e; Saldanha, Pedro L.C.

    2013-01-01

    With the shift of technology from analog to digital systems, due to the obsolescence of the older analog systems and the functional advantages of the digital ones, existing nuclear power plants have begun to replace their systems, while newer plants use digital systems from the beginning of their construction. However, the process of risk-informed analysis for digital systems has not been satisfactorily developed yet. Traditional methods, such as fault trees, have limitations, while dynamic methods are still in the tests stage and may be difficult to be applied to a real size probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) model. The objective of this paper is to study and obtain a better comprehension of the Markov/CCMT method, a method that combines the traditional Markovian methodology with the cell-to-cell mapping technique for representing the possible failure events that can be originated in the dynamic interactions between the instrumentation and control system and the controlled process, and among the various components of the digital system. The study consists of the simulation of a digital water level control system of the steam generator of a PWR plant. From this simulation, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) was made and the information obtained was used to calculate the system reliability, using the Markov/CCMT methodology. The results show that the method is capable of identifying the most probable causes for a possible failure of the digital system. (author)

  16. Automated image-based assay for evaluation of HIV neutralization and cell-to-cell fusion inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheik-Khalil, Enas; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Özkaya Şahin, Gülsen; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Jansson, Marianne; Carpenter, Anne E; Fenyö, Eva Maria

    2014-08-30

    Standardized techniques to detect HIV-neutralizing antibody responses are of great importance in the search for an HIV vaccine. Here, we present a high-throughput, high-content automated plaque reduction (APR) assay based on automated microscopy and image analysis that allows evaluation of neutralization and inhibition of cell-cell fusion within the same assay. Neutralization of virus particles is measured as a reduction in the number of fluorescent plaques, and inhibition of cell-cell fusion as a reduction in plaque area. We found neutralization strength to be a significant factor in the ability of virus to form syncytia. Further, we introduce the inhibitory concentration of plaque area reduction (ICpar) as an additional measure of antiviral activity, i.e. fusion inhibition. We present an automated image based high-throughput, high-content HIV plaque reduction assay. This allows, for the first time, simultaneous evaluation of neutralization and inhibition of cell-cell fusion within the same assay, by quantifying the reduction in number of plaques and mean plaque area, respectively. Inhibition of cell-to-cell fusion requires higher quantities of inhibitory reagent than inhibition of virus neutralization.

  17. Origins of Cell-to-Cell Bioprocessing Diversity and Implications of the Extracellular Environment Revealed at the Single-Cell Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasdekis, A E; Silverman, A M; Stephanopoulos, G

    2015-12-14

    Bioprocess limitations imposed by microbial cell-to-cell phenotypic diversity remain poorly understood. To address this, we investigated the origins of such culture diversity during lipid production and assessed the impact of the fermentation microenvironment. We measured the single-cell lipid production dynamics in a time-invariant microfluidic environment and discovered that production is not monotonic, but rather sporadic with time. To characterize this, we introduce bioprocessing noise and identify its epigenetic origins. We linked such intracellular production fluctuations with cell-to-cell productivity diversity in culture. This unmasked the phenotypic diversity amplification by the culture microenvironment, a critical parameter in strain engineering as well as metabolic disease treatment.

  18. Movement - uncoordinated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... Smooth graceful movement requires a balance between different muscle groups. A part of the brain called the cerebellum manages this balance.

  19. Slope movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    2009-01-01

    On this poster some reasons of slope movements on the territory of the Slovak Republic are presented. Slope movements induced deterioration of land and forests, endangering of towns villages, and communications as well as hydro-engineering structures. Methods of preventing and stabilisation of slope movements are presented.

  20. Myotube formation is affected by adipogenic lineage cells in a cell-to-cell contact-independent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takegahara, Yuki; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-01-01

    Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) formation is observed in some pathological conditions such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and sarcopenia. Several studies have suggested that IMAT formation is not only negatively correlated with skeletal muscle mass but also causes decreased muscle contraction in sarcopenia. In the present study, we examined w hether adipocytes affect myogenesis. For this purpose, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were transfected with siRNA of PPARγ (siPPARγ) in an attempt to inhibit adipogenesis. Myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotube formation was promoted in cells transfected with siPPARγ compared to that of cells transfected with control siRNA. To determine whether direct cell-to-cell contact between adipocytes and myoblasts is a prerequisite for adipocytes to affect myogenesis, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with pre- or mature adipocytes in a Transwell coculture system. MHC-positive myotube formation was inhibited when skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with mature adipocytes, but was promoted when they were cocultured with preadipocytes. Similar effects were observed when pre- or mature adipocyte-conditioned medium was used. These results indicate that preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass by promoting myogenesis; once differentiated, the resulting mature adipocytes negatively affect myogenesis, leading to the muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of pre- and mature adipocytes on myogenesis in vitro. • Preadipocytes and mature adipocytes affect myoblast fusion. • Preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass. • Mature adipocytes lead to muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies

  1. The Azospirillum brasilense Che1 chemotaxis pathway controls swimming velocity, which affects transient cell-to-cell clumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Amber; Russell, Matthew H; Alexandre, Gladys

    2012-07-01

    The Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway of Azospirillum brasilense contributes to chemotaxis and aerotaxis, and it has also been found to contribute to regulating changes in cell surface adhesive properties that affect the propensity of cells to clump and to flocculate. The exact contribution of Che1 to the control of chemotaxis and flocculation in A. brasilense remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Che1 affects reversible cell-to-cell clumping, a cellular behavior in which motile cells transiently interact by adhering to one another at their nonflagellated poles before swimming apart. Clumping precedes and is required for flocculation, and both processes appear to be independently regulated. The phenotypes of a ΔaerC receptor mutant and of mutant strains lacking cheA1, cheY1, cheB1, or cheR1 (alone or in combination) or with che1 deleted show that Che1 directly mediates changes in the flagellar swimming velocity and that this behavior directly modulates the transient nature of clumping. Our results also suggest that an additional receptor(s) and signaling pathway(s) are implicated in mediating other Che1-independent changes in clumping identified in the present study. Transient clumping precedes the transition to stable clump formation, which involves the production of specific extracellular polysaccharides (EPS); however, production of these clumping-specific EPS is not directly controlled by Che1 activity. Che1-dependent clumping may antagonize motility and prevent chemotaxis, thereby maintaining cells in a metabolically favorable niche.

  2. Myotube formation is affected by adipogenic lineage cells in a cell-to-cell contact-independent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takegahara, Yuki; Yamanouchi, Keitaro, E-mail: akeita@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-05-15

    Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) formation is observed in some pathological conditions such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and sarcopenia. Several studies have suggested that IMAT formation is not only negatively correlated with skeletal muscle mass but also causes decreased muscle contraction in sarcopenia. In the present study, we examined w hether adipocytes affect myogenesis. For this purpose, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were transfected with siRNA of PPARγ (siPPARγ) in an attempt to inhibit adipogenesis. Myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotube formation was promoted in cells transfected with siPPARγ compared to that of cells transfected with control siRNA. To determine whether direct cell-to-cell contact between adipocytes and myoblasts is a prerequisite for adipocytes to affect myogenesis, skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with pre- or mature adipocytes in a Transwell coculture system. MHC-positive myotube formation was inhibited when skeletal muscle progenitor cells were cocultured with mature adipocytes, but was promoted when they were cocultured with preadipocytes. Similar effects were observed when pre- or mature adipocyte-conditioned medium was used. These results indicate that preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass by promoting myogenesis; once differentiated, the resulting mature adipocytes negatively affect myogenesis, leading to the muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of pre- and mature adipocytes on myogenesis in vitro. • Preadipocytes and mature adipocytes affect myoblast fusion. • Preadipocytes play an important role in maintaining skeletal muscle mass. • Mature adipocytes lead to muscle deterioration observed in skeletal muscle pathologies.

  3. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Colon Cancer Cells through Direct Cell-to-Cell Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko Takigawa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that in an orthotopic nude mouse model of human colon cancer, bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs migrated to the tumor stroma and promoted tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we evaluated the proliferation and migration ability of cancer cells cocultured with MSCs to elucidate the mechanism of interaction between cancer cells and MSCs. Proliferation and migration of cancer cells increased following direct coculture with MSCs but not following indirect coculture. Thus, we hypothesized that direct contact between cancer cells and MSCs was important. We performed a microarray analysis of gene expression in KM12SM colon cancer cells directly cocultured with MSCs. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT–related genes such as fibronectin (FN, SPARC, and galectin 1 was increased by direct coculture with MSCs. We also confirmed the upregulation of these genes with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gene expression was not elevated in cancer cells indirectly cocultured with MSCs. Among the EMT-related genes upregulated by direct coculture with MSCs, we examined the immune localization of FN, a well-known EMT marker. In coculture assay in chamber slides, expression of FN was seen only at the edges of cancer clusters where cancer cells directly contacted MSCs. FN expression in cancer cells increased at the tumor periphery and invasive edge in orthotopic nude mouse tumors and human colon cancer tissues. These results suggest that MSCs induce EMT in colon cancer cells via direct cell-to-cell contact and may play an important role in colon cancer metastasis.

  4. Intact plant MRI for the study of cell water relations, membrane permeability, cell-to-cell and long distance water transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, van H.

    2007-01-01

    Water content and hydraulic conductivity, including transport within cells, over membranes, cell-to-cell, and long-distance xylem and phloem transport, are strongly affected by plant water stress. By being able to measure these transport processes non-invasely in the intact plant situation in

  5. A Cell-to-Cell Battery Equalizer With Zero-Current Switching and Zero-Voltage Gap Based on Quasi-Resonant LC Converter and Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Yunlong; Zhang, Chenghui; Cui, Naxin

    2015-01-01

    these difficulties, an innovative direct cell-to-cell battery equalizer based on quasi-resonant LC converter (QRLCC) and boost DC-DC converter (BDDC) is proposed. The QRLCC is employed to gain zero-current switching (ZCS), leading to a reduction of power losses. The BDDC is employed to enhance the equalization...

  6. Structural and temporal requirements of Wnt/PCP protein Vangl2 function for convergence and extension movements and facial branchiomotor neuron migration in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiufang; Sittaramane, Vinoth; Gurung, Suman; Chandrasekhar, Anand

    2014-02-01

    Van gogh-like 2 (Vangl2), a core component of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway, is a four-pass transmembrane protein with N-terminal and C-terminal domains located in the cytosol, and is structurally conserved from flies to mammals. In vertebrates, Vangl2 plays an essential role in convergence and extension (CE) movements during gastrulation and in facial branchiomotor (FBM) neuron migration in the hindbrain. However, the roles of specific Vangl2 domains, of membrane association, and of specific extracellular and intracellular motifs have not been examined, especially in the context of FBM neuron migration. Through heat shock-inducible expression of various Vangl2 transgenes, we found that membrane associated functions of the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of Vangl2 are involved in regulating FBM neuron migration. Importantly, through temperature shift experiments, we found that the critical period for Vangl2 function coincides with the initial stages of FBM neuron migration out of rhombomere 4. Intriguingly, we have also uncovered a putative nuclear localization motif in the C-terminal domain that may play a role in regulating CE movements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Localized Movement and Levels of 53BP1 Protein Are Changed by gamma-irradiation in PML Deficient Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Legartová, Soňa; Sehnalová, Petra; Malyšková, B.; Kuntziger, T.; Collas, P.; Cmarko, D.; Raška, I.; Sorokin, D.V.; Kozubek, Stanislav; Bártová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 11 (2016), s. 2583-2596 ISSN 0730-2312 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP302/12/G157; GA ČR GA13-07822S; GA MŠk 7F14369 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : DNA REPAIR * 53BP1 PROTEIN * PML BODIES Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.085, year: 2016

  8. Intercellular transfer of P-glycoprotein from the drug resistant human bladder cancer cell line BIU-87 does not require cell-to-cell contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui-liang; Zheng, Yong-jun; Cheng, Xiao-zhi; Lv, Yi-song; Gao, Rui; Mao, Hou-ping; Chen, Qin

    2013-09-01

    The efflux activity of transmembrane P-glycoprotein prevents various therapeutic drugs from reaching lethal concentrations in cancer cells, resulting in multidrug resistance. We investigated whether drug resistant bladder cancer cells could transfer functional P-glycoprotein to sensitive parental cells. Drug sensitive BIU-87 bladder cancer cells were co-cultured for 48 hours with BIU-87/ADM, a doxorubicin resistant derivative of the same cell line, in a Transwell® system that prevented cell-to-cell contact. The presence of P-glycoprotein in recipient cell membranes was established using fluorescein isothiocyanate, laser scanning confocal microscopy and Western blot. P-glycoprotein mRNA levels were compared between cell types. Rhodamine 123 efflux assay was done to confirm that P-glycoprotein was biologically active. The amount of P-glycoprotein protein in BIU-87 cells co-cultured with BIU-87/ADM was significantly higher than in BIU-87 cells (0.44 vs 0.25) and BIU-87/H33342 cells (0.44 vs 0.26, each p transfer. P-glycoprotein mRNA expression was significantly higher in BIU-87/ADM cells than in co-cultured BIU-87 cells (1.28 vs 0.30), BIU-87/H33342 (0.28) and BIU-87 cells (0.25, each p <0.001), ruling out a genetic mechanism. After 30 minutes of efflux, rhodamine 123 fluorescence intensity was significantly lower in BIU-87/ADM cells (5.55 vs 51.45, p = 0.004) and co-cultured BIU-87 cells than in BIU-87 cells (14.22 vs 51.45, p <0.001), indicating that P-glycoprotein was functional. Bladder cancer cells can acquire functional P-glycoprotein through a nongenetic mechanism that does not require direct cell contact. This mechanism is consistent with a microparticle mediated process. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  10. Protein kinase C and extracellular signal-regulated kinase regulate movement, attachment, pairing and egg release in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Ressurreição

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinases C (PKCs and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs are evolutionary conserved cell signalling enzymes that coordinate cell function. Here we have employed biochemical approaches using 'smart' antibodies and functional screening to unravel the importance of these enzymes to Schistosoma mansoni physiology. Various PKC and ERK isotypes were detected, and were differentially phosphorylated (activated throughout the various S. mansoni life stages, suggesting isotype-specific roles and differences in signalling complexity during parasite development. Functional kinase mapping in adult worms revealed that activated PKC and ERK were particularly associated with the adult male tegument, musculature and oesophagus and occasionally with the oesophageal gland; other structures possessing detectable activated PKC and/or ERK included the Mehlis' gland, ootype, lumen of the vitellaria, seminal receptacle and excretory ducts. Pharmacological modulation of PKC and ERK activity in adult worms using GF109203X, U0126, or PMA, resulted in significant physiological disturbance commensurate with these proteins occupying a central position in signalling pathways associated with schistosome muscular activity, neuromuscular coordination, reproductive function, attachment and pairing. Increased activation of ERK and PKC was also detected in worms following praziquantel treatment, with increased signalling associated with the tegument and excretory system and activated ERK localizing to previously unseen structures, including the cephalic ganglia. These findings support roles for PKC and ERK in S. mansoni homeostasis, and identify these kinase groups as potential targets for chemotherapeutic treatments against human schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of enormous public health significance.

  11. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Constraint-induced movement therapy promotes motor function recovery and downregulates phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase expression in ischemic brain tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor function impairment is a common outcome of stroke. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT involving intensive use of the impaired limb while restraining the unaffected limb is widely used to overcome the effects of ′learned non-use′ and improve limb function after stroke. However, the underlying mechanism of CIMT remains unclear. In the present study, rats were randomly divided into a middle cerebral artery occlusion (model group, a CIMT + model (CIMT group, or a sham group. Restriction of the affected limb by plaster cast was performed in the CIMT and sham groups. Compared with the model group, CIMT significantly improved the forelimb functional performance in rats. By western blot assay, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase in the bilateral cortex and hippocampi of cerebral ischemic rats in the CIMT group was significantly lower than that in the model group, and was similar to sham group levels. These data suggest that functional recovery after CIMT may be related to decreased expression of phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase in the bilateral cortex and hippocampi.

  13. RovS and its associated signaling peptide form a cell-to-cell communication system required for Streptococcus agalactiae pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pascual, David; Gaudu, Philippe; Fleuchot, Betty; Besset, Colette; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle; Guillot, Alain; Monnet, Véronique; Gardan, Rozenn

    2015-01-20

    Bacteria can communicate with each other to coordinate their biological functions at the population level. In a previous study, we described a cell-to-cell communication system in streptococci that involves a transcriptional regulator belonging to the Rgg family and short hydrophobic peptides (SHPs) that act as signaling molecules. Streptococcus agalactiae, an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium responsible for fatal infections in neonates and immunocompromised adults, has one copy of the shp/rgg locus. The SHP-associated Rgg is called RovS in S. agalactiae. In this study, we found that the SHP/RovS cell-to-cell communication system is active in the strain NEM316 of S. agalactiae, and we identified different partners that are involved in this system, such as the Eep peptidase, the PptAB, and the OppA1-F oligopeptide transporters. We also identified a new target gene controlled by this system and reexamined the regulation of a previously proposed target gene, fbsA, in the context of the SHP-associated RovS system. Furthermore, our results are the first to indicate the SHP/RovS system specificity to host liver and spleen using a murine model, which demonstrates its implication in streptococci virulence. Finally, we observed that SHP/RovS regulation influences S. agalactiae's ability to adhere to and invade HepG2 hepatic cells. Hence, the SHP/RovS cell-to-cell communication system appears to be an essential mechanism that regulates pathogenicity in S. agalactiae and represents an attractive target for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Rgg regulators and their cognate pheromones, called small hydrophobic peptides (SHPs), are present in nearly all streptococcal species. The general pathways of the cell-to-cell communication system in which Rgg and SHP take part are well understood. However, many other players remain unidentified, and the direct targets of the system, as well as its link to virulence, remain unclear. Here, we identified the different players

  14. Analysis of viral (zucchini yellow mosaic virus) genetic diversity during systemic movement through a Cucurbita pepo vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J P; Simmons, H E; Holmes, E C; Stephenson, A G

    2014-10-13

    Determining the extent and structure of intra-host genetic diversity and the magnitude and impact of population bottlenecks is central to understanding the mechanisms of viral evolution. To determine the nature of viral evolution following systemic movement through a plant, we performed deep sequencing of 23 leaves that grew sequentially along a single Cucurbita pepo vine that was infected with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and on a leaf that grew in on a side branch. Strikingly, of 112 genetic (i.e. sub-consensus) variants observed in the data set as a whole, only 22 were found in multiple leaves. Similarly, only three of the 13 variants present in the inoculating population were found in the subsequent leaves on the vine. Hence, it appears that systemic movement is characterized by sequential population bottlenecks, although not sufficient to reduce the population to a single virion as multiple variants were consistently transmitted between leaves. In addition, the number of variants within a leaf increases as a function of distance from the inoculated (source) leaf, suggesting that the circulating sap may serve as a continual source of virus. Notably, multiple mutational variants were observed in the cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein (known to be involved in both cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus) that were present in multiple (19/24) leaf samples. These mutations resulted in a conformational change, suggesting that they might confer a selective advantage in systemic movement within the vine. Overall, these data reveal that bottlenecks occur during systemic movement, that variants circulate in the phloem sap throughout the infection process, and that important conformational changes in CI protein may arise during individual infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Protest movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucht, D.

    1989-01-01

    The author describes the development of protest movements in postwar Germay and outlines two essential overlapping 'flow cycles'. The first of these was characterised by the restaurative postwar years. It culminated and ended in the students' revolt. This revolt is at the same time the start of a second cycle of protest which encompasses all subsequent individual movement and is initated by an economic, political and sociocultural procrastination of modernisation. This cycle culminates in the late 70s and early 80s and clearly lost momentum over the last few years. The follwoing phases and themes are described profoundly: against restauration and armament in the 1950; the revolutionary impatience of the students' movement, politisation of everyday life by the womens' movement and citizens' action groups, antinuclear- and ecological movement, differentiation and stabilisation of the movement in the 70s and 80s; break-up and continuity in the German protest behaviour. The paper contains a detailed chronicle of protest activities since 1945. (orig.) [de

  16. Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) glycoprotein K is required for efficient cell-to-cell spread and virus egress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, Antonie; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2004-01-01

    The function of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) glycoprotein K (gK) homologue was investigated. Deletion of 88% of the UL53-homologous open reading frame in EHV-1 strain RacH resulted in a severe growth defect of the gK-negative virus (HΔgK) as reflected by a significant decrease in the production of infectious virus progeny on RK13 cells. The HΔgK virus induced only minute plaques, was unable to form syncytia, and its penetration efficiency into RK13 cells was reduced by approximately 40%. To further analyze gK function and intracellular trafficking, gK of strain RacH was replaced by a C-terminally truncated gK-green fluorescent protein fusion protein (gK-GFP). The generated recombinant virus was shown to replicate well on non-complementing cells, and virus penetration and syncytium formation were comparable to parental RacH. A reduction in plaque size and slightly decreased intra- and extracellular virus titers, however, were observed. The gK-GFP fusion protein was expressed with early-late kinetics, and multiple forms of the protein exhibiting M r s between 50,000 and 85,000 were detected by Western blot analysis. The various gK-GFP forms were shown to be N-glycosylated, associated with membranes of the Golgi apparatus, and were incorporated into extracellular virions. Complete processing of gK-GFP was only observed within the context of viral infection. From the results, we concluded that EHV-1 gK is required for efficient virus growth in vitro and that the carboxy-terminal amino acids are not required for its function, because the gK-GFP fusion protein was able to complement for EHV-1 growth in the absence of authentic gK

  17. Paraneoplastic autoimmune movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Thien Thien

    2017-11-01

    To provide an overview of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders presenting with various movement disorders. The spectrum of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders has been expanding with the discovery of new antibodies against cell surface and intracellular antigens. Many of these paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders manifest as a form of movement disorder. With the discovery of new neuronal antibodies, an increasing number of idiopathic or neurodegenerative movement disorders are now being reclassified as immune-mediated movement disorders. These include anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis which may present with orolingual facial dyskinesia and stereotyped movements, CRMP-5 IgG presenting with chorea, anti-Yo paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration presenting with ataxia, anti-VGKC complex (Caspr2 antibodies) neuromyotonia, opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome, and muscle rigidity and episodic spasms (amphiphysin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, glycine receptor, GABA(A)-receptor associated protein antibodies) in stiff-person syndrome. Movement disorders may be a presentation for paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders. Recognition of these disorders and their common phenomenology is important because it may lead to the discovery of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. RNA-binding properties and mapping of the RNA-binding domain from the movement protein of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, M Carmen; Pallás, Vicente

    2004-03-01

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is involved in intercellular virus transport. In this study, putative RNA-binding properties of the PNRSV MP were studied. The PNRSV MP was produced in Escherichia coli using an expression vector. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) using DIG-labelled riboprobes demonstrated that PNRSV MP bound ssRNA cooperatively without sequence specificity. Two different ribonucleoprotein complexes were found to be formed depending on the molar MP : PNRSV RNA ratio. The different responses of the complexes to urea treatment strongly suggested that they have different structural properties. Deletion mutagenesis followed by Northwestern analysis allowed location of a nucleic acid binding domain to aa 56-88. This 33 aa RNA-binding motif is the smallest region delineated among members of the family Bromoviridae for which RNA-binding properties have been demonstrated. This domain is highly conserved within all phylogenetic subgroups previously described for PNRSV isolates. Interestingly, the RNA-binding domain described here and the one described for Alfamovirus are located at the N terminus of their corresponding MPs, whereas similar domains previously characterized in members of the genera Bromovirus and Cucumovirus are present at the C terminus, strongly reflecting their corresponding phylogenetic relationships. The evolutionary implications of this observation are discussed.

  19. Characterization of the N-terminal segment used by the barley yellow dwarf virus movement protein to promote interaction with the nuclear membrane of host plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Sarah Rachel; Harris, Frederick; Brandenburg, Klaus; Phoenix, David Andrew

    2007-11-01

    The barley yellow dwarf virus movement protein (BYDV-MP) requires its N-terminal sequence to promote the transport of viral RNA into the nuclear compartment of host plant cells. Here, graphical analysis predicts that this sequence would form a membrane interactive amphiphilic alpha-helix. Confirming this prediction, NT1, a peptide homologue of the BYDV-MP N-terminal sequence, was found to be alpha-helical (65%) in the presence of vesicles mimics of the nuclear membrane. The peptide increased the fluidity of these nuclear membrane mimics (rise in wavenumber of circa 0.5-1.0 cm(-1)) and induced surface pressure changes of 2 mN m(-1) in lipid monolayers with corresponding compositions. Taken with isotherm analysis these results suggest that BYDV-MP forms an N-terminal amphiphilic alpha-helix, which partitions into the nuclear membrane primarily through thermodynamically stable associations with the membrane lipid headgroup region. We speculate that these associations may play a role in targeting of the nuclear membrane by BYDM-MP.

  20. Oxygen-Dependent Cell-to-Cell Variability in the Output of the Escherichia coli Tor Phosphorelay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggiani, Manuela; Goulian, Mark

    2015-06-15

    Escherichia coli senses and responds to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in the environment through the TorT-TorS-TorR signal transduction system. The periplasmic protein TorT binds TMAO and stimulates the hybrid kinase TorS to phosphorylate the response regulator TorR through a phosphorelay. Phosphorylated TorR, in turn, activates transcription of the torCAD operon, which encodes the proteins required for anaerobic respiration via reduction of TMAO to trimethylamine. Interestingly, E. coli respires TMAO in both the presence and absence of oxygen, a behavior that is markedly different from the utilization of other alternative electron acceptors by this bacterium. Here we describe an unusual form of regulation by oxygen for this system. While the average level of torCAD transcription is the same for aerobic and anaerobic cultures containing TMAO, the behavior across the population of cells is strikingly different under the two growth conditions. Cellular levels of torCAD transcription in aerobic cultures are highly heterogeneous, in contrast to the relatively homogeneous distribution in anaerobic cultures. Thus, oxygen regulates the variance of the output but not the mean for the Tor system. We further show that this oxygen-dependent variability stems from the phosphorelay. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is utilized by numerous bacteria as an electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. In E. coli, expression of the proteins required for TMAO respiration is tightly regulated by a signal transduction system that is activated by TMAO. Curiously, although oxygen is the energetically preferred electron acceptor, TMAO is respired even in the presence of oxygen. Here we describe an interesting and unexpected form of regulation for this system in which oxygen produces highly variable expression of the TMAO utilization proteins across a population of cells without affecting the mean expression of these proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first reported example of a stimulus

  1. Virus movements on the plasma membrane support infection and transmission between cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph J Burckhardt

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available How viruses are transmitted across the mucosal epithelia of the respiratory, digestive, or excretory tracts, and how they spread from cell to cell and cause systemic infections, is incompletely understood. Recent advances from single virus tracking experiments have revealed conserved patterns of virus movements on the plasma membrane, including diffusive motions, drifting motions depending on retrograde flow of actin filaments or actin tail formation by polymerization, and confinement to submicrometer areas. Here, we discuss how viruses take advantage of cellular mechanisms that normally drive the movements of proteins and lipids on the cell surface. A concept emerges where short periods of fast diffusive motions allow viruses to rapidly move over several micrometers. Coupling to actin flow supports directional transport of virus particles during entry and cell-cell transmission, and local confinement coincides with either nonproductive stalling or infectious endocytic uptake. These conserved features of virus-host interactions upstream of infectious entry offer new perspectives for anti-viral interference.

  2. A member of a new plant gene family encoding a meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain-containing protein is involved in restriction of long distance movement of plant viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosson, Patrick; Sofer, Luc; Schurdi-Levraud, Valérie

    2010-01-01

    Restriction of long distance movement of several potyviruses in Arabidopsis thaliana is controlled by at least three dominant restricted TEV movement (RTM) genes, named RTM1, RTM2 and RTM3 and acts as a non-conventional resistance. RTM1 encodes a protein belonging to the jacalin family and RTM2 encodes a protein which has similarities to small heat shock proteins. The recent cloning of RTM3 which encodes a protein belonging to an unknown protein family of 29 members that has a meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain in its N-terminal region and a coiled-coil (CC) domain at its C-terminal end is an important breakthrough for a better understanding of this resistance process. Not only the third gene involved in this resistance has been identified and has allowed revealing a new gene family in plant but the discovery that the RTM3 protein interacts directly with RTM1 strongly suggests that the RTM proteins form a multimeric complex. However, these data also highlight striking similarities of the RTM resistance with the well known R-gene mediated resistance. PMID:20930558

  3. Genetic analysis of the SARS-coronavirus spike glycoprotein functional domains involved in cell-surface expression and cell-to-cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Chad M.; Melancon, Jeffrey M.; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Colgrove, Robin; Farzan, Michael; Knipe, David M.; Kousoulas, K.G.

    2005-01-01

    The SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the etiological agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein mediates membrane fusion events during virus entry and virus-induced cell-to-cell fusion. To delineate functional domains of the SARS-CoV S glycoprotein, single point mutations, cluster-to-lysine and cluster-to-alanine mutations, as well as carboxyl-terminal truncations were investigated in transient expression experiments. Mutagenesis of either the coiled-coil domain of the S glycoprotein amino terminal heptad repeat, the predicted fusion peptide, or an adjacent but distinct region, severely compromised S-mediated cell-to-cell fusion, while intracellular transport and cell-surface expression were not adversely affected. Surprisingly, a carboxyl-terminal truncation of 17 amino acids substantially increased S glycoprotein-mediated cell-to-cell fusion suggesting that the terminal 17 amino acids regulated the S fusogenic properties. In contrast, truncation of 26 or 39 amino acids eliminating either one or both of the two endodomain cysteine-rich motifs, respectively, inhibited cell fusion in comparison to the wild-type S. The 17 and 26 amino-acid deletions did not adversely affect S cell-surface expression, while the 39 amino-acid truncation inhibited S cell-surface expression suggesting that the membrane proximal cysteine-rich motif plays an essential role in S cell-surface expression. Mutagenesis of the acidic amino-acid cluster in the carboxyl terminus of the S glycoprotein as well as modification of a predicted phosphorylation site within the acidic cluster revealed that this amino-acid motif may play a functional role in the retention of S at cell surfaces. This genetic analysis reveals that the SARS-CoV S glycoprotein contains extracellular domains that regulate cell fusion as well as distinct endodomains that function in intracellular transport, cell-surface expression, and cell fusion

  4. Cell-to-cell transformation in Escherichia coli: a novel type of natural transformation involving cell-derived DNA and a putative promoting pheromone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Etchuuya

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is not assumed to be naturally transformable. However, several recent reports have shown that E. coli can express modest genetic competence in certain conditions that may arise in its environment. We have shown previously that spontaneous lateral transfer of non-conjugative plasmids occurs in a colony biofilm of mixed E. coli strains (a set of a donor strain harbouring a plasmid and a plasmid-free recipient strain. In this study, with high-frequency combinations of strains and a plasmid, we constructed the same lateral plasmid transfer system in liquid culture. Using this system, we demonstrated that this lateral plasmid transfer was DNase-sensitive, indicating that it is a kind of transformation in which DNase-accessible extracellular naked DNA is essential. However, this transformation did not occur with purified plasmid DNA and required a direct supply of plasmid from co-existing donor cells. Based on this feature, we have termed this transformation type as 'cell-to-cell transformation'. Analyses using medium conditioned with the high-frequency strain revealed that this strain released a certain factor(s that promoted cell-to-cell transformation and arrested growth of the other strains. This factor is heat-labile and protease-sensitive, and its roughly estimated molecular mass was between ∼9 kDa and ∼30 kDa, indicating that it is a polypeptide factor. Interestingly, this factor was effective even when the conditioned medium was diluted 10(-5-10(-6, suggesting that it acts like a pheromone with high bioactivity. Based on these results, we propose that cell-to-cell transformation is a novel natural transformation mechanism in E. coli that requires cell-derived DNA and is promoted by a peptide pheromone. This is the first evidence that suggests the existence of a peptide pheromone-regulated transformation mechanism in E. coli and in Gram-negative bacteria.

  5. The V domain of dog PVRL4 (nectin-4) mediates canine distemper virus entry and virus cell-to-cell spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeut, Sebastien; Noyce, Ryan S; Richardson, Christopher D

    2014-04-01

    The entry of canine distemper virus (CDV) is a multistep process that involves the attachment of CDV hemagglutinin (H) to its cellular receptor, followed by fusion between virus and cell membranes. Our laboratory recently identified PVRL4 (nectin-4) to be the epithelial receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry and virus cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, four key amino acid residues within the V domain of dog PVRL4 and two within the CDV hemagglutinin were shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus entry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...... note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact...

  7. Staying Tight: Plasmodesmal Membrane Contact Sites and the Control of Cell-to-Cell Connectivity in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilsner, Jens; Nicolas, William; Rosado, Abel; Bayer, Emmanuelle M

    2016-04-29

    Multicellularity differs in plants and animals in that the cytoplasm, plasma membrane, and endomembrane of plants are connected between cells through plasmodesmal pores. Plasmodesmata (PDs) are essential for plant life and serve as conduits for the transport of proteins, small RNAs, hormones, and metabolites during developmental and defense signaling. They are also the only pathways available for viruses to spread within plant hosts. The membrane organization of PDs is unique, characterized by the close apposition of the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane and spoke-like filamentous structures linking the two membranes, which define PDs as membrane contact sites (MCSs). This specialized membrane arrangement is likely critical for PD function. Here, we review how PDs govern developmental and defensive signaling in plants, compare them with other types of MCSs, and discuss in detail the potential functional significance of the MCS nature of PDs.

  8. Movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenders, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs

  9. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  10. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  11. PGE2 maintains self-renewal of human adult stem cells via EP2-mediated autocrine signaling and its production is regulated by cell-to-cell contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Chul; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Shin, Tae-Hoon; Kang, Insung; Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Jae-Jun; Kang, Hyun Kyoung; Seo, Yoojin; Lee, Seunghee; Yu, Kyung-Rok; Choi, Soon Won; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2016-05-27

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess unique immunomodulatory abilities. Many studies have elucidated the clinical efficacy and underlying mechanisms of MSCs in immune disorders. Although immunoregulatory factors, such as Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and their mechanisms of action on immune cells have been revealed, their effects on MSCs and regulation of their production by the culture environment are less clear. Therefore, we investigated the autocrine effect of PGE2 on human adult stem cells from cord blood or adipose tissue, and the regulation of its production by cell-to-cell contact, followed by the determination of its immunomodulatory properties. MSCs were treated with specific inhibitors to suppress PGE2 secretion, and proliferation was assessed. PGE2 exerted an autocrine regulatory function in MSCs by triggering E-Prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor. Inhibiting PGE2 production led to growth arrest, whereas addition of MSC-derived PGE2 restored proliferation. The level of PGE2 production from an equivalent number of MSCs was down-regulated via gap junctional intercellular communication. This cell contact-mediated decrease in PGE2 secretion down-regulated the suppressive effect of MSCs on immune cells. In conclusion, PGE2 produced by MSCs contributes to maintenance of self-renewal capacity through EP2 in an autocrine manner, and PGE2 secretion is down-regulated by cell-to-cell contact, attenuating its immunomodulatory potency.

  12. Visfatin Reduces Gap Junction Mediated Cell-to-Cell Communication in Proximal Tubule-Derived Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Hills

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In the current study we examined if the adipocytokine, visfatin, alters connexin-mediated intercellular communication in proximal tubule-derived epithelial cells. Methods: The effects of visfatin (10-200ng/mL on cell viability and cytotoxicity in HK2-cells were assessed by MTT, crystal violet and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Western blot analysis was used to confirm expression of Cx26, Cx40 and Cx43. The effect of visfatin (10-200ng/mL on TGF-β1 secretion was confirmed by ELISA, and the effects of both TGF-β1 (2-10ng/mL and visfatin (10-200ng/mL on connexin expression were assessed by western blot. Functional intercellular communication was determined using transfer of Lucifer Yellow and paired-whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Results: In low glucose (5mM, visfatin (10-200ng/mL did not affect membrane integrity, cytotoxicity or cell viability at 48hrs, but did evoke a concentration-dependent reduction in Cx26 and Cx43 expression. The expression of Cx40 was unaffected. At 48hrs, visfatin (10-200ng/mL increased the secretion of TGF-β1 and the visfatin-evoked changes in connexin expression were mimicked by exogenous application of the pro-fibrotic cytokine (2-10ng/ml. Visfatin reduced dye transfer between coupled cells and decreased functional conductance, with levels falling by 63% as compared to control. Although input resistance was increased following visfatin treatment by 166%, the change was not significant as compared to control. The effects of visfatin on Cx-expression and cell-coupling were blocked in the presence of a TGF-β1 specific neutralizing antibody. Conclusions: The adipocytokine visfatin selectively evoked a non-toxic reduction in connexin expression in HK2-cells. The loss in gap-junction associated proteins was mirrored by a loss in functional conductance between coupled cells. Visfatin increased TGF-β secretion and the pattern of change for connexins expression was mimicked by exogenous

  13. Calcium-loaded 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid blocks cell-to-cell diffusion of carboxyfluorescein in staminal hairs of Setcreasea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, E B

    1990-08-01

    The effect of microinjected calcium-loaded 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (CaBAPTA) on cell-to-cell diffusion of carboxyfluorescein (CF) was examined in staminal hairs of S. purpurea Boom. The CaBAPTA was microinjected into the cytoplasm of the staminal hairs either with CF or prior to a subsequent microinjection of CF. The cell-to-cell diffusion of CF along the hair was monitored using enhanced-fluorescence video microscopy. Cytoplasmic streaming stopped in cells treated with CaBAPTA, indicating that intracellular Ca(2+) had increased. Cell-to-cell diffusion of CF was blocked in cells treated with Ca-BAPTA. An inhibition of cytoplasmic streaming and cell-to-cell diffusion was observed in the cells adjoining the CaBAPTA-microinjected cell, indicating that the Ca-BAPTA appeared to pass through plasmodesmata. While cytoplasmic streaming resumed 5-10 min after CaBAPTA treatment, cell-to-cell diffusion did not resume until 30-120 min later. These data support an involvement of calcium in the regulation of cell-to-cell communication in plants.

  14. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  15. A millifluidic study of cell-to-cell heterogeneity in growth-rate and cell-division capability in populations of isogenic cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima P Damodaran

    Full Text Available To address possible cell-to-cell heterogeneity in growth dynamics of isogenic cell populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we developed a millifluidic drop-based device that not only allows the analysis of populations grown from single cells over periods of a week, but is also able to sort and collect drops of interest, containing viable and healthy cells, which can be used for further experimentation. In this study, we used isogenic algal cells that were first synchronized in mixotrophic growth conditions. We show that these synchronized cells, when placed in droplets and kept in mixotrophic growth conditions, exhibit mostly homogeneous growth statistics, but with two distinct subpopulations: a major population with a short doubling-time (fast-growers and a significant subpopulation of slowly dividing cells (slow-growers. These observations suggest that algal cells from an isogenic population may be present in either of two states, a state of restricted division and a state of active division. When isogenic cells were allowed to propagate for about 1000 generations on solid agar plates, they displayed an increased heterogeneity in their growth dynamics. Although we could still identify the original populations of slow- and fast-growers, drops inoculated with a single progenitor cell now displayed a wider diversity of doubling-times. Moreover, populations dividing with the same growth-rate often reached different cell numbers in stationary phase, suggesting that the progenitor cells differed in the number of cell divisions they could undertake. We discuss possible explanations for these cell-to-cell heterogeneities in growth dynamics, such as mutations, differential aging or stochastic variations in metabolites and macromolecules yielding molecular switches, in the light of single-cell heterogeneities that have been reported among isogenic populations of other eu- and prokaryotes.

  16. Multi-Scale Characean Experimental System: From Electrophysiology of Membrane Transporters to Cell-to-Cell Connectivity, Cytoplasmic Streaming and Auxin Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilby, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of characean algae could be mistaken for a higher plant: stem-like axes with leaf-like branchlets anchored in the soil by root-like rhizoids. However, all of these structures are made up of giant multinucleate cells separated by multicellular nodal complexes. The excised internodal cells survive long enough for the nodes to give rise to new thallus. The size of the internodes and their thick cytoplasmic layer minimize impalement injury and allow specific micro-electrode placement. The cell structure can be manipulated by centrifugation, perfusion of cell contents or creation of cytoplasmic droplets, allowing access to both vacuolar and cytoplasmic compartments and both sides of the cell membranes. Thousands of electrical measurements on intact or altered cells and cytoplasmic droplets laid down basis to modern plant electrophysiology. Furthermore, the giant internodal cells and whole thalli facilitate research into many other plant properties. As nutrients have to be transported from rhizoids to growing parts of the thallus and hormonal signals need to pass from cell to cell, Characeae possess very fast cytoplasmic streaming. The mechanism was resolved in the characean model. Plasmodesmata between the internodal cells and nodal complexes facilitate transport of ions, nutrients and photosynthates across the nodes. The internal structure was found to be similar to those of higher plants. Recent experiments suggest a strong circadian influence on metabolic pathways producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and serotonin/melatonin. The review will discuss the impact of the characean models arising from fragments of cells, single cells, cell-to-cell transport or whole thalli on understanding of plant evolution and physiology. PMID:27504112

  17. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells propagate immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory macrophages in cell-to-cell contact-independent and -dependent manners under hypoxic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Naoki; Okubo, Naoto; Kamo, Masaharu; Chosa, Naoyuki; Mikami, Toshinari; Suzuki, Keita; Yokota, Seiji; Ibi, Miho; Ohtsuka, Masato; Taira, Masayuki; Yaegashi, Takashi; Ishisaki, Akira; Kyakumoto, Seiko

    2017-09-15

    Immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory macrophage (Mφ), M2-Mφ that expressed the typical M2-Mφs marker, CD206, and anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10, is beneficial and expected tool for the cytotherapy against inflammatory diseases. Here, we demonstrated that bone marrow-derived lineage-positive (Lin+) blood cells proliferated and differentiated into M2-Mφs by cooperation with the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under hypoxic condition: MSCs not only promoted proliferation of undifferentiated M2-Mφs, pre-M2-Mφs, in the Lin+ fraction via a proliferative effect of the MSCs-secreted macrophage colony-stimulating factor, but also promoted M2-Mφ polarization of the pre-M2-Mφs through cell-to-cell contact with the pre-M2-Mφs. Intriguingly, an inhibitor for intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 receptor/lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1, Rwj50271, partially suppressed expression of CD206 in the Lin+ blood cells but an inhibitor for VCAM-1 receptor/VLA-4, BIO5192, did not, suggesting that the cell-to-cell adhesion through LFA-1 on pre-M2-Mφs and ICAM-1 on MSCs was supposed to promoted the M2-Mφ polarization. Thus, the co-culture system consisting of bone marrow-derived Lin+ blood cells and MSCs under hypoxic condition was a beneficial supplier of a number of M2-Mφs, which could be clinically applicable to inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by reciprocal cell-to-cell interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts through IL-1α in ameloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchigami, Takao; Kibe, Toshiro; Koyama, Hirofumi; Kishida, Shosei; Iijima, Mikio; Nishizawa, Yoshiaki; Hijioka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Tomomi; Ueda, Masahiro; Nakamura, Norifumi; Kiyono, Tohru; Kishida, Michiko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between tumor cells and fibroblasts in ameloblastoma. • AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted significantly high IL-1α levels. • IL-1α derived from AM-3 cells promoted IL-6 and IL-8 secretion of fibroblasts. • IL-6 and IL-8 activated the cellular motility and proliferation of AM-3 cells. - Abstract: Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor that occurs in the jawbone, which invades bone and reoccurs locally. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders. Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line (AM-3 ameloblastoma cells), human fibroblasts (HFF-2 fibroblasts), and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation. AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α than HFF-2 fibroblasts. Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. The AM3-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts was neutralized by pretreatment of AM-3 cells with anti-IL-1α antibody and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Reciprocally, cellular motility of AM-3 ameloblastoma cells was stimulated by HFF-2 fibroblasts in IL-6 and IL-8 dependent manner. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave

  19. Regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by reciprocal cell-to-cell interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts through IL-1α in ameloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchigami, Takao [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kibe, Toshiro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Koyama, Hirofumi; Kishida, Shosei; Iijima, Mikio [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Nishizawa, Yoshiaki [Kagoshima University Faculty of Medicine, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Hijioka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Tomomi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ueda, Masahiro [Natural Science Centre for Research and Education, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Koorimoto, Kagoshima 890-8580 (Japan); Nakamura, Norifumi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kiyono, Tohru [Department of Virology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuouku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Kishida, Michiko, E-mail: kmichiko@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between tumor cells and fibroblasts in ameloblastoma. • AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted significantly high IL-1α levels. • IL-1α derived from AM-3 cells promoted IL-6 and IL-8 secretion of fibroblasts. • IL-6 and IL-8 activated the cellular motility and proliferation of AM-3 cells. - Abstract: Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor that occurs in the jawbone, which invades bone and reoccurs locally. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders. Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line (AM-3 ameloblastoma cells), human fibroblasts (HFF-2 fibroblasts), and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation. AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α than HFF-2 fibroblasts. Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. The AM3-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts was neutralized by pretreatment of AM-3 cells with anti-IL-1α antibody and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Reciprocally, cellular motility of AM-3 ameloblastoma cells was stimulated by HFF-2 fibroblasts in IL-6 and IL-8 dependent manner. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave

  20. Short distance movement of genomic negative strands in a host and nonhost for Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Vela Juan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to obtain an initial and preliminary understanding of host and nonhost resistance in the initial step of potyvirus replication, both positive and negative Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV strands where traced in inoculated and systemic leaves in host and nonhost resistant maize and sugarcane for one Mexican potyviral isolate (SCMV-VER1. Intermediary replication forms, such as the negative viral strand, seem to only move a short distance as surveyed by RT-PCR analysis and ELISA in different leaves. Virus purification was also done in leaves and stems. Results Susceptible maize plants allowed for viral SCMV replication, cell-to-cell, and long distance movement, as indicated by the presence of the coat protein along the plant. In the host resistant maize plants for the SCMV-VER1 isolate, the virus was able to establish the disease though the initial steps of virus replication, as detected by the presence of negative strands, in the basal area of the inoculated leaves at six and twelve days post inoculation. The nonhost sugarcane for SCMV-VER1 and the host sugarcane for SCMV-CAM6 also allowed the initial steps of viral replication for the VER1 isolate in the local inoculated leaf. SCMV-VER1 virions could be extracted from stems of susceptible maize with higher titers than leaves. Conclusion Nonhost and host resistance allow the initial steps of potyvirus SCMV replication, as shown by the negative strands' presence. Furthermore, both hosts allow the negative viral strands' local movement, but not their systemic spread through the stem. The presence of larger amounts of extractable virions from the stem (as compared to the leaves in susceptible maize lines suggests their long distance movement as assembled particles. This will be the first report suggesting the long distance movement of a monocot potyvirus as a virion.

  1. Effects of combination of whey protein intake and rehabilitation on muscle strength and daily movements in patients with hip fracture in the early postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Masaya; Ichinose, Daisuke; Hirooka, Taku; Mitsutomi, Kazuhiko; Morimoto, Yoshitaka; Sarukawa, Junichiro; Nishikino, Shoichi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Kaoru

    2016-08-01

    Elderly patients can be at risk of protein catabolism and malnutrition in the early postoperative period. Whey protein includes most essential amino acids and stimulates the synthesis of muscle protein. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training in combination with whey protein intake in the early postoperative period. We randomized patients to a whey protein group or a control group. The former group received 32.2 g of whey protein pre- and post-rehabilitation in the early postoperative period for two weeks. Outcomes were knee extension strength on either side by Biodex 4.0, and the ability of transfer, walking, toilet use and stair use by the Barthel Index (BI). We performed initial and final assessments in the second and tenth rehabilitation sessions. A total of 38 patients were recruited: 20 in the whey protein group and 18 in the control group. Participants in the whey protein group showed significantly greater improvement in knee extension strength in the operated limb compared with the control group (F = 6.11, P = 0.02). The non-operated limb also showed a similar tendency (F = 3.51, P = 0.07). The abilities of transfer, walking and toilet use showed greater improvements in the whey protein group than in the control group by BI (P patients with hip fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. The Glycine-Alanine Dipeptide Repeat from C9orf72 Hexanucleotide Expansions Forms Toxic Amyloids Possessing Cell-to-Cell Transmission Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Jen; Jeng, U-Ser; Chiang, Ya-Ling; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Chen, Yun-Ru

    2016-03-04

    Hexanucleotide expansions, GGGGCC, in the non-coding regions of the C9orf72 gene were found in major frontotemporal lobar dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (C9FTD/ALS). In addition to possible RNA toxicity, several dipeptide repeats (DPRs) are translated through repeat-associated non-ATG-initiated translation. The DPRs, including poly(GA), poly(GR), poly(GP), poly(PR), and poly(PA), were found in the brains and spinal cords of C9FTD/ALS patients. Among the DPRs, poly(GA) is highly susceptible to form cytoplasmic inclusions, which is a characteristic of C9FTD/ALS. To elucidate DPR aggregation, we used synthetic (GA)15 DPR as a model system to examine the aggregation and structural properties in vitro. We found that (GA)15 with 15 repeats fibrillates rapidly and ultimately forms flat, ribbon-type fibrils evidenced by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The fibrils are capable of amyloid dye binding and contain a characteristic cross-β sheet structure, as revealed by x-ray scattering. Furthermore, using neuroblastoma cells, we demonstrated the neurotoxicity and cell-to-cell transmission property of (GA)15 DPR. Overall, our results show the structural and toxicity properties of GA DPR to facilitate future DPR-related therapeutic development. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Investigation of the response of low-dose irradiated cells. Pt. 2. Radio-adaptive response of human embryonic cells is related to cell-to-cell communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keiichiro; Watanabe, Masami.

    1994-01-01

    To clarify the radio-adaptive response of normal cells to low-dose radiation, we irradiated human embryonic cells and HeLa cells with low-dose X-ray and examined the changes in sensitivity to subsequent high-dose X-irradiation. The results obtained were as follows; (1) When HE cells were irradiated by a high-dose of 200 cGy, the growth ratio of the living cells five days after the irradiation decreased to 37% of that of the cells which received no X-irradiation. When the cells received a preliminary irradiation of 10 to 20 cGy four hours before the irradiation of 200 cGy, the relative growth ratios increased significantly to 45-53%. (2) This preliminary irradiation effect was not observed in HeLa cells, being cancer cells. (3) When the HE cells suspended in a Ca 2+ iron-free medium or TPA added medium while receiving the preliminary irradiation of 13 cGy, the effect of the preliminary irradiation in increasing the relative growth ratio of living cells was not observed. (4) This indicates that normal cells shows an adaptive response to low-dose radiation and become more radioresistant. This phenomenon is considered to involve cell-to-cell communication maintained in normal cells and intracellular signal transduction in which Ca 2+ ion plays a role. (author)

  4. A Cell-to-Cell Equalizer Based on Three-Resonant-State Switched-Capacitor Converters for Series-Connected Battery Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Shang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low cost, small size, and ease of control, the switched-capacitor (SC battery equalizers are promising among active balancing methods. However, it is difficult to achieve the full cell equalization for the SC equalizers due to the inevitable voltage drops across Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET switches. Moreover, when the voltage gap among cells is larger, the balancing efficiency is lower, while the balancing speed becomes slower as the voltage gap gets smaller. In order to soften these downsides, this paper proposes a cell-to-cell battery equalization topology with zero-current switching (ZCS and zero-voltage gap (ZVG among cells based on three-resonant-state SC converters. Based on the conventional inductor-capacitor (LC converter, an additional resonant path is built to release the charge of the capacitor into the inductor in each switching cycle, which lays the foundations for obtaining ZVG among cells, improves the balancing efficiency at a large voltage gap, and increases the balancing speed at a small voltage gap. A four-lithium-ion-cell prototype is applied to validate the theoretical analysis. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed topology has good equalization performances with fast equalization, ZCS, and ZVG among cells.

  5. Gravity effects on endogenous movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Anders; Antonsen, Frank

    Gravity effects on endogenous movements A. Johnsson * and F. Antonsen *+ * Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,NO-7491, Trond-heim, Norway, E-mail: anders.johnsson@ntnu.no + Present address: Statoil Research Center Trondheim, NO-7005, Trondheim, Norway Circumnutations in stems/shoots exist in many plants and often consists of more or less regular helical movements around the plumb line under Earth conditions. Recent results on circumnu-tations of Arabidopsis in space (Johnsson et al. 2009) showed that minute amplitude oscilla-tions exist in weightlessness, but that centripetal acceleration (mimicking the gravity) amplified and/or created large amplitude oscillations. Fundamental mechanisms underlying these results will be discussed by modeling the plant tissue as a cylinder of cells coupled together. As a starting point we have modeled (Antonsen 1998) standing waves on a ring of biological cells, as first discussed in a classical paper (Turing 1952). If the coupled cells can change their water content, an `extension' wave could move around the ring. We have studied several, stacked rings of cells coupled into a cylinder that together represent a cylindrical plant tissue. Waves of extensions travelling around the cylinder could then represent the observable circumnutations. The coupling between cells can be due to cell-to-cell diffusion, or to transport via channels, and the coupling can be modeled to vary in both longitudinal and transversal direction of the cylinder. The results from ISS experiments indicate that this cylindrical model of coupled cells should be able to 1) show self-sustained oscillations without the impact of gravity (being en-dogenous) and 2) show how an environmental factor like gravity can amplify or generate the oscillatory movements. Gravity has been introduced in the model by a negative, time-delayed feed-back transport across the cylinder. This represents the physiological reactions to acceler

  6. Functional Movement Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Patient Organizations International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) See all related organizations Publications Order NINDS Publications Definition Psychogenic movement is an unwanted muscle movement such ...

  7. Reducing cell-to-cell spacing for large-format lithium ion battery modules with aluminum or PCM heat sinks under failure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Brittany; Ostanek, Jason; Heinzel, John

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Finite element analysis to evaluate heat sinks for large format li-ion batteries. • Solid metal heat sink and composite heat sink (metal filler and wax). • Transient simulations show response from rest to steady-state with normal load. • Transient simulations of two different failure modes were considered. • Significance of spacing, material properties, interface quality, and phase change. - Abstract: Thermal management is critical for large-scale, shipboard energy storage systems utilizing lithium-ion batteries. In recent years, there has been growing research in thermal management of lithium-ion battery modules. However, there is little information available on the minimum cell-to-cell spacing limits for indirect, liquid cooled modules when considering heat release during a single cell failure. For this purpose, a generic four-cell module was modeled using finite element analysis to determine the sensitivity of module temperatures to cell spacing. Additionally, the effects of different heat sink materials and interface qualities were investigated. Two materials were considered, a solid aluminum block and a metal/wax composite block. Simulations were run for three different transient load profiles. The first profile simulates sustained high rate operation where the system begins at rest and generates heat continuously until it reaches steady state. And, two failure mode simulations were conducted to investigate block performance during a slow and a fast exothermic reaction, respectively. Results indicate that composite materials can perform well under normal operation and provide some protection against single cell failure; although, for very compact designs, the amount of wax available to absorb heat is reduced and the effectiveness of the phase change material is diminished. The aluminum block design performed well under all conditions, and showed that heat generated during a failure is quickly dissipated to the coolant, even under the

  8. Localization of ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 protein in Arabidopsis root epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Kurata, Tetsuya; Wada, Takuji

    2017-07-01

    CAPRICE (CPC) is a R3-type MYB transcription factor, which induces root-hair cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. The CPC homologous gene ENHANCER TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1) has a similar function to CPC, and acts in concert with CPC. The CPC protein moves between root epidermal cells, from hairless cells to the neighboring cells, and promotes root-hair differentiation. Therefore, ETC1 is predicted to have movement ability similar to that of CPC. In this study, we generated ETC1:ETC1:GFP and CPC:ETC1:GFP transgenic plants to clarify whether ETC1 exhibits cell-to-cell movement. Transgenic plants showed many-root-haired and trichome-less phenotypes, similar to those observed in CPC:CPC:GFP plants, suggesting a similar function of ETC1 and CPC. However, the ETC1:GFP fusion protein located exclusively to the hairless cells in both ETC1:ETC1:GFP and CPC:ETC1:GFP transgenic plants. These results indicate that, unexpectedly, the ETC1 protein cannot move in the root epidermis from hairless cells to the neighboring cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Cell-to-cell contact and antimicrobial peptides play a combined role in the death of Lachanchea thermotolerans during mixed-culture alcoholic fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemsawasd, Varongsiri; Branco, Patrícia; Almeida, Maria Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    The roles of cell-to-cell contact and antimicrobial peptides in the early death of Lachanchea thermotolerans CBS2803 during anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae S101 were investigated using a commercially available, double-compartment fermentation system separated ...

  10. Structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin, two snake-venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins that target cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels: implications for movement of the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Department of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Yamazaki, Yasuo [Department of Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan); Brown, R. Lane [Neurological Science Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006 (United States); Fujimoto, Zui [Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Morita, Takashi, E-mail: tmorita@my-pharm.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan); Mizuno, Hiroshi, E-mail: tmorita@my-pharm.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); VALWAY Technology Center, NEC Soft Ltd, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-8627 (Japan); Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 6, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Department of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan)

    2008-10-01

    The structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin suggest that both proteins bind to cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels in a manner in which the concave surface occludes the pore entrance. Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels play pivotal roles in sensory transduction by retinal photoreceptors and olfactory neurons. The elapid snake toxins pseudechetoxin (PsTx) and pseudecin (Pdc) are the only known protein blockers of CNG channels. These toxins belong to a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family containing an N-terminal pathogenesis-related proteins of group 1 (PR-1) domain and a C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD). PsTx and Pdc are highly homologous proteins, but their blocking affinities on CNG channels are different: PsTx blocks both the olfactory and retinal channels with ∼15–30-fold higher affinity than Pdc. To gain further insights into their structure and function, the crystal structures of PsTx, Pdc and Zn{sup 2+}-bound Pdc were determined. The structures revealed that most of the amino-acid-residue differences between PsTx and Pdc are located around the concave surface formed between the PR-1 domain and the CRD, suggesting that the concave surface is functionally important for CNG-channel binding and inhibition. A structural comparison in the presence and absence of Zn{sup 2+} ion demonstrated that the concave surface can open and close owing to movement of the CRD upon Zn{sup 2+} binding. The data suggest that PsTx and Pdc occlude the pore entrance and that the dynamic motion of the concave surface facilitates interaction with the CNG channels.

  11. Structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin, two snake-venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins that target cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels: implications for movement of the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Yasuo; Brown, R. Lane; Fujimoto, Zui; Morita, Takashi; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin suggest that both proteins bind to cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels in a manner in which the concave surface occludes the pore entrance. Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels play pivotal roles in sensory transduction by retinal photoreceptors and olfactory neurons. The elapid snake toxins pseudechetoxin (PsTx) and pseudecin (Pdc) are the only known protein blockers of CNG channels. These toxins belong to a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family containing an N-terminal pathogenesis-related proteins of group 1 (PR-1) domain and a C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD). PsTx and Pdc are highly homologous proteins, but their blocking affinities on CNG channels are different: PsTx blocks both the olfactory and retinal channels with ∼15–30-fold higher affinity than Pdc. To gain further insights into their structure and function, the crystal structures of PsTx, Pdc and Zn 2+ -bound Pdc were determined. The structures revealed that most of the amino-acid-residue differences between PsTx and Pdc are located around the concave surface formed between the PR-1 domain and the CRD, suggesting that the concave surface is functionally important for CNG-channel binding and inhibition. A structural comparison in the presence and absence of Zn 2+ ion demonstrated that the concave surface can open and close owing to movement of the CRD upon Zn 2+ binding. The data suggest that PsTx and Pdc occlude the pore entrance and that the dynamic motion of the concave surface facilitates interaction with the CNG channels

  12. A novel kinesin-like protein, KIF1Bbeta3 is involved in the movement of lysosomes to the cell periphery in non-neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Masafumi; Tanaka, Shingo; Nakamura, Norihiro; Inoue, Hiroki; Kanazawa, Hiroshi

    2004-03-01

    The kinesin superfamily protein, KIF1Bbeta, a splice variant of KIF1B, is involved in the transport of synaptic vesicles in neuronal cells, and is also expressed in various non-neuronal tissues. To elucidate the functions of KIF1Bbeta in non-neuronal cells, we analyzed the intracellular localization of KIF1Bbeta and characterized its isoform expression profile. In COS-7 cells, KIF1B colocalized with lysosomal markers and expression of a mutant form of KIF1Bbeta, lacking the motor domain, impaired the intracellular distribution of lysosomes. A novel isoform of the kinesin-like protein, KIF1Bbeta3, was identified in rat and simian kidney. It lacks the 5th exon of the KIF1Bbeta-specific tail region. Overexpression of KIF1Bbeta3 induced the translocation of lysosomes to the cell periphery. However, overexpression of KIF1Bbeta3-Q98L, which harbors a pathogenic mutation associated with a familial neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 A, resulted in the abnormal perinuclear clustering of lysosomes. These results indicate that KIF1Bbeta3 is involved in the translocation of lysosomes from perinuclear regions to the cell periphery.

  13. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001548.htm Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  14. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  15. Overview of Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Delirium Additional Content Medical News Overview of Movement Disorders By Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD, Professor ... Neurology, HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente; Movement Disorders Clinic, Neurology at IMSS Alberto Espay, MD, ...

  16. Independence of Movement Preparation and Movement Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haith, Adrian M; Pakpoor, Jina; Krakauer, John W

    2016-03-09

    Initiating a movement in response to a visual stimulus takes significantly longer than might be expected on the basis of neural transmission delays, but it is unclear why. In a visually guided reaching task, we forced human participants to move at lower-than-normal reaction times to test whether normal reaction times are strictly necessary for accurate movement. We found that participants were, in fact, capable of moving accurately ∼80 ms earlier than their reaction times would suggest. Reaction times thus include a seemingly unnecessary delay that accounts for approximately one-third of their duration. Close examination of participants' behavior in conventional reaction-time conditions revealed that they generated occasional, spontaneous errors in trials in which their reaction time was unusually short. The pattern of these errors could be well accounted for by a simple model in which the timing of movement initiation is independent of the timing of movement preparation. This independence provides an explanation for why reaction times are usually so sluggish: delaying the mean time of movement initiation relative to preparation reduces the risk that a movement will be initiated before it has been appropriately prepared. Our results suggest that preparation and initiation of movement are mechanistically independent and may have a distinct neural basis. The results also demonstrate that, even in strongly stimulus-driven tasks, presentation of a stimulus does not directly trigger a movement. Rather, the stimulus appears to trigger an internal decision whether to make a movement, reflecting a volitional rather than reactive mode of control. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363007-10$15.00/0.

  17. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement......-based interaction we will briefly introduce and discuss how learning, mapping and multi-user interaction are important when designing movement based interaction....

  18. Recent crustal movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelzer, H.

    Calculation of temporal height changes for the determination of recent vertical crustal movements in northern, western, and southern Germany is described. Precise geodetic measurements and their analysis for the determination of recent crustal movements in north-eastern Iceland, western Venezuela, and central Peru are described. Determination of recent vertical crustal movements by leveling and gravity data; geodetic modeling of deformations and recent crustal movements; geodetic modeling of plate motions; and instrumental developments in geodetic measuring are discussed.

  19. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  20. Role of protein kinase C family in the cerebellum-dependent adaptive learning of horizontal optokinetic response eye movements in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutoh, Fumihiro; Katoh, Akira; Ohki, Masafumi; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Tonegawa, Susumu; Nagao, Soichi

    2003-07-01

    Among the subtypes of the Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C (PKC), which play a crucial role in long-term depression (LTD), both alpha and gamma are expressed in the cerebellar floccular Purkinje cells. To reveal the functional differences of PKC subtypes, we examined the adaptability of ocular reflexes of PKCgamma mutant mice, which show mild ataxia and normal LTD. In mutant mice, gains of the horizontal optokinetic eye response (HOKR) were reduced. Adaptation of the HOKR was not affected but its retinal slip dependency was altered in mutant mice. Sustained 1-h sinusoidal screen oscillation, which induced a relatively large amount of retinal slips in both mutant and wild-type mice, increased the HOKR gain in wild-type mice but not in mutant mice. In contrast, exposure to 1 h of sustained slower screen oscillations, which induced relatively small retinal slips in mutant and wild-type mice, increased the HOKR gain in both mutant and wild-type mice. Adaptation of the HOKR of the mutant mice to slow screen oscillation and those of wild-type mice to fast and slow screen oscillations were all abolished by local applications of a PKC inhibitor (chelerythrine) within the flocculi. Electrophysiological and anatomical studies showed no appreciable changes in the sources and magnitudes of climbing fibre inputs, which mediate retinal slip signals to the flocculus in the mutant mice. These results suggest that PKCgamma has a modulatory role in determining retinal slip dependency, and other PKC subtypes, e.g. PKCalpha, may play a crucial role in the adaptation of the HOKR.

  1. A novel and fully scalable Agrobacterium spray-based process for manufacturing cellulases and other cost-sensitive proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Simone; Giritch, Anatoli; Bartels, Doreen; Bortesi, Luisa; Gleba, Yuri

    2015-06-01

    Transient transfection of plants by vacuum infiltration of Agrobacterium vectors represents the state of the art in plant-based protein manufacturing; however, the complexity and cost of this approach restrict it to pharmaceutical proteins. We demonstrated that simple spraying of Nicotiana plants with Agrobacterium vectors in the presence of a surfactant can substitute for vacuum inoculation. When the T-DNA of Agrobacterium encodes viral replicons capable of cell-to-cell movement, up to 90% of the leaf cells can be transfected and express a recombinant protein at levels up to 50% of total soluble protein. This simple, fast and indefinitely scalable process was successfully applied to produce cellulases, one of the most volume- and cost-sensitive biotechnology products. We demonstrate here for the first time that representatives of all hydrolase classes necessary for cellulosic biomass decomposition can be expressed at high levels, stored as silage without significant loss of activity and then used directly as enzyme additives. This process enables production of cellulases, and other potential high-volume products such as noncaloric sweetener thaumatin and antiviral protein griffithsin, at commodity agricultural prices and could find broad applicability in the large-scale production of many other cost-sensitive proteins. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Movement of regulatory RNA between animal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Antony M

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that RNA can move from one cell to another and regulate genes through specific base-pairing. Mechanisms that modify or select RNA for secretion from a cell are unclear. Secreted RNA can be stable enough to be detected in the extracellular environment and can enter the cytosol of distant cells to regulate genes. Mechanisms that import RNA into the cytosol of an animal cell can enable uptake of RNA from many sources including other organisms. This role of RNA is akin to that of steroid hormones, which cross cell membranes to regulate genes. The potential diagnostic use of RNA in human extracellular fluids has ignited interest in understanding mechanisms that enable the movement of RNA between animal cells. Genetic model systems will be essential to gain more confidence in proposed mechanisms of RNA transport and to connect an extracellular RNA with a specific biological function. Studies in the worm C. elegans and in other animals have begun to reveal parts of this novel mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. Here, I summarize the current state of this nascent field, highlight the many unknowns, and suggest future directions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mutational analysis of PVX TGBp3 links subcellular accumulation and protein turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, H.-J.; Ye, C.-M.; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie

    2008-01-01

    Potato virus X (PVX) TGBp3 is required for virus cell-to-cell transport, has an N-terminal transmembrane domain, and a C-terminal cytosolic domain. In the absence of virus infection TGBp3:GFP is seen in the cortical and perinuclear ER. In PVX infected cells the TGBp3:GFP fusion is also seen in the nucleoplasm indicating that events during PVX infection trigger entry into the nucleus. Mutational analysis failed to identify a nuclear targeting domain. Mutations inhibiting TGBp3 association with the ER and inhibiting virus movement did not block TGBp3:GFP in the nucleoplasm. A mutation disrupting the N-terminal transmembrane domain of TGBp3 caused the fusion to accumulate in the nucleus indicating that nuclear import is regulated by ER interactions. Tunicamycin, an ER-stress inducing chemical, caused lower levels of GFP and TGBp3:GFP to accumulate in virus infected protoplasts. MG115 and MG132 were used to demonstrate that wild-type and mutant TGBp3:GFP fusions were degraded by the 26S proteasome. These observations are consistent with an ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway suggesting that PVX TGBp3, similar to aberrant ER proteins, is translocate to the cytoplasm for degradation. Nuclear accumulation of mutant and wild-type TGBp3:GFP is independent of other PVX proteins and may be another feature of an ERAD pathway

  4. Mapping the nuclear localization signal in the matrix protein of potato yellow dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gavin; Jang, Chanyong; Wang, Renyuan; Goodin, Michael

    2018-05-01

    The ability of the matrix (M) protein of potato yellow dwarf virus (PYDV) to remodel nuclear membranes is controlled by a di-leucine motif located at residues 223 and 224 of its primary structure. This function can be uncoupled from that of its nuclear localization signal (NLS), which is controlled primarily by lysine and arginine residues immediately downstream of the LL motif. In planta localization of green fluorescent protein fusions, bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays with nuclear import receptor importin-α1 and yeast-based nuclear import assays provided three independent experimental approaches to validate the authenticity of the M-NLS. The carboxy terminus of M is predicted to contain a nuclear export signal, which is belived to be functional, given the ability of M to bind the Arabidopsis nuclear export receptor 1 (XPO1). The nuclear shuttle activity of M has implications for the cell-to-cell movement of PYDV nucleocapsids, based upon its interaction with the N and Y proteins.

  5. Movement monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Yoneda, Yasuaki; Hanatsumi, Masaharu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable to accurate recognition for the moving state of reactor core fuels as an object to be monitored in a nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention prepares each of scheduled paths for the movement of the object to be monitored and executed moving paths along with the movement based on the information of the movement obtained from scheduled information for the movement of the reactor core fuels as a object to be monitored and the actual movement of the object to be monitored. The results of the preparation are outputted. As an output mode, (1) the results of preparation for each of the paths for movement and the results of the monitoring obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are jointed and outputted, (2) images showing each of the paths for the movement are formed, and the formed images are displayed on a screen, and (3) each of the moving paths is prepared as an image, and the image is displayed together with the image of the regions before and after the movement of the object to be monitored. In addition, obtained images of each of the paths for the movement and the monitored images obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are joined and displayed. (I.S.)

  6. Classification of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahn, Stanley

    2011-05-01

    The classification of movement disorders has evolved. Even the terminology has shifted, from an anatomical one of extrapyramidal disorders to a phenomenological one of movement disorders. The history of how this shift came about is described. The history of both the definitions and the classifications of the various neurologic conditions is then reviewed. First is a review of movement disorders as a group; then, the evolving classifications for 3 of them--parkinsonism, dystonia, and tremor--are covered in detail. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  8. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  9. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  10. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  11. Nucleocapsid Protein from Fig Mosaic Virus Forms Cytoplasmic Agglomerates That Are Hauled by Endoplasmic Reticulum Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazuya; Miura, Chihiro; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Tomomitsu, Tatsuya; Fukuoka, Misato; Yusa, Akira; Yamaji, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although many studies have demonstrated intracellular movement of viral proteins or viral replication complexes, little is known about the mechanisms of their motility. In this study, we analyzed the localization and motility of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Fig mosaic virus (FMV), a negative-strand RNA virus belonging to the recently established genus Emaravirus. Electron microscopy of FMV-infected cells using immunogold labeling showed that NPs formed cytoplasmic agglomerates that were predominantly enveloped by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, while nonenveloped NP agglomerates also localized along the ER. Likewise, transiently expressed NPs formed agglomerates, designated NP bodies (NBs), in close proximity to the ER, as was the case in FMV-infected cells. Subcellular fractionation and electron microscopic analyses of NP-expressing cells revealed that NBs localized in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we found that NBs moved rapidly with the streaming of the ER in an actomyosin-dependent manner. Brefeldin A treatment at a high concentration to disturb the ER network configuration induced aberrant accumulation of NBs in the perinuclear region, indicating that the ER network configuration is related to NB localization. Dominant negative inhibition of the class XI myosins, XI-1, XI-2, and XI-K, affected both ER streaming and NB movement in a similar pattern. Taken together, these results showed that NBs localize in the cytoplasm but in close proximity to the ER membrane to form enveloped particles and that this causes passive movements of cytoplasmic NBs by ER streaming. IMPORTANCE Intracellular trafficking is a primary and essential step for the cell-to-cell movement of viruses. To date, many studies have demonstrated the rapid intracellular movement of viral factors but have failed to provide evidence for the mechanism or biological significance of this motility. Here, we observed that agglomerates of nucleocapsid protein (NP) moved rapidly

  12. Recessive resistance to Bean common mosaic virus conferred by the bc-1 and bc-2 genes in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects long distance movement of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Orellana, Gardenia; Myers, James; Karasev, Alexander V

    2018-04-12

    Recessive resistance to Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is governed by four genes that include one strain-nonspecific helper gene bc-u, and three strain-specific genes bc-1, bc-2, and bc-3. The bc-3 gene was identified as an eIF4E translation initiation factor gene mediating resistance through disruption of the interaction between this protein and the VPg protein of the virus. The mode of action of bc-1 and bc-2 in expression of BCMV resistance is unknown, although bc-1 gene was found to affect systemic spread of a related potyvirus, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus. To investigate the possible role of both bc-1 and bc-2 genes in replication, cell-to-cell, and long distance movement of BCMV in P. vulgaris, we tested virus spread of eight BCMV isolates representing pathogroups I, IV, VI, VII, and VIII, in a set of bean differentials expressing different combinations of six resistance alleles including bc-u, bc-1, bc-1 2 , bc-2, bc-2 2 , and bc-3. All studied BCMV isolates were able to replicate and spread in inoculated leaves of bean cultivars harboring bc-u, bc-1, bc-1 2 , bc-2, and bc-2 2 alleles and their combinations, while no BCMV replication was found in inoculated leaves of 'IVT7214' carrying the bc-u, bc-2 and bc-3 genes, except for isolate 1755a capable of overcoming the resistance conferred by bc-2 and bc-3. In contrast, the systemic spread of all BCMV isolates from pathogroups I, IV,VI, VII, and VIII was impaired in common bean cultivars carrying bc-1, bc-1 2 , bc-2, and bc-2 2 alleles. The data suggest that bc-1 and bc-2 recessive resistance genes have no effect on the replication and cell-to-cell movement of BCMV, but affect systemic spread of BCMV in common bean. The BCMV resistance conferred by bc-1 and bc-2 and affecting systemic spread was found only partially effective when these two genes were expressed singly. The efficiency of the restriction of the systemic spread of the virus was greatly enhanced when

  13. Islamic Puritanism Movements in Indonesia as Transnational Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Baskara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Islamic puritanism movements are the movements compelling to return to the teachings of Quran and Sunnah, as the pure teachings of Islam and abandon even abolish other teachings outside the teachings of Quran and Sunnah. The movements of Islamic puritanism can be considered as transnational movements because they spread their teachings and ideologies, create organizations, networks, and provide financial supports across nations. This paper describes Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia and their transnational connections. Some Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia can be considered as part of Islamic transnational movements, in which most of the movements are centered in the Middle East. In Indonesia, Islamic puritanism movements firstly appeared in the beginning of the nineteenth century, called Padri movement in West Sumatra. It was then continued to the emergence of Islamic organizations in the twentieth century. Recently, Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia mostly take form as Salafism-Wahabism movements.

  14. In vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV) non-structural proteins in insect cells reveals their putative functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroniche, Guillermo A.; Mongelli, Vanesa C.; Llauger, Gabriela; Alfonso, Victoria; Taboga, Oscar [Instituto de Biotecnologia, CICVyA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (IB-INTA), Las cabanas y Los Reseros s/n. Hurlingham Cp 1686, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vas, Mariana del, E-mail: mdelvas@cnia.inta.gov.ar [Instituto de Biotecnologia, CICVyA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (IB-INTA), Las cabanas y Los Reseros s/n. Hurlingham Cp 1686, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-09-01

    The in vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV, Fijivirus, Reoviridae) non-structural proteins fused to GFP was analyzed by confocal microscopy. P5-1 showed a cytoplasmic vesicular-like distribution that was lost upon deleting its PDZ binding TKF motif, suggesting that P5-1 interacts with cellular PDZ proteins. P5-2 located at the nucleus and its nuclear import was affected by the deletion of its basic C-termini. P7-1 and P7-2 also entered the nucleus and therefore, along with P5-2, could function as regulators of host gene expression. P6 located in the cytoplasm and in perinuclear cloud-like inclusions, was driven to P9-1 viroplasm-like structures and co-localized with P7-2, P10 and {alpha}-tubulin, suggesting its involvement in viroplasm formation and viral intracellular movement. Finally, P9-2 was N-glycosylated and located at the plasma membrane in association with filopodia-like protrusions containing actin, suggesting a possible role in virus cell-to-cell movement and spread.

  15. The Irish Women's Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Ireland’s long history of patriarchy is matched by the ongoing evolution of its women’s movements. Today’s complex, transnational feminism finds its precursor in the colonial era. The first wave of the Irish women’s movement dates from the mid-19th century, with the franchise secured for women in 1918 while still under British colonial rule. First-wave feminists played a role in the nationalist movement, but their demands were sidelined later, during the construction of a conserva...

  16. Music and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...

  17. The French ecological movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansen, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of the ecological Movement in France is presented: its organisation, its topics, its position with respect to the main political trends. The accent is put in particular on the antinuclear contestation [fr

  18. Membrane nanodomains in plants: capturing form, function, and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapken, Wiebke; Murphy, Angus S

    2015-03-01

    The plasma membrane is the interface between the cell and the external environment. Plasma membrane lipids provide scaffolds for proteins and protein complexes that are involved in cell to cell communication, signal transduction, immune responses, and transport of small molecules. In animals, fungi, and plants, a substantial subset of these plasma membrane proteins function within ordered sterol- and sphingolipid-rich nanodomains. High-resolution microscopy, lipid dyes, pharmacological inhibitors of lipid biosynthesis, and lipid biosynthetic mutants have been employed to examine the relationship between the lipid environment and protein activity in plants. They have also been used to identify proteins associated with nanodomains and the pathways by which nanodomain-associated proteins are trafficked to their plasma membrane destinations. These studies suggest that plant membrane nanodomains function in a context-specific manner, analogous to similar structures in animals and fungi. In addition to the highly conserved flotillin and remorin markers, some members of the B and G subclasses of ATP binding cassette transporters have emerged as functional markers for plant nanodomains. Further, the glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins, that are often associated with detergent-resistant membranes, appear also to have a functional role in membrane nanodomains. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Movement and personality development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida M. Aylamazyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of the movement in the process of shaping the personality, its importance as a mechanism for personality development is considered. The issue of the movement has always occupied a central place in Russian psychology. However, subsequently the movement began to be considered primarily as an executive action in human life. The role of movement in personality development can vary depending on the level it occupies in the hierarchical structure of activity, and also on the type of movement, its character, and the way it is constructed. Under certain conditions, the movement can express the attitude of the subject to the surrounding world and people. Many foreign and Russian psychologists point to a special place of the postural tonic component of the motor movement, the posture in personal regulation. The posture reflects his/her personal attitudes, the system of relationships, and, above all, the emotional attitude or emotional assessment of the current situation, the interest in the actions performed. Mastering the tonic level of motor management is based on the emotional regulation, so the ability to regulate one’s own pose is an important stage in the personality development. Posture tonic regulation of motor movements in humans reveals a qualitatively different character than in animals, this being due to the person’s facing the task of mastering his’her posture, arbitrary retention of the body in one or another position. Maintaining a vertical posture requires constant activity at an arbitrary and involuntary level of mental regulation. Mastering the posture of an unstable equilibrium presupposes the emergence of the «I» and is the last stage of the development. The way a person solves the motor task of maintaining the vertical position of the body reflects his/her specific personal strategy or attitude.

  20. Rooted in Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses to and ...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement....

  1. Ectodomain of plasmodesmata-localized protein 5 in Arabidopsis: expression, purification, crystallization and crystallographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaocui; Zhu, Peiyan; Qu, Shanshan; Zhao, Jie; Singh, Prashant K; Wang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Plasmodesmata-localized protein 5 (PDLP5) is a cysteine-rich receptor-like protein which is localized on the plasmodesmata of Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of PDLP5 can reduce the permeability of the plasmodesmata and further affect the cell-to-cell movement of viruses and macromolecules in plants. The ectodomain of PDLP5 contains two DUF26 domains; however, the function of these domains is still unknown. Here, the ectodomain of PDLP5 from Arabidopsis was cloned and overexpressed using an insect expression system and was then purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.90 Å resolution and were indexed in space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.9, b = 48.1, c = 62.2 Å, α = 97.3, β = 103.1, γ = 99.7°. Analysis of the crystal content indicated that there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit, with a Matthews coefficient of 2.51 Å 3  Da -1 and a solvent content of 50.97%.

  2. Antiglobalization movements and their critics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    inequity, organize transnationally, and maintain a critical stance toward significant aspects of the state system. For this reason, many supporters favor other terms such as alterglobalization movement, global justice movement , or simply the movement of movements . Critics accuse the movements...... of ideological incoherence, self-interested protectionism, and illiberal and undemocratic political methods, and point to Western liberal elite dominance within the movements. The debate has ...

  3. Adaptive mutations enhance assembly and cell-to-cell transmission of a high-titer hepatitis C virus genotype 5a Core-NS2 JFH1-based recombinant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Christian K; Prentoe, Jannick; Meredith, Luke W

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Recombinant hepatitis C virus (HCV) clones propagated in human hepatoma cell cultures yield relatively low infectivity titers. Here, we adapted the JFH1-based Core-NS2 recombinant SA13/JFH1C3405G,A3696G (termed SA13/JFH1orig), of the poorly characterized genotype 5a, to Huh7.5 cells......-titer production of diverse HCV strains would be advantageous. Our study offers important functional data on how cell culture-adaptive mutations identified in genotype 5a JFH1-based HCVcc permit high-titer culture by affecting HCV genesis through increasing virus assembly and HCV fitness by enhancing the virus...... specific infectivity and cell-to-cell transmission ability, without influencing the biophysical particle properties. High-titer HCVcc like the one described in this study may be pivotal in future vaccine-related studies where large quantities of infectious HCV particles are necessary....

  4. [Scenes in movement. Movement disorders on film].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares Romero, J

    2010-03-01

    There are publications in which various neurological diseases are analysed on film. However, no references have been found on movement disorders in this medium. A total of 104 documents were collected and reviewed using the internet movie data base (IMDb). The majority were associated with dystonia, Parkinson's and tics, were American commercial productions, and the most common genre was drama. The cinema usually depicts old men with developed Parkinson's disease. However, motor complications only appear in 19% and non-motor symptoms in 14%. The image of dystonia is generally that of a young man, with disabling dystonia secondary to childhood cerebral palsy. Tics appear associated with Tourette's syndrome, with the excessive use of obscene expressions and with very few references to other important aspects of this syndrome, such as mood and behavioural changes. The majority of tremors portrayed on film are associated with Parkinsonism and are not pathological. Myoclonus appears anecdotically and is normally symptomatic. Parkinson's disease is the type of movement disorder that the cinema portrays with greater neurological honesty and in a more dignified manner.

  5. Interactions between the Hepatitis C Virus Nonstructural 2 Protein and Host Adaptor Proteins 1 and 4 Orchestrate Virus Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV spreads via secreted cell-free particles or direct cell-to-cell transmission. Yet, virus-host determinants governing differential intracellular trafficking of cell-free- and cell-to-cell-transmitted virus remain unknown. The host adaptor proteins (APs AP-1A, AP-1B, and AP-4 traffic in post-Golgi compartments, and the latter two are implicated in basolateral sorting. We reported that AP-1A mediates HCV trafficking during release, whereas the endocytic adaptor AP-2 mediates entry and assembly. We demonstrated that the host kinases AAK1 and GAK regulate HCV infection by controlling these clathrin-associated APs. Here, we sought to define the roles of AP-4, a clathrin-independent adaptor; AP-1A; and AP-1B in HCV infection. We screened for interactions between HCV proteins and the μ subunits of AP-1A, AP-1B, and AP-4 by mammalian cell-based protein fragment complementation assays. The nonstructural 2 (NS2 protein emerged as an interactor of these adaptors in this screening and by coimmunoprecipitations in HCV-infected cells. Two previously unrecognized dileucine-based motifs in the NS2 C terminus mediated AP binding and HCV release. Infectivity and coculture assays demonstrated that while all three adaptors mediate HCV release and cell-free spread, AP-1B and AP-4, but not AP-1A, mediate cell-to-cell spread. Live-cell imaging revealed HCV cotrafficking with AP-1A, AP-1B, and AP-4 and that AP-4 mediates HCV trafficking in a post-Golgi compartment. Lastly, HCV cell-to-cell spread was regulated by AAK1 and GAK and thus susceptible to treatment with AAK1 and GAK inhibitors. These data provide a mechanistic understanding of HCV trafficking in distinct release pathways and reveal a requirement for APs in cell-to-cell viral spread.

  6. Analysis of the selective advantage conferred by a C-E1 fusion protein synthesized by rubella virus DI RNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, Claudia; Tzeng, W.-P.; Liebert, Uwe Gerd; Frey, Teryl K.

    2007-01-01

    sustaining infected cell percentage increase the likelihood of co-infection by a DI and wt RUB during serial passage thus enhancing maintenance of the DI. Cluster formation and sustaining infected cell percentage were found to be due to a combination of attenuated cytopathogenicity of DIs that express the C-E1 fusion protein and cell-to-cell movement of the DI. In infected cells, the C-GFP-E1 fusion protein was localized to potentially novel vesicular structures that appear to originate from ER-Golgi transport vacuoles. This species of DI expressing a C-E1 fusion protein that exhibits attenuated cytopathogenicity and the ability to increase the number of infected cells through cell-to-cell movement could be the basis for development of an attractive vaccine vector

  7. Studying Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; McCurdy, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The research method of participant observation has long been used by scholars interested in the motivations, dynamics, tactics and strategies of social movements from a movement perspective. Despite participant observation being a common research method, there have been very few efforts to bring...... together this literature, which has often been spread across disciplines. This makes it difficult to identify the various challenges (and their interrelation) facing participant observers. Consequently, this article first reviews how participant observation roles have been conceptualised in general...... and then draws specific links to how the method has been used in the study of activism and social movements. In doing so, this article brings together key academic debates on participant observation, which have been considered separately, such as insider/outsider and overt/covert, but not previously been brought...

  8. Movement as utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  9. Movement Without Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fortuna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Johnson Simon, an artist based in West Palm Beach, FL, provided the cover art for the Fall 2017 edition of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. “Dancing in Motion” is a 36” x 60” painting made from acrylic on canvas. Johnson always wanted to become a dancer. He was born with cerebral palsy, and therefore physical limitations make it difficult for Johnson to coordinate his body movements. Through use of vibrant colors and bold strokes, Johnson’s expressionist paintings evoke movement and motion. Occupational therapy helped Johnson discover his artistic abilities. Painting empowered him to move without limitations

  10. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E

    2008-12-09

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.).

  11. Rationality in Human Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2016-01-01

    It long has been appreciated that humans behave irrationally in economic decisions under risk: they fail to objectively consider uncertainty, costs, and rewards and instead exhibit risk-seeking or risk-averse behavior. We hypothesize that poor estimates of motor variability (influenced by motor task) and distorted probability weighting (influenced by relevant emotional processes) contribute to characteristic irrationality in human movement decisions.

  12. The Matter of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2015-01-01

    This contribution concerns itself with the design and realisation of architectures that operate with material dynamics. It presents this concern as a counter to the consideration of movement in architecture as something conceptualised from the position of the observer. The contribution draws upon...

  13. Knowledge through movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kjær; Moser, T.

    2003-01-01

    In: Children and adolescents in movement - perspectives and ideas. The Danish Ministry of Culture, pages 150 - 162. 2003 Short description: the article debunks a lot of the myths surrounding body and learning, and replace them with a vision about another kind of learning. The aim is to reintroduce...

  14. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...

  15. The Evidence Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rieper, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    The evidence movement and the idea of systematic reviews, defined as summaries of the results of already existing evaluation and research projects, have gained considerable support in recent years as many international as well as national evidence-producing organizations have been established...

  16. Managing Movement as Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrell, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  17. Music, Movement, and Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  18. Editorial: Body Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Assuncao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the juxtaposition between physical bodies and the gameworld is ever more fluid. Virtual Reality headsets are available at game stores with more AAA games being created for the format. The release of the Nintendo Switch and its dynamic JoyCon controllers reintroduce haptic movement based controls.  Pokémon GO’s augmented reality took gamers outdoors and has encouraged the Harry Potter franchise to follow in its mobile footsteps. Each development encourages a step further into the digital world. At the same time, the movement of bodies always has political dimensions. We live in a world where walls seem like solutions to the movement of bodies, while the mere meeting of bodies elsewhere – for sex, marriage and other reasons – is still forbidden by many states’ rules. Games and game-like interfaces have shown the ability to bend those rules, and to sometimes project other worlds and rule systems over our world in order to make bodies move and meet. For this special issue on ‘Body Movements’, Press Start invited authors to focus on embodiment, body movements, political bodies, community bodies, virtual bodies, physical bodies, feminine, masculine, trans- bodies, agency or its lack, and anything else in between. The response to this invitation was variegated, and provocative, as outlined here.

  19. Morocco's February 20 Movement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-20

    Feb 20, 2018 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2017 ... revolted several times, namely in big cities like Casablanca, Marrakech or .... region in order to take advantage of their experience and acquire a regional ..... Undoubtedly, with social networking, the dynamics of protest movements.

  20. [Architecture and movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  1. Vaccine-induced antibodies to herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D epitopes involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread correlate with protection against genital disease in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Lauren M; Cairns, Tina M; Awasthi, Sita; Brooks, Benjamin D; Ditto, Noah T; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Friedman, Harvey M

    2018-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) subunit antigen is included in many preclinical candidate vaccines. The rationale for including gD2 is to produce antibodies that block crucial gD2 epitopes involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread. HSV-2 gD2 was the only antigen in the Herpevac Trial for Women that protected against HSV-1 genital infection but not HSV-2. In that trial, a correlation was detected between gD2 ELISA titers and protection against HSV-1, supporting the importance of antibodies. A possible explanation for the lack of protection against HSV-2 was that HSV-2 neutralization titers were low, four-fold lower than to HSV-1. Here, we evaluated neutralization titers and epitope-specific antibody responses to crucial gD2 epitopes involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread as correlates of immune protection against genital lesions in immunized guinea pigs. We detected a strong correlation between neutralizing antibodies and protection against genital disease. We used a high throughput biosensor competition assay to measure epitope-specific responses to seven crucial gD2 linear and conformational epitopes involved in virus entry and spread. Some animals produced antibodies to most crucial epitopes while others produced antibodies to few. The number of epitopes recognized by guinea pig immune serum correlated with protection against genital lesions. We confirmed the importance of antibodies to each crucial epitope using monoclonal antibody passive transfer that improved survival and reduced genital disease in mice after HSV-2 genital challenge. We re-evaluated our prior study of epitope-specific antibody responses in women in the Herpevac Trial. Humans produced antibodies that blocked significantly fewer crucial gD2 epitopes than guinea pigs, and antibody responses in humans to some linear epitopes were virtually absent. Neutralizing antibody titers and epitope-specific antibody responses are important immune parameters to

  2. The complex subcellular distribution of satellite panicum mosaic virus capsid protein reflects its multifunctional role during infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Dong; Omarov, Rustem T.; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) depends on its helper Panicum mosaic virus for replication and movement in host plants. The positive-sense single-stranded genomic RNA of SPMV encodes a 17-kDa capsid protein (CP) to form 16-nm virions. We determined that SPMV CP accumulates in both cytosolic and non-cytosolic fractions, but cytosolic accumulation of SPMV CP is exclusively associated with virions. An N-terminal arginine-rich motif (N-ARM) on SPMV CP is used to bind its cognate RNA and to form virus particles. Intriguingly, virion formation is dispensable for successful systemic SPMV RNA accumulation, yet this process still depends on an intact N-ARM. In addition, a C-terminal domain on the SPMV CP is necessary for self-interaction. Biochemical fractionation and fluorescent microscopy of green fluorescent protein-tagged SPMV CP demonstrated that the non-cytosolic SPMV CP is associated with the cell wall, the nucleus and other membranous organelles. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a satellite virus CP not only accumulates exclusively as virions in the cytosol but also is directed to the nucleolus and membranes. That SPMV CP is found both in the nucleus and the cell wall suggests its involvement in viral nuclear import and cell-to-cell transport

  3. Movement disorders in paraneoplastic and autoimmune disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Jessica; Dalmau, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The most relevant advances in immune-mediated movement disorders are described, with emphasis on the clinical–immunological associations, novel antigens, and treatment. Recent findings Many movement disorders previously considered idiopathic or degenerative are now recognized as immune-mediated. Some disorders are paraneoplastic, such as anti-CRMP5-associated chorea, anti-Ma2 hypokinesis and rigidity, anti-Yo cerebellar ataxia and tremor, and anti-Hu ataxia and pesudoathetosis. Other disorders such as Sydenham's chorea, or chorea related to systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome occur in association with multiple antibodies, are not paraneoplastic, and are triggered by molecular mimicry or unknown mechanisms. Recent studies have revealed a new category of disorders that can be paraneoplastic or not, and associate with antibodies against cell-surface or synaptic proteins. They include anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis, which may cause dyskinesias, chorea, ballismus or dystonia (NMDAR antibodies), the spectrum of Stiff-person syndrome/muscle rigidity (glutamic acid decarboxylase, amphiphysin, GABAA-receptor-associated protein, or glycine receptor antibodies), neuromyotonia (Caspr2 antibodies), and opsoclonus–myoclonus–ataxia (unknown antigens). Summary Neurologists should be aware that many movement disorders are immune-mediated. Recognition of these disorders is important because it may lead to the diagnosis of an occult cancer, and a substantial number of patients, mainly those with antibodies to cell-surface or synaptic proteins, respond to immunotherapy. PMID:21577108

  4. [Neuropsychiatry Of Movement Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Barrios Vincos, Gustavo Adolfo; Martínez Gallego, Melisa Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    Movement disorders can be defined as neurological syndromes presenting with excessive or diminished automatic or voluntary movements not related to weakness or spasticity. Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) are well-known examples of these syndromes. The high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, impulsivity, sleep disorders, apathy and cognitive impairment mean that these conditions must be regarded as neuropsychiatric diseases. In this article, we review neuroanatomical (structural and functional), psychopathological and neuropsychological aspects of PD and HD. The role of fronto-subcortical loops in non-motor functions is particularly emphasised in order to understand the clinical spectrum of both diseases, together with the influence of genetic, psychological and psychosocial aspects. A brief description of the main psychopharmacological approaches for both diseases is also included. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  6. Anti-nuclear movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedig, W.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power, heralded in the years after World War II as the answer to the world's energy needs, has in more recent times become the focus of intense ecological, political and economic debate. In this study, the current worldwide opposition to nuclear power is examined from its origins in expert dissent to the widespread development of grassroots activity. Chapter headings include: Social Movements: A Theoretical Framework; Creating the Preconditions for Public Protest; Local and Regional Opposition: Mobilizing the Grass Roots; Local Opposition and the Politicization of Nuclear Power; The Use of Local Opposition as a Political Resource; Local Opposition and Social Movement Analysis; The Removal of Political Stimuli: The Unpolitics of Nuclear Siting; Analyzing Host Community Attitudes: The Survey Evidence; Attitudes and Political Action of Nuclear Host Communities: Approaches and Explanations; Novel Siting Approaches and their Political Implications; Siting and Social Movement Analysis; Patterns and Outcomes of Nuclear Energy Conflicts; The Future of the Nuclear Energy Conflict. Throughout the text, analysis and theory are blended with detailed accounts of the growth and activities of individual anti-nuclear organizations in different countries. (author)

  7. Database of ligand-induced domain movements in enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayward Steven

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conformational change induced by the binding of a substrate or coenzyme is a poorly understood stage in the process of enzyme catalysed reactions. For enzymes that exhibit a domain movement, the conformational change can be clearly characterized and therefore the opportunity exists to gain an understanding of the mechanisms involved. The development of the non-redundant database of protein domain movements contains examples of ligand-induced domain movements in enzymes, but this valuable data has remained unexploited. Description The domain movements in the non-redundant database of protein domain movements are those found by applying the DynDom program to pairs of crystallographic structures contained in Protein Data Bank files. For each pair of structures cross-checking ligands in their Protein Data Bank files with the KEGG-LIGAND database and using methods that search for ligands that contact the enzyme in one conformation but not the other, the non-redundant database of protein domain movements was refined down to a set of 203 enzymes where a domain movement is apparently triggered by the binding of a functional ligand. For these cases, ligand binding information, including hydrogen bonds and salt-bridges between the ligand and specific residues on the enzyme is presented in the context of dynamical information such as the regions that form the dynamic domains, the hinge bending residues, and the hinge axes. Conclusion The presentation at a single website of data on interactions between a ligand and specific residues on the enzyme alongside data on the movement that these interactions induce, should lead to new insights into the mechanisms of these enzymes in particular, and help in trying to understand the general process of ligand-induced domain closure in enzymes. The website can be found at: http://www.cmp.uea.ac.uk/dyndom/enzymeList.do

  8. Sleep-related movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Giovanni; Gigli, Gian Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Several movement disorders may occur during nocturnal rest disrupting sleep. A part of these complaints is characterized by relatively simple, non-purposeful and usually stereotyped movements. The last version of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders includes these clinical conditions (i.e. restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleep-related leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism and sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder) under the category entitled sleep-related movement disorders. Moreover, apparently physiological movements (e.g. alternating leg muscle activation and excessive hypnic fragmentary myoclonus) can show a high frequency and severity impairing sleep quality. Clinical and, in specific cases, neurophysiological assessments are required to detect the presence of nocturnal movement complaints. Patients reporting poor sleep due to these abnormal movements should undergo non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments.

  9. Social Movements and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francisca Pinheiro Coelho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study approaches the relationship between social movements and institutions in Brazil concerning three different stages of the process of re-democratization: the political transition; the National Constituent Assembly; and the new Constitutional Order. The general question is: what is the interface, reciprocity or conflict, between social movements and institutions in this context of social change? The paper examines the different roles of social movements and institutions in each specific period: in the pre-democratization moment, the movement for direct elections for president, Diretas-Já, is analyzed; in the National Constituent Assembly, the movement in defense for free public education is examined;  in the new constitutional order, the pro-reform political movement is studied.  The work focuses on the scope of the studies on social movements and democracy.  It belongs to the field of the studies about the representativeness and legitimacy of the demands of social movements in the context of democracy and its challenges. Key words: social movement, institution, reciprocity, conflict, democracy.   Social Movements and Institutions                               Resumen El estudio aborda la relación entre los movimientos sociales e instituciones en Brasil en tres etapas diferentes del proceso de redemocratización en las últimas décadas: la transición política; la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente; y el nuevo orden constitucional. La pregunta general es: ¿cuál es la relación, la reciprocidad o el conflito, entre los movimientos sociales y las instituciones en este contexto de cambio social? El artículo examina los diferentes roles de los movimientos sociales e instituciones en cada período específico: en el momento de la transición política analiza el movimiento de las elecciones directas para presidente, las Diretas-Já; en la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente aborda el movimiento en

  10. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  11. Segmenting Trajectories by Movement States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt

  12. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  13. Normal movement selectivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J

    2010-05-13

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Movement selectivity is a defining characteristic of neurons involved in movement perception, including mirror neurons, and, as such, these findings argue against a mirror system dysfunction in autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The tactile movement aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, M; Favorov, O

    1994-01-01

    The existence of a tactile movement aftereffect was established in a series of experiments on the palmar surface of the hand and fingers of psychophysical observers. During adaptation, observers cupped their hand around a moving drum for up to 3 min; following this period of stimulation, they typically reported an aftereffect consisting of movement sensations located on and deep to the skin, and lasting for up to 1 min. Preliminary experiments comparing a number of stimulus materials mounted on the drum demonstrated that a surface approximating a low-spatial-frequency square wave, with a smooth microtexture, was especially effective at inducing the aftereffect; this adapting stimulus was therefore used throughout the two main experiments. In Experiment 1, the vividness of the aftereffect produced by 2 min of adaptation was determined under three test conditions: with the hand (1) remaining on the now stationary drum; (2) in contact with a soft, textured surface; or (3) suspended in air. Subjects' free magnitude estimates of the peak vividness of the aftereffect were not significantly different across conditions; each subject experienced the aftereffect at least once under each condition. Thus the tactile movement aftereffect does not seem to depend critically on the ponditions of stimulation that obtain while it is being experienced. In Experiment 2, the vividness and duration of the aftereffect were measured as a function of the duration of the adapting stimulus. Both measures increased steadily over the range of durations explored (30-180 sec). In its dependence on adapting duration, the aftereffect resembles the waterfall illusion in vision. An explanation for the tactile movement aftereffect is proposed, based on the model of cortical dynamics of Whitsel et al. (1989, 1991). With assumed modest variation of one parameter across individuals, this application of the model is able to account both for the data of the majority of subjects, who experienced the

  16. Fetal body movement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1990-03-01

    Recording fetal activity serves as an indirect measure of central nervous system integrity and function. The coordination of whole body movement, which requires complex neurologic control, is likely similar to that of the newborn infant. Short-term observations of the fetus are best performed using real-time ultrasound imaging. Monitoring fetal motion has been shown to be clinically worthwhile in predicting impending death or compromise, especially when placental insufficiency is longstanding. The presence of a vigorous fetus is reassuring. Perceived inactivity requires a reassessment of any underlying antepartum complication and a more precise evaluation by fetal heart rate testing or real-time ultrasonography before delivery is contemplated.

  17. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise......-slavery movements had raised awareness, this political emergence was even easier. Indeed the fight against ‘slave mentalities’ was everywhere a major challenge and a crucial step to mobilize groups of slave status under a united force. As this article argues changes in political structures and changes in political...

  18. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias......, to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual......Group dynamic movement is a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognised, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However...

  19. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    section unearths what characterizes the literature on camera movement. The second section of the dissertation delineates the history of camera movement itself within narrative cinema. Several organizational principles subtending the on-screen effect of camera movement are revealed in section two...... but they are not organized into a coherent framework. This is the task that section three meets in proposing a functional taxonomy for camera movement in narrative cinema. Two presumptions subtend the taxonomy: That camera movement actively contributes to the way in which we understand the sound and images on the screen......, commentative or valuative manner. 4) Focalization: associating the movement of the camera with the viewpoints of characters or entities in the story world. 5) Reflexive: inviting spectators to engage with the artifice of camera movement. 6) Abstract: visualizing abstract ideas and concepts. In order...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: congenital mirror movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Congenital mirror movement disorder Congenital mirror movement disorder Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Congenital mirror movement disorder is a condition in which intentional movements ...

  1. Temporomandibular joint movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, M.; Itou, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Hayashi, N.; Ishii, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ten temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 5 healthy volunteers and 19 TMJs of internal derangements in 16 patients with splint therapy were examined with MR imaging. T1-weighted images were obtained only in the closed mouth position, and gradient recalled acquisition in steady state (GRASS) images were obtained in active opening and closing phases, allowing a pseudodynamic display of TMJ movement. All patients received protrusive splint treatment. The usefulness of MR imaging to assess the efficacy of splint therapy was evaluated. Corrected disk position with the splint in place was clearly demonstrated in 9 TMJs, corresponding with elimination of reciprocal clicking. Ten other TMJs of anterior disk displacement without reduction showed uncorrected disk position by the splint. This information could confirm the therapeutic efficacy, or suggest other treatment alternatives. GRASS MR imaging can provide accurate and physiologic information about disk function in initial and follow-up assessment of protrusive splint therapy. (orig.)

  2. Tracking the Poster Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2015-01-01

    Summary: This article considers the display of posters as a distinctive activity and defining aspect of British modernism between the two wars, looking to a cardinal event, the Exhibition of British and Foreign Posters at the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1931. This manifestation was the first...... in the Museum to expose the poster-image as a medium in its own artistic, technical, historical and popular right; the article examines the event as a sign holding core characteristics of a ‘poster movement’ prevailing during the interwar years. The period made a varied scene for exhibitions promoting...... commercial and graphic design of various kinds of which British and Foreign Posters offers a particularly rich example. The exhibition attracted commercial, artistic and curatorial forces substantiating the idea of a movement, and approached commercial art from a perspective that raised new awareness towards...

  3. The Circular Camera Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... repeatedly to convey the feeling of a man and a woman falling in love. This raises the question of why producers and directors choose certain stylistic features to narrate certain categories of content. Through the analysis of several short film and TV clips, this article explores whether...... or not there are perceptual aspects related to specific stylistic features that enable them to be used for delimited narrational purposes. The article further attempts to reopen this particular stylistic debate by exploring the embodied aspects of visual perception in relation to specific stylistic features...

  4. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2014-01-01

    . The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...... of individual experiences of school and everyday school life as it unfolds in and beyond the formal teaching situations. The chapter follows in the wake of a growing attention to the aspects of everyday life and lived life at school in the history of education. It also develops tools for and demonstrates how...... the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective....

  5. Clinical features of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, C Y

    1983-08-01

    The descriptive aspects of all types of movement disorders and their related syndromes and terminologies used in the literature are reviewed and described. This comprises the features of (a) movement disorders secondary to neurological diseases affecting the extrapyramidal motor system, such as: athetosis, chorea, dystonia, hemiballismus, myoclonus, tremor, tics and spasm, (b) drug induced movement disorders, such as: akathisia, akinesia, hyperkinesia, dyskinesias, extrapyramidal syndrome, and tardive dyskinesia, and (c) abnormal movements in psychiatric disorders, such as: mannerism, stereotyped behaviour and psychomotor retardation. It is intended to bring about a more comprehensive overview of these movement disorders from a phenomenological perspective, so that clinicians can familiarize with these features for diagnosis. Some general statements are made in regard to some of the characteristics of movement disorders.

  6. Normal Movement Selectivity in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements, but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Moveme...

  7. The Explanatory Range of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    2005-01-01

    Drawing a distinction between systemic and functional explanations of movement in general, I shall argue that the Chomskyan view of movement in language is originally functional. With the advent of the Minimimalist Program, however, it has become systemic, but no argument for this change has been...... forthcoming. I'll then present data (from Danish) to sustain the view that only functional type explanations of movement can be empirically motivated, and these only if movement is reinterpreted as transition states between representations of different kinds....

  8. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  9. Movement Matters: Observing the Benefits of Movement Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Melani Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Montessori's first premise is that movement and cognition are closely entwined, and movement can enhance thinking and learning (Lillard, 2005). Children must move, and practice moving, to develop strength, balance, and the stability needed to fully participate in the rigors of daily life. It is imperative for young children's motor…

  10. Social-movement analysis of the American antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the author was able to derive from the demonstration sample a descriptive and illustrative analysis of those individuals, organizations, and processes involved in the national antinuclear crusade. Given that few researchers have actively studied the antinuclear movement beyond the scope of local or regional protests, this work constitutes the only empirical study to date examining a cross section of the movement's participants from a sociological perspective. It is also one of the few attempts to use a national demonstration as a social laboratory for the study of a social movement in general. In terms of the mobilization variables examined in the study, it was found that organizational networks, past movement activism, and individual resources were important factors in the May 6 mobilization effort. While less than one-half of the demonstrators were part of the antinuclear organizational network per se, most of them had been active in the major protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. The demonstrators were relatively high in socio-economic resources and had occupational or educational schedules conducive to creating the necessary discretionary time for movement participation

  11. Spatial memory and animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  12. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...

  13. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Alphen (Arjan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection

  14. Movement Patterns in Educational Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Nielsen, Thorsten B.

    2018-01-01

    Although movement is essential in location-based games to get from one point of interest to the next, it is seldom taken into account for the game design and the selection of locations. Instead, player movement is usually analyzed after the fact, i.e. when the game is ready to play. In this paper......-based educational games....

  15. Music and Movement. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy; Moore, Thomas; Carlton, Elizabeth B.; Kranowitz, Carol Stock

    2000-01-01

    Four articles address music and movement in early childhood education: (1) "For the Love of Music--and Children"(Cindy Smith); (2) "Music: The Great Connector" (Thomas Moore); (3) "Learning through Music: The Support of Brain Research" (Elizabeth B. Carlton); and (4) "Music and Movement Bring Together Children of…

  16. The ecological movement in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccoen, L.B.C.

    1977-01-01

    The anti-nuclear movements in France are part of a broader movement which, following common usage, the author calls the Ecological Movement. In France, the movement can be divided into a fairly small politically oriented core, numerous and varied associations for the defence of the environment, and a number of consumer associations. The movement cannot be classified politically, which accounts for the attitude of the political parties - distrust of the ''ecologists'', but considerable interest in them as voters. Those with responsibility for power generation must explain to the population at large the energy problem and the importance of economic growth in raising wages and reducing unemployment. They must also explain why nuclear power generation is one of the safest technologies existing at present. (author)

  17. On Biometrics With Eye Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti

    2017-09-01

    Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In this paper, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.

  18. Eye movement perimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trope, G E; Eizenman, M; Coyle, E

    1989-08-01

    Present-day computerized perimetry is often inaccurate and unreliable owing to the need to maintain central fixation over long periods while repressing the normal response to presentation of peripheral stimuli. We tested a new method of perimetry that does not require prolonged central fixation. During this test eye movements were encouraged on presentation of a peripheral target. Twenty-three eyes were studied with an Octopus perimeter, with a technician monitoring eye movements. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 23%. The low specificity was due to the technician's inability to accurately monitor small eye movements in the central 6 degrees field. If small eye movements are monitored accurately with an eye tracker, eye movement perimetry could become an alternative method to standard perimetry.

  19. Structural and biomechanical basis of mitochondrial movement in eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Min Wu,1 Aruna Kalyanasundaram,2 Jie Zhu1 1Laboratory of Biomechanics and Engineering, Institute of Biophysics, College of Science, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; 2College of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Mitochondria serve as energy-producing organelles in eukaryotic cells. In addition to providing the energy supply for cells, the mitochondria are also involved in other processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, information transfer, and apoptosis, and play an important role in regulation of cell growth and the cell cycle. In order to achieve these functions, the mitochondria need to move to the corresponding location. Therefore, mitochondrial movement has a crucial role in normal physiologic activity, and any mitochondrial movement disorder will cause irreparable damage to the organism. For example, recent studies have shown that abnormal movement of the mitochondria is likely to be the reason for Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. So, in the cell, especially in the particular polarized cell, the appropriate distribution of mitochondria is crucial to the function and survival of the cell. Mitochondrial movement is mainly associated with the cytoskeleton and related proteins. However, those components play different roles according to cell type. In this paper, we summarize the structural basis of mitochondrial movement, including microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, and adaptin, and review studies of the biomechanical mechanisms of mitochondrial movement in different types of cells. Keywords: mitochondrial movement, microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, adaptin

  20. The cell biology of Tobacco mosaic virus replication and movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengke eLiu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful systemic infection of a plant by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV requires three processes that repeat over time: initial establishment and accumulation in invaded cells, intercellular movement and systemic transport. Accumulation and intercellular movement of TMV necessarily involves intracellular transport by complexes containing virus and host proteins and virus RNA during a dynamic process that can be visualized. Multiple membranes appear to assist TMV accumulation, while membranes, microfilaments and microtubules appear to assist TMV movement. Here we review cell biological studies that describe TMV-membrane, -cytoskeleton and -other host protein interactions which influence virus accumulation and movement in leaves and callus tissue. The importance of understanding the developmental phase of the infection in relationship to the observed virus-membrane or -host protein interaction is emphasized. Utilizing the latest observations of TMV-membrane and -host protein interactions within our evolving understanding of the infection ontogeny, a model for TMV accumulation and intracellular spread in a cell biological context is provided.

  1. Movement disorders in hereditary ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Ruiz, Pedro J; Mayo, David; Hernandez, Jaime; Cantarero, Susana; Ayuso, Carmen

    2002-10-15

    Movement disorders are well known features of some dominant hereditary ataxias (HA), specially SCA3/Machado-Joseph disease and dentatorubropallidolusyan atrophy. However, little is known about the existence and classification of movement disorders in other dominant and recessive ataxias. We prospectively studied the presence of movement disorders in patients referred for HA over the last 3 years. Only those patients with a confirmed family history of ataxia were included. We studied 84 cases of HA, including 46 cases of recessive and 38 cases of dominant HA. Thirty out of 46 cases of recessive HA could be classified as: Friedreich ataxia (FA), 29 cases; vitamin E deficiency, 1 case. Twenty-three out of 38 cases of dominant HA could be classified as: SCA 2, 4 cases; SCA 3, 8 cases; SCA 6, 4 cases; SCA 7, 6 cases and SCA 8, 1 case. We observed movement disorders in 20/38 (52%) patients with dominant HA and 25/46 (54%) cases with recessive HA, including 16 patients (16/29) with FA. In general, postural tremor was the most frequent observed movement disorder (27 cases), followed by dystonia (22 cases). Five patients had akinetic rigid syndrome, and in 13 cases, several movement disorders coexisted. Movement disorders are frequent findings in HA, not only in dominant HA but also in recessive HA. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Does the cerebellum initiate movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, W T

    2014-02-01

    Opinion is divided on what the exact function of the cerebellum is. Experiments are summarized that support the following views: (1) the cerebellum is a combiner of multiple movement factors; (2) it contains anatomically fixed permanent focal representation of individual body parts (muscles and segments) and movement modes (e.g., vestibular driven vs. cognitive driven); (3) it contains flexible changing representations/memory of physical properties of the body parts including muscle strength, segment inertia, joint viscosity, and segmental interaction torques (dynamics); (4) it contains mechanisms for learning and storage of the properties in item no. 3 through trial-and-error practice; (5) it provides for linkage of body parts, motor modes, and motordynamics via the parallel fiber system; (6) it combines and integrates the many factors so as to initiate coordinated movements of the many body parts; (7) it is thus enabled to play the unique role of initiating coordinated movements; and (8) this unique causative role is evidenced by the fact that: (a) electrical stimulation of the cerebellum can initiate compound coordinated movements; (b) in naturally initiated compound movements, cerebellar discharge precedes that in downstream target structures such as motor cerebral cortex; and (c) cerebellar ablation abolishes the natural production of compound movements in the awake alert individuals.

  3. Jellyfish movement data - Determining Movement Patterns of Jellyfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...

  4. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  5. Dance movement therapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkou, Vicky; Meekums, Bonnie

    2017-02-03

    Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement's Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement

  6. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation negatively...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  7. Surgical management of movement disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    together as movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor) is with medication and, in some, with ... Stereotactic lesioning of basal ganglia and/or thalamic targets ... and there is some concern related to suicide.

  8. Neuroimaging findings in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topalov, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice

  9. Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eHiggins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  10. Healthy Movements: Your Body's Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body, are governed by the same basic physical laws,” says Dr. Jeffrey Weiss, a biomechanics expert at ... for movement disorders such as cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s disease. Joints are a common source of problems ...

  11. Game Movement as Enactive Focalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Shibolet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates thought on game narrative and embodied cognition, in order to consider the significance of movement to the embodied narrative experience of games. If games are a mode of ‘environmental storytelling’, determining the player’s mobile situatedness within the gamespace is of crucial importance. The metaphor of game design as narrative architecture should be expanded to include te the design of movement dynamics, alongside geographical gamespace. I suggest a theoretical infrastructure that aims to enable further analysis of movement design’s role in this scope. The theory of enactive perception asserts that all perception is inherently negotiated through embodied understanding of moving within environment. According to this model, by giving meaning to perception, movement is also directly related to the structure of consciousness and thought. Cognitive definitions of ‘narrative’ that integrate embodiment are applied to argue it can relevantly account for part of thought’s role in enactive perception. Mieke Bal’s concept of focalization (1997 broaches narrative perspective by underscoring the constant “movement of the look”. For enactive perception, such mobility should be understood as inseparable from the movement of the body even when perspective could appear detached from embodiment. Therefore, I offer the supplementary concept of “enactive focalization” – narrative perception as interpreted through the interconnected dynamics or perspectival and physical movement. To exemplify my ideas and the potential of future research in this scope, I discuss the uniquely effective and affective movement dynamic design of Journey. This paper concludes by reflecting on enactive focalization in light of the increased utilization of embodiment in the contemporary digital media landscape.

  12. THE MOVEMENT SYSTEM IN EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Sulavik, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Although many physical therapists have begun to focus on movement and function in clinical practice, a significant number continue to focus on impairments or pathoanatomic models to direct interventions. This paradigm may be driven by the current models used to direct and guide curricula used for physical therapist education. The methods by which students are educated may contribute to a focus on independent systems, rather than viewing the body as a functional whole. Students who enter practice must be able to integrate information across multiple systems that affect a patient or client's movement and function. Such integration must be taught to students and it is the responsibility of those in physical therapist education to embrace and teach the next generation of students this identifying professional paradigm of the movement system. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to describe the current state of the movement system in physical therapy education, suggest strategies for enhancing movement system focus in entry level education, and envision the future of physical therapy education related to the movement system. Contributions by a student author offer depth and perspective to the ideas and suggestions presented. 5.

  13. The movement ecology of seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-11-22

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.

  14. Movement games in sports training of children

    OpenAIRE

    Komoň, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Title: Movement Games in Sports Training of Children Objectives: Create a systemized inventory of movement games. Movement games categorized according to which football skills can developed. Verify popularity of the each movement game in simple questionnaire. Methods: The literature search and data analysis. Also, quantitative research in the form of a simple questionnaire. Results: Systematized inventory of 39 movement games with methodological descriptions. Each movement game has feedback i...

  15. Towards bridging the gap from molecular forces to the movement of organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    Muscles are responsible for generating the forces required for the movement of multicellular organisms. Microscopically, these forces arise as a consequence of motor proteins (myosin) pulling and sliding along actin filaments. Current knowledge states that the molecular forces between actin...

  16. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID

    KAUST Repository

    Zourelidou, Melina; Absmanner, Birgit; Weller, Benjamin; Barbosa, Inê s CR; Willige, Bjö rn C; Fastner, Astrid; Streit, Verena; Port, Sarah A; Colcombet, Jean; de la Fuente van Bentem, Sergio; Hirt, Heribert; Kuster, Bernhard; Schulze, Waltraud X; Hammes, Ulrich Z; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the-in many cells-asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.

  17. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID

    KAUST Repository

    Zourelidou, Melina

    2014-06-19

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the-in many cells-asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.

  18. Understanding movement data and movement processes: current and emerging directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S

    2008-12-01

    Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability.

  19. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  20. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  1. Nuclear movement regulated by non-Smad Nodal signaling via JNK is associated with Smad signaling during zebrafish endoderm specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, Shunya; Aoki, Shun; Kikuchi, Yutaka

    2017-11-01

    Asymmetric nuclear positioning is observed during animal development, but its regulation and significance in cell differentiation remain poorly understood. Using zebrafish blastulae, we provide evidence that nuclear movement towards the yolk syncytial layer, which comprises extraembryonic tissue, occurs in the first cells fated to differentiate into the endoderm. Nodal signaling is essential for nuclear movement, whereas nuclear envelope proteins are involved in movement through microtubule formation. Positioning of the microtubule-organizing center, which is proposed to be crucial for nuclear movement, is regulated by Nodal signaling and nuclear envelope proteins. The non-Smad JNK signaling pathway, which is downstream of Nodal signaling, regulates nuclear movement independently of the Smad pathway, and this nuclear movement is associated with Smad signal transduction toward the nucleus. Our study provides insight into the function of nuclear movement in Smad signaling toward the nucleus, and could be applied to the control of TGFβ signaling. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    This is a social anthropological analysis of the antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee. This social movement was determined to halt the construction of proposed nuclear power plants in Tennessee, especially one the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) intended to build in Middle Tennessee. The data for the study were gathered by participant-observation interviewing, and the examination of documents from February 1973 through March 1975. The treatment of the data is based on transactional analysis and portions of the network model. This social movement was composed of a series of informally organized cells connected by a loose network of people who visited and talked with one another. Individual cells tended to be organized on a geographical basis, as was communication. Activity-initiators, however, often contacted antinuclear personnel in other Middle Tennessee cells. Movement activity for many of the antinuclear activists was short-lived. The strategic maneuvers of the movement utilized all the structurally and legally possible alternatives and the nuclear opponents hoped that the public would pressure public officials to oppose nuclear plants. Although the antinuclear activists worked very hard, they did not succeed in halting the planned construction of the Middle Tennessee nuclear plant. Indeed, they had not succeeded in the summer of 1977

  3. Yarbus, Eye Movements, and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Tatler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.

  4. 45 CFR 400.119 - Interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interstate movement. 400.119 Section 400.119... Services § 400.119 Interstate movement. After the initial placement of an unaccompanied minor, the same procedures that govern the movement of nonrefugee foster cases to other States apply to the movement of...

  5. Conceptualizing Learning in the Climate Justice Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluttz, Jenalee; Walter, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This article extends Scandrett et al.'s conceptual framework for social movement learning to understand learning and knowledge creation in the climate justice movement. Drawing on radical pluralist theoretical approaches to social movement learning, learning in the climate justice movement is conceptualized at the micro, meso, and macro levels,…

  6. Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

  7. Correcting slightly less simple movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Aivar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these

  8. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  9. Noun Phrase Structure and Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna; Vikner, Sten

    2011-01-01

    /solch to follow the article. We discuss two possible syntactic derivations, predicate raising (e.g. Corver 1998, Bennis, Corver & den Dikken 1998) and XP movement from an attributive adjective position within the nominal (e.g. Matushansky 2002). The analysis links up with the morphological agreement facts...

  10. Ketotic hyperglycemia with movement disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Awasthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chorea, hemichorea-hemiballismus and severe partial seizures may be the presenting features of nonketotic hyperglycemia in older adults with type 2 diabetes, but cases in young adults with type 1 diabetes are rare. We hereby report a very rare case of diabetic ketosis with movement disorder in a young patient.

  11. Population consequences of aggregative movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Turchin

    1989-01-01

    Gregarious behaviour is an important factor influencing survival and reproduction of animals, as well as population interactions. In this paper I develop a model of movement with attraction or repulsion between conspecifics. To facilitate its use in empirical studies, the model is based on experimentally measurable features of individual behaviour.

  12. Actuating movement in refined wearables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toeters, M.J.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays it is quite possible to deploy textiles as sensors and avoid traditional hard sensors. Actuation (movement) turns out more difficult. It is advantageous to combine sensing and actuation, similar to ecological perception theory. Although several actuators are known: SMA, voice coil, motors,

  13. THE INTERNATIONAL WALDORF SCHOOL MOVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VON BARAVALLE, HERMANN

    AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE WALDORF SCHOOL PLAN TRACES THE MOVEMENT FROM ITS FOUNDING IN STUTTGART, GERMANY IN 1919, BY THE WALDORF ASTORIA COMPANY AND UNDER THE DIRECTION OF RUDOLF STEINER, TO ITS INTRODUCTION INTO SWITZERLAND, OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, THE AMERICAS, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, AND SOUTH AFRICA, A TOTAL OF 175 SCHOOLS AS OF 1963. THE…

  14. Early Christian movements: Jesus movements and the renewal of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Horsley

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and development of the earliest Jesus movements within the context of persistent conflict between the Judean and Galilean peasantry and their Jerusalem and Roman rulers. It explores the prominence of popular prophetic and messianic movements and shows how the earliest movements that formed in response to Jesus’ mission exhibit similar features and patterns. Jesus is not treated as separate from social roles and political-economic relationships. Viewing Jesus against the background of village communities in which people lived, the Gospels are understood as genuine communication with other people in historical social contexts. The article argues that the net effect of these interrelated factors of theologically determined New Testament interpretation is a combination of assumptions and procedures that would be unacceptable in the regular investigation of history. Another version of the essay was published in Horsley, Richard A (ed, A people’s history of Christianity, Volume 1: Christian origins, 23-46. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.

  15. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory.

  16. Live cell imaging of mitochondrial movement along actin cables in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrenbacher, Kammy L; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol; Gay, Anna Card; Huckaba, Thomas M; Pon, Liza A

    2004-11-23

    Mitochondrial inheritance is essential for cell division. In budding yeast, mitochondrial movement from mother to daughter requires (1) actin cables, F-actin bundles that undergo retrograde movement during elongation from buds into mother cells; (2) the mitochore, a mitochondrial protein complex implicated in linking mitochondria to actin cables; and (3) Arp2/3 complex-mediated force generation on mitochondria. We observed three new classes of mitochondrial motility: anterograde movement at velocities of 0.2-0.33 microm/s, retrograde movement at velocities of 0.26-0.51 microm/s, and no net anterograde or retrograde movement. In all cases, motile mitochondria were associated with actin cables undergoing retrograde flow at velocities of 0.18-0.62 microm/s. Destabilization of actin cables or mutations of the mitochore blocked all mitochondrial movements. In contrast, mutations in the Arp2/3 complex affected anterograde but not retrograde mitochondrial movements. Actin cables are required for movement of mitochondria, secretory vesicles, mRNA, and spindle alignment elements in yeast. We provide the first direct evidence that one of the proposed cargos use actin cables as tracks. In the case of mitochondrial inheritance, anterograde movement drives transfer of the organelle from mothers to buds, while retrograde movement contributes to retention of the organelle in mother cells. Interaction of mitochondria with actin cables is required for anterograde and retrograde movement. In contrast, force generation on mitochondria is required only for anterograde movement. Finally, we propose a novel mechanism in which actin cables serve as "conveyor belts" that drive retrograde organelle movement.

  17. Zero-gravity movement studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.

  18. Protein degradation rate is the dominant mechanism accounting for the differences in protein abundance of basal p53 in a human breast and colorectal cancer cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Lakatos

    Full Text Available We determine p53 protein abundances and cell to cell variation in two human cancer cell lines with single cell resolution, and show that the fractional width of the distributions is the same in both cases despite a large difference in average protein copy number. We developed a computational framework to identify dominant mechanisms controlling the variation of protein abundance in a simple model of gene expression from the summary statistics of single cell steady state protein expression distributions. Our results, based on single cell data analysed in a Bayesian framework, lends strong support to a model in which variation in the basal p53 protein abundance may be best explained by variations in the rate of p53 protein degradation. This is supported by measurements of the relative average levels of mRNA which are very similar despite large variation in the level of protein.

  19. Protein degradation rate is the dominant mechanism accounting for the differences in protein abundance of basal p53 in a human breast and colorectal cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Eszter; Salehi-Reyhani, Ali; Barclay, Michael; Stumpf, Michael P H; Klug, David R

    2017-01-01

    We determine p53 protein abundances and cell to cell variation in two human cancer cell lines with single cell resolution, and show that the fractional width of the distributions is the same in both cases despite a large difference in average protein copy number. We developed a computational framework to identify dominant mechanisms controlling the variation of protein abundance in a simple model of gene expression from the summary statistics of single cell steady state protein expression distributions. Our results, based on single cell data analysed in a Bayesian framework, lends strong support to a model in which variation in the basal p53 protein abundance may be best explained by variations in the rate of p53 protein degradation. This is supported by measurements of the relative average levels of mRNA which are very similar despite large variation in the level of protein.

  20. Exoskeleton for assisting human movement

    OpenAIRE

    García Armada, Elena; Cestari, Manuel; Sanz Merodio, Daniel; Carrillo, Xavier Alberto

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to an exoskeleton for assisting human movement, which can be fitted to the user in terms of dimensions, tension and ranges of joint motion, either manually or automatically. Said exoskeleton can be fitted to the user in the anteroposterior direction in the sagittal plane, with the user in a horizontal or sitting position, without requiring a functional transfer. The exoskeleton has a modular design which is compatible with human biomechanics and reproduces a natural...

  1. An ER-directed fusion protein comprising a bacterial subtilisin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nausch

    subtilase tag was fused to human interleukin 6 (IL6) and transiently expressed in Nicotiana ..... MP, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein; TVCV-3'-NTR, TVCV-3' untranslated .... on the degradation pattern of heterologous proteins.

  2. Movement of global warming issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Taishi

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and the movement of the global warming issues as seen from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Conference of the Parties: COP) and the policy discussions in Japan. From the Fifth Assessment Report published by IPCC, it shows the following items: (1) increasing trends of greenhouse effect gas emissions during 1970 and 2010, (2) trends in world's greenhouse effect gas emissions according to income segment, and (3) factor analysis of changes in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Next, it takes up the greenhouse gas emission scenario of IPCC, shows the scenario due to temperature rise pattern, and introduces the assumption of emission reduction due to BECCS. Regarding the 2 deg. scenario that has become a hot topic in international negotiations, it describes the reason for difficulties in its implementation. In addition, as the international trends of global warming, it describes the agreement of numerical targets for emissions at COP3 (Kyoto Conference) and the subsequent movements. Finally, it introduces Japan's measures against global warming, as well as the future movement. (A.O.)

  3. Origin and consequences of the relationship between protein mean and variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallania, Francesco Luigi Massimo; Sherman, Marc; Goodwin, Zane; Mogno, Ilaria; Cohen, Barak Alon; Mitra, Robi David

    2014-01-01

    Cell-to-cell variance in protein levels (noise) is a ubiquitous phenomenon that can increase fitness by generating phenotypic differences within clonal populations of cells. An important challenge is to identify the specific molecular events that control noise. This task is complicated by the strong dependence of a protein's cell-to-cell variance on its mean expression level through a power-law like relationship (σ2∝μ1.69). Here, we dissect the nature of this relationship using a stochastic model parameterized with experimentally measured values. This framework naturally recapitulates the power-law like relationship (σ2∝μ1.6) and accurately predicts protein variance across the yeast proteome (r2 = 0.935). Using this model we identified two distinct mechanisms by which protein variance can be increased. Variables that affect promoter activation, such as nucleosome positioning, increase protein variance by changing the exponent of the power-law relationship. In contrast, variables that affect processes downstream of promoter activation, such as mRNA and protein synthesis, increase protein variance in a mean-dependent manner following the power-law. We verified our findings experimentally using an inducible gene expression system in yeast. We conclude that the power-law-like relationship between noise and protein mean is due to the kinetics of promoter activation. Our results provide a framework for understanding how molecular processes shape stochastic variation across the genome.

  4. Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

    The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

  5. Communication Theory and the Consumer Movement-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Defines and traces the origins of the consumer movement and uses communication theories to explain the effects of the movement. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)

  6. Functional jerks, tics, and paroxysmal movement disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreissen, Y. E. M.; Cath, D C; Tijssen, M A J; Hallet, Mark; Stone, Jon; Carson, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Functional jerks are among the most common functional movement disorders. The diagnosis of functional jerks is mainly based on neurologic examination revealing specific positive clinical signs. Differentiation from other jerky movements, such as tics, organic myoclonus, and primary paroxysmal

  7. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  8. 49 CFR 195.424 - Pipe movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe movement. 195.424 Section 195.424... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.424 Pipe movement. (a) No operator may move any line pipe, unless... in the line section involved are joined by welding unless— (1) Movement when the pipeline does not...

  9. 30 CFR 250.602 - Equipment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.602 Section 250.602... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.602 Equipment movement. The movement of well-workover rigs and related equipment on and off a platform or from well to well on...

  10. 49 CFR 236.776 - Movement, trailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, trailing. 236.776 Section 236.776 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, trailing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in the direction in...

  11. 30 CFR 250.502 - Equipment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.502 Section 250.502... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.502 Equipment movement. The movement of well-completion rigs and related equipment on and off a platform or from well to well...

  12. 49 CFR 236.774 - Movement, facing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, facing. 236.774 Section 236.774 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, facing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in a direction opposite to...

  13. 9 CFR 92.3 - Movement restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement restrictions. 92.3 Section 92... ANIMAL PRODUCTS: PROCEDURES FOR REQUESTING RECOGNITION OF REGIONS § 92.3 Movement restrictions. Whenever... exist and the EC imposes prohibitions or other restrictions on the movement of animals or animal...

  14. Mixed movements/performance-based drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2011-01-01

    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. As one in a series working with architectonic implementation in relation to body and movements, the actual project relates body-movement and dynamic drawing and presents the material as interactive ‘space-time-tables’....

  15. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagovic, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  16. Movement Education Framework (MEF) Made EZ!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiller-Abels, Karen; Bridges, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    All physical educators want to provide lessons that foster success. Particularly essential to the movement education framework is not only providing lessons that foster motor success, but also to develop knowledge about movement to help the learner develop skill in executing all different types of movement. The framework and examples provided in…

  17. Salmon carcass movements in forest streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke Strobel; Daniel R. Shivley; Brett B. Roper

    2009-01-01

    The movements of salmon carcasses over time were studied in two forest streams in the context of a large-scale salmon carcass supplementation program. The objectives were to assess both the level of treatment after stream flows had displaced carcasses and to evaluate whether the magnitude of carcass movements outside of a given reach could be predicted. The movements...

  18. What makes a movement a gesture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Miriam A; Wakefield, Elizabeth M; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Theories of how adults interpret the actions of others have focused on the goals and intentions of actors engaged in object-directed actions. Recent research has challenged this assumption, and shown that movements are often interpreted as being for their own sake (Schachner & Carey, 2013). Here we postulate a third interpretation of movement-movement that represents action, but does not literally act on objects in the world. These movements are gestures. In this paper, we describe a framework for predicting when movements are likely to be seen as representations. In Study 1, adults described one of three scenes: (1) an actor moving objects, (2) an actor moving her hands in the presence of objects (but not touching them) or (3) an actor moving her hands in the absence of objects. Participants systematically described the movements as depicting an object-directed action when the actor moved objects, and favored describing the movements as depicting movement for its own sake when the actor produced the same movements in the absence of objects. However, participants favored describing the movements as representations when the actor produced the movements near, but not on, the objects. Study 2 explored two additional features-the form of an actor's hands and the presence of speech-like sounds-to test the effect of context on observers' classification of movement as representational. When movements are seen as representations, they have the power to influence communication, learning, and cognition in ways that movement for its own sake does not. By incorporating representational gesture into our framework for movement analysis, we take an important step towards developing a more cohesive understanding of action-interpretation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Examining Age-Related Movement Representations for Sequential (Fine-Motor) Finger Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Theory suggests that imagined and executed movement planning relies on internal models for action. Using a chronometry paradigm to compare the movement duration of imagined and executed movements, we tested children aged 7-11 years and adults on their ability to perform sequential finger movements. Underscoring this tactic was our desire to gain a…

  20. Stereotypic movement disorder: easily missed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Roger D; Soltanifar, Atefeh; Baer, Susan

    2010-08-01

    To expand the understanding of stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) and its differentiation from tics and autistic stereotypies. Forty-two children (31 males, mean age 6y 3mo, SD 2y 8mo; 11 females, mean age 6y 7mo, SD 1y 9mo) consecutively diagnosed with SMD, without-self-injurious behavior, intellectual disability, sensory impairment, or an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), were assessed in a neuropsychiatry clinic. A list of probe questions on the nature of the stereotypy was administered to parents (and to children if developmentally ready). Questionnaires administered included the Stereotypy Severity Scale, Short Sensory Profile, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised, and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire. The stereotyped movement patterns were directly observed and in some cases further documented by video recordings made by parents. The probe questions were used again on follow-up at a mean age of 10 years 7 months (SD 4y 4mo). Mean age at onset was 17 months. Males exceeded females by 3:1. Family history of a pattern of SMD was reported in 13 and neuropsychiatric comorbidity in 30 (attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in 16, tics in 18, and developmental coordination disorder in 16). Obsessive-compulsive disorder occurred in only two. The Short Sensory Profile correlated with comorbidity (p<0.001), the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.009), and the Repetitive Behavior Scale (p<0.001); the last correlated with the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.001). Children (but not their parents) liked their movements, which were usually associated with excitement or imaginative play. Mean length of follow-up was 4 years 8 months (SD 2y 10mo). Of the 39 children followed for longer than 6 months, the behavior stopped or was gradually shaped so as to occur primarily privately in 25. Misdiagnosis was common: 26 were initially referred as tics, 10 as ASD, five as compulsions, and one as epilepsy. Co-occurring facial

  1. Brownian movement and molecular reality

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, Jean

    2005-01-01

    How do we know that molecules really exist? An important clue came from Brownian movement, a concept developed in 1827 by botanist Robert Brown, who noticed that tiny objects like pollen grains shook and moved erratically when viewed under a microscope. Nearly 80 years later, in 1905, Albert Einstein explained this ""Brownian motion"" as the result of bombardment by molecules. Einstein offered a quantitative explanation by mathematically estimating the average distance covered by the particles over time as a result of molecular bombardment. Four years later, Jean Baptiste Perrin wrote Brownia

  2. Case vignettes of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, C Y

    1983-08-01

    This paper reports five movement disorders cases to serve as a basis for discussion of the problems encountered in the clinical management of these cases, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in these disorders as presented. Case 1 is a description of the subjective experience of a patient with acute orofacial dystonia from promethazine. Case 2 is the use of clonazepam is post-head injury tics. Case 3 is the complication from discontinuation of haloperidol and benztropine mesylate treatment. Case 4 is myoclonus in subacute sclerosing Panencephalitis, and Case 5 is rebound tremor from withdrawal of a beta-adrenergic blocker.

  3. Movement of the diaphragm during radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Masayuki; Fujioka, Tomio; Sakurai, Makoto; Nakajima, Toshifumi; Onoyama, Yasuto.

    1991-01-01

    Movement of the target volume during the exposure to radiation results in decreased accuracy in radiotherapy. We carried out the quantitative evaluation of the movement of the diaphragm during the radiation therapy. Seventy seven patients, who received radiation therapy for lung cancer from December 1988 to February 1990 at the Osaka-prefectural Habikino Hospital, were studied. The movement was recorded with a sonoprinter at the time of treatment planning for radiotherapy, and the length of movement was evaluated at 6 points on the diaphragm. In a study of 402 points in 77 patients, the average movement was 12 mm, and the maximum movement was 40 mm. At the 17% of the points, the movement exceeded 20 mm. The largest movement was observed at the outer point of the right lung. Movement was greater in men than in women. Performance status was not related to the degree of movement. We concluded that in chest and abdominal irradiation, movement caused by respiration is not negligible, and synchronized radiotherapy should be developed in the future. (author)

  4. The herpes simplex virus 1 UL51 protein interacts with the UL7 protein and plays a role in its recruitment into the virion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Richard J; Fetters, Rachel

    2015-03-01

    The alphaherpesvirus UL51 protein is a tegument component that interacts with the viral glycoprotein E and functions at multiple steps in virus assembly and spread in epithelial cells. We show here that pUL51 forms a complex in infected cells with another conserved tegument protein, pUL7. This complex can form in the absence of other viral proteins and is largely responsible for recruitment of pUL7 to cytoplasmic membranes and into the virion tegument. Incomplete colocalization of pUL51 and pUL7 in infected cells, however, suggests that a significant fraction of the population of each protein is not complexed with the other and that they may accomplish independent functions. The ability of herpesviruses to spread from cell to cell in the face of an immune response is critical for disease and shedding following reactivation from latency. Cell-to-cell spread is a conserved ability of herpesviruses, and the identification of conserved viral genes that mediate this process will aid in the design of attenuated vaccines and of novel therapeutics. The conserved UL51 gene of herpes simplex virus 1 plays important roles in cell-to-cell spread and in virus assembly in the cytoplasm, both of which likely depend on specific interactions with other viral and cellular proteins. Here we identify one of those interactions with the product of another conserved herpesvirus gene, UL7, and show that formation of this complex mediates recruitment of UL7 to membranes and to the virion. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. PAK4 crystal structures suggest unusual kinase conformational movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Eric Y; Ha, Byung Hak; Boggon, Titus J

    2018-02-01

    In order for protein kinases to exchange nucleotide they must open and close their catalytic cleft. These motions are associated with rotations of the N-lobe, predominantly around the 'hinge region'. We conducted an analysis of 28 crystal structures of the serine-threonine kinase, p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4), including three newly determined structures in complex with staurosporine, FRAX486, and fasudil (HA-1077). We find an unusual motion between the N-lobe and C-lobe of PAK4 that manifests as a partial unwinding of helix αC. Principal component analysis of the crystal structures rationalizes these movements into three major states, and analysis of the kinase hydrophobic spines indicates concerted movements that create an accessible back pocket cavity. The conformational changes that we observe for PAK4 differ from previous descriptions of kinase motions, and although we observe these differences in crystal structures there is the possibility that the movements observed may suggest a diversity of kinase conformational changes associated with regulation. Protein kinases are key signaling proteins, and are important drug targets, therefore understanding their regulation is important for both basic research and clinical points of view. In this study, we observe unusual conformational 'hinging' for protein kinases. Hinging, the opening and closing of the kinase sub-domains to allow nucleotide binding and release, is critical for proper kinase regulation and for targeted drug discovery. We determine new crystal structures of PAK4, an important Rho-effector kinase, and conduct analyses of these and previously determined structures. We find that PAK4 crystal structures can be classified into specific conformational groups, and that these groups are associated with previously unobserved hinging motions and an unusual conformation for the kinase hydrophobic core. Our findings therefore indicate that there may be a diversity of kinase hinging motions, and that these may

  6. Deriving Animal Movement Behaviors Using Movement Parameters Extracted from Location Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Teimouri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology for distinguishing between three types of animal movement behavior (foraging, resting, and walking based on high-frequency tracking data. For each animal we quantify an individual movement path. A movement path is a temporal sequence consisting of the steps through space taken by an animal. By selecting a set of appropriate movement parameters, we develop a method to assess movement behavioral states, reflected by changes in the movement parameters. The two fundamental tasks of our study are segmentation and clustering. By segmentation, we mean the partitioning of the trajectory into segments, which are homogeneous in terms of their movement parameters. By clustering, we mean grouping similar segments together according to their estimated movement parameters. The proposed method is evaluated using field observations (done by humans of movement behavior. We found that on average, our method agreed with the observational data (ground truth at a level of 80.75% ± 5.9% (SE.

  7. Identification of host factors potentially involved in RTM-mediated resistance during potyvirus long distance movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Luc; Cabanillas, Daniel Garcia; Gayral, Mathieu; Téplier, Rachèle; Pouzoulet, Jérôme; Ducousso, Marie; Dufin, Laurène; Bréhélin, Claire; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique; Revers, Frédéric

    2017-07-01

    The long distance movement of potyviruses is a poorly understood step of the viral cycle. Only factors inhibiting this process, referred to as "Restricted TEV Movement" (RTM), have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. On the virus side, the potyvirus coat protein (CP) displays determinants required for long-distance movement and for RTM-based resistance breaking. However, the potyvirus CP was previously shown not to interact with the RTM proteins. We undertook the identification of Arabidopsis factors which directly interact with either the RTM proteins or the CP of lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). An Arabidopsis cDNA library generated from companion cells was screened with LMV CP and RTM proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. Fourteen interacting proteins were identified. Two of them were shown to interact with CP and the RTM proteins suggesting that a multiprotein complex could be formed between the RTM proteins and virions or viral ribonucleoprotein complexes. Co-localization experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana showed that most of the viral and cellular protein pairs co-localized at the periphery of chloroplasts which suggests a putative role for plastids in this process.

  8. The Anti-Doping Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Miller, Geoffrey D; Eichner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Historical reports of doping in sports date as far back as the ancient Greek Olympic Games. The anti-doping community considers doping in sports to be cheating and a violation of the spirit of sport. During the past century, there has been an increasing awareness of the extent of doping in sports and the health risks of doping. In response, the anti-doping movement has endeavored to educate athletes and others about the health risks of doping and promote a level playing field. Doping control is now undertaken in most countries around the world and at most elite sports competitions. As athletes have found new ways to dope, however, the anti-doping community has endeavored to strengthen its educational and deterrence efforts. It is incumbent upon sports medicine professionals to understand the health risks of doping and all doping control processes. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Teaching Movement Activities as Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2017-01-01

    subjects the teaching style should be characterized by more variation and motivate the pupils. Research has shown that there is a correlation between physical activity and intellectual capital (e.g. educational attainment and academic performance), physical capital (e.g. physical fitness and reduction...... of the risk for diseases and risk factors) and emotional capital (e.g. fun, enjoyment and self-esteem) (Bailey, Hillman, Arent, & Petitpas, 2013). The school reform prescribes that all pupils from grade 1-9 must have at least 45 minutes of movement activities in average every day.Next to the well-known PE...... without prerequisites but part of discourses and at the same time individual interpretations of specific practices. The teaching role is something that is constantly produced and reproduced in the bodily interaction. Understanding teaching as performativity means that teachers are not acting in certain...

  10. Plant movements and climate warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Frenne, Pieter; Coomes, David A.; De Schrijver, An

    2014-01-01

    environments can establish in nonlocal sites. •We assess the intraspecific variation in growth responses to nonlocal soils by planting a widespread grass of deciduous forests (Milium effusum) into an experimental common garden using combinations of seeds and soil sampled in 22 sites across its distributional...... range, and reflecting movement scenarios of up to 1600 km. Furthermore, to determine temperature and forest-structural effects, the plants and soils were experimentally warmed and shaded. •We found significantly positive effects of the difference between the temperature of the sites of seed and soil...... collection on growth and seedling emergence rates. Migrant plants might thus encounter increasingly favourable soil conditions while tracking the isotherms towards currently ‘colder’ soils. These effects persisted under experimental warming. Rising temperatures and light availability generally enhanced plant...

  11. Parametric HMMs for Movement Recognition and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Dennis; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    , we develop an exemplar-based parametric hidden Markov model (PHMM) that allows to represent movements of a particular type. Since we use model interpolation to reduce the necessary amount of training data, we had to develop a method to setup local models in a synchronized way. In our experiments we......A common problem in human movement recognition is the recognition of movements of a particular type (semantic). E.g., grasping movements have a particular semantic (grasping) but the actual movements usually have very different appearances due to, e.g., different grasping directions. In this paper...... to recover the movement type, and, e.g., the object position a human is pointing at. Our experiments show the flexibility of the PHMMs in terms of the amount of training data and its robustness in terms of noisy observation data. In addition, we compare our PHMM to an other kind of PHMM, which has been...

  12. Integrating individual movement behaviour into dispersal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Simone K; Wissel, Christian; Conradt, Larissa; Frank, Karin

    2007-04-21

    Dispersal functions are an important tool for integrating dispersal into complex models of population and metapopulation dynamics. Most approaches in the literature are very simple, with the dispersal functions containing only one or two parameters which summarise all the effects of movement behaviour as for example different movement patterns or different perceptual abilities. The summarising nature of these parameters makes assessing the effect of one particular behavioural aspect difficult. We present a way of integrating movement behavioural parameters into a particular dispersal function in a simple way. Using a spatial individual-based simulation model for simulating different movement behaviours, we derive fitting functions for the functional relationship between the parameters of the dispersal function and several details of movement behaviour. This is done for three different movement patterns (loops, Archimedean spirals, random walk). Additionally, we provide measures which characterise the shape of the dispersal function and are interpretable in terms of landscape connectivity. This allows an ecological interpretation of the relationships found.

  13. Physico-Pathologic Mechanisms Involved in Neurodegeneration: Misfolded Protein-Plasma Membrane Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Amulya Nidhi; Aperia, Anita; Melki, Ronald; Triller, Antoine

    2017-07-05

    Several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, are characterized by prominent loss of synapses and neurons associated with the presence of abnormally structured or misfolded protein assemblies. Cell-to-cell transfer of misfolded proteins has been proposed for the intra-cerebral propagation of these diseases. When released, misfolded proteins diffuse in the 3D extracellular space before binding to the plasma membrane of neighboring cells, where they diffuse on a 2D plane. This reduction in diffusion dimension and the cell surface molecular crowding promote deleterious interactions with native membrane proteins, favoring clustering and further aggregation of misfolded protein assemblies. These processes open up new avenues for therapeutics development targeting the initial interactions of deleterious proteins with the plasma membrane or the subsequent pathological signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Movement-based Interaction in Camera Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movement-based projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space......, relations, and feedback. We see these as central for describing and analysing movement-based systems using camera tracking and we show how these three concepts can be used to analyse other camera tracking applications....

  15. Outcomes of Social Movements and Protest Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Giugni, Marco; Bosi, Lorenzo; Uba, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Scholarship has left the study of the consequences of social movements in the background for a long time, focusing instead on movement emergence, characteristics, and dynamics. Since the mid-1970s, however, scholars have paid an increasing interest in how social movements and protest activities may produce change at various levels. The existing literature can be ordered according to the kind of consequence addressed. In this regard, one can roughly distinguish between political, biographical,...

  16. Cell to cell signalling during vertebrate limb bud development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panman, Lia

    2004-01-01

    Communication between cells is essential during embryonic development. The vertebrate limb bud provides us a model to study signalling interactions between cells during patterning of embryonic tissues and organogenesis. In chapter 1 I give an introduction about limb bud development that is focussed

  17. Subthalamic nucleus detects unnatural android movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Hirata, Masayuki; Kasaki, Masashi; Alimardani, Maryam; Matsushita, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2017-12-19

    An android, i.e., a realistic humanoid robot with human-like capabilities, may induce an uncanny feeling in human observers. The uncanny feeling about an android has two main causes: its appearance and movement. The uncanny feeling about an android increases when its appearance is almost human-like but its movement is not fully natural or comparable to human movement. Even if an android has human-like flexible joints, its slightly jerky movements cause a human observer to detect subtle unnaturalness in them. However, the neural mechanism underlying the detection of unnatural movements remains unclear. We conducted an fMRI experiment to compare the observation of an android and the observation of a human on which the android is modelled, and we found differences in the activation pattern of the brain regions that are responsible for the production of smooth and natural movement. More specifically, we found that the visual observation of the android, compared with that of the human model, caused greater activation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). When the android's slightly jerky movements are visually observed, the STN detects their subtle unnaturalness. This finding suggests that the detection of unnatural movements is attributed to an error signal resulting from a mismatch between a visual input and an internal model for smooth movement.

  18. Airport Movement Area Closure Planner, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR research develops an automation tool improving temporary and permanent runway closure management. The Movement Area Closure Planner (MACP) provides airport...

  19. Degeneration of rapid eye movement sleep circuitry underlies rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John

    2017-05-01

    During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and

  20. Fetal Eye Movements on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C.; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Methods Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17–40 GW, three age groups [17–23 GW, 24–32 GW, 33–40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. Results In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3–45%. Conclusions In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations. PMID:24194885

  1. Fetal eye movements on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17-40 GW, three age groups [17-23 GW, 24-32 GW, 33-40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3-45%. In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations.

  2. Disorder in Protein Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarage, James Braun, II

    1990-01-01

    Methods have been developed for analyzing the diffuse x-ray scattering in the halos about a crystal's Bragg reflections as a means of determining correlations in atomic displacements in protein crystals. The diffuse intensity distribution for rhombohedral insulin, tetragonal lysozyme, and triclinic lysozyme crystals was best simulated in terms of exponential displacement correlation functions. About 90% of the disorder can be accounted for by internal movements correlated with a decay distance of about 6A; the remaining 10% corresponds to intermolecular movements that decay in a distance the order of size of the protein molecule. The results demonstrate that protein crystals fit into neither the Einstein nor the Debye paradigms for thermally fluctuating crystalline solids. Unlike the Einstein model, there are correlations in the atomic displacements, but these correlations decay more steeply with distance than predicted by the Debye-Waller model for an elastic solid. The observed displacement correlations are liquid -like in the sense that they decay exponentially with the distance between atoms, just as positional correlations in a liquid. This liquid-like disorder is similar to the disorder observed in 2-D crystals of polystyrene latex spheres, and similar systems where repulsive interactions dominate; hence, these colloidal crystals appear to provide a better analogy for the dynamics of protein crystals than perfectly elastic lattices.

  3. FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREENING: THE USE OF FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENTS AS AN ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTION ‐ PART 1

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Gray; Burton, Lee; Hoogenboom, Barbara J.; Voight, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To prepare an athlete for the wide variety of activities needed to participate in or return to their sport, the analysis of fundamental movements should be incorporated into screening in order to determine who possesses, or lacks, the ability to perform certain essential movements. In a series of two articles, the background and rationale for the analysis of fundamental movement will be provided. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) will be described, and any evidence related to its use will...

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF LOWER LIMB MOVEMENT ON UPPER LIMB MOVEMENT SYMMETRY WHILE SWIMMING THE BREASTSTROKE

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jaszczak

    2011-01-01

    This study 1) examined the influence of lower limb movement on upper limb movement symmetry, 2) determined the part of the propulsion phase displaying the greatest hand movement asymmetry, 3) diagnosed the range of upper limb propulsion phase which is the most prone to the influence of the lower limbs while swimming the breaststroke. Twenty-four participants took part in two tests. Half of them performed an asymmetrical leg movement. The propulsion in the first test was generated by four limb...

  5. The clinical approach to movement disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdo, W.F.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Burn, D.J.; Quinn, N.P.; Bloem, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    Movement disorders are commonly encountered in the clinic. In this Review, aimed at trainees and general neurologists, we provide a practical step-by-step approach to help clinicians in their 'pattern recognition' of movement disorders, as part of a process that ultimately leads to the diagnosis.

  6. Detecting movement patterns using Brownian bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Sijben, S.; Arseneau, T.J.-M.; Willems, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    In trajectory data a low sampling rate leads to high uncertainty in between sampling points, which needs to be taken into account in the analysis of such data. However, current algorithms for movement analysis ignore this uncertainty and assume linear movement between sample points. In this paper we

  7. Towards a discursive analytics of movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    examples taken from Danish media, it is shown that the study of movement cannot be separated from that of discursive power. Access to and control over physical movement is unequally distributed. However, so is access to and control over assessing which activities can meaningfully be given the label...

  8. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...

  9. Movement initiation in groups of feral horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

    Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be

  10. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. ANALYSING SURFACE MOVEMENT DELAYS IN AN AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Queuing effect can be in the different components of ground operations. Causes of surface – movement delays are long taxi – in and taxi – out operations during departure and arrival of aircraft. Surface movement delays in an airport are analyzed

  12. Historical Development of the Olympic Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Šiljak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Movement is a term that covers all areas related to the phenomenon of Olympism. From its creation, the Olympic Movement has had to follow and to respond to numerous challenges and changes of the 20th and 21st century. The successful work of the International Olympic Committee (IOC on the implementation of their projects related to world peace, the education of youth, equal inclusion of women in every aspect of the Movement, the establishment of the Women’s Commission, the Sport for All Commission, and the Sports and the Environment Commission are facts indicating that the IOC has a significant impact on the values of the Olympic Movement. In addition to equal participation of all athletes, today, the Olympic Movement provides Olympic solidarity, education and other programs. The basic method that was used in this study was the historical method, which includes heuristic, empirical and theoretical study of the origin and development of the IOC and its operation as part of the Olympic Movement. Research results indicate that the management of the IOCas a sporting organization that manages this Movement is directed at achieving the goal to contribute to building a more peaceful and better world by educating young people through sports, and in accordance with the Olympic values. With proper management, the IOChas improved sports and has grown into an organization that is at the head of the Olympic Movement.

  13. Active Movement Warm-Up Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

  14. Fundamental Movement Skills and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Kerri L.; Reid, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Delays and deficits may both contribute to atypical development of movement skills by children with ASD. Fundamental movement skills of 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (ages 9-12 years) were compared to three typically developing groups using the "Test of Gross Motor Development" ("TGMD-2"). The group matched on chronological age…

  15. Implementing Intervention Movement Programs for Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Eleni; Bakle, Iliana; Zachopoulou, Evridiki

    2006-01-01

    The reported study aimed to identify the effects of two 10-week intervention programs on fundamental locomotor skill performance in kindergarten children. Seventy-five children with mean age 5.4 plus or minus 0.5 years participated. Experimental Group A followed a movement program, experimental Group B followed a music and movement program, and…

  16. Fundamental Movement Skill Proficiency amongst Adolescent Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Brien, Wesley; Belton, Sarahjane; Issartel, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Literature suggests that physical education programmes ought to provide intense instruction towards basic movement skills needed to enjoy a variety of physical activities. Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are basic observable patterns of behaviour present from childhood to adulthood (e.g. run, skip and kick). Recent evidence indicates…

  17. Introduction: The Future of Social Movement Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, Jacquelien Van; Roggeband, Conny; Stekelenburg, Jacquelien Van; Roggeband, Conny; Klandermans, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In The Future of Social Movement Research, some of the most influential scholars in the field provide a wide-ranging understanding of how social movements arise and persist, engendering unanswered questions pointing to new theoretical strands and fields of research. The resulting work is

  18. Using a developmental movement programme to enhance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brain research has shown that the brain is “plastic” in that it can adapt continuously, and its structure can be changed by certain kinds of stimulation, including movement. The body is a sensory-motor response system that causes the brain to organize itself. Movement is essential to learning and can be regarded as the door ...

  19. Social Movement Theory: Past, Present and Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stekelenburg, Jacquelien

    2009-01-01

    Mobilization against apartheid in South Africa, the campaign against blood diamonds, the women's movement in Liberia where Africa's first female head of State was elected in 2005 - these are all examples of socially based movements that have had a major effect on Africa's recent history. Yet the

  20. Movers and shakers : social movements in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.; Kessel, van W.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mobilization against apartheid in South Africa, the campaign against blood diamonds, the women's movement in Liberia where Africa's first female head of State was elected in 2005 - these are all examples of socially based movements that have had a major effect on Africa's recent history. Yet the

  1. Surgical management of movement disorders | Enslin | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Movement disorders are usually treated by neurologists, and appropriately so. The first-line management of all conditions that are grouped together as movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor) is with medication and, in some, with rehabilitative strategies, such as occupational therapy, ...

  2. The Ecology Movement after Ten Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Betty; Gerlach, Luther P.

    1981-01-01

    Summarized are responses to a 1980 "Natural History""You and the Ecology Movement" questionnaire on ecological problems and the environmental movement. Returns indicate that concern for environmental quality is still very much in evidence, but some new directions and emphases are apparent. (WB)

  3. Mechanistic movement models to understand epidemic spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofana, Abdou Moutalab; Hurford, Amy

    2017-05-05

    An overlooked aspect of disease ecology is considering how and why animals come into contact with one and other resulting in disease transmission. Mathematical models of disease spread frequently assume mass-action transmission, justified by stating that susceptible and infectious hosts mix readily, and foregoing any detailed description of host movement. Numerous recent studies have recorded, analysed and modelled animal movement. These movement models describe how animals move with respect to resources, conspecifics and previous movement directions and have been used to understand the conditions for the occurrence and the spread of infectious diseases when hosts perform a type of movement. Here, we summarize the effect of the different types of movement on the threshold conditions for disease spread. We identify gaps in the literature and suggest several promising directions for future research. The mechanistic inclusion of movement in epidemic models may be beneficial for the following two reasons. Firstly, the estimation of the transmission coefficient in an epidemic model is possible because animal movement data can be used to estimate the rate of contacts between conspecifics. Secondly, unsuccessful transmission events, where a susceptible host contacts an infectious host but does not become infected can be quantified. Following an outbreak, this enables disease ecologists to identify 'near misses' and to explore possible alternative epidemic outcomes given shifts in ecological or immunological parameters.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Exploratory Visual Analysis for Animal Movement Ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingsby, A.; van Loon, E.

    2016-01-01

    Movement ecologists study animals' movement to help understand their behaviours and interactions with each other and the environment. Data from GPS loggers are increasingly important for this. These data need to be processed, segmented and summarised for further visual and statistical analysis,

  5. Effect of Canister Movement on Water Turbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIMBLE, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Requirements for evaluating the adherence characteristics of sludge on the fuel stored in the K East Basin and the effect of canister movement on basin water turbidity are documented in Briggs (1996). The results of the sludge adherence testing have been documented (Bergmann 1996). This report documents the results of the canister movement tests. The purpose of the canister movement tests was to characterize water turbidity under controlled canister movements (Briggs 1996). The tests were designed to evaluate methods for minimizing the plumes and controlling water turbidity during fuel movements leading to multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading. It was expected that the test data would provide qualitative visual information for use in the design of the fuel retrieval and water treatment systems. Video recordings of the tests were to be the only information collected

  6. Affective Body Movements (for Robots) Across Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Humans are very good in expressing and interpreting emotions from a variety of different sources like voice, facial expression, or body movements. In this article, we concentrate on body movements and show that those are not only a source of affective information but might also have a different i...... with a study on creating an affective knocking movement for a humanoid robot and give details about a co-creation experiment for collecting a cross-cultural database on affective body movements and about the probabilistic model derived from this data....... interpretation in different cultures. To cope with these multiple viewpoints in generating and interpreting body movements in robots, we suggest a methodological approach that takes the cultural background of the developer and the user into account during the development process. We exemplify this approach...

  7. Movement Sonification: Audiovisual benefits on motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Processes of motor control and learning in sports as well as in motor rehabilitation are based on perceptual functions and emergent motor representations. Here a new method of movement sonification is described which is designed to tune in more comprehensively the auditory system into motor perception to enhance motor learning. Usually silent features of the cyclic movement pattern "indoor rowing" are sonified in real time to make them additionally available to the auditory system when executing the movement. Via real time sonification movement perception can be enhanced in terms of temporal precision and multi-channel integration. But beside the contribution of a single perceptual channel to motor perception and motor representation also mechanisms of multisensory integration can be addressed, if movement sonification is configured adequately: Multimodal motor representations consisting of at least visual, auditory and proprioceptive components - can be shaped subtly resulting in more precise motor control and enhanced motor learning.

  8. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskins, Bryan L

    2013-01-01

    The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs closely examines forty-three unique case studies on movement patterns down stairwells. These studies include observations made during evacuation drills, others made during normal usage, interviews with people after fire evacuations, recommendations made from compiled studies, and detailed results from laboratory studies. The methodology used in each study for calculating density and movement speed, when known, are also presented, and this book identifies an additional seventeen variables linked to altering movement speeds. The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs is intended for researchers as a reference guide for evaluating pedestrian evacuation dynamics down stairwells. Practitioners working in a related field may also find this book invaluable.

  10. Evidence of a double-lid movement in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipase: insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbulakshmi Latha Cherukuvada

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipase is a 29-kDa protein that, following the determination of its crystal structure, was postulated to have a lid that stretched between residues 125 and 148. In this paper, using molecular dynamics simulations, we propose that there exists, in addition to the above-mentioned lid, a novel second lid in this lipase. We further show that the second lid, covering residues 210-222, acts as a triggering lid for the movement of the first. We also investigate the role of hydrophobicity in the movement of the lids and show that two residues, Phe214 and Ala217, play important roles in lid movement. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a double-lid movement of the type described in our manuscript has been presented to the scientific community. This work also elucidates the interplay of hydrophobic interactions in the dynamics, and hence the function, of an enzyme.

  11. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...... example of soundfile was obtained from using Steered Molecular Dynamics for stretching the neck region of the scallop myosin molecule (in rigor, PDB-id: 1SR6), in such a way as to cause a rotation of the myosin head. Myosin is the molecule responsible for producing the force during muscle contraction...

  12. Current Migration Movements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zlatković Winter

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available After a brief historical review of migrations in Europe, the paper focuses on current migration trends and their consequences. At the end of the 1950s, Western Europe began to recruit labour from several Mediterranean countries – Italy, Spain, Portugal and former Yugoslavia, and later from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Turkey. Some countries, such as France, Great Britain and the Netherlands, recruited also workers from their former colonies. In 1970 Germany had the highest absolute number of foreigners, followed by France, and then Switzerland and Belgium. The total number of immigrants in Western Europe was twelve million. During the 1970s mass recruitment of foreign workers was abandoned, and only the arrival of their family members was permitted, which led to family reunification in the countries of employment. Europe closed its borders, with the result that clandestine migration increased. The year 1989 was a turning point in the history of international migrations. The political changes in Central and Eastern Europe brought about mass migration to the West, which culminated in the so-called “mass movement of 1989–1990”. The arrival of ethnic Germans in Germany, migration inside and outside of the territory of the former Soviet Union, an increase in the number of asylum seekers and displaced persons, due to armed conflicts, are – according to the author – the main traits of current migration. The main part of the paper discusses the causes and effects of this mass wave, as well as trends in labour migration, which is still present. The second part of the paper, after presenting a typology of migrations, deals with the complex processes that brought about the formation of new communities and led to the phenomenon of new ethnic minorities and to corresponding migration policies in Western European countries that had to address these issues.

  13. Movement recognition technology as a method of assessing spontaneous general movements in high risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMarcroft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of neurological and motor impairments such as cerebral palsy. The risks are highest in those born at the lowest gestations. Early identification of those most at risk is challenging meaning that a critical window of opportunity to improve outcomes through therapy-based interventions may be missed. Clinically, the assessment of spontaneous general movements is an important tool which can be used for the prediction of movement impairments in high risk infants.Movement recognition aims to capture and analyze relevant limb movements through computerized approaches focusing on continuous, objective, and quantitative assessment. Different methods of recording and analyzing infant movements have recently been explored in high risk infants. These range from camera-based solutions to body-worn miniaturized movement sensors used to record continuous time-series data that represent the dynamics of limb movements. Various machine learning methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the recorded movement data. This analysis has focused on the detection and classification of atypical spontaneous general movements. This paper aims to identify recent translational studies using movement recognition technology as a method of assessing movement in high risk infants. The application of this technology within pediatric practice represents a growing area of inter-disciplinary collaboration which may lead to a greater understanding of the development of the nervous system in infants at high risk of motor impairment.

  14. A Somatic Movement Approach to Fostering Emotional Resiliency through Laban Movement Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle P. Tsachor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although movement has long been recognized as expressing emotion and as an agent of change for emotional state, there was a dearth of scientific evidence specifying which aspects of movement influence specific emotions. The recent identification of clusters of Laban movement components which elicit and enhance the basic emotions of anger, fear, sadness and happiness indicates which types of movements can affect these emotions (Shafir et al., 2016, but not how best to apply this knowledge. This perspective paper lays out a conceptual groundwork for how to effectively use these new findings to support emotional resiliency through voluntary choice of one's posture and movements. We suggest that three theoretical principles from Laban Movement Analysis (LMA can guide the gradual change in movement components in one's daily movements to somatically support shift in affective state: (A Introduce new movement components in developmental order; (B Use LMA affinities-among-components to guide the expansion of expressive movement range and (C Sequence change among components based on Laban's Space Harmony theory to support the gradual integration of that new range. The methods postulated in this article have potential to foster resiliency and provide resources for self-efficacy by expanding our capacity to adapt emotionally to challenges through modulating our movement responses.

  15. Ricinus communis cyclophilin: functional characterisation of a sieve tube protein involved in protein folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Maren; Dolgener, Elmar; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Lucas, William J; Komor, Ewald; Schobert, Christian

    2008-09-01

    The phloem translocation stream of the angiosperms contains a special population of proteins and RNA molecules which appear to be produced in the companion cells prior to being transported into the sieve tube system through the interconnecting plasmodesmata. During this process, these non-cell-autonomous proteins are thought to undergo partial unfolding. Recent mass spectroscopy studies identified peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIases) as potential molecular chaperones functioning in the phloem translocation stream (Giavalisco et al. 2006). In the present study, we describe the cloning and characterisation of a castor bean phloem cyclophilin, RcCYP1 that has high peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. Equivalent enzymatic activity was detected with phloem sap or purified recombinant (His)(6)-tagged RcCYP1. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteolytic peptides, derived from a 22 kDa band in HPLC-fractionated phloem sap, immunolocalisation studies and Western analysis of proteins extracted from castor bean tissues/organs indicated that RcCYP1 is an abundant protein in the companion cell-sieve element complex. Microinjection experiments established that purified recombinant (His)(6)-RcCYP1 can interact with plasmodesmata to both induce an increase in size exclusion limit and mediate its own cell-to-cell trafficking. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that RcCYP1 plays a role in the refolding of non-cell-autonomous proteins after their entry into the phloem translocation stream.

  16. Human movement is both diffusive and directed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Padgham

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of the built environment on human movement requires quantifying spatial structure in a general sense. Because of the difficulty of this task, studies of movement dynamics often ignore spatial heterogeneity and treat movement through journey lengths or distances alone. This study analyses public bicycle data from central London to reveal that, although journey distances, directions, and frequencies of occurrence are spatially variable, their relative spatial patterns remain largely constant, suggesting the influence of a fixed spatial template. A method is presented to describe this underlying space in terms of the relative orientation of movements toward, away from, and around locations of geographical or cultural significance. This produces two fields: one of convergence and one of divergence, which are able to accurately reconstruct the observed spatial variations in movement. These two fields also reveal categorical distinctions between shorter journeys merely serving diffusion away from significant locations, and longer journeys intentionally serving transport between spatially distinct centres of collective importance. Collective patterns of human movement are thus revealed to arise from a combination of both diffusive and directed movement, with aggregate statistics such as mean travel distances primarily determined by relative numbers of these two kinds of journeys.

  17. The relationship between change and religious movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Suolinna

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Change constitutes different things for the groups, as the position of one group may improve, but that of another deteriorate. Social change is a consequence of how the different groups act, and their actions again depend on their social and economic interests. In other words, there are groups in society (social classes, professional groups, the agrarian population, industrial workers, which come more or less openly in conflict with each other when looking after their interests. Thus this way of thinking is based on a conflict model. One sees social change as a consequence of people trying to protect their social and economic interests. Viewed this way even religious organizations and movements are involved in protecting the interests of social groups. However, the interesting point in this connection is that religious movements differ from political movements and groups, as the religious movements express the social interests of a group more indirectly than the political movements. The religious movements gather people from similar living conditions, and so to speak, prepare them for political work. They defend and justify the way of living of a group, and thus give ideological material for political groupings. They may also form coalitions with political groups and parties. The author analyzes Laestadianism from this point of view. Before going into the connection between religious dynamics and social change it is necessary to present a few general features of Laestadianism as a religious movement of the peasant population.

  18. The scoring of movements in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Arthur S; Lavigne, Gilles; Hening, Wayne; Picchietti, Daniel L; Allen, Richard P; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Kushida, Clete A; Bliwise, Donald L; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2007-03-15

    The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) has separated sleep-related movement disorders into simple, repetitive movement disorders (such as periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], sleep bruxism, and rhythmic movement disorder) and parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and disorders of partial arousal, e.g., sleep walking, confusional arousals, night terrors). Many of the parasomnias are characterized by complex behaviors in sleep that appear purposeful, goal directed and voluntary but are outside the conscious awareness of the individual and therefore inappropriate. All of the sleep-related movement disorders described here have specific polysomnographic findings. For the purposes of developing and/or revising specifications and polysomnographic scoring rules, the AASM Scoring Manual Task Force on Movements in Sleep reviewed background literature and executed evidence grading of 81 relevant articles obtained by a literature search of published articles between 1966 and 2004. Subsequent evidence grading identified limited evidence for reliability and/or validity for polysomnographic scoring criteria for periodic limb movements in sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep bruxism. Published scoring criteria for rhythmic movement disorder, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation were empirical and based on descriptive studies. The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation. Because of limited or absent evidence for reliability and/or validity, a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements.

  19. New social movements as a political subculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwick, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The contribution is based on a topical panel set especially adjusted to the requirements of political culture research, electoral research, and movement research. The book is centered around empirically verified findings of political-cultural modernization and differentiation processes, and the development of German political culture. It was possible to empirically confirm the main thesis in particular: The new social movements call for rigid and quick social changes in emancipatory, equalitary, ecological and fundamental-democratic orientation. Apart from the Greens, an independent political subculture has formed itself, which is, even in the present phase with little movement-specific mobilization, politically effective and empirically ascertainable. (orig.) [de

  20. Memory and Culture in Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    on psychoanalytical, visual, and historical approaches. Movement scholars who focused on narrative, discourse, framing, and performance show how activists actively construct and mobilize collective memory. We know much less, however, about interactions between multiple layers and forms of remembering stored in images......, stories, or performances, or discursive forms. How do conflicting or contradictory memories about the past inside movement groups condition activists’ ability to speak, write, and even think about the future? While previous work conceived of memory in movements as a subcategory of narrative, discourse...

  1. Goal-selection and movement-related conflict during bimanual reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichsen, Jörn; Grafton, Scott; Albert, Neil; Hazeltine, Eliot; Ivry, Richard B

    2006-12-01

    Conflict during bimanual movements can arise during the selection of movement goals or during movement planning and execution. We demonstrate a behavioral and neural dissociation of these 2 types of conflict. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, participants performed bimanual reaching movements with symmetric (congruent) or orthogonal (incongruent) trajectories. The required movements were indicated either spatially, by illuminating the targets, or symbolically, using centrally presented letters. The processing of symbolic cues led to increased activation in a left hemisphere network including the intraparietal sulcus, premotor cortex, and inferior frontal gyrus. Reaction time cost for incongruent movements was substantially larger for symbolic than for spatial cues, indicating that the cost was primarily associated with the selection and assignment of movement goals, demands that are minimized when goals are directly specified by spatial cues. This goal-selection conflict increased activity in the pre-supplementary motor area and cingulate motor areas. Both cueing conditions led to larger activation for incongruent movements in the convexity of the superior parietal cortex, bilaterally, making this region a likely neural site for conflict that arises during the planning and execution of bimanual movements. These results suggest distinct neural loci for 2 forms of constraint on our ability to perform bimanual reaching movements.

  2. Validation of Agent Based Distillation Movement Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gill, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Agent based distillations (ABD) are low-resolution abstract models, which can be used to explore questions associated with land combat operations in a short period of time Movement of agents within the EINSTein and MANA ABDs...

  3. From social movement to food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild

    1998-01-01

    The paper report the organic movements impact on international institutions (EU, USDA, WTO and Codex Alimentarius). It focuses on the Danish experiences with 10 years of regulation on the organic sector...

  4. From social movement to food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild

    1998-01-01

    The paper report the organic movements impact on international institutions (EU, USDA, WTO and Codex Alimentarius). It focuses on the Danish experiences with 10 years of regulation on the organic sector....

  5. Freedom Now! Radical Jazz and Social Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Pluciński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Music is obviously not only an aesthetic phenomenon. It is embeddedin a dense network of social relations. However, its social involvementis rather ambiguous, particularly since the second half of the twentiethcentury. On the one hand, music is one of the main elements of culturalcapitalism and a part of the system of domination. On the other hand,music provokes, (coproduces or possibly strengthens and coexists witha number of counterdiscourses and social projects of counterhegemoniccharacter.The main objective of the paper is to examine relationships between both, revolutionary jazz and revolutionary social movements, namely the civil rights movement, but above all radical movements, especially black power movement. The crucial questions I am interested in are problems of selforganization, performative social practices, as well as alternatives elaborated by radical-oriented jazz circles in various social dimensions, for instance economic or symbolic.

  6. Lebanon's Hizbollah Movement: The Party of God

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schad, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    In the summer of 1982 in Lebanon, a group of radical Shi'a Muslim clerics in association with Iranian Revolutionary Guardsmen formed the secretive and at times deadly movement known as Hizbollah, or the Party of God...

  7. Eventful places in the 2011 movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Bjarke Skærlund

    ’ that is to be explained (della Porta 2008) instead of a political subject with the ability to affect itself and society; and a corrective to the growing body of literature on the geographies of social movements that often has a too static and state-centred approach. Using John Agnew’s (1987) conceptualisation of place...... is dialectical and mutually constitutive: the physical and symbolic characteristics of place influence the formation of the movement and its actions while the latter re-creates the place. This is a corrective to a dominant approach in social movement studies to see movements as a ‘dependent variable......, into an eventful place, a prefigurative place characterised by a new way of doing politics....

  8. Laban Movement Analysis towards Behavior Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luís; Dias, Jorge

    This work presents a study about the use of Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) as a robust tool to describe human basic behavior patterns, to be applied in human-machine interaction. LMA is a language used to describe and annotate dancing movements and is divided in components [1]: Body, Space, Shape and Effort. Despite its general framework is widely used in physical and mental therapy [2], it has found little application in the engineering domain. Rett J. [3] proposed to implement LMA using Bayesian Networks. However LMA component models have not yet been fully implemented. A study on how to approach behavior using LMA is presented. Behavior is a complex feature and movement chain, but we believe that most basic behavior primitives can be discretized in simple features. Correctly identifying Laban parameters and the movements the authors feel that good patterns can be found within a specific set of basic behavior semantics.

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Saliva Identifies Potential Biomarkers for Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellias, Mohd Faiz; Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Abdul Rahman, Mariati; Senafi, Shahidan; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya

    2012-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment has been shown to induce inflammation, followed by bone remodelling in the periodontium. These processes trigger the secretion of various proteins and enzymes into the saliva. This study aims to identify salivary proteins that change in expression during orthodontic tooth movement. These differentially expressed proteins can potentially serve as protein biomarkers for the monitoring of orthodontic treatment and tooth movement. Whole saliva from three healthy female subjects were collected before force application using fixed appliance and at 14 days after 0.014′′ Niti wire was applied. Salivary proteins were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) over a pH range of 3–10, and the resulting proteome profiles were compared. Differentially expressed protein spots were then identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed; however, only eight were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Four of these proteins—Protein S100-A9, immunoglobulin J chain, Ig alpha-1 chain C region, and CRISP-3—have known roles in inflammation and bone resorption. PMID:22919344

  10. Head movements and postures as pain behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.

    2018-01-01

    Pain assessment can benefit from observation of pain behaviors, such as guarding or facial expression, and observational pain scales are widely used in clinical practice with nonverbal patients. However, little is known about head movements and postures in the context of pain. In this regard, we analyze videos of three publically available datasets. The BioVid dataset was recorded with healthy participants subjected to painful heat stimuli. In the BP4D dataset, healthy participants performed a cold-pressor test and several other tasks (meant to elicit emotion). The UNBC dataset videos show shoulder pain patients during range-of-motion tests to their affected and unaffected limbs. In all videos, participants were sitting in an upright position. We studied head movements and postures that occurred during the painful and control trials by measuring head orientation from video over time, followed by analyzing posture and movement summary statistics and occurrence frequencies of typical postures and movements. We found significant differences between pain and control trials with analyses of variance and binomial tests. In BioVid and BP4D, pain was accompanied by head movements and postures that tend to be oriented downwards or towards the pain site. We also found differences in movement range and speed in all three datasets. The results suggest that head movements and postures should be considered for pain assessment and research. As additional pain indicators, they possibly might improve pain management whenever behavior is assessed, especially in nonverbal individuals such as infants or patients with dementia. However, in advance more research is needed to identify specific head movements and postures in pain patients. PMID:29444153

  11. Diagnostics of movement predispositions in fitnness centre

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtíšek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Title: Diagnostics of movement predispositions in fitness Objectives: The objective of bachelor thesis is to summarize the findings of the initial diagnostics od movement predispositions in fitness and then serve as a resource for those interested in education in this field. The aim of the practical part of this work is to obtain information about the diagnostic methods used to assess physical assumptions in the fitness centers. Methods: In this thesis was used the method of analysis of scien...

  12. Movements in Parties: OccupyPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella della Porta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When the United States activists called for people to Occupy#everywhere, it is unlikely they were thinking of the headquarters of the Italian centre-left party. Parties and movements are often considered to be worlds apart. In reality, parties have been relevant players in movement politics, and movements have influenced parties, often through the double militancy of many of their members. OccupyPD testifies to a continuous fluidity at the movement-party border, but also to a blockage in the party’s interactions with society that started long before the economic crisis but drastically accelerated with it. In this paper we present the OccupyPD Movement as a case of interaction between party politics and social movement politics, and in particular between the base membership of a centre-left party and the broader anti-austerity movement that diffused from the US to Europe adopting similar forms of actions and claims. Second, by locating it within the context of the economic and democratic crisis that erupted in 2007, we understand its emergence as a reaction towards politics in times of crisis of responsibility, by which we mean a drastic drop in the capacity of the government to respond to citizens’ requests. To fulfil this double aim, we bridge social movement studies with research on party change, institutional trust and democratic theory, looking at some political effects of the economic crisis in terms of a specific form of legitimacy crisis, as well as citizens’ responses to it, with a particular focus on the political meaning of recent anti-austerity protests. In this analysis, we refer to both quantitative and qualitative data from secondary liter-ature and original in-depth interviews carried out with a sample of OccupyPD activists.

  13. FFUA - A popular movement FOR nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frydenberg, R.

    1977-01-01

    F F U A (Folkebevegelse for Fredelig Utnyttelse av Atomkraft - Popular Movement for Peaceful Exploitation of Atomic Power) was started in Jely 1976. Membership is concentrated mainly in Oslo and Trondheim and its main functions are to work for the development of nuclear power in Norway and to counteract the influence of the antinuclear groups on politicians and public opinion. The movement cooperates with R E O (Reel Energi Oplysning - True Energy Information) in Denmark and has established a literature service. (JIW)

  14. Vertical movement of Azospirillum brasilense in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mohan; Lal, B.; Shrivastava, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria like Azospirillum brasilense have considerable potential in increasing crop productivity. The success of bacterial inoculation in fields however, depends on their root colonizing ability. These bacteria, applied either through seed pelleting or directly to the soil are distributed along roots through active or passive movements. 32 P labelled A.brasilense has been used to study their movements in sandy loam soils. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  15. Orthodontic Tooth Movement with Clear Aligners

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, Carl T.; McGorray, Susan P.; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T.

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. ev...

  16. Energy landscapes shape animal movement ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Emily L C; Wilson, Rory P; Rees, W Gareth; Grundy, Edward; Lambertucci, Sergio A; Vosper, Simon B

    2013-09-01

    The metabolic costs of animal movement have been studied extensively under laboratory conditions, although frequently these are a poor approximation of the costs of operating in the natural, heterogeneous environment. Construction of "energy landscapes," which relate animal locality to the cost of transport, can clarify whether, to what extent, and how movement properties are attributable to environmental heterogeneity. Although behavioral responses to aspects of the energy landscape are well documented in some fields (notably, the selection of tailwinds by aerial migrants) and scales (typically large), the principles of the energy landscape extend across habitat types and spatial scales. We provide a brief synthesis of the mechanisms by which environmentally driven changes in the cost of transport can modulate the behavioral ecology of animal movement in different media, develop example cost functions for movement in heterogeneous environments, present methods for visualizing these energy landscapes, and derive specific predictions of expected outcomes from individual- to population- and species-level processes. Animals modulate a suite of movement parameters (e.g., route, speed, timing of movement, and tortuosity) in relation to the energy landscape, with the nature of their response being related to the energy savings available. Overall, variation in movement costs influences the quality of habitat patches and causes nonrandom movement of individuals between them. This can provide spatial and/or temporal structure to a range of population- and species-level processes, ultimately including gene flow. Advances in animal-attached technology and geographic information systems are opening up new avenues for measuring and mapping energy landscapes that are likely to provide new insight into their influence in animal ecology.

  17. Communicating Protest Movements: The Case of Occupy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Kavada

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available How do you communicate a protest movement? And how do communication practices shape its character and power relations?  Based on a view of communication as constitutive of protest movements, this talk considers these questions as two sides of the same coin. The focus lies on the Occupy movement and particularly on its use of digital media. Characterised by a belief in direct participation and a rejection of central leadership, Occupy emerged through a bottom-up process of organizing that spanned different platforms and physical places, from Facebook pages to public squares. The process of constructing the collective involved the creation of communication sites and foundational texts, and their interlinking. This process was influenced by the rules, affordances and proprietary character of media platforms and physical spaces, as well as the diverse cultures and strategies of the activists using them. A closer look at this process sheds light on the power relations within the movement and particularly on five sources of communication power. These range from the power to create communication sites and texts to the power to access or link them together. The picture that emerges is complex, revealing a movement with both centralizing and decentralizing dynamics. Ultimately, it was the balance between these opposing dynamics that determined both the emergence of the movement and its decline. Acknowledgement: This contribution is the podcast of a talk Anastasia Kavada gave in the Communication and Media Research Institute (CAMRI's Research Seminar Series on February 25, 2015, at the University of Westminster.

  18. Monitoring current rates of salt dome movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoms, R.L.; Manning, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The tectonic stability of salt domes is a major concern for long-term domal storage of noxious wastes. A necessary phase of the many faceted dome storage study includes obtaining a measure of current vertical movement of any potential storage dome. This information then can be combined with data obtained from studies involving geologic time scales so as to provide a history of dome movement that includes present time. A system of instrumentation for monitoring current rates of dome movement is described. Complimentary finite element modelling of plausible dome movement also is presented. The proposed instrumentation system includes tiltmeters, precise levelling, laser ranging, and monitoring of microseisms. Thus, components of rotation and vertical and horizontal movements at the ground surface over a dome can be monitored. In addition, a measure of dome movement also may be obtained acoustically. The finite element modelling furnishes an aid for: (1) locating instrument sites over a dome so as to maximize instrument sensitivity, and (2) interpreting data obtained from the instrumentation system. An example of tiltmeter installation and operation over a dome in northwest Louisiana is included. Typical tiltmeter output is presented and discussed

  19. Long term ground movement of TRISTAN synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Ohsawa, Y.; Miyahara, M.

    1989-01-01

    The long term ground movement is estimated through the geological survey before a big accelerator is planned. For the case of TRISTAN-MR (main ring), its site was surveyed to reflect the underground information to the building prior to the construction. The movement of the synchrotron magnet mainly results from the structure of the tunnel. If an individual movement of the magnet exceeds a certain threshold limit, it gives a significant effect on the particle behavior in a synchrotron. Height of the quadrupole magnets were observed periodically during past two years at the TRISTAN-MR and their height differences along the 3 km circumference of the accelerator ring were decomposed into the Fourier components depicting the causes of the movements. Results shows the movement of the tunnel foundation which was also observed by the simultaneous measurement of both magnets and fiducial marks on the tunnel wall. The long term movement of the magnets is summarized with the geological survey prior to construction. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. [Dance/movement therapy in oncological rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Elana G; Helmes, Almut; Weis, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Dance/movement therapy may be defined as a psychosocial and body-oriented art therapy, which uses dance for the expression of emotional and cognitive issues. Dance/movement therapy is an important intervention for cancer patients to enhance coping strategies. There are only few studies investigating dance therapy with cancer patients. The present study investigates effects of dance/movement therapy (n = 115) in the setting of inpatient rehabilitation based on a pre-post design with a control group as well as a follow-up 3 months later. Standardized questionnaires measuring quality of life, anxiety and depression, and self-concept (EORTC QLQ-C30, HADS, FSKN) were used. In addition, at the end of the inpatient rehabilitation program subjective expectations of the dance/movement therapy and the patients' subjective evaluation of the benefits of the intervention were measured by a new developed questionnaire. As process factors of dance/movement therapy, expression of emotions, enhancement of self-esteem, development of the personality, vitality, getting inner balance, and getting in touch with the body have been identified. In terms of quality of life and psychological well-being, the results showed significant improvements with medium to large effect sizes. Even though those effects may not be attributed to the intervention alone, the analysis of the data and the patients' subjective statements help to reveal therapeutic factors and process characteristics of dance/movement therapy within inpatient rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Advances in surgery for movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Nathan C; Sammartino, Francesco; Lozano, Andres M

    2017-01-01

    Movement disorder surgery has evolved throughout history as our knowledge of motor circuits and ways in which to manipulate them have expanded. Today, the positive impact on patient quality of life for a growing number of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease is now well accepted and confirmed through several decades of randomized, controlled trials. Nevertheless, residual motor symptoms after movement disorder surgery such as deep brain stimulation and lack of a definitive cure for these conditions demand that advances continue to push the boundaries of the field and maximize its therapeutic potential. Similarly, advances in related fields - wireless technology, artificial intelligence, stem cell and gene therapy, neuroimaging, nanoscience, and minimally invasive surgery - mean that movement disorder surgery stands at a crossroads to benefit from unique combinations of all these developments. In this minireview, we outline some of these developments as well as evidence supporting topics of recent discussion and controversy in our field. Moving forward, expectations remain high that these improvements will come to encompass an even broader range of patients who might benefit from this therapy and decrease the burden of disease associated with these conditions. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Towards NIRS-based hand movement recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, Marco; Luciani, Riccardo; Ariano, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    This work reports on preliminary results about on hand movement recognition with Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS) and surface ElectroMyoGraphy (sEMG). Either basing on physical contact (touchscreens, data-gloves, etc.), vision techniques (Microsoft Kinect, Sony PlayStation Move, etc.), or other modalities, hand movement recognition is a pervasive function in today environment and it is at the base of many gaming, social, and medical applications. Albeit, in recent years, the use of muscle information extracted by sEMG has spread out from the medical applications to contaminate the consumer world, this technique still falls short when dealing with movements of the hand. We tested NIRS as a technique to get another point of view on the muscle phenomena and proved that, within a specific movements selection, NIRS can be used to recognize movements and return information regarding muscles at different depths. Furthermore, we propose here three different multimodal movement recognition approaches and compare their performances.

  3. Tropical deforestation alters hummingbird movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Adam S.; Betts, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced pollination success, as a function of habitat loss and fragmentation, appears to be a global phenomenon. Disruption of pollinator movement is one hypothesis put forward to explain this pattern in pollen limitation. However, the small size of pollinators makes them very difficult to track; thus, knowledge of their movements is largely speculative. Using tiny radio transmitters (0.25 g), we translocated a generalist tropical ‘trap-lining’ hummingbird, the green hermit (Phaethornis guy), across agricultural and forested landscapes to test the hypothesis that movement is influenced by patterns of deforestation. Although, we found no difference in homing times between landscape types, return paths were on average 459±144 m (±s.e.) more direct in forested than agricultural landscapes. In addition, movement paths in agricultural landscapes contained 36±4 per cent more forest than the most direct route. Our findings suggest that this species can circumvent agricultural matrix to move among forest patches. Nevertheless, it is clear that movement of even a highly mobile species is strongly influenced by landscape disturbance. Maintaining landscape connectivity with forest corridors may be important for enhancing movement, and thus in facilitating pollen transfer. PMID:19158031

  4. Movement disorders secondary to craniocerebral trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Joachim K

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades it has been recognized that traumatic brain injury may result in various movement disorders. In survivors of severe head injury, post-traumatic movement disorders were reported in about 20%, and they persisted in about 10% of patients. The most frequent persisting movement disorder in this population is kinetic cerebellar outflow tremor in about 9%, followed by dystonia in about 4%. While tremor is associated most frequently with cerebellar or mesencephalic lesions, patients with dystonia frequently have basal ganglia or thalamic lesions. Moderate or mild traumatic brain injury only rarely causes persistent post-traumatic movement disorders. It appears that the frequency of post-traumatic movement disorders overall has been declining which most likely is secondary to improved treatment of brain injury. In patients with disabling post-traumatic movement disorders which are refractory to medical treatment, stereotactic neurosurgery can provide long-lasting benefit. While in the past the primary option for severe kinetic tremor was thalamotomy and for dystonia thalamotomy or pallidotomy, today deep brain stimulation has become the preferred treatment. Parkinsonism is a rare consequence of single head injury, but repeated head injury such as seen in boxing can result in chronic encephalopathy with parkinsonian features. While there is still controversy whether or not head injury is a risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease, recent studies indicate that genetic susceptibility might be relevant. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Role and regulation of the orphan AphA protein of quorum sensing in pathogenic Vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Renfei; Osei-Adjei, George; Huang, Xinxiang; Zhang, Yiquan

    2018-03-01

    Quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication process, is widely distributed in the bacterial kingdom. Bacteria use QS to control gene expression in response to cell density by detecting the signal molecules called autoinducers. AphA protein is the master QS regulator of vibrios operating at low cell density. It regulates the expression of a variety of genes, especially those encoding virulence factors, flagella/motility and biofilm formation. The role and regulation of AphA in vibrios, especially in human pathogenic vibrios, are summarized in this review. Clarification of the roles of AphA will help us to understand the pathogenesis of vibrios.

  6. Movement Discordance between Healthy and Non-Healthy US Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M Swartz

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to significantly impact cardiometabolic health. Accelerometer data, as a measure of physical activity, can be used to objectively identify a disparity in movement (movement discordance between healthy and unhealthy adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the Movement Discordance between healthy and unhealthy adults in a large US population sample.Demographic, health and accelerometer data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 cohorts were used for this study. Participants were classified as either having a "normal" or "abnormal" value for each cardiometabolic health parameter examined, based on published criteria. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine significance of each abnormal health parameter (risk factor in its unique effect on the accelerometer counts, controlling for age and gender. Average accelerometer counts per minute (cpm by gender and age categories were estimated separately for the groups of normal and abnormal cardiometabolic risk.Average cpm for those with healthy levels of each individual cardiometabolic health parameter range from 296 cpm (for C reactive protein to 337 cpm (for waist circumference, while average cpm for those with abnormal levels of each individual cardiometabolic health parameter range from 216 cpm (for insulin to 291 cpm (for LDL-cholesterol. After controlling for age and gender, waist circumference, HbA1c, Insulin, Homocysteine, and HDL-Cholesterol were the cardiometabolic health parameters that showed significant, unique and independent effects on cpm. Overall, individuals who have abnormal values for all significant cardiometabolic health parameters ("unhealthy" averaged 267 cpm (SE = 15 cpm, while the healthy sample of this study averaged 428 cpm (SE = 10 cpm. The difference in cpm between the unhealthy and healthy groups is similar between males and females. Further, for both males and females, the

  7. Spontaneous reverse movement of mRNA-bound tRNA through the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konevega, Andrey L; Fischer, Niels; Semenkov, Yuri P; Stark, Holger; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V

    2007-04-01

    During the translocation step of protein synthesis, a complex of two transfer RNAs bound to messenger RNA (tRNA-mRNA) moves through the ribosome. The reaction is promoted by an elongation factor, called EF-G in bacteria, which, powered by GTP hydrolysis, induces an open, unlocked conformation of the ribosome that allows for spontaneous tRNA-mRNA movement. Here we show that, in the absence of EF-G, there is spontaneous backward movement, or retrotranslocation, of two tRNAs bound to mRNA. Retrotranslocation is driven by the gain in affinity when a cognate E-site tRNA moves into the P site, which compensates the affinity loss accompanying the movement of peptidyl-tRNA from the P to the A site. These results lend support to the diffusion model of tRNA movement during translocation. In the cell, tRNA movement is biased in the forward direction by EF-G, which acts as a Brownian ratchet and prevents backward movement.

  8. Single molecule tracking fluorescence microscopy in mitochondria reveals highly dynamic but confined movement of Tom40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Anton; Tankov, Stoyan; English, Brian P.; Tarassov, Ivan; Tenson, Tanel; Kamenski, Piotr; Elf, Johan; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2011-12-01

    Tom40 is an integral protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane, which as the central component of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM) complex forms a channel for protein import. We characterize the diffusion properties of individual Tom40 molecules fused to the photoconvertable fluorescent protein Dendra2 with millisecond temporal resolution. By imaging individual Tom40 molecules in intact isolated yeast mitochondria using photoactivated localization microscopy with sub-diffraction limited spatial precision, we demonstrate that Tom40 movement in the outer mitochondrial membrane is highly dynamic but confined in nature, suggesting anchoring of the TOM complex as a whole.

  9. Potato leafroll virus structural proteins manipulate overlapping, yet distinct protein interaction networks during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlasio, Stacy L; Johnson, Richard; Sweeney, Michelle M; Karasev, Alexander; Gray, Stewart M; MacCoss, Michael J; Cilia, Michelle

    2015-06-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) produces a readthrough protein (RTP) via translational readthrough of the coat protein amber stop codon. The RTP functions as a structural component of the virion and as a nonincorporated protein in concert with numerous insect and plant proteins to regulate virus movement/transmission and tissue tropism. Affinity purification coupled to quantitative MS was used to generate protein interaction networks for a PLRV mutant that is unable to produce the read through domain (RTD) and compared to the known wild-type PLRV protein interaction network. By quantifying differences in the protein interaction networks, we identified four distinct classes of PLRV-plant interactions: those plant and nonstructural viral proteins interacting with assembled coat protein (category I); plant proteins in complex with both coat protein and RTD (category II); plant proteins in complex with the RTD (category III); and plant proteins that had higher affinity for virions lacking the RTD (category IV). Proteins identified as interacting with the RTD are potential candidates for regulating viral processes that are mediated by the RTP such as phloem retention and systemic movement and can potentially be useful targets for the development of strategies to prevent infection and/or viral transmission of Luteoviridae species that infect important crop species. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Separating timing, movement conditions and individual differences in the analysis of human movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau; Grimme, Britta; Schöner, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    mixed-effects models as viable alternatives to conventional analysis frameworks. The model is then combined with a novel factor-analysis model that estimates the low-dimensional subspace within which movements vary when the task demands vary. Our framework enables us to visualize different dimensions......A central task in the analysis of human movement behavior is to determine systematic patterns and differences across experimental conditions, participants and repetitions. This is possible because human movement is highly regular, being constrained by invariance principles. Movement timing...

  11. A dark green fluorescent protein as an acceptor for measurement of Förster resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Hideji; Shibata, Akihiro C E; Nakahata, Yoshihisa; Nabekura, Junichi

    2015-10-15

    Measurement of Förster resonance energy transfer by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM-FRET) is a powerful method for visualization of intracellular signaling activities such as protein-protein interactions and conformational changes of proteins. Here, we developed a dark green fluorescent protein (ShadowG) that can serve as an acceptor for FLIM-FRET. ShadowG is spectrally similar to monomeric enhanced green fluorescent protein (mEGFP) and has a 120-fold smaller quantum yield. When FRET from mEGFP to ShadowG was measured using an mEGFP-ShadowG tandem construct with 2-photon FLIM-FRET, we observed a strong FRET signal with low cell-to-cell variability. Furthermore, ShadowG was applied to a single-molecule FRET sensor to monitor a conformational change of CaMKII and of the light oxygen voltage (LOV) domain in HeLa cells. These sensors showed reduced cell-to-cell variability of both the basal fluorescence lifetime and response signal. In contrast to mCherry- or dark-YFP-based sensors, our sensor allowed for precise measurement of individual cell responses. When ShadowG was applied to a separate-type Ras FRET sensor, it showed a greater response signal than did the mCherry-based sensor. Furthermore, Ras activation and translocation of its effector ERK2 into the nucleus could be observed simultaneously. Thus, ShadowG is a promising FLIM-FRET acceptor.

  12. A simple detection method for low-affinity membrane protein interactions by baculoviral display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiko Sakihama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Membrane protein interactions play an important role in cell-to-cell recognition in various biological activities such as in the immune or neural system. Nevertheless, there has remained the major obstacle of expression of the membrane proteins in their active form. Recently, we and other investigators found that functional membrane proteins express on baculovirus particles (budded virus, BV. In this study, we applied this BV display system to detect interaction between membrane proteins important for cell-to-cell interaction in immune system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We infected Sf9 cells with recombinant baculovirus encoding the T cell membrane protein CD2 or its ligand CD58 and recovered the BV. We detected specific interaction between CD2-displaying BV and CD58-displaying BV by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Using this system, we also detected specific interaction between two other membrane receptor-ligand pairs, CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L, and glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related protein (GITR-GITR ligand (GITRL. Furthermore, we observed specific binding of BV displaying CD58, CD40L, or GITRL to cells naturally expressing their respective receptors by flowcytometric analysis using anti-baculoviral gp64 antibody. Finally we isolated CD2 cDNA from a cDNA expression library by magnetic separation using CD58-displaying BV and anti-gp64 antibody. CONCLUSIONS: We found the BV display system worked effectively in the detection of the interaction of membrane proteins. Since various membrane proteins and their oligomeric complexes can be displayed on BV in the native form, this BV display system should prove highly useful in the search for natural ligands or to develop screening systems for therapeutic antibodies and/or compounds.

  13. Expression of Tight Junction Protein Claudin-1 in Human Crescentic Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Koda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of crescent forming cells in human glomerulonephritis (GN remains unknown. Some animal studies demonstrated that parietal epithelial cells of Bowman’s capsule (PECs were the main component of proliferating cells and PEC-specific tight junction protein claudin-1 was expressed in crescentic lesions. We investigated the expression of claudin-1 in human GN. Immunohistochemistry for claudin-1 was performed on 17 kidney biopsy samples with crescent formation. Colocalization of claudin-1 with intracellular tight junction protein ZO-1 was also evaluated by immunofluorescence double staining. Claudin-1 is expressed mainly at the cell to cell contact site of proliferating cells in cellular crescentic lesions in patients with these forms of human GN. Small numbers of crescent forming cells showed extrajunctional localization of claudin-1. Colocalization of claudin-1 with ZO-1 was found at cell to cell contact sites of adjacent proliferating cells. In control samples, staining of claudin-1 was positive in PECs, but not in podocytes. Our findings suggest that claudin-1 contributes to crescent formation as a component of the tight junction protein complex that includes ZO-1. Co-localization of claudin-1 with ZO-1 implies the formation of functional tight junction complexes in crescentic lesions to prevent the interstitial damage caused by penetration of filtered molecules from Bowman’s space.

  14. Movement constraints on interpersonal coordination and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolston, Michael T; Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A; Richardson, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    The present study investigated how constraining movement affects interpersonal coordination and joint cognitive performance. Pairs of participants worked cooperatively to solve picture-puzzle tasks in which they conversed to identify differences between pictures in 3 degree-of-constraint conditions: both participants were free to move their hands (free-free; FF); both participants' hands were restrained (restrained-restrained; RR); and the hands of 1 participant were free while the hands of the other participant were restrained (free-restrained; FR). Eye tracking data were collected, and movement was measured at the waist, hand, and head. Data were analyzed using Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis (CRQ). Postural sway coordination, gaze coordination, and task performance were predicted to be highest in FF, followed by RR, and then by FR. Results showed the asymmetric FR condition generally exhibited lesser degrees of coordination than the symmetric Conditions FF and RR, and that the patterning of coordination in the symmetric conditions varied across the measured body segments. These results demonstrate that movement restraints affect not only interpersonal postural coordination, but also joint attention. Additionally, significant positive relationships were found between task performance and total amount of anterior-posterior movement measured at the head, hand and waist; number of utterances; and number of differences pairs found in the puzzles. These findings indicate a relationship between movement and task performance consistent with the hypotheses that both interpersonal coordination and cognitive performance are sensitive to local action constraints.

  15. Dynamic representations of human body movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtzi, Z; Shiffrar, M

    1999-01-01

    Psychophysical and neurophysiological studies suggest that human body motions can be readily recognized. Human bodies are highly articulated and can move in a nonrigid manner. As a result, we perceive highly dissimilar views of the human form in motion. How does the visual system integrate multiple views of a human body in motion so that we can perceive human movement as a continuous event? The results of a set of priming experiments suggest that motion can readily facilitate the linkage of different views of a moving human. Positive priming was found for novel views of a human body that fell within the path of human movement. However, no priming was observed for novel views outside the path of motion. Furthermore, priming was restricted to those views that satisfied the biomechanical constraints of human movement. These results suggest that visual representation of human movement may be based upon the movement limitations of the human body and may reflect a dynamic interaction of motion and object-recognition processes.

  16. Scholarship and Activism: A Social Movements Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Cox

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits the debate over Barker and Cox’s (2011 use of Gramsci’s distinction between traditional and organic intellectuals to contrast academic and activist modes of theorizing about social movements. Often misread as an attack on personal choices in career and writing, the distinction aimed to highlight the different purposes, audiences, and social relationships entailed by these different forms of theorizing. Discourses which take ‘scholarship’ as their starting point position ‘activist’ as a personal choice within an institutional field, and substitute this moral commitment for a political assessment of its effects. By contrast, few academics have undergone the political learning curve represented by social movements. This may explain the widespread persistence – beyond any intellectual or empirical credibility – of a faith in ‘critical scholarship’ isolated from agency, an orientation to policy makers and mainstream media as primary audiences or an unquestioned commitment to existing institutional frameworks as pathways to substantial social change.  Drawing on over three decades of movement participation and two of academic work, this article explores two processes of activist training within the academy. It also explores the politics of different experiences of theoretical publishing for social movements audiences. This discussion focuses on the control of the “means of mental production” (Marx, 1965, and the politics of distribution. The conclusion explores the broader implications of these experiences for the relationship between movements and research.

  17. Spontaneous body movements in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu eTcaci Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available People often perform spontaneous body movements during spatial tasks such as giving complex directions or orienting themselves on maps. How are these spontaneous gestures related to spatial problem-solving? We measured spontaneous movements during a perspective-taking task inspired by map reading. Analyzing the motion data to isolate rotation and translation components of motion in specific geometric relation to the task, we found out that most participants executed spontaneous miniature rotations of the head that were significantly related to the main task parameter. These head rotations were as if participants were trying to align themselves with the orientation on the map either in the image plane or on the ground plane, but with tiny amplitudes, typically below 1% of the actual movements. Our results are consistent with a model of sensorimotor prediction driving spatial reasoning. The efference copy of planned movements triggers this prediction mechanism. The movements themselves may then be mostly inhibited; the small spontaneous gestures that we measure are the visible traces of these planned but inhibited actions.

  18. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.; Ferreira, Luciana C.; Sequeira, Ana M.M.; Meekan, Mark G.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W. Don; Caley, M. Julian; Costa, Daniel P.; Eguí luz, Victor M.; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S.; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C.; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L.; Lowe, Christopher G.; Madsen, Peter T.; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A.; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Sims, David W.; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N.; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N.; Thums, Michele

    2016-01-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Lip movements affect infants' audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, H Henny; Werker, Janet F

    2013-05-01

    Speech is robustly audiovisual from early in infancy. Here we show that audiovisual speech perception in 4.5-month-old infants is influenced by sensorimotor information related to the lip movements they make while chewing or sucking. Experiment 1 consisted of a classic audiovisual matching procedure, in which two simultaneously displayed talking faces (visual [i] and [u]) were presented with a synchronous vowel sound (audio /i/ or /u/). Infants' looking patterns were selectively biased away from the audiovisual matching face when the infants were producing lip movements similar to those needed to produce the heard vowel. Infants' looking patterns returned to those of a baseline condition (no lip movements, looking longer at the audiovisual matching face) when they were producing lip movements that did not match the heard vowel. Experiment 2 confirmed that these sensorimotor effects interacted with the heard vowel, as looking patterns differed when infants produced these same lip movements while seeing and hearing a talking face producing an unrelated vowel (audio /a/). These findings suggest that the development of speech perception and speech production may be mutually informative.

  20. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Directional Tuning Curves, Elementary Movement Detectors, and the Estimation of the Direction of Visual Movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van

    1990-01-01

    Both the insect brain and the vertebrate retina detect visual movement with neurons having broad, cosine-shaped directional tuning curves oriented in either of two perpendicular directions. This article shows that this arrangement can lead to isotropic estimates of the direction of movement: for any

  2. From Social Movement Learning to Sociomaterial Movement Learning? Addressing the Possibilities and Limits of New Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Callum

    2014-01-01

    In recent years academic interest in social movement learning (SML) has flourished. "Studies in the Education of Adults" has arguably emerged as the premier international forum for exploring the links between adult learning and movements for progressive change. In parallel to this subfield, yet largely in isolation from it,…

  3. From movement to mechanism : exploring expressive movement qualities in shape-change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, M.; Frens, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    This one-day studio revolves around the exploration of expressive movement qualities in shape-change by means of physical sketching and prototyping. It is a hands-on studio where participants first explore expressive movement qualities and interaction scenarios with a generic shape-changing platform

  4. Impact of Air Movement on Eye Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sakoi, Tomonori; Kolencíková, Sona

    2013-01-01

    The impact of direction, oscillation and temperature of isothermal room air movement on eye discomfort and tear film quality was studied. Twenty-four male subjects participated in the experiment. Horizontal air movement against the face and chest was generated by a large desk fan – LDF and a small...... when the airflow was directed against the face and when against the chest, LDF with and without oscillation and PV. Eye tear film samples were taken and analyzed at the beginning and the end of the exposures. Eye irritation and dryness were reported by the subjects. The air movement under individual...... control did not change significantly the tear film quality though tendency for improvement was observed. Eye dryness increased much when the airflow was blowing constantly against the face compared to oscillating airflow, airflow directed against the chest and upward airflow against the face....

  5. Bodystorming for Movement-Based Interaction Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Márquez Segura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After a decade of movement-based interaction in human–computer interaction, designing for the moving body still remains a challenge. Research in this field requires methods to help access, articulate, and harness embodied experiences in ways that can inform the design process. To address this challenge, this article appropriates bodystorming, an embodied ideation method for movement-based interaction design. The proposed method allows for early consideration of the physical, collocated, and social aspects of a designed activity as illustrated with two explorative workshops in different application domains: interactive body games and interactive performances. Using a qualitative methods approach, we used video material from the workshops, feedback from participants, and our own experience as participants and facilitators to outline important characteristics of the bodystorming method in the domain of movement-based interaction. The proposed method is compared with previous ones and application implications are discussed.

  6. Simulation of car movement along circular path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Tikhov-Tinnikov, D. A.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.; Lysenko, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    Under operating conditions, suspension system performance changes which negatively affects vehicle stability and handling. The paper aims to simulate the impact of changes in suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling. Methods. The paper describes monitoring of suspension system performance, testing of vehicle stability and handling, analyzes methods of suspension system performance monitoring under operating conditions. The mathematical model of a car movement along a circular path was developed. Mathematical tools describing a circular movement of a vehicle along a horizontal road were developed. Turning car movements were simulated. Calculation and experiment results were compared. Simulation proves the applicability of a mathematical model for assessment of the impact of suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling.

  7. Effect of drugs on orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sarah Aulia Amrullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement is basically a biological response to mechanical forces given to the teeth in orthodontic treatment, which involving the periodontal tissue and alveolar bone, resulting in the release of numerous substances from the dental tissues and surrounding structure. Remodeling changes in periodontal tissues are considered to be essential in effecting orthodontic tooth movement which is the base of orthodontic correction. Molecules produced in various diseased tissues or drugs and nutrients consumed regularly by patients, can influence mechanically stressed periodontal tissue through the circulation and interact with target cell combination of which may be inhibitory, additive or synergize. Medications might have an important influence on the rate of tooth movement, and information on their consumption is essential to adequately discuss treatment planning with patients. Therefore it is imperative to the practitioners being in medical profession, must pay close attention to the drug consumption history of every patient before and during the course of treatment.

  8. An information maximization model of eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra

    2005-01-01

    We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.

  9. Quantifying Motor Impairment in Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. FitzGerald

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the assessment of many movement disorders has relied on clinical rating scales that despite careful design are inherently subjective and non-linear. This makes accurate and truly observer-independent quantification difficult and limits the use of sensitive parametric statistical methods. At last, devices capable of measuring neurological problems quantitatively are becoming readily available. Examples include the use of oculometers to measure eye movements and accelerometers to measure tremor. Many applications are being developed for use on smartphones. The benefits include not just more accurate disease quantification, but also consistency of data for longitudinal studies, accurate stratification of patients for entry into trials, and the possibility of automated data capture for remote follow-up. In this mini review, we will look at movement disorders with a particular focus on Parkinson's disease, describe some of the limitations of existing clinical evaluation tools, and illustrate the ways in which objective metrics have already been successful.

  10. Quantifying Motor Impairment in Movement Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, James J; Lu, Zhongjiao; Jareonsettasin, Prem; Antoniades, Chrystalina A

    2018-01-01

    Until recently the assessment of many movement disorders has relied on clinical rating scales that despite careful design are inherently subjective and non-linear. This makes accurate and truly observer-independent quantification difficult and limits the use of sensitive parametric statistical methods. At last, devices capable of measuring neurological problems quantitatively are becoming readily available. Examples include the use of oculometers to measure eye movements and accelerometers to measure tremor. Many applications are being developed for use on smartphones. The benefits include not just more accurate disease quantification, but also consistency of data for longitudinal studies, accurate stratification of patients for entry into trials, and the possibility of automated data capture for remote follow-up. In this mini review, we will look at movement disorders with a particular focus on Parkinson's disease, describe some of the limitations of existing clinical evaluation tools, and illustrate the ways in which objective metrics have already been successful.

  11. Social movements as emotional contexts: the emotional drive in the Basque linguistic movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Larrinaga Renteria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on some of the functions that the emotions perform in constructing and maintaining the collective action of social movements in the long term. Based on a case study, we applied the conceptual instrument known as “Frame Analysis” to the successive discursive frames produced by the linguistic movement of the Basque Country between the 1980s and the first decade of 2000. With the aid of qualitative techniques, consisting in in-depth interviews conducted with qualified activists of the movement and an analysis of documents it produced, we identified the emotional contexts associated with the discourses and meanings generated by the movement at different times. Activation of the emotional components aided both the movement’s internal solidarity and external adhesion and, in short, favored the long-term sustainability of an increasingly institutionalized and professionalized movement.

  12. Movement response patterns of livestock to rainfall variability in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock movement patterns indicated that forage is the motivation for winter movements and water is the motivation for summer. The movement followed a predictable ... The latter can be considered as a 'key resource' area to sustain animal numbers through critical periods of low rainfall. Overall, seasonal movement ...

  13. Comparison of the practical diagnostic value of different tomographic movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laehde, S.; Vuoria, P.

    1977-01-01

    The practical results of linear and circular tomography with angles of 6, 20, 30 and 45 degrees and spiral tomography were compared. The spiral proved to be suitable as a tomographic movement for different purposes. In zonography, circular movement with 6 degrees of deviation proved suitable. The linear movement presented no advantages when compared with the multidirectional movements. ( orig.) [de

  14. Dance/Movement Therapy: A Unique Career Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeniox, Leslie Flint

    Dance and movement therapy is a form of psychotherapy that uses the body, dance, and movement as the primary mediums for the therapeutic process. Dance is a fundamental art form that involves the body as an instrument of self-expression; movement is a universal means of learning and communicating. Dance and movement therapy is the…

  15. The Contemporary Women's Movement and Women's Education in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ila

    1998-01-01

    Examines how the contemporary women's movement in India (1975-present) has addressed the issue of women's education. Highlights contributions of the 19th-century social-reformist movement and the nationalist movement. Details the role of the contemporary women's movement in redefining knowledge and the curriculum. Concludes with challenges facing…

  16. Polycythemia vera presenting with left hemichoreiform movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tamiharu; Shimomura, Chikako; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Tsujihata, Mitsuhiro; Nagataki, Shigenobu.

    1985-01-01

    A 65-year-old man developed abruptly choreiform movements involving the left face, arm and leg one day prior to admission. Physical examination revealed red face and palms, hyperemic conjunctivae and atrial fibrillations. Blood pressure was 168/90. Spleen was not palpable. Hemichoreiform movements of the left face and limbs were observed. There was no other neurological abnormalities. Laboratory studies showed RBC 880x10 4 , Hb 22.4g/dl, Hct 63%, WBC 8,100, platelets 22.9x10 4 , ESR 0mm/hr, RBC oxygen saturation 97%, serum iron 67 μg/dl, LDH 593 units, uric acid 14mg/dl, and erythropoietine (HI method) 19mIU/ml (normal 28-88). Bone marrow showed myeloid nucleated cell count 38.6x10 4 . ECG showed atrial fibrillations. Chest X-ray and scintigrams of liver and spleen were normal. CSF was normal. Brain CT scan on admission disclosed a low density area in right caudate nucleus. The choreiform movements were rapidly mitigated by venesection and by oral administration of haloperidol(3mg daily). There weeks after discontinuing haloperidol, the hemichorea returned. The routine hematology showed RBC 870x10 4 , Hb 19.8g/dl, Hct 62%, WBC 10,200, and plateret 37.4x10 4 . Another venesection reduced the chorea. Pipobroman was administered to control the polycythemia vera. He has been free of choreic movements thereafter. Choreiform movement is rarely observed in polycythemia vera. The pathogenesis is still unknown. The venous congestion, however, may play a role in this case because the choreic movements disappeared by venesection. (author)

  17. Repetition and lag effects in movement recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C R; Buckolz, E

    1982-03-01

    Whether repetition and lag improve the recognition of movement patterns was investigated. Recognition memory was tested for one repetition, two-repetitions massed, and two-repetitions distributed with movement patterns at lags of 3, 5, 7, and 13. Recognition performance was examined both immediately afterwards and following a 48 hour delay. Both repetition and lag effects failed to be demonstrated, providing some support for the claim that memory is unaffected by repetition at a constant level of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). There was, as expected, a significant decrease in recognition memory following the retention interval, but this appeared unrelated to repetition or lag.

  18. Biomimetics of human movement: functional or aesthetic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    How should robotic or prosthetic arms be programmed to move? Copying human smooth movements is popular in synthetic systems, but what does this really achieve? We cannot address these biomimetic issues without a deep understanding of why natural movements are so stereotyped. In this article, we distinguish between 'functional' and 'aesthetic' biomimetics. Functional biomimetics requires insight into the problem that nature has solved and recognition that a similar problem exists in the synthetic system. In aesthetic biomimetics, nature is copied for its own sake and no insight is needed. We examine the popular minimum jerk (MJ) model that has often been used to generate smooth human-like point-to-point movements in synthetic arms. The MJ model was originally justified as maximizing 'smoothness'; however, it is also the limiting optimal trajectory for a wide range of cost functions for brief movements, including the minimum variance (MV) model, where smoothness is a by-product of optimizing the speed-accuracy trade-off imposed by proportional noise (PN: signal-dependent noise with the standard deviation proportional to mean). PN is unlikely to be dominant in synthetic systems, and the control objectives of natural movements (speed and accuracy) would not be optimized in synthetic systems by human-like movements. Thus, employing MJ or MV controllers in robotic arms is just aesthetic biomimetics. For prosthetic arms, the goal is aesthetic by definition, but it is still crucial to recognize that MV trajectories and PN are deeply embedded in the human motor system. Thus, PN arises at the neural level, as a recruitment strategy of motor units and probably optimizes motor neuron noise. Human reaching is under continuous adaptive control. For prosthetic devices that do not have this natural architecture, natural plasticity would drive the system towards unnatural movements. We propose that a truly neuromorphic system with parallel force generators (muscle fibres) and noisy

  19. Geometric and numerical foundations of movements

    CERN Document Server

    Mansard, Nicolas; Lasserre, Jean-Bernard

    2017-01-01

    This book aims at gathering roboticists, control theorists, neuroscientists, and mathematicians, in order to promote a multidisciplinary research on movement analysis. It follows the workshop “ Geometric and Numerical Foundations of Movements ” held at LAAS-CNRS in Toulouse in November 2015[1]. Its objective is to lay the foundations for a mutual understanding that is essential for synergetic development in motion research. In particular, the book promotes applications to robotics --and control in general-- of new optimization techniques based on recent results from real algebraic geometry.

  20. Magnetic movement of biological fluid droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Antonio A.; Egatz-Gomez, Ana; Lindsay, Solitaire A.; Dominguez-Garcia, P.; Melle, Sonia; Marquez, Manuel; Rubio, Miguel A.; Picraux, S.T.; Yang, Dongqing; Aella, P.; Hayes, Mark A.; Gust, Devens; Loyprasert, Suchera; Vazquez-Alvarez, Terannie; Wang, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic fields can be used to control the movement of aqueous drops on non-patterned, silicon nanowire superhydrophobic surfaces. Drops of aqueous and biological fluids are controlled by introducing magnetizable carbonyl iron microparticles into the liquid. Key elements of operations such as movement, coalescence, and splitting of water and biological fluid drops, as well as electrochemical measurement of an analyte are demonstrated. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared using vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth systems followed by coating with a perfluorinated hydrocarbon molecule. Drops were made from aqueous and biological fluid suspensions with magnetizable microparticle concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 wt%

  1. Cross-slope Movement Patterns in Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, D.; Murphy, W.; Bulmer, M. H.; Keefer, D.

    2002-12-01

    There is growing evidence that there is a significant element of cross-slope movement in many large landslide systems. These movements may result in changing states of stress between landslide blocks that can establish complex displacement patterns. Such motions, which are not considered in traditional two-dimensional limit-equilibrium analyses, are important in the investigation of a variety of landslide types, such as those triggered by earthquakes. In addition, these movements may introduce considerable errors into the interpretation of strain patterns as derived from InSAR studies. Finally, even traditional interpretation techniques may lead to the amount of total displacement being underestimated. These observations suggest that a three dimensional form of analysis may be more appropriate for large landslide complexes. The significance of such cross-slope movements are being investigated using a detailed investigation of the Lishan landslide complex in Central Taiwan. This landslide system, which was reactivated in 1990 related to the construction of a hotel. The total recorded movements have been approximately 1.5 m over an area of sliding that is estimated to be 450 m wide and 200 m long. Extensive damage has been caused to roads and buildings within the town. Remediation work has resulted largely in the stabilization of the landslide complex. Detailed geomorphological mapping has revealed that the landslide complex is composed of two main components. The first, immediately upslope of the hotel construction site, is a relatively shallow earthflow. The second, which has formed a large headscarp upslope from the main road in the centre of the town, is a deeper translational slide. Both appear to have been reactivations of previous failures. While the displacement patterns of the earthflow indicate a relatively simple downslope movement, the vectors derived from kinematic analysis of surface features have indicated that the movement of the deeper

  2. Post-stroke Movement Disorders: Clinical Manifestations and Pharmacological Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Gallelli, Luca; Labate, Angelo; Malferrari, Giovanni; Palleria, Caterina; Sarro, Giovambattista De

    2012-09-01

    Involuntary abnormal movements have been reported after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Post stroke movement disorders can appear as acute or delayed sequel. At the moment, for many of these disorders the knowledge of pharmacological treatment is still inadequate. Dopaminergic and GABAergic systems may be mainly involved in post-stroke movement disorders. This article provides a review on drugs commonly used in post-stroke movement disorders, given that some post-stroke movement disorders have shown a partial benefit with pharmacological approach.

  3. Post-stroke Movement Disorders: Clinical Manifestations and Pharmacological Management

    OpenAIRE

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Gallelli, Luca; Labate, Angelo; Malferrari, Giovanni; Palleria, Caterina; Sarro, Giovambattista De

    2012-01-01

    Involuntary abnormal movements have been reported after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Post stroke movement disorders can appear as acute or delayed sequel. At the moment, for many of these disorders the knowledge of pharmacological treatment is still inadequate. Dopaminergic and GABAergic systems may be mainly involved in post-stroke movement disorders. This article provides a review on drugs commonly used in post-stroke movement disorders, given that some post-stroke movement disorders ...

  4. The Syrian Movement into Upstate New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Stewart G.

    1979-01-01

    Factors associated with the chosen occupation (door to door peddling) of many Syrians account for the initial movement of Syrians into and throughout New York State in the early 1900s. Variations in Syrian population density are explained in this article. (Author/GC)

  5. Sensory modulation of movement, posture and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saradjian, A H

    2015-11-01

    During voluntary movement, there exists a well known functional sensory attenuation of afferent inputs, which allows us to discriminate between information related to our own movements and those arising from the external environment. This attenuation or 'gating' prevents some signals from interfering with movement elaboration and production. However, there are situations in which certain task-relevant sensory inputs may not be gated. This review begins by identifying the prevalent findings in the literature with specific regard to the somatosensory modality, and reviews the many cases of classical sensory gating phenomenon accompanying voluntary movement and their neural basis. This review also focuses on the newer axes of research that demonstrate that task-specific sensory information may be disinhibited or even facilitated during engagement in voluntary actions. Finally, a particular emphasis will be placed on postural and/or locomotor tasks involving strong somatosensory demands, especially for the setting of the anticipatory postural adjustments observed prior the initiation of locomotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The phenomenology of the movement economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2015-01-01

    The theory of cities as movement economies constitutes a the¬oretical cornerstone of the space syntax paradigm, and the urban morphology literature offers considerable empirical evidence to support the theory’s key proposition that spatial accessibility correlates with economic land use values...

  7. Analyzing animal movements using Brownian bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Jon S; Garton, Edward O; Krone, Stephen M; Lewis, Jesse S

    2007-09-01

    By studying animal movements, researchers can gain insight into many of the ecological characteristics and processes important for understanding population-level dynamics. We developed a Brownian bridge movement model (BBMM) for estimating the expected movement path of an animal, using discrete location data obtained at relatively short time intervals. The BBMM is based on the properties of a conditional random walk between successive pairs of locations, dependent on the time between locations, the distance between locations, and the Brownian motion variance that is related to the animal's mobility. We describe two critical developments that enable widespread use of the BBMM, including a derivation of the model when location data are measured with error and a maximum likelihood approach for estimating the Brownian motion variance. After the BBMM is fitted to location data, an estimate of the animal's probability of occurrence can be generated for an area during the time of observation. To illustrate potential applications, we provide three examples: estimating animal home ranges, estimating animal migration routes, and evaluating the influence of fine-scale resource selection on animal movement patterns.

  8. Unifying the Algebra for All Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Colleen M.; Quebec Fuentes, Sarah; Ward, Elizabeth K.; Parker, Yolanda A.; Cooper, Sandi; Jasper, William A.; Mallam, Winifred A.; Sorto, M. Alejandra; Wilkerson, Trena L.

    2015-01-01

    There exists an increased focus on school mathematics, especially first-year algebra, due to recent efforts for all students to be college and career ready. In addition, there are calls, policies, and legislation advocating for all students to study algebra epitomized by four rationales of the "Algebra for All" movement. In light of this…

  9. Analysis of EEG Related Saccadic Eye Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funase, Arao; Kuno, Yoshiaki; Okuma, Shigeru; Yagi, Tohru

    Our final goal is to establish the model for saccadic eye movement that connects the saccade and the electroencephalogram(EEG). As the first step toward this goal, we recorded and analyzed the saccade-related EEG. In the study recorded in this paper, we tried detecting a certain EEG that is peculiar to the eye movement. In these experiments, each subject was instructed to point their eyes toward visual targets (LEDs) or the direction of the sound sources (buzzers). In the control cases, the EEG was recorded in the case of no eye movemens. As results, in the visual experiments, we found that the potential of EEG changed sharply on the occipital lobe just before eye movement. Furthermore, in the case of the auditory experiments, similar results were observed. In the case of the visual experiments and auditory experiments without eye movement, we could not observed the EEG changed sharply. Moreover, when the subject moved his/her eyes toward a right-side target, a change in EEG potential was found on the right occipital lobe. On the contrary, when the subject moved his/her eyes toward a left-side target, a sharp change in EEG potential was found on the left occipital lobe.

  10. Constraint-induced movement therapy after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, G.; Veerbeek, J.M.; van Wegen, E.E.H.; Wolf, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) was developed to overcome upper limb impairments after stroke and is the most investigated intervention for the rehabilitation of patients. Original CIMT includes constraining of the non-paretic arm and task-oriented training. Modified versions also apply

  11. Age effect on orthodontic tooth movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of age on the efficiency of orthodontic tooth movement based on critical literature reviews, studies on a standardized orthodontic animal model and a non-invasive clinical investigation. A systematic review was performed on the optimum force for

  12. Distribution and movement of scalloped hammerhead Sphryna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Western Cape, Southern Cape and Eastern Cape, few sharks were tagged during the autumn/winter months, whereas in KwaZulu-Natal and Transkei sharks were tagged throughout the year. Large-scale directional movements observed may have been migrations in response to seasonal sea surface temperature ...

  13. Otolith dysfunction alters exploratory movement in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Philip A; Cherep, Lucia A; Donaldson, Tia N; Brockman, Sarah N; Trainer, Alexandria D; Yoder, Ryan M; Wallace, Douglas G

    2017-05-15

    The organization of rodent exploratory behavior appears to depend on self-movement cue processing. As of yet, however, no studies have directly examined the vestibular system's contribution to the organization of exploratory movement. The current study sequentially segmented open field behavior into progressions and stops in order to characterize differences in movement organization between control and otoconia-deficient tilted mice under conditions with and without access to visual cues. Under completely dark conditions, tilted mice exhibited similar distance traveled and stop times overall, but had significantly more circuitous progressions, larger changes in heading between progressions, and less stable clustering of home bases, relative to control mice. In light conditions, control and tilted mice were similar on all measures except for the change in heading between progressions. This pattern of results is consistent with otoconia-deficient tilted mice using visual cues to compensate for impaired self-movement cue processing. This work provides the first empirical evidence that signals from the otolithic organs mediate the organization of exploratory behavior, based on a novel assessment of spatial orientation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling animal movements using stochastic differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Alan A. Ager; Bruce K. Johnson; John G. Kie

    2004-01-01

    We describe the use of bivariate stochastic differential equations (SDE) for modeling movements of 216 radiocollared female Rocky Mountain elk at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in northeastern Oregon. Spatially and temporally explicit vector fields were estimated using approximating difference equations and nonparametric regression techniques. Estimated...

  15. Looking for children's experiences in movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendler Nielsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is to give insights into how videography and phenomenological philosophy and methods (GENDLIN, 1997; TODRES, 2007; SHEETS-JOHNSTONE, 1999; VAN MANEN, 1990) are used in combination to explore how embodied learning as a phenomenon can be understood in dance and movement...

  16. 32 CFR 636.23 - Turning movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL... movements. (a) U-turns are prohibited on all streets in the cantonment area. (b) Right-turns will be made from a position as close to the right edge or right curb of the roadway as possible. (c) Left-turns...

  17. Electric demand and the antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The author feels that, with electric demand growth of 4.5 to 5% per year expected, it will be only a matter of time before stepping-up the stream of utility capacity additions becomes an important issue. If demand grows 4.5% per year instead of 2.8% as projected by NERC, demand will be 10% higher and peak reserve margins about 12 percentage points lower than envisioned by the NERC projections after five years. By 1988 or 1989, little or no excess capacity will remain, and the utilities will be faced with adding twice as much capacity annually as now planned to avoid service deterioration. As questions about the adequacy of current utility capacity plans and concerns about service quality move toward center stage, the antinuclear movement should find it increasingly difficult to garner the broad support it now enjoys. Capacity represented by any uncompleted nuclear plants will appear increasingly beneficial, and those who do not have strong antinuclear sentiments should become increasingly hesitant about lending support to the movement. Accordingly, electric demand growth in due course can be expected to drain marginal supporters from the antinuclear movement and thereby erode the movement's vitality

  18. Neuroplasticity in Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, Jakob; Near, Jamie; Næss-Schmidt, Erhard

    2014-01-01

    In healthy subjects, decreasing GABA facilitates motor learning[1]. Recent studies, using PET[2], TMS[3-5], and pharmacological challenges[6], have pointed indirectly to a decrease in neuronal inhibitory activity after stroke. Therefore, we hypothesize that a suppression of GABA levels post strok...... might be beneficial to motor recovery during Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT)....

  19. The role of a movement disorders clinic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yssel, J

    2012-02-01

    Ireland\\'s ageing population will result in a substantial increase in neurodegenerative disease with a projected increase in prevalence of Idiopathic Parkinson\\'s disease (IPD) to 9,000 by 2021. There are few published audits of neurology services to assist care planning. As a first step towards evaluating future service needs for this group of patients, we audited a single tertiary referral IPD and Other Movement Disorders clinic for 2006. A total of 497 patients from all counties in Ireland were seen; 225 (59%) of patients had IPD, 32 (8.2%) had atypical parkinsonism, and 22 (5.8%) dystonia. In a subset of 275 patients, 151 (55%) were referred by GPs, 74 (27%) by other consultants, and 49 (18%) by other consultant neurologists. Diagnosis was changed in 22 (38%) and medication was adjusted in 203 (74%). A telephone survey of 50 patients demonstrated 100% satisfaction with the improved access to the clinical nurse specialist, telephone support and improved continuity of care. The IPD and Other Movement Disorders clinic provides an important local, regional, and national diagnostic and therapeutic service for complex movement disorders. It is proposed that a national registry of IPD and audit of the delivery of care to patients with movement disorders is needed.

  20. Dance/Movement Therapy. A Healing Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Fran J.

    This book examines the field of dance therapy from its inception in the 1940's to the present. A detailed analysis is conducted of the theory and practice of the major pioneers. The book covers biographical reports and the influence of many dance therapy leaders. Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) is discussed as well as dance therapy in specific…

  1. Bodies in Movement in Public Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the sensorial and conceptual perception of space and time, in an urbanity defined by urban life and urban form in movement and flux. Particularly regarding what public spaces and domains can be in contemporary societies and how these can be designed and developed....

  2. Endpoints of arm movements to visual targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dobbelsteen, John; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2001-01-01

    Reaching out for objects with an unseen arm involves using both visual and kinesthetic information. Neither visual nor kinesthetic information is perfect. Each is subject to both constant and variable errors. To evaluate how such errors influence performance in natural goal-directed movements, we

  3. Manuscript of Marc Popovski about Tolstoyan movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolupaev Vladimir Evgen'yevich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Publication of archival documents, i.e. manuscripts of Marc Popovski, a famous writer, journalist, human rights activist, dissident, and vice president of the organization “Writers in Exile” American branch of PEN. The manuscript is dedicated to the fate of Russian religious philosophical sect, Tolstoyan movement, in the Soviet period, its repressions and its eventual destruction.

  4. Movement and Dance on the Sea Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Mary Arnold

    1985-01-01

    Describes the role of movement and dance in the lives of Blacks living on the Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia. Claims that the isolation of this area helps preserve its Africanicity and culture. Focuses particularly on the uses of rhythmic chanting in worship and in children's games. (KH)

  5. Identifying Typical Movements Among Indoor Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura; Sabonis, Dovydas; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile computing, positioning systems are becoming available that enable indoor location-based services. As a result, indoor tracking data is also becoming available. This paper puts focus on one use of such data, namely the identification of typical movement patterns...

  6. The Relationship Between Postural and Movement Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Anatol G

    2016-01-01

    Postural stabilization is provided by stretch reflexes, intermuscular reflexes, and intrinsic muscle properties. Taken together, these posture-stabilizing mechanisms resist deflections from the posture at which balance of muscle and external forces is maintained. Empirical findings suggest that for each muscle, these mechanisms become functional at a specific, spatial threshold-the muscle length or respective joint angle at which motor units begin to be recruited. Empirical data suggest that spinal and supraspinal centers can shift the spatial thresholds for a group of muscles that stabilized the initial posture. As a consequence, the same stabilizing mechanisms, instead of resisting motion from the initial posture, drive the body to another stable posture. In other words by shifting spatial thresholds, the nervous system converts movement resisting to movement-producing mechanisms. It is illustrated that, contrary to conventional view, this control strategy allows the system to transfer body balance to produce locomotion and other actions without loosing stability at any point of them. It also helps orient posture and movement with the direction of gravity. It is concluded that postural and movement stability is provided by a common mechanism.

  7. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Jennum, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of REM sleep and related electromyographic atonia with marked muscular activity and dream enactment behaviour. RBD is seen in 0.5% of the population. It occurs in an idiopathic form and secondarily to medical...

  8. Fundamental Movement Skills: An Important Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Stodden, David; Cohen, Kristen E.; Smith, Jordan J.; Lubans, David Revalds; Lenoir, Matthieu; Iivonen, Susanna; Miller, Andrew D.; Laukkanen, Arto; Dudley, Dean; Lander, Natalie J.; Brown, Helen; Morgan, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recent international conference presentations have critiqued the promotion of fundamental movement skills (FMS) as a primary pedagogical focus. Presenters have called for a debate about the importance of, and rationale for teaching FMS, and this letter is a response to that call. The authors of this letter are academics who actively…

  9. Woman Suffrage Movement: 1848-1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Bonnie

    This unit is designed to be used in a history or government class in grades 5-12. It introduces students to individuals, organizations, and the political processes of the women's suffrage movement. In addition, the guide links past women's organizations to today's womens organizations, and helps students understand political strategies used in…

  10. Bruxism in Movement Disorders: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ella, Bruno; Ghorayeb, Imad; Burbaud, Pierre; Guehl, Dominique

    2017-10-01

    Bruxism is an abnormal repetitive movement disorder characterized by jaw clenching and tooth gnashing or grinding. It is classified into two overlapping types: awake bruxism (AB) and sleep bruxism (SB). Theories on factors causing bruxism are a matter of controversy, but a line of evidence suggests that it may to some extent be linked to basal ganglia dysfunction although so far, this topic has received little attention. The purpose of this article was to review cases of bruxism reported in various movement disorders. The biomedical literature was searched for publications reporting the association of bruxism with various types of movement disorders. As a whole, very few series were found, and most papers corresponded to clinical reports. In Parkinsonian syndromes, AB was rarely reported, but seems to be exacerbated by medical treatment, whereas SB is mainly observed during non-REM sleep, as in restless leg syndrome. AB is occasionally reported in Huntington's disease, primary dystonia, and secondary dystonia; however, its highest incidence and severity is reported in syndromes combining stereotypies and cognitive impairment, such as Rett's syndrome (97%), Down syndrome (42%), and autistic spectrum disorders (32%). Taken as a whole, AB seems to be more frequent in hyperkinetic movement disorders, notably those with stereotypies, and is influenced by anxiety, suggesting an involvement of the limbic part of the basal ganglia in its pathophysiology. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. Learning rational temporal eye movement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David; Rothkopf, Constantin A

    2016-07-19

    During active behavior humans redirect their gaze several times every second within the visual environment. Where we look within static images is highly efficient, as quantified by computational models of human gaze shifts in visual search and face recognition tasks. However, when we shift gaze is mostly unknown despite its fundamental importance for survival in a dynamic world. It has been suggested that during naturalistic visuomotor behavior gaze deployment is coordinated with task-relevant events, often predictive of future events, and studies in sportsmen suggest that timing of eye movements is learned. Here we establish that humans efficiently learn to adjust the timing of eye movements in response to environmental regularities when monitoring locations in the visual scene to detect probabilistically occurring events. To detect the events humans adopt strategies that can be understood through a computational model that includes perceptual and acting uncertainties, a minimal processing time, and, crucially, the intrinsic costs of gaze behavior. Thus, subjects traded off event detection rate with behavioral costs of carrying out eye movements. Remarkably, based on this rational bounded actor model the time course of learning the gaze strategies is fully explained by an optimal Bayesian learner with humans' characteristic uncertainty in time estimation, the well-known scalar law of biological timing. Taken together, these findings establish that the human visual system is highly efficient in learning temporal regularities in the environment and that it can use these regularities to control the timing of eye movements to detect behaviorally relevant events.

  12. The Multicultural Movement and Its Euphemisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Thomas K.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses educational implications of the multicultural movement, highlighting: relativism versus anti-relativism; consequences of institutionalizing differences; implications of confusing culture with identity; tensions involved in cultural identification; African Americans as an example of race, class, and education; the neglected variable of…

  13. Reasons for Implementing Movement in Kinetic Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudzik, Jan; Nyka, Lucyna

    2017-10-01

    The paper gives insights into different forms of movement in contemporary architecture and examines them based on the reasons for their implementation. The main objective of the paper is to determine: the degree to which the complexity of kinematic architecture results from functional and spatial needs and what other motivations there are. The method adopted to investigate these questions involves theoretical studies and comparative analyses of architectural objects with different forms of movement imbedded in their structure. Using both methods allowed delving into reasons that lie behind the implementation of movement in contemporary kinetic architecture. As research shows, there is a constantly growing range of applications with kinematic solutions inserted in buildings’ structures. The reasons for their implementation are manifold and encompass pursuits of functional qualities, environmental performance, spatial effects, social interactions and new aesthetics. In those early projects based on simple mechanisms, the main motives were focused on functional values and in later experiments - on improving buildings’ environmental performance. Additionally, in recent proposals, a significant quest could be detected toward kinematic solutions that are focused on factors related to alternative aesthetics and innovative spatial effects. Research reveals that the more complicated form of movement, the more often the reason for its implementation goes beyond the traditionally understood “function”. However, research also shows that the effects resulting from investigations on spatial qualities of architecture and new aesthetics often appear to provide creative insights into new functionalities in architecture.

  14. The Temperance Movement and Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdach, Allison D.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines a forgotten episode in social work history: the involvement of the profession in the temperance movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Though some notable social workers such as Jane Addams, Robert A. Woods, and Representative Jeannette Rankin (the first woman elected to the U.S. Congress), championed the…

  15. Eye Movements and Visual Search: A Bibliography,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    duration and velocity. Neurology, 1975, 25, 1065-1070. EYM, SAC 40 Bard, C.; Fleury, M.; Carriere, L.; Halle, M. Analysis of Gymnastics Judges’ Visual...Nodine, C.F.; Carmody, D.P.; Herman, E. Eye Movements During Search for Artistically Embedded Targets. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1979, 13

  16. Movement of unlined landfill under preloading surcharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yaqout, Anwar F; Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2007-01-01

    As organic solid waste is decomposed in a landfill and mass is lost due to gas and leachate formation, the landfill settles. Settlement of a landfill interferes with the rehabilitation and subsequent use of the landfill site after closure. This study examined the soil/solid waste movement at the Al-Qurain landfill in Kuwait after 15 years of closure as plans are underway for redevelopment of the landfill site that occupies about a km(2) with an average depth of 8-15m. Field experiments were conducted for 6 mo to measure soil/solid waste movement and water behavior within the landfill using two settlement plates with a level survey access, Casagrande-type piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, and magnetic probe extensometers. Previous results obtained indicated that biological decomposition of refuse continued after closure of the landfill site. The subsurface water rise enhanced the biological activities, which resulted in the production of increasing quantities of landfill gas. The refuse fill materials recorded a high movement rate under the imposed preloading as a result of an increase in the stress state. Up to 55% of the total movement was observed during the first 2 weeks of fill placement and increased to 80% within the first month of the 6-mo preloading test. Pneumatic piezometers showed an increase in water head, which is attributed to the developed pressure of gases escaping during the preloading period.

  17. Fish movement in an Atlantic Forest stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Mazzoni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Given the importance of fish movement to the dynamics and maintenance of stream dwelling fish communities from the Atlantic Forest, we analysed patterns of fish movement in a coastal stream from Southeastern Brazil, using mark-recapture technique. Displacement distance of each species were presented and discussed considering seasonal (rainy and dry and body size patterns. We marked 10 species along the stream and recaptured 440 (34.6% of the 1,270 marked fishes. The species with significant number of upstream moving individuals were Astyanax janeiroensis, Characidium interruptum, Astyanax hastatus, Parotocinclus maculicauda and Awaous tajasica. Only Pimelodella lateristriga presented significant differences between resident and moving individuals. Characidium interruptum and A. tajasica demonstrated greater downstream and upstream movement, respectively, moving up to 2,100 m. Even after controlling for species identity we found no significant correlation between fish length and individual displacement distance. Fishes moved longer distances during the rainy season, in accordance to the breeding season. Patterns of fish movement were in agreement to life-history traits of many of the studied species and can be reflecting specific behaviour and morphologies.

  18. Perceptual grouping effects on cursor movement expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneich, Michael C; Hamblin, Christopher J; Lancaster, Jeff A; Olofinboba, Olu

    2014-05-01

    Two studies were conducted to develop an understanding of factors that drive user expectations when navigating between discrete elements on a display via a limited degree-of-freedom cursor control device. For the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle spacecraft, a free-floating cursor with a graphical user interface (GUI) would require an unachievable level of accuracy due to expected acceleration and vibration conditions during dynamic phases of flight. Therefore, Orion program proposed using a "caged" cursor to "jump" from one controllable element (node) on the GUI to another. However, nodes are not likely to be arranged on a rectilinear grid, and so movements between nodes are not obvious. Proximity between nodes, direction of nodes relative to each other, and context features may all contribute to user cursor movement expectations. In an initial study, we examined user expectations based on the nodes themselves. In a second study, we examined the effect of context features on user expectations. The studies established that perceptual grouping effects influence expectations to varying degrees. Based on these results, a simple rule set was developed to support users in building a straightforward mental model that closely matches their natural expectations for cursor movement. The results will help designers of display formats take advantage of the natural context-driven cursor movement expectations of users to reduce navigation errors, increase usability, and decrease access time. The rules set and guidelines tie theory to practice and can be applied in environments where vibration or acceleration are significant, including spacecraft, aircraft, and automobiles.

  19. Movement behaviour of alien largemouth bass Micropterus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The movement behaviour of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in the estuarine headwater region of the Kowie River, South Africa, was investigated using passive acoustic telemetry. Ten adult fish were tagged and released in four discrete pools below a weir that precluded possible upriver migration. Their residency ...

  20. Movement Interference in Autism-Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, E.; Stanley, J.; Miall, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    Movement interference occurs when concurrently observing and executing incompatible actions and is believed to be due to co-activation of conflicting populations of mirror neurons. It has also been suggested that mirror neurons contribute towards the imitation of observed actions. However, the exact neural substrate of imitation may depend on task…