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Sample records for mouthwashes

  1. Can Alcohol Intake from Mouthwash be Measured in Epidemiological Studies? Development and Validation of Mouthwash Use Questionnaire with Particular Attention to Measuring Alcohol Intake from Mouthwash

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    Tanja Wirth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the mouthwash use questionnaire to determine the lifetime exposure to alcohol from mouthwash and verify that it was suitable for use in general population.Material and Methods: Data were available from three consecutive studies, all collecting information on mouthwash use. In addition, supermarkets and online stores were screened for the brands of mouthwash they sold. Alcohol content of mouthwash was identified from various sources, including laboratory measurements. Alcohol-containing mouthwash use was converted to glasses of wine equivalent.Results: Mouthwash was used by 62% of the participants, and the main benefits reported were refreshment of bad breath (75%, elimination of bacteria (68% and reduction of plaque formation (47%. Majority mouthwashes used by the participants contained alcohol (61%. Life-time exposure from alcohol in mouthwash was relatively small for most of the study participants: 79% had rinsed for less than one year with alcohol equivalent of one glass of wine per day. There was substantial agreement in mouthwash reporting between different occasions (Kappa > 0.62.Conclusions: The questionnaire can be used to investigate mouthwash use in the general population and to measure alcohol intake from mouthwash.

  2. Antiseptic mouthwashes: in vitro antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Evandro; Nascimento, Andresa P; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane M; Razaboni, Ana M; de Andrade, Denise; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Mouthwashes are used as an adjunct to tooth brushing for improving breath and preventing oral diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro Maximum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) of 3 mouthwashes with different active ingredients against mutans streptococci (MS). The products analyzed were Periogard®, Cepacol® and Plax® Fresh Mint. Their antibacterial activity was assessed in duplicate in 96-well microtiter plates against 36 clinical isolates of MS. Each mouthwash was submitted to a serial two-fold dilution (1/2.5 to 1/5120) using double concentration of Tryptose Soy Broth with 1.0% yeast extract. The final volume in each well was 100 mL plus 5 mL of a bacterial suspension, equivalent to 107 CFU/mL. They were incubated microaerobically at 37 °C for 48 hours and the MIDs determined. MID was 1/320 for Periogard® and Cepacol®, and 1/20 for PlaxR® Statistical analysis revealed that the MID of Periogard® MID did not differ from that of Cepacol® (p>0.05), and was higher than that of Plax® (pantiseptic mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine (Periogard®) and cetylpyridinium chloride (Cepacol®) had higher in vitroantibacterial activity (MID) against MS than the antiseptic mouthwash containing triclosan (Plax®), according to microbiological method employed.

  3. Development of mouthwash with Rosmarinus officinalis extract

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    Isabela Moreira Baumgratz de Paula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rosmarinus officinalis, which belongs to the Lamiaceaefamily, is a species of medicinal flora with therapeutic properties. In order to exploit the benefits of these properties, a mouthwash formulation was developed, with careful selection of raw materials to meet pharmacotechnical requirements. Extracts of the plant were incorporated into a mouthwash, which was shown to have inhibitory action in vitro against the micro-organisms commonly found in periodontics. Controls for assessing the quality of the drugs were carried out, quantifying phenols and flavonoids as chemical markers. Mouthwash solutions were formulated containing 0.1, 5 and 10% ethanol extract of R. officinalis; and 0.05, 5 and 10% of the hexane fraction of R. officinalis. In order to evaluate synergism, ethanol extract and hexane fraction were also added to formulations containing 0.05% sodium fluoride and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. These formulations were assessed for inhibitory effect against the specific microorganisms involved in the process of bacterial plaque formation, S. mutans(ATCC25175 and C. albicans(ATCC 10231, frequently found in cases of oral infections. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the inhibitory activity of extracts and formulations. All mouthwash solutions displayed inhibitory activity having higher sensitivity to S. mutansfor the 5% ethanol extract+0.05% sodium fluoride, and greater sensitivity to C. albicansfor the 10% hexane fraction. Results were characterized by the appearance of a growth inhibition halo, justifying the utilization and association of extracts of R. officinalis.

  4. Reliability of organic mouthwash in comparison to chlorhexidine mouthwash on Streptococcus mutans in early phase of orthodontic treatment

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    Nitish Abrol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that there are no differences in Streptococcus mutans count in the early phase of orthodontic treatment between organic and chlorhexidine mouthwash. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients were divided into two groups: Group I: Organic mouthwash and Group II: Chlorhexidine mouthwash. The gingival index (GI, plaque index (PI, gingival bleeding index, pocket depths, and level of S. mutans counts were calculated at the different intervals of time. Paired t-test in SPSS software was used for statistical evaluations. Results: There was a significant difference in the values of GI, PI, gingival bleeding index, and pocket depth as well as in the level of streptococcal count (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Null hypothesis is rejected. This study indicates that organic mouthwash showed the lesser level of S. mutans count as compared to chlorhexidine mouthwash hence it is recommended to use organic mouthwash.

  5. Evaluation of Anticaries Activity of Selected Mouthwash Marketed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anticaries evaluation revealed that 0.047 % thymol in ethanol displayed the highest degree of anticaries activity against all the Streptococcal species tested. Incorporation of preservatives in mouthwashes may adversely affect their anticaries activity as indicated by the fact that the preserved mouthwash exhibited lower ...

  6. Efficacy of Mouthwashes Containing Hydrogen Peroxide on Tooth Whitening

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    Muhammet Karadas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of mouthwashes containing hydrogen peroxide compared with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP gel. Fifty enamel-dentin samples were obtained from bovine incisors and then stained in a tea solution. The stained samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the whitening product applied (n=10: AS: no whitening (negative control, with the samples stored in artificial saliva; CR: Crest 3D White mouthwash; LS: Listerine Whitening mouthwash; SC: Scope White mouthwash; and OP group: 10% CP Opalescence PF (positive control. Color measurements were carried out with a spectrophotometer before staining, after staining, and on the 7th, 28th, and 56th day of the whitening period. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance followed by a Tukey post hoc test. The color change (ΔE was significantly greater in all the groups compared to that of the AS group. After 56 days, no significant differences were found among the mouthwash products with respect to color change (P>0.05. The whiteness of the teeth treated with the mouthwashes increased significantly over time. Nevertheless, the color change achieved with the mouthwashes was significantly lower than that achieved with the 10% CP at-home bleaching gel.

  7. Efficacy of Mouthwashes Containing Hydrogen Peroxide on Tooth Whitening

    OpenAIRE

    Karadas, Muhammet; Hatipoglu, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of mouthwashes containing hydrogen peroxide compared with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel. Fifty enamel-dentin samples were obtained from bovine incisors and then stained in a tea solution. The stained samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the whitening product applied (n = 10): AS: no whitening (negative control), with the samples stored in artificial saliva; CR: Crest 3D White mouthwash; LS: Listerine Whitening mouthwas...

  8. Effect of two mouthwashes on salivary ph.

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    Belardinelli, Paola A; Morelatto, Rosana A; Benavidez, Tomás E; Baruzzi, Ana M; López de Blanc, Silvia A

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effect of two mouthwashes on salivary pH and correlate it with age, buffer capacity and saliva flow rate in healthy volunteers, a crossover phase IV clinical study involving three age-based groups was designed. Two commercial mouthwashes (MW), Cool Mint ListerineR (MWa) and Periobacter R (MWb) were used. The unstimulated saliva of each individual was first characterized by measuring flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. Salivary pH was evaluated before rinsing with a given MW, immediately after rinsing, 5 minutes later, and then every 10 min (at 15, 25, 35 min) until the baseline pH was recovered. Paired t-test, ANOVA with a randomized block design, and Pearson correlation tests were used. Averages were 0.63 mL/min, 7.06, and 0.87 for flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity, respectively. An immediate significant increase in salivary pH was observed after rinsing, reaching average values of 7.24 (MWb) and 7.30 (MWa), which declined to an almost stable value 15 minutes. The great increase in salivary pH, after MW use shows that saliva is a dynamic system, and that the organism is capable of responding to a stimulus with changes in its composition. It is thus evident that pH of the external agent alone is not a good indicator for its erosive potential because biological systems tend to neutralize it. The results of this study enhance the importance of in vivo measurements and reinforce the concept of the protective action of saliva.

  9. Can Chemical Mouthwash Agents Achieve Plaque/Gingivitis Control?

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    Van der Weijden, Fridus A; Van der Sluijs, Eveline; Ciancio, Sebastian G; Slot, Dagmar E

    2015-10-01

    Also note that structured abstracts are not allowed per journal style: What is the effect of a mouthwash containing various active chemical ingredients on plaque control and managing gingivitis in adults based on evidence gathered from existing systematic reviews? The summarized evidence suggests that mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine(CHX) and essential oils (EO) had a large effect supported by a strong body of evidence. Also there was strong evidence for a moderate effect of cetylpyridinium chloride(CPC). Evidence suggests that a CHX mouthwash is the first choice, the most reliable alternative is EO. No difference between CHX and EO with respect to gingivitis was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antiseptic mouthwashes could worsen xerostomia in patients taking polypharmacy.

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    Chevalier, Marlene; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Precheur, Isabelle; Lamure, Julie; Pouyssegur-Rougier, Valerie

    2015-05-01

    Polypharmacy is a common cause of xerostomia. This study aimed to investigate whether xerostomia could be an adverse drug event of mouthwashes, when they are used for longer than 2 weeks by patients taking polypharmacy. This cross-sectional observational study included 120 hospitalized patients (60 middle-aged and 60 elderly patients), taking polypharmacy (≥4 drugs daily) and at risk of drug-induced xerostomia. Xerostomia was assessed by questioning participants. A total of 62.5% of patients complained of xerostomia. In the middle-aged group (mean age=44.0 (8.7) years; 35.0% women) xerostomia seemed independently associated to mouthwashes, at the limit of significance (OR=5.00, 95% CI=0.99-25.3, p=0.052). Active principles in mouthwashes were mainly quaternary ammonium compounds (91.9%). Mouthwashes may disturb the healthy balance of the biofilm moisturizing the oral mucosa. The biofilm contains mucins, salivary glycoproteins with oligosaccharides side chains able to sequester water and endogenous bacteria surrounded by a glycocalyx. Oral bacteria are fully susceptible to quaternary ammonium (chlorhexidine, hexetidine, cetylpyridinium chloride) and to other antiseptics used in mouthwashes, such as betain, resorcin, triclosan, essential oils and alcohol. However, caregivers currently recommend such dental plaque control products to patients suffering from xerostomia in order to reduce the risk of caries and periodontitis. This study is the first report that use of antiseptic mouthwashes for more than 2 weeks could worsen xerostomia in patients taking polypharmacy. Oral care protocols should avoid this iatrogenic practice, particularly when xerostomia alters the quality-of-life and worsens malnutrition.

  11. Can chemical mouthwash agents achieve plaque/gingivitis control?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weijden, F.A.; Van der Sluijs, E.; Ciancio, S.G.; Slot, D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Key points • Oral health is important since the mouth is the gateway to the human body. Bacteria are always present in the oral cavity and when not frequently removed the dental plaque biofilm leads to the development of oral disease. • Over the past decades, the use of mouthwashes has become

  12. Preliminary Antiplaque Efficacy of Aloe Vera Mouthwash on 4 Day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Due to increasing resistance to antibiotics and rising incidence of oral diseases, there is a need for alternative treatment modalities to combat oral diseases. The aim of the present study was to access the effect of Aloe vera mouthwash on the dental plaque in the experimental period of 4 days and to compare it ...

  13. In vivo antimicrobial inhibition of Punica granatum extracts as mouthwash

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    Dhifaf M. Al-Obaidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background — Complex polysaccharides have been detected and characterized in Punica granatum or pomegranate constituents who may act as fungal and bacterial inhibitor as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. However, limited studies were reported on using pomegranate extracts as an anti-bacterial mouthwash. Objectives — To determine the effect of Punica granatum (pomegranate extract on microbial activity of some bacterial genus isolated from the mouth. Material and Methods — This study included preparation of three different concentrations of Punica granatum methanolic extract of 25%, 50%, and 75%. The inhibition activity of these extracts was tested on different strains such as Sm, Sa, Ec, Kp, Sg and Sf. Results — Results exhibited an effective inhibition of pomegranate extracts against most of the tested strains which were isolated from patients' mouths. The 50% and 75% concentrations of methanolic extract exhibited significant inhibition against four tested strains compared to mouthwash (P≤0.05, while the 25% concentration was less effective than the other concentrations and its antibacterial effect was non-significant in comparison with the mouthwash. Conclusions — This study indicates the inhibitory effectiveness of Punica granatum extracts of high percentage on microbial activity of some bacterial genus isolated from patients’ mouths and suggests the possibility prepare a mouthwash from pomegranate extract.

  14. The effect of diclofenac mouthwash on periodontal postoperative pain

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    Jaber Yaghini

    2011-01-01

    After the operation in addition to ibuprofen 400 mg, one quadrant randomly received Diclofenac mouthwash (0/01% for 30 seconds, 4 times a day (for a week and for the contrary quadrant, ibuprofen and placebo mouthwash was given to be used in the same manner. The patients scored the number of ibuprofen consumption and their pain intensity based on VAS index in a questionnaire in days 1, 2, 3 and the first week after operation. The findings were analysed using two-way ANOVA, t-test and Wilcoxon. P-value less than 0.05 considered to be significant. Results: There was a significant difference between the mean values of pain intensity of two quadrants in four periods (P = 0.031. But, there was no significant difference between the average ibuprofen consumption in two groups (P = 0.51. Postoperative satisfaction was not significantly different in two quadrants (P = 0.059. 60% of patients preferred Diclofenac mouthwash. Conclusion: Diclofenac mouthwash was effective in reducing postoperative periodontal pain but it seems that it isn′t enough to control postoperative pain on its own.

  15. Mouthwash Use in General Population: Results from Adult Dental Health Survey in Grampian, Scotland

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    Kirstin Rhodes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of mouthwash use and to investigate the associated factors in general population.Material and Methods: An Adult Dental Health Survey was conducted on 3,022 residents of Grampian region of Scotland (adjusted participation rate 58.2%. Participants received a questionnaire consisting of questions on oral health and behavioural factors.Results: The majority of participants (38.1% have never used mouthwash, 17.5% used mouthwash less than once a month, 19.4% used mouthwash once every few days and 25.1% used mouthwash daily.Prevalence of use decreased with age (P < 0.001. Woman were more likely to use mouthwash than men (P = 0.004. Mouthwash use decreased with decrease in the level of deprivation (P < 0.001. Never-smokers were less likely to use mouthwash (40.3% compared to smokers (53.1% or those who stopped smoking (46.5% (P < 0.001. Mouthwash was used by smaller proportion of people drinking alcohol on daily basis (36.6%, than by abstainers (42.2% (P = 0.012.There was a positive relationship between flossing or brushing pattern and mouthwash use (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant relationship between mouthwash use and reasons for the last dental visit (P = 0.009.When compared to healthy individuals, mouthwash was used by higher proportion of people reporting that they had gum disease (P = 0.001, ulcers (P = 0.001, oral infections or swelling (P = 0.002 or other problems (P = 0.025.Conclusions: Mouthwash use in general population is associated with socio-demographic, health and behavioural factors.

  16. The Mechanical Behavior Variation of Nickel - Titanium Orthodontic Wires in Different Fluoride Mouthwash

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    Ilnaz haj Hemati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an orthodontic arch wire of Ni-Ti alloy made by Germany in four different mouthwashes contain fluoride was investigated in mechanical behavior. This research focused on the mechanical behavior changes in different mouthwashes. The Mouthwashes were chosen from most popular one in Iran including Oral-B, Gum, and Behsa Mouthwash. The wires after 3 month in touch with mouthwashes were studied and the result was presented. The result show that the lowest power to reshape the wire, is for the wire in Crest case (3. The maximum power assigns to wire in Behsa case (1. Also, the shortest treatment period is for wire in Behsa mouthwash case (1 with 0.087 Nm strain energy and the maximum duration of therapy is related to case (3 Crest mouthwash with 0.039 Nm. Moreover, the wires in Oral-b (0.095 Nm has the lowest and Gum mouthwash (0.140 Nm has the highest energy intake. The energy absorbed by the wires in Behsa and Crest is in the middle. Finally, it is proposed that patient could used all mouthwash but based on their condition, one product will be useful.

  17. Repercussion of noni mouthwash on surface characterization of Nickel-Titanium archwire

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    Dhivya Dilipkumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Maintaining oral hygiene is very important during orthodontic therapy mouthwashes are prescribed as an adjunct to improve patient's oral hygiene. Commercially available mouthwashes e.g. Chlorhexidine, Listerine, fluoride containing mouthwashes have shown to alter the surface characteristics of orthodontic wires. Hence the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of Noni mouthwash on surface quality and compositional changes of Nickel Titanium orthodontic wires. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study pre-formed 0.014 inch NiTi arch wire was used. The study comprised of two samples, one control and one test sample which were 25mm in length. Control sample was stored at room temperature without any manipulation while test sample was immersed in Noni mouthwash solution for 1.5 hours, after which the test specimen was removed from the mouthwash solution and rinsed with distilled water. Both control and test samples were sent for scanning electron microscopy analysis, to qualitatively characterize the topography of the wire surface. Electron dispersion spectrum analysis was done to evaluate the various components of both the wires. Results: No significant difference in the average surface roughness for both wire samples was observed. There was no significant difference seen in the composition of wire after immersion in Noni mouthwash. Conclusion: Noni mouthwash did not have significant influence on the surface roughness or altered the composition of the Ni-Ti wire. Hence Noni mouthwash may be prescribed as a natural, non-destructive prophylactic agent for orthodontic patients.

  18. Use of antifibrinolytic mouthwash solution in anticoagulated oral surgery patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Evrosimovska, Biljana; Papakoca, Kiro; Georgiev, Zlatko; Angelovska, Bistra; Ristoska, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Introduction:The ordinary treatment of anticoagulated patients includes the interruption of anticoagulant therapy for oral surgery interventions to prevent hemorrhage. However, this practice may logically increase the risk of a potentially life-threatening thromboembolism, so this issue is still controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antifibrinolitic mouthwash solution (tranexamic acid) as a local haemostatic modality after oral surgery interventions. Methods:To realize the a...

  19. Triphala, a New Herbal Mouthwash for the Treatment of Gingivitis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

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    Pradeep, A R; Suke, Deepak Kumar; Martande, Santosh S; Singh, Sonender Pal; Nagpal, Kanika; Naik, Savitha B

    2016-11-01

    An antiplaque agent with minimal side effects that can be used as an effective adjunct to mechanical plaque control is needed. The current study is designed to evaluate efficacy of triphala (TRP) mouthwash in reduction of plaque and gingivitis. Ninety individuals with chronic generalized gingivitis were randomly assigned to three groups: 1) group I, placebo mouthwash; 2) group II, TRP mouthwash; and 3) group III, chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash. All individuals were instructed to rinse with their respective mouthwash twice daily. 1) Plaque index (PI); 2) gingival index (GI); 3) oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S); and 4) microbiologic colony counts were recorded at baseline and at 7, 30, and 60 days. All three groups showed gradual reduction in PI, GI, and OHI-S levels from baseline to 7, 30, and 60 days. There was also significant reduction in microbial counts in all groups at all time intervals except in group I. A significant difference was noticed with respect to reduction in PI, GI, OHI-S, and microbiologic counts in group I compared with groups II and III. However, no significant differences were found between groups II and III for any parameters at any time intervals. TRP mouthwash was found to decrease inflammatory parameters from baseline to follow-up intervals. Because improvement in gingivitis was comparable with that of CHX mouthwash, TRP mouthwash can be considered a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of gingivitis.

  20. Effect of fluoride mouthwash on tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires

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    Fatimah, D. I.; Anggani, H. S.; Ismah, N.

    2017-08-01

    Patients with orthodontic treatment are commonly recommended to use a fluoride mouthwash for maintaining their oral hygiene and preventing dental caries. However, fluoride may affect the characteristics of stainless steel orthodontic archwires used during treatment. The effect of fluoride mouthwash on the tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to know the effect of fluoride mouthwash on the tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires. Examine the tensile strength of 0.016 inch stainless steel orthodontic archwires after immersion in 0.05%, 100 ml fluoride mouthwash for 30, 60, and 90 min. There is no statistically significant difference in the tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires after immersed in fluoride mouthwash. The p-values on immersion fluoride mouthwash for 30, 60, and 90 min consecutively are 0.790; 0.742; and 0.085 (p > 0.05). The use of fluoride mouthwash did not have an effect on the tensile strength of stainless Steel orthodontic archwires.

  1. Comparison of the Effect of Combination of Triamcinolone Acetonide and Vitamin A Mouthwash with Triamcinolone Mouthwash Alone on Oral Lichen Planus

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    Zohreh Dalirsani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Lichen planus is a relatively common mucocutaneous disease, with an unknown etiology. There is no complete cure for oral lichen planus (OLP, but some drugs, including corticosteroids, retinoids, cyclosporine and antibiotics are commonly used for treatment of OLP. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of combination of triamcinolone and vitamin A mouthwash with triamcinolone mouthwash alone on OLP. Materials and methods. Twenty OLP patients were randomly divided into two groups of 10. The experimental group was treated with combination of triamcinolone and vitamin A mouthwash and the control group was treated with triamcinolone-containing mouthwash alone. The patients were examined once every two weeks and the lesion size, pain and burning sensation were recorded based on visual analogue scale during a two-month period. Data were analyzed by MannWhitney U test using SPSS software. Results. The use of combination of triamcinolone-vitamin A mouthwash was effective in decreasing the pain and burning sensation of OLP (P = 0.012. Decrease in pain and burning sensation were similar in both groups (P = 0.73. The use of combination of triamcinolone-vitamin A mouthwash led to a decrease in the size of keratotic, atrophic and erosive OLP lesions (P = 0. Decrease in the size of the lesions was significantly greater in the study group compared to the control group (P = 0.029. Conclusion. The use of combination of triamcinolone-vitamin A mouthwash is effective in decreasing the size of keratotic, atrophic or erosive lesions.

  2. The antibacterial effect of four mouthwashes against streptococcus mutans and escherichia coli.

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    Ghapanchi, Janan; Lavaee, Fatemeh; Moattari, Afagh; Shakib, Mahmood

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of several mouthwash concentrations on oral Streptococcus mutans and Escherichia coli. The study was conducted at Shiraz Medicine School in 2011. Serial dilutions of Chlorohexidin, Oral B and Persica and Irsha (2,4,8,16,64,128) were prepared in Muller-Hinton media. Minimum inhibitory concentration was visually determined and defined as the lowest concentration of each oral washing which inhibited > 95% growth reduction compared to the growth control well. Chlorhexidine, Oral B and Irsha mouthwash inhibited Streptococcus mutans even with diluted concentrations. Also, Chlorhexidine and Oral B prohibited Escherichia coli with different potencies. But Persica had no antimicrobial activity against either Escherichia coli or Streptococcus mutans. Chlorhexidine, Irsha, and Oral B mouthwashes can be used for antimicrobial effects, especially on Streptococcus mutans. This chemical activity of mouthwashes is an adjuvant for mechanical removing of plaque. However, the antimicrobial effect of Persicaremains controversial.

  3. Can chlorhexidine mouthwash twice daily ameliorate cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth?

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    Ching-Hwa Gau

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that chlorhexidine mouthwash used twice daily may reduce the severity of CsA-induced gingival overgrowth. Further research is warranted to determine the optimal dose and treatment regimen.

  4. Oil Essential Mouthwashes Antibacterial Activity against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: A Comparison between Antibiofilm and Antiplanktonic Effects

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    Matteo Erriu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine the antibacterial activity of three marketed mouthwashes on suspended and sessile states of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The efficacy of two commonly used products in clinical practice, containing essential oils as active ingredients (menthol, thymol, methyl salicylate, and eucalyptol in association with or without alcohol, has been evaluated in comparison with a chlorhexidine-based mouthwash. The microtiter plate assay, in order to obtain a spectrophotometric measurement of bacterial responses at growing dilutions of each antiseptic, was used for the study. The analysis revealed that a good antibacterial activity is reached when the abovementioned mouthwashes were used at concentration over a 1/24 dilution and after an exposure time of 30 seconds at least. In conclusion, the alcoholic mouthwash appears to have a better biofilm inhibition than its antiplanktonic activity while the nonalcoholic product demonstrates an opposite effect with a better antiplanktonic behavior.

  5. Neutralizing salivary pH by mouthwashes after an acidic challenge.

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    Dehghan, Mojdeh; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Kymer-Davis, Emily; Stewart, Colette W; Zhang, Yanhui H; Versluis, Antheunis; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the neutralizing effect of mouthwashes on salivary pH after an acidic challenge. Twelve participants were recruited for three visits, one morning per week. Resting saliva was collected at baseline and after 2-min swishing with 20 mL orange juice as an acidic challenge. Participants then rinsed their mouth for 30 s with 20 mL water (control), an over-the-counter mouthwash (Listerine), or a two-step mouthwash, randomly assigned for each visit. Saliva was collected immediately, 15, and 45 min after rinsing. The pH values of the collected saliva were measured and analyzed with anova, followed by Student-Newman-Keuls post-hoc test (significance level: 0.05). Orange juice significantly lowered salivary pH. Immediately after rinsing, Listerine and water brought pH back to baseline values, with the pH significantly higher in the Listerine group. The two-step mouthwash raised pH significantly higher than Listerine and water, and higher than the baseline value. Salivary pH returned to baseline and was not significantly different among groups at 15 and 45 min post-rinsing. Mouth rinsing after an acidic challenge increased salivary pH. The tested mouthwashes raised pH higher than water. Mouthwashes with a neutralizing effect can potentially reduce tooth erosion from acid exposure. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Ion release from orthodontic brackets in 3 mouthwashes: an in-vitro study.

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    Danaei, Shahla Momeni; Safavi, Afsaneh; Roeinpeikar, S M Mehdi; Oshagh, Morteza; Iranpour, Shiva; Omidkhoda, Maryam; Omidekhoda, Maryam

    2011-06-01

    Stainless steel orthodontic brackets can release metal ions into the saliva. Fluoridated mouthwashes are often recommended to orthodontic patients to reduce the risk of white-spot lesions around their brackets. However, little information is available regarding the effect of different mouthwashes in ion release of orthodontic brackets. The purpose of this study was to measure the amount of metal ion release from orthodontic brackets when kept in different mouthwashes. One hundred sixty stainless steel brackets (0.022-in, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups and immersed in Oral B (Procter & Gamble, Weybridge, United Kingdom), chlorhexidine (Shahdaru Labratories, Tehran, Iran), and Persica (Poursina Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Tehran, Iran) mouthwashes and distilled deionized water and incubated at 37°C for 45 days. Nickel, chromium, iron, copper, and manganese released from the orthodontic brackets were measured with an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer. For statistical analysis, 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Duncan multiple-range tests were used. The results showed that ion release in deionized water was significantly (P 0.05) in nickel, chromium, iron, and copper ion release in the Oral B and Persica mouthwashes. The level of manganese release was significantly different in all 4 groups. If ion release is a concern, Oral B and Persica mouthwashes might be better options than chlorhexidine for orthodontic patients with stainless steel brackets. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of antiseptic mouthwash on resting metabolic rate: A randomized, double-blind, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Michaela L; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2016-12-30

    The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a significant source of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Dietary intake of inorganic nitrate has a number of cardiovascular effects as well as a decrease in oxygen cost during exercise and a reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR). Oral bacteria have a key role in bioactivation of inorganic nitrate since they catalyse the conversion of salivary nitrate to the more reactive nitrite anion. Recent studies demonstrate that blood pressure increases with the use of an antiseptic mouthwash, indicating that endogenous, NO-synthase derived nitrate is recycled into nitrite and NO, sufficiently to modulate cardiovascular function. Here we tested if also RMR would be affected by an antiseptic mouthwash. Seventeen healthy normotensive female subjects (23 ± 4 y) participated in this randomized, double-blinded, crossover study. During two 3-day periods separated by 28 days the subjects consumed a diet low in nitrate combined with rinsing their mouth three times daily with a chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash (mouthwash) or placebo mouthwash (placebo) with similar taste but no antiseptic properties. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured by indirect calorimetry and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure recordings were obtained after each intervention together with blood, saliva and urine samples. Treatment with chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash effectively reduced oral conversion of nitrate to nitrite but had no effect on plasma levels of these anions or plasma cGMP. RMR and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure were unaffected by the intervention. We conclude that in young healthy females an antiseptic mouthwash was effective in disrupting oral bacterial nitrate conversion to nitrite, but this was not associated with changes in plasma nitrite, RMR or blood pressure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Mouthwash solutions with microencapsuled natural extracts: Efficiency for dental plaque and gingivitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervelle, A; Mouhyi, J; Del Corso, M; Hippolyte, M-P; Sammartino, G; Dohan Ehrenfest, D M

    2010-06-01

    Mouthwash solutions are mainly used for their antiseptic properties. They currently include synthetic agents (chlorhexidine, triclosan, etc.) or essential oils (especially Listerine). Many natural extracts may also be used. These associate both antiseptic effects and direct action on host response, due to their antioxidant, immunoregulatory, analgesic, buffering, or healing properties. The best known are avocado oil, manuka oil, propolis oil, grapefruit seed extract, pycnogenol, aloe vera, Q10 coenzyme, green tea, and megamin. The development of new technologies, such as microencapsulation (GingiNat concept), may allow an in situ slow release of active ingredients during several hours, and open new perspectives for mouthwash solutions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The antibacterial effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis) mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti-Rouy, Maryam; Azarsina, Mohadese; Rezaie-Soufi, Loghman; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Roshanaie, Ghodratollah; Komaki, Samira

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a mouthwash containing Sage (Salvia officinalis) extracts on Streptococcus mutans (SM) causing dental plaque in school-aged children. A double blind clinical trial study was conducted in a dormitory on 70 girls aged 11-14 years having the same socioeconomic and oral hygiene conditions. These students were randomly divided into 2 groups; the first group (N=35) using Sage mouthwash, and the second group (N=35) using placebo mouthwash without active any ingredients. At the baseline, plaque samples obtained from the buccal surfaces of teeth were sent to laboratory to achieve SM colony count. These tests were reevaluated after 21 days of using the mouthwashes. Statistical data analysis was performed using t-student tests with pSage mouthwash significantly reduced the colony count (P=0.001). Average number of colonies in test group was 3900 per plaque sample at the baseline, and 300 after mouthwash application. In the control group, pre-test colony count was 4400 that was reduced to 4000; although this reduction wasn't significant. The Sage mouthwash effectively reduced the number of Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque.

  10. Preliminary antiplaque efficacy of aloe vera mouthwash on 4 day plaque re-growth model: randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Gupta, Devanand; Bhaskar, Dara John; Yadav, Ankit; Obaid, Khursheed; Mishra, Sumit

    2014-04-01

    Due to increasing resistance to antibiotics and rising incidence of oral diseases, there is a need for alternative treatment modalities to combat oral diseases. The aim of the present study was to access the effect of Aloe vera mouthwash on the dental plaque in the experimental period of 4 days and to compare it with the bench mark control chlorhexidine and placebo (saline water). A total of 300 systemically healthy subjects were randomly allocated into 3 groups: Aloe vera mouthwash group (n=100), control group (=100)-chlorhexidene group and saline water-Placebo (n=100). To begin with, Gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) were recorded. Then, baseline plaque scores were brought to zero by professionally cleaning the teeth with scaling and polishing. After randomization of the participants into three groups they were refrained from regular mechanical oral hygiene measures. Subjects were asked to swish with respective mouthwash (Aloe vera mouthwash, 0.2%chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash, or normal saline) as per therapeutic dose for 4 days. The results showed that Aloe vera mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing plaque as Chlorhexidine compared to placebo over a period of 4 days. There was a significant reduction on plaque in Aloe vera and chlorhexidine groups and no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p>0.05). Aloe vera mouthwash showed no side effects. The results of the present study indicated that Aloe vera may prove an effective mouthwash due to its ability in reducing dental plaque.

  11. Effect of Sodium Fluoride Mouthwash on the Frictional Resistance of Orthodontic Wires

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    Allahyar Geramy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The friction between the brackets and orthodontic wire during sliding mechanics inflicts difficulties such as decreasing the applied force and tooth movement and also the loss of anchorage. Therefore, many studies have focused on the factors that affect the friction. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash on the friction between orthodontic brackets and wire.Materials and Methods: Four types of orthodontic wires including rectangular standard stainless steel (SS, titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA, nickel-titanium (NiTi and copper-nickel-titanium (Cu-NiTi were selected. In each group, half of the samples were immersed in 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash and the others were immersed in artificial saliva for 10 hours. An elastomeric ligature was used for ligating the wires to brackets. The frictional test was performed in a universal testing machine at the speed of 10 mm/minute. Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the friction rate.Results: The friction rate was significantly higher after immersion in 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash in comparison with artificial saliva (P=0.00. Cu-NiTi wire showed the highest friction value followed by TMA, NiTi and SS wires.  Conclusions: According to the results of the current study, 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash increased the frictional characteristics of all the evaluated orthodontic wires.

  12. Nickel and chromium ion release from stainless steel bracket on immersion various types of mouthwashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihardjanti, M.; Ismah, N.; Purwanegara, M. K.

    2017-08-01

    The stainless steel bracket is widely used in orthodontics because of its mechanical properties, strength, and good biocompatibility. However, under certain conditions, it can be susceptible to corrosion. Studies have reported that the release of nickel and chromium ions because of corrosion can cause allergic reactions in some individuals and are mutagenic. The condition of the oral environment can lead to corrosion, and one factor that can alter the oral environment is mouthwash. The aim of this study was to measure the nickel and chromium ions released from stainless steel brackets when immersed in mouthwash and aquadest. The objects consisted of four groups of 17 maxillary premolar brackets with .022 slots. Each group was immersed in a different mouthwash and aquadest and incubated at 37 °C for 30 days. After 30 days of immersion, the released ions were measured using the ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). For statistical analysis, both the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used. The results showed differences among the four groups in the nickel ions released (p < 0.05) and the chromium ions released (p < 0.5). In conclusion, the ions released as a result of mouthwash immersion have a small value that is below the limit of daily intake recommended by the World Health Organization.

  13. Morphine mouthwash for the management of oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer

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    Mostafa Sarvizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Topical morphine is more effective and more satisfactory to patients than the magic mouthwash in reducing severity of cancer treatment-induced oral mucositis. More studies with larger sample size and longer follow-up are required in this regard.

  14. Chromosomal damage and apoptosis analysis in exfoliated oral epithelial cells from mouthwash and alcohol users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rodrigo dos Santos; Meireles, José Roberto Cardoso; de Moraes Marcílio Cerqueira, Eneida

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal damage and apoptosis were analyzed in users of mouthwash and/or alcoholic beverages, using the micronucleus test on exfoliated oral mucosa cells. Samples from four groups of 20 individuals each were analyzed: three exposed groups (EG1, EG2 and EG3) and a control group (CG). EG1 comprised mouthwash users; EG2 comprised drinkers, and EG3 users of both mouthwashes and alcoholic beverages. Cell material was collected by gently scraping the insides of the cheeks. Then the cells were fixed in a methanol/acetic acid (3:1) solution and stained and counterstained, respectively, with Schiff reactive and fast green. Endpoints were computed on 2,000 cells in a blind test. Statistical analysis showed that chromosomal damage and apoptosis were significantly higher in individuals of groups EG1 and EG3 than in controls (p < 0.005 and p < 0.001, respectively). No significant difference in chromosomal damage and apoptosis was observed between the exposed groups. In EG2, only the occurrence of apoptosis was significantly higher than in the controls. These results suggest that mouthwashes alone or in association with alcoholic drinks induce genotoxic effects, manifested as chromosomal damage and apoptosis. They also suggest that alcoholic drinks are effective for stimulating the process of apoptosis. However, these data need to be confirmed in larger samples. PMID:25505845

  15. Herbal mouthwash based on Libidibia ferrea: microbiological control, sensory characteristics, sedimentation, pH and density

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    Gisely Naura Venâncio

    Full Text Available Introduction Phytotherapy is the study of herbal medicines and their applicability to cure diseases in general, being a therapeutic method which can be used for the prevention and treatment of mouth diseases. Among the herbal studied, the Libidibia ferrea, known as jucá or ironwood, is widely used in folk medicine by presenting anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and antipyretic therapeutic properties. Objective To evaluate in vitro pharmacological stability of the Libidibia ferrea extract’s mouthwash (INPA - 228 022. Material and method It was held the mouthwash microbiological control by determining the total number of microorganisms and Salmonella sp, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus; stability characteristics (color, odor, brightness and consistency, sedimentation test (centrifuge, the pH measurement (pH meter and density evaluation (pycnometer were analyzed. Result The mouthwash showed to be absent from microorganisms and no changes were observed in the organoleptics and sedimentation characteristics. The average pH values were 6.21, 6.15 and 5.85 at 0, 30 and 60 days, respectively, and 1.029, 1.033 and 1.035 g/ mL density values, respectively, without interfering with the final characteristic of the formulation. Conclusion The mouthwash presented pharmacological stability and quality conditions.

  16. Radiation-induced mucositis: a randomized clinical trial of micronized sucralfate versus salt & soda mouthwashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Marylin J; Miaskowski, Christine; Greenspan, Deborah; MacPhail, Laurie; Shih, Ai-Shan; Shiba, Gayle; Facione, Noreen; Paul, Steven M

    2003-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the major toxicities caused by radiation therapy (RT) treatments to the head and neck. The clinical efficacy of sucralfate (Carafate R) mouthwash for head and neck cancer patients (HNC) is not consistent across studies. In this study, it was hypothesized that if the particles in the original sucralfate suspension were micronized (i.e., < or = 25 microns) then the coating action of the mouthwash in the oral cavity would be enhanced. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the efficacy of micronized sucralfate (Carafate R) mouthwash and salt & soda mouthwash in terms of the severity of the mucositis, the severity of mucositis-related pain, and the time required to heal RT-induced mucositis in patients with HNC. Severe mucositis and related pain can interfere with the ingestion of food and fluids, so patients' body weights were measured as well. All patients in this randomized clinical trial carried out a systematic oral hygiene protocol called the PRO-SELF: Mouth Aware (PSMA) Program. Patients who developed RT-induced mucositis anytime during their course of RT were randomized to one of the two mouthwashes and followed to the completion of RT and at one month following RT. Two referral sites were used for the study. Repeated measures occurred with the following instruments/variables: MacDibbs Mouth Assessment and weight. Demographic, disease, and cancer treatment information was also obtained. Thirty patients successfully completed the study. The typical participant was male (70%), married/partnered (70%), White (63%), not working or retired (73%), and had an average of 14.5 years of education (SD = 3.7). T-tests and Chi-square analyses with an alpha set at 0.05 were used to compare differences between the two mouthwashes. No significant differences were found in the number of days to onset of mucositis (i.e., 16 +/- 8.4 days). When patients had their worst MacDibbs score, (i.e., the most severe mucositis), there were no significant

  17. Antifungal Screening of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae Stem Bark Extract in Mouthwash Formulations

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    Aremu Olusola Isaac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae has been known for its use in the management of oral thrush ethnomedicinally in various parts of Africa, a practice which has been justified by results of certain scientific studies. The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate dosage formulation, a mouthwash and evaluate the antifungal potential of this dosage formulation against a major causative organism of oral thrush, Candida albicans. Extraction of the stem bark was carried out with boiled distilled water, the extract was formulated into mouthwashes at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%w/v. All formulations contained viscosity imparting agent, a sweetener and a preservative. Physical characterisation, viscosity, pH and palatability of the mouthwash formulations were determined. Agar-well diffusion method was used to assess antifungal activity of the formulations against Candida albicans and Nystatin oral suspension was used as reference compound. The results showed that Bridelia ferruginea stem bark extract mouthwash solutions were brown in colour, had agreeable odour and sweet astringent taste. The pH for all concentrations was in the range 5.41-5.63. The viscosity at spindle no 2, 60rpm range between 0.226-0.238 Pa.S for all concentrations studied. The formulations had antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The highest concentration (2.5%w/v gave mean zone of inhibition of 25.50±0.71mm that was comparable with Nystatin oral suspension 28.00±1.41mm, a reference compound. The foregoing suggests that with little modification in the formulation especially the adjustment of the pH, Bridellia ferruginea mouthwash solutions may be developed into commercially useful preparations.

  18. Efficacy of guaco mouthwashes (Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata on the disinfection of toothbrushes

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    Fernanda C. R. Lessa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Guaco Mikania glomerata Spreng. and M. laevigata Sch. Bip. ex Baker, Asteraceae, has antimicrobial activity and may be helpful in reducing the incidence of oral diseases. This double-blinded randomized clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy of guaco mouthwashes on the disinfection of toothbrushes used by preschool children, tested positive for mutans streptococci (MS, as well as the quantification of its coumarin contents by high performance liquid chromatography. Ethanol extracts were obtained by percolation. The mouthwashes were prepared with 2.5% g/mL M. glomerata and M. laevigata ethanol extracts, standardized for their coumarin content (% mg/mg. Antimicrobial effect of the mouthwashes and extracts were assessed in vitro against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175TM, using 2.4 to 500 µg/mL to calculate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. For the in vivo study, 24 patients were randomly assigned to a 4-stage changeover system with a one-week interval between each stage. All solutions were used in all stages by a different group of children. After brushing without toothpaste, toothbrushes (n=96 were sprayed with water and solutions of M. glomerata (2.5%, M. laevigata (2.5% and chlorhexidine (0.12%. Microbiological analysis was carried out after 4 h and 30 days, respectively. MIC values were 400, 125 and 14 µg/mL, respectively, for both crude ethanol extracts, mouthwashes of M. glomerata and M. laevigata. Statistical analysis showed that all solutions decreased contamination of toothbrushes by mutans streptococci (chlorhexidine 50.7±17.7%; M. glomerata 37.3±23.7% and M. laevigata 28.7±25.1% of inhibition. Treatment with chlorhexidine and M. glomerata were statistically similar (p>0.05. M. glomerata mouthwash could be useful in herbal strategy programs against mutans streptococci and the marker coumarin may be not related to the activity observed.

  19. Efficacy of guaco mouthwashes (Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata on the disinfection of toothbrushes

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    Fernanda C. R. Lessa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Guaco Mikania glomerata Spreng. and M. laevigata Sch. Bip. ex Baker, Asteraceae, has antimicrobial activity and may be helpful in reducing the incidence of oral diseases. This double-blinded randomized clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy of guaco mouthwashes on the disinfection of toothbrushes used by preschool children, tested positive for mutans streptococci (MS, as well as the quantification of its coumarin contents by high performance liquid chromatography. Ethanol extracts were obtained by percolation. The mouthwashes were prepared with 2.5% g/mL M. glomerata and M. laevigata ethanol extracts, standardized for their coumarin content (% mg/mg. Antimicrobial effect of the mouthwashes and extracts were assessed in vitro against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175TM, using 2.4 to 500 µg/mL to calculate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. For the in vivo study, 24 patients were randomly assigned to a 4-stage changeover system with a one-week interval between each stage. All solutions were used in all stages by a different group of children. After brushing without toothpaste, toothbrushes (n=96 were sprayed with water and solutions of M. glomerata (2.5%, M. laevigata (2.5% and chlorhexidine (0.12%. Microbiological analysis was carried out after 4 h and 30 days, respectively. MIC values were 400, 125 and 14 µg/mL, respectively, for both crude ethanol extracts, mouthwashes of M. glomerata and M. laevigata. Statistical analysis showed that all solutions decreased contamination of toothbrushes by mutans streptococci (chlorhexidine 50.7±17.7%; M. glomerata 37.3±23.7% and M. laevigata 28.7±25.1% of inhibition. Treatment with chlorhexidine and M. glomerata were statistically similar (p>0.05. M. glomerata mouthwash could be useful in herbal strategy programs against mutans streptococci and the marker coumarin may be not related to the activity observed.

  20. Healthcare-associated respiratory tract infection and colonization in an intensive care unit caused by Burkholderia cepacia isolated in mouthwash

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    Jeannete Zurita

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Our findings strongly suggest that alcohol-free mouthwash solution intrinsically contaminated with B. cepacia was the source of these colonizations and infections involving adults in the ICU.

  1. An in vivo evaluation of antimicrobial effects of Persica herbal mouthwash on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis

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    Leila Shafiei Bafti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Due to their antimicrobial and dental plaque control activity, mouthwashes lead to an improvement in oral health. Although chemical mouthwashes have demonstrated the greatest antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects, their usage has been limited because of their numerous side effects. This study was conducted in vivo to determine the antibacterial and antifungal effects of Persica herbal mouthwash containing Salvadore persica, mint, and yarrow in comparison with a placebo. METHODS: In this experimental, single-blind study, 80 dentistry students, who were eager to participate in the study, were randomly allocated into two groups of forty. One group was given Persica while the other group received a placebo. They were asked to apply the mouthwash twice a day for four weeks. The participants were unaware of the mouthwash type. Saliva sampling was conducted in all cases before and after mouthwash application and the samples were dispatched to a laboratory for microbial culture (Sabouraud and Clark-Kenner media culture. After two weeks, the washout times in groups were swapped with each other and the sampling was conducted just like before. Finally, the data were analyzed using independent and paired t-test. P values of less than 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 23.20 ± 4.14. Persica mouthwash significantly decreased the count of Candida albicans (1.43 ± 0.15 to 0.8 ± 0.35 (P < 0.001 and Enterococcus faecalis (0.93 ± 1.76 to 0.71 ± 2.10 (P = 0.008. CONCLUSION: The statistical tests revealed that applying Persica mouthwash would result in a significant decrease in the Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis count. Regarding the significant and desirable effect of Persica on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis, and its herbal origin, its application could be suggested to reduce oral microbes and infections from fungi and enterococci.

  2. FORMULASI SEDIAAN MOUTHWASH PENCEGAH PLAK GIGI EKSTRAK BIJI KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L DAN UJI EFEKTIVITAS PADA BAKTERI Streptococcus mutans

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    Apriyanti Anastasia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the formulation of preparations mouthwash prevention of dental plaque extract of cocoa beans also has been tested in Streptococcus mutans bacteria by variations in the concentration of glycerin as a humectant in preparation which aims to determine the effect of different concentrations of glycerin as a humectant to the physical properties, chemical properties and inhibition zone Streptococcus mutans bacteria in mouthwash formula and to know the mouthwash formula that has the physical quality and the highest antibacterial activity. The method used includes the step of extraction of cocoa beans, preparation of a mouthwash with 4 formula using variations of glycerin F1 (0%, F2 (15%, F3 (20% and F4 (25% followed by an evaluation formula that includes organoleptic tests, pH test and the test of inhibition diameter. Tests performed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. The results showed the concentration of glycerin as a humectant in a mouthwash formula cocoa seed extract has an effect on the diameter of inhibition zone, but did not have a significant effect on the physical and chemical properties of cocoa seed extracts mouthwash, The concentration of glycerin which meets the physical quality and the most excellent antibacterial activity that is 15% contained in the formula 2.

  3. Comparative evaluation of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of an herbal and chlorine dioxide mouthwashes: A clinicomicrobiological study

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    Srinivasa T Siddeshappa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of herbal mouthwash and chlorine dioxide mouthwash in reduction of plaque and gingivitis. Settings and Design: In a randomized clinical trial, forty patients were randomly selected and divided equally into two groups. Materials and Methods: After professional oral prophylaxis, the clinical parameters plaque index, gingival index, and modified sulcular bleeding index were recorded at baseline, 7th day, 14th day, and 21st day. The plaque samples were collected from gingival sulcus with an absorbent sterile paper point and were stored in a thioglycollate broth, then sent for microbiological examination. The microbial colony-forming units were assessed at baseline, 7th day, 14th day, and 21st day for Streptococcus mutans, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Results: There was a statistical significant reduction in both clinical and microbiological parameters were observed with use of both the mouthwashes. However, herbal mouthwash was more effective in reducing the plaque and gingivitis than chlorine dioxide mouthwash. Conclusion: Herbal mouthwash was statistically efficacious in controlling plaque and gingivitis with potent antimicrobial activity.

  4. Assessment of Ions released from Three Types of Orthodontic Brackets immersed in Different Mouthwashes: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahidh, Mohammed; Garma, Noor Mh; Jasim, Esraa S

    2018-01-01

    Herbs are used widely in medicine. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ion release from gold-plated orthodontic bracket compared with other stainless steel brackets, and based on the findings of the study, the orthodontists can choose the most biocompatible brackets and mouthwashes useful in the clinical practice. A total of 150 orthodontic brackets from Orthotechnology™ Company, USA (50 stainless steel one-piece brackets, 50 stainless steel two-piece brackets, and 50 gold brackets) were immersed in four mouthwashes in addition to distilled water. Ten of each type of brackets in every media were immersed under 37°C for 45 days. Ions released in these mouthwashes were measured, and comparisons among different bracket types and among various mouthwashes were done by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and then with Games-Howell tests. Increased amounts of ions released in herbal mouth-washes were recorded in gold and two-piece brackets in comparison with one-piece stainless steel brackets. Herbal mouthwashes must be used with caution as they showed an increased amount of ions released in comparison with chlorhexidine. One-piece stainless steel bracket system is the most compatible bracket type, as they released the least amount of ions. One-piece stainless steel brackets are better than two-piece brackets in terms of ions released.

  5. ESTIMATION OF pH, TOTAL ACID AND ETHANOL CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ALCOHOL-CONTAINING MOUTHWASHES AND ITS EFFECT ON SALIVARY pH

    OpenAIRE

    Rafi Shaik; Sharath Pocha Reddy; Sameeulla Shaik; Sarah Emerald Sheela Nemalladinne; Dandu Sivasai Prasad Reddy; Kotu Nagavenkata Sai Praveen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Use of mouthwash has become widespread as a part of routine oral hygiene. Mouthwashes may have deleterious effects on oral tissues because of its low pH, high acid content and use of ethanol as an antiseptic agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional experimental study was conducted among 48 undergraduate dental students. Eight commercially available alcohol-containing mouthwashes, which are available in Indian market were selected for which the pH, total acid an...

  6. Corrosion Performance of Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys in Artificial Saliva and Mouthwash Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Casales-Diaz, M.; Salinas-Bravo, V. M.; Martinez-Gomez, L.

    2015-01-01

    Several austenitic stainless steels suitable for high temperature applications because of their high corrosion resistance and excellent mechanical properties were investigated as biomaterials for dental use. The steels were evaluated by electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization curves, cyclic polarization curves, measurements of open circuit potential, and linear polarization resistance. The performance of steels was evaluated in two types of environments: artificial saliva and mouthwash solution at 37°C for 48 hours. In order to compare the behavior of steels, titanium a material commonly used in dental applications was also tested in the same conditions. Results show that tested steels have characteristics that may make them attractive as biomaterials for dental applications. Contents of Cr, Ni, and other minor alloying elements (Mo, Ti, and Nb) determine the performance of stainless steels. In artificial saliva steels show a corrosion rate of the same order of magnitude as titanium and in mouthwash have greater corrosion resistance than titanium. PMID:26064083

  7. Lactobacillus salivarius NK02: a Potent Probiotic for Clinical Application in Mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedinejad, Neda; Paknejad, Mojgan; Houshmand, Behzad; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Jelodar, Reza; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2017-06-19

    A specific strain of naturally occurring oral lactobacilli was isolated and identified based on morphological, biochemical, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The phylogenetic affiliation of the isolate confirmed that the NK02 strain had close association with the Lactobacillus salivarius. An effective mouthwash was developed for treatment of periodontitis and suppression of the indicator bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which is an obvious pathogen of periodontal disease. The mouthwash containing L. salivarius NK02 was tested at a dose level of 10 8 (colony forming units (CFU) ml -1 ), monitoring over a period of 4 weeks. The study was a randomized double-blind placebo control trial, and the patients were treated in two groups of control and test by using scaling and root planing (SRP) + placebo and scaling and root planing (SRP) + probiotic, respectively. It appeared that the probiotic mouthwash was able to inhibit the bacterial growth on both saliva and sub-gingival crevice and exhibited antibacterial activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans. The results also showed that SRP+ probiotic treatment led to a significant decrease of gingival index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) compared with that of SRP + placebo for the probiotic group. The rate of decrease in pocket depth was displayed in the group with SRP + probiotic treatment equal to 1/2 mm, and probing pocket depth (PPD) value was decreased in the probiotic bacteria treatment group that can explain the decrease in inflammation in gingiva. Our findings suggest that probiotic mouthwash is healthy for daily use as an alternative for maintaining dental and periodontal health.

  8. ٍEvaluating Baremoom Mouthwash Efficacy in Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis

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    MH Akhavan Karbasi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis is regarded as a painful and discomforting chemotherapy complication , affecting patient’s quality of life and endurance to continue the treatment. Hence, treatment of mucositis is of great significance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Baremoom mouthwash in treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis . Methods: This interventional double-blinded randomized clinical trial study was performed on 40 adult patients under chemotherapy in blood and oncology department of Shahid Sadouqhi hospital. The total of 40 patients were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental baremoom group and a control placebo group each containing 20 subjects. Baremoom mouthwash (30% extract, Soren Tektoos, Mashhad and placebo mouthwash ( Sterile water with allowable additives ,Soren Tektoos, Mashhad with same apparent properties were given to the patients (3 times a day for 7 days after mucositis detection. The patients were evaluated in regard with mucositis grade (0-4 WHO and wounds extension on 1th , 3th and 7th days after the study begining. In order to statistically analyze the collected data, Freidman, Mann–Whitney, and wilcoxon W tests were applied utilizing SPSS software (ver, 17. Results: On 3rd  and 7th  days, mean degree of wound extension and mucositis were demonstrated to be significantly different between the two groups. According to Friedman test, both experimental and control groups revealed a significant difference in regard with wound extension and mucositis grade within the three time periods. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that Baremoom mouthwash was more effective in chemotherapy- induced mucositis than placebo. Hence, this agent can be recommended as an appropriate medicine in order to eliminate mucositis symtoms and decrease oral ulcers.

  9. Effects of mouthwash interventions on xerostomia and unstimulated whole saliva flow rate among hemodialysis patients: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, I-Chen; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Yeh, Mei-Ming; Fang, Jia-You; Liu, Chieh-Yu

    2016-11-01

    Dry mouth (xerostomia) is a common symptom in hemodialysis patients, which is associated with a reduced salivary flow. Xerostomia affects patients' oral health and quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate using a mouthwash as a means to reduce xerostomia and improve saliva flow rates in hemodialysis patients. A randomized controlled trial. Three dialysis centers in Northern Taiwan served as the study sites. Patients were purposively sampled from three hemodialysis centers in Taiwan and randomly assigned to one of three groups: pure water mouthwash; n=41, licorice mouthwash; n=44, or no mouthwash (control); n=37. The Summated Xerostomia Inventory, and unstimulated whole salivary flow rate measured dry mouth and salivary flow, respectively. Data was collected at baseline, dialysis Day 5 and Day 10. One hundred twenty-two patients participated in this study. Baselines were adjusted for any imbalances in variables and generalized estimating equations analysed the data. Compared to control, a pure water mouthwash resulted in an increase in the unstimulated salivary flow rate of 25.85×10 -3 mL/min and 25.78×10 -3 mL/min (pXerostomia Inventory scores. The licorice mouthwash also significantly improved the unstimulated salivary flow rates to 114.92×10 -3 mL/min, and 131.61×10 -3 mL/min at Day 5 and Day 10, respectively (pXerostomia Inventory (pxerostomia. This suggests the use of a licorice mouthwash may effectively relieve feelings of dry mouth in hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Herbal Mouthwashes on the Force Decay of Elastomeric Chains: An In-vitro Study

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    Mohammed Nahidh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of four herbal mouthwashes on the force decay of two types of clear short elastomeric chains (Regular and Extreme at various time intervals. Materials and methods: Four hundred forty pieces of both types of elastomeric chains with 19 mm length were utilized in this study. The force was measured, using digital scale immediately, after one-day immersion in distilled water and after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks immersion in the specific mouthwash for one minute twice daily then washed and kept in distilled water at 37°C. Force decay was calculated and compared among different elastic types, mouthwashes and time intervals using t-test and one-way ANOVA then Tukey’s tests. Results: The force degradation of regular type was significantly higher than extreme one. With time, the force decay increased significantly in both types. There was non-significant difference among the mouthwashes in the first and second weeks while the opposite in the third and fourth especially with the control group. Conclusions: The extreme type is preferred over the regular one because of its low force decay and the tested mouthwashes have no clinical significant effect on the force degradation over time in comparison with distilled water.

  11. A Traditional Mouthwash (Punica granatum var pleniflora) for Controlling Gingivitis of Diabetic Patients: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedigh-Rahimabadi, Massih; Fani, Mohammadmehdi; Rostami-Chijan, Mahsa; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Shams, Mesbah

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of Punica granatum var pleniflora mouthwash in treatment of diabetic gingivitis. In a double-blind randomized clinical trial 80 patients with diabetes mellitus and gingivitis were assigned to Golnaar and chlorhexidine 0.2% groups. After using mouthwashes for 2 weeks; participants underwent tooth scaling and the last visit was 2 weeks after scaling. The primary outcome measures were plaque, modified gingival and gingival bleeding indices, and pocket depth. Both interventions had significant improvement on all of the gingival and plaque indices (P < .001 for all indices). There were no significant differences between Golnaar and chlorhexidine in primary outcome measures except for modified gingival index for which Golnaar mouthwash had a superiority after 2 weeks when comparing with chlorhexidine (P = .039). Meanwhile, Golnaar mouthwash had no staining effect. Golnaar mouthwash is safe and effective in treatment of gingivitis in diabetic patients although further studies are recommended. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Release of nickel and chromium ions from orthodontic wires following the use of teeth whitening mouthwashes

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    AmirHossein Mirhashemi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corrosion resistance is an important requirement for orthodontic appliances. Nickel and chromium may be released from orthodontic wires and can cause allergic reactions and cytotoxicity when patients use various mouthwashes to whiten their teeth. Our study aimed to assess the release of nickel and chromium ions from nickel titanium (NiTi and stainless steel (SS orthodontic wires following the use of four common mouthwashes available on the market. Methods This in vitro, experimental study was conducted on 120 orthodontic appliances for one maxillary quadrant including five brackets, one band and half of the required length of SS, and NiTi wires. The samples were immersed in Oral B, Oral B 3D White Luxe, Listerine, and Listerine Advance White for 1, 6, 24, and 168 h. The samples immersed in distilled water served as the control group. Atomic absorption spectroscopy served to quantify the amount of released ions. Results Nickel ions were released from both wires at all time-points; the highest amount was in Listerine and the lowest in Oral B mouthwashes. The remaining two solutions were in-between this range. The process of release of chromium from the SS wire was the same as that of nickel. However, the release trend in NiTi wires was not uniform. Conclusions Listerine caused the highest release of ions. Listerine Advance White, Oral B 3D White Luxe, and distilled water were the same in terms of ion release. Oral B showed the lowest amount of ion release.

  13. Effect of Commonly Used Beverage, Soft Drink, and Mouthwash on Force Delivered by Elastomeric Chain: A Comparative In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Kiran; Shetty, Sharath; Krithika, M J; Cyriac, Bobby

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective was to evaluate and compare the effect of Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash on the force delivered by elastomeric chain in vitro. Materials and Methods: Four specimen groups (distilled water, Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash) with a total sample size of 480 specimens. A specimen is described as a four link grey close elastomeric chain. Jigs, each with a series of pins set 25 mm apart, was used to hold stretched elastomeric chains at a...

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Fluoridated Mouthwash and Sodium Bicarbonate in Management of Dentin Hypersensitivity: An In Vitro SEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikame, Vasundhara; Doshi, Yogesh; Horowitz, Robert A; Kevadia-Shah, Vidhi; Shah, Mona

    2018-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (ie, baking soda) can be used as an adjunct to surgical periodontal therapy to reduce dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Sodium bicarbonate mouthwash has numerous appealing attributes, including high availability, low cost, low abrasivity, water solubility, buffering capability, and, in high concentrations, antimicrobial properties. It is also safe to use. The primary underlying cause of DH is open dentinal tubules from loss of either cementum or enamel. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate, through scanning electron microscopic examination, the effect of sodium bicarbonate on dentinal tubule occlusion and compare it with that of fluoridated mouthwash.

  15. The staining effect of different mouthwashes containing nanoparticles on dental enamel.

    OpenAIRE

    Eslami, Neda; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Rajabi, Omid; Zamani, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the effects of several mouthwashes containing nanoparticles on discoloration of dental enamel, and compare the results with that of 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX). Material and Methods Sixty intact premolars were randomly assigned to six groups. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the color of the teeth (T1) according to the CIELAB system. The specimens in groups 1 to 4 were then immersed in colloidal solutions containing nanoTiO2 (Group 1), nanoZnO (Grou...

  16. Mouthwashes with hydrogen peroxide are carcinogenic, but are freely indicated on the internet: warn your patients!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It all began in Ancient Egypt where people used to bleach their teeth with antiseptic mouthwashes made of urea from human urine. Teeth harmony is promoted by expression of feelings, communication, a real window of the brain and its content! Tooth bleaching products are medicines, not cosmetics! Mouth washing with hydrogen peroxide is an illogical and dangerous procedure! Hydrogen peroxide must be used in one's mouth only when employed by a dentist who has been properly instructed to protect the mucosa, preventing it from receiving these products. How and for how long these products are going to be used require caution in order to avoid or decrease any adverse effects on the tissues. Many websites instruct people on how to purchase and prepare hydrogen peroxide so that it is used as an antiseptic mouthwash and tooth bleaching agent. Some websites even refer to dentists as "exploiters", accusing them of not instructing patients properly. In this article, we aim at providing evidence and information upon which dentists and assistants may base their thinking as well as their opinion and procedures regarding "the indiscriminate and free use of hydrogen peroxide in the mouth, on teeth and oral mucosa". Those websites, blogs and social network profiles trespass the limits of public trust and should be immediately sued by the government for committing a crime against public health.

  17. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Schinus terebinthifolius Mouthwash to Treat Biofilm-Induced Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freires, Irlan de Almeida; Alves, Livia Araújo; Ferreira, Gabriela Lacet Silva; Jovito, Vanessa de Carvalho; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a Schinus terebinthifolius (ST) mouthwash in reducing gingival inflammation levels (GI) and biofilm accumulation (BA) in children with gingivitis. Methods. This was a randomized, controlled, triple blind, and phase II clinical trial, with children aged 9–13 years (n = 27) presenting with biofilm-induced gingivitis. The sample was randomized into experimental (0.3125% ST, n = 14) and control (0.12% chlorhexidine/CHX, n = 13) groups. Products were masked as regards color, flavor and aroma. Intervention protocol consisted in supervised rinsing of 10 mL/day for 01 minute for 10 days. Gingival bleeding and simplified oral hygiene indexes were used to assess the efficacy variables, measured at baseline and after intervention by calibrated examiners. Data were statistically treated with paired t-test, unpaired t-test, and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests (α = .05). Results. It was found that both ST and CHX were able to significantly reduce GI levels after 10 days (P 0.05). CHX was the only product able to significantly reduce BA after 10 days when compared to baseline (P < 0.05). Conclusion. ST mouthwash showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (equivalent to CHX), but it was not able to reduce biofilm accumulation. PMID:23843886

  18. Mouthwashes with hydrogen peroxide are carcinogenic, but are freely indicated on the Internet: warn your patients!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    It all began in Ancient Egypt where people used to bleach their teeth with antiseptic mouthwashes made of urea from human urine. Teeth harmony is promoted by expression of feelings, communication, a real window of the brain and its content! Tooth bleaching products are medicines, not cosmetics! Mouth washing with hydrogen peroxide is an illogical and dangerous procedure! Hydrogen peroxide must be used in one's mouth only when employed by a dentist who has been properly instructed to protect the mucosa, preventing it from receiving these products. How and for how long these products are going to be used require caution in order to avoid or decrease any adverse effects on the tissues. Many websites instruct people on how to purchase and prepare hydrogen peroxide so that it is used as an antiseptic mouthwash and tooth bleaching agent. Some websites even refer to dentists as "exploiters", accusing them of not instructing patients properly. In this article, we aim at providing evidence and information upon which dentists and assistants may base their thinking as well as their opinion and procedures regarding "the indiscriminate and free use of hydrogen peroxide in the mouth, on teeth and oral mucosa". Those websites, blogs and social network profiles trespass the limits of public trust and should be immediately sued by the government for committing a crime against public health.

  19. Comparative Efficacy of Aloe vera and Benzydamine Mouthwashes on Radiation-induced Oral Mucositis: A Triple-blind, Randomised, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebjamee, Mahnaz; Mansourian, Arash; Hajimirzamohammad, Mohammad; Mohammad, Haji Mirza Mohammad; Zadeh, Mohsen Taghi; Bekhradi, Reza; Kazemian, Ali; Manifar, Soheila; Ashnagar, Sajjad; Doroudgar, Kiavash

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of an Aloe vera mouthwash with a benzydamine mouthwash in the alleviation of radiation- induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients using a triple-blind, randomised controlled trial. Twenty-six eligible head and neck cancer patients who were to receive conventional radiation therapy at the radiation oncology department were randomised to receive an Aloe vera mouthwash or a benzydamine mouthwash. Mucositis severity was assessed during the course of radiation therapy using the WHO grading system. At baseline, there was no difference in the distribution of mucositis severity between the two groups. The mean interval between radiation therapy and onset of mucositis was similar for both groups (Aloe vera 15.69±7.77 days, benzydamine 15.85±12.96 days). The mean interval between the start of radiation therapy and the maximum severity of mucositis were was also similar in both the Aloe vera and benzydamine groups (Aloe vera 23.38±10.75 days, benzydamine 23.54±15.45 days). Mean changes of mucositis severity over time in both groups were statistically similar and the effect of both treatments did not change signficantly with time (p=0.09). Aloe vera mouthwash was as beneficial as benzydamine mouthwash in alleviating the severity of radiation-induced mucositis and showed no side effects. The Aloe vera mouthwash could be an alternative agent in the treatment of radiation-induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers.

  20. Phase I study of transforming growth factor-beta 3 mouthwashes for prevention of chemotherapy-induced mucositis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wymenga, ANM; van der Graaf, WTA; Hofstra, LS; Spijkervet, FKL; Timens, W; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Sluiter, WJ; van Buuren, AHJAW; Mulder, NH; de Vries, EGE

    The purpose of this study was to establish the safety and tolerability of recombinant transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-beta 3; CGP 46614) mouthwashes intended for prevention of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Local effects were especially analyzed by objective and subjective measurements of

  1. Efficacy and acceptability of 0.074% diclofenac-containing mouthwash after periodontal surgery: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Sangita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The systemic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are associated with various side-effects like hepatotoxicity, blood dyscrasias, nephrotoxicity and gastric irritability. Among these, gastric irritability is the most common and the most important one, which should be taken care of. Therefore, it may be preferable to use a local formulation such as a mouthwash to treat the inflammatory conditions of the oral cavity. Aim: To determine the efficacy and acceptability of 0.074% diclofenac mouthwash in relieving pain and inflammation of post-periodontal surgery patients. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Twenty chronic periodontitis patients who were scheduled for full-mouth periodontal flap surgery were randomized to receive either diclofenac mouthwash or placebo to rinse with 15 ml of solution daily for a period of 7 days. Modified gingival index (Lobene 1986 was used to verify gingival inflammation and visual analog scale was used to assess pain. After the baseline measurements for all the parameters were recorded, spontaneous pain and burning were evaluated daily while redness and edema were recorded on the 3 rd and 7 th day from the day of treatment. Results: Data obtained were analyzed statistically using paired " t" test for intragroup comparison and unpaired " t"-test for intergroup comparison. Spontaneous pain was significantly reduced by diclofenac mouthwash. Other parameters, i.e. gingival inflammation and swelling, had not shown significant reduction in scores in either group, although the reduction was higher in the test group. Conclusion: The new 0.074% diclofenac mouthwash is an effective and tolerable medicinal product for post-surgical symptomatic relief.

  2. Antiseptic mouthwash against pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae: a randomised controlled trial and an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric Pf; Howden, Benjamin P; Walker, Sandra; Lee, David; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Chen, Marcus Y; Snow, Anthony; Cook, Stuart; Fehler, Glenda; Fairley, Christopher K

    2017-03-01

    Gonorrhoea is increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM). We aimed to determine whether Listerine, a commercial mouthwash product, has an inhibitory effect against Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) and an in vitro study, and therefore may be a potentially useful agent for gonorrhoea control. In vitro: a suspension of ∼10 8 colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL) of N. gonorrhoeae was added to a serial of dilutions (up to 1:32) of alcohol-containing Listerine mouthwashes (Cool Mint and Total Care) for 1 min. A 10 µL aliquot was spread over the surface of a gonococcal agar plate and the number of N. gonorrhoeae colonies present at each dilution was calculated. The phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was used as a control. RCT: we recruited MSM with pharyngeal gonorrhoea who returned for treatment at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between May 2015 and February 2016. Untreated men were randomised to rinse and gargle either Listerine Cool Mint or saline for 1 min. Pharyngeal swabs were taken before and after rinsing and gargling for culture of N. gonorrhoeae . The analysis included only men who were culture positive for N. gonorrhoeae before using the allocated solution on the day of recruitment. In vitro: Listerine mouthwashes at dilutions of up to 1:4 for 1 min resulted in significant reduction of total N. gonorrhoeae counts but PBS has no inhibitory effect against N. gonorrhoeae . RCT: a total of 196 MSM were recruited, 58 (30%) were culture positive before using the solution. After gargling the allocated solution, men in the Listerine group were significantly less likely to be culture positive on the pharyngeal surface (52%) compared with men in the saline group (84%) (p=0.013). This data suggest Listerine, significantly reduces the amount of N. gonorrhoeae on the pharyngeal surface. With daily use it may increase gonococcal clearance and have important implications for prevention strategies. ACTRN12615000716561. Published by

  3. Surface treatment influences electrochemical stability of cpTi exposed to mouthwashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beline, Thamara; Garcia, Camila S.; Ogawa, Erika S.; Marques, Isabella S.V.; Matos, Adaias O.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.

    2016-01-01

    The role of surface treatment on the electrochemical behavior of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) exposed to mouthwashes was tested. Seventy-five disks were divided into 15 groups according to surface treatment (machined, sandblasted with Al 2 O 3 , and acid etched) and electrolyte solution (artificial saliva — control, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride, 0.2% sodium fluoride, and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide) (n = 5). Open-circuit-potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were conducted at baseline and after 7 and 14 days of immersion in each solution. Potentiodynamic test and total weight loss of disks were performed after 14 days of immersion. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, white light interferometry and profilometry were conducted for surface characterization before and after the electrochemical tests. Sandblasting promoted the lowest polarization resistance (R p ) (P < .0001) and the highest capacitance (CPE) (P < .006), corrosion current density (I corr ) and corrosion rate (P < .0001). In contrast, acid etching increased R p and reduced CPE, independent to the mouthwash; while hydrogen peroxide reduced R p (P < .008) and increased I corr and corrosion rate (P < .0001). The highest CPE values were found for hydrogen peroxide and 0.2% sodium fluoride. Immersion for longer period improved the electrochemical stability of cpTi (P < .05). In conclusion, acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the resistance to corrosion of cpTi, independent to the surface treatment. Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride did not alter the corrosive behavior of cpTi. - Highlights: • Acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. • Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the corrosion resistance of cpTi. • Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride can be safely used.

  4. Surface treatment influences electrochemical stability of cpTi exposed to mouthwashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beline, Thamara [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Garcia, Camila S. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); Ogawa, Erika S. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Marques, Isabella S.V. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); Matos, Adaias O. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Sukotjo, Cortino [Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Dentistry, 801 S Paulina, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); IBTN — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Mathew, Mathew T. [IBTN — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, 1611 W Harrison, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); and others

    2016-02-01

    The role of surface treatment on the electrochemical behavior of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) exposed to mouthwashes was tested. Seventy-five disks were divided into 15 groups according to surface treatment (machined, sandblasted with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and acid etched) and electrolyte solution (artificial saliva — control, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride, 0.2% sodium fluoride, and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide) (n = 5). Open-circuit-potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were conducted at baseline and after 7 and 14 days of immersion in each solution. Potentiodynamic test and total weight loss of disks were performed after 14 days of immersion. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, white light interferometry and profilometry were conducted for surface characterization before and after the electrochemical tests. Sandblasting promoted the lowest polarization resistance (R{sub p}) (P < .0001) and the highest capacitance (CPE) (P < .006), corrosion current density (I{sub corr}) and corrosion rate (P < .0001). In contrast, acid etching increased R{sub p} and reduced CPE, independent to the mouthwash; while hydrogen peroxide reduced R{sub p} (P < .008) and increased I{sub corr} and corrosion rate (P < .0001). The highest CPE values were found for hydrogen peroxide and 0.2% sodium fluoride. Immersion for longer period improved the electrochemical stability of cpTi (P < .05). In conclusion, acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the resistance to corrosion of cpTi, independent to the surface treatment. Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride did not alter the corrosive behavior of cpTi. - Highlights: • Acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. • Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the corrosion resistance of cpTi. • Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride can be safely used.

  5. Effectiveness of a pre-procedural mouthwash in reducing bacteria in dental aerosols: randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén RETAMAL-VALDES

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this randomized, single blinded clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of a pre-procedural mouthwash containing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC, zinc lactate (Zn and sodium fluoride (F in the reduction of viable bacteria in oral aerosol after a dental prophylaxis with ultrasonic scaler. Sixty systemically healthy volunteers receiving dental prophylaxis were randomly assigned to one of the following experimental groups (15 per group: (i rinsing with 0.075% CPC, 0.28% Zn and 0.05% F (CPC+Zn+F, (ii water or (iii 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX, and (iv no rinsing. Viable bacteria were collected from different locations in the dental office on enriched TSA plates and anaerobically incubated for 72 hours. The colonies were counted and species were then identified by Checkerboard DNA–DNA Hybridization. The total number of colony-forming units (CFUs detected in the aerosols from volunteers who rinsed with CPC+Zn+F or CHX was statistically significantly (p<0.05 lower than of those subjects who did not rinse or who rinsed with water. When all locations were considered together, the aerosols from the CPC+Zn+F and CHX groups showed, respectively, 70% and 77% fewer CFUs than those from the No Rinsing group and 61% and 70% than those from the Water group. The mean proportions of bacterial species from the orange complex were statistically significantly (p<0.05 lower in aerosols from the CPC+Zn+F and CHX groups compared with the others two groups. In conclusion, the mouthwash containing CPC+Zn+F, is effective in reducing viable bacteria in oral aerosol after a dental prophylaxis with ultrasonic scaler.

  6. Mouthwash overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are: Chlorhexidine gluconate Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) Hydrogen peroxide Methyl salicylate ... amounts of alcohol (drunkenness). Swallowing large amounts of methyl salicylate and hydrogen peroxide may also cause serious stomach ...

  7. A comparative, randomized, controlled study on clinical efficacy and dental staining reduction of a mouthwash containing Chlorhexidine 0.20% and Anti Discoloration System (ADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Massimo; Amantea, Massimiliano; Tatullo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A good control of bacterial plaque is an essential factor for the success of periodontal therapy, therefore it is the main objective that the clinician together with the patient must get to have a healthy periodontium. The plaque control with mouthwashes is the most important home therapy as it helps to reduce the formation of plaque between the mechanical removal with a toothbrush. Authors analyzed the clinical data from a trial carried out with 3 different mouthwashes containing 0.2% Chlorhexidine (CHX). In addition, the ADS (Anti Discoloration System - Curaden Healthcare) was tested in comparison with the other mouthwashes without this system. We tested antiplaque activity showed by 3 of the most commercialized mouthwashes, moreover, we tested the ability in reducing the dental staining related to the oral assumption of Chlorhexidine. Our results demonstrated the clinical efficacy of the 3 mouthwashes with CHX. Particularly performing was the anti discoloration system (Curaden Healthcare), with a clinical detection of dental stainings significantly less than the others tested. This study demonstrated the clinical efficacy of ADS system in the reduction of tooth staining, without a loss of antiplaque activity with respect to the competing mouthwashes containing CHX.

  8. Effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) mouthwash containing 1% tannin on dental plaque and chronic gingivitis: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radafshar, Golpar; Ghotbizadeh, Mahshid; Saadat, Farshid; Mirfarhadi, Nastaran

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of Iranian green tea mouthwash containing 1% tannin on dental plaque and chronic gingivitis. In this randomized, double-blinded, parallel, controlled clinical trial, 40 volunteer dental students with a gingival index ≥1 were enrolled. At baseline, gingival, plaque, and bleeding indices were recorded and all the participants received dental polishing. Based on random allocation, 20 participants used the test and 20 used chlorhexidine mouthwash with no change in regular toothbrushing methods. The participants were asked to use 15 mL of the respective mouthwash for 1 min, twice a day for 28 days. All indices, as well as stain index, were recorded after 1 and 4 weeks post-rinsing. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. Significant in-group differences, but not between-group differences, were observed in all indices after 1 and 4 weeks compared to baseline. The test mouthwash resulted in significantly less tooth staining than the control. The 1% tannin green tea mouthwash could be a safe and feasible adjunct to mechanical plaque control. The tested green tea mouthwash could be considered a good alternative for chlorhexidine in contraindicating situations. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. VALUE OF CLINICAL PULMONARY INFECTION SCORE IN CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS: BETWEEN THE USE OF CHLORHEXIDINE AND PIPER BETLE LINN MOUTHWASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfany Nurul Hamid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the complications of ventilator use in patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU is Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP. Oral hygienes is one of the methods to prevent VAP. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the value of clinical infection score (CPIS in critically ill patients after given oral hygiene using chlorhexidine and Piper betle Linn mouthwash. Methods: This was an observational study with cross-sectional study design, which consisted of two intervention groups. Thirty respondents were selected using total sampling, with 15 respondents randomly assigned in each group. Independent t-test was used for data analysis. Results: Findings showed that the mean of CPIS in the Piper betle Linn group was 3.80 and the mean of CPIS in the chlorhexidine group was 4.07. Conclusion: CPIS in the treatment group using Piper betle Linn mouthwash was lower than the mean of CPIS in the treatment group using clorhexidine.

  10. Determination of the maximum inhibitory dilution of cetylpyridinium chloride-based mouthwashes against staphylococcus aureus: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Watanabe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the maximum inhibitory dilution (MID of four cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC-based mouthwashes: CPC+Propolis, CPC+Malva, CPC+Eucaliptol+Juá+Romã+Propolis (Natural Honey® and CPC (Cepacol®, against 28 Staphylococcus aureus field strains, using the agar dilution method. Decimal dilutions ranging from 1/10 to 1/655,360 were prepared and added to Mueller Hinton Agar. Strains were inoculated using Steers multipoint inoculator. The inocula were seeded onto the surface of the culture medium in Petri dishes containing different dilutions of the mouthwashes. The dishes were incubated at 37ºC for 24 h. For readings, the MID was considered as the maximum dilution of mouthwash still capable of inhibiting microbial growth. The obtained data showed that CPC+Propolis had antimicrobial activity against 27 strains at 1/320 dilution and against all 28 strains at 1/160 dilution, CPC+Malva inhibited the growth of all 28 strains at 1/320 dilution, CPC+Eucaliptol+Juá+Romã+Propolis inhibited the growth of 2 strains at 1/640 dilution and all 28 strains at 1/320 dilution, and Cepacol® showed antimicrobial activity against 3 strains at 1/320 dilution and against all 28 strains at 1/160 dilution. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis test, showing that the MID of Cepacol® was lower than that determined for the other products (p<0.05. In conclusion, CPC-mouthwashes showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and the addition of other substances to CPC improved its antimicrobial effect.

  11. Phenylbutyrate Mouthwash Mitigates Oral Mucositis During Radiotherapy or Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Sang-Hue; Wang, Ling-Wei [Cancer Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Yang Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yi-Hsien [Division of Radiotherapy, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jen, Yee-Min, E-mail: yeeminjen@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Yih-Lin, E-mail: ylchung@kfsyscc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Yang Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Deleterious oral mucositis (OM) develops during radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients. There are currently no effective cytoprotective treatments for OM without a potential risk of tumor protection. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study aimed to determine the therapeutic safety and efficacy of phenylbutyrate (an antitumor histone deacetylase inhibitor and chemical chaperone) 5% mouthwash for treating OM caused by cancer therapy. Methods and Materials: Between September 2005 and June 2006, 36 HNC patients were randomized to standard oral care plus 5 mL of either phenylbutyrate 5% mouthwash (n = 17) or placebo (mouthwash vehicle, n = 19) taken four times daily (swish and spit). Treatment began when mild mucositis (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 1) occurred, and ended 4 weeks after RT completion. Safety and efficacy were based on adverse events, physical examination, laboratory determinations, vital signs, Oral Mucosa Assessment Scale (OMAS) and World Health Organization scores, the ability to eat, body weight change, local control, and survival. Results: We found no severe drug-related side effect. At RT doses of 5500-7500 cGy, phenylbutyrate significantly mitigated the severity of mucositis compared with placebo, based on both the WHO score (severity {>=} 3; p = 0.0262) and the OMAS scale (ulceration score {>=} 2; p = 0.0049). The Kaplan-Meier estimates for 2- and 3-year local control, and overall survival were 100% and 80.8%, and 78.6% and 64.3%, respectively, in the phenylbutyrate group and 74.2% and 74.2%, and 57.4% and 50.2%, respectively, in the placebo group. Conclusions: This pilot trial suggested that phenylbutyrate mouthwash significantly decreased the impact of OM in HNC patients receiving RT or chemoradiotherapy and did not confront the tumor control. Larger Phase II randomized trials are needed to confirm these results.

  12. Effective oral health in infective endocarditis: efficacy of high-street mouthwashes against the viridans group streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshibly, Ahmed; Coulter, Wilson A; Millar, Beverley Cherie; Prendergast, Bernard D; Thornhill, Martin; Irwin, Christopher; Goldsmith, Colin E; Moore, John E

    2014-05-01

    Recent UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines state that there is no longer a need for oral antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing dental procedures who are at risk of infective endocarditis (IE), and advocate the importance of maintaining good oral health. As viridans group streptococci (VGS) are common etiological agents of IE and inhabitants of the mouth, the purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of common high-street mouthwashes against four classes of VGS organisms (salivarius, mitis, anginosus, and mutans groupings). The survival of VGS, Streptococcus gordonii (National Collection of Type Cultures [NCTC] 7865), Streptococcus intermedius (NCTC 11324), Streptococcus mutans (NCTC 10449), Streptococcus oralis (NCTC 11427), Streptococcus pneumoniae (NCTC 7465, NCTC 7978, & American Type Culture Collection 49619) and Streptococcus salivarius (NCTC 8618) was assessed in vitro following treatment of approximately 10(7) c.f.u. in planktonic state with four mouthwashes. No organisms were culturable following 1-min exposure, and were not recovered following non-selective enrichment following incubation in Brain Heart Infusion broth supplemented with 0.8% (w/v) yeast extract. These data indicate that such mouthwashes are able to completely kill VGS organisms tested in planktonic solution, where their use would promote good oral hygiene in patients at risk of IE. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Sucralfate mouthwash for prevention and treatment of 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottage, Michelle; McLachlan, Sue-Anne; Brittain, Mary-Anne; Oza, Amit; Hedley, David; Feld, Ronald; Siu, Lillian L; Pond, Gregory; Moore, Malcolm J

    2003-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a sucralfate mouthwash in preventing and alleviating oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5FU). A total of 81 patients with colorectal cancer were enrolled. Patients were studied during their first cycle of chemotherapy with 5FU and leucovorin (LV) daily for 5 days every 4 weeks (Mayo Clinic schedule). Patients were randomly allocated to receive either a sucralfate suspension or a placebo suspension that was identical in appearance. Patients were instructed to use the suspension as a mouthwash four times daily from the beginning of the chemotherapy cycle. All patients received oral cryotherapy. Patients graded the severity of their own symptoms on a daily basis, and this was the primary outcome measure. There was no difference in the frequency or severity of oral mucositis between the sucralfate- and the placebo-treated group. Some mucositis was reported by 79% of the patient group. Assessment of mucositis by trial staff underestimated the incidence of this problem. Results of this trial do not support the hypothesis that a sucralfate mouthwash can prevent or alleviate oral mucositis induced by 5FU. Patient reporting of mucositis is a more sensitive instrument for assessment of mucositis than review by medical staff.

  14. Comparison of efficacy of three different mouthwashes in reducing aerosol contamination produced by ultrasonic scaler: A pilot study

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    Shivam Yadav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Aerosol produced during the procedure of scaling and root planing is a potent source of infection. Preprocedural mouthrinsing has been found effective in reducing the bacterial load of the aerosol produced during the procedure. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of three different mouthwashes containing Chlorhexidine, Essential Oils & Herbal Extracts by using them as preprocedural rinsing agent in reducing the bacterial load of the aerosol produced by ultrasonic scaler. Material and Methodology: 40 subjects age and gender matched were randomly divided into four groups on the basis of agents used for preprocedural mouthrinsing - Group I: Distilled Water (Control, Group II: Chlorhexidine (CHX, Group III: Herbal Extracts (HR & Group IV: Essential Oils (EO. The aerosols were collected on three previously prepared and sterilised blood agar plates at three different positions in the operatory. The colony forming units were counted after incubating the plates for 48 hours. Result: At all locations, the mean CFU was highest in Group I followed by Group III, Group IV and Group II. Conclusion: In the study 0.2 % chlorhexidine was found to be most effective preprocedural mouthwash in reducing the bacterial load in the aerosol produced during ultrasonic scaling followed by essential oil and herbal mouthwash respectively.

  15. Effectiveness of Green Tea Mouthwash in Postoperative Pain Control Following Surgical Removal of Impacted Third Molars: Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Majid Eshghpour

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Pain following surgical removal of impacted molars has remained an important concern among practitioners. Various protocols have been proposed to reduce postoperative pain. However, each one has special side effects and limitations. As green tea possesses anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of green tea mouthwash in controlling postoperative pain.Materials and methods:In a study with split-mouth and double blind design, 44 patients in need of bilateral removal of impacted third molars underwent randomized surgical extraction; following one surgery patients rinsed with a green tea mouthwash from the first to seventh postoperative day and after other extraction rinsed with placebo mouthwash in the same duration. Both patients and surgeon were blinded to the type of mouthwash. The predictor variable was type of mouthwash and primary outcome variable was postoperative pain measured by visual analogue scale (VAS during first week after surgery. In addition, number of analgesics patients used after surgery recorded. To measure the effect of green tea mouthwash, repeated measures test with confidence interval of 95% was performed.Results:Total of 43 patients with mean age of 24 years underwent total of 86 surgeries. VAS value had no statistically difference prior rinsing among groups (P-value > 0.05. However, the mean value of VAS following rinsing with green tea was statistically lower than placebo in postoperative days of 3–7 (P-value < 0.05. In addition, while rinsing with green tea, patients took significantly lower number of analgesics after surgery (P-value < 0.05. No side effects reported.Conclusion:Green tea mouthwash could be an appropriate and safe choice to control postoperative pain after third molar surgery.

  16. Granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor mouthwashes heal oral ulcers during head and neck radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovirosa, Angeles; Ferre, Jorge; Biete, Albert

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor GM-CSF mouthwashes in the epithelization of radiation-induced oral mucosal ulceration, control of pain, and weight loss. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients received curative radiotherapy for head and neck carcinoma. All had oropharyngeal and/or oral mucosa irradiation, with a median dose of 72 Gy (range 50-74), with conventional fractionation. A total of 300 μg of GM-CSF in 250 cc of water for 1 h of mouthwashing was prescribed. The procedure started once oral ulceration in the irradiation field was detected. Patients, examined twice a week, were evaluated for oral ulceration, pain, and weight loss. Blood tests were taken weekly during GM-CSF administration. A comparison was carried out with 12 retrospective case-matched controls. Results: In the GM-CSF group, mucosa ulcerations healed in 9 of 12 (75%) of the patients during the course of the radiotherapy. Fifty percent of the patients said they felt less pain during the GM-CSF treatment; 30% needed morphine. The mean and median weight loss as a percentage of baseline weight in addition to the actual weight were 4.2% and 3%, respectively (variation ranged between a gain of 1% and a loss of 13%). No GM-CSF-related side effects were found. In the case control group, in the 12 cases, oral ulcerations increased during radiotherapy and two patients needed intubation intake and hospital admission, as opposed to the GM-CSF group. The mean and median percentage of weight loss were 5.8% and 5%, respectively. Sixty percent of patients needed morphine, as opposed to 30% in the GM-CSF group. Conclusions: Granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor was effective in curing mucosal ulcerations during the course of radiotherapy. This is the first time we have seen a drug with this capacity. Although the GM-CSF seems to be effective in the control of pain, oral intake, and weight loss, we need further studies with a greater number

  17. Clinical efficacy of probiotic mouthwash in the treatment of gingivitis patients in Himachal population

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    Vikas Jindal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the changes in gingival health in patients treated with probiotic containing mouth rinse. Thirty volunteers between 20 and 35 years were randomly divided into two groups. While one group was given placebos, the other was given probiotic mouth rinse for 14 days. The volunteers were instructed to swish the mouth rinse for 60 s twice a day. Intergroup comparison of the plaque scores (baseline-14 days showed there was statistically significant difference in the mean plaque scores between the placebos group (0.14 (P ≤ 0.05 and the test group (0.42 (P ≤ 0.05 and a statistically significant difference in the mean gingival scores from baseline-14 days between the placebos group (0.9 (P ≤ 0.05 and the test group (0.38 with (P ≤ 0.05. Despite the short period for which the probiotics mouthwash was used by the patients, substantial improvement in gingival health of patients was observed in the study.

  18. Comparison of the Effect of Mouthwashes with and without Zinc and Fluocinolone on the Healing Process of Erosive Oral Lichen Planus

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    Masoumeh Mehdipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disorder with unspecified etiology, appearing as a result of stress, genetic predisposition and immunologic factors. Erosive type of the disease is more important because of its clinical symptoms of pain, irritation and malignancy risk. Despite various medications used, a definite cure for lichen planus is unknown. Regarding the effect of zinc on healing of ulcers, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of a mouthwash with and without zinc and fluocinolone on healing of erosive oral lichen planus. Materials and methods. Twenty randomly-selected patients with erosive oral lichen planus were divided into two groups of 10. One group received zinc mouthwash with fluocinolone ointment and the other group received placebo with ointment. The largest dimension of the ulcers was measured by digital calipers and the intensity of pain was determined by visual analogue scale. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test. Results. Pain, irritation and lesion surface area decreased in both groups. Decrease in pain severity was identical in both groups (P = 0.11. However, decrease in surface area with zinc mouthwash plus fluocinolone was more than that with only fluocinolone (P = 0.037. Conclusion. 0.2% zinc mouthwash plus fluocinolone and only fluocinolone were both effective in decreasing pain, irritation, and surface area of OLP. However, decrease in surface area with zinc mouthwash plus fluocinolone was more than that with fluocinolone alone.

  19. Effect of fluoridated casein phospopeptide-amorphous-calcium phosphate complex, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets: A comparative in vitro study

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    C A Abdul Shahariyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium-phosphate (CPP-ACP complex, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash on shear bond strengths (SBSs of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: About sixty extracted healthy human premolar teeth with intact buccal enamel were divided into two equal groups to which brackets were bonded using self-etching primers (SEPs and conventional means respectively. These were further equally divided into three subgroups - (1 control (2 CPP-ACP (3 chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash. The SBSs were then measured using a universal testing machine. Results: SBS of the conventional group was significantly higher than the self-etching group. The intragroup differences were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: CPP-ACP, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash did not adversely affect SBS of orthodontic brackets irrespective of the method of conditioning. Brackets bonded with conventional technique showed greater bond strengths as compared to those bonded with SEP.

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis extracts in patients with gingivitis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahyari, Saman; Mahyari, Behnam; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan; Jahanbakhsh, Seyedeh Pardis; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang

    2016-02-01

    Gingivitis is a highly prevalent periodontal disease resulting from microbial infection and subsequent inflammation. The efficacy of herbal preparations in subjects with gingivitis has been reported in some previous studies. To investigate the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis (5% v/w) compared with chlorhexidine and placebo mouthwashes in subjects with gingivitis. Sixty patients participated in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial and were randomly assigned to the polyherbal mouthwash (n = 20), chlorhexidine mouthwash (n = 20) or placebo mouthwash (n = 20). Participants were instructed to use the mouthwash twice a day (after breakfast and dinner) for 30 s for a period of two weeks. Gingival and plaque indices were assessed using MGI, GBI and MQH scales at baseline, day 7 and day 14 of the trial. There were significant improvements in all assessed efficacy measures i.e. MGI, GBI and MQH scores from baseline to the end of trial in both polyherbal and chlorhexidine mouthwash groups; however, the scores remained statistically unchanged in the placebo group. MGI, BGI and MQH scores in the treatment groups were significantly lower compared with those of the control group at both day 7 and day 14 of the trial. However, there was no significant difference between the polyherbal and chlorhexidine groups, neither at day 7 nor day 14 of the trial. Polyherbal mouthwash was safe and there was neither report of adverse reactions, nor any drop-out during the course of study. Polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Z. officinale, R. officinalis and C. officinalis (5%) was effective in the treatment of gingivitis and its efficacy was comparable to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Galvanic Corrosion of and Ion Release from Various Orthodontic Brackets and Wires in a Fluoride-containing Mouthwash

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    Soodeh Tahmasbi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. This study compared the galvanic corrosion of orthodontic wires and brackets from various man-ufacturers following exposure to a fluoride mouthwash. Materials and methods. This study was conducted on 24 lower central incisor 0.022” Roth brackets of four different commercially available brands (Dentaurum, American Orthodontics, ORJ, Shinye. These brackets along with stainless steel (SS or nickel-titanium (NiTi orthodontic wires (0.016", round were immersed in Oral-B mouthwash containing 0.05% sodium fluoride for 28 days. The electric potential (EP difference of each bracket-wire couple was measured with a Satu-rated Calomel Reference Electrode (Ag/AgCl saturated with KCl via a voltmeter. The ions released in the electrolyte weremeasured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. All the specimens were assessed under a stereomicroscope and speci-mens with corrosion were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Results. The copper ions released from specimens with NiTi wire were greater than those of samples containing SS wire. ORJ brackets released more Cu ions than other samples. The Ni ions released from Shinye brackets were significantly more than those of other specimens (P < 0.05. Corrosion rate of brackets coupled with NiTi wires was higher than that of brack-ets coupled with SS wires. Light and electron microscopic observations showed greater corrosion of ORJ brackets. Conclusion. In fluoride mouthwash, Shinye and ORJ brackets exhibited greater corrosion than Dentaurum and American Orthodontics brackets. Stainless steel brackets used with NiTi wires showed greater corrosion and thus caution is recom-mended when using them.

  2. Galvanic Corrosion of and Ion Release from Various Orthodontic Brackets and Wires in a Fluoride-containing Mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, Soodeh; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Masudrad, Mahdis

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. This study compared the galvanic corrosion of orthodontic wires and brackets from various manufacturers following exposure to a fluoride mouthwash. Materials and methods. This study was conducted on 24 lower central incisor 0.022" Roth brackets of four different commercially available brands (Dentaurum, American Orthodontics, ORJ, Shinye). These brackets along with stainless steel (SS) or nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wires (0.016", round) were immersed in Oral-B mouthwash containing 0.05% sodium fluoride for 28 days. The electric potential (EP) difference of each bracket-wire couple was measured with a Saturated Calomel Reference Electrode (Ag/AgCl saturated with KCl) via a voltmeter. The ions released in the electrolyte weremeasured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. All the specimens were assessed under a stereomicroscope and specimens with corrosion were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Results. The copper ions released from specimens with NiTi wire were greater than those of samples containing SS wire. ORJ brackets released more Cu ions than other samples. The Ni ions released from Shinye brackets were significantly more than those of other specimens (P brackets coupled with NiTi wires was higher than that of brackets coupled with SS wires. Light and electron microscopic observations showed greater corrosion of ORJ brackets. Conclusion. In fluoride mouthwash, Shinye and ORJ brackets exhibited greater corrosion than Dentaurum and American Orthodontics brackets. Stainless steel brackets used with NiTi wires showed greater corrosion and thus caution is recommended when using them.

  3. Comparison of Electric Toothbrush, Persica and Chlorhexidine Mouthwashes on Reduction of Gingival Enlargement in Orthodontic Patients: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadian, Nasrin; Bidgoli, Mohsen; Jafari, Farhad; Mahmoudzadeh, Majid; Yaghobi, Mahdi; Miresmaeili, Amirfarhang

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of chlorhexidine, Persica mouthwash and electric toothbrushes in improving gingival enlargement in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Seventy-two orthodontic patients with at least two sites of gingival enlargement were randomly allocated into four equal groups: 1) manual toothbrush; 2) electric toothbrush; 3) manual toothbrush+Persica mouthwash; 4) manual toothbrush+chlorhexidine mouthwash. All participants were instructed to brush their teeth at least twice a day. The subjects in groups 3 and 4 were instructed to use Persica or chlorhexidine according to the respective manufacturer's instructions. Bleeding on probing (BOP) index, gingival index (GI), O'Leary's plaque index (PI) and constructed hyperplastic index (HI) of all the subjects were measured in a blind manner at the start of the study and 2 weeks later. Changes of indices in the entire oral cavity and individual affected teeth were analysed with SPSS 16 using chi-square, ANOVA, ANCOVA, LSD and the paired t-test. In the entire oral cavity, there was a statistically significant improvement in indices in all the groups except for HI, which significantly improved only in group 4 (p=0.001). Data of individual teeth with hyperplastic gingiva showed significant reduction of all the variables except for HI in group 1 (p=0.08). No significant differences were found between groups 1 and 2 or between groups 3 and 4. The efficacy of Persica was similar to that of chlorhexidine in improving gingival conditions. None of the treatment modalities could reduce gingival enlargement to the clinically acceptable level of health.

  4. Investigation of the effect of the rebamipide mouthwash on the crisis of the stomatitis induced by the cancer chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Keishi; Hanawa, Takehisa; Hanawa, Kazumi

    2001-01-01

    Stomatitis is well-known as one of the undesirable side effects induced by high and/or multiple dosing of cytotoxic drugs such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Stomatitis causes pain in the oral cavity, impaired swallowing or loss of appetite, and finally, lowering of the quality of life (QOL) of patients. In this study, we attempted to apply a new mouthwash containing rebamipide (REB) which is known as the anti-activated oxygen agent. Rebamipide mouthwash (REB-M) showed the effectiveness to the crisis of the stomatitis during the cancer chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. (author)

  5. Corrosion kinetics and topography analysis of Ti–6Al–4V alloy subjected to different mouthwash solutions

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    Faverani, Leonardo Perez [Department of Surgery and Integrated Clinic, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jose Bonifacio, 1193, Aracatuba, São Paulo 16015-050 (Brazil); Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jose Bonifacio, 1193, Aracatuba, São Paulo 16015-050 (Brazil); Barao, Valentim Adelino Ricardo, E-mail: barao@fop.unicamp.br [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av. Limeira 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); Pires, Maria Flávia Araújo [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jose Bonifacio, 1193, Aracatuba, São Paulo 16015-050 (Brazil); Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino [Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago-College of Dentistry, 801 S Paulina, Chicago, IL 60612-7211 (United States); Mathew, Mathew T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, 1611 West Harrison, Chicago, IL 60612-7211 (United States); Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jose Bonifacio, 1193, Aracatuba, São Paulo 16015-050 (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the corrosion kinetics and surface topography of Ti–6Al–4V alloy exposed to mouthwash solutions (0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.053% cetylpyridinium chloride and 3% hydrogen peroxide) compared to artificial saliva (pH 6.5) (control). Twenty Ti–6Al–4V alloy disks were used and divided into 4 groups (n = 5). For the electrochemical assay, standard tests as open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were applied at baseline, 7 and 14 days after immersion in the solutions. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and profilometry (average roughness — R{sub a}) were used for surface characterization. Total weight loss of disks was calculated. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Bonferroni's test (α = 0.05). Hydrogen peroxide generated the lowest polarization resistance (R{sub p}) values for all periods (P < 0.05). For the capacitance (C{sub dl}), similar results were observed among groups at baseline (P = 0.098). For the 7 and 14-day periods, hydrogen peroxide promoted the highest C{sub dl} values (P < 0.0001). Hydrogen peroxide promoted expressive superficial changes and greater Ra values than the others (P < 0.0001). It could be concluded that solutions containing cetylpyridinium chloride and chlorhexidine digluconate might be the mouthwashes of choice during the post-operatory period of dental implants. However, hydrogen peroxide is counter-indicated in these situations. Further studies evaluating the dynamics of these solutions (tribocorrosion) and immersing the disks in daily cycles (two or three times a day) to mimic a clinical situation closest to the application of mouthwashes in the oral cavity are warranted to prove our results. - Highlights: • Long-term electrochemical stability of Ti–6Al–4V in mouthwashes was investigated. • 3% percent hydrogen peroxide reduced the corrosion resistance of the Ti–6Al–4V. • Ti is stable in 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate and 0

  6. Effect of commonly used beverage, soft drink, and mouthwash on force delivered by elastomeric chain: a comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kiran; Shetty, Sharath; Krithika, M J; Cyriac, Bobby

    2014-06-01

    The objective was to evaluate and compare the effect of Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash on the force delivered by elastomeric chain in vitro. Four specimen groups (distilled water, Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash) with a total sample size of 480 specimens. A specimen is described as a four link grey close elastomeric chain. Jigs, each with a series of pins set 25 mm apart, was used to hold stretched elastomeric chains at a constant length. These jigs allowed for complete submersion of the elastomeric chain in a water bath throughout the test period, as well as the dipping of elastomeric chains in respective control and test solutions. For 60 s, twice a day, groups were exposed to the respective solutions, the two daily exposure was separated by 9 h and force measurements were taken at six time points during the experiment, that is, 1 h, 24 h, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days. Force measurements were made by Instron machine by a single blinded examiner with the help of a second examiner. It was found out that there was highly significant difference between groups control, Coca-Cola®, Listerine®, and tea as well as there was highly significant (p Coca-Cola® and the Listerine® group reached a plateau between 7 and 21 days then decrease between 21 and 28 days. The tea group showed plateau phase between 7 and 28 days. After 28 days in the control group, 25% force decay occurred while the test groups force decay of 30-50% occurred. Coca-Cola®, Listerine® mouthwash, and tea cause an increase in force decay of elastomeric chains over time. Tea caused highest force decay followed by Listerine® and Coca-Cola® when compared to control group. How to cite the article: Kumar K, Shetty S, Krithika MJ, Cyriac B. Effect of commonly used beverage, soft drink, and mouthwash on force delivered by elastomeric chain: A comparative in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):7-10.

  7. Removable partial or complete dentures exposed to beverages and mouthwashes: evaluation of microhardness and roughness

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    Fernanda Alves Feitosa

    Full Text Available AbstractPurposeTo evaluate microhardness and roughness of denture base polymethylmethacrylate resinn exposed to acid beverages and mouthwashes.Material and methodRectangular samples (n=80 were prepared from poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA. They were divided into 8 groups and had the initial microhardness and Knoop roughness measured. Samples of each group were immersed for 10 min into a test solution (coffee, lemon juice, chlorhexidine gluconate, red wine, cola-based soft drink, vinegar or antiseptic with and without alcohol and after stored in artificial saliva for 23 h and 50 min, completing a period of 24 h. This procedure was performed for 14 consecutive days and after this period the microhardness and surface roughness measurements were made again. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA non parametric, Kruskal-Walis and the Dunn´s test for microhardness and the t-Student and ANOVA for roughness.ResultFor microhardness there were found statistically significant differences among the chlorhexidine gluconate solution, antiseptic without alcohol and cola-based soft drink. For roughness was observed that the mean values between the initial period and after immersion in the test products differed statistically in all groups, without difference among groups.ConclusionThe microhardness of poly(methyl methacrylate was affected by continue exposition to chlorhexidine gluconate, antiseptic without alcohol and cola-based soft drink. The roughness of poly(methyl methacrylate is negatively influenced by the exposure to all tested products. It may be concluded that both, microhardness and roughness, were affected by the treatments.

  8. Dentin erosion by whitening mouthwash associated to toothbrushing abrasion: a focus variation 3D scanning microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Juliana P M; Melo, Mary A S; Passos, Vanara F; Braga, Cícero L N; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A; Santiago, Sérgio L

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the erosive potential of hydrogen peroxide (HP) containing mouthwash on dentin assessed by Focus variation three-dimensional (3D) microscopy. Twenty dentin slabs were selected and randomly allocated into two groups (n = 10): DW--Distilled water (pH = 7.27) and HP-1.5% (pH = 3.78). Each specimen was cyclically demineralized (4 × 60 s/day, 10 days) with HP or DW and brushed 3×/day (200 g, 150 strokes--toothpaste with 1,450 ppmF as NaF). Between the challenges, the specimens were exposed to artificial saliva. Afterward, dentin loss was analyzed using focus variation 3D microscopy, and the data were submitted to unpaired t-test (α = 0.05). Statistically significant difference was found between the mean wear rate (μm, ±SD) of HP (1.98 ± 0.51) and DW (1.45 ± 0.39). The results suggest that the use of HP-containing mouthwash associated to brushing may increase the risk of tissue loss and focus variation 3D microscopy may be used as a technique for quantifying dental wear. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Antibacterial activity of cinnamon ethanol extract (cinnamomum burmannii) and its application as a mouthwash to inhibit streptococcus growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waty, Syahdiana; Suryanto, Dwi; Yurnaliza

    2018-03-01

    Cinnamon bark has been commonly used as spicy and traditional medicine. It contains several antibacterial compounds such as flavonoids, saponins, and cinnamaldehyde. Several studies have been done to know the antibacterial effect on bacteria such as Streptococcus in vitro. This study aimed to examine the antibacterial activity of cinnamon ethanol extract against Streptococcus and its application as mouthwash to inhibit the bacteria. The cinnamon bark was macerated followed by extracted in 80% ethanol. Bacterial samples were isolated from dental plaque of patients visiting dental clinic drg. Syahdiana Waty in Medan, North Sumatra. The isolates were identified using Vitek 2 compact. Secondary metabolites were detected using previously described method. Antibacterial assay was done at extract concentration of 6.25%, 12.5%, and 25%. The result showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and glycoside were detected in the extract. Nine bacterial species were identified as Streptococcus mitis, S. sanguinis, S. salivarius, S. pluranimalium, S. pneumoniae, S. alactolyticus, Kocuria rosea, Kocuria kristinae, and Spingomonas paucimolis. It showed that the extract of Cinnamon bark significantly inhibited Streptococcus growth, and it was effective as mouthwash.

  10. The Effect of Coconut Oil pulling on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva in Comparison with Chlorhexidine Mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Mamta; Reddy, Pallavi; Sharma, Roshni; Udameshi, Pooja; Mehra, Neha; Marwaha, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Oil pulling is an age-old practice that has gained modern popularity in promoting oral and systemic health. The scientific verification for this practice is insufficient. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of coconut oil pulling on the count of Streptococcus mutans in saliva and to compare its efficacy with that of Chlorhexidine mouthwash: in vivo. The null hypothesis was that coconut oil pulling has no effect on the bacterial count in saliva. A randomized controlled study was planned and 60 subjects were selected. The subjects were divided into three groups, Group A: Oil pulling, Group B: Chlorhexidine, and Group C: Distilled water. Group A subjects rinsed mouth with 10 ml of coconut oil for 10 minutes. Group B subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml Chlorhexidine mouthwash for 1 minute and Group C with 5 ml distilled water for 1 minute in the morning before brushing. Saliva samples were collected and cultured on 1st day and after 2 weeks from all subjects. Colonies were counted to compare the efficacy of coconut oil and Chlorhexidine with distilled water. Statistically significant reduction in S. mutans count was seen in both the coconut oil pulling and Chlorhexidine group. Oil pulling can be explored as a safe and effective alternative to Chlorhexidine. Edible oil-pulling therapy is natural, safe and has no side effects. Hence, it can be considered as a preventive therapy at home to maintain oral hygiene.

  11. The Effect of Pistacia atlantica Var. mutica Mouthwash on Dental Plaque Bacteria and Subgingival Microorganisms: a Randomized and Controlled Triple-blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arami, S; Mojaddadi, M A; Pourabbas, R; Chitsaz, M T; Delazar, A; Mobayen, H

    2015-09-01

    Dental plaque is a well-documented etiologic factor for periodontal diseases. While chlorhexidine (CHX) is the gold-standard agent for treating dental plaques, undesirable side effects are often found after continuous use of the mouthwash. Therefore, this single-center, randomized, triple-blinded and clinical trial was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Pistacia atlantica Var. mutica extract mouthwash on de novo dental plaque bacteria and subgingival microorganisms compared to CHX on a total of 28 patients. The mean aerobic plaque bacterial count of patients at baseline was 2.17 × 10(6). After 4 days of treatment, there were statistically significant decreases in the mean aerobic bacteria in the patients who received P. atlantica and/or CHX (7.25 × 10(4), p = 0.006) and (9.91 × 10(3), p = 0.002), respectively, compared to the patients who received the placebo (6.26 × 10(5)). This study showed that P. atlantica mouthwash is effective against gingival microorganisms. Because of its reduced side effects, P. atlantica mouthwash may be a good alternative choice for patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Cytogenetic analysis of oral mucosa cells, induced by chlorhexidine, essential oils in ethanolic solution and triclosan mouthwashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros-Llor, Irene; Lopez-Jornet, Pia, E-mail: majornet@um.es

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage and cytokinetic defects, proliferative potential and cell death caused by the frequent use of mouthrinses containing chlorhexidine, triclosan and essential oils in ethanolic solution, compared to a placebo mouthwash. Study design: This double-blind, prospective, randomized clinical trial included 80 Caucasian patients. Subjects were divided into four groups: Group I used a mouthrinse, Triclosan; Group II used physiological saline; Group III used chlorhexidine; Group IV a mouthrinse with essential oils in ethanolic solution. All subjects used the mouthrinses for two weeks (15 ml, twice a day, rinsing for 30 s). Two cell samples per subject were collected, before and after mouthrinse use (on day 0 and day 15). Samples were processed as follows: cell collection from cheeks with a cytobrush; cell centrifuge; slide preparation, fixation and staining; and fluorescent microscope analysis. 2000 exfoliated cells were screened for nuclear abnormalities, particularly the presence of micronuclei by means of cytome assay. Results: No significant differences between study times (before and after use of mouthwash) were identified for any of the variables studied (p>0.05). Differences between mouthrinse groups were also compared but no significant differences were found (p>0.05). Conclusions: This study did not observe any genotoxic effect resulting from mouthrinse use. - Highlights: • Mouthrinses are used widely, mainly for their capacity to control dental plaque. • No genotoxic effects from the mouthrinses triclosan, chlorhexidine essential oils solution. • The buccal cytome assay is a sensitive, non-invasive, and low cost technique.

  13. Clinical effect of a mouthwash containing Anacardium occidentale Linn. on plaque and gingivitis control: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos Eduardo Bezerra; Cavalcante, Dhiogo Gonçalves; Filho, José Eduardo Girão; da Costa, Flávio Nogueira; da Silva Pereira, Sérgio Luís

    2016-01-01

    Plaque-associated gingivitis is a prevalent disease and research in its treatment using herbal agents must be encouraged to verify which would be a useful addition to the current range or chemotherapeutic treatment options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing 10% Anacardium occidentale (AO) Linn., a typical plant commonly found in the Northeast Region of Brazil, on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis in comparison to a gold-standard chemotherapeutic agent. Thirty normosystemic adult volunteers of both genders, who had a minimum of twenty natural teeth, aging between 18 and 32 years, were enrolled in this crossover, controlled, examiner-blind clinical study. They were randomly allocated into three groups: 10% AO Linn. (n = 10); 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX, n = 10); or placebo (PB, n = 10). All volunteers were instructed to brush their teeth with a fluoridated dentifrice two times a day (12/12 h) and to rinse for 1 min with one of the mouthwashes (AO, CLX, or PB) 30 min after tooth brushing for 1 month. Plaque index (PLI) and gingival bleeding index (BLI) were recorded on days 0 and 30. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05) were performed to evaluate statistical differences among groups. There was a significant reduction (P gingivitis at day 30 just in CLX ([PLI = 0.47 ± 0.16; -30%]; [BLI = 0.15 ± 0.09; -55.8%]) and AO ([PLI = 0.49 ± 0.21; -31%]; [BLI = 0.13 ± 0.10; -56.6%]) groups, but no statistically significant difference was observed among them (P > 0.05). Mouthwash containing 10% AO was effective as an antiplaque and antigingivitis agent, in a similar manner that 0.12% CLX.

  14. Cytogenetic analysis of oral mucosa cells, induced by chlorhexidine, essential oils in ethanolic solution and triclosan mouthwashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros-Llor, Irene; Lopez-Jornet, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage and cytokinetic defects, proliferative potential and cell death caused by the frequent use of mouthrinses containing chlorhexidine, triclosan and essential oils in ethanolic solution, compared to a placebo mouthwash. Study design: This double-blind, prospective, randomized clinical trial included 80 Caucasian patients. Subjects were divided into four groups: Group I used a mouthrinse, Triclosan; Group II used physiological saline; Group III used chlorhexidine; Group IV a mouthrinse with essential oils in ethanolic solution. All subjects used the mouthrinses for two weeks (15 ml, twice a day, rinsing for 30 s). Two cell samples per subject were collected, before and after mouthrinse use (on day 0 and day 15). Samples were processed as follows: cell collection from cheeks with a cytobrush; cell centrifuge; slide preparation, fixation and staining; and fluorescent microscope analysis. 2000 exfoliated cells were screened for nuclear abnormalities, particularly the presence of micronuclei by means of cytome assay. Results: No significant differences between study times (before and after use of mouthwash) were identified for any of the variables studied (p>0.05). Differences between mouthrinse groups were also compared but no significant differences were found (p>0.05). Conclusions: This study did not observe any genotoxic effect resulting from mouthrinse use. - Highlights: • Mouthrinses are used widely, mainly for their capacity to control dental plaque. • No genotoxic effects from the mouthrinses triclosan, chlorhexidine essential oils solution. • The buccal cytome assay is a sensitive, non-invasive, and low cost technique

  15. The Effect of Calcium Pre-Rinse on Salivary Fluoride After 900 ppm Fluoride Mouthwash: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ramazani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Calcium fluoride deposit during fluoride application. Uptake and retention of fluoride by saliva depends generally on the concentration of calcium. In this study, the ef-fect of calcium pre-rinse on salivary fluoride concentration after a 900 ppm fluoride mouthwash was investigated.Materials and Methods: This cross-over double-blind randomized clinical trial was con-ducted in a girls' dormitory in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, southeast Iran. In this study, 42 female dental students were chosen using simple randomization. During the first phase, 21 subjects (group A used fluoride rinse (F regimen and the remaining (group B used calcium pre-rinse followed immediately by fluoride rinse (Ca + F regi-men. In the second phase, participants rinsed using the mouthwashes not previously used. Prior to each phase prophylaxis was performed and no fluoridated product was used dur-ing a two-week interval between the phases. Salivary samples were taken immediately be-fore (baseline, 1 and 12 hours after rinsing. The salivary fluoride concentration was de-termined using fluoride sensitive electrode. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for sta-tistical analysis and the significance level was set at P<0.05.Results: There was significant difference between fluoride concentrations at different time points (P< 0.001. Significant differences were observed when the different time points of two regimens were examined. In contrast to this, the baseline before using F regimen and the baseline before using Ca + F regimen did not show any significance (P= 0.070.Conclusion: Pre-rinsing with calcium before fluoride is recommended because of signifi-cant increases in salivary fluoride concentration.

  16. The antimicrobial sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius to colloidal solutions of different nanoparticles applied as mouthwashes

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    Farzaneh Ahrari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metal nanoparticles have been recently applied in dentistry because of their antibacterial properties. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial effects of colloidal solutions containing zinc oxide (ZnO, copper oxide (CuO, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 and silver (Ag nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius and compare the results with those of chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride mouthrinses. Materials and Methods: After adding nanoparticles to a water-based solution, six groups were prepared. Groups I to IV included colloidal solutions containing nanoZnO, nanoCuO, nanoTiO 2 and nanoAg, respectively. Groups V and VI consisted of 2.0% sodium fluoride and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes, respectively as controls. We used serial dilution method to find minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and with subcultures obtained minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs of the solutions against S. mutans and S. sangius. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Duncan test and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The sodium fluoride mouthrinse did not show any antibacterial effect. The nanoTiO 2 -containing solution had the lowest MIC against both microorganisms and also displayed the lowest MBC against S. mutans (P < 0.05. The colloidal solutions containing nanoTiO 2 and nanoZnO showed the lowest MBC against S. sangius (P < 0.05. On the other hand, chlorhexidine showed the highest MIC and MBC against both streptococci (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The nanoTiO 2 -containing mouthwash proved to be an effective antimicrobial agent and thus it can be considered as an alternative to chlorhexidine or sodium fluoride mouthrinses in the oral cavity provided the lack of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on biologic tissues.

  17. A randomized double blind crossover placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the effects of a mouthwash containing chlorine dioxide on oral malodor

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    Yokoyama Sayaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2, however, its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated only with organoleptic measurements (OM or sulphide monitors. No clinical studies have investigated the inhibitory effects of ClO2 on volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs using gas chromatography (GC. The aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 on morning oral malodor using OM and GC. Methods A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. In the first test phase, the group 1 subjects (N = 8 were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2, and those in group 2 (N = 7 to rinse with the placebo mouthwash without ClO2. In the second test, phase after a one week washout period, each group used the opposite mouthwash. Oral malodor was evaluated before rinsing, right after rinsing and every 30 minutes up to 4 hours with OM, and concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S, methyl mercaptan (CH3SH and dimethyl sulfide ((CH32S, the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were evaluated with GC. Results The baseline oral condition in the subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. The mouthwash containing ClO2 improved morning bad breath according to OM and reduced concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH32S according to GC up to 4 hours after rinsing. OM scores with ClO2 were significantly lower than those without ClO2 at all examination times. Significant reductions in the concentrations of the three kinds of VSCs measured by GC were also evident at all examination times. The concentrations of the three gases with ClO2 were significantly lower than those without ClO2 at most examination times. Conclusion In this explorative study, ClO2 mouthwash was effective at reducing morning malodor for 4

  18. Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnuki Mari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2. Its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated and reported only in short duration trials, moreover, no clinical studies have investigated its microbiological efficacies on periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 used for 7 days on morning oral malodor and on salivary periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Methods/Design A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2 or the placebo mouthwash, without ClO2, twice per day for 7 days. After a one week washout period, each group then used the opposite mouthwash for 7 days. At baseline and after 7 days, oral malodor was evaluated with Organoleptic measurement (OM, and analyzed the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S, methyl mercaptan (CH3SH and dimethyl sulfide ((CH32S, the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were assessed by gas chromatography (GC. Clinical outcome variables included plaque and gingival indices, and tongue coating index. The samples of saliva were microbiologically investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Invader method. Results and Discussion The baseline oral condition in healthy subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. After rinsing with the mouthwash containing ClO2 for 7 days, morning bad breath decreased as measured by the OM and reduced the concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH32S measured by GC, were found. Moreover ClO2 mouthwash used over a 7-day period appeared effective in reducing plaque, tongue coating accumulation and the counts of Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva. Future research is

  19. Comparison of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and sucralfate mouthwashes in the prevention of radiation-induced mucositis: a double-blind prospective randomized phase III study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarilahti, Kauko; Kajanti, Mikael; Joensuu, Timo; Kouri, Mauri; Joensuu, Heikki

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To compare granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mouthwashes with sucralfate mouthwashes in the prevention of radiation-induced mucositis. Methods and Materials: Forty patients with radically operated head-and-neck cancer were randomly allocated to use either GM-CSF (n=21) or sucralfate (n=19) mouthwashes during postoperative radiotherapy (RT). All patients received conventionally fractionated RT to a total dose of 50-60 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions during 5-6 weeks to the primary site and regional lymphatics. A minimum of 50% of the oral cavity and oropharyngeal mucosa was included in the clinical target volume. GM-CSF mouthwashes consisted of 37.5 μg GM-CSF and sucralfate mouthwashes of 1.0 g of sucralfate distilled in water. Both washes were used 4 times daily, beginning after the first week of RT and continued to the end of the RT course. Symptoms related to radiation mucositis and body weight, serum prealbumin level, and blood cell counts were monitored weekly. Results: Oral mucositis tended to be less severe in the GM-CSF group (p=0.072). Complete (n=1) or partial (n=4) healing of mucositis occurred during the RT course in 5 patients (24%) in the GM-CSF group and in none of the patients in the sucralfate group (p=0.049). Patients who received GM-CSF had less mucosal pain (p=0.058) and were less often prescribed opioids for pain (p=0.042). Three patients in the sucralfate group needed hospitalization for mucositis during RT compared with none in the GM-CSF group. Four patients (21%) in the sucralfate group and none in the GM-CSF group required an interruption in the RT course (p=0.042). No significant differences in weight, prealbumin level, or blood cell count were found between the groups, and both mouthwashes were well tolerated. Conclusion: GM-CSF mouthwashes may be moderately more effective than sucralfate mouthwashes in preventing radiation-induced mucositis and mucositis-related pain, and their use may lead to less frequent

  20. Therapeutic Efficacy and Tolerability of the Topical Treatment of Inflammatory Conditions of the Oral Cavity with a Mouthwash Containing Diclofenac Epolamine : A Randomized, Investigator-Blind, Parallel-Group, Controlled, Phase III Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Giampiero; Trevisan, Silvia; Saponati, Giorgio; Bandettini, Bernardo

    2012-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including diclofenac, are the mainstay of analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatment in dentistry. Diclofenac epolamine [diclofenac N-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine; DHEP] is a diclofenac salt with greater water solubility and better cutaneous absorption properties than other commonly used forms of the drug. IBSA has recently developed a mouthwash formulation of DHEP for the topical treatment of inflammatory conditions of the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of DHEP mouthwash (Osmal®) with that of a reference product (commercially available diclofenac mouthwash). This was a randomized, investigator-blind, parallel-group, controlled, phase III study that enrolled 80 patients with conditions affecting the oral cavity, characterized by an inflammatory component, and eligible for analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatment. Patients were randomized 1 : 1 to DHEP mouthwash (0.103% DHEP in aqueous solution) or to diclofenac mouthwash (0.074% free diclofenac in aqueous solution). The treatment regimen was the same in both groups: 1-minute rinse with 15 mL of mouthwash, twice daily for 7 days. Visits were scheduled at study inclusion (D0), and 3 days (D3) and 7 days (D7) after treatment initiation. During each visit assessments were made of pain severity (using a 5-point semi-quantitative scale and a 100-mm visual analogue scale [VAS]) and inflammatory signs (using a 5-point scale). The primary study endpoint was the change in pain severity scores from D0 to D3 and D7. Secondary endpoints included effects of treatment on inflammation score, quality of sleep, compliance with treatment and the safety and tolerability of treatment. The two treatment arms were homogeneous in terms of patient characteristics. The most prevalent oral condition was gingivitis. Overall both topical treatments were effective in alleviating pain and inflammation, as evidenced by decreases in pain and

  1. A comparison of the effect of triamcinolone ointment and mouthwash with or without zinc on the healing process of aphthous stomatitis lesions

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    Masoumeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is one of the most common ulcerative diseases of the oral mucosa. Definitive etiology of RAS has not been conclusively established. There is no certain treatment for aphthous stomatitis but some drugs such as steroids are commonly used for the treatment of RAS. Regarding the effect of zinc on the healing process of epithelial layer and cell division, in this research the effect of triamcinolone (with orabase in combination with a zinc-containing mouthwash and triamcinolone alone on the healing process of RAS lesions was assessed. Methods. The present study consisted of 20 patients diagnosed with RAS. The patients were instructed to rinse the mouth-wash or placebo three times a day and triamcinolone ointment twice a day for two weeks. The largest dimension of the ulcer was measured by a digital caliper and the severity of pain was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS. Number, size, dura-tion, ulcer-free period and pain of the lesions were evaluated twice a week for twomonths. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using Mann-Whitney U test and t-test. Results. A decrease was seen in the mean pain severity score (P = 0.631 and the size of the lesions but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.739. Also the difference between the number of lesions (P = 0.739, duration and ulcer-free period (P = 0.873 were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Zinc mouthwash seems to be as effective on wound healing process as typical treatment modalities for RAS.

  2. Evaluation of simplified oral hygiene index of the elementary school students before fluoride mouthwash - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i2.13205

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Rosana Gonçalves de Oliveira; Luciano Martini; Cláudia Silveira Viera; Edo Hirata

    2013-01-01

    The State Program of fluoride mouthwashes for caries control was established in 1980 in elementary schools of Paraná State covering children 7-11 years old. Knowing the importance of removing bacterial plaque to reach the maximum desired effect of prevention, this study aimed to evaluate the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, before applying the solution of Sodium Fluoride (NaF; 0.2%) in children from an elementary school in the city of Nova Aurora, Paraná State, by using disclosing dental plaque...

  3. Evaluation of efficacy of a commercially available herbal mouthwash on dental plaque and gingivitis: A double-blinded parallel randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjukta Bagchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate if a commercially available herbal mouthwash, can be a better choice as an anti-plaque and antigingivitis agent when compared with chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind, parallel group randomized clinical trial 90 nursing students aged 18-25 years were randomly divided into three groups: A (chlorhexidine, B (HiOra and C (distilled water. These groups were asked to rinse with their respective mouthwash two times daily for 21 days. Plaque and gingivitis were evaluated by using Turesky et al. modification of Quigley Hein Plaque Index (1970 and Modified Gingival Index by Lobene et al. (1986 respectively. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA test. Results: There was statistically significant reduction in plaque and gingival scores from baseline to 21 days in both the groups A and B. Conclusions: Although chlorhexidine group proved to be the best anti-plaque and antigingivitis agent, it was found that HiOra group also showed gradual improvement from baseline to 21 days. Whereas no improvement was seen in the Group C using distilled water over 21 days.

  4. The influence of different types of brackets and efficacy of two chlorhexidine mouthwashes on oral hygiene and the incidence of white spot lesions in adolescents during the orthodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurišić, Sanja; Kozomara, Davorin; Jurić, Hrvoje; Verzak, Željko; Jurišić, Gordan

    2016-12-01

    To detect the effect of two different types of brackets (ceramic and stainless steel) and investigate the effectiveness of two chlorhexidine mouthwashes 0.2% (CHX) on oral hygiene status and incidence of white spot lesions (WSLs) in adolescents wearing fixed orthodontic appliance. One hundred and twenty subjects (aged 11 to 18 years, mean age 14.5 years) were divided into six equal groups according to brackets type and to different mouthwashes: Group 1: metal brackets and conventional CHX, Group 2: metal brackets and CHX with anti-discoloration system (CHX-ADS), Group 3: ceramic brackets and conventional CHX, Group 4: ceramic brackets and CHX-ADS, Group 5: metal brackets and water correction flavors mouthwash (placebo), Group 6: ceramic brackets and placebo. Four weeks after the placement of fixed orthodontic appliance the subjects were provided with three different mouthwashes for use during the next two weeks. Assessment was carried out according to oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) and WSL index performed: prior to placement of the appliance (baseline), four weeks, six weeks, eighteen weeks, and thirty weeks after the placement. The data were then subjected to statistical analysis. Group 4 showed reduction in the OHI-S scores when compared to the Group 5 (in the 6 th week), and Group 6 (in the 6 th and 18 th week), which was statistically significant, Pbrackets and the usage of CHX-ADS resulted in better oral hygiene status and lower incidence of WSLs.

  5. Comparative evaluation of honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% and combination of xylitol and chlorhexidine mouthwash (0.2% on the clinical level of dental plaque: A 30 days randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of honey, chlorhexidine mouthwash and combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: Ninety healthy dental students, both male and female, aged between 21 to 25 years participated in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine (CHX mouthwash group. The data was collected at the baseline, 15 th day and 30 th day; the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the three groups. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that all the three groups were effective in reducing the plaque but post-hoc LSD (Least Significant Difference showed that honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group were more effective than chlorhexidine group alone. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of plaque indices in honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to chlorhexidine.

  6. Evaluation of simplified oral hygiene index of the elementary school students before fluoride mouthwash - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i2.13205

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rosana Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The State Program of fluoride mouthwashes for caries control was established in 1980 in elementary schools of Paraná State covering children 7-11 years old. Knowing the importance of removing bacterial plaque to reach the maximum desired effect of prevention, this study aimed to evaluate the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, before applying the solution of Sodium Fluoride (NaF; 0.2% in children from an elementary school in the city of Nova Aurora, Paraná State, by using disclosing dental plaque. This is a quantitative research, descriptive and exploratory whose data were obtained through a specific form, with 61 children and analyzed using descriptive statistics with distribution of absolute and percentage frequencies. Most children (60% showed the worst results - regular and bad - with presence of plaque and risk of dental caries. Therefore, we should establish a prevention program in oral health that must involve parents and students. This program should be developed by health professionals inside the school, explaining about the etiologic factors, causes and consequences of plaque, the techniques of cleaning and maintenance of hygiene instruments, and the risks of the lack of proper hygiene in the oral cavity.

  7. Comparing the effect of echinacea and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the microbial flora of intubated patients admitted to the intensive care unit

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    Mehdi Safarabadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing intubated patients admitted to the intensive care units with oral healthcare is one of the main tasks of nurses in order to prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP. This study aimed at comparing the effects of two mouthwash solutions (echinacea and chlorhexidine on the oral microbial flora of patients hospitalized in the intensive care units. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 70 patients aged between18 and 65 years undergoing tracheal intubation through the mouth in three hospitals in Arak, were selected using simple random sampling and were randomly divided into two groups: the intervention group and the control group. The oral health checklist was used to collect the data (before and after the intervention. The samples were obtained from the orally intubated patients and were then cultured in selective media. Afterwards, the aerobic microbial growth was investigated in all culture media. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The microbial flora in the echinacea group significantly decreased after the intervention (p < 0.0001 and it was also the case withmicrobial flora of the patients in the chlorhexidine group (p < 0.001. After 4 days, the oral microbial flora of the patients in the intervention group was lower than that of the patients in the control group (p < 0.001. Conclusions: The results showed that the echinacea solution was more effective in decreasing the oral microbial flora of patients in the intensive care unit. Given the benefits of the components of the herb Echinacea, it can be suggested as a viable alternative to chlorhexidine.

  8. Comparison of the effectiveness of 0.5% tea, 2% neem and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes on oral health: A randomized control trial

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    Aswini Y Balappanavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of 0.5% tea, 2% neem, and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes on oral health. Materials and Methods: A randomized blinded controlled trial with 30 healthy human volunteers of age group 18-25 years was carried out. The subjects were randomly assigned to 3 groups i.e., group A - 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (bench mark control, Group B - 2% neem, and group C - 0.5% tea of 10 subjects per group. Plaque accumulation and gingival condition were recorded using plaque index and gingival index. Oral hygiene was assessed by simplified oral hygiene index (OHIS. Salivary pH was assessed by indikrom pH strips. Plaque, gingival, and simplified OHI scores as well as salivary pH were recorded at baseline, immediately after 1 st rinse, after 1 week, 2 nd week, and 3 rd week. The 3 rd week was skipped for group A. Results: Mean plaque and gingival scores were reduced over the 3 week trial period for experimental and control groups. Anti-plaque effectiveness was observed in all groups and the highest being in group C (P < 0.05. Neem and tea showed comparative effectiveness on gingiva better than chlorhexidine (P < 0.05. The salivary pH rise was sustained and significant in Group B and C compared to Group A. Oral hygiene improvement was better appreciated in Group B and Group C. Conclusion: The effectiveness of 0.5% tea was more compared to 2% neem and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse.

  9. Eficacia del enjuagatorio con té de Vimang en la estomatitis subprótesis Efficiency of the mouthwash with Vimang tea in subprosthesis stomatitis

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    Marcia Hortensia Corona Carpio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficacia del té de Vimang como fitofármaco antioxidante y antiinflamatorio en el tratamiento de la estomatitis subprotésica. Se aplicó el medicamento en 35 pacientes en forma de enjuagatorios 4 veces al día; se dividieron en 2 grupos: el primero incluyó a 18 portadores de prótesis total y el segundo 17 portadores de prótesis parcial acrílica. Todos dejaron de usar las prótesis en el horario nocturno. Para realizar el tratamiento se agruparon en intervalos de edades según uno y otro sexo. Se controlaron sistemáticamente a los 3 y 7 días para evaluar el estado de la enfermedad y determinar la eficacia del medicamento. En 34 casos se observaron resultados satisfactorios, y un paciente manifestó reacciones locales adversas, lo cual no constituyó un dato estadísticamente significativo, por lo que consideramos efectivo el empleo del Vimang en el tratamiento.The efficiency of Vimang tea as an antioxidant and antiinflamatory phytodrug in the treatment of subprosthesis stomatitis was evaluated. The drug was administered to 35 patients as mouthwashes 4 times a day. They were divided into 2 groups: the first included 18 dental prosthesis wearers and the second 17 acrylic partial prosthesis wearers. None of them wore the prostheses during the night. To apply the treatment, they were grouped by age and sex. They were systematically controlled at 3 and 7 days to evaluate the state of the disease and to determine the effectiveness of the drug. Satisfactory results were observed in 34 cases, and only a patient had local adverse reactions, which was not statistically significant. Therefore, we consider that Vimang is effective in this treatment.

  10. FORMULATION OF NANOEMULSION MOUTHWASH COMBINATION OF LEMONGRASS OIL (Cymbopogon citratus AND KAFFIR LIME OIL (Citrus hystrix FOR ANTICANDIDIASIS AGAINST Candida albicans ATCC 10231

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    Meta Juniatik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is a fungal infection disease that still become health problem in Indonesia, especially oral candidiasis that largerly caused by Candida albicans abnormal growth on oral cavity. Lemongrass oil and kaffir lime oil have been proven to have antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The composition of limonen, α-terpineol, sitronelil acetate, terpineol, β-pinene, on kaffir lime oil and citronelal on lemongrass oil make the combination of both oils have the potential as an alternative theraphy for oral candidiasis. It formulates in the form of nanoemulsion mouthwash. Nanoemulsion is chosen because it has some advantages like clear, stable, and increasing the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil and kaffir lime oil. The study begins with plants determination, essential oils charecterization tests (solubility, refractative index, and specific gravity, and essential oil content analysis by GC-MS. Nanoemulision formulates by water titration method. Optimization of oil mix and VCO do to get a clear and stable nanoemulsion. The best formula is characterized (transmittance, particle size, viscosity, zeta potential, and stability test, then analyze the essential oil chemical compounds in the optimum formula and test the inhibitory effect of the formula by microdilution method. Inhibiton data analysis use One Way ANOVA. Based on the results of the study, 0.4 % oil mix, 3.6 % VCO, 17.3 % tween 80, 8.7 % PEG 400 dan 70 % water is the best formula that can form a nanoemulsion system with an average particle size 21,4 nm, low viscosity, low zeta potential and stable during freez-thaw storage. Nanoemulsion significantly has inhibitory effect more effective than positive control.

  11. Comparing the antiplaque efficacy of 0.5% Camellia sinensis extract, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambire, Chaitali U; Jawade, Rashmi; Patil, Amol; Wani, Vaibhav R; Kulkarni, Ankur A; Nehete, Parag B

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease which requires a susceptible host, a cariogenic microflora, and a suitable substrate that must be present for a sufficient length of time. Tea is prepared by the infusion of dried leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, which contains bioactive compounds like polyphenols, flavonoids, and catechins that are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to tea. These compounds have multidimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase, and inhibition of acid production. The aim of this study is to compare the antiplaque efficacy of 0.5% C. sinensis extract, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in children. A randomized blinded controlled trial with 60 healthy children of age group 9-14 years was carried out. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups, i.e. group A - 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, group B - 0.05% sodium fluoride, and group C - 0.5% C. sinensis extract, with 20 subjects per group. Plaque accumulation and gingival condition were recorded using plaque index and gingival index. Oral hygiene was assessed by simplified oral hygiene index (OHIS). Salivary pH was assessed using indikrom pH strips. Plaque, gingival, and simplified OHI scores as well as salivary pH were recorded at baseline, immediately after first rinse, after 1 week, and in the 2(nd) week. The data were analyzed using a computer software program (SPSS version 17). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to identify significant differences between the means of the study groups. Finally, paired t-tests were used to assess the significance of changes within each group between time periods. Critical P values of significance were set at 0.05 and the confidence level set at 95%. Mean plaque and gingival scores were reduced over the 2-week trial period in the experimental groups. Antiplaque effectiveness was

  12. Prevention of everolimus-related stomatitis in women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer using dexamethasone mouthwash (SWISH): a single-arm, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugo, Hope S; Seneviratne, Lasika; Beck, J Thaddeus; Glaspy, John A; Peguero, Julio A; Pluard, Timothy J; Dhillon, Navneet; Hwang, Leon Christopher; Nangia, Chaitali; Mayer, Ingrid A; Meiller, Timothy F; Chambers, Mark S; Sweetman, Robert W; Sabo, J Randy; Litton, Jennifer K

    2017-05-01

    Stomatitis is a class effect associated with the inhibition of mTOR and is associated with everolimus therapy for breast cancer. Topical steroids might reduce stomatitis incidence and severity, and the need for dose reductions and interruptions of everolimus. Anecdotal use of topical steroid oral prophylaxis has been reported in patients with breast cancer. We aimed to assess dexamethasone-based mouthwash for prevention of stomatitis in patients with breast cancer. This US-based, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 prevention study enrolled women aged 18 years and older with postmenopausal status who had histologically or cytologically confirmed metastatic hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer. Beginning on day 1 of cycle 1, patients received everolimus 10 mg plus exemestane 25 mg daily, with 10 mL of alcohol-free dexamethasone 0·5 mg per 5 mL oral solution (swish for 2 min and spit, four times daily for 8 weeks). After 8 weeks, dexamethasone mouthwash could be continued for up to eight additional weeks at the discretion of the clinician and patient. The primary endpoint was incidence of grade 2 or worse stomatitis by 8 weeks assessed in the full analysis set (patients who received at least one dose of everolimus and exemestane and at least one confirmed dose of dexamethasone mouthwash) versus historical controls from the BOLERO-2 trial (everolimus and exemestane treatment in patients with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer who were not given dexamethasone mouthwash for prevention of stomatitis). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02069093. Between May 28, 2014, and Oct 8, 2015, we enrolled 92 women; 85 were evaluable for efficacy. By 8 weeks, the incidence of grade 2 or worse stomatitis was two (2%) of 85 patients (95% CI 0·29-8·24), versus 159 (33%) of 482 patients (95% CI 28·8-37·4) for the duration of the BOLERO-2 study. Overall, 83 (90%) of 92 patients had at least one adverse event. The most frequently

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Triphala and Ela Decoction With 0.2% Chlorhexidine as Mouthwash in the Treatment of Plaque-Induced Gingivitis and Halitosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamgain, Pratibha; Kandwal, Abhishek; Mamgain, Ravindra K

    2016-12-08

    Present study evaluates efficacy of Trifala and Ela as plaque controlling agent and compares it with chlorhexidine. To evaluate Antigingivitis, Antiplaque and Antihalitosis effect of Triphala and Ela decoction. A randomized sample of 60 patients with plaque induced gingivitis was enrolled and equally divided into two groups group A and group B. Group A was given Trifala and Ela decoction and Group B Chlorehexidine mouthwash for 21 days twice daily. Gingival inflammation index, plaque index and Organoleptic scoring scale was recorded at baseline, 14th day and 21st day. Comparing the plaque index for Group A with group B the reduction in from baseline to 14 day was 42.59 % and 38.62% respectively while from baseline to 21 day was 56.20% and 68.57% respectively. On comparing Gingival index for group A with group B the reduction from baseline to 14 day was 31.95% and 38.62 % respectively while from baseline to 21 day was 69.95 % and 68.57% respectively. Halitosis Percentage reduction at 14th day from base line was 33.33% and 38.18%; at 21 day from baseline 66.66% and 72.72% respectively for group A and group B. No statistical significant difference for intergroup comparison was found using paired t test. Intra group analysis using unpaired t test was significant for all the indices at different time intervals. Triphala and Ela decoction is organic, easy to prepare economical and equally effective as compared to chlorhexidine mouthwash. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Análise farmacognóstica e atividade antibacteriana de extratos vegetais empregados em formulação para a higiene bucal Herbal extracts in an experimental mouthwash: pharmacognostics analysis and antibacterial activity

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    Cynthia Helena Gontijo Cordeiro

    2006-09-01

    antibacterial studies were carried by the disc diffusion method, hole plate and tamplate. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were determinated by broth dilution method. The extracts were incorporated in mouthwash for periodontal diseases treatment. The pharmacognostics studies showed that herbs and extracts have substances groups described in literature. The antibacterial studies showed that extracts and mouthwash have some activity against all considered bacteria. S. aureus and B. subtilis showed, apparently, to be species more susceptible. Investigation of the MIC showed 312,5 µL/mL-1250 µL/mL for extracts and 625 µL/mL-2500 µL/mL for mouthwash. The studies served as initial quality control of the obtained cosmetic, enhancing anti-inflammatory (flavonoids and/or antibacterial activities (tanins. However, new studies are necessary to confirm the cosmetic efficacy for treatment periodontal diseases.

  15. The role of Octenidol(®), Glandomed(®) and chlorhexidine mouthwash in the prevention of mucositis and in the reduction of the oropharyngeal flora: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutters, Nico T; Neubert, Thomas R; Nieth, Rudolf; Mutters, Reinier

    2015-01-01

    The oropharyngeal flora is of importance for the development of oral mucositis, which is a frequent complication in oncologic practice. It also plays a role in the pathogenesis of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Mucositis is associated with significantly worse clinical and economic outcomes. The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of Octenidol(®), Glandomed(®) and chlorhexidine mouthwash in the prevention of mucositis and reduction of the oropharyngeal flora. A prospective, double-blinded RCT including two strata was conducted between October 2008 and November 2010. Stratum i consisted of ventilated cardiothoracic surgical patients. Stratum ii consisted of medical patients with haemato-oncological malignancies requiring stem cell transplantation. The primary outcome measures were development of mucositis regarding to OMAS/WHO score and reduction of the oropharyngeal flora. Both strata showed low OMAS/WHO scores which did not differ significantly between the groups. The overall mean reduction of colony forming units was significantly higher in the Octenidol(®) group compared to the chlorhexidine and the Glandomed(®) groups. No significant differences in the development of mucositis were found, thus all solutions proved successful in the prevention of mucositis. However, Octenidol(®) was superior in the reduction of the oropharyngeal flora. Hence, the preventive effect on nosocomial infections might be higher in patients using Octenidol(®) rather than chlorhexidine or Glandomed(®).

  16. In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio

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    Juliana Rico Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in comparison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers’ saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.Diversas substâncias antisépticas têm sido utilizadas como adjuntos aos procedimentos mecânicos rotineiros de higiene oral, com base em seus efeitos antimicrobianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a eficiência antimicrobiana de um enxaguatório bucal contendo Triclosan/Gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio, em comparação a controles positivos e negativos. Linhagens padrão de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus e Bacillus subtilis foram utilizadas. Amostras de Streptococcus mutans e Bacilos Gram-negativos foram coletadas de 20 voluntários (10 com um periodonto clinicamente saudável e 10 com gengivite associada à presença de biofilme. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi

  17. Efeito da clorexidina na mucosite induzida por radioterapia em câncer de cabeça e pescoço Effects of chlorhexidine mouthwash on radiation induced mucosistis in head and neck cancer

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    Rogério Labbate

    2003-06-01

    on the oral mucous membrane, during the radiotherapy and its reflex in the quality of life referred by patients. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical prospective. MATERIAL AND MATHOD: 21 patients with cancer of Head and Neck were selected and allocated in two groups: group Placebo (n=11, 9 men and 2 women, mean age 58 years distilled water - two daily mouthwashes and group Medication (n=10, 7 men and 2 women, mean age 52 years chlorhexidin 0,12% - two daily mouthwashes. The patients were appraised weekly with local exam for detection of the mucous membrane alterations (classification in agreement with WHO and Group of Therapy for Radiation in Oncology - degrees 0 to IV and completion of questionnaire of life quality emphasizing the pain aspects, appetite, palate and alimentary habits. The statistical analysis accomplished by Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The graduation of mucositis was more intense in the group Placebo in 6 of the 10 weeks of evaluation. The frequency and intensity of pain were worse in the group Placebo in the 4th week of radiotherapy and the palate modification was more intense in the individuals that didn't use the medicine just in the 7th week. They were not found differences in the other parameters of life quality. CONCLUSIONS: We can conclude that the chlorhexidin didn't eliminate the mucous membrane lesions but decreased, significantly, their harmful effects and intensity without presenting a persistent reflex in the quality of the patients' life.

  18. Alteraciones de la mucosa bucal causadas por la asociación entre el tabaco y los colutorios bucales con una concentración de alcohol del 26,9 % Alterations of the oral mucous membrane caused by the association between tobacco and the mouthwashes with an alcohol concentration of 26.9 %

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    Anna Christina Medeiros Fossati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron el epitelio y la capa de queratina de la mucosa oral de 15 ratas que durante 45 días fueron sometidas a una aplicación tópica de picadura de tabaco y de colutorio bucal con una concentración de alcohol del 26,9 %. Tras ese período, se extrajeron las mucosas y se les realizó un análisis histológico. Se observó una significativa disminución del espesor del epitelio y de la capa de queratina, lo que indica que la picadura asociada con colutorios bucales con alta concentración de alcohol, provoca la reducción del espesor de la capa de queratina y del epitelio de la boca.The epithelium and the keratin layer of the oral mucous membrane of 15 rats that were subjected to a topical application of cut tobacco and mouthwashes with an alcohol concentration of 26.9 % during 45 days were analyzed. After that period, the oral mucous membranes were removed and a histological analysis was made. It was observed a significant decrease of the thickness of the epithelium and of the keratin layer, which shows that cut tobbaco associated with collutories with a high concentration of alcohol causes the reduction of the thickness of the keratin layer and of the mouth epithelium.

  19. Estudo comparativo do efeito de solução de NaF a 0,5%, através de bochecho, escovação e ambos, na prevenção da cárie dental A comparative study of the effect of a 0.5% NaF solution, used in mouthwashing or toothbrushing or both, in the prevention of dental caries

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    Roberto Augusto Castellanos

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo a fim de comparar o efeito na redução do ataque de cárie de uma solução de fluoreto de sódio, na concentração de 0,5% aplicada sob a forma de bochecho, escovação, escovação e bochecho, uma vez por semana, sob supervisão, durante um período escolar de 10 meses em 424 escolares de 9 a 10 anos de idade matriculados em cinco escolas estaduais do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil. As crianças foram distribuídas igualmente em três grupos experimentais e um grupo controle, de acordo com a idade dental (nº de superfícies de dentes permanentes irrompidas e experiência anterior de cárie (CPO-S. Foram examinadas 307 crianças e os resultados mostraram que houve uma redução, estatisticamente significante ao nível de 0,05, de ataque de cárie entre os grupos experimentais e controle, da ordem de 35,19% para o grupo de bochecho (grupo I, de 37,91% para o grupo de escovação (grupo II, e de 49,77% para o grupo de escovação e bochecho (grupo IV. Quando comparados os grupos experimentais entre si não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes ao nível de 0,05.A comparative study of the anticariogenic effect of sodium fluoride solution, with a concentration of 0.5%, applied weekly and under supervision, in mouthwashing and toothbrushing, used independently and in combination, was carried out on 424 children of 9 and 10 years of age from five public schools in S. Paulo, Brazil, over a period of 10 school months. The children were equally divided into three experimental groups and one control group according to the dental age (number of erupted permanent teeth surfaces and history of caries (DMF-S. Three hundred and seven children were examined at the end of the study and the results show a statistically significant decrease at the 0.05 level, between the experimental groups and control group, in the incidence of caries - 35.19% for the mouthwashing group (Group I; 37.91% for the toothbrushing group (Group II; and

  20. Herbal mouthwash based on Libidibia ferrea: microbiological control, sensory characteristics, sedimentation, pH and density

    OpenAIRE

    Venâncio, Gisely Naura; Rodrigues, Isis Costa; Souza, Tatiane Pereira de; Marreiro, Raquel de Oliveira; Bandeira, Maria Fulgência Costa Lima; Conde, Nikeila Chacon de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Phytotherapy is the study of herbal medicines and their applicability to cure diseases in general, being a therapeutic method which can be used for the prevention and treatment of mouth diseases. Among the herbal studied, the Libidibia ferrea, known as jucá or ironwood, is widely used in folk medicine by presenting anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and antipyretic therapeutic properties. Objective To evaluate in vitro pharmacological stability of the Libidibia ferrea ex...

  1. Herbal mouthwash based on Libidibia ferrea: microbiological control, sensory characteristics, sedimentation, pH and density

    OpenAIRE

    Venâncio,Gisely Naura; Rodrigues,Isis Costa; Souza,Tatiane Pereira de; Marreiro,Raquel de Oliveira; Bandeira,Maria Fulgência Costa Lima; Conde,Nikeila Chacon de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Phytotherapy is the study of herbal medicines and their applicability to cure diseases in general, being a therapeutic method which can be used for the prevention and treatment of mouth diseases. Among the herbal studied, the Libidibia ferrea, known as jucá or ironwood, is widely used in folk medicine by presenting anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and antipyretic therapeutic properties. Objective To evaluate in vitro pharmacological stability of the Libidibia ferr...

  2. Antimicrobial effectiveness of different trademarks mouthwashes with and without alcohol against different organisms: in vitro study = Efetividade antimicrobiana de diferentes marcas comerciais de enxaguatórios bucais com e sem álcool sobre diversos microrganismos: estudo in vitro

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    Borges, Álvaro Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O objetivo desse estudo in vitro foi de avaliar a ação antimicrobiana de enxaguatórios bucais com e sem álcool. Metodologia: Usaram-se no estudo o Periogard®, o CEPACOL®, Plax Classic® e o ORAL-B®, anti-séptico sem álcool. Para a realização desse estudo foram utilizadas 40 placas de Petri com meio de cultura de Ágar Sangue para os seguintes microrganismos: Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Para a mensuração dos halos de inibição, um único examinador treinado utilizou uma lupa estereoscópica e um paquímetro digital. Após a coleta dos dados, as médias foram comparadas utilizando-se do teste estatístico ANOVA (análise de variância com teste corretivo de Bonferroni, para nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: O Periogard® com álcool e o sem álcool apresentaram os melhores resultados. O Plax® sem álcool obteve os piores resultados. O Plax® com álcool foi melhor substância em relação ao S. aureus. Os demais resultados mantiveram-se com melhor efetividade em relação à substância controle. Conclusão: Os enxaguatórios sem álcool não têm a mesma eficácia antimicrobiana comparada aos enxaguatórios com álcool em relação aos microrganismos testados neste estudo

  3. Impact of the cosmetic mouthwash “Jack Pro Spülung plus” (“rheodol-Spülung plus” on the oral cavity flora, tested in a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study

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    Göhring, Jana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aim: Jack Pro Spülung Plus (also available as “rheodol-Spülung plus” is recommended to mechanically maintain oral hygiene as part of an overall oral hygiene concept. Because Jack Pro Spülung Plus contains the active agents polihexanide and tosylchloramide sodium in concentrations below microbicidal efficacy, this study tested the hypothesis that the combination of mechanical rinsing and bacteriostatic effect surpasses the effect of mechanical rinsing alone.Method: The study was performed with 30 volunteers as a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study. The efficacy of the test product (active agents polihexanide 0.02–0.03% and tosylchloramide sodium 0.004–0.006% was compared to an aqueous solution of polihexanide (0.02–0.03% and to Ringer solution as negative control. The efficacy was measured as the reduction of colony forming units (cfu on buccal mucosa after aerobic and anaerobic cultivation. After determination of pre-values, the volunteers performed mouthrinsing for 30 sec with each of the 3 tested solutions. After 1, 10 and 60 minutes, cfu numbers were determined again. The reduction factor was calculated as the difference between log of the measured cfu before and after mouthrinsing with the test solution. The sampling was performed using a template with a smear area of 1 x 1 cm. Results: Using Ringer solution led to a slight mechanically-induced reduction of cfu in the oral cavity 1 min after rinsing the mouth cavity with the solution. After 10 min and 60 min, no influence on the cfu number could be detected. Using Jack pro Spülung Plus led to a bacteriostatic effect up to 60 min after mouthrinsing; 10 min and 60 min after rinsing the efficacy of Ringer solution was also significantly surpassed. The aqueous solution of polihexanide was less effective than Jack pro Spülung Plus after 10 and 60 min. Conclusion: Based on these observations, we conclude that Jack pro Spülung Plus is suitable for improvement of oral hygiene if patients have sensitive oral mucosa, e.g., in cases of aggressive cancer therapy or for patients with tracheostoma.

  4. Physicochemical properties, labeling and antimicrobial activity of mouthwashes for children = Propriedades físico-químicas, apresentação de rotulagem e atividade antimicrobiana de colutórios infantis

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    Cunha, Diego Alves da

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar propriedades físico-químicas, modo de apresentação e ação antimicrobiana de colutórios infantis sobre microrganismos do biofilme dentário. Metodologia: Selecionaram-se oito marcas de colutórios, adotando-se água destilada e clorexidina como controle negativo e positivo, respectivamente. As embalagens foram analisadas por meio de observação direta. A avaliação do pH, ºBrix e viscosidade cinemática foi realizada mediante phmetro digital, refratômetro específico de campo e viscosímetro capilar, respectivamente. Utilizou-se cepas de Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus. mutans, Streptococcus salivarius e Lactobacillus acidophilus, sendo elas reativadas em BHI e semeadas em placas contendo ágar sangue. Pelo método da difusão em ágar, realizaram-se testes de susceptibilidade, com incubação a 37ºC/48 horas. Resultados: Os valores de pH, ºBrix e viscosidade variaram de 4,89 a 7,23; 2,8 a 20,0; 1,47 mm²/s a 2,73 mm²/s, respectivamente. A clorexidina demonstrou os maiores halos de inibição sobre S. salivarius e L. acidophilus, sendo este efeito observado para os colutórios frente ao S. oralis e S. mutans. Conclusão: O pH dos colutórios infantis foi neutro ou próximo a ele, havendo presença de sólidos solúveis em sua composição, enquanto a viscosidade mostrou pouca variação. Estes produtos apresentaram ação antimicrobiana sobre os microrganismos estudados, exceto um dos colutórios que não demonstrou efeito sobre S. mutans

  5. Antibiotic protocol for the prevention of osteoradionecrosis following dental extractions in irradiated head and neck cancer patients: A 10 years prospective study

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    Saleh A Al-Bazie

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, perioperative oral antibiotics in combination with antibacterial mouthwashes are effective in preventing ORN following dental extractions in irradiated patients.

  6. Comparison of the Efficacy and Side Effects of Chlorhexidine Mouthrinses with (Hexidine and without (Epimax Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mogharehabed

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although Epimax mouthwash did not show any side effects, it was less suitable and caused more dental stain. Ethanol-free Hexidine mouthwash seems to be more proper for gingivitis, but its side effects are required to be taken into consideration.

  7. How to harvest buccal mucosa from the cheek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G. Barbagli

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... from the lip was reported many years later in 1941 by Humby from. London ... opening, the size of available tissue on both cheeks and the presence of scars ... should begin using chlorhexidine mouthwash for oral cleansing.

  8. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences - Vol 27, No 5 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : a cross-sectional study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Periodontal therapy with 0.25%lemongrass oil mouthwash in reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases: a 3-arm prospective parallel experimental study · EMAIL ...

  9. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... vitamins mouthwash toothpaste Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  10. Dry Mouth Treatment: Tips for Controlling Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouthwashes that contain alcohol because they can be drying. Stop all tobacco use if you smoke or ... also help your condition: Avoid sugary or acidic foods and drinks because they increase your risk of ...

  11. Artificial Sweeteners and Other Sugar Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods and other products, including chocolate, candy, frozen desserts, chewing gum, toothpaste, mouthwash, baked goods and fruit ... in tea and cocktails to sweeten drinks, in desserts, as pancake and waffle toppings, on cereals, and ...

  12. PATTERNS OF SEVEN AND COMPLICATED MALARIA IN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... access the effect of Aloe vera mouthwash on the dental plaque in the experimental period of 4 days and to compare it with the bench mark control chlorhexidine and placebo ... skin infections, haemorrhoids, sinusitis, and.

  13. Eucalyptus oil overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liniments Diaper rash creams Inhalers to relieve nasal congestion Medicine for sore gums, mouth, and throat Mouthwashes ... IV) Medicines to treat symptoms Activated charcoal Laxative Tube through the nose into the stomach to wash ...

  14. Antimicrobial effectiveness of Neem (Azadirachta indica and Babool (Acacia nilotica on Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pandya Sajankumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine because of their natural origin, easy availability, efficacy, and safety. Aim: To compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of Neem and Babool on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of 5%, 10%, and 50% of Neem and Babool aqueous extract with 5%, 10%, and 50% of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash on S. mutans. The ditch plate method was used to test the antimicrobial activity. Ditches were prepared on blood agar plates with the help of punch having 7 mm diameter. The plates were left for 1 h at room temperature and then incubated at 37°C for 48 h and examined for zone of inhibition. Results: Inhibitory effect of 5% Neem is significantly better than 5% Babool and 5% chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. At 10% and 50%, Neem and Babool are significantly better than chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. Inhibitory effect of Babool increases as the concentration increases (P < 0.05. The inhibitory effect of 5% and 50% chlorhexidine mouthwash is better than 10% chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of Neem exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity compared with Babool and chlorhexidine mouthwash.

  15. In situ neutralisation of the antibacterial effect of 0.2% Chlorhexidine on salivary microbiota: Quantification of substantivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, V; Prada-López, I; Donos, N; Suárez-Quintanilla, D; Tomás, I

    2015-08-01

    To quantify the substantivity of a single 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouthwash in saliva after its neutralisation with tooth-brushing and 1% acetic acid, in order to identify the effect of Chlorhexidine substantivity in regard to the re-growing period of the salivary bacteria. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from a group of 15 healthy individuals at baseline (BS), and then 30s and 1, 3, 5 and 7h after the following protocols were performed: a single sterile water mouthwash (M-WATER) (negative control), a single 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouthwash (M-0.2% CHX) (positive control) and a single 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouthwash followed by a complete and detailed tooth-brushing, and a single 1% acetic acid mouthwash (M-0.2% CHX+NP). The samples were analysed using an epifluorescence microscope in combination with LIVE/DEAD(®) BacLight™ fluorescence solution. After the M-0.2% CHX treatment, the bacterial vitality was significantly lower than BS until 7h (87.6 ± 6.5% vs. 73.6 ± 8.8%; pvitality remained significantly lower until 3h with regard to BS (81.4 ± 3.8% vs. 68.1 ± 10.6%; p=0.001), increasing at 5 and 7h (no differences from BS). The immediate antibacterial effect of a single 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouthwash is so potent that the bacterial population needs more than 3h to return to baseline bacterial vitality levels. The substantivity of a 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouthwash is a property that significantly increases its antibacterial activity from the first hour and contributes to extend the duration of its effect by at least double. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of the medicinal plants Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis on halitosis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Hugo Farina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile sulphur compounds (VSC are the gases mainly responsible for halitosis (bad breath. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of medicinal plants on halitosis control. Two commonly used plants were tested: Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis (green tea. These plants were prepared as an aqueous solution and used as mouthwashes, compared with a standard mouthwash of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate and a placebo (water. The experiment was conducted with 30 volunteers from the School of Dentistry of São Jose dos Campos, Univ. Estadual Paulista - UNESP, SP, Brazil. Each volunteer tested the four mouthwashes. The Cysteine Challenge Method, modified for this study, was used for initial breath standardization. Four breath assessments were conducted after volunteers rinsed orally with acetylcysteine: one before the test mouthwash was used; the second, one minute after its use; a third 90 minutes later; and the last 180 minutes later. The results showed that chlorhexidine gluconate lowered VSC production immediately, and that this effect lasted up to 3 hours, while the tested plants had immediate inhibitory effects but no residual inhibitory effects on VSC. We concluded that Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis, prepared as infusions and used as mouthwashes, did not have a residual neutralizing effect on VSC.

  17. The effect of different environmental factors on force degradation of three common systems of orthodontic space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshagh, Morteza; Khajeh, Farzaneh; Heidari, Somayeh; Torkan, Sepideh; Fattahi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Different environmental conditions, such as high temperature or exposure to some chemical agents, may affect the force decay of different methods of space closure during orthodontic treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the force decay pattern in the presence of tea as a popular drink in some parts of the world and two mouthwashes that are usually prescribed by the orthodontist once the treatment is in progress. Elastic chain (EC), nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) closed coil spring and tie-back (TB) method were used as the means of space closure. The specimens were placed in five different media: Hot tea, hot water (65°), chlorhexidine mouthwash, fluoride mouthwash and the control group (water at 37°). The specimens were stretched 25 mm and the elastic force of three systems was measured at the beginning of the study, after 24 h, after 1 week and after 3 weeks. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the results between the groups and Duncan test was carried out to compare the sets of means in different groups (P ≤ 0.05). Tea increases the force decay in the EC and TB groups. Oral mouthwashes also resulted in more rapid force decay than the control group. EC and Ni-Ti groups were not much affected in the presence of oral mouthwashes. Regarding the immersion media, TB method showed the biggest variation in different media and Ni-Ti coil spring was least affected by the type of media.

  18. The effects of acid erosion and remineralization on enamel and three different dental materials: FT-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Soares, Ana Lúcia Silva; De Oliveira, Rodrigo; Nahórny, Sidnei

    2016-07-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to test the hypothesis that the beverage consumption or mouthwash utilization would change the chemistry of dental materials and enamel inorganic content. Bovine enamel samples (n = 36) each received two cavity preparations (n = 72), each pair filled with one of three dental materials (R: nanofilled composite resin, GIC: glass-ionomer cement, RMGIC: resin-modified GIC). Furthermore, they were treated with three different solutions (S: artificial saliva, E: erosion/Pepsi Twist or EM: erosion + mouthwash/Colgate Plax). Reduction of carbonate content of enamel was greater in RE than RS (P erosion. Material degradation was greater after E and EM than S. GIC and RMGIC materials had a positive effect against acid erosion in the adjacent enamel after remineralization with mouthwash. The beverage and mouthwash utilization would change R and GIC chemical properties. A professional should periodically monitor the glass-ionomer and resin restorations, as they degrade over time under erosive challenges and mouthwash utilization. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:646-656, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Knowledge and attitude of the primary school male students about the Iranian fluoride mouth rinse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Poureslami DDS, MSc

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the knowledge and attitude of male students of Kerman primaryschools about 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash solution that students used it once a week.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 502 boys, eight to nine year-old and students of Kerman primaryschools were selected for the study. The data related to their knowledge and attitude about the sodium fluoridemouthwash were collected by questionnaire.RESULTS: The boy students’ knowledge about the sodium fluoride mouthwash solution was good but their attitude wasnegative.CONCLUSIONS: The oral health education program concerning the optimal use of the fluoride mouthwash in dentalcaries prevention is highly recommended. It is suggested that its taste is improved

  20. Effects of fixed orthodontic treatment and two new mouth rinses on gingival health: A prospective cohort followed by a single-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Farhad; Rakhshan, Vahid; Heydari, Mohaddeseh; Keikavusi, Shohreh; Dadgar, Sepideh; Shariati, Mahsa

    2018-03-01

    Routine brushing protocols might not suffice to reduce the increased plaque accumulation in orthodontic patients. Antimicrobial mouth rinses are favorable in this regard. This two-phase study evaluated the effects of orthodontic treatment and the application of two mouthwashes not studied before on oral health indices. In this two-phase study (a prospective cohort followed by a parallel randomized controlled trial), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), and pocket probing depth (PPD) were measured in 54 orthodontic patients before orthodontic treatment and 4 months later. Then patients were randomized into three groups of mouthrinses: Persica (herbal), Ortho-Kin (containing diluted chlorhexidine), and Placebo (n=18×3). The effects of orthodontic treatment and mouthrinses were analyzed statistically (α=0.05). All the 4 indices increased between the baseline and 4th month of treatment (P values<0.01, paired t-test). They decreased back to baseline levels or below them, after one month of mouthwash application (P values<0.002). Both mouthwashes showed therapeutic effects compared to placebo in terms of PI and GBI. In the case of GI, only Persica showed significantly better results compared to placebo. Regarding PPD, only Ortho-Kin acted better than placebo (P values≤0.05, Tukey). Lack of positive control (regular chlorhexidine mouth rinse) and negative control (a group with no mouthwashes, even without the placebo). Lack of sample size predetermination based on a priori power calculations. The difference between the regime of Persica with that of Ortho-Kin and placebo (which had similar application protocols) disallowed perfectly effective blinding of the patients (hence, single-blind). Fixed orthodontic treatment might disrupt gingival health. Antimicrobial mouthwashes might reverse this. Both evaluated mouthwashes might have therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2018 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparative evaluation of efficacy of Punica granatum and chlorhexidine on plaque and gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Ahuja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases are chronic bacterial infections that lead to gingival inflammation, periodontal tissue destruction, and alveolar bone loss. Acting as powerful allies in the fight against periodontal disease, natural compounds can help safeguard against lethal age-related diseases that emanate from our mouths. Punica granatum (pomegranate shrub belongs to the Punicaceae family which has been used as an astringent, hemostatic, antidiabetic, antihelmintic, and also for diarrhea and dysentery. The aim of the present work was to investigate the possible efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract from Punica granatum fruit as an antiplaque and antigingivitis agent when compared with chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects diagnosed with chronic generalized gingivitis were selected and randomly divided into two groups: Group 1 - Pomegranate mouthwash and Group 2 - Chlorhexidine mouthwash. Punica granatum mouthwash was prepared using raw Punica granatum fruit. Patients were instructed to use the prescribed mouthwash for 15 days. Clinical evaluation was undertaken using the gingival index, the plaque index, and bleeding on probing at baseline, 7 days, and 15 days. Results: The clinical study observed significant improvement in gingival status in both the sites (P<0.05. Subjects using Punica granatum mouthwash showed significant improvement in bleeding and gingivitis score as compared with chlorhexidine. In contrast, Punica granatum was shown not to be so effective in reducing plaque scores. Chlorhexidine still remains as a standard in the reduction of plaque in subjects with gingivitis. Conclusion: Punica granatum mouthwash is beneficial in improving gingival status due to its profound styptic action, with sufficient reduction in plaque scores.

  2. Prevention of oral mucositis in children receiving cancer therapy: a systematic review and evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qutob, Akram F; Gue, Sumant; Revesz, Tamas; Logan, Richard M; Keefe, Dorothy

    2013-02-01

    This systematic review investigated, critically appraised, and rated the evidence on agents used to prevent oral mucositis in children. A comprehensive search of the relevant literature was performed up to December 2011. Articles were included according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were critically appraised for validation and quality assessment using a checklist consisting of 18 categories. Each article was then rated for its strength of evidence. 16,471 articles were retrieved from 19 different databases and then reduced to 27 articles that fit the inclusion criteria. Five articles on oral care protocols supported their use to prevent oral mucositis in children. Seven articles on chlorhexidine mouthwash and three on laser therapy had conflicting evidence of its use. The preventative agents that were supported by one or two articles included: benzydamine mouthwash, iseganan mouthwash, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mouthwash, oral/enteral glutamine, oral propantheline and cryotherapy, oral cryotherapy, oral sucralfate suspension, prostaglandin E2 tablets, and chewing gum. The reduction in the rates of occurrence of oral mucositis when using agents of fair (B) to good (A) evidence ranged from 22% to 52%. In conclusion, this review suggests the use of oral care protocols to prevent oral mucositis in children because of their strength of evidence (fair to good). The authors suggest avoiding agents with fair to good evidence against their use (oral sucralfate suspension, prostaglandin E2 tablets, and GM-CSF mouthwash). Agents with conflicting evidence (chlorhexidine mouthwash (used solely), laser therapy, and glutamine) should also be avoided until further research confirms their efficacy. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Achyranthes aspera, 0.2% Aqueous Chlorhexidine Gluconate and Punica granatum Oral Rinse on the Levels of Salivary Streptococcus mutans in 8 to 12 Years Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Aayushi; Marwah, Nikhil; Nigam, Anant Gopal; Goenka, Puneet; Goel, Deepak

    2015-11-01

    To study the effect Achyranthes aspera, 0.2% aqueous chlorhexidine gluconate and Punica granatum oral rinse on salivary Streptococcus mutans count in children. A total of 60 children of 8 to 12 years of age were randomly allocated into 3 groups. Group A was given 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash, group B was given 10% A. aspera mouthwash and group C was given 15% P. granatum mouthwash. The day 1 saliva samples were collected from the subjects and inoculated onto mitis salivarius bacitracin (MSB) agar. The colony counts were obtained by a clinical microbiologist who was blinded to the subject allocation. Plaque scores were then recorded by the investigator with the help of a volunteer. Following this, they received a thorough scaling and polishing. Subjects in each group were then provided with 140 ml of the respective mouthwash, as a daily supervised rinse after breakfast and before sleeping as per instructions. Following mouth rinsing, the children were instructed not to eat or drink for 15 minutes. At the 7th day, unstimulated saliva was again collected from the subjects of all 3 groups, inoculated onto MSB agar and colony count was obtained. Modified Quigley-Hein plaque index was also evaluated for the refreshed score at this stage. Colony counting was done using loop method and statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) software version 21. All the three mouthwashes showed statistically significant reduction of S. mutans count and plaque index after 7 days, i.e. chlorhexidine (p granatum (p granatum was statistically significant with respect to reduction of S. mutans count with chlorhexidine being marginally better than the other two; All the three mouthwashes were found to be at par when plaque index values from baseline and after interception of 7 days was calculated; Punica granatum has better antimicrobial effect than A. aspera.

  4. The effects of a new mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine, cetylpyridinium chloride and zinc lactate on the microflora of oral halitosis patients : a dual-centre, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roldan, S; Winkel, EG; Herrera, D; Sanz, M; Van Winkelhoff, AJ

    Aim: This study evaluated the microbial effects of a newly formulated mouthwash (Halita((R)) ) on oral halitosis patients. Methods: Forty subjects were included in this dual-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to select patients. At

  5. Influence of oral detergents and chlorhexidine on soft-layer electrokinetic parameters of the acquired enamel pellicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, HJ; White, DJ; Kamminga-Rasker, HJ; Poortinga, AT; van der Mei, HC

    2003-01-01

    Electron microscopy has described the salivary pellicle as an 'uneven, knotted structure'. This study describes a novel soft-layer model of salivary pellicles, based on measured electrophoretic mobilities and the influence of dentifrices and a chlorhexidine mouthwash on the parameters of the model.

  6. Micro energy-dispersive X-ray fluoresence mapping of enamel and dental materials after chemical erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; de Oliveira, Rodrigo; Nahórny, Sídnei; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-10-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence was employed to test the hypothesis that beverage consumption or mouthwash utilization will change the chemical properties of dental materials and enamel mineral content. Bovine enamel samples (n = 45) each received two cavity preparations (n = 90), each pair filled with one of three dental materials (R: nanofilled composite resin; GIC: glass-ionomer cement; RMGIC: resin-modified GIC). Furthermore, they were treated with three different solutions (S: saliva; E: erosion/Pepsi Twist®; or EM: erosion+mouthwash/Colgate Plax®). It was found that mineral loss in enamel was greater in GICE samples than in RE > RMGICE > RMGICEM > REM > GICEM. An increased percentage of Zr was found in REM indicating organic matrix degradation. Dental materials tested (R, GIC, and RMGIC) were not able to protect adjacent enamel from acid erosion by the soft drink tested. The use of mouthwash promoted protection of enamel after erosion by the soft drink. To avoid chemical dissolution by mouthwashes, protection by resin composites with surface sealants is recommended.

  7. [Minor dentoalveolar surgery in patients ungergoing antithrombotic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.D.; Laetgaard, C.A.; Schou, S.

    2009-01-01

    is generally higher if the treatment is stopped. Application of local haemostatic agents and postoperative mouthwashes with tranexamic acid are recommended. Any changes in antithrombotic therapy must be undertaken in collaboration with the patient's prescribing physician Udgivelsesdato: 2009/4/20...

  8. Prevention of Alveolar Osteitis After Third Molar Surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-16

    May 16, 2017 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ¦ Volume 20 ¦ Issue 4 ¦ April 2017 observed similar percentages of alveolar osteitis using mouthwashes of warm saline and 0.2% chlorhexidine. (23.7% and 20.9%, respectively) in a randomized controlled study. The use of warm saline rinse is a common postextraction.

  9. Summaries of Research, Fiscal Year 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    K- IR or 10449. Compounds that are effective GTF inhibitors at low concentrations could prove to be suitable for incorporation into mouthwashes...Streptococcus mutans to hydroxyapatite (artificial tooth) surfaces in the presence of sucrose. Untreated samples in this system had greatly increased surface

  10. Color Recovery Effect of Different Bleaching Systems on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composite samples were immersed in coffee and turnip juice for 1 week in each. One laser activated bleaching (LB) (Biolase Laserwhite*20) and three conventional bleaching systems (Ultradent Opalescence Boost 40% (OB), Ultradent Opalescence PF 15% home bleaching (HB), Crest 3D White [Whitening Mouthwash]) ...

  11. The antimicrobial effect of Iseganan HCl oral solution in patients receiving stomatotoxic chemotherapy: analysis from a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, phase III clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elad, S.; Epstein, J.B.; Raber-Durlacher, J.E.; Donnelly, P.; Strahilevitz, J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic chemotherapy induces changes in the oral microflora that may cause oral and systemic infections in myelosuppressed cancer patients. These complications prompted us to assess the antimicrobial activity of a topical Iseganan HCl mouthwash vs. placebo on the aerobic and

  12. The antimicrobial effect of Iseganan HCl oral solution in patients receiving stomatotoxic chemotherapy: analysis from a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, phase III clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elad, Sharon; Epstein, Joel B.; Raber-Durlacher, Judith; Donnelly, Peter; Strahilevitz, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy induces changes in the oral microflora that may cause oral and systemic infections in myelosuppressed cancer patients. These complications prompted us to assess the antimicrobial activity of a topical Iseganan HCl mouthwash vs. placebo on the aerobic and facultatively

  13. Toxic optic neuropathy: An unusual cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema L Ramkumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old woman with a history of chronic alcoholism and tobacco use presented with the complaint of a painless decrease in vision in both eyes. She lost vision first in the left eye then in the right eye. She admitted consuming at least one 16 ounce bottle of over the counter mouthwash daily and denied consumption of any other alcohols, methanol, or antifreeze. She stated that her vision had been continuing to deteriorate in both eyes. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 4/200 in each eye. Color vision was nil in each eye. Her pupils were sluggish bilaterally, and her optic discs were flat and hyperemic with peripapillary hemorrhages. Her visual fields revealed central scotomas bilaterally. The magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and lumbar puncture were within normal limits. Antinuclear antibody, human leukocyte antigen-B27 genotyping, and B12 were normal; serum thiamine was low. While continuing to ingest mouthwash, her vision decreased to count fingers at 2 feet, and maculopapillary bundle pallor developed. She was started on folate and thiamine supplementation. Once she discontinued mouthwash, her vision improved to 20/400 bilaterally, and her central scotomas improved. This case demonstrates an alcohol-induced toxic optic neuropathy from mouthwash ingestion with some visual recovery after discontinuation of the offending agent.

  14. Effect of Manuka honey, chlorhexidine gluconate and xylitol on the clinical levels of dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha A Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the effect of Manuka honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% mouthwash and xylitol chewing gum on the dental plaque levels. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy male dental students aged between 21 and 25 years (mean age 23.4 years participated in the study. All the subjects received a professional prophylaxis at the start of the study, with the purpose of making the dentition 100% free of plaque and calculus. The subjects were then randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the Manuka honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the xylitol chewing gum group. Rinsing with water or any other fluid after the procedure was not allowed as also any form of mechanical oral hygiene for all the subjects during the experimental period of 72 h. After the experimental period, the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Results: The mean plaque scores for Groups I, II and III were 1.37, 1.35 and 1.57, respectively. The ANOVA revealed that between-group comparison was significant, with an F-value of 5.99 and a probability value of 0.004. The T-test was carried out to evaluate the inter-group significance, which revealed that the plaque inhibition by Manuka honey was similar to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Both Manuka honey and chlorhexidine mouthwash reduced plaque formation significantly, better than the xylitol chewing gum. Conclusion: Manuka honey and chlorhexidine mouthwash reduced plaque formation significantly better than xylitol chewing gum.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lourdes Faria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash. First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group. After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group. For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL. RESULTS: The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. CONCLUSIONS: Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate.

  16. Basal and induced NO formation in the pharyngo-oral tract influences estimates of alveolar NO levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovschi, Andrei; Janson, Christer; Holm, Lena; Nordvall, Lennart; Alving, Kjell

    2009-02-01

    The present study analyzed how models currently used to distinguish alveolar from bronchial contribution to exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are affected by manipulation of NO formation in the pharyngo-oral tract. Exhaled NO was measured at multiple flow rates in 15 healthy subjects in two experiments: 1) measurements at baseline and 5 min after chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash and 2) measurements at baseline, 60 min after ingestion of 10 mg NaNO(3)/kg body wt, and 5 min after CHX mouthwash. Alveolar NO concentration (Calv(NO)) and bronchial flux (J'aw(NO)) were calculated by using the slope-intercept model with or without adjustment for trumpet shape of airways and axial diffusion (TMAD). Salivary nitrate and nitrite were measured in the second experiment. Calv(NO) [median (range)] was reduced from 1.16 ppb (0.77, 1.96) at baseline to 0.84 ppb (0.57, 1.48) 5 min after CHX mouthwash (P 10-fold increase of salivary nitrite after nitrate load). CHX mouthwash reduced Calv(NO) levels to 1.15 ppb (0.72, 2.07) in these subjects with high nitrate turnover. All these results remained consistent after TMAD adjustment. We conclude that estimated alveolar NO concentration is affected by pharyngo-oral tract production of NO in healthy subjects, with a decrease after CHX mouthwash. Moreover, unknown ingestion of dietary nitrate could significantly increase estimated alveolar NO in subjects with high nitrate turnover, and this might be falsely interpreted as a sign of peripheral inflammation. These findings were robust for TMAD.

  17. Effect of different solutions on color stability of acrylic resin-based dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermocycling and immersion in mouthwash or beverage solutions on the color stability of four different acrylic resin-based dentures (Onda Cryl, OC; QC20, QC; Classico, CL; and Lucitone, LU. The factors evaluated were type of acrylic resin, immersion time, and solution (mouthwash or beverage. A total of 224 denture samples were fabricated. For each type of resin, eight samples were immersed in mouthwashes (Plax-Colgate, PC; Listerine, LI; and Oral-B, OB, beverages (coffee, CP; cola, C; and wine, W, and artificial saliva (AS; control. The color change (DE was evaluated before (baseline and after thermocycling (T1, and after immersion in solution for 1 h (T2, 3 h (T3, 24 h (T4, 48 h (T5, and 96 h (T6. The CIE Lab system was used to determine the color changes. The thermocycling test was performed for 5000 cycles. Data were submitted to three-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p < 0.05. When the samples were immersed in each mouthwash, all assessed factors, associated or not, significantly influenced the color change values, except there was no association between the mouthwash and acrylic resin. Similarly, when the samples were immersed in each beverage, all studied factors influenced the color change values. In general, regardless of the solution, LU exhibited the greatest DE values in the period from T1 to T5; and QC presented the greatest DE values at T6. Thus, thermocycling and immersion in the various solutions influenced the color stability of acrylic resins and QC showed the greatest color alteration.

  18. Effect of different solutions on color stability of acrylic resin-based dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Nóbrega, Adhara Smith; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; Moreno, Amália

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermocycling and immersion in mouthwash or beverage solutions on the color stability of four different acrylic resin-based dentures (Onda Cryl, OC; QC20, QC; Classico, CL; and Lucitone, LU). The factors evaluated were type of acrylic resin, immersion time, and solution (mouthwash or beverage). A total of 224 denture samples were fabricated. For each type of resin, eight samples were immersed in mouthwashes (Plax-Colgate, PC; Listerine, LI; and Oral-B, OB), beverages (coffee, CP; cola, C; and wine, W), and artificial saliva (AS; control). The color change (DE) was evaluated before (baseline) and after thermocycling (T1), and after immersion in solution for 1 h (T2), 3 h (T3), 24 h (T4), 48 h (T5), and 96 h (T6). The CIE Lab system was used to determine the color changes. The thermocycling test was performed for 5000 cycles. Data were submitted to three-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p<0.05). When the samples were immersed in each mouthwash, all assessed factors, associated or not, significantly influenced the color change values, except there was no association between the mouthwash and acrylic resin. Similarly, when the samples were immersed in each beverage, all studied factors influenced the color change values. In general, regardless of the solution, LU exhibited the greatest DE values in the period from T1 to T5; and QC presented the greatest DE values at T6. Thus, thermocycling and immersion in the various solutions influenced the color stability of acrylic resins and QC showed the greatest color alteration.

  19. Oral fluid drug tests: effects of adulterants and foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Raphael C; Tran, Minhchau; Tung, James K

    2005-06-10

    An on-site oral fluid drug screen, Oratect, was used to investigate the effects of adulterants and foodstuffs on oral fluid test results. Common foods, beverages, food ingredients, cosmetics and hygienic products were demonstrated not to cause false positive results when tested 30 min after their consumption. Evaluations of two commercial oral fluid adulterants, "Clear Choice Fizzy Flush" and "Test'in Spit n Kleen Mouthwash" suggest their mechanism of action is the clearing of residual drugs of abuse compounds through rinsing of the oral cavity. They do not directly destroy the drug compounds or change the pH of the oral fluid. It is also suggested that a common mouthwash would perform similar action.

  20. Karakterisasi Simplisia, Skrining Fitokimia dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun dari Dua Varietas Sirih (Piper betle L.) Terhadap Bakteri Streptococcus mutans Penyebab Karies Gigi

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Sulastri

    2010-01-01

    Leaf of betle (Piper betle L) has beeen used traditionally as medicine, for example as mouthwash, prevent caries and wound curing. This betle have many varieties which was differented by it colour, form and taste. Part of betle are different from colour, form, taste. Part of betle are red betle, Malay betel, black betel, silver betle, forest betle and prawn, but some people more used to sirih Melayu. It happened because almost people do not recordnice varieties of Piper betle. This observat...

  1. Pretreatment oral hygiene habits and survival of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friemel, Juliane; Foraita, Ronja; Günther, Kathrin; Heibeck, Mathias; Günther, Frauke; Pflueger, Maren; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Behrens, Thomas; Bullerdiek, Jörn; Nimzyk, Rolf; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2016-03-11

    The survival time of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is related to health behavior, such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Poor oral health (OH), dental care (DC) and the frequent use of mouthwash have been shown to represent independent risk factors for head and neck cancerogenesis, but their impact on the survival of HNSCC patients has not been systematically investigated. Two hundred seventy-six incident HNSCC cases recruited for the ARCAGE study were followed through a period of 6-10 years. Interview-based information on wearing of dentures, gum bleeding, teeth brushing, use of floss and dentist visits were grouped into weighted composite scores, i.e. oral health (OH) and dental care (DH). Use of mouthwash was assessed as frequency per day. Also obtained were other types of health behavior, such as smoking, alcohol drinking and diet, appreciated as both confounding and study variables. Endpoints were progression-free survival, overall survival and tumor-specific survival. Prognostic values were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models. A good dental care score, summarizing annual dental visits, daily teeth cleaning and use of floss was associated with longer overall survival time (p = .001). The results of the Cox regression models similarly suggested a higher risk of tumor progression and shortened overall survival in patients with poor dental care, but the results lost their statistical significance after other types of health behavior had been controlled for. Frequent use of mouthwash (≥ 2 times/day) significantly increased the risk of tumor-specific death (HR = 2.26; CI = 1.19-4.32). Alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking were dose-dependently associated with tumor progression and shorter overall survival. Frequent mouthwash use of ≥ 2 times/day seems to elevate the risk of tumor-specific death in HNSCC patients. Good dental care scores are associated with longer overall

  2. Efecto antibacteriano in vitro del colutorio a base de matricaria chamomilla (manzanilla) sobre el fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Asmat, Edith Esther

    2015-01-01

    This research study was to determine the in vitro antibacterial mouthwash based Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) Fusobacterium nucleatum against ATCC 25586. The study was conducted in laboratory environments Farmaconogsia of the National University of Trujillo and microbiology laboratories of the Faculty of Medicine of the National University of Trujillo. The sample consisted of 16 discs broadcast, divided into 5 groups; that is, a group with Chlorhexidine samples, chamomile three groups...

  3. Influence of Alcohol and Alcohol-free Mouthrinses on Force Degradation of Different Types of Space Closure Auxiliaries used in Sliding Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the study was to evaluate the percentage of force degradation of elastomeric chains, NiTi closed coil spring and stainless steel closed coil spring at different time intervals in different media. Materials and methods: Three types of space closing auxiliaries, such as elastomeric chains, NiTi closed coil springs and stainless steel coil springs immersed in artificial saliva, alcohol-free mouthrinse (Colgate plax and alcohol-containing mouthrinse (Listerine at time interval of 1, 4, 7,14, 21 and 28 days were divided into nine groups of 15 each: Group I- 15 polyurethane elastomeric chain immersed inside artificial saliva (Control. Group II-15 polyurethane elastomeric chain immersed inside alcohol-free mouthrinse. Group III- 15 polyurethane elastomeric chain immersed inside alcohol-containing mouthrinse. Group IV-15 stainless steel closed coil springs immersed inside artificial saliva (Control. Group V- 15 stainless steel closed coil springs immersed inside alcohol-free mouthrinse. Group VI-15 stainless steel closed coil springs immersed inside alcohol-containing mouthrinse. Group VII- 15 NiTi closed coil springs immersed inside artificial saliva (Control. Group VIII-15 nickel titanium closed coil springs immersed inside alcohol-free mouthrinse. Group IX- 15 NiTi closed coil springs immersed inside alcohol-containing mouthrinse. The percentage of force degradation was measured with the universal testing machine. Results: The force produced by elastomeric chain, stainless steel closed coil spring and NiTi closed coil spring at seven time intervals in artificial saliva, alcohol-free mouthwash and alcohol-containing mouthwash showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001. Conclusion: The force degradation in alcohol-containing mouthwash solution (Listerine is more as compared to alcohol-free mouthwash solution (Colgate plax .

  4. The fraction of NO in exhaled air and estimates of alveolar NO in adolescents with asthma: methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijkenskjöld-Rentzhog, Charlotte; Alving, Kjell; Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Lundberg, Jon O; Nordvall, Lennart; Malinovschi, Andrei

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the oral contribution to exhaled NO in young people with asthma and its potential effects on estimated alveolar NO (Calv(NO) ), a proposed marker of inflammation in peripheral airways. Secondary aims were to investigate the effects of various exhalation flow-rates and the feasibility of different proposed adjustments of (Calv(NO) ) for trumpet model and axial diffusion (TMAD). Exhaled NO at flow rates of 50-300 ml/sec, and salivary nitrite was measured before and after antibacterial mouthwash in 29 healthy young people (10-20 years) and 29 with asthma (10-19 years). Calv(NO) was calculated using the slope-intercept model with and without TMAD adjustment. Exhaled NO at 50 ml/sec decreased significantly after mouthwash, to a similar degree in asthmatic and healthy subjects (8.8% vs. 9.8%, P = 0.49). The two groups had similar salivary nitrite levels (56.4 vs. 78.4 µM, P = 0.25). Calv(NO) was not significantly decreased by mouthwash. Calv(NO) levels were similar when flow-rates between 50-200 or 100-300 ml/sec were used (P = 0.34 in asthmatics and P = 0.90 in healthy subjects). A positive association was found between bronchial and alveolar NO in asthmatic subjects and this disappeared after the TMAD-adjustment. Negative TMAD-adjusted Calv(NO) values were found in a minority of the subjects. Young people with and without asthma have similar salivary nitrite levels and oral contributions to exhaled NO and therefore no antibacterial mouthwash is necessary in routine use. TMAD corrections of alveolar NO could be successfully applied in young people with asthma and yielded negative results only in a minority of subjects. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Oral bacteria--the missing link to ambiguous findings of exhaled nitrogen oxides in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterquist, Wilhelm; Marteus, Helena; Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Näs, Elisabeth; Nordvall, Lennart; Johannesson, Marie; Alving, Kjell

    2009-02-01

    Nitrite in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been shown to be elevated in cystic fibrosis (CF), while exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is paradoxically low. This has been argued to reflect increased metabolism of NO while its diffusion is obstructed by mucus. However, we wanted to study the possible influence of salivary nitrite and bacterial nitrate reduction on these parameters in CF patients by the intervention of an anti-bacterial mouthwash. EBC and saliva were collected from 15 CF patients (10-43 years) and 15 controls (9-44 years) before and 5 min after a 30s chlorhexidine mouthwash, in parallel with measurements of FENO. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations were measured fluorometrically. EBC nitrite, but not nitrate, was significantly higher in the CF patients (median 3.6 vs 1.3 microM in controls, p<0.05) and decreased after mouthwash in both groups (3.6-1.4 microM, p<0.01; 1.3-0.5 microM, p<0.01). Salivary nitrite correlated significantly to EBC nitrite (r=0.60, p<0.001) and decreased correspondingly after chlorhexidine, whereas salivary nitrate increased. FENO was lower in CF and the difference between patients and controls was accentuated after mouthwash (5.4 vs 8.4 ppb in controls, p<0.05). EBC nitrite mainly originates in the pharyngo-oral tract and its increase in CF is possibly explained by a regional change in bacterial activity. The limited lower airway contribution supports the view of a genuinely impaired formation and metabolism of NO in CF, rather than poor diffusion of the molecule.

  6. Scanning electron microscopy and roughness study of dental composite degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Cortez, Louise Ribeiro; Zarur, Raquel de Oliveira; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-04-01

    Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the use of mouthwashes, consumption of soft drinks, as well as the type of light curing unit (LCU), would change the surface roughness (Ra) and morphology of a nanofilled composite resin (Z350® 3M ESPE). Samples (80) were divided into eight groups: Halogen LCU, group 1, saliva (control); group 2, Pepsi Twist®; group 3, Listerine®; group 4, Colgate Plax®; LED LCU, group 5, saliva; group 6, Pepsi Twist®; group 7, Listerine®; group 8, Colgate Plax®. Ra values were measured at baseline, and after 7 and 14 days. One specimen of each group was prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis after 14 days. The data were subjected to multifactor analysis of variance at a 95% confidence followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference post-hoc test. All the treatments resulted in morphological changes in composite resin surface, and the most significant change was in Pepsi Twist® groups. The samples of G6 had the greatest increase in Ra. The immersion of nanofilled resin in mouthwashes with alcohol and soft drink increases the surface roughness. Polymerization by halogen LCU (reduced light intensity) associated with alcohol contained mouthwash resulted in significant roughness on the composite.

  7. Cyclosporine: a novel therapeutic approach for Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, Rosita; Lorè, Bruno; Pavlidis, Athanasios; Karaiskou, Maria; Arcuri, Claudio; Chimenti, Sergio; Magnato, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical cyclosporine applied as mouthwash in the treatment of burning mouth syndrome (BMS). This was a prospective and pilot study conducted by the Department of Dermatology of the University of Rome Tor Vergata. Patients were treated with cyclosporine topically applied as mouthwash for 4 weeks. Clinical improvement was assessed using a 5 grade clinical evaluation scale and a visual analogue scale from 0 to 10 was also used to evaluate the burning symptoms. Fifteen patients between 22-85 years (61.1±19.3), 11 female and 4 male, with a mean duration of BMS of 12.5 months, completed the study. Five out of 15 patients presented a marked improvement, 6 patients showed a moderate response, 3 patients had a slight improvement and 1 patient did not show any change. The VAS showed a reduction from 8.7 to 3.5. Adverse events were not reported. Cyclosporine mouthwash appeared to be safe and beneficial for reducing the burning sensation in patients with BMS representing an alternative therapy in this condition.

  8. Efficacy of Chlorhexidine, Xylitol, and Chlorhexidine + Xylitol against Dental Plaque, Gingivitis, and Salivary Streptococcus mutans Load: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, Charu Mohan; Taneja, Pratibha; Nagpal, Ruchi; Marya, Vandana; Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Arora, Dimple

    To compare the antiplaque, antigingivitis and antibacterial efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX), XYL and a mouthwash combining CHX and XYL against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). A parallel design, randomised controlled trial was conducted among 75 dental students. Participants were randomised into CHX, CHX+XYL and XYL-only groups using the lottery method. Subjects were instructed to use 10 ml of the provided mouthwash for 15 s twice daily for 3 weeks. All the outcome measures, gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and number of salivary S. mutans CFU were recorded at baseline and 3 weeks post intervention. Nonparametric tests were used for inferential statistics. All outcome variables (GI, PI scores and log10 salivary S. mutans counts) decreased significantly from baseline compared to post intervention among all three groups. Intergroup comparison demonstrated that reduction in GI was not significantly different among the three groups. The decrease in PI scores was found to be significantly higher in the XYL group, while the decrease in the log10 salivary S. mutans count was significantly higher in the CHX+XYL group. The present study provided sufficient data to suggest that all the three mouthwashes are effective against plaque, gingivitis and S. mutans load in saliva. Further investigations should be carried out to confirm the results and develop strategies for using such products to prevent tooth decay.

  9. A comparative evaluation of the efficacy of probiotic and chlorhexidine mouthrinses on clinical inflammatory parameters of gingivitis: A randomized controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnima Vidyesh Nadkerny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our clinical trial was to assess and compare the antiplaque and anti-inflammatory potential of a probiotic mouthwash with 0.2% chlorhexidine and saline. Materials and Methods: A randomized parallel group study was designed for a period of 4 weeks on 45 systemically healthy subjects between 20 and 30 years having chronic gingivitis. The study population was divided into three groups. Group A - 15 subjects were advised experimental (probiotic mouthwash. Group B - 15 subjects were advised positive control (chlorhexidine mouthwash and Group C - 15 subjects into a negative control group (normal saline. Oral prophylaxis was done for all groups at baseline. After the proper oral hygiene instructions, all the three groups were instructed to rinse their mouth with 10 ml of their respective mouthrinse, undiluted for 1 min twice daily, 30 min after brushing. Clinical parameters such as plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, and oral hygiene index simplified (OHI-S were assessed at baseline, 2 weeks and 4 weeks, respectively. Results: At day 28, the PI, GI, and OHI-S were significantly reduced by all treatment modalities ranking probiotic and chlorhexidine is greater than saline. Conclusion: The probiotic mouthrinses tested was effectively used as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control in the prevention of plaque and gingivitis. Thus, the probiotic mouthrinse has a great therapeutic potential.

  10. Daya antibakteri obat kumur chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, fluoride suplementasi zinc terhadap, Streptococcus mutans dan Porphyromonas gingivalis (Antibacterial effect of mouth washes containing chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, fluoride plus zinc on Strep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betadion Rizki Sinaredi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental Caries and periodontal disease prevalence in Indonesian children are still high. Some efforts can be done to overcome the problem; one of them is the use of mouthwash to decrease pathogen microorganisms. The mouthwashes that commercially available in market are chlorhexidine, povidone Iodine and Fluoride with Zinc supplementation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the anti bacterial effect of the mouthwashes chlorhexidine, povidone iodine and fluoride with zinc supplementation against mix bacteria that found in the plaque, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Methods: The antibacterial effect was measured using disk diffusion test. The bacteria samples (plaque polybacteria, S.mutans and P. gingivalis were inoculated and spread in the petridish containing MHA. Paper discs containing the mouthwashes were placed in the petridish and incubated for 24 hours at 37oC (anaerobe for P. gingivalis, aerobe for S. mutans and polybacteria. The diameter of inhibition zone surrounding the paper discs were measured and compared between each active ingredient contained in mouthwash. Results: Chlorhexidine had the strongest antibacterial effect than povidone iodine and fluoride. Chlorhexidine was more effective to inhibited the growth of S. mutans than to polybacteria or P.Gingivalis, while Povidone iodine and fluoride were more effective to inhibited the growth of polybacteria. Conclusion: The mouthwash chlorhexidine was more effective to inhibit the growth of plaque polybacteria, Streptoccous mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis compared with povidone iodine and fluoride with zinc supplementation.Latar belakang: Prevalensi karies gigi dan penyakit periodontal masih tinggi pada anak Indonesia. Usaha mengatasi hal tersebut antara lain melalui melalui penggunaan obat kumur untuk mengurangi jumlah kuman pathogen. Kandungan obat kumur yang beredar di pasar diantaranya adalah chlorhexidine, povidone iodine dan fluoride

  11. Effect of an oxygenating agent on oral bacteria in vitro and on dental plaque composition in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez y Mostajo, Mercedes; van der Reijden, Wil A; Buijs, Mark J; Beertsen, Wouter; Van der Weijden, Fridus; Crielaard, Wim; Zaura, Egija

    2014-01-01

    Oral bacteria live in symbiosis with the host. Therefore, when mouthwashes are indicated, selective inhibition of taxa contributing to disease is preferred instead of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The potential selectivity of an oxygenating mouthwash, Ardox-X® (AX), has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial potential of AX and the effects of a twice-daily oral rinse on dental plaque composition. In vitro, 16 oral bacterial strains were tested using agar diffusion susceptibility, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration tests. A pilot clinical study was performed with 25 healthy volunteers. Clinical assessments and microbiological sampling of supragingival plaque were performed at 1 month before the experiment (Pre-exp), at the start of the experiment (Baseline) and after the one-week experimental period (Post-exp). During the experiment individuals used AX mouthwash twice daily in absence of other oral hygiene measures. The microbiological composition of plaque was assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. AX showed high inter-species variation in microbial growth inhibition. The tested Prevotella strains and Fusobacterium nucleatum showed the highest sensitivity, while streptococci and Lactobacillus acidophilus were most resistant to AX. Plaque scores at Pre-exp and Baseline visits did not differ significantly (p = 0.193), nor did the microbial composition of plaque. During a period of 7-days non-brushing but twice daily rinsing plaque scores increased from 2.21 (0.31) at Baseline to 2.43 (0.39) Post-exp. A significant microbial shift in composition was observed: genus Streptococcus and Veillonella increased while Corynebacterium, Haemophilus, Leptotrichia, Cardiobacterium and Capnocytophaga decreased (p ≤ 0.001). AX has the potential for selective inhibition of oral bacteria. The shift in oral microbiome after 1 week of rinsing deserves further research.

  12. Effect of an oxygenating agent on oral microorganisms in vitro and on dental plaque composition in healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes eFernandez y Mostajo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral bacteria live in symbiosis with the host. Therefore, when mouthwashes are indicated, selective inhibition of taxa contributing to disease is preferred instead of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The potential selectivity of an oxygenating mouthwash, Ardox-X® (AX, has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial potential of AX and the effects of a twice-daily oral rinse on dental plaque composition. Material and methods: In vitro, 16 oral bacterial strains were tested using agar diffusion susceptibility, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration tests. A pilot clinical study was performed with 25 healthy volunteers. Clinical assessments and microbiological sampling of supragingival plaque were performed at one month before the experiment (Pre-exp, at the start of the experiment (Baseline and after the one-week experimental period (Post-exp. During the experiment individuals used AX mouthwash twice daily in absence of other oral hygiene measures. The microbiological composition of plaque was assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Results: AX showed high inter-species variation in microbial growth inhibition. The tested Prevotella strains and Fusobacterium nucleatum showed the highest sensitivity, while streptococci and Lactobacillus acidophilus were most resistant to AX. Plaque scores at Pre-exp and Baseline visits did not differ significantly (p = 0.193, nor did the microbial composition of plaque during a period of 7-days non-brushing but twice daily rinsing. Plaque scores increased from 2.21 (0.31 at Baseline to 2.43 (0.39 Post-exp. A significant microbial shift in composition was observed: genus Streptococcus and Veillonella increased while Corynebacterium, Haemophilus, Leptotrichia, Cardiobacterium and Capnocytophaga decreased (p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: AX has the potential for selective inhibition of oral bacteria. The shift in oral microbiome after one week of rinsing deserves

  13. Systematic review of basic oral care for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Deborah B; Fulton, Janet S; Park, Jumin; Brown, Carlton G; Correa, M Elvira P; Eilers, June; Elad, Sharon; Gibson, Faith; Oberle-Edwards, Loree K; Bowen, Joanne; Lalla, Rajesh V

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate research in basic oral care interventions to update evidence-based practice guidelines for preventing and treating oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients undergoing radio- or chemotherapy. A systematic review of available literature was conducted by the Basic Oral Care Section of the Mucositis Study Group of MASCC/ISOO. Seven interventions--oral care protocols, dental care, normal saline, sodium bicarbonate, mixed medication mouthwash, chlorhexidine, and calcium phosphate--were evaluated using the Hadorn (J Clin Epidemiol 49:749-754, 1996) criteria to determine level of evidence, followed by a guideline determination of one of the following: recommendation, suggestion, or no guideline possible, using Somerfield's (Classic Pap Cur Comments 4:881-886, 2000) schema. Fifty-two published papers were examined by treatment population (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplant) and by whether the intervention aimed to prevent or treat OM. The resulting practice suggestions included using oral care protocols for preventing OM across all treatment modalities and age groups and not using chlorhexidine mouthwash for preventing OM in adults with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Considering inadequate and/or conflicting evidence, no guidelines for prevention or treatment of OM were possible for the interventions of dental care, normal saline, sodium bicarbonate, mixed medication mouthwash, chlorhexidine in patients receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplant, or calcium phosphate. The evidence for basic oral care interventions supports the use of oral care protocols in patient populations receiving radiation and/or chemotherapy and does not support chlorhexidine for prevention of mucositis in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Additional well-designed research is needed for other interventions to improve the amount and quality of evidence guiding future clinical

  14. Antioxidant Capacity of Calendula Officinalis Flowers Extract and Prevention of Radiation Induced Oropharyngeal Mucositis in Patients with Head and Neck Cancers: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Kazemi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effect of Calendula officinalis flowers extract mouthwash as oral gel on radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis (OM in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Forty patients with neck and head cancers under radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols were randomly assigned to receive either 2% calendula extract mouthwash or placebo (20 patients in each group. Patients were treated with telecobalt radiotherapy at conventional fractionation (200 cGy/fraction, five fractions weekly, 30–35 fractions within 4–7 weeks. The oropharyngeal mucositis was evaluated by two clinical investigators (a radiation oncologist and a dentist, using the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS. Trying to find out the possible mechanism of action of the treatment, total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and quercetin concentration of the mouth wash were measured. Calendula mouthwash significantly decreased the intensity of OM compared to placebo at week 2 (score: 5.5 vs. 6.8, p = 0.019, week 3 (score: 8.25 vs. 10.95, p < 0.0001 and week 6 (score: 11.4 vs. 13.35, p = 0.031. Total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents and quercetin concentration of the 2% extract were 2353.4 ± 56.5 μM, 313.40 ± 6.52 mg/g, 76.66 ± 23.24 mg/g, and 19.41 ± 4.34 mg/l, respectively. Calendula extract gel could be effective on decreasing the intensity of radiotherapy- induced OM during the treatment and antioxidant capacity may be partly responsible for the effect.

  15. Antioxidant capacity of calendula officinalis flowers extract and prevention of radiation induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers: a randomized controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Neda; Moslemi, Dariush; Khalilpour, Mohammad; Vejdani, Fatemeh; Moghadamnia, Yasaman; Bijani, Ali; Baradaran, Mahmoud; Kazemi, Mohammad Taghi; Khalilpour, Asieh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2013-03-07

    This study was designed to determine the effect of Calendula officinalis flowers extract mouthwash as oral gel on radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis (OM) in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Forty patients with neck and head cancers under radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols were randomly assigned to receive either 2% calendula extract mouthwash or placebo (20 patients in each group). Patients were treated with telecobalt radiotherapy at conventional fractionation (200 cGy/fraction, five fractions weekly, 30-35 fractions within 4-7 weeks). The oropharyngeal mucositis was evaluated by two clinical investigators (a radiation oncologist and a dentist), using the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS). Trying to find out the possible mechanism of action of the treatment, total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and quercetin concentration of the mouth wash were measured. Calendula mouthwash significantly decreased the intensity of OM compared to placebo at week 2 (score: 5.5 vs. 6.8, p = 0.019), week 3 (score: 8.25 vs. 10.95, p antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents and quercetin concentration of the 2% extract were 2353.4 ± 56.5 μM, 313.40 ± 6.52 mg/g, 76.66 ± 23.24 mg/g, and 19.41 ± 4.34 mg/l, respectively. Calendula extract gel could be effective on decreasing the intensity of radiotherapy- induced OM during the treatment and antioxidant capacity may be partly responsible for the effect.

  16. Use of Curcumin Mouthrinse in Radio-Chemotherapy Induced Oral Mucositis Patients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Karthikeya; Guledgud, Mahima V; Kulkarni, P K; Keshari, Deepika; Tayal, Srishti

    2015-08-01

    Oral Mucositis is a complex and distinct pathobiologic entity resulting in injuries in mucosa that is a common complication in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy (CT) and radiation therapy (RT). Phytochemicals, such as Curcumin, turmeric extract, has attracted great attention for its therapeutic benefits in clinical oncology due to its chemopreventive, antitumoral, chemosensibilizing and radiosensibilizing activities against various types of cancers and the complications associated with their management. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of curcumin mouthwash in the management of Oral Mucositis in cancer patients undergoing radio-chemotherapy. The research group consisted of 20 adult cancer patients undergoing radio-chemotherapy at the Regional Oncology Centre, who were evaluated for signs and symptoms of oral mucositis and then randomly divided into two groups. Standard preventive oral care i.e. chlorhexidine mouthwash 0.2% was given to one group while the other group was provided with freshly prepared curcumin mouthwash; each to be used thrice daily. Oral mucositis was assessed at days 0, 10 and 20. The World Health Organization (WHO) scale, the Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale (OMAS), and a Numerical Rating Scale (NRS; patient reporting scale of 0-10) were used. Adverse events were tracked. Descriptive statistics, Independent sample t-test and repeated measure ANOVA test were performed. Statistically significant difference was found in the NRS (p=0.000), Erythema (p=0.050), ulceration (p=0.000) and WHO scores (p=0.003) between the two groups. Curcumin was found to be better than chlorhexidine mouth wash in terms of rapid wound healing and better patient compliance in management of radio-chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. No oral or systemic complications were reported.

  17. Efficacy of Sucralfate Mouth Wash in Prevention of 5-fluorouracil Induced Oral Mucositis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala, Shahram; Saeedi, Majid; Janbabai, Ghasem; Ganji, Reza; Azhdari, Elham; Shiva, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    Sucralfate has been used for the prevention and treatment of radiotherapy- and chemotherapy-induced stomatitis and mucositis in a number of studies, but the results are contradictory. To answer such discrepancies, the present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of sucralfate mouthwash in prevention of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced oral mucositis in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. Patients with gastrointestinal cancers receiving 5-FU-based chemotherapy regimens were included in this randomized, blinded, controlled trial and were randomly allocated to either sucralfate mouthwash (every 6 h) or placebo. The patients were visited at fifth and tenth day of trial; the presence and severity of oral mucositis and the intensity of pain were assessed. The patients receiving sucralfate experienced lower frequency and severity of mucositis (76% vs. 38.5%, P = 0.005 and 84 vs. 38.5%, P < 0.001, respectively) and less intense pain (2.5 ± 2.2 vs. 5.08 ± 3.82, P = 0.004 and 1.33 ± 0.86 vs. 4.12 ± 3.5, P = 0.001, respectively) compared with the placebo group both at day 5 and day 10. Within the sucralfate group, a decrease in frequency and severity of mucositis was observed throughout the trial period, while in the placebo group no such effect was observed. Sucralfate mouthwash reduced the frequency and severity of 5-FU-induced oral mucositis in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies compared with placebo, indicating its efficacy in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced mucositis.

  18. Effectiveness of fluoride sealant in the prevention of carious lesions around orthodontic brackets: an OCT evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Santos, Mariana de Jesus; de Souza, Camilla Andrade; Leão, Jorge César Borges; Braz, Ana Karla Souza; de Araujo, Renato Evangelista; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This article aimed to evaluate in vitro the efficiency of Pro Seal fluoride sealant application in the prevention of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets. Material and Methods: Brackets were bonded to the buccal surface of bovine incisors, and five groups were formed (n = 15) according to the exposure of teeth to oral hygiene substances and the application of enamel sealant: G1 (control), only brushing was performed with 1.450 ppm fluoride; G2 (control) brushing associated with the use of mouthwash with 225 ppm fluoride; G3, only Pro Seal sealant application was performed with 1.000 ppm fluoride; G4 Pro Seal associated with brushing; G5 Pro Seal associated with brushing and mouthwash. Experimental groups alternated between pH cycling and the procedures described. All specimens were kept at a temperature of 37 °C throughout the entire experiment. Both brushing and immersion in solutions were performed within a time interval of one minute, followed by washing in deionized water three times a day for 28 days. Afterwards, an evaluation by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) of the spectral type was performed. In each group, a scanning exam of the white spot lesion area (around the sites where brackets were bonded) and depth measurement of carious lesions were performed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine whether there were significant differences among groups. For post hoc analysis, Tukey test was used. Results: There was statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.003), 1 and 3 (p = 0.008), 1 and 4 (p = 0.000) and 1 and 5 (p = 0.000). The group in which only brushing was performed (Group 1) showed deeper enamel lesion. Conclusion: Pro Seal sealant alone or combined with brushing and/or brushing and the use of a mouthwash with fluoride was more effective in protecting enamel, in comparison to brushing alone. PMID:26691968

  19. Assessing transgastric Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery prior to clinical implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Anders Meller

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to investigate whether transgastric Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) could be implemented safely in clinical practice. The experimental studies proved ultrasonography guided access through the stomach to be feasible and safe without iatrogenic complications......-abdominal abscess formation as a result of contamination from the access route was still present. To reduce this contamination, mouthwash with chlorhexidine was effective in a human randomised study. The same study also found significant higher bacterial load in the stomach of patients using proton pump inhibitor...

  20. The antiplaque efficacy of white tea extract mouthrinse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipika Kalyan Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to assess the antiplaque efficacy of a mouthwash containing white tea. It also assessed the antibacterial properties of white tea against Prevotella intermedia (Pi, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa in vitro. Materials and Methods: Forty-five subjects with healthy periodontium were randomly chosen and were divided into three groups and advised to use mouthwashes A, B, and C (Group A, white tea; Group B, distilled water [placebo]; Group C, chlorhexidine for 4 days. They were advised to refrain from any kind of mechanical oral hygiene techniques. Plaque index (PI was checked on day 1 and 5. In vitro testing for against Pi, Pg, and Aa against white tea extract was undertaken. Results: PI significantly increased from day 1 to day 5 (P < 0.01 in Groups A, B, and C. In inter-group comparison, there was a statistical significant difference between white tea mouthrinse group and placebo group, chlorhexidine group and placebo group and also chlorhexidine group and white tea mouthrinse group. However, chlohexidine showed superior antiplaque activity. In vitro test, white tea showed effective inhibition against all three bacterial strains Pi, Pg, and Aa at 1% concentration. Conclusion: White tea mouthrinse potently inhibits plaque formation although not as comparable to chlorhexidine mouthrinse. Hence, for those preferring herbal products, white tea mouthrinse is a good option.

  1. Effectiveness of Mouthrinse formulated from Aqueous Extract of Terminalia chebula on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count and pH among 8- to 12-year-old School Children of Karnataka: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Madhuchanda; Hegde, Sundeep K; Bhat, Sham S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticar-iogenic efficacy of hot and cold aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula against Streptococcus mutans as an oral rinse and also to discover the acceptability of the mouthwash in children. Sixty children between 8 and 12 years with high caries risk were selected. 10% concentration of hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared. Children were randomly divided into extract and control group. Baseline salivary samples were taken, and the samples were re-collected at 10, 60, and 90 minutes interval after rinsing. Microbial and pH analysis were done. An acceptability questionnaire was filled. Tukey's multiple comparison test. The results show statistically significant difference in S. mutans counts at 10, 60, and 90 minutes interval when compared with negative control. However, when the hot and cold extracts were compared, there was no significant difference. Acceptability questionnaire showed 65 to 75% overall acceptability for both types of extract. Results of this study showed that both types of aqueous extract of T. chebula may be used as potential anticariogenic mouthwash with acceptable taste in children. Palit MC, Hegde SK, Bhat SS. Effectiveness of Mouthrinse formulated from Aqueous Extract of Terminalia chebula on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count and pH among 8- to 12-year-old School Children of Karnataka: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):349-354.

  2. Effectiveness of three different oral hygiene techniques on Viridans streptococci: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tongue cleaning is an important aspect of oral hygiene maintenance along with other mechanical and chemical aids. These methods have an influence on microorganism count in saliva. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of three different oral hygiene techniques on Viridans streptococci. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial with 45 study subjects aged between 14 and 16 years and were randomly allocated into three groups: Group A - plastic tongue scraper, Group B - chlorhexidine mouthwash along with plastic tongue scraper, and Group C - chlorhexidine mouthwash. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected on the 1st, 7th, and 15th day before routine oral hygiene practices. Saliva samples were collected and incubated for 48 h on itis Salivarius(MS agar. Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus salivarius were counted. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mean count of S. mitis, S. mutans, and S. salivarius for Group A, B, and C was found to be significant (P < 0.001 when compared between 1st, 7th, and 15th day. Between-groups comparisons revealed a significant difference between Groups A and C, B and C (P < 0.001. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in bacterial count in all the participants indicating that all the three methods are useful in improving oral hygiene. Combination technique was found to be most effective.

  3. Efficacy of desensitizing products containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate for hypersensitivity relief in MIH-affected molars: an 8-week clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekes, Katrin; Heinzelmann, Karolin; Lettner, Stefan; Schaller, Hans-Günter

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy in reducing hypersensitivity in molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH)-affected molars immediately and over 8 weeks combining a single in-office application and a homed-based program with desensitizing products containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate. Nineteen children with at least one MIH-affected molar with hypersensitivity were included. Hypersensitivity was assessed with an evaporative (air) stimulus and a tactile stimulus. Each child received a single in-office treatment with a desensitizing paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate (elmex Sensitive Professional desensitizing paste), followed by 8 weeks of brushing twice daily with a desensitizing toothpaste containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate with 1450 ppm fluoride (elmex Sensitive Professional toothpaste), using the elmex Sensitive Professional toothbrush. Additionally, the corresponding mouthwash (elmex Sensitive Professional mouthwash) was used. Clinical assessments were made at baseline, immediately after the in-office treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of brushing twice daily. Fifty-six molars with an air blast hypersensitivity score of 2 or 3 (Schiff Cold Air Sensitivity Scale) were included. Application of the desensitizing paste decreased hypersensitivity significantly immediately and throughout the 8 weeks recalls (p MIH. This is the first study evaluating the desensitizing effect of a desensitizing paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate in patients with MIH.

  4. Evaluation of the stability and antimicrobial activity of an ethanolic extract of Libidibia ferrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Marreiro, Raquel; Bandeira, Maria Fulgência Costa Lima; de Souza, Tatiane Pereira; de Almeida, Mailza Costa; Bendaham, Katiana; Venâncio, Gisely Naura; Rodrigues, Isis Costa; Coelho, Cristiane Nagai; Milério, Patrícia Sâmea Lêdo Lima; de Oliveira, Glauber Palma; de Oliveira Conde, Nikeila Chacon

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm is a dense, whitish, noncalcified aggregate of bacteria, with desquamated epithelial cells and food debris creating conditions for an imbalance of resident oral microflora and favoring the destruction of hard and soft tissues by development of caries and gingivitis. The aim of this study was to obtain and characterize an extract of Libidibia ferrea, ex Caesalpinia ferrea L. and to evaluate its feasibility for formulation as a mouthwash, according to current legislation. For this purpose, pH, sedimentation, density, and stability were evaluated, along with microbiological testing of the extract. The microbiological test was used to verify the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, fungi, yeasts, coliforms, and minimum inhibitory concentrations of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis strains. Characterization, microbiological evaluation, and minimum inhibitory concentration results were tabulated and described using descriptive statistics. The L. ferrea extract showed stable characteristics, product quality, and antibacterial activity against the microorganisms tested irrespective of experimental time intervals. According to these results, it can be concluded that formulation of a mouthwash containing L. ferrea extract to control biofilm is feasible, but further studies are needed.

  5. The effect of Beetle leaves (Piper Betle Linn for dental caries formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Kurniawan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is still the main problem in dental and oral health. Caries is caused by several factors working simultaneously. The main principle of management caries is by prioritizing preventive action and avoiding invasive action. Beetle leaves are medicamentous plant which are widely cultivated and very beneficial for Indonesian people. Its active content enable beetle leaves to be used as antimicrobial, antiseptic, antifungal, antioxidant, and disinfectant. The government of Indonesia and WHO greatly support the utilization of natural resources as medical cure. Currently we can find a lot of toothpaste and mouthwash products which use beetle leaves as additional ingredient. Various researches have proved that the use of beetle leaves extract as mouthwash, toothpaste and chewing beetle leaves may decrease plaque score. Chavicol and chavibetol content enable beetle leaves to function as very good antimicrobial. Beetle leaves also contain charvacrol, eugenol, methyl eugenol, cadinene, and seskuiterpene, which can function as antiseptic. Beetle leaves may effect salivary function and secretion and also impede the forming of dental caries.

  6. FT-Raman spectroscopy study of organic matrix degradation in nanofilled resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Nahórny, Sídnei; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2013-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of light curing unit (LCU) type, mouthwashes, and soft drink on chemical degradation of a nanofilled resin composite. Samples (80) were divided into eight groups: halogen LCU, HS--saliva (control); HPT--Pepsi Twist®; HLC--Listerine®; HCP--Colgate Plax®; LED LCU, LS--saliva (control); LPT--Pepsi Twist®; LLC--Listerine®; LCP--Colgate Plax®. The degree of conversion analysis and the measure of the peak area at 2,930 cm-1 (organic matrix) of resin composite were done by Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy (baseline, after 7 and 14 days). The data were subjected to multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a 95% confidence followed by Tukey's HSD post-hoc test. The DC ranged from 58.0% (Halogen) to 59.3% (LED) without significance. Differences in the peak area between LCUs were found after 7 days of storage in S and PT. A marked increase in the peak intensity of HLC and LLC groups was found. The soft-start light-activation may influence the chemical degradation of organic matrix in resin composite. Ethanol contained in Listerine® Cool Mint mouthwash had the most significant degradation effect. Raman spectroscopy is shown to be a useful tool to investigate resin composite degradation.

  7. Treatment modalities of oral mucositis after radiation of head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapeyre, M.; Charra-Brunaud, C.; Kaminsky, M.C.; Geoffrois, L.; Dolivet, G.; Pourel, N.; Marchal, C.; Bey, P.; Maire, F.; Simon, M.; Toussaint, B.

    2001-01-01

    Acute mucositis is common after radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. During the past 3 decades, there was a gradual evolution in the treatment modalities for locally advanced carcinomas (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy). These new strategies are accompanied by an increase in early mucosal reactions. At the present time, there is no widely accepted prophylaxis or effective treatment. Many traditional remedies or new agents seem ineffective (Sucralfate, Chlorhexidine, GM-CSF, Silver nitrate, Prostaglandin, anti-oxidants, Benzydamine hydrochloride), while others seem promising (Povidone-iodine, nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges and anti-fungal, local GM-CSF, Glutamide, Low-energy laser, corticosteroids). Radioprotectors are controversial and should be only used in experimental protocols and not in routine practice. However, some recommendations can be proposed: general prevention and global care before cancer therapy should be systematic (oral hygiene, dental and periodontal treatment, advice to avoid the use of tobacco and alcohol); frequent oral rinsing with a bland mouthwash (Povidone-iodine or others) should be used at the start of treatment because there are significant modifications of the oral microflora increased by a disturbed salivary flow; these mouthwashes could be associated with nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges or anti-fungal topical (bicarbonates, Amphotericine B); Systematic percutaneous fluoroscopic gastrostomy should be decided before any aggressive treatments (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy); pain should be controlled; finally, the radiation technique should be optimized (mucosal sparing block, conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy). (authors)

  8. Condições de estabilidade para preparações magistrais contendo clorexidina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Martinez Rodrigue

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The mouthwash containing chlorhexidine (CHX is a solution and aims to complement the oral hygiene. It is considered standard for judging of antimicrobial effectiveness compared to other chemical agents in dentistry. CHX used in low concentrations it has a bacteriostatic and bactericidal high. The mouthwash consisting of CHX has some side effects, including blackening of the teeth, tongue and resets, burning mouth and changes in taste and to reverse the process, no need of stopping treatment. There are several factors that may interfere with the stability of CHX, including pH, light, and presence of substances with anionic character in the composition and packing in containers inadequate. His prolonged substantivity accounts for their effectiveness, with a view that can be retained in the oral cavity for up to 12 hours. CHX has been considered an antimicrobial agent is extremely important to present many advantages, among them non-toxic and safety in addition to presenting properties fungicide, algicide and virucidal. The validity of a extemporaneous preparation containing CHX may be estimated at about six months, provided that all the conditions of stability of the active substance, among which stand out the pH of the final product should be between 5.5 and 7.0 avoiding chemical incompatibilities with other components of the solution, and the packing in plastic amber PET. Finally, it is suggested that extemporaneous solutions containing CHX can be effective in treating periodontal diseases, since the conditions for stability, packaging and storage.

  9. Alcohol and the young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, D E

    1984-01-01

    With the increasing availability of alcohol in modern times, the child neglect and abuse portrayed in Hogarth's engraving Gin Lane may once again be witnessed. Reports occur occasionally of alcohol being given deliberately to infants to quieten them, but alcohol poisoning in the slightly older child is not uncommon. The introduction of child-proof containers has altered poisoning figures recently. However, alcohol poisoning tends to occur at ages 3 and 4, that is, about 2 years after the peak of all poisonings in children. This difference may be an indication that alcohol is taken in imitation of parents' drinking, a suggestion which has some support from reported cases of mouthwash poisoning. Holidays and high days where children and alcohol mix, are potentially dangerous periods. Since alcohol poisoning can be fatal, yet if recognised is relatively easily managed, every child with the slightest degree of drowsiness should be suspect until proven or not by blood alcohol. The prevention of alcohol poisoning in the young child consists in protecting the alcohol by lock and key, not setting an example by drinking or gargling in front of children. Many substances such as mouthwash and perfume should also be under supervision. Once actual poisoning has occurred blood sugar is probably more important than the level of blood ethanol and blood sugar levels should be monitored frequently and the child treated with glucose, preferably intravenously.

  10. Comparative evaluation of fluoride release from PRG-composites and compomer on application of topical fluoride: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhull K

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: To determine the fluoride release from Giomer and Compomer, using different topical fluoride regimes, and to compare the amount of fluoride release from giomer with that of compomer. Materials and Method: Forty-eight specimens of each giomer and compomer were divided into four treatment groups, namely, control group, fluoridated dentifrice (500 ppm once daily group, fluoridated dentifrice (500 ppm twice daily group, fluoridated dentifrice (500 ppm once daily + fluoridated mouthwash (225 ppm group. Each specimen was suspended in demineralizing solution for six hours and remineralizing solution for 18 hours. Fluoride release was measured in both the demineralizing solution and remineralizing solution daily for seven days. Total daily fluoride release for each specimen was calculated by adding the amount released in the demineralizing solution to that released in remineralizing solution. Results and Conclusion: The fluoride release (ppm was found to be more in Giomer when compared to Compomer. The fluoride released from Giomer and Compomer was significantly greater in the acidic demineralizing solution than in the neutral remineralizing solution. It was found that increasing fluoride exposure significantly increased fluoride release from the giomer and compomer. It was found that the fluoride release from the subgroups of giomer and compomer was in the following order: fluoridated dentifrice twice daily > fluoridated dentifrice once daily + fluoridated mouthwash > fluoridated dentifrice once daily > control group. It was found that the giomer showed a greater fluoride uptake than the compomer.

  11. Management of mucositis in oral irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feber, T. [Cookridge Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    Mucositis significantly affects quality of life and tolerance of treatment in oral irradiation. Effective management of this complication is therefore very important. However, there is a scarcity of up-to-date oral care protocols, with most centres using ritualized regimens. The literature on oral rinses in radiation mucositis is at best inconclusive and at worst confusing. In this study, patients undergoing radical radiotherapy treatment (55-60 Gy in 4 weeks) to more than 50% of the oral cavity and oropharynx were randomized to a research based oral care protocol with either saline 0.9% or hydrogen peroxide 3.5 volumes (HP) as rinses. The results of this study show that, on average, the group receiving saline rinses appeared to do better on some outcomes than the group receiving HP. This suggests that frequent mechanical cleansing of the mouth may be more important than the antiseptic properties of a mouthwash. Antiseptic mouthwashes may be contra-indicated in radiation mucositis. In order to determine best practice in mucositis management, multicentre, multidisciplinary trials should be conducted. (Author).

  12. Management of mucositis in oral irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feber, T.

    1996-01-01

    Mucositis significantly affects quality of life and tolerance of treatment in oral irradiation. Effective management of this complication is therefore very important. However, there is a scarcity of up-to-date oral care protocols, with most centres using ritualized regimens. The literature on oral rinses in radiation mucositis is at best inconclusive and at worst confusing. In this study, patients undergoing radical radiotherapy treatment (55-60 Gy in 4 weeks) to more than 50% of the oral cavity and oropharynx were randomized to a research based oral care protocol with either saline 0.9% or hydrogen peroxide 3.5 volumes (HP) as rinses. The results of this study show that, on average, the group receiving saline rinses appeared to do better on some outcomes than the group receiving HP. This suggests that frequent mechanical cleansing of the mouth may be more important than the antiseptic properties of a mouthwash. Antiseptic mouthwashes may be contra-indicated in radiation mucositis. In order to determine best practice in mucositis management, multicentre, multidisciplinary trials should be conducted. (Author)

  13. Treatment modalities of oral mucositis after radiation of head and neck cancers; Prise en charge des mucites apres radiotherapie des cancers des voies aerodigestives superieures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapeyre, M.; Charra-Brunaud, C.; Kaminsky, M.C.; Geoffrois, L.; Dolivet, G.; Pourel, N.; Marchal, C.; Bey, P.; Maire, F.; Simon, M. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Toussaint, B. [Hopital Central, Service de Chirurgie ORL, 54 - Nancy (France)

    2001-11-01

    Acute mucositis is common after radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. During the past 3 decades, there was a gradual evolution in the treatment modalities for locally advanced carcinomas (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy). These new strategies are accompanied by an increase in early mucosal reactions. At the present time, there is no widely accepted prophylaxis or effective treatment. Many traditional remedies or new agents seem ineffective (Sucralfate, Chlorhexidine, GM-CSF, Silver nitrate, Prostaglandin, anti-oxidants, Benzydamine hydrochloride), while others seem promising (Povidone-iodine, nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges and anti-fungal, local GM-CSF, Glutamide, Low-energy laser, corticosteroids). Radioprotectors are controversial and should be only used in experimental protocols and not in routine practice. However, some recommendations can be proposed: general prevention and global care before cancer therapy should be systematic (oral hygiene, dental and periodontal treatment, advice to avoid the use of tobacco and alcohol); frequent oral rinsing with a bland mouthwash (Povidone-iodine or others) should be used at the start of treatment because there are significant modifications of the oral microflora increased by a disturbed salivary flow; these mouthwashes could be associated with nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges or anti-fungal topical (bicarbonates, Amphotericine B); Systematic percutaneous fluoroscopic gastrostomy should be decided before any aggressive treatments (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy); pain should be controlled; finally, the radiation technique should be optimized (mucosal sparing block, conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy). (authors)

  14. Anaphylactic reactions in anaesthetised patients - four cases of chlorhexidine allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, L H; Roed-Petersen, J; Husum, B

    2001-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is widely used all over the world in many different preparations. In Denmark chlorhexidine is the standard skin disinfectant used before surgery or invasive procedures and it is widely used in the general population in mouthwash or for disinfection of minor scratches etc. The potent......Chlorhexidine is widely used all over the world in many different preparations. In Denmark chlorhexidine is the standard skin disinfectant used before surgery or invasive procedures and it is widely used in the general population in mouthwash or for disinfection of minor scratches etc....... The potential for developing allergy to chlorhexidine is thus great, especially in surgical patients. We have identified four patients with serious allergic reactions in connection with surgery and general anaesthesia, who on subsequent skin testing tested positive for chlorhexidine. Symptoms appeared 20-40 min...... into the operation and all four patients required treatment with adrenaline. All four patients had a history of minor symptoms like rashes or faints in connection with previous surgery/invasive procedures. Allergy to chlorhexidine may be more prevalent in surgical patients and cases may have been overlooked due...

  15. Corrosive effects of fluoride on titanium: investigation by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and human epithelial cell culturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stájer, Anette; Ungvári, Krisztina; Pelsoczi, István K; Polyánka, Hilda; Oszkó, Albert; Mihalik, Erzsébet; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Radnai, Márta; Kemény, Lajos; Fazekas, András; Turzó, Kinga

    2008-11-01

    High fluoride (F(-)) concentrations and acidic pH impair the corrosion resistance of titanium (Ti). Effects of F(-)-containing caries-preventive prophylactic rinses, and gels on Ti were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human epithelial cell attachment and proliferation were investigated by dimethylthiazol-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and protein content assays. Aqueous 1% NaF solution (3800 ppm F(-), pH 4.5) or high (12,500 ppm) F(-) content gel (pH 4.8) strongly corroded the surface and modified its composition. XPS revealed formation of a strongly bound F(-)-containing complex (Na(2)TiF(6)). AFM indicated an increase in roughness (R(a)) of the surfaces: 10-fold for the NaF solution and smaller for the gel or a mouthwash (250 ppm F(-), pH 4.4). MTT revealed that cell attachment was significantly increased by the gel, but was not disturbed by either the mouthwash or the NaF. Cell proliferation determined by MTT decreased significantly only for the NaF-treated samples; protein content assay experiments showed no such effect. This study indicates that epithelial cell culturing results can depend on the method used, and the adverse effects of a high F(-) concentration and low pH should be considered when prophylactic gels are applied by patients with Ti implants or other dental devices.

  16. In Situ Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils with and without Alcohol on Oral Biofilm: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Quintas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is little evidence on the in situ antibacterial activity of essential oils (EO without alcohol. This study aimed to evaluate in situ the substantivity and antiplaque effect on the plaque-like biofilm (PL-biofilm of two solutions, a traditional formulation that contains EO with alcohol (T-EO and an alcohol-free formulation of EO (Af-EO. Eighteen healthy adults performed a single mouthwash of: T-EO, Af-EO, and sterile water (WATER after wearing an individualized disk-holding splint for 2 days. The bacterial viability (BV and thickness of the PL-biofilm were quantified at baseline, 30 s, and 1, 3, 5, and 7 h post-rinsing (Test 1. Subsequently, each volunteer wore the splint for 4 days, applying two daily mouthwashes of: T-EO, Af-EO, and WATER. The BV, thickness, and covering grade (CG of the PL-biofilm were quantified (Test 2. Samples were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy after staining with the LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ solution. To conduct the computations of the BV automatically, a Matlab toolbox called Dentius Biofilm was developed. In test 1, both EO antiseptics had a similar antibacterial effect, reducing BV after a single rinse compared to the WATER, and keeping it below baseline levels up to 7 h post-rinse (P < 0.001. The mean thickness of the PL-biofilm after rinsing was not affected by any of the EO formulations and ranged from 18.58 to 20.19 μm. After 4 days, the T-EO and Af-EO solutions were significantly more effective than the WATER, reducing the BV, thickness, and CG of the PL-biofilm (P < 0.001. Although, both EO antiseptics presented a similar bactericidal activity, the Af-EO rinses led to more significant reductions in the thickness and CG of the PL-biofilm than the T-EO rinses (thickness = 7.90 vs. 9.92 μm, P = 0.012; CG = 33.36 vs. 46.61%, P = 0.001. In conclusion, both essential oils antiseptics had very high immediate antibacterial activity and substantivity in situ on the 2-day PL-biofilm after

  17. Effect of oil pulling on Streptococcus mutans count in plaque and saliva using Dentocult SM Strip mutans test: A randomized, controlled, triple-blind study

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    Asokan S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oil pulling has been used extensively for many years, without scientific evidence or proof, as a traditional Indian folk remedy to prevent teeth decay, oral malodor, bleeding gums, dryness of throat and cracked lips, and for strengthening the teeth, gums, and jaws. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oil pulling with sesame oil on the count of Streptococcus mutans in plaque and saliva of children, using the Dentocult SM Strip mutans test, and to compare its efficacy with that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Materials and Methods: Twenty age-matched adolescent boys were selected based on information obtained through a questionnaire. They were divided randomly into two groups: the control or chlorhexidine group (group I and the study or oil pulling group (group II; there were ten subjects in each group. Plaque and saliva samples were collected from all the 20 subjects on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and, after incubation, the presence of S. mutans was evaluated using the manufacturers′ chart. The study group practiced oil pulling with sesame oil and the control group used chlorhexidine mouthwash for 10 min every day in the morning before brushing. Samples were collected from both groups after 24 h, 48 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks and the efficacy of oil pulling was compared with that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Results: There was a reduction in the S. mutans count in the plaque and saliva samples of both the study and the control groups. The reduction in the S. mutans count in the plaque of the study group was statistically significant after 1 and 2 weeks (P = 0.01 and P = 0.008, respectively; the control group showed significant reduction at all the four time points (P = 0.01, P = 0.04, P = 0.005, and P = 0.005, respectively, at 24 h, 48 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks. In the saliva samples, significant reduction in S. mutans count was seen in the control group at 48 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks (P = 0.02, P = 0.02, P = 0

  18. Effect of topical sucralfate vs clindamycin on posttonsillectomy pain in children aged 6 to 12 years: a triple-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, Javaneh; Pazira, Sara; Farahani, Farhad; Hashemian, Farnaz; Shokri, Narges; Karkhanei, Behruz; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2014-08-01

    Postoperative sore throat is one of the most common problems after tonsillectomy. Antibiotics remove the local flora and reduce inflammation and thus may reduce postoperative pain after tonsillectomy. To assess the effect of topical sucralfate and clindamycin on local pain reduction after tonsillectomy in children aged 6 to 12 years. Triple-blind randomized clinical trial of children aged 6 to 12 years with sleep apnea or snoring due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy and chronic airway obstruction or with chronic infections who were candidates for tonsillectomy at Besat Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, from May to October 2013. Patients were randomly assigned to receive sucralfate mouthwash, clindamycin mouthwash, or placebo (cellulose). The oral cavity was washed before and immediately after surgery with 10 mL of the prepared solution for 1 minute and then suctioned. Then, 8 hours after surgery, the patients were asked to keep 10 mL of the prepared mouthwash solution in their mouths for 1 minute 3 times a day for 3 days. Postoperative sore throat evaluated daily for 5 days using the Faces Pain Scale-Revised. Of 110 patients enrolled, 101 patients remained for analysis. Patients in the placebo group had significantly higher mean (SD) throat pain scores than did patients in both drug groups on postsurgery days 1 through 4. Day 1 scores were 8.00 (1.84) for placebo and 6.00 (1.84) for sucralfate and 6.79 (1.87) for clindamycin (P = .001). Pain scores were not significantly different on day 5. Acetaminophen use was more common in the placebo group on days 3 and 4 (2.97 and 2.44) vs the sucralfate group (2.24 and 2.15) and the clindamycin group (2.36 and 2.12) (P = .001 and .02, respectively). Bleeding on day 1 was more common in the placebo group (3 of 34) vs none in the drug groups. Food intolerance on day 1 was less common in patients receiving sucralfate (2 of 34) than placebo (9 of 34) or clindamycin (11 of 33) (P = .02). There was no

  19. Advances in Dental Materials through Nanotechnology: Facts, Perspectives and Toxicological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, Gislaine C; Feitosa, Victor P; Sauro, Salvatore; Tay, Franklin R; Durán, Gabriela; Paula, Amauri J; Durán, Nelson

    2015-11-01

    Nanotechnology is currently driving the dental materials industry to substantial growth, thus reflecting on improvements in materials available for oral prevention and treatment. The present review discusses new developments in nanotechnology applied to dentistry, focusing on the use of nanomaterials for improving the quality of oral care, the perspectives of research in this arena, and discussions on safety concerns regarding the use of dental nanomaterials. Details are provided on the cutting-edge properties (morphological, antibacterial, mechanical, fluorescence, antitumoral, and remineralization and regeneration potential) of polymeric, metallic and inorganic nano-based materials, as well as their use as nanocluster fillers, in nanocomposites, mouthwashes, medicines, and biomimetic dental materials. Nanotoxicological aspects, clinical applications, and perspectives for these nanomaterials are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative Estimation of Yeast on Maxillary Denture in Patients with Denture Stomatitis and the Effect of Chlorhexidine Gluconate in Reduction of Yeast

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    Jaykumar R Gade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis is a condition associated with wearing of a denture. The predisposing factor leading to denture stomatitis could be poor oral hygiene, ill-fitting denture and relief areas. Around 30 patients with denture stomatitis were advised to rinse with chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash for 14 days and were directed to immerse the upper denture in the chlorhexidine solution for 8 hours. The samples were collected by scraping maxillary denture in saline at three intervals, prior to, at the end of 24 hours and after 14 days of treatment, then were inoculated and quantitative estimation of the yeast growth on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar plate was done. It was observed that after a period of 14 days, there was a reduction in the growth of yeast and also improvement in the clinical picture of the oral mucosa

  1. Glycerin Borax Treatment of Exfoliative Cheilitis Induced by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprasom, Kobkan

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on the results of a case study of a 19-year-old female who presented to the Oral Medicine clinic with a chief complaint of scaly and peeling lips. The lesions had persisted on her lips for more than 7 years and were refractory to previous treatment. Her physician's diagnosis was contact dermatitis. We diagnosed this patient as having exfoliative cheilitis (EC). A patch test using the toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was positive and the patient discontinued using it. Instead, she started using a toothpaste not containing SLS. One year after treating her lesions with hydrogen peroxide mouthwash 1% and glycerin borax, a gradual improvement was observed until returning to normal. Glycerin borax was safe, low cost and simple to use in treatment of refractory exfoliative cheilitis. SLS may have been a precipitating factor in EC in this case.

  2. Glycerin Borax Treatment of Exfoliative Cheilitis Induced by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: a Case Report

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    Kobkan Thongprasom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the results of a case study of a 19-year-old female who presented to the Oral Medicine clinic with a chief complaint of scaly and peeling lips. The lesions had persisted on her lips for more than 7 years and were refractory to previous treatment. Her physician’s diagnosis was contact dermatitis. We diagnosed this patient as having exfoliative cheilitis (EC. A patch test using the toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS was positive and the patient discontinued using it. Instead, she started using a toothpaste not containing SLS. One year after treating her lesions with hydrogen peroxide mouthwash 1% and glycerin borax, a gradual improvement was observed until returning to normal. Glycerin borax was safe, low cost and simple to use in treatment of refractory exfoliative cheilitis. SLS may have been a precipitating factor in EC in this case.

  3. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of binary mixtures of surfactants using continuous wavelet transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Nematollahi, Davood; Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Abbasi-Tarighat, Maryam; Hajihadi, Mitra

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a simple, rapid, and novel method for simultaneous determination of binary mixtures of some surfactants using continuous wavelet transformation. The method is based on the difference in the effect of surfactants Cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB), dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) and TritonX-100 (TX-100) on the absorption spectra of complex of Beryllium with Chrome Azurol S (CAS) at pH 5.4. Binary mixtures of CTAB-DTAB, DTAB-CPB and CTAB-TX-100 were analyzed without prior separation steps. Different mother wavelets from the family of continuous wavelet transforms were selected and applied under the optimal conditions for simultaneous determinations. The proposed methods, under the working conditions, were successfully applied to simultaneous determination of surfactants in hair conditioner and mouthwash samples.

  4. Sanguinaria canadensis: Traditional Medicine, Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activities and Current Uses

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    Andrew Croaker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a traditional medicine used by Native Americans to treat a diverse range of clinical conditions. The plants rhizome contains several alkaloids that individually target multiple molecular processes. These bioactive compounds, mechanistically correlate with the plant’s history of ethnobotanical use. Despite their identification over 50 years ago, the alkaloids of S. canadensis have not been developed into successful therapeutic agents. Instead, they have been associated with clinical toxicities ranging from mouthwash induced leukoplakia to cancer salve necrosis and treatment failure. This review explores the historical use of S. canadensis, the molecular actions of the benzophenanthridine and protopin alkaloids it contains, and explores natural alkaloid variation as a possible rationale for the inconsistent efficacy and toxicities encountered by S. canadensis therapies. Current veterinary and medicinal uses of the plant are studied with an assessment of obstacles to the pharmaceutical development of S. canadensis alkaloid based therapeutics.

  5. Sanguinaria canadensis: Traditional Medicine, Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activities and Current Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croaker, Andrew; King, Graham J; Pyne, John H; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra; Liu, Lei

    2016-08-27

    Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a traditional medicine used by Native Americans to treat a diverse range of clinical conditions. The plants rhizome contains several alkaloids that individually target multiple molecular processes. These bioactive compounds, mechanistically correlate with the plant's history of ethnobotanical use. Despite their identification over 50 years ago, the alkaloids of S. canadensis have not been developed into successful therapeutic agents. Instead, they have been associated with clinical toxicities ranging from mouthwash induced leukoplakia to cancer salve necrosis and treatment failure. This review explores the historical use of S. canadensis, the molecular actions of the benzophenanthridine and protopin alkaloids it contains, and explores natural alkaloid variation as a possible rationale for the inconsistent efficacy and toxicities encountered by S. canadensis therapies. Current veterinary and medicinal uses of the plant are studied with an assessment of obstacles to the pharmaceutical development of S. canadensis alkaloid based therapeutics.

  6. Hydrogen Peroxide Impedimetric Detection on Poly-Ortho-Phenylenediamine Modified Platinum Disk Microelectrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainiharyati Mohd Zain; Norazreen Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the development of hydrogen peroxide detection based on Poly-ortho-phenylenediamine modified Platinum disk microelectrode (50 μm in diameter). The electrochemical performances of H 2 O 2 detection were studied using Chronoamperometry, Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques in Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS) pH 7.4. Effect of potential, electrode size, and various concentrations of H 2 O 2 , among others, were investigated by tracking the impedance changes at a specific perturbation frequency. To obtain the Charge transfer resistance (R ct ) values, a modified Randles Equivalent Circuit was modelled and fitted to Nyquist Plot. Then, this sensor was further applied in the detection of H 2 O 2 in antiseptic mouthwash with percent recovery of 97 % ± 0.14 (x10 3 kΩ). (author)

  7. Ulcerative Uremic Stomatitis - Review of the Literature and A Rare Case Report

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    Shantala Arunkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uremic Stomatitis (US represents a comparatively uncommon intraoral complication seen, mostly, in cases of end-stage renal disease or undiagnosed or untreated chronic renal failure. Its frequency has diminished due to the advent of renal dialysis. Clinically uremic stomatitis is characterized by the presence of painful plaques and crusts that are usually distributed on the buccal and labial mucosa, dorsal or ventral surface of the tongue, gingiva, and floor of the mouth. Ultimate treatment consists of improvement of blood urea concentration and underlying renal failure is supported by enhancement of oral hygiene with antiseptic mouthwashes and antimicrobial/antifungal agents, if necessary. Here we report a rare case of ulcerative type of uremic stomatitis occurring in a patient of chronic renal failure due to sudden relapse of uremia and reviewed the possible pathophysiology of oral symptoms of chronic renal failure.

  8. [Oral hygiene customs in 6-12 year old schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, César Tadeo; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Robles-Bermeo, Norma Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Veras-Hernández, Miriam; De la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Escoffié-Ramírez, Mauricio; Márquez-Rodríguez, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To characterize utilization of oral hygiene devices and customs in schoolchildren. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a cross-sectional study in 1,404 schoolchildren (6- 12 year olds) from 14 public schools in Pachuca, Hidalgo, México, using a questionnaire for sociodemographic variables and 1) Tooth brushing frequency (customs were 85.5% tooth brushing, 90.9% toothpaste, 19.4% flossing, and 28.2% mouthwash. Only 11.8% of participants reported utilization in all 4 categories. We observed differences (p < 0.05) across sexes only in the use of toothpaste, as women used it more often. Differences across age were observed (p < 0.05) for tooth brushing (younger children brushed more often) and flossing (older children flossed more often). CONCLUSIONS. Tooth brushing was the oral hygiene practice more often performed in this sample, with other frequencies being relatively low. There were differences by age and sex across some variables.

  9. Dental interventions in patients taking anti-resorptive medication for the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone disease: an audit of current practice in the Dublin Dental University Hospital

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, Cian

    2017-11-01

    Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) is a well-established complication of anti-resorptive and, more recently, anti-angiogenic therapy. The dental profession has a pivotal role to play in the prevention and management of this debilitating condition, and all dentists have a responsibility to remain cognisant of national and international best practice guidelines in the prevention of this disease process. The management of patients in the Dublin Dental University Hospital at risk of MRONJ when carrying out dental interventions was audited against nationally- and internationally-published guidelines. The results of the audit showed compliance with the national and international guidance in 5% and 0% of cases, respectively. The most common measures implemented in the management of patients at risk of MRONJ were: preoperative antibiotics in 49% of cases; preoperative chlorhexidine mouthwash in 76%; plain local anaesthetic in 51%; and, post-operative antibiotics in 80%.

  10. [Management of side effects of targeted therapies in renal cancer: stomatological side effects (mucositis, epistaxis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo-Godeau, Scarlette; Nicolas-Virelizier, Emmanuelle; Scotté, Florian

    2011-01-01

    The advent of targeted therapies in the treatment of renal cancer has shown different types of lesions of the oral cavity, which appear to be specific to the drug classes used (mTOR inhibitors, anti-angiogenic agents and conventional cytotoxic drugs). Before starting treatment with targeted therapy, it is essential to have an oral and a dental examination. The treatment of mucositis induced by targeted therapies is based on bicarbonate-based mouthwash, with the optional addition of an antifungal or a local antiseptic. It is possible to use topical or systemic analgesics for the pain. Dietary advice for patients is also useful. Most cases of epistaxis caused by anti-angiogenics stop spontaneously and require no medical intervention. Regular application of an emollient can be used to prevent the formation of scabs. Copyright © 2011 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. SPE/TLC/Densitometric Quantification of Selected Synthetic Food Dyes in Liquid Foodstuffs and Pharmaceutical Preparations

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    Anna W. Sobańska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selected synthetic food dyes (tartrazine, Ponceau 4R, Brilliant Blue, orange yellow, and azorubine were isolated from liquid preparations (mouthwashes and beverages by Solid Phase Extraction on aminopropyl-bonded silica with diluted aqueous sodium hydroxide as an eluent. The extraction step was followed by thin layer chromatography on silica gel 60 with chloroform-isopropanol-25% aq. ammonia 1 : 3 : 1 (v/v/v as mobile phase and the densitometric quantification of dyes was achieved using quadratic calibration plots (R2>0.997; LOQ = 0.04–0.09 μgspot−1. The overall recoveries for all studied dyes were at the average level of over 90% and the repeatability of the proposed procedure (CV ≤ 4.1% was sufficient to recommend it for the routine quantification of the aforementioned dyes in liquid matrices.

  12. Using 'nudge' principles for order set design: a before and after evaluation of an electronic prescribing template in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeaux, Christopher P; Davies, Keith J; Thomas, Matthew J C; Bewley, Jeremy S; Gould, Timothy H

    2014-05-01

    Computerised order sets have the potential to reduce clinical variation and improve patient safety but the effect is variable. We sought to evaluate the impact of changes to the design of an order set on the delivery of chlorhexidine mouthwash and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) to patients in the intensive care unit. The study was conducted at University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, UK. Our intensive care unit uses a clinical information system (CIS). All drugs and fluids are prescribed with the CIS and drug and fluid charts are stored within a database. Chlorhexidine mouthwash was added as a default prescription to the prescribing template in January 2010. HES was removed from the prescribing template in April 2009. Both interventions were available to prescribe manually throughout the study period. We conducted a database review of all patients eligible for each intervention before and after changes to the configuration of choices within the prescribing system. 2231 ventilated patients were identified as appropriate for treatment with chlorhexidine, 591 before the intervention and 1640 after. 55.3% were prescribed chlorhexidine before the change and 90.4% after (p<0.001). 6199 patients were considered in the HES intervention, 2177 before the intervention and 4022 after. The mean volume of HES infused per patient fell from 630 mL to 20 mL after the change (p<0.001) and the percentage of patients receiving HES fell from 54.1% to 3.1% (p<0.001). These results were well sustained with time. The presentation of choices within an electronic prescribing system influenced the delivery of evidence-based interventions in a predictable way and the effect was well sustained. This approach has the potential to enhance the effectiveness of computerised order sets.

  13. Awareness and practices of oral hygiene and its relation to sociodemographic factors among patients attending the general outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata, India

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    Bobby Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases, dental caries, malocclusion, and oral cancer are the most prevalent dental diseases affecting people in the Indian community. Objective: The study was conducted to assess the awareness and practices on oral hygiene and its association with the sociodemographic factors among patients attending the general Outpatient Department (OPD. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 224 patients attending the general OPD of the SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, India, from 1 April to 30 April, 2013. The study tool was a pre-designed and pre-tested semi-structured schedule. Results: About 69.20% of the participants used a toothbrush with toothpaste as a method of cleaning their teeth; 35.71% brushed twice in a day; 33.03% brushed both in the morning and at bedtime; and 8.93% used mouthwash. About 40.62% visited the dentist during the last six months; among them 61.18% attended because of pain. Almost three-fourth of the participants knew that tooth decay and bad breath were the effects of not cleaning the teeth. It was known to 71.42, 63.39, 70.53, and 73.21% of the respondents, respectively, that excess sweet, cold drink, alcohol, and smoking/pan chewing were bad for dental health. Television was the source of knowledge to 57.14% of the participants and 35.71% acquired their knowledge from a dentist. Females, literates, urban residents, users of mouthwash, and regular visitors to the dentist had good oral hygiene practices. Conclusion: Oral health awareness and practices among the study population are poor and need to improve.

  14. Evaluation of HPV-16 and HPV-18 specific antibody measurements in saliva collected in oral rinses and merocel® sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Katherine H; Kemp, Troy J; Pan, Yuanji; Yang, Zhen; Giuliano, Anna R; Pinto, Ligia A

    2018-05-03

    Current Human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 VLP vaccines protect against HPV-16 and HPV-18-associated cancers, in females and males. Although correlates of protection have not been identified, HPV-specific antibodies at sites of infection are thought to be the main mechanism of protection afforded by vaccination. Oral sampling has gained increased attention as a potential alternative to serum in monitoring immunity to vaccination and understanding local immunity in oral cancers. Serum was collected via venipuncture, and saliva was collected via oral rinses and Merocel® sponges from healthy volunteers: 16 unvaccinated females, 6 females (ages 24-41) and 6 mid-adult aged males (ages 27-45) recipients of three doses of the HPV-16/18/6/11 vaccine (Gardasil®). Mid-adult male vaccine trial participants were compared to female participants. Samples were tested for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 immunoglobulin G levels by an L1 virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All vaccinated participants had detectable serum anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies. Optimal standard concentration range and sample serial dilutions for oral rinses were determined. The standard curve was not affected by the type of solution examined. Reproducibility of HPV-16 and HPV-18 antibody titers in mouthwash (overall CV  0.9) was observed for sera spiked controls in both solutions. HPV-16 and HPV-18 specific antibodies were detectable in saliva from vaccine recipients, both in mouthwash and in Merocel® sponges but levels were several logs lower than those in serum. This study confirms the application of HPV-16 and HPV-18 ELISAs currently used in sero-epidemiological studies of immunogenicity of HPV vaccines for use with oral samples. Oral samples may be a useful resource for the detection of HPV-16 and HPV-18-specific antibodies in saliva following vaccination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chlorhexidine for prevention of alveolar osteitis: a randomised clinical trial

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    Diego Halabi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the effectiveness of chlorhexidine 0.12% mouthwash (CHX after tooth extraction for the prevention of alveolar osteitis (AO. Material and methods We conducted a double-blind randomised clinical trial stratified by risk factors. We enrolled a cohort of 822 patients who underwent dental extractions, and were considered to be at risk of developing AO (previous surgical site infection, traumatic extraction, and tobacco smoking. After extraction, patients were randomly allocated for CHX group or placebo group, matched by risk factors. The primary outcome was clinical diagnosis of AO: increasing postoperative pain for 4 d within and around the socket, and total or partial breakdown of the blood clot in the socket with or without bone exposure. Results Follow-up was completed by 744 participants (372 chlorhexidine and 372 placebo. We detected no significant differences between the two groups at baseline. After completed follow-up, risk factors were equally distributed between the two groups. Overall incidence of OA was 4.97%, in which 27 participants treated with placebo (7.26% and 10 participants treated with CHX (2.69% developed AO. CHX reduced the incidence of AO by 63% [Absolute Risk Reduction: 4.57 (95% CI 1.5-7.7, Number Needed to Treat: 21.88 (95% CI 13.0-69.3, Fisher's exact test: p=0.006]. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusion The use of chlorhexidine 0.12% mouthwash after tooth extraction is safe and effective in reducing the incidence of AO in high-risk patients.

  16. Commercial Ethyl Glucuronide (EtG) and Ethyl Sulfate (EtS) Testing is Not Vulnerable to Incidental Alcohol Exposure in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondersma, Steven J; Beatty, Jessica R; Rosano, Thomas G; Strickler, Ronald C; Graham, Amy E; Sokol, Robert J

    2016-01-02

    Ethyl Glucoronide (EtG) and Ethyl Sulfate (EtS) have shown promise as biomarkers for alcohol and may be sensitive enough for use with pregnant women in whom even low-level alcohol use is important. However, there have been reports of over-sensitivity of EtG and EtS to incidental exposure to sources such as alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Further, few studies have evaluated these biomarkers among pregnant women, in whom the dynamics of these metabolites may differ. This study evaluated whether commercial EtG-EtS testing was vulnerable to high levels of environmental exposure to alcohol in pregnant women. Two separate samples of five nurses-one pregnant and the other postpartum, all of whom reported high levels of alcohol-based hand sanitizer use-provided urine samples before and 4-8 hours after rinsing with alcohol-based mouthwash and using hand sanitizer. The five pregnant nurses provided urine samples before, during, and after an 8-hour nursing shift, during which they repeatedly cleansed with alcohol-based hand sanitizer (mean 33.8 uses). The five postpartum nurses used hand sanitizer repeatedly between baseline and follow-up urine samples. No urine samples were positive for EtG-EtS at baseline or follow-up, despite use of mouthwash and-in the pregnant sample-heavy use of hand sanitizer (mean of 33.8 uses) throughout the 8-hour shift. Current, commercially available EtG-EtS testing does not appear vulnerable to even heavy exposure to incidental sources of alcohol among pregnant and postpartum women.

  17. Caries lesion remineralization with fluoride toothpastes and chlorhexidine - effects of application timing and toothpaste surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami A. Almohefer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Habitual toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste followed by rinsing with antibacterial mouthwashes is a method to maintain good oral hygiene and to diminish the occurrence and severity of dental caries and periodontal disease. However, our understanding of how antimicrobial agents in mouthwashes affect fluoride-mediated caries lesion remineralization is still poor. Objective: The objectives of this in vitro study were a to determine the effects of the waiting period of chlorhexidine (CHX rinsing after fluoride toothpaste use and b to further determine the effect of the type of toothpaste surfactant [sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB] on caries lesion remineralization associated with CHX rinsing. Material and Methods: Caries lesions were formed in bovine enamel specimens and assigned to 10 treatment groups (n=18 based on Vickers surface microhardness (VHN. Lesions were then pH-cycled for 10 days with daily regimen comprised of twice daily toothpaste slurry treatments (1150 ppm fluoride, with SDS or CAPB, followed by CHX solution treatments [0, 15, 30 or 60 minutes following slurry treatment or no CHX treatment (negative control]. VHN was measured again and the extent of lesion remineralization calculated (∆VHN. Results: ∆VHN with SDS-toothpaste was significantly lower than with CAPB-toothpaste, indicating more remineralization for the CAPB-toothpaste. ∆VHN with 0-minute waiting time was significantly lower than with 30-minute waiting time and with negative control. Conclusions: The absence of CHX as an adjunct to fluoride toothpastes led to greater remineralization of enamel lesions compared with the immediate use of CHX treatment for both SDS- and CAPB-toothpastes. CAPB-toothpastes indicated significantly greater remineralization than SDS-toothpastes, and can be suggested for patients at high risk of caries. A 30-minute waiting time for CHX treatment is recommended after brushing.

  18. Evaluation of the stability and antimicrobial activity of an ethanolic extract of Libidibia ferrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Marreiro R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Raquel de Oliveira Marreiro,1 Maria Fulgência Costa Lima Bandeira,1 Tatiane Pereira de Souza,2 Mailza Costa de Almeida,1 Katiana Bendaham,1 Gisely Naura Venâncio,1 Isis Costa Rodrigues,2 Cristiane Nagai Coelho,1 Patrícia Sâmea Lêdo Lima Milério,1 Glauber Palma de Oliveira,1 Nikeila Chacon de Oliveira Conde11School of Dentistry, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas; 2School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas, BrazilAbstract: Biofilm is a dense, whitish, noncalcified aggregate of bacteria, with desquamated epithelial cells and food debris creating conditions for an imbalance of resident oral microflora and favoring the destruction of hard and soft tissues by development of caries and gingivitis. The aim of this study was to obtain and characterize an extract of Libidibia ferrea, ex Caesalpinia ferrea L. and to evaluate its feasibility for formulation as a mouthwash, according to current legislation. For this purpose, pH, sedimentation, density, and stability were evaluated, along with microbiological testing of the extract. The microbiological test was used to verify the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, fungi, yeasts, coliforms, and minimum inhibitory concentrations of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis strains. Characterization, microbiological evaluation, and minimum inhibitory concentration results were tabulated and described using descriptive statistics. The L. ferrea extract showed stable characteristics, product quality, and antibacterial activity against the microorganisms tested irrespective of experimental time intervals. According to these results, it can be concluded that formulation of a mouthwash containing L. ferrea extract to control biofilm is feasible, but further studies are needed.Keywords: biofilm, extract, quality control

  19. Randomized control trial of benzydamine HCl versus sodium bicarbonate for prophylaxis of concurrent chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitapanarux, Imjai; Tungkasamit, Tharatorn; Petsuksiri, Janjira; Kannarunimit, Danita; Katanyoo, Kanyarat; Chakkabat, Chakkapong; Setakornnukul, Jiraporn; Wongsrita, Somying; Jirawatwarakul, Naruemon; Lertbusayanukul, Chawalit; Sripan, Patumrat; Traisathit, Patrinee

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare the efficacy of benzydamine HCl with sodium bicarbonate in the prevention of concurrent chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients. Sixty locally advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with high-dose radiotherapy concurrently with platinum-based chemotherapy were randomly assigned to receive either benzydamine HCl or sodium bicarbonate from the first day of treatment to 2 weeks after the completion of treatment. The total score for mucositis, based on the Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale (OMAS), was used for the assessment, conducted weekly during the treatment period and at the fourth week of the follow-up. Pain score, all prescribed medications, and tube feeding needs were also recorded and compared. The median of total OMAS score was statistically significant lower in patients who received benzydamine HCl during concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) than in those who received sodium bicarbonate, (p value < 0.001). There was no difference in median pain score, (p value = 0.52). Nineteen percent of patients in sodium bicarbonate arm needed oral antifungal agents whereas none in the benzydamine HCl arm required such medications, (p value = 0.06). Tube feeding needs and the compliance of CCRT were not different between the two study arms. For patients undergoing high-dose radiotherapy concurrently with platinum-based chemotherapy, using benzydamine HCl mouthwash as a preventive approach was superior to basic oral care using sodium bicarbonate mouthwash in terms of reducing the severity of oral mucositis and encouraging trend for the less need of oral antifungal drugs.

  20. Association of Oral Microbiome With Risk for Incident Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Richard B; Ahn, Jiyoung; Fan, Xiaozhou; Peters, Brandilyn A; Ma, Yingfei; Yang, Liying; Agalliu, Ilir; Burk, Robert D; Ganly, Ian; Purdue, Mark P; Freedman, Neal D; Gapstur, Susan M; Pei, Zhiheng

    2018-03-01

    Case-control studies show a possible relationship between oral bacteria and head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Prospective studies are needed to examine the temporal relationship between oral microbiome and subsequent risk of HNSCC. To prospectively examine associations between the oral microbiome and incident HNSCC. This nested case-control study was carried out in 2 prospective cohort studies: the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort (CPS-II) and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). Among 122 004 participants, 129 incident patient cases of HNSCC were identified during an average 3.9 years of follow-up. Two controls per patient case (n = 254) were selected through incidence density sampling, matched on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and time since mouthwash collection. All participants provided mouthwash samples and were cancer-free at baseline. Oral microbiome composition and specific bacterial abundances were determined through bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall oral microbiome composition and specific taxa abundances were compared for the case group and the control group, using PERMANOVA and negative binomial generalized linear models, respectively, controlling for age, sex, race, cohort, smoking, alcohol, and oral human papillomavirus-16 status. Taxa with a 2-sided false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted P-value (q-value) <.10 were considered significant. Incident HNSCC. The study included 58 patient cases from CPS-II (mean [SD] age, 71.0 [6.4] years; 16 [27.6%] women) and 71 patient cases from PLCO (mean [SD] age, 62.7 [4.8] years; 13 [18.3%] women). Two controls per patient case (n = 254) were selected through incidence density sampling, matched on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and time since mouthwash collection. Head and neck squamous cell cancer cases and controls were similar with respect to age, sex, and race. Patients in the case group were more often current tobacco

  1. Effectiveness of triclosan in the management of radiation-induced oral mucositis: A randomized clinical trial

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    Satheeshkumar P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral care in cancer patients is an important aspect in the quality of life of patients undergoing cancer therpay. Mucositis, trismus, salivary gland dysfunction are the main complications of the cancer therapy, which lead to long-term comlications such as radiation caries, poor oral hygiene and osteoradionecrosis. A timely oral evaluation and intervention in these patients can reduce the severity of the potential complications. Triclosan is an antibacterial agent widely used in periodontal therapy, the effectiveness of triclosan in the management of radiation induced oral mucositis is evaluated here. Aims: 1 To determine the effectiveness of triclosan in the management of radiation-induced oral mucositis. 2 To compare the effectiveness of triclosan mouth rinse with conventional sodium bicarbonate mouth rinse. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients who underwent radiation therapy for oral cancer and subsequently developed oral mucositis were included in the study. They were randomly allocated into two groups on noticing grade I mucositis (erythema. The study group was advised to use triclosan mouthwash containing triclosan 0.03% W/V and sodium bicarbonate 2 mg mouth wash for the control group. A weekly follow-up evaluation of body weight, food intake, pain and grading of mucositis were made during the radiation treatment period and post radiation treatment period. Results: Both the groups were statistically identical. All the 24 patients in both the groups passed through grade 3 mucositis on the last day of radiotherapy. However, 10 patients in the control group and only one patient in the study group entered to grade 4 mucositis. A definite change was noticed in the severity of the mucositis, food intake and weight loss. The control group took more than 45 days to resolve while the study group took only less than 28 days. Discussion: The results of the study were evaluated and tried to formulate a hypothesis so as to explain

  2. Dental health professional recommendation and consumer habits in denture cleansing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axe, Alyson S; Varghese, Roshan; Bosma, MaryLynn; Kitson, Nicola; Bradshaw, David J

    2016-02-01

    Regular cleaning of dentures is essential to the oral and general health of denture wearers. Only limited systematic data are available on the recommendations that dental health care professionals (DHCPs) make to patients for denture cleaning. Data on denture wearers' cleaning regimens are also lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide data on recommendations that DHCPs make to patients for denture cleaning and on the cleaning regimens of denture wearers. DHCPs (n=613), including dentists and hygienists, were surveyed in developed (Japan, USA, Italy) and developing (Brazil, India) countries. A questionnaire assessing a range of denture cleaning recommendations was used. The questions addressed products, frequency, how to use remedies, the suggested dilution and duration of cleansing treatment, the location of dentures while cleaning, and the reasoning behind the recommendation of particular products or modes of treatment. Denture cleansing methods and the routine of denture wearers in developed and developing countries were also surveyed with a questionnaire (n=2862) and a 1-week diary (n=1462). An average of more than 2 treatments was recommended by DHCPs. Specialist denture cleanser tablets, "regular" toothpaste, mouthwash, soap and water, denture paste, foam or liquid denture cleanser, and dishwashing detergents were most commonly recommended; other product recommendations included baking soda, vinegar, salt water, and bleach. More than 10% of DHCPs made no primary recommendation on cleaning. Denture tablets were more commonly recommended in developed countries, whereas toothpaste was the most common recommendation in developing countries. Denture wearers used products and methods similar to those recommended by DHCPs. Toothpaste, water, and mouthwash were used more frequently than denture tablets. More than 75% of denture wearers reported using denture cleanser tablets for more than 5 minutes, whereas soap and toothpaste were typically used for less

  3. Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

    2013-11-01

    Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ≤3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ≥ 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups - test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0.05), whereas, the control group showed no reduction in

  4. Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent

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    Mayur Sudhakar Khairnar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis, commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD ≤3 mm, with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ≥ 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG, smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups - test group (n = 120 and control group (n = 120. All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, sulcus bleeding index (SBI, and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S were recorded at baseline (first visit, third month (second visit, and sixth month (third visit by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. Results: In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit, the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S (P < 0

  5. Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity

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    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, pharmaceutical preparations, and many household products. Contradictory evidence about the safety of such topical applications of the alcohol can be found in the scientific literature, yet an up-to-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is currently lacking. The first and foremost concerns of topical ethanol applications for public health are its carcinogenic effects, as there is unambiguous evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol orally consumed in the form of alcoholic beverages. So far there is a lack of evidence to associate topical ethanol use with an increased risk of skin cancer. Limited and conflicting epidemiological evidence is available on the link between the use of ethanol in the oral cavity in the form of mouthwashes or mouthrinses and oral cancer. Some studies pointed to an increased risk of oral cancer due to locally produced acetaldehyde, operating via a similar mechanism to that found after alcoholic beverage ingestion. In addition, topically applied ethanol acts as a skin penetration enhancer and may facilitate the transdermal absorption of xenobiotics (e.g. carcinogenic contaminants in cosmetic formulations. Ethanol use is associated with skin irritation or contact dermatitis, especially in humans with an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH deficiency. After regular application of ethanol on the skin (e.g. in the form of hand disinfectants relatively low but measurable blood concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may occur, which are, however, below acute toxic levels. Only in children, especially through lacerated skin, can percutaneous toxicity occur. As there might be industry bias in many studies about the safety of topical ethanol applications, as well

  6. A case report on a systemic toxicity following ingestion of 20% chlorhexidine gluconate solution

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    Koiahi-e-Kazerani J

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is bonded well to the oral mucosa and dental pellicle and is poorly absorbed from the astrointestinal tract, but in high concentration it is absorbed enough to produce liver necrosis. In this case a dentistry student accidentally ingested a shot of 20% chlorhexidine gluconate solution. Treatments included washing the oral cavity with lots of tooth paste, drinking of 5% alginate syrup and ingestion of 5g small pieces of cork .The following adverse effects were experienced: headache, giddiness, mild mist, euphoria, stomachache, diarrhea and complete loss of taste sensation for 8h, which recurred gradually during the last 48 hours. According to the poor absorption, low toxicity and low concentration of conventional mouthwashes, systemic toxicity following drinking of some shots of this solution is rare. Ultimately if may cause gastritis. Other treatments which are helpful in the same cases are: drinking of hard water, kaolin and tragacant syrup, bicarbonates such as baking soda, carbonates such as beverage , citrates such as lemon-juice and chlorides such as brine and so on.

  7. ZnO and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as novel antimicrobial agents for oral hygiene: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shams Tabrez, E-mail: shamsalig75@gmail.com; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A. [King Saud University, Department of Zoology, College of Science (Saudi Arabia); Musarrat, Javed [AMU, Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences (India)

    2015-06-15

    Oral cavity is inhabited by more than 25,000 different bacterial phylotypes; some of them cause systemic infections in addition to dental and periodontal diseases. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistance among these bacteria necessitates the development of alternative antimicrobial agents that are safe, stable, and relatively economic. This review focuses on the significance of metal oxide nanoparticles, especially zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles as supplementary antimicrobials for controlling oral infections and biofilm formation. Indeed, the ZnO NPs and TiO{sub 2} NPs have exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria at concentrations which is not toxic in in vivo toxicity assays. These nanoparticles are being produced at an industrial scale for use in a variety of commercial products including food products. Thus, the application of ZnO and TiO{sub 2} NPs as nanoantibiotics for the development of mouthwashes, dental pastes, and other oral hygiene materials is envisaged. It is also suggested that these NPs could serve as healthier, innocuous, and effective alternative for controlling both the dental biofilms and oral planktonic bacteria with lesser side effects and antibiotic resistance.

  8. Chitosan-based polyherbal toothpaste: As novel oral hygiene product

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    Mohire Nitin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present work was to develop chitosan-based polyherbal toothpaste and evaluate its plaque-reducing potential and efficacy in reduction of dental pathogens. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity of herbal extracts against dental pathogens were performed by using disk diffusion method. The pharmaceutical evaluation of toothpaste was carried out as per the US Government Tooth Paste Specifications. A 4-week clinical study was conducted in patients with oro-dental problems to evaluate the plaque removing efficacy of chitosan-based polyherbal toothpaste with commercially available chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% w/v mouthwash as positive control. Total microbial count was carried out to determine the percentage decrease in the oral bacterial count over the period of treatment. Result: Herbal extracts were found to possess satisfactory antimicrobial activity against most of the dental pathogens. Chitosan-containing polyherbal toothpaste significantly reduces the plaque index by 70.47% and bacterial count by 85.29%, and thus fulfills the majority of esthetic and medicinal requirements of oral hygiene products. Conclusion: Chitosan-based polyherbal toothpaste proves itself as a promising novel oral hygiene product as compared with currently available oral hygiene products. A further study to confirm the exact mechanism and active constituents behind antiplaque and antimicrobial activity of chitosan-based polyherbal toothpaste and its efficacy in large number of patient population is on high demand.

  9. Randomized controlled trial of toothbrushing to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia pathogens and dental plaque in a critical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, Ian G; Hirsch, Nicholas P; Leemans, Michele; Moles, David R; Wilson, Michael; Ready, Derren R; Ismail, Salim; Ciric, Lena; Shaw, Michael J; Smith, Martin; Garner, Anne; Wilson, Sally

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the effect of a powered toothbrush on colonization of dental plaque by ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)-associated organisms and dental plaque removal. Parallel-arm, single-centre, examiner- and analyst-masked randomized controlled trial. Forty-six adults were recruited within 48 h of admission. Test intervention: powered toothbrush, control intervention: sponge toothette, both used four times per day for 2 min. Groups received 20 ml, 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash at each time point. The results showed a low prevalence of respiratory pathogens throughout with no statistically significant differences between groups. A highly statistically significantly greater reduction in dental plaque was produced by the powered toothbrush compared with the control treatment; mean plaque index at day 5, powered toothbrush 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53, 1.00], sponge toothette 1.35 (95% CI 0.95, 1.74), p=0.006. Total bacterial viable count was also highly statistically significantly lower in the test group at day 5; Log(10) mean total bacterial counts: powered toothbrush 5.12 (95% CI 4.60, 5.63), sponge toothette 6.61 (95% CI 5.93, 7.28), p=0.002. Powered toothbrushes are highly effective for plaque removal in intubated patients in a critical unit and should be tested for their potential to reduce VAP incidence and health complications. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review

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    Irlan Almeida Freires

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to prevent this biofilm-dependent disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs. In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a potential applicability in novel dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the effects of EOs on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial potential against cariogenic bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial potential. Only L. sidoides mouthwash (1% has shown clinical antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide.

  11. Current Trend of Antimicrobial Prescription for Oral Implant Surgery Among Dentists in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rahul; Grewal, Yasmin; Batth, J S; Singh, Amandeep

    2014-12-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate antimicrobial prescription behaviour amongst dentists performing oral implant surgery in India. Dentists performing oral implant surgery from different parts of India were personally approached during various national events such as conferences and academic meetings and information regarding their prescription habits for antimicrobial agents in routine oral implant surgery was collected using a structured questionnaire. Out of a total sample of 332 dentists, 85.5 % prescribed 17 different groups or combinations of antibiotics routinely for oral implant surgery in the normal healthy patient. Majority preferred the peri-operative protocol of drug therapy (72.2 %) with variable and prolonged duration of therapy after surgery, ranging from 3 to 10 days. An antimicrobial mouthwash was routinely prescribed by all the doctors (14.5 %) not in favour of prescribing antimicrobials in a normal healthy patient. Our findings suggest that there is a trend of antimicrobial agent misuse by dentists performing oral implant surgery in India, both in terms of drugs used and the protocols prescribed. The majority of these dentists prescribed a variety of antimicrobial agents for prolonged durations routinely even in the normal, healthy patients.

  12. The effect of pomegranate mouthrinse on Streptococcus mutans count and salivary pH: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Dilshad; Dilshad, Bahija; Farhan, Mohammed; Ali, Arshiya; Baroudi, Kusai

    2016-01-01

    Herbal mouthwashes have been considered to be a more advantageous option to their chemical counterparts, for a long-time. The use of pomegranate fruit dates from ancient times and reports of its therapeutic abilities have echoed throughout the ages. To evaluate the effect on the salivary pH and the Streptococcus mutans count in healthy subjects before and after pomegranate mouthrinse. Fifty healthy patients were randomly divided into two groups of 25 subjects each. Group A was treated with 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse; while Group B was treated with pomegranate peel extract (PPE) mouthrinse and the saliva samples were collected at three different intervals: Prerinse, after 10 min, and 60 min. The salivary pH was measured using a digital pH meter and the S. mutans count was determined by the commercial system Dentocult SM. The statistical analyses used in this study are Mann-Whitney U-test and t-test. PPE mouthrinse had an inhibitory effect on S. mutans count in adults. There was also an increase in the salivary pH after 10 min of the mouthrinse. PPE mouthrinse may be considered as a potential anticariogenic mouthrinse.

  13. Prevention and control of sequels in the mouth of patients treated with radiation therapy for head and neck tumors; Prevencao e controle das sequelas bucais em pacientes irradiados por tumores de cabeca e pescoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Maria de Fatima Aparecida; Novikoff, Silviene; Tresso, Adriana; Segreto, Roberto Araujo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Setor de Odontologia; Cervantes, Onivaldo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina. Setor de Radioterapia

    2005-04-01

    Surgery and radiation therapy are de main treatments for head and neck cancer. The side effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation on the tissues include dermatitis, mucositis, xerostomia, candidiasis, dysgeusia, dysphagia, caries, trismus, osteoradionecrosis. Objective: To assess dental condition of the patients using a protocol which allows avoiding or reducing the effects of radiation in the tissues of the oral cavity. Materials And Methods: Dental follow-up was performed before, during and up to 180 days after radiation therapy in 12 patients submitted to surgery and radiation therapy or radiation therapy alone. Results: The proportion of effects such as dermatitis, mucositis, dysgeusia, and dysphagia increased from the second week of the treatment until the end of the administrations. There was a clear decrease at the end of the treatment which was close to baseline values after 180 days. The reduction of xerostomia was slower and less effective. No case of caries, trismus, and osteoradionecrosis were observed during the assessment period. Conclusion: Regular dental follow-up associated with preventive measures such as prophylactic management of dental and oral diseases, adequate hygiene, mouth-washing with bicarbonate water and chamomile tea, and topic fluorine application contributed to improve the recovery conditions of patients with cancer of head and neck submitted to radiation therapy. (author)

  14. Therapeutic management of radiation-induced oral mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, W.; Doelling-Jochem, I.; Baumann, M.; Herrmann, T.

    1997-01-01

    Background: Acute reactions of oral mucosa are a frequent side effect of radiotherapy, which often necessitates interruption of the treatment. Marked proliferation of tumor stem cells during treatment interruptions may occur in squamous cell carcinomata, which represent the majority of tumors in the head and neck area. Hence a fatal consequence of treatment breaks may be a significant decrease in tumor cure rates. Furthermore, marked acute responses frequently result in increased late sequelae ('consequential damage'). Therefore, amelioration of the mucosal response aiming at avoiding treatment breaks and at reduction of late reactions coul definitely increase the therapeutic success of radiation treatment. Results: A variety of prophylactic and therapeutic methods have been proposed for the management of acute radiation reactions of the oral mucosa. Frequently, their efficiacy has been established for chemotherapy or in combination with other immunosuppressive treatments. Hence, systemical rather than local effects have to be considered. Conclusions: In general, prophylaxis of oral mucositis is mainly based on dental restoration or edentation, in combination with frequent oral hygienic measures after the meals and with antiseptic mouthwashes. Intensive personal care is recommended. The necessity of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostoma is dependent on the status of the patient and on size and localization of the treatment area, i.e. the impairment of food uptake which is to be expected. Therapeutic intervention is restricted to local or systemic treatment of pain and local application of antimycotics and antibiotics. (orig./VHE) [de

  15. Concomitant caries and calculus formation from in situ dentin caries model [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/VnGedU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico B de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the possibility of the concomitant formation of calculus deposits and caries from in situ dentin caries model for short time periods. Six volunteers wore palatal removal appliances with four polished dentin specimens protected from intra-oral mechanical forces for up to 14 days. Each volunteer applied a 50% sucrose solution (four times a day on the specimens and performed a daily mouthwash with 0.05% NaF. Samples were removed after 2, 5, 9 and 14 days in situ. Demineralization was analyzed by stereomicroscopy and SEM (secondary electrons and backscattered electrons modes and calculus was analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Seventeen samples, at least one sample from each volunteer, presented dental calculus on both carious and non-carious ones, detected in all time intervals. Ca/P ratios of dental calculus ranged from 1.1 to 1.7. Some large calculus deposits on carious surfaces were confirmed by fluorescence. In conclusion, concomitant caries and calculus formation can be found in dentin caries formed in situ. This has important repercussions on the study of surface phenomena on the interface between hard dental tissues and dental plaque.

  16. Screening for antibiofilm and antioxidant potential of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Sumreen; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

    2016-07-01

    The antibiofilm and antioxidant activities associated with turmeric were the main focus of the study. Antibacterial activity was explored against bacteria isolated from dental plaques and dental unit water lines exhibiting resistance against antibiotics and biocides respectively. This study provides a comparison of the natural plant extract against synthetic mouthwash, chemicals and commonly prescribed antibiotics. Methanol extract was more effective as compared to other extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 2.5-10mg/ml. Time based killing kinetic assay showed a significant reduction of bacterial load with increasing concentration of turmeric. Micro titer plate assay indicated significant inhibition of biofilm formation in cells treated with turmeric extract. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts showed the presence of vital secondary metabolites. Flavonoid content and total phenolic content varied among extracts, phenolic content for methanolic extract was 61.669 mg GAE/ gm dry extract and flavonoid content was 3.119mg quercitin/gm dry extract. The values of ferric reducing power were in the range of 5.55- 15.55 mmol of FeSO4 equivalent/ liter of the extract. Antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of the turmeric extracts had significant positive correlation. On the basis of these results turmeric may confidently be recommended as natural antibiofilm and antioxidant agent.

  17. Halitosis and related factors in patient referred to the Clinic of Dentistry, Zahedan

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    Tahereh Nosratzehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Halitosis is defined as unpleasant odor from the mouth .In %87 of cases the cause of halitosis are located in the oral cavity. It is a medico-social problem that affect a many number of people. purpose of this study was to determine factors involved in halitosis patients were referred to the dental clinic Zahedan. Materials and Methods : 320 people were attending the halitosis or halitophobia for this survey were selected . Selected individuals from eating, drinking, smoking, chewing gum, about 24 hours before sampling was forbidden , and also noted that on examination of brushing, flossing and mouthwash brands do not use . Regarding gingival index periodontal used, in terms of smoking were divided into two groups, consumer and non- consumer - reviews decay and bad restorations through clinical examination and bitewing radiography was performed and the diagnosis of patients with the prosthesis or any the corresponding table were recorded . Crowding teeth were considered . Organoleptic method was used to check for bad breath . Results: The findings of factors such as tooth decay (72%, periodontal disease (47.5%, tounge  coating (17.5% are artificial teeth (13.75% and food impaction, were signficantly  related with halitosis. Conclusion: diagnosis and treatment of halitosis are pramily the responsibility of dentists. It is important for the dentist to have a proper understanding of halitosis and provide correct treatment.

  18. The efficacy of two oral hygiene regimens in reducing oral malodour: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feres, Magda; Figueiredo, Luciene Cristina; Faveri, Marcelo; Guerra, Marcelo C; Mateo, Luis R; Stewart, Bernal; Williams, Malcolm; Panagakos, Foti

    2015-12-01

    This study compared the efficacy of two oral hygiene regimens in reducing oral malodour and the proportions of bacterial species involved in the production of volatile sulphur compounds. Seventy subjects who participated in a halitosis-induction phase and achieved an organoleptic score of ≥ 3.0 [time point 0 (T0)] randomised into two groups: brushing with regular fluoride toothpaste alone (control group) or brushing with regular fluoride toothpaste followed by rinsing with a 0.075% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthwash (CPC group). Subjects followed their assigned oral hygiene regimen for 21 days. Then, they underwent an organoleptic examination and measurement of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) using a portable gas chromatograph, 12 hours after their last oral hygiene procedure (T1) and 4 hours after an on-site oral hygiene (T2). Microbiological samples (supragingival biofilm, tongue coating and saliva) were analysed using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridisation. Both therapies statistically significantly improved the organoleptic scores (P oral malodour scores were reduced by 49% at the 4-hour assessment (T2) compared with those not rinsing (P oral malodour, measured organoleptically and instrumentally, and in the proportions of red-complex species when compared with brushing alone. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  19. Antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans biofilms associated with peri-implantitis

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    Zeinab Kadkhoda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to assessthe antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine (CHX on Aggregatibacter actinomyce-temcomitans biofilms isolated from subgingival plaque of peri-implantitis lesions. Methods. Thirteen patients requiring peri-implantitis treatment were consecutively selected and their subgingival biofilm was collected by inserting fine sterile paper points into peri-implant pockets for 15 seconds. A. actinomycetemcomitans was isolated from the subgingival biofilm and cultured. In this study, the standard strain of A. actinomycetemcomitans served as the positive control group and a blank disc impregnated with water served as the negative control; 0.1 mL of the bacterial suspension was cultured on specific culture medium and blank discs (6 mm in diameter impregnated with 0.2%CHX mouthrinse (Behsa Pharmaceutical Co. and negative control discs were placed on two sides of the bacterial culture plate. The size of growth inhibition zone was measured by a blinded independent observer in millimetres. Results. According to the results of disc diffusion test, the mean diameter of growth inhibition zone of A. actinomycetem-comitans around discs impregnated with CHX was larger in both standard (positive control and biofilm samples of A. acti-nomycetemcomitans compared to the negative control group (blank disc (P<0.001. Conclusion. Use of0.2% CHX mouthwash had antibacterial effects on A. actinomycetemcomitans species isolated from peri-implantitis sites.

  20. Intermittent subglottic secretion drainage may cause tracheal damage in patients with few oropharyngeal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suys, E; Nieboer, K; Stiers, W; De Regt, J; Huyghens, L; Spapen, H

    2013-12-01

    Injurious prolapse of tracheal mucosa into the suction port has been reported in up to 50% of intubated patients receiving continuous aspiration of subglottic secretions. We investigated whether similar injury could be inflicted by automated intermittent aspiration. Six consecutive patients, intubated with the Mallinckrodt TaperGuard Evac™ endotracheal tube, were studied. A flow sensor was placed between the vacuum regulating system and the mucus collector. Intermittent suctioning was performed at a pressure of -125 mmHg with a 25s interval and duration of 15s. After 24h, a CT scan of the tracheal region was performed. Excessive negative suction pressure, a fast drop in aspiration flow to zero, and important "swinging" movements of secretions in the evacuation line were observed in all patients. Oral instillation of antiseptic mouthwash restored normal aspiration flow and secretion mobility. CT imaging showed marked entrapment of tracheal mucosa into the suction port in all patients. In patients with few oropharyngeal secretions, automated intermittent subglottic aspiration may result in significant and potential harmful invagination of tracheal mucosa into the suction lumen. A critical amount of fluid must be present in the oropharynx to assure adequate and safe aspiration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lanthanum(IlI) PVC membrane electrodes based on 1,3,5-trithiacyclohexane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Yousefi, Mohammad; Hosseini, Morteza; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2002-11-01

    Novel plasticized polymeric membrane (PPME) and membrane-coated graphite (MCGE) electrodes based on 1,3,5-trithiacyclohexane for highly selective determination of La3+ ion have been developed. The electrodes exhibit Nernstian responses over very wide concentration ranges (8.0 x 10(-6)-5.0 x 10(-2) M for PPME and 4.0 x 10(-8)-1.0 x 10(-2) M for MCGE). The limit of detections were 5.0 x 10(-6) and 2.0 x 10(-8) M for PPME and MCGE, respectively. The electrodes possess a fast response time of approximately 10 s and can be used for at least 6 months without observing any deviation. The proposed electrodes revealed excellent selectivities for La3+ over a wide variety of alkali, alkaline earth, transition, and heavy metal ions and could be used in a pH range of 5.0-8.0. The practical utility of the electrodes has been demonstrated by their use as indicator electrodes in the potentiometric titration of La3+ ions with EDTA and in determination of F- in some mouthwash preparations.

  2. EFFECT OF FLAXSEED OIL IN PLAQUE INDUCED GINGIVITIS- A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED DOUBLE-BLIND STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alluru Deepika

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Oil pulling has been used extensively as a traditional remedy for many years. It is supposed to cure oral and systemic diseases, but the evidence is minimal. Intraorally it is supposed to cause strengthening of teeth, gums, and the jaw and to prevent decay, oral malodour, bleeding gums, dryness of the throat and cracked lips. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oil pulling with flaxseed oil on plaque induced gingivitis and to compare its efficacy with chlorhexidine mouthwash. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 20 teenaged individuals attending the Out Patient - Department of Dentistry with plaque-induced gingivitis were selected for this study. They were divided randomly into the study or oil pulling group (Group I and the control or chlorhexidine group (Group II with 10 subjects in each group. Plaque index and modified gingival index scores were recorded for the selected individuals of both the groups. The study group was subjected to oil pulling with flaxseed oil every day in the morning before brushing whereas the control group used chlorhexidine mouth rinse. Reassessment of the index scores was done after 30 days in both the groups. RESULTS There was a statistically significant reduction of the pre- and post-values of the plaque and modified gingival index scores in both the study and control groups (P <0.001. CONCLUSION The oil pulling therapy with flaxseed oil is thus an effective adjuvant in reducing plaque-induced gingivitis.

  3. Diospyros lycioides Desf.: Review of its botany, medicinal uses, pharmacological activities and phytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Maroyi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diospyros lycioides Desf. (D. lycioides is traditionally used as herbal medicine against various human and animal ailments in tropical Africa. The present paper reviewed information on botany, medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of D. lycioides. This review was compiled using scientific literature from electronic search engine such as PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Springerlink, BioMed Central, Scielo, Medline and Science domain. Additional literatures were obtained from book chapters, books, dissertations, websites and other scientific publications. D. lycioides is used as traditional medicine in 50% of the countries where the species is native in tropical Africa. This study recorded 22 medicinal uses of D. lycioides which included abdominal pains, infertility in women, sexually transmitted infections, and used as chewing sticks (or mouthwash, toothbrushes and ethnoveterinary medicine. D. lycioides extracts demonstrated anti-adhesive, anti-inflammatory, antimetastatic, antioxidant, antifungal, antiproliferative, mutagenicity and antibacterial activities. Future research should focus on the pharmacological properties, phytochemistry, clinical trials and pharmacokinetics of D. lycioides which will enhance the therapeutic potential of the species.

  4. Developing an electrochemical sensor based on a carbon paste electrode modified with nano-composite of reduced graphene oxide and CuFe2O4 nanoparticles for determination of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvidi, Ali; Nafar, Mohammad Taghi; Jahanbani, Shahriar; Tezerjani, Marzieh Dehghan; Rezaeinasab, Masoud; Dalirnasab, Sudabeh

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a highly sensitive voltammetric sensor based on a carbon paste electrode with CuFe 2 O 4 nanoparticle (RGO/CuFe 2 O 4 /CPE) was designed for determination of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The electrocatalytic reduction of H 2 O 2 was examined using various techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry, amperometry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). CuFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method and characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. Then, a high conductive platform based on a carbon paste electrode modified with RGO and CuFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles was prepared as a suitable platform for determination of hydrogen peroxide. Under the optimum conditions (pH5), the modified electrode indicated a fast amperometric response of determination of hydrogen peroxide. Also, the peak current of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) of hydrogen peroxide is increased linearly with its concentration in the ranges of 2 to 10μM and 10 to 1000μM. The obtained detection limit for hydrogen peroxide was evaluated to be 0.064μM by DPV. The designed sensor was successfully applied for the assay of hydrogen peroxide in biological and pharmaceutical samples such as milk, green tea, and hair dye cream and mouthwash solution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A randomized, double‑blind clinical study to assess the antiplaque and antigingivitis efficacy of Aloe vera mouth rinse

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    Bathini Chandrahas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of Aloe Vera mouth rinse on experimental plaque accumulation and gingivitis. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, controlled, and double-blind study, a total of 148 systemically healthy subjects were screened in the age group of 18-25 years. Finally, 120 subjects were requested to abstain from oral hygiene (tooth brushing for 14 days and used a specially fabricated plaque guard. Following cessation of tooth brushing in the specified area, the subjects were randomly divided into Group A (test group who received 100% Aloe vera, Group B (negative control group who received placebo (distilled water, and Group C (positive control group who received 0.2% chlorhexidine. The rinse regimen began on the 15 th day and continued for 7 days. Plaque accumulation was assessed by Plaque Index (PI and gingivitis was assessed by Modified Gingival Index (MGI and Bleeding Index (BI at baseline (0, 7 th , 14 th , and 22 nd days. Results: There was statistically significant decrease in PI, MGI, and BI scores after the rinse regimen began in both Group A (test group and Group C (chlorhexidine compared with Group B. Mouth wash containing Aloe vera showed significant reduction of plaque and gingivitis but when compared with chlorhexidine the effect was less significant. Conclusion: Aloe vera mouthwash can be an effective antiplaque agent and with appropriate refinements in taste and shelf life can be an affordable herbal substitute for chlorhexidine.

  6. Local application of GM-CSF for treatment of chemoirradiation-induced mucositis in patients with advanced carcinoma of the head and neck: results of controlled clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichtomann, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: the study was designed to assess prospectively the efficacy of GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) mouthwash solution in the management of chemoirradiation induced oral mucositis for head and neck cancer patients. Methods and materials: thirty-five patients with advanced carcinoma of the head and neck were evaluated for mucositis during the first cycle of chemoirradiation therapy. GM-CSF 400 μg in 250 cc of water for 1 h of mouth washing was prescribed. Active comparator was a conventional mucositis therapy combination. The procedure started once mucositis grade 1 (using the WHO grading) was detected. Patients, examined twice a week, were evaluated for oral mucositis and oral infections. Assessment of subjective pain was provided using a visual analogue scale. Blood tests were taken weekly. Results: the results of statistical evaluation of mucositis using the WHO-grading showed no significant differences between the two treatment groups. Local application of GM-CSF significantly reduced subjective pain during the second week of chemoirradiation therapy. Statistical analysis of the leucocytes-, platelet count, haemoglobin level and development of oral infections revealed no significant differences between the two treatment groups. Conclusion: in combined chemoirradiation therapy schemes the RTOG/EORTC toxicity scale should be used. In selected cases of mucositis attended with severe pain, GM-CSF should be observed within the therapeutic considerations. Controlled clinical trials with larger patient population are required to evaluate the role of GM-CSF in this indication. (author)

  7. ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles as novel antimicrobial agents for oral hygiene: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Musarrat, Javed

    2015-06-01

    Oral cavity is inhabited by more than 25,000 different bacterial phylotypes; some of them cause systemic infections in addition to dental and periodontal diseases. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistance among these bacteria necessitates the development of alternative antimicrobial agents that are safe, stable, and relatively economic. This review focuses on the significance of metal oxide nanoparticles, especially zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles as supplementary antimicrobials for controlling oral infections and biofilm formation. Indeed, the ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs have exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria at concentrations which is not toxic in in vivo toxicity assays. These nanoparticles are being produced at an industrial scale for use in a variety of commercial products including food products. Thus, the application of ZnO and TiO2 NPs as nanoantibiotics for the development of mouthwashes, dental pastes, and other oral hygiene materials is envisaged. It is also suggested that these NPs could serve as healthier, innocuous, and effective alternative for controlling both the dental biofilms and oral planktonic bacteria with lesser side effects and antibiotic resistance.

  8. Effect of green tea mouth rinse on Streptococcus mutans in plaque and saliva in children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of green tea catechin as a mouth wash on colony count of Streptococcus mutans in children. Materials and Methods: A sample size of thirty children was selected out of screened 290 children by simple random sampling between the age group of 7 and 12 years. The study was conducted over a period of 2 weeks. After 24 h of oral prophylaxis, the baseline samples were collected and each group was subjected to mouth rinsing with green tea mouth wash for 2 weeks and further plaque and saliva samples were collected at 1- and 2-week intervals from baseline. Microbiological analysis of plaque and saliva samples was done by Dentocult SM strip kit (Orion Diagnostica, Finland, and the results were statistically analyzed and tabulated. Results: Statistically, there was highly significant reduction in S. mutans count in plaque as well as in saliva for after 1- and 2-week intervals from baseline. Conclusion: Hence, finally, our study showed that green tea catechin is effective as a mouth wash against S. mutans and having better action in plaque as compared to saliva. It can be used as an adjunct to commercially available mouthwashes.

  9. ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles as novel antimicrobial agents for oral hygiene: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Musarrat, Javed

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity is inhabited by more than 25,000 different bacterial phylotypes; some of them cause systemic infections in addition to dental and periodontal diseases. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistance among these bacteria necessitates the development of alternative antimicrobial agents that are safe, stable, and relatively economic. This review focuses on the significance of metal oxide nanoparticles, especially zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles as supplementary antimicrobials for controlling oral infections and biofilm formation. Indeed, the ZnO NPs and TiO 2 NPs have exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria at concentrations which is not toxic in in vivo toxicity assays. These nanoparticles are being produced at an industrial scale for use in a variety of commercial products including food products. Thus, the application of ZnO and TiO 2 NPs as nanoantibiotics for the development of mouthwashes, dental pastes, and other oral hygiene materials is envisaged. It is also suggested that these NPs could serve as healthier, innocuous, and effective alternative for controlling both the dental biofilms and oral planktonic bacteria with lesser side effects and antibiotic resistance

  10. Ramifications of Dental Policy and its Impact on Public Oral Health

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    Prasant MC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral health care system is to promote, maintain and prevent oral disease. It also aims at adequate treatment to arrest the disease at an early stage .There is a lack of clearly stated objectives and many a time lack of implementation. There are around 300 plus colleges(2in India today. Opening up of private sector to dental college has both a positive and negative impact. Today dental treatment is available in many rural parts of India and there is an increased awareness as compared to before. Technology and infrastructure is widely available. The question is are the department and infrastructure used .Definitely not to the optimumas the are not performing for what they are designed. For example Community dentistry department has been used only to increase number of patients to dental colleges. It is seen as an advertisement agency for these colleges. Role of Community dentist has become that of is of a referring body. Other subjects relating to dental public health like fluoridation of drinking water, Commercial mouthwashes have also been a cause for concern, with some studies linking them to an increased risk of oral cancer(3, 4, 5, 6 has taken a back seat. The maximum permissible limit of fluoride in drinking water in India is 1.2 mg/L7. There are programs on tobacco awareness but its use in India does not show significant decline in users. Most of these programs are not involving dentist actively

  11. Prevention and treatment of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients

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    Maryam Khoroushi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decalcification of enamel, appearing as white spot lesions (WSLs, around fixed orthodontic appliances is a major challenge during and after fixed orthodontic treatment by considering the fact that the goal of orthodontic treatment is to enhance facial and dental esthetic appearance. Banded or bonded teeth exhibit a significantly higher rate of WSLs compared to the controls with no braces as fixed appliances and the bonding materials promote retention of biofilms. These lesions are managed in the first step by establishing good oral hygiene habits and prophylaxis with topical fluorides, including high-fluoride toothpastes, fluoride mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, fluoride-containing bonding materials, and elastic ligatures. Recently, other materials and methods have been recommended, including the application of casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate, antiseptics, probiotics, polyols, sealants, laser, tooth bleaching agents, resin infiltration, and microabrasion. This article reviews the currently used methods to manage enamel demineralization during and after orthodontic treatment and the risk factors and preventive measures based on the latest evidence.

  12. Inhibitory effects of antiseptic mouthrinses on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A; Leishman, S J; Walsh, L J; Seow, W K

    2015-06-01

    Oral antiseptics are valuable in controlling oral infections caused by cariogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mouthrinses and pure antiseptic compounds on Streptococcus mutans and non-mutans bacteria (Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus acidophilus). The agar diffusion assay was employed to determine bacterial growth inhibition. Commercial mouthrinses containing chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2%), cetylpyridinium chloride (0.05%) and sodium fluoride (0.05%) produced statistically similar growth inhibition of S. mutans, S. sanguinis and L. acidophilus (with zones of inhibition ranging from 7.56 ± 0.52 mm to 7.39 ± 0.53 mm, 17.44 ± 0.94 mm to 18.31 ± 0.62 mm and 8.61 ± 1.43 to 8.67 ± 1.43 mm respectively, p > 0.05). The chlorhexidine mouthwash produced the greatest mean growth inhibition of S. sanguinis and S. mutans compared to all other mouthrinses tested (p mutans could be detected were chlorhexidine gluconate at 0.005% (wt/vol), cetylpyridinium chloride 0.01% (wt/ vol), povidone iodine 10% (wt/vol) and sodium hypochlorite 0.5% (vol/vol). Chlorhexidine (0.01%), cetylpyridinium chloride (0.01%), povidone iodine (10%) and sodium hypochlorite (0.5%) are effective at inhibiting the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguinis and L. acidophilus. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  13. Associations Between Periodontitis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Ho; Hwang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Tae Ho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether oral hygiene and self-care, particularly in periodontal health, are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Korean population. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012 were used to assess the community periodontal index (CPI) of 5,878 participants (normal lung function: n = 5,181; obstructive spirometric pattern: n = 697) aged ≥40 years, who underwent spirometry. Participants with COPD brushed their teeth less frequently and used the following less frequently: 1) dental floss and/or interdental brush; 2) mouthwash; and 3) electric toothbrush (P periodontitis in patients with COPD (58.1%) was significantly higher than in those without COPD (34.0%, P periodontal severity. Periodontitis (CPI 3 and 4) was associated in males with COPD after adjustment for: 1) age; 2) income; 3) education; 4) smoking; 5) alcohol consumption; 6) exercise; 7) body mass index; 8) toothbrushing frequency; 9) diabetes mellitus; and 10) number of teeth (CPI 3: relative risk [RR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12 to 2.05; CPI 4: RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.56). Findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that COPD in males may be associated with severe periodontitis and indicates the importance of promoting dental care in patients with COPD.

  14. Self-perception, knowledge, and awareness of halitosis among female university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Mubayrik, Azizah; Al Hamdan, Rana; Al Hadlaq, Emad M; AlBagieh, Hamad; AlAhmed, Dan; Jaddoh, Hend; Demyati, Mawadh; Abu Shryei, Rawan

    2017-01-01

    Background Halitosis or oral malodor is defined as an unpleasant breath odor. It can become a serious problem affecting individuals’ social communication and self-confidence. Furthermore, it is a discomforting issue for the people around the person affected, because they consider it embarrassing to inform the person of the problem. Aim This study was designed to measure self-perception, knowledge, and awareness of halitosis among female university students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was implemented with 392 volunteer participants who responded to a questionnaire on their self-perception, knowledge, and awareness of halitosis. Results The response rate was 89.1% (392/440). Self-perception of halitosis was low (21.4%), whereas a larger percentage (78.1%) indicated noticing people with bad breath. Most participants (80.4%) thought that the gastrointestinal tract is the primary source of halitosis. Seventy-seven percent preferred using personal methods such as mouthwash and chewing gum to treat oral malodor. According to 82.1% of respondents, a dentist is the most appropriate professional to treat halitosis. Conclusion The investigation revealed low self-perception and limited knowledge regarding halitosis. Therefore, the role of dentists in informing and educating their patients concerning oral malodor should be enhanced. Public education about the causes of and possible ways of managing bad breath should be increased. PMID:28603430

  15. Prevalence and Treatment Management of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Results of the French Candidoscope Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gligorov, Joseph; Bastit, Laurent; Gervais, Honorine; Henni, Mehdi; Kahila, Widad; Lepille, Daniel; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Sasso, Giuseppe; Varette, Charles; Azria, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this pharmaco-epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Signs and symptoms of OPC were noted for all patients. Antifungal therapeutic management was recorded in OPC patients. Patients receiving local antifungal treatments were monitored until the end of treatment. Results: Enrolled in the study were 2,042 patients with solid tumor and/or lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or another systemic cancer treatment and/or radiotherapy. The overall prevalence of OPC was 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.4%-11.0%] in this population. It was most frequent in patients treated with combined chemoradiotherapy (22.0%) or with more than two cytotoxic agents (16.9%). Local antifungal treatments were prescribed in 75.0% of OPC patients as recommended by guidelines. The compliance to treatment was higher in patients receiving once-daily miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablet (MBT; 88.2%) than in those treated with several daily mouthwashes of amphotericin B (40%) or nystatin (18.8%). Conclusion: OPC prevalence in treated cancer patients was high. Local treatments were usually prescribed as per guidelines. Compliance to local treatments was better with once-daily drugs.

  16. Radiation Sialadenitis Induced by High-dose Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Jaetae

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive iodine ( 131 I) is accumulated in the thyroid tissue and plays an important role in the treatment of differentiated papillary and follicular cancers after thyroidectomy. Simultaneously, 131 I is concentrated in the salivary glands and secreted into the saliva. Dose-related damage to the salivary parenchyma results from the 131 I irradiation. Salivary gland swelling and pain, usually involving the parotid, can be seen. The symptoms may develop immediately after a therapeutic dose of 131 I and/or months later and progress in intensity with time. In conjunction with the radiation sialadenitis, secondary complications reported include xerostomia, taste alterations, infection, increases in caries, facial nerve involvement, candidiasis, and neoplasia. Prevention of 131 I sialadenitis may involve the use of sialogogic agents to hasten the transit time of the radioactive iodine through the salivary glands. However, studies are not available to delineate the efficacy of this approach. Treatment of the varied complications that may develop encompass numerous approaches and include gland massage, sialogogic agents, duct probing, antibiotics, mouthwashes, good oral hygiene, and adequate hydration. Recently interventional sialoendoscopy has been introduced an effective tool for the management of patients with 131 I-induced sialadenitis that is unresponsive to medical treatment.

  17. Radiation Sialadenitis Induced by High-dose Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Jaetae [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) is accumulated in the thyroid tissue and plays an important role in the treatment of differentiated papillary and follicular cancers after thyroidectomy. Simultaneously, {sup 131}I is concentrated in the salivary glands and secreted into the saliva. Dose-related damage to the salivary parenchyma results from the {sup 131}I irradiation. Salivary gland swelling and pain, usually involving the parotid, can be seen. The symptoms may develop immediately after a therapeutic dose of {sup 131}I and/or months later and progress in intensity with time. In conjunction with the radiation sialadenitis, secondary complications reported include xerostomia, taste alterations, infection, increases in caries, facial nerve involvement, candidiasis, and neoplasia. Prevention of {sup 131}I sialadenitis may involve the use of sialogogic agents to hasten the transit time of the radioactive iodine through the salivary glands. However, studies are not available to delineate the efficacy of this approach. Treatment of the varied complications that may develop encompass numerous approaches and include gland massage, sialogogic agents, duct probing, antibiotics, mouthwashes, good oral hygiene, and adequate hydration. Recently interventional sialoendoscopy has been introduced an effective tool for the management of patients with {sup 131}I-induced sialadenitis that is unresponsive to medical treatment.

  18. Prevention and control of sequels in the mouth of patients treated with radiation therapy for head and neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Maria de Fatima Aparecida; Novikoff, Silviene; Tresso, Adriana; Segreto, Roberto Araujo; Cervantes, Onivaldo

    2005-01-01

    Surgery and radiation therapy are de main treatments for head and neck cancer. The side effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation on the tissues include dermatitis, mucositis, xerostomia, candidiasis, dysgeusia, dysphagia, caries, trismus, osteoradionecrosis. Objective: To assess dental condition of the patients using a protocol which allows avoiding or reducing the effects of radiation in the tissues of the oral cavity. Materials And Methods: Dental follow-up was performed before, during and up to 180 days after radiation therapy in 12 patients submitted to surgery and radiation therapy or radiation therapy alone. Results: The proportion of effects such as dermatitis, mucositis, dysgeusia, and dysphagia increased from the second week of the treatment until the end of the administrations. There was a clear decrease at the end of the treatment which was close to baseline values after 180 days. The reduction of xerostomia was slower and less effective. No case of caries, trismus, and osteoradionecrosis were observed during the assessment period. Conclusion: Regular dental follow-up associated with preventive measures such as prophylactic management of dental and oral diseases, adequate hygiene, mouth-washing with bicarbonate water and chamomile tea, and topic fluorine application contributed to improve the recovery conditions of patients with cancer of head and neck submitted to radiation therapy. (author)

  19. Comparison of nickel and chromium ions released from stainless steel and NiTi wires after immersion in Oral B®, Orthokin® and artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Moghaddas, Omid; Toopchi, Shabnam; Perillo, Letizia

    2014-07-01

    Oral environment of the mouth is a suitable place for biodegradation of alloys used in orthodontic wires. The toxicity of these alloys namely nickel and chromium has concerned the researchers about the release of these ions from orthodontic wires and brackets. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel and chromium ions released from 0.018" stainless steel (SS) and NiTi wires after immersion in three solutions. One hundred and forty-four round NiTi and 144 round SS archwires with the diameters of 0.018" were immersed in Oral B®, Orthokin® and artificial saliva. The amounts of nickel and chromium ions released were measured after 1, 6, 24 hours and 7 days. Two way repeated ANOVA showed that the amount of chromium and nickel significantly increased in all solutions during all time intervals (p nickel ions were released more in NiTi wire in all solutions compared with SS wire. The lowest increase rate was also seen in artificial saliva. There is general consensus in literature that even very little amounts of nickel and chromium are dangerous for human body specially when absorbed orally; therefore, knowing the precise amount of these ions released from different wires when immersed in different mouthwashes is of high priority.

  20. CORROSION IN ACIDIC BEVERAGES AND RECOVERY OF MICROHARDNESS OF HUMAN TEETH ENAMEL

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    Petra Gaalova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the influence of corrosion in acidic beverages (white wine, pH~3.5 on micromechanical properties of human teeth. Simultaneously, the effect of fluorine-containing mouthwash (pH~4.4 and of artificial saliva (pH~5.3 in terms of their protective action against corrosion, and the recovery of mechanical properties through fluoridation and re-calcification was studied. The influence of the solutions on Vickers hardness of dental enamel was monitored on the basis of results from the corrosion tests carried out under quasi-dynamic conditions. The tests were performed at the temperature corresponding to the temperature of human body (37°C. The measurements confirmed a significant deterioration of microhardness with prolonged exposure to white wine. The Vickers hardness decreased from 347 HV0.2 in un-corroded specimens to 186 HV0.2 in samples corroded for 60 minutes in white wine. A recovery of Vickers hardness was observed after 60 minutes exposition time in the fluoridation solution, with the increase from 186 to 372 HV0.2. Similar effect was observed in the artificial saliva solution, with observed hardness increase from 186 to 320 HV0.2. Healing of corrosion-induced defects by the action of both solutions was observed by SEM, and associated with observed increase of hardness

  1. [The bacterial biofilm and the possibilities of chemical plaque control. Literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, István

    2008-06-01

    Most microorganisms in the oral cavity attach to surfaces and form matrix-embedded biofilms. Biofilms are structured and spatially organized, composed of consortia of interacting microorganisms. The properties of the mass of biofilm are different from that of the simple sum of the component species. The older the plaque (biofilm) is the more structurally organized and become more resistant to environmental attacks. The bacterial community favors the growth of obligatory anaerobic microorganisms. The most effective means of the elimination of matured biofilm is the mechanical disruption of the interbacterial protective matrix and removal of bacterial colonies. The antiseptic agents are primarily effective in the prevention of biofilm formation and anticipation of the maturation of the bacterial plaque. Bacteria in matured biofilms are less susceptible to antimicrobial agents because several physical and biological factors protect the bacterial consortia. To kill bacteria in a matured, well organized biofilm, significantly higher concentration and longer exposition are required. Antiseptic mouthrinses in a conventional dose and time can only reach the superficial bacteria while the bacteria in the depth of the biofilm remains intact. Therefore, the efficacy of any antiseptic mouthwash depends not just on its microbicidal properties demonstrated in vitro, but also on its ability to penetrate the organized biofilm on the teeth. Recent studies have demonstrated that both bisbiguanid compounds and essential oils are capable of penetrating the biofilm, and reduce established plaque and gingivitis. The essential oils showed high penetrability and were more effective on organized biofilm than stannous fluorides or triclosan copolymer antiplaque agents.

  2. Effect of various rinsing protocols after use of amine fluoride/stannous fluoride toothpaste on the bacterial composition of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loveren, C; Gerardu, V A M; Sissons, C H; van Bekkum, M; ten Cate, J M

    2009-01-01

    This clinical study evaluated the effect of different oral hygiene protocols on the bacterial composition of dental plaque. After a 2-week period of using fluoride-free toothpaste, 30 participants followed three 1-week experimental protocols, each followed by 2-week fluoride-free washout periods in a randomized crossover examiner-blind controlled trial. The 1-week experimental protocols comprised the use of AmF/SnF(2) toothpaste twice daily, after which participants either (1) rinsed with tap water, (2) did not rinse but only spat out the toothpaste, or (3) rinsed with an AmF/SnF(2) mouthwash. In the fluoride-free washout periods, the participants brushed their teeth with fluoride-free toothpaste without further instructions. Six hours after the last brushing (+/- rinsing) of each period, buccal plaque samples in the upper molar region were taken. The microbiota composition of the plaque samples was analyzed by checkerboard DNA:DNA hybridization. A statistically significant reduction was found in the total amount of DNA of the 39 major plaque species measured, and in the proportions of some acid-producing bacterial strains after the period having used the AmF/SnF(2) toothpaste + AmF/SnF(2) mouthrinsing. The results indicate that using the AmF/SnF(2) toothpaste and rinse combination could result in plaque of lower cariogenicity. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The role of sucralfate oral suspension in prevention of radiation induced mucositis

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    Hamid Emami

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Mucositis is one of the most common complications of radiotherapy in head and neck cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate sucralfate mouthwash in prevention of radiation induced mucositis.
    • METHODS: A clinical randomized trial performed on 52 patients with head and neck cancers in Sayyed-Al-Shohada Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. These patients randomly assigned in 2 groups of 26 patients. Placebo and sucralfate was used for control and experimental patients respectiv ly, from the beginning of radiotherapy. Patients were visited weekly until the end of treatment. Grade of the mucositis was evaluated according to WHO grading scale.
    • RESULTS: Sucralfate significantly reduced the mean grade of mucositis in weeks one to four (with P-values of 0.02, 0.02, 0.001 and 0.004, respectively. Development of grade3 mucositis was also lower in sucralfate group (P-value = 0.0001. But, time interval between radiotherapy and appearance of mucositis was not statistically different in the two groups (P-value = 0.9
    • CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that using oral suspension of sucralfate reduced the grade of radiation-induced mucositis, but did not prevent or delay it.
    • KEYWORDS: Mucositis, radiotherapy, sucralfate, head and neck cancers.

  4. Cymbopogon citratus essential oil: effect on polymicrobial caries-related biofilm with low cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria Alcionéia Carvalho de; Borges, Aline Chiodi; Brighenti, Fernanda Lourenção; Salvador, Marcos José; Gontijo, Aline Vidal Lacerda; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi

    2017-11-06

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and its main compound (citral) against primary dental colonizers and caries-related species. Chemical characterization of the essential oil was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), and the main compound was determined. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. sanguinis and S. sobrinus. Minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations were determined by broth microdilution assay for streptococci and lactobacilli reference, and for clinical strains. The effect of the essential oil on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation/disruption was investigated. Negative (without treatment) and positive controls (chlorhexidine) were used. The effect of citral on preformed biofilm was also tested using the same methodology. Monospecies and microcosm biofilms were tested. ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used (α=0.05). Cytotoxicity of the essential oil to human keratinocytes was performed by MTT assay. GC/MS demonstrated one major component (citral). The essential oil showed an inhibitory effect on all tested bacterial species, including S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Essential oil of C. citratus (10X MIC) reduced the number of viable cells of lactobacilli and streptococci biofilms (p essential oil inhibited adhesion of caries-related polymicrobial biofilm to dental enamel (p essential oil showed low cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes. Based on these findings, this study can contribute to the development of new formulations for products like mouthwash, against dental biofilms.

  5. Oral mouth rinses from Costa Rican natural substances with antibacterial properties applied to biofilm control in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez Vargas, Silvia; Garita Herrera, Andrea; Porras Monge, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of three natural substances were analyzed for the control of the dental biofilm in Costa Rica in 2013. The studied plants are the cypress, the star anise flower and the guava leaves which were chosen after being studied, demonstrating antimicrobial properties. An extract of each sample by distillation process by steam drag in the Centro de Investigaciones de Productos Naturales of the Universidad de Costa Rica. Chlorhexidine in vitro tests were performed on the three plants in different concentrations, pure, 50% and 25%, against a population of streptococcus mutans. The flower of anis lacked activity against S. mutans in the microbiological tests, the cypress showed effectiveness against S. mutans, using the pure extract and at 50% concentration. The guava leaves, an inhibitory halo was obtained. 10 mm, when using the extract in its pure form and a 7 mm halo when using it at 50% concentration, so they are effective against S. mutans. Comparing the antimicrobial activity of the three plants with that of chlorhexidine, chlorhexidine showed a greater activity, being more effective against S. mutans. The essential oil of the cypress and guava leaves showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, however, more tests are needed to prove its effectiveness as a mouthwash. The star anise in a steam extract did not show antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. (author) [es

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of Piper Betel Leaf Oil, Origanum vulgare Essential Oil and Fluconazole Suspension on Candida albicans − An In Vitro Study

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    Nisha Makkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is an opportunistic mucosal infection caused by Candida albicans. It usually responds to topical treatments such as clotrimazole troches, topical fluconazole, chlorhexidine mouthwash and nystatin suspension. Piper betel leaf oil and Origanum vulgare essential oil have shown some topical antifungal activity. Aim: To determine and compare the antifungal efficacy of piper betel leaf oil, O. vulgare essential oil and fluconazole suspension against C. albicans. Materials and Methods: The zone of inhibition was measured by the cup–plate diffusion method using 100 μl volume of piper betel leaf oil, O. vulgare essential oil and fluconazole suspension, which were pipetted into the wells of the inoculated Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plates. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimetres using Vernier calliper. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by the broth macro-dilution test by pouring 1 ml of the respective concentrations of the test material to the individual test tubes along with 10 μl of the diluted test organism inoculum. Finally, MIC was calculated using a reflective viewer. Results: The zone of inhibition for O. vulgare essential oil (>40 mm was more than fluconazole suspension (>35 mm. MIC of O. vulgare essential oil, piper betel leaf oil and fluconazole suspension was 1.6%, 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively. Conclusion: O. vulgare essential oil was found to be a more effective antifungal agent than piper betel leaf oil and fluconazole suspension.

  7. Predictors of mother and child DNA yields in buccal cell samples collected in pediatric cancer epidemiologic studies: a report from the Children's Oncology group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynter, Jenny N; Ross, Julie A; Hooten, Anthony J; Langer, Erica; Blommer, Crystal; Spector, Logan G

    2013-08-12

    Collection of high-quality DNA is essential for molecular epidemiology studies. Methods have been evaluated for optimal DNA collection in studies of adults; however, DNA collection in young children poses additional challenges. Here, we have evaluated predictors of DNA quantity in buccal cells collected for population-based studies of infant leukemia (N = 489 mothers and 392 children) and hepatoblastoma (HB; N = 446 mothers and 412 children) conducted through the Children's Oncology Group. DNA samples were collected by mail using mouthwash (for mothers and some children) and buccal brush (for children) collection kits and quantified using quantitative real-time PCR. Multivariable linear regression models were used to identify predictors of DNA yield. Median DNA yield was higher for mothers in both studies compared with their children (14 μg vs. mothers or children in this analysis. The association with seasonality suggests that conditions during transport may influence DNA yield. The low yields observed in most children in these studies highlight the importance of developing alternative methods for DNA collection in younger age groups.

  8. The plaque- and gingivitis-inhibiting capacity of a commercially available essential oil product. A parallel, split-mouth, single blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preus, Hans Ragnar; Koldsland, Odd Carsten; Aass, Anne Merete; Sandvik, Leiv; Hansen, Bjørn Frode

    2013-11-01

    Studies have reported commercially available essential oils with convincing plaque and gingivitis preventing properties. However, no tests have compared these essential oils, i.e. Listerine(®), against their true vehicle controls. To compare the plaque and gingivitis inhibiting effect of a commercially-available essential oil (Listerine(®) Total Care) to a negative (22% hydro-alcohol solution) and a positive (0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX)) control in an experimental gingivitis model. In three groups of 15 healthy volunteers, experimental gingivitis was induced and monitored over 21 days, simultaneously treated with Listerine(®) Total Care (test), 22% hydro-alcohol solution (negative control) and 0.2% chlorhexidine solution (positive control), respectively. The upper right quadrant of each individual received mouthwash only, whereas the upper left quadrant was subject to both rinses and mechanical oral hygiene. Plaque, gingivitis and side-effects were assessed at day 7, 14 and 21. After 21 days, the chlorhexidine group showed significantly lower average plaque and gingivitis scores than the Listerine(®) and alcohol groups, whereas there was little difference between the two latter. Listerine(®) Total Care had no statistically significant effect on plaque formation as compared to its vehicle control.

  9. Bluetooth technology for prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad

    2009-12-01

    Caries is caused when the pH at the tooth surface drops below 5.5. A miniaturized and autonomous pH monitoring nodes can be attached to the tooth surface, like a tooth jewel. This intelligent sensor includes three components: (a) digital micro pH meter, (b) power supply, (c) wireless communicating device. The micro pH meter facilitates long term tooth surface pH monitoring and providing real time feedback to the patients and dental experts. Power supply of this system will be microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cell (enzymatic micro-battery) using organic compounds (e.g. formate or glucose) as the fuel to generate electricity. When micro pH meter detects the pH lower than 5.5, wireless Bluetooth device sends a caution (e.g. "you are at risk of dental caries") to external monitoring equipment such as mobile phone or a hands-free heads. After reception of the caution, subjects should use routine brushing and flossing procedure or use a medicated chewing gum (e.g. chlorhexidine containing chewing gum) or rinse with a mouthwash.

  10. Probabilistic exposure assessment to face and oral care cosmetic products by the French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, A; Dornic, N; Roudot, Ac; Ficheux, As

    2018-01-01

    Cosmetic exposure data for face and mouth are limited in Europe. The aim of the study was to assess the exposure to face cosmetics using recent French consumption data (Ficheux et al., 2016b, 2015). Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for thirty one face products from four lines of products: cleanser, care, make-up and make-up remover products and two oral care products. Probabilistic exposure was assessed for different subpopulation according to sex and age in adults and children. Pregnant women were also studied. The levels of exposure to moisturizing cream, lip balm, mascara, eyeliner, cream foundation, toothpaste and mouthwash were higher than the values currently used by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). Exposure values found for eye shadow, lipstick, lotion and milk (make-up remover) were lower than SCCS values. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies in order to protect the general population and the at risk populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Factors Associated with Dental Pain in Mexican Schoolchildren Aged 6 to 12 Years

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    Mauricio Escoffié-Ramirez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify dental pain prevalence and associated factors in Mexican schoolchildren. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 1,404 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years from public schools in the city of Pachuca de Soto, Hidalgo, Mexico. Data were collected through a questionnaire that addressed sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, eating and dental hygiene habits, and behavior variables. The dependent variable was self-reported dental pain in the 12 months prior to the survey. Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics and a binary logistical regression model. Results. Dental pain prevalence among the studied children was 49.9%. The variables associated in the final model (p<0.05 were younger mother’s age, higher socioeconomic level, absence of an automobile in the home, fried food, fruit intake, lower tooth brushing frequency, never having used mouthwash or not knowing about it, and parents/guardians with regular to high levels of knowledge about oral health and a regular or good/very good perception of their child’s oral health. Conclusions. One in two children in the study had experienced dental pain in the twelve months prior to the survey. The association of socioeconomic variables with dental pain suggested inequalities among the children in terms of oral health.

  12. A Ho(III) potentiometric polymeric membrane sensor based on a new four dentate neutral ion carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali; Zanganeh-Asadabadi, Abbas; Rohani, Mitra; Zabihi, Mohammad Saleh; Fadaee, Javad; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Faridbod, Farnoush; Meghdadi, Soraia

    2013-03-01

    In this research, we report a new Ho(3+)-PVC membrane electrode based on N-(4,5-dimethyl-2-(picolinamido)phenyl)picolinamide (H(2)Me(2)bpb) as a suitable ion carrier. Poly vinylchloride (PVC)-based membrane composed of H(2)Me(2)bpb with oleic acid (OA) as anionic additives, and o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) as plasticized solvent mediator. The sensor exhibits a Nernstian slope of 20.1 ± 0.2 mV decade(-1) over the concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-6) to 1.0 × 1(-2) mol L(-1), and a detection limit of 5.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) of Ho(3+) ions. The potentiometric response of the sensor is independent of the solution pH in the range of 3.5-9.4. It has a very short response time, in the whole concentration range (titration of Ho(3+) ion solutions in certified reference materials, alloy samples and for the determination of the fluoride ion in two mouthwash preparations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The oral microbiota in patients with pancreatic cancer, patients with IPMNs, and controls: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sara H; Satagopan, Jaya; Xu, Youming; Ling, Lilan; Leong, Siok; Orlow, Irene; Saldia, Amethyst; Li, Peter; Nunes, Pamela; Madonia, Vincent; Allen, Peter J; O'Reilly, Eileen; Pamer, Eric; Kurtz, Robert C

    2017-09-01

    Poor oral health appears to be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, possibly implicating the oral microbiota. In this pilot study, we evaluated the characteristics of the oral microbiota in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), and healthy controls. Forty newly diagnosed PDAC patients, 39 IPMN patients, and 58 controls, excluding current smokers and users of antibiotics, provided saliva samples. Common oral bacterial species were comprehensively surveyed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA microbial genes. We obtained measures of diversity and the mean relative proportions of individual taxa. We explored the degree to which these measures differed according to respondent characteristics based on individual interviews. PDAC cases did not differ in diversity measures from either controls or IPMN cases. PDAC cases had higher mean relative proportions of Firmicutes and related taxa, while controls had higher mean relative proportions of Proteobacteria and related taxa. Results were generally similar when comparing PDAC to IPMN cases. Among IPMNs and controls combined, younger individuals had higher levels of several taxa within the Proteobacteria. The only other variable consistently related to mean relative proportions was mouthwash use, with taxa within Firmicutes more common among users. While there were no differences in diversity of the oral microbiota among these groups, there were differences in the mean relative proportions of some taxa. Characteristics of the oral microbiota are not associated with most measures of oral health.

  14. Application of dental nanomaterials: potential toxicity to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoli; Chen, Aijie; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Jianfeng; Shao, Longquan; Wei, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are defined as materials with one or more external dimensions with a size of 1-100 nm. Such materials possess typical nanostructure-dependent properties (eg, chemical, biological, optical, mechanical, and magnetic), which may differ greatly from the properties of their bulk counterparts. In recent years, nanomaterials have been widely used in the production of dental materials, particularly in light polymerization composite resins and bonding systems, coating materials for dental implants, bioceramics, endodontic sealers, and mouthwashes. However, the dental applications of nanomaterials yield not only a significant improvement in clinical treatments but also growing concerns regarding their biosecurity. The brain is well protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which separates the blood from the cerebral parenchyma. However, in recent years, many studies have found that nanoparticles (NPs), including nanocarriers, can transport through the BBB and locate in the central nervous system (CNS). Because the CNS may be a potential target organ of the nanomaterials, it is essential to determine the neurotoxic effects of NPs. In this review, possible dental nanomaterials and their pathways into the CNS are discussed, as well as related neurotoxicity effects underlying the in vitro and in vivo studies. Finally, we analyze the limitations of the current testing methods on the toxicological effects of nanomaterials. This review contributes to a better understanding of the nano-related risks to the CNS as well as the further development of safety assessment systems.

  15. Management of Suspected Pemphigus Vulgaris in Elderly Patient with Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu M. Prihanti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 Pemphigus vulgaris (PV is a group of vesicobullous disease affecting skin and mucous membranes. PV is associated with autoimmune diseases, characterized by binding of IgG autoantibodies to desmoglein 3. PV lesion is a thin-walled bulla arising on the skin or mucosa. Oral mucous bulla are fragile and easily breakdown, forming irreguler ulcers. There are several factors that trigger PV, including genetic factors, age, drugs and food. This paper aimed to report treatment of suspected pemphigus vulgaris in elderly patient with history of chronic diseases. A 75-year-old woman with 2 months history of bulla formation on skin and history of persistent oral ulceration. Ulcers were covered with fibrin and erosive erythematous on labial, buccal and gingival mucosa. History of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hepatitis was revealed. Routine complete blood count showed thrombocytopenia. Diagnosis was confirmed by anamnesis, clinical examination and complete blood investigation. PV should be distinguished from other vesicobullous disease. Systemic corticosteroid was given concurrently with hepato-protector, mouthwash, supportive therapy and topical lip cream. Bulla on skin and persistent erosive ulcers of the oral mucosa are the manifestations of PV. Elderly patient with history of chronic diseases showed a complex care of PV requiring more intensive and comprehensive treatment.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i1.129

  16. Influence of preventive dental treatment on mutans streptococci counts in patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Buzati Meca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium fluoride and sodium iodine on mutans streptococci counts in saliva of irradiated patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five patients were separated into three experimental groups and received chlorhexidine (0.12%, sodium fluoride (0.5% or sodium iodine (2%, which were used daily during radiotherapy and for 6 months after the conclusion of the treatment. In addition, a fourth group, composed by 15 additional oncologic patients, who did not receive the mouthwash or initial dental treatment, constituted the control group. Clinical evaluations were performed in the first visit to dental clinic, after initial dental treatment, immediately before radiotherapy, after radiotherapy and 30, 60, 90 days and 6 months after the conclusion of radiotherapy. After clinical examinations, samples of saliva were inoculated on SB20 selective agar and incubated under anaerobiosis, at 37ºC for 48 h. Total mutans streptococci counts were also evaluated by using real-time PCR, through TaqMan system, with specific primers and probes for S. mutans and S. sobrinus. RESULTS: All preventive protocols were able to reduce significantly mutans streptococci counts, but chlorhexidine gluconate was the most effective, and induced a significant amelioration of radiotherapy side effects, such as mucositis and candidosis. CONCLUSION: These results highlights the importance of the initial dental treatment for patients who will be subjected to radiotherapy for head and neck cancer treatment.

  17. Screening and Scoring of Antimicrobial and Biological Activities of Italian Vulnerary Plants against Major Oral Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmaria F. Ferrazzano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the activity of Italian vulnerary plants against the most important oral pathogenic bacteria. This estimate was accomplished through a fivefold process: (a a review of ethnobotanical and microbiological data concerning the Italian vulnerary plants; (b the development of a scoring system to rank the plants; (c the comparative assessment of microbiological properties; (d the assessment of potential cytotoxic effects on keratinocyte-like cells and gingival fibroblasts in culture by XTT cell viability assay; (e clinical evaluation of the most suitable plant extract as antibacterial agent in a home-made mouthwash. The study assays hexane (H, ethanol (E, and water (W extracts from 72 plants. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces viscosus. Twenty-two plants showed appreciable activity. The extracts showing the strongest antibacterial power were those from Cotinus coggygria Scop., Equisetum hyemale L., Helichrysum litoreum Guss, Juniperus communis L., and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L. Newman subsp. scolopendrium. The potential cytotoxic effect of these extracts was assessed. On the basis of these observations, a mouth-rinse containing the ethanolic extract of H. litoreum has been tested in vivo, resulting in reduction of the salivary concentration of S. mutans.

  18. Screening and Scoring of Antimicrobial and Biological Activities of Italian Vulnerary Plants against Major Oral Pathogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria F.; Roberto, Lia; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Chiaviello, Angela; De Natale, Antonino; Roscetto, Emanuela; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Ingenito, Aniello; Palumbo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity of Italian vulnerary plants against the most important oral pathogenic bacteria. This estimate was accomplished through a fivefold process: (a) a review of ethnobotanical and microbiological data concerning the Italian vulnerary plants; (b) the development of a scoring system to rank the plants; (c) the comparative assessment of microbiological properties; (d) the assessment of potential cytotoxic effects on keratinocyte-like cells and gingival fibroblasts in culture by XTT cell viability assay; (e) clinical evaluation of the most suitable plant extract as antibacterial agent in a home-made mouthwash. The study assays hexane (H), ethanol (E), and water (W) extracts from 72 plants. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces viscosus. Twenty-two plants showed appreciable activity. The extracts showing the strongest antibacterial power were those from Cotinus coggygria Scop., Equisetum hyemale L., Helichrysum litoreum Guss, Juniperus communis L., and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman subsp. scolopendrium. The potential cytotoxic effect of these extracts was assessed. On the basis of these observations, a mouth-rinse containing the ethanolic extract of H. litoreum has been tested in vivo, resulting in reduction of the salivary concentration of S. mutans. PMID:24302963

  19. Differential actions of chlorhexidine on the cell wall of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli.

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    Hon-Yeung Cheung

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is a chlorinated phenolic disinfectant used commonly in mouthwash for its action against bacteria. However, a comparative study of the action of chlorhexidine on the cell morphology of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria is lacking. In this study, the actions of chlorhexidine on the cell morphology were identified with the aids of electron microscopy. After exposure to chlorhexidine, numerous spots of indentation on the cell wall were found in both Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. The number of indentation spots increased with time of incubation and increasing chlorhexidine concentration. Interestingly, the dented spots found in B. subtilis appeared mainly at the hemispherical caps of the cells, while in E. coli the dented spots were found all over the cells. After being exposed to chlorhexidine for a prolonged period, leakage of cellular contents and subsequent ghost cells were observed, especially from B subtilis. By using 2-D gel/MS-MS analysis, five proteins related to purine nucleoside interconversion and metabolism were preferentially induced in the cell wall of E. coli, while three proteins related to stress response and four others in amino acid biosynthesis were up-regulated in the cell wall materials of B. subtilis. The localized morphological damages together with the biochemical and protein analysis of the chlorhexidine-treated cells suggest that chlorhexidine may act on the differentially distributed lipids in the cell membranes/wall of B. subtilis and E. coli.

  20. [Treatment and prevention of cancer treatment related oral mucositis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Esquide, Gonzalo; Nervi, Bruno; Vargas, Alex; Maíz, Alberto

    2011-03-01

    One of the most common and troublesome complications of modern intensive anticancer treatments is oral mucositis. The purpose of this review is to summarize current evidence and clinical guidelines regarding its prevention and therapy. The use of keratinocyte growth factor-1, supplementary glutamine and other recently developed treatment modalities are discussed. The injury of the oral mucosa caused by antineoplastic agents promotes the local expression of multiple pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic molecules and eventually leads to the development of ulcers. Such lesions predispose patients to several infectious and nutritional complications. Also, they lead to modification of treatment schedules, potentially affecting overall prognosis. Local cryotherapy with ice chips and phototherapy with low energy laser may be useful as preventive measures. Mouthwashes with allopurinol and phototherapy with low energy laser can be used as treatment. In radiotherapy, special radiation administration techniques should be used to minimize mucosal injury. Pain control should always be optimized, with the use of patient controlled analgesia and topical use of morphine. Supplemental glutamine should not be used outside of research protocols. Lastly, thorough attention should be paid to general care and hygiene measures.

  1. Reduction of saliva-promoted adhesion of Streptococcus mutans MT8148 and dental biofilm development by tragacanth gum and yeast-derived phosphomannan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotoyodome, A; Kobayashi, H; Nakamura, J; Tokimitsu, I; Hase, T; Inoue, T; Matsukubo, T; Takaesu, Y

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate materials which reduce saliva-promoted adhesion of Streptococcus mutans onto enamel surfaces, and their potential in preventing dental biofilm development. The effects of hydroxyapatite (HA) surface pretreatment with hydrophilic polysaccharides on saliva-promoted S. mutans adhesion in vitro and de novo dental biofilm deposition in vivo were examined. Saliva-promoted adhesion of S. mutans MT8148 was significantly reduced by pretreatment of the HA surface with tragacanth gum (TG) and yeast-derived phosphoglycans. Extracellular phosphomannan (PM) from Pichia capsulata NRRL Y-1842 and TG reduced biofilm development on lower incisors in plaque-susceptible rats when administered via drinking water at concentrations of 0.5% and 0.01%, respectively. The inhibitory effect of TG on de novo dental biofilm formation was also demonstrated when administered via mouthwash in humans. It is concluded that TG and yeast-derived PM have the potential for use as anti-adherent agents and are effective in reducing de novo dental biofilm formation.

  2. [Epidemiology and risk factors of the oral carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlodowska, Justyna; Szumiło, Justyna; Podlodowski, Wiktor; Starosławska, Elzbieta; Burdan, Franciszek

    2012-02-01

    Oral cancer is the eleventh most common malignancy in the world, with squamous cell carcinoma being a predominant histologic type. The highest incidence is observed in India, Australia, Brazil, France and South Africa. In Europe the most affected regions are France, French-language cantons of Switzerland, northern Italy and countries of the Middle-East Europe. In most regions cancer is much more common in man. Oral cancer accounts for 1.34% of all registered malignant tumors in Poland in 2008. Etiology of the oral squamous cell carcinoma is complex. The most important risk factors, especially in well-developed countries are tobacco smoking and alcohol exposure. Alcohol promotes cancer development not only administered as a stimulant but also as a component of mouthwashes. Betel chewing, human papilloma virus infection, deficiency of vitamin A, riboflavin and iron, poor mouth hygiene and immunosuppressive therapy are also associated with higher incidence of oral carcinoma. More recently, relation between individual increased susceptibility to oral cancer and some genes polymorphisms, especially those encoding cytokines and enzymes engaged in alcohol metabolism has been found.

  3. Triclosan: its occurrence, fate and effects in the Australian environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kookana, R S; Ying, G-G; Waller, N J

    2011-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent used widely in household products such as soaps, household cleaners, cosmetics, sportswear, mouthwash and toothpaste. It is a bioaccumulative compound known for its high toxicity to algae, daphnids, fish and other aquatic organisms. We investigated its occurrence in effluents, biosolids and surface waters in Australia, as well as its fate in Australian soils and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), including the effects on microbial processes in soils. The concentrations of TCS in 19 effluents ranged from 23 to 434 ng/L (median 108 ng/L) and in 17 biosolids from 0.09 to 16.79 mg/kg on dry weight basis (median 2.32 mg/kg). TCS at concentrations of up to 75 ng/L were detected in receiving waters from five creeks affected by effluent discharge from WWTPs. The removal rate of TCS in five selected WWTPs ranged from 72 and 93%, ascribed mainly to sorption onto sludge and biological degradation. Biodegradation in a clay loam soil was noted with a half life of 18 days. However the half-lives under field conditions are expected to be very different. The studies on the effect of TCS on soil microbiological processes showed that triclosan can disrupt the nitrogen cyclein sensitive soils at concentrations ≥5 mg/kg. In view of the recent risk assessment by the Australian regulatory agency NICNAS, there is an urgent need to assess exposure to TCS and its effect on ecosystem health.

  4. Chromosomal Damage and Apoptosis in Exfoliated Buccal Cells from Individuals with Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, Lavínia Tércia Magalhães; Meireles, José Roberto Cardoso; Lessa, Júlia Paula Ramos; Oliveira, Márcio Campos; de Bragança Pereira, Carlos Alberto; Polpo de Campos, Adriano; Cerqueira, Eneida de Moraes Macílio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate cytological abnormalities indicative of chromosome damage (micronuclei) and apoptosis (karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and condensed chromatin) in exfoliated cells from the buccal mucosa of patients with oral cancer and control subjects. The sample included twenty individuals with oral cancer and forty individuals with normal buccal mucosa. Material was collected from the cheek epithelium in areas with lesions and areas without abnormalities. A minimum of one thousand cells was analyzed. Micronuclei were found significantly more frequently in cells collected from lesions than in cells from normal areas, independent of the presence/absence of cancer (P < 0.0001). They were also significantly more frequent in smokers and in mouthwash users (P < 0.0001). Apoptosis occurred significantly less frequently in individuals with oral cancer (P < 0.0001). These results show that oral cancer is associated with higher frequency of chromosomal damage and suggest that apoptosis is compromised in the buccal cells of individuals with this kind of neoplasia. PMID:22315605

  5. [Effect of concomitant use of dental drug on the properties of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor formulation for periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasuhiko; Oba, Takuma; Danjo, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    We have discussed the essential property for periodontal disease medication using protein, such as recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF). In our previous study, the criteria of thickener for the medication, viscosity, flowability etc., were set. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical effect of concomitant use of general dental drug or device on thickener properties for the clinical use of viscous rhbFGF formulation. Viscous formulation was prepared with six cellulose derivatives, two types hydroxy propyl cellulose (HPC), three types hydroxy ethyl cellulose (HEC) and methyl cellulose (MC). Antibiotic ointment, local anesthetic, bone graft substitute, agent for gargle and mouthwashes, were chosen as general dental drug and device. These drugs and device were mixed with the viscous formulations and the change of viscosity and flowability, the remaining ratio of rhbFGF were evaluated. When the various thickener solutions were mixed with the liquid drugs, viscosity and flowability did not changed much. However, in the case of MC solution, viscous property declined greatly when MC solution was mixed with cationic surfactant for gargle. The flowabilities of thickener solutions were declined with insoluble bone graft. The stabilities of rhbFGF in thickener solutions were no problem for 24 hours even in the case of mixing with dental drug or device. Our findings suggested that the viscous rhbFGF formulations prepared in this research were not substantially affected by the concomitant use of dental drug or device, especially the formulation with HPC or HEC was useful.

  6. Pigmented Oral Lichen Planus: A Case Report

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    Firstine Kelsi Hartanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus is a chronic muccocutaneous inflammatory disorder. Oral lichen planus (OLP has certain specific characteristics in its clinical presentation, but can also be presented in forms resembling other diseases. This may introduce difficulty in the diagnostic process. It has been reported that OLP affects between 0.1 to 4% individuals, predominantly women and people over 40 years old. Case Report: A 46-year-old woman complained of a non-healing ulcer present for 1.5 months. Intraorally, multiple white striae with prominent central areas of brownish hyperpigmentation were apparent on the right and left buccal mucosa, right and left buccal sulcus, and lateral and dorsum of the tongue. A biopsy was completed and the histopathology features confirmed the diagnosis of OLP. For the initial treatment, a topical corticosteroid was prescribed, followed by steroid mouthwash. Response to this treatment was positive. OLP has been frequently reported to affect women over the age of 40, with psychological stress as a primary predisposing factor. The clinical presentation is characteristic of Wickham’s striae with erosive areas. However, a biopsy and histopathological examination is mandatory to confirm the diagnosis. The clinical feature of pigmented OLP has been reported and confirmed by microscopic finding of band-like lymphocytic appearance which is the pathognomonic features of OLP, along with basal cell liquefaction degeneration, and melanin in continence at the lamina propria. Conclusion: Pigmented OLP is a variant of erosive OLP. Anamnesis, clinical presentation, and histopathological examination confirm diagnosis.

  7. Evaluation of Staining-Dependent Colour Changes in Resin Composites Using Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, D; Lenhardt, L; Milićević, B; Antonov, M; Miletic, V; Dramićanin, M D

    2015-10-09

    Colour changes in Gradia Direct™ composite after immersion in tea, coffee, red wine, Coca-Cola, Colgate mouthwash, and distilled water were evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) and the CIELAB colour coordinates. The reflection spectra of the composites were used as input data for the PCA. The output data (scores and loadings) provided information about the magnitude and origin of the surface reflection changes after exposure to the staining solutions. The reflection spectra of the stained samples generally exhibited lower reflection in the blue spectral range, which was manifested in the lower content of the blue shade for the samples. Both analyses demonstrated the high staining abilities of tea, coffee, and red wine, which produced total colour changes of 4.31, 6.61, and 6.22, respectively, according to the CIELAB analysis. PCA revealed subtle changes in the reflection spectra of composites immersed in Coca-Cola, demonstrating Coca-Cola's ability to stain the composite to a small degree.

  8. Dental caries status and its associated factors in pregnant women, Shiraz, Iran, 2014

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    Soheila Shaghaghian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Dental caries is a common problem in pregnant women which has negative impacts on their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnant women’s dental caries status and its associated risk factors in Shiraz, Iran, in 2014. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we selected 423 pregnant women attending Shiraz governmental health centers for routine obstetric examinations by randomized cluster sampling. The women's dental caries status was assessed using decayed, missed, and filled tooth (DMFT index. The women’s demographic characteristics and their oral hygiene habits were evaluated using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The relationship between women's DMFT index and their demographic and oral hygiene characteristics was evaluated using Pearson correlation, analysis of variance, independent sample t-tests, and multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: The mean DMFT index was 5.8 ± 3.6. We found lower scores of DMFT index in women who were younger (P < 0.001, brushed their teeth more (P = 0.014, and used home preventive measures such as mouthwash (P = 0.003 and toothpick (P = 0.006. CONCLUSION: Dental caries status of the pregnant women was unacceptably lower than optimal. Interventions focusing on holding educational programs and taking office-based preventive measures for pregnant women or women who intend to be pregnant are recommended. The interventions are more necessary for older pregnant women and those who use fewer home preventive measures.

  9. Oral L-menthol reduces thermal sensation, increases work-rate and extends time to exhaustion, in the heat at a fixed rating of perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, T R; Waldron, M; Jeffries, O

    2017-07-01

    The study investigated the effect of a non-thermal cooling agent, L-menthol, on exercise at a fixed subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in a hot environment. Eight male participants completed two trials at an exercise intensity between 'hard' and 'very hard', equating to 16 on the RPE scale at ~35 °C. Participants were instructed to continually adjust their power output to maintain an RPE of 16 throughout the exercise trial, stopping once power output had fallen by 30%. In a randomized crossover design, either L-menthol or placebo mouthwash was administered prior to exercise and at 10 min intervals. Power output, [Formula: see text]O 2 , heart rate, core and skin temperature was monitored, alongside thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Isokinetic peak power sprints were conducted prior to and immediately after the fixed RPE trial. Exercise time was greater (23:23 ± 3:36 vs. 21:44 ± 2:32 min; P = 0.049) and average power output increased (173 ± 24 vs. 167 ± 24 W; P = 0.044) in the L-menthol condition. Peak isokinetic sprint power declined from pre-post trial in the L-menthol l (9.0%; P = 0.015) but not in the placebo condition (3.4%; P = 0.275). Thermal sensation was lower in the L-menthol condition (P = 0.036), despite no changes in skin or core temperature (P > 0.05). These results indicate that a non-thermal cooling mouth rinse lowered thermal sensation, resulting in an elevated work rate, which extended exercise time in the heat at a fixed RPE.

  10. Survey of the Antibiofilm and Antimicrobial Effects of Zingiber officinale (in Vitro Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Marzieh; Zahedi Bialvaei, Abed; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kabiri, Fahimeh; Saliani, Negar; Yousefi, Mehdi; Eslami, Hosein; Samadi Kafil, Hossein

    2016-02-01

    Candidiasis is one of the most prevalent and important opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity caused by Candida yeast species like Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei. In addition, several bacteria can cause oral infections. The inhibition of microbial biofilm is the best way to prevent oral infections. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antifungal, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against Candida species and some bacterial pathogens and the extract's effects on biofilm formation. Ginger ethanolic extract as a potential mouthwash was used to evaluate its effect against fungi and bacteria using the microdilution method, and biofilm was evaluated using the crystal violet staining method and dead/alive staining. MTT assay was used to evaluate the possible cytotoxicity effects of the extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ginger extract for evaluated strains were 40, 40, 20, 20, 20, 20, 10, and 5 mg/mL for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter baumannii, C. albicans, and C. krusei, respectively. Ginger extract successfully inhibited biofilm formation by A. baumannii, B. cereus, C. krusei, and C. albicans. MTT assay revealed no significant reduction in cell viability after 24 hours. The minimum inhibitory biofilm concentrations (MIBCs) of ginger extract for fungi strains (C. krusei and C. albicans) were greater than those of fluconazole and nystatin (P = 0.000). The findings of the present study indicate that ginger extract has good antifungal and antibiofilm formation by fungi against C. albicans and C. Krusei. Concentrations between 0.625 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL had the highest antibiofilm and antifungal effects. Perhaps, the use of herbal extracts such as ginger represents a new era for antimicrobial therapy after developing antibiotic resistance in microbes.

  11. Taste alteration in breast cancer patients treated with taxane chemotherapy: experience, effect, and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Rebecca M; DeMichele, Angela; Farrar, John T; Hennessy, Sean; Mao, Jun J; Stineman, Margaret G; Barg, Frances K

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the experience and coping strategies for taste alteration in female breast cancer patients treated with docetaxel or paclitaxel. A purposive sample of 25 patients currently receiving docetaxel or paclitaxel or within 6 months of having completed treatment was recruited. Semi-structured interviews and patient-level data were utilized for this exploratory descriptive study. Interview data were analyzed with the constant comparative method; patient-level data were abstracted from the electronic medical record. Of all side effects reported from taxanes, the most common was taste alteration (8 of 10 docetaxel patients, 3 of 15 paclitaxel patients). Women that experience taste alteration chose not to eat as much, ate on an irregular schedule, and/or lost interest in preparing meals for themselves and/or their family. Women adopted a variety of new behaviors to deal with the taste alteration and its effects, including trying new recipes, eating strongly flavored foods, honoring specific food cravings, eating candy before meals, cutting food with lemon, drinking sweetened drinks, using plastic eating utensils, drinking from a straw, brushing their teeth and tongue before meals, and using baking soda and salt wash or antibacterial mouthwash. Taste alteration affects breast cancer patients' lives, and they develop management strategies to deal with the effect. While some self-management strategies can be seen as positively adaptive, the potential for increased caloric consumption and poor eating behaviors associated with some coping strategies may be a cause for concern given the observation of weight gain during breast cancer treatment and association of obesity with poor treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients. Further studies are warranted to determine the overall burden of this symptom and measurement of cancer and non-cancer-related consequences of these behavioral adaptations.

  12. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  13. Effect of vegetable oils applied over acquired enamel pellicle on initial erosion

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    Franciny Querobim IONTA

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The prevalence of dental erosion has been recently increasing, requiring new preventive and therapeutic approaches. Vegetable oils have been studied in preventive dentistry because they come from a natural, edible, low-cost, and worldwide accessible source. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of different vegetable oils, applied in two concentrations, on initial enamel erosion. Material and Methods Initially, the acquired pellicle was formed in situ for 2 hours. Subsequently, the enamel blocks were treated in vitro according to the study group (n=12/per group: GP5 and GP100 – 5% and pure palm oil, respectively; GC5 and GC100 – 5% and pure coconut oil; GSa5 and GSa100 – 5% and pure safflower oil; GSu5 and GSu100 – 5% and pure sunflower oil; GO5 and GO100 – 5% and pure olive oil; CON− – Deionized Water (negative control and CON+ – Commercial Mouthwash (Elmex® Erosion Protection Dental Rinse, GABA/positive control. Then, the enamel blocks were immersed in artificial saliva for 2 minutes and subjected to short-term acid exposure in 0.5% citric acid, pH 2.4, for 30 seconds, to promote enamel surface softening. The response variable was the percentage of surface hardness loss [((SHi - SHf / SHf ×100]. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p0.05 and less than the other groups (p<0.05. There was no difference between GP5, GC5, GC100, GSa5, GSu100, GSa100, GSu5, GO5, GO100, CON− and CON+. Conclusion Palm oil seems to be a promising alternative for preventing enamel erosion. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate a long-term erosive cycling.

  14. Dentist's opinion toward treatment of pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSadhan, Raed; AlManee, Abdullatif

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of dentists in Riyadh city about treatment alternatives available for pregnant patients. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 500 dentists practicing in Riyadh city. The questionnaire included data on dentists socio-demographic and practice characteristics in addition to management choices of the pregnant dental patient such as dental treatment practices and selected therapeutic choices. Out of the questionnaires distributed, 212 questionnaires were collected (42.5% response rate). Most of the participants were general practitioners, with less than 5 years clinical experience, who obtained their degree from local institutes and practiced in the government sectors. Over half of the participants stated that they would radiograph a pregnant patient who was suffering from pain from a tooth with doubtful diagnosis or would extract a non-restorable painful tooth. Two-thirds of the participating dentists would not replace a missing molar with a fixed partial denture during pregnancy. The majority of the participants (86%) would give oral hygiene instructions, prescribe a mouthwash and do scaling and/or root planing for a pregnant patient with gingival bleeding and calculus deposits. In respect to antibiotics, the majority of the dentists (96%) would prescribe amoxicillin to a pregnant patient. Of the four analgesic agents surveyed, paracetamol was the most popular analgesic agent (96.7%). On the use of local anesthetics, the majority of the dentists (75%) would use lidocaine without vasoconstrictor and would not use prilocaine with felypressin vasoconstrictor. The study showed that there was a lack of knowledge about the clinical management of the pregnant dental patients among the surveyed dentists regardless of their socio-demographic and practice characteristics necessitating continuous dental education programs on the dental management of pregnant dental patients. (author)

  15. The effect of chlorhexidine on dental calculus formation: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Yuuki; Takenaka, Shoji; Ohsumi, Tatsuya; Domon, Hisanori; Terao, Yutaka; Noiri, Yuichiro

    2018-03-27

    Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been proven to be effective in preventing and controlling biofilm formation. At the same time, an increase in calculus formation is known as one of considerable side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mineral deposition preceding a calculus formation would occur at an early stage after the use of CHG using an in vitro saliva-related biofilm model. Biofilms were developed on the MBEC™ device in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth containing 0.5% sucrose at 37 °C for 3 days under anaerobic conditions. Biofilms were periodically exposed to 1 min applications of 0.12% CHG every 12 h and incubated for up to 2 days in BHI containing a calcifying solution. Calcium and phosphate in the biofilm were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and a phosphate assay kit, respectively. Morphological structure was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and chemical composition was analyzed with an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The concentrations of Ca and Pi following a single exposure to CHG increased significantly compared with the control. Repeatedly exposing biofilms to CHG dose-dependently increased Ca deposition, and the amount of Ca was five times as much as that of the control. Pi levels in CHG-treated biofilms were significantly higher than those from the control group (p < 0.05); however, the influence of the number of exposures was limited. Analyses using an SEM and EPMA showed many clusters containing calcium and phosphate complexes in CHG-treated biofilms. Upon composition analysis of the clusters, calcium was detected at a greater concentration than phosphate. Findings suggested that CHG may promote mineral uptake into the biofilm soon after its use. It is necessary to disrupt the biofilm prior to the start of a CHG mouthwash in order to reduce the side effects associated with this procedure. The management of patients is also important.

  16. El Vimang en la estomatitis subprotésica grado I: Presentación de un caso Vimang for the treatment of first degree denture stomatitis.: A case presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Hortensia Corona Carpio

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal con el objetivo de evaluar los resultados terapéuticos de la terapia antiinflamatoria con extracto de Vimang mediante los enjuagatorios de su infusión, en una paciente portadora de prótesis con base acrílica y con mucosa afectada por estomatitis subprotésis grado I. El producto natural se utilizó en la eliminación de dicha lesión por su gran poder antiinflamatorio; fue indicado 4 veces al día con descanso de su prótesis en el horario nocturno antes de dormir. Se observó la curación a los 5 días de aplicado y como principal manifestación la sensación de recogimiento de la mucosa bucal. No se reflejaron reacciones adversas, por lo que recomendamos su uso a largo plazo.A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out to evaluate the therapeutic results of the anti-inflammatory therapy based on mouthwashes with Vimang extract infusion and applied to a female patient who worn an acrylic denture and had her mucosa affected by first degree denture stomatitis. The natural product served to eliminate the lesion because of its great anti-inflammatory capacity; she was advised to use it four times a day and to take her denture out at night before going to sleep. Curing was observed 5 days after Vimang application; the main sign was the feeling of oral mucosa retraction. No adverse effects were noted, so a long-term use of this product was recommended.

  17. Kandidias Oral pada Penderita Anemia Defisiensi Besi (Fe dan Penetalaksanaannya

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    Sri Budiarti Wongsohardjono

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency anemia is a microcytic anemia caused by chronic blood loss dueto such problems as excessive menstrual flow, gastrointestinal bleeding, gasterektomi or malabsorption that reduces the absorption of Fe. Predisposing factors that lead to the disruption of the ecology of oral candidiasis or oral microbiological changes can be due to malnutrition (iron deficiency, folic acid, vitamin B12 and the very old age. Objective: To report a case of iron deficiency anemia with oral candidiasis and its management. Case Report: A 69-year man in the reference by peer demonstrated swollen gums, mouth pain and difficulty in swallowing. A moth ago he was hospitalized and boarded for a week but no change, his body weight loss was 25kg. paleconjunctiva and face, droliing, looked weak. The body temperature was 370 C; the BP measurement was: 125/80mmHg; with body weight was 50kg; right and left submandibular  lymph nodes become enlarging and soreness palpatiom. Symmetrical face. Right and left lip corners are angular kheilitis, cheek mucosa, palate hyperemia, gingival stipling was disappeared, hyperemia, dorsal surface smooth tongue, hyperemia, depapilasi, OHI: bad; thick saliva, hypersalivation. A lot of dental caries and the remaining roots. Management: Examination of the saliva with KOH solution looked a hyphe. Routine blood tests and profile of fe all within normal limits except RBC was 3,37.106 / uL; HGB: 11.0 g / dl; HCT: 32.2%, Fe 29.00 u g / dl (below normal. Treatment with 3% perhidrol mouthwash, Nyistatin solution 3 x daily. Zegase tablet 2x daily. Paracetamol tablets if necessary. Conclusion sixteen days later the patient recovered.

  18. Effectiveness of three oral hygiene regimens on oral malodor reduction: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ei Ei; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Furukawa, Sayaka; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2015-01-27

    Breath odor is a nuisance problem for many people around the world. Bad breath affects social interactions of people in daily life by causing personal discomfort and emotional stress. There are chemical and mechanical methods for controlling oral malodor. Many studies of various mouth rinse applications and tongue cleaning procedures have been conducted. However, few studies have compared the effect of simultaneous chemical and mechanical procedures on the reduction of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in subjects with oral malodor. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of different oral hygiene procedures on reduction of VSCs in subjects with oral malodor. Thirty male volunteers who matched with study criteria were divided randomly into two groups. Both groups performed tooth brushing, mouth washing with chlorine dioxide, tongue cleaning and combination of those in different sequence for five weeks. Total VSCs of subjects were measured with a Breathtron®, and oral health status was also examined. Quantitative analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 16.0). There were no significant differences in oral health status between the two groups at the baseline. No significant decrease in oral malodor was detected after one week of tooth brushing. Significant reductions in VSCs were shown by adding mouthwash or tongue cleaning to tooth brushing from the second week to fourth week (P oral hygiene regimens. Tooth brushing alone does not significantly reduce oral malodor. Mouth washing and tongue cleaning significantly reduce oral malodor, but combining tooth brushing, mouth washing and tongue cleaning regimens is most effective for oral malodor reduction. The results of this study could contribute to the formulation of appropriate preventive strategies against oral malodor not only for the general public but also for dental professionals serving as oral malodor-related service providers. Registration number - Clinical

  19. In vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Intzar; Khan, Farrah G; Suri, Krishan A; Gupta, Bishan D; Satti, Naresh K; Dutt, Prabhu; Afrin, Farhat; Qazi, Ghulam N; Khan, Inshad A

    2010-02-03

    Hydroxychavicol, isolated from the chloroform extraction of the aqueous leaf extract of Piper betle L., (Piperaceae) was investigated for its antifungal activity against 124 strains of selected fungi. The leaves of this plant have been long in use tropical countries for the preparation of traditional herbal remedies. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of hydroxychavicol were determined by using broth microdilution method following CLSI guidelines. Time kill curve studies, post-antifungal effects and mutation prevention concentrations were determined against Candida species and Aspergillus species "respectively". Hydroxychavicol was also tested for its potential to inhibit and reduce the formation of Candida albicans biofilms. The membrane permeability was measured by the uptake of propidium iodide. Hydroxychavicol exhibited inhibitory effect on fungal species of clinical significance, with the MICs ranging from 15.62 to 500 microg/ml for yeasts, 125 to 500 microg/ml for Aspergillus species, and 7.81 to 62.5 microg/ml for dermatophytes where as the MFCs were found to be similar or two fold greater than the MICs. There was concentration-dependent killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata up to 8 x MIC. Hydroxychavicol also exhibited an extended post antifungal effect of 6.25 to 8.70 h at 4 x MIC for Candida species and suppressed the emergence of mutants of the fungal species tested at 2 x to 8 x MIC concentration. Furthermore, it also inhibited the growth of biofilm generated by C. albicans and reduced the preformed biofilms. There was increased uptake of propidium iodide by C. albicans cells when exposed to hydroxychavicol thus indicating that the membrane disruption could be the probable mode of action of hydroxychavicol. The antifungal activity exhibited by this compound warrants its use as an antifungal agent particularly for treating topical infections, as well as gargle mouthwash against oral Candida

  20. In vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from Piper betle L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrin Farhat

    2010-02-01

    infections, as well as gargle mouthwash against oral Candida infections.

  1. Evaluation and Assessment of Fluoride in Drinking Water Wells Damavand Villages Zoning in GIS According to DMF Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kave Kheirkhah Rahimabad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Fluoride is one the vital anions and the drinking water is the main source of preparing it for the human body. Nonetheless, the aim of this paper is to investigate the Fluoride rate in water supplying wells by using GIS environment according to decay, missing or filled (DMF index.  Methods: This research is an analytic and cross-sectional descriptive study with sampling approach of 12 water supplying wells of Damavand villages in summer and autumn the year 2013. The Fluoride concentration was measured by standard method SPADNS using MN-Nano color 400 Photometer in laboratory of Rural Water and Wastewater Company of Tehran. Then DMF was investigated for local students and finally the obtained data were modeled in GIS. Results: The average of Fluoride concentration was 0.094 to 0.212 mg/L in summer and 0.137 to 3.48 mg/L in autumn. The DMF index was estimated around 5.46 for all evaluated students that the mentioned index was 7.635 and 3.29 for male and female pupils respectively which are statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The amounts of fluorine in drinking water supplies in rural Damavand villages are lower than the international water standards. According to the results of experiments and lack of fluorine ion in the villages of this town, required fluorine should be done by drinkable water fluoridation and continuities of implementation plan for fluoride ion among the schools until reaching the fluoride concentration to the standard threshold, Supplying required fluorine of body by mouth-wash materials for people of this region

  2. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  3. Solvent-assisted dispersive micro-SPE by using aminopropyl-functionalized magnetite nanoparticle followed by GC-PID for quantification of parabens in aqueous matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasghorbani, Maryam; Attaran, Abdolmohammad; Payehghadr, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    In this research, solvent-assisted dispersive micro-SPE was introduced as a simple modified technique for the determination of parabens in water and cosmetic samples. Aminopropyl-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were successfully synthesized and applied. GC with photoionization detector was used for the separation and detection of parabens. In this method, hexylacetate (15 μL) as a solvent and aminopropyl-functionalized MNPs (5 μg) as a sorbent were added to an aqueous sample (10 mL) and then the sample was sonicated. Dispersed magnetite was collected in the bottom of the conical tube by using a strong magnet and then ACN was added as a desorption solvent. Forty microliters of this solvent was transferred into a microvial and then acetic anhydride and pyridine were added, thus derivatization was performed by acetic anhydride. After evaporation, 1 μL of derivatized sample was injected into a gas chromatograph for analysis. Several important parameters, such as kind of organic solvent, desorption solvent and volume, amount of aminopropyl-functionalized MNPs and effect of salt addition were investigated. Under optimum conditions, the limits of detection achieved were between 50 and 300 ng/L, with RSDs (n = 5) lower than 8%. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors ranged from 217 to 1253 and the extraction recoveries ranged from 10 to 62%. The recoveries were obtained for the analytes in river water and mouthwash solution and hand cream in the range of 87-103%. The advantages of proposed method are simplicity of operation, rapidity, high extraction yields, and environmental friendly character. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Electroanalytical performance of a terbium(III)-selective sensor based on a neutral ionophore in environmental and medicinal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, V.K.; Singh, A.K.; Gupta, Barkha [Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Department of Chemistry, Roorkee (India)

    2008-04-15

    A new highly selective terbium(III) electrode was prepared with a polymeric film doped using S-2-benzothiazolyl-2-amino-{alpha}-(methoxyimino)-4-thiazolethiol acetate as an electroactive material, benzyl acetate (BA) as a plasticizer, and potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate (KTpClPB) as an anionic site in the percentage ratio 3.17:1.58:63.4:31.7 (ionophore-KTpClPB-BA-PVC, w/w). The electrode exhibited a linear response with a near Nernstian slope of 19.5 mV/decade within the concentration range 1.5 x 10{sup -7}-1.0 x 10{sup -2} M terbium ions, with a working pH range from 2.0 to 8.0, and a fast response time of 10 s and presented satisfactory reproducibility. The limit of detection was 9.3 x 10{sup -8} M. The results show that this electrode can be used in ethanol media up to 30% (v/v) concentration without interference. It can be used for 3 months without any considerable divergence in the potentials. Selectivity coefficients for terbium(III) with respect to many cations were investigated. The electrode is highly selective for terbium(III) ions over a large number of monovalent, bivalent, and trivalent cations. This shows the valuable property of the proposed electrode. The stability constant of the ionophore towards Tb{sup 3+} ions was determined with the sandwich membrane method. It was successfully used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric determination of terbium(III) ions with EDTA and in direct determination in tap water and binary mixtures with quantitative results. The utility of the proposed electrode was also determined in the presence of ionic and nonionic surfactants and in the presence of fluoride ions in four pharmaceutical (mouthwash) preparations. (orig.)

  5. Electroanalytical performance of a terbium(III)-selective sensor based on a neutral ionophore in environmental and medicinal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.K.; Singh, A.K.; Gupta, Barkha

    2008-01-01

    A new highly selective terbium(III) electrode was prepared with a polymeric film doped using S-2-benzothiazolyl-2-amino-α-(methoxyimino)-4-thiazolethiol acetate as an electroactive material, benzyl acetate (BA) as a plasticizer, and potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate (KTpClPB) as an anionic site in the percentage ratio 3.17:1.58:63.4:31.7 (ionophore-KTpClPB-BA-PVC, w/w). The electrode exhibited a linear response with a near Nernstian slope of 19.5 mV/decade within the concentration range 1.5 x 10 -7 -1.0 x 10 -2 M terbium ions, with a working pH range from 2.0 to 8.0, and a fast response time of 10 s and presented satisfactory reproducibility. The limit of detection was 9.3 x 10 -8 M. The results show that this electrode can be used in ethanol media up to 30% (v/v) concentration without interference. It can be used for 3 months without any considerable divergence in the potentials. Selectivity coefficients for terbium(III) with respect to many cations were investigated. The electrode is highly selective for terbium(III) ions over a large number of monovalent, bivalent, and trivalent cations. This shows the valuable property of the proposed electrode. The stability constant of the ionophore towards Tb 3+ ions was determined with the sandwich membrane method. It was successfully used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric determination of terbium(III) ions with EDTA and in direct determination in tap water and binary mixtures with quantitative results. The utility of the proposed electrode was also determined in the presence of ionic and nonionic surfactants and in the presence of fluoride ions in four pharmaceutical (mouthwash) preparations. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of Association of ADRA2A rs553668 and ACE I/D Gene Polymorphisms with Obesity Traits in the Setapak Population, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunmugam, Vicneswari; Say, Yee-How

    2016-02-01

    α-adrenergic receptor 2A (ADRA2A) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes have been variably associated with obesity and its related phenotypes in different populations worldwide. This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the association of adrenergic receptor α2A (ADRA2A) rs553668 and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with obesity traits (body mass index-BMI; waist-hip ratio-WHR; total body fat percentage - TBF) in a Malaysian population. Demographic and clinical variables were initially collected from 230 subjects via convenience sampling among residents and workers in Setapak, Malaysia, but in the end only 214 multi-ethnic Malaysians (99 males; 45 Malays, 116 ethnic Chinese, and 53 ethnic Indians) were available for statistical analysis. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction using DNA extracted from mouthwash samples. The overall minor allele frequencies (MAFs) for ADRA2A rs553668 and ACE I/D were 0.55 and 0.56, respectively. Allele distribution of ACE I/D was significantly associated with ethnicity and WHR class. Logistic regression analysis showed that subjects with the ACE II genotype and I allele were, respectively, 2.15 and 1.55 times more likely to be centrally obese, but when adjusted for age and ethnicity, this association was abolished. Covariate analysis controlling for age, gender, and ethnicity also showed similar results, where subjects carrying the II genotype or I allele did not have significantly higher WHR. Combinatory genotype and allele analysis for ADRA2A rs553668 and ACE I/D showed that subjects with both ADRA2A rs553668 GG and ACE I/D II genotypes had significant lowest WHR compared to other genotype combinations. The ACE II genotype might be a protective factor against central adiposity risk among the Malaysian population when in combination with the ADRA2A rs553668 GG genotype.

  7. Synergistic interaction and mode of action of Citrus hystrix essential oil against bacteria causing periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsariya, Karn; Phanthong, Phanida; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Srisukh, Vimol; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej

    2014-03-01

    Citrus hystrix de Candolle (Rutaceae), an edible plant regularly used as a food ingredient, possesses antibacterial activity, but there is no current data on the activity against bacteria causing periodontal diseases. C. hystrix essential oil from leaves and peel were investigated for antibiofilm formation and mode of action against bacteria causing periodontal diseases. In vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm formation activities were determined by broth microdilution and time kill assay. Mode of action of essential oil was observed by SEM and the active component was identified by bioautography and GC/MS. C. hystrix leaves oil exhibited antibacterial activity at the MICs of 1.06 mg/mL for P. gingivalis and S. mutans and 2.12 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. Leaf oil at 4.25 mg/mL showed antibiofilm formation activity with 99% inhibition. The lethal effects on P. gingivalis were observed within 2 and 4 h after treated with 4 × MIC and 2 × MIC, respectively. S. sanguinis and S. mutans were completely killed within 4 and 8 h after exposed to 4 × MIC and 2 × MIC of oil. MICs of tested strains showed 4 times reduction suggesting synergistic interaction of oil and chlorhexidine. Bacterial outer membrane was disrupted after treatment with leaves oil. Additionally, citronellal was identified as the major active compound of C. hystrix oil. C. hystrix leaf oil could be used as a natural active compound or in combination with chlorhexidine in mouthwash preparations to prevent the growth of bacteria associated with periodontal diseases and biofilm formation.

  8. The postantifungal effect and phospholipase production of oral Candida albicans from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics, denture wearers and healthy individuals following brief exposure to subtherapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellepola, Arjuna N B; Joseph, Bobby K; Khan, Z U

    2014-09-01

    Candida albicans is the major aetiological agent of oral candidosis and one of its important virulent factors is the production of extracellular phospholipases, which can be modulated by subtherapeutic concentrations of antifungal agents thus decreasing their pathogenicity. Hence, considering that chlorhexidine gluconate (CG) is a common antimicrobial mouthwash used in dentistry and that its concentration in the mouth reaches subtherapeutic levels during dosage intervals due to the diluent effect of saliva and cleansing effect of the oral musculature, the postantifungal effect (PAFE) and the phospholipase production of oral C. albicans following brief exposure to subtherapeutic concentrations of CG was studied. Fifty C. albicans planktonic oral isolates obtained from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics using steroid inhalers, partial denture wearers and healthy individuals were exposed to three subtherapeutic concentrations of CG (0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125%) for 1 h. Isolates unexposed to CG was the control group. Thereafter the antiseptic was removed and the PAFE and phospholipase production was determined by a turbidometric method and a plate assay using an egg yolk agar medium respectively. Mean PAFE (hours) of 50 oral isolates of C. albicans following 1-h exposure to 0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125% CG was 6.97, 1.85 and 0.62 respectively. The phospholipase production of these isolates was significantly suppressed with a percentage reduction of 21.68, 18.20 and 14.04% following exposure to 0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125% CG respectively. Brief exposure of C. albicans isolates to subtherapeutic concentrations of CG would wield an antifungal effect by suppressing growth and phospholipase production, thereby quelling its pathogenicity. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Anti-caries activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis on Terminalia laxiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtihal Abdalla M. Mohieldin

    Full Text Available Abstract In Sudan, some medicinal plants, such as Acacia seyal, Calotropis procera and Balanites aegyptiaca have been used to prevent or treat oral health problems. The stem and stem bark of Terminalia laxiflora Engl., Combretaceae, are used as antiseptics for mouthwash to prevent gingivitis and thrush in Africa. Methanol and 50% hydroethanolic extracts of 25 plants that are used in traditional Sudanese medicine for several diseases and cavity disorders were screened for anti-cavity activities. T. laxiflora methanolic wood extracts, which exhibited such activity, were investigated. The crude extracts were assayed for their antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus sobrinus in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and glucosyltransferase inhibition. The active extract of T. laxiflora wood was subsequently fractionated by different chromatographic techniques. Isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods and assessed for S. sobrinus and glucosyltransferase inhibitory effects. Methanolic extracts of Terminalia brownii (bark, T. laxiflora (wood, A. seyal (bark, Persicaria glabra (leaves and Tamarix nilotica (stem showed good activities against both S. sobrinus and glucosyltransferase (MIC ≤ 1 mg/ml, IC50 values <50 µg/ml. Over all plant extracts, T. laxiflora demonstrated the good combined activities (MIC 0.5 mg/ml, glucosyltransferase, IC50 10.3 µg/ml; therefore, its methanolic wood extracts were selected for further phytochemical studies. Four constituents were isolated by chromatographic techniques and identified by spectroscopic techniques. Pharmacological evaluation of the obtained compounds showed that flavogallonic acid dilactone had comparatively good antibacterial activity. In the glucosyltransferase inhibitory test, terchebulin displayed potent activity with an IC50 of 7.5 µM. The screening presented in this study showed that methanol extracts of T. laxiflora wood possessed promising anti-cavity effects.

  10. Sulfate, nitrate and blood pressure - An EPIC interaction between sulfur and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnle, Gunter G; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Feelisch, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Nitrate (NO 3 - )-rich foods such as green leafy vegetables are not only part of a healthy diet, but increasingly marketed for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and used as ergogenic aids by competitive athletes. While there is abundant evidence for mild hypotensive effects of nitrate on acute application there is limited data on chronic intake in humans, and results from animal studies suggest no long-term benefit. This is important as nitrate can also promote the formation of nitrosamines. It is therefore classified as 'probably carcinogenic to humans', although a beneficial effect on CVD risk might compensate for an increased cancer risk. Dietary nitrate requires reduction to nitrite (NO 2 - ) by oral commensal bacteria to contribute to the formation of nitric oxide (NO). The extensive crosstalk between NO and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) related metabolites may further affect nitrate's bioactivity. Using nitrate and nitrite concentrations of drinking water - the only dietary source continuously monitored for which detailed data exist - in conjunction with data of >14,000 participants of the EPIC-Norfolk study, we found no inverse associations with blood pressure or CVD risk. Instead, we found a strong interaction with sulfate (SO 4 2- ). At low sulfate concentrations, nitrate was inversely associated with BP (-4mmHg in top quintile) whereas this was reversed at higher concentrations (+3mmHg in top quintile). Our findings have a potentially significant impact for pharmacology, physiology and public health, redirecting our attention from the oral microbiome and mouthwash use to interaction with sulfur-containing dietary constituents. These results also indicate that nitrate bioactivation is more complex than hitherto assumed. The modulation of nitrate bioactivity by sulfate may render dietary lifestyle interventions aimed at increasing nitrate intake ineffective and even reverse potential antihypertensive effects, warranting further investigation

  11. Oral Candida colonization in oral cancer patients and its relationship with traditional risk factors of oral cancer: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Ali D; Wiesenfeld, David; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Candida, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, has been implicated in oral and oesophageal cancers. This study aimed to examine oral Candida carriage in 52 oral cancer patients and 104 age-, gender- and denture status-matched oral cancer-free subjects. We assessed general health, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, use of alcohol-containing mouthwash and periodontal status (community periodontal index of treatment needs). Yeasts were isolated using oral rinse technique and genetically identified via Real-Time PCR-High resolution melting curve analysis of conserved ribosomal DNA. Conditional and binary logistic regressions were used to identify explanatory variables that are risk factors for oral cancer. The frequencies of oral yeasts' presence and high oral colonization were significantly higher in oral cancer than non-oral cancer patients (p=001; p=0.033, respectively). No significant difference in the isolation profile of Candida species was found between the two groups, except C. parapsilosis was more frequent in non-oral cancer group. Differences were noticed in the incidence of C. albicans strains where significantly more C. albicans genotype-A was isolated from cancer patients and significantly more C. albicans genotype-B isolated from non-cancer patients. Multiple regression analyses showed significant association with cancer observed for alcohol drinking (OR=4.253; 95% CI=1.351, 13.386), Candida presence (OR=3.242; 95% CI=1.505, 6.984) and high oral colonization (OR=3.587; 95% CI=1.153, 11.162). These results indicate that there is a significant association between oral cancer occurrence and Candida oral colonization and that the observed genotypic diversity of C. albicans strains may play a role in oral carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The UAE healthy future study: a pilot for a prospective cohort study of 20,000 United Arab Emirates nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulle, Abdishakur; Alnaeemi, Abdullah; Aljunaibi, Abdullah; Al Ali, Abdulrahman; Al Saedi, Khaled; Al Zaabi, Eiman; Oumeziane, Naima; Al Bastaki, Marina; Al-Houqani, Mohammed; Al Maskari, Fatma; Al Dhaheri, Ayesha; Shah, Syed M; Loney, Tom; El-Sadig, Mohamed; Oulhaj, Abderrahim; Wareth, Leila Abdel; Al Mahmeed, Wael; Alsafar, Habiba; Hirsch, Benjamin; Al Anouti, Fatme; Yaaqoub, Jamila; Inman, Claire K; Al Hamiz, Aisha; Al Hosani, Ayesha; Haji, Muna; Alsharid, Teeb; Al Zaabi, Thekra; Al Maisary, Fatima; Galani, Divya; Sprosen, Tim; El Shahawy, Omar; Ahn, Jiyoung; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Hayes, Richard; Sherman, Scott; Ali, Raghib

    2018-01-05

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is faced with a rapidly increasing burden of non-communicable diseases including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The UAE Healthy Future study is a prospective cohort designed to identify associations between risk factors and these diseases amongst Emiratis. The study will enroll 20,000 UAE nationals aged ≥18 years. Environmental and genetic risk factors will be characterized and participants will be followed for future disease events. As this was the first time a prospective cohort study was being planned in the UAE, a pilot study was conducted in 2015 with the primary aim of establishing the feasibility of conducting the study. Other objectives were to evaluate the implementation of the main study protocols, and to build adequate capacity to conduct advanced clinical laboratory analyses. Seven hundred sixty nine UAE nationals aged ≥18 years were invited to participate voluntarily in the pilot study. Participants signed an informed consent, completed a detailed questionnaire, provided random blood, urine, and mouthwash samples and were assessed for a series of clinical measures. All specimens were transported to the New York University Abu Dhabi laboratories where samples were processed and analyzed for routine chemistry and hematology. Plasma, serum, and a small whole blood sample for DNA extraction were aliquoted and stored at -80 °C for future analyses. Overall, 517 Emirati men and women agreed to participate (68% response rate). Of the total participants, 495 (95.0%), 430 (82.2%), and 492 (94.4%), completed the questionnaire, physical measurements, and provided biological samples, respectively. The pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of recruitment and completion of the study protocols for the first large-scale cohort study designed to identify emerging risk factors for the major non-communicable diseases in the region.

  14. Association of dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) Taq1 polymorphisms with eating behaviors and obesity among Chinese and Indian Malaysian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lek, Fang-Ying; Ong, Hing-Huat; Say, Yee-How

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the association of DRD2 Taq1A, Taq1B and Taq1D gene polymorphisms with eating behavior, the preference/intake frequency/craving of high-fat foods and obesity in 394 Malaysian adults (161 males, 233 females; 308 Chinese, 86 Indians; 67 obese, 327 non-obese). Eating behaviors namely Cognitive Restraint, Uncontrolled Eating and Emotional Eating scores were assessed by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18. The preference/intake frequency/craving of 26 common high-fat Malaysian foods was assessed using a 7-point hedonic scale. Anthropometric measurements were taken and Taq1 gene polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism using DNA extracted from mouthwash samples. The overall minor allele frequencies of Taq1A, Taq1B and Taq1D according to ethnicities (Chinese/Indian) were 0.37/0.29, 0.39/0.28, 0.06/0.30, respectively; genotype and allele distributions of Taq1B and Taq1D were significantly different between ethnicities. Eating behaviorscores were not significantly different between gender and ethnicities. Those with A1 or B1 allele had lower Cognitive Restraint score and higher Uncontrolled Eating score, while those with A1/A1 or B1/B1 genotype had higher fast food preference. D1 allele was associated with increased starchy food craving and mamak (Malaysian Indian-Muslim) food preference, but not eating behavior scores. All three gene variants were not associated with obesity and adiposity. Taken together, we posit that three DRD2 Taq1 gene polymorphisms influence the eating behavior and preference/intake frequency/craving of certain high-fat foods in Malaysian adults, but their role in obesity and adiposity is still inconclusive and needs further investigation.

  15. Periodontal disease in a patient with Prader-Willi syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitamura Masahiro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Prader-Willi syndrome is a complex genetic disease caused by lack of expression of paternally inherited genes on chromosome 15q11-q13. The prevalence of Prader-Willi syndrome is estimated to be one in 10,000 to 25,000. However, descriptions of the oral and dental phenotype are rare. Case presentation We describe the clinical presentation and periodontal findings in a 20-year-old Japanese man with previously diagnosed Prader-Willi syndrome. Clinical and radiographic findings confirmed the diagnosis of periodontitis. The most striking oral findings were anterior open bite, and crowding and attrition of the lower first molars. Periodontal treatment consisted of tooth-brushing instruction and scaling. Home care involved recommended use of adjunctive chlorhexidine gel for tooth brushing twice a week and chlorhexidine mouthwash twice daily. Gingival swelling improved, but further treatment will be required and our patient's oral hygiene remains poor. The present treatment of tooth-brushing instruction and scaling every three weeks therefore only represents a temporary solution. Conclusions Rather than being a direct result of genetic defects, periodontal diseases in Prader-Willi syndrome may largely result from a loss of cuspid guidance leading to traumatic occlusion, which in turn leads to the development of periodontal diseases and dental plaque because of poor oral hygiene. These could be avoided by early interventions to improve occlusion and regular follow-up to monitor oral hygiene. This report emphasizes the importance of long-term follow-up of oral health care by dental practitioners, especially pediatric dentists, to prevent periodontal disease and dental caries in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome, who appear to have problems maintaining their own oral health.

  16. Zein nanocapsules as a tool for surface passivation, drug delivery and biofilm prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Kasper

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Current oral hygiene treatments focus on managing oral biofilms (i.e. dental plaque by broad antimicrobial strategies, indiscriminately killing both pathogenic and commensal microorganisms present in the oral cavity. In an effort to identify alternative approaches to antimicrobials, several research groups, including our own, have identified small molecule inhibitors that interrupt cell-cell signaling and biofilm formation, with potential to be selective against pathogens while leaving commensal flora unperturbed. A drawback to such inhibitors is their limited efficacy when used in acute exposures (e.g. mouthwash or brushing. In order to enhance bioavailability and maximize efficacy of these agents in a complex and dynamic environment such as the oral cavity, it is necessary to maintain a constant reservoir of the agents in situ. Therefore, we formulated a biofilm inhibitor delivery system by encapsulating an inhibitor of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation, S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide, into zein nanocapsules. Nanocapsules formed 110–235 nm particles in a liquid-liquid dispersion synthesis procedure with S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide, as determined by dynamic light scattering. The inhibitor-loaded nanocapsules were then used to cast a film and subsequent S. mutans biofilm formation at this surface was studied. Nanocapsule films loaded with biofilm inhibitors were shown to deter early S. mutans biofilm development at 24 h, as well as reduce total viable biofilm-recovered cells at 48 h. This demonstrates proof-of-concept that biofilm inhibitor-loaded zein nanocapsules can reduce S. mutans biofilm growth, and demonstrates a new approach to extend the time that dental plaque inhibitors are present at the tooth surface. This approach has the potential to delay recolonization of the tooth and reduce oral infection/disease.

  17. Electrochemical oxidation and electroanalytical determination of xylitol at a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Anabel S; Sanches, Fátima A C; Magalhães, Renata R; Costa, Daniel J E; Ribeiro, Williame F; Bichinho, Kátia M; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R; Araújo, Mário C U

    2014-02-01

    Xylitol is a reduced sugar with anticariogenic properties used by insulin-dependent diabetics, and which has attracted great attention of the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food and dental industries. The detection of xylitol in different matrices is generally based on separation techniques. Alternatively, in this paper, the application of a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode allied to differing voltammetric techniques is presented to study the electrochemical behavior of xylitol, and to develop an analytical methodology for its determination in mouthwash. Xylitol undergoes two oxidation steps in an irreversible diffusion-controlled process (D=5.05 × 10(-5)cm(2)s(-1)). Differential pulse voltammetry studies revealed that the oxidation mechanism for peaks P1 (3.4 ≤ pH ≤ 8.0), and P2 (6.0 ≤ pH ≤ 9.0) involves transfer of 1H(+)/1e(-), and 1e(-) alone, respectively. The oxidation process P1 is mediated by the (•)OH generated at the BDD hydrogen-terminated surface. The maximum peak current was obtained at a pH of 7.0, and the electroanalytical method developed, (employing square wave voltammetry) yielded low detection (1.3 × 10(-6) mol L(-1)), and quantification (4.5 × 10(-6) mol L(-1)) limits, associated with good levels of repeatability (4.7%), and reproducibility (5.3%); thus demonstrating the viability of the methodology for detection of xylitol in biological samples containing low concentrations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluoridated elastomers: effect on the microbiology of plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Philip E; Douglas, C W Ian; Martin, Michael V

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fluoridated elastomeric ligatures on the microbiology of local dental plaque in vivo. This randomized, prospective, longitudinal, clinical trial had a split-mouth crossover design. The subjects were 30 patients at the beginning of their treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances in the orthodontic departments of the Liverpool and the Sheffield dental hospitals in the United Kingdom. The study consisted of 2 experimental periods of 6 weeks with a washout period between. Fluoridated elastomers were randomly allocated at the first visit to be placed around brackets on tooth numbers 12, 11, 33 or 22, 21, 43. Nonfluoridated elastomers were placed on the contralateral teeth. Standard nonantibacterial fluoridated toothpaste and mouthwash were supplied. After 6 weeks (visit 2), the elastomers were removed, placed in transport media, and plated on agar within 2 hours. Nonfluoridated elastomers were placed on all brackets for 1 visit to allow for a washout period. At visit 3, fluoridated elastomers were placed on the teeth contralateral to those that received them at visit 1. At visit 4, the procedures at visit 2 were repeated. Samples were collected on visits 2 and 4. A logistic regression was performed, with the presence or absence of streptococcal or anaerobic growth as the dependent variable. A mixed-effects analysis of variance was carried out with the percentage of streptococcal or anaerobic bacterial count as the dependent variable. The only significant independent variables were the subject variable (P =bacterial count and the visit variable for the percentage of streptococcal count (P =fluoridated or nonfluoridated elastomers was not significant for percentage of either streptococcal (P =.288) or anaerobic count (P =.230). Fluoridated elastomers are not effective at reducing local streptococcal or anaerobic bacterial growth after a clinically relevant time in the mouth.

  19. Cymbopogon citratus essential oil: effect on polymicrobial caries-related biofilm with low cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alcionéia Carvalho de OLIVEIRA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and its main compound (citral against primary dental colonizers and caries-related species. Chemical characterization of the essential oil was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS, and the main compound was determined. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. sanguinis and S. sobrinus. Minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations were determined by broth microdilution assay for streptococci and lactobacilli reference, and for clinical strains. The effect of the essential oil on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation/disruption was investigated. Negative (without treatment and positive controls (chlorhexidine were used. The effect of citral on preformed biofilm was also tested using the same methodology. Monospecies and microcosm biofilms were tested. ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used (α=0.05. Cytotoxicity of the essential oil to human keratinocytes was performed by MTT assay. GC/MS demonstrated one major component (citral. The essential oil showed an inhibitory effect on all tested bacterial species, including S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Essential oil of C. citratus (10X MIC reduced the number of viable cells of lactobacilli and streptococci biofilms (p < 0.05. The essential oil inhibited adhesion of caries-related polymicrobial biofilm to dental enamel (p < 0.01. Citral significantly reduced the number of viable cells of streptococci biofilm (p < 0.001. The essential oil showed low cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes. Based on these findings, this study can contribute to the development of new formulations for products like mouthwash, against dental biofilms.

  20. Antimicrobial potential of Casearia sylvestris against oral bacteria

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    Amanda Henriques CAVALHEIRO

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The aim of this study was to obtain Casearia sylvestris leave extracts by different extractive methods, including the obtention of essential oil, in order to compare their antimicrobial activities to conventional mouthwash chlorhexidine against oral bacteria. Material and method For this evaluation, extracts from the leaves were obtained by different methods of extraction (infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation using different solvent systems: water 100%, ethanol 100%, methanol 100%, water: ethanol 3:7; water: ethanol 7:3; water: methanol 7:3 and water: methanol 3:7. The essential oil, which corresponds to a volatile fraction, was obtained by hydrodistillation using Clevenger modified apparatus. The microdilution broth method was used to determine the values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC for the following microorganisms: Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, S. mitis ATCC 49456, S. sanguinis ATCC 10556, S. salivarius ATCC 25975, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 11578 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC4082. Chlorhexidine gluconate was used as a positive control. Result All extracts evaluated in the used protocol displayed MIC values higher than 400 µg/mL and few showed bactericidal activity. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil was higher than the activity of the extracts, and the best minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values were obtained against L. casei (MIC of 0.023 µg/mL and MBC of 0.046 µg/mL and S. mutans (MIC of 25 µg/mL and MBC of 50 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion The essential oil of Casearia sylvestris has significant antimicrobial activity against oral microorganisms.

  1. ent-Kaurenoic acid-rich extract from Mikania glomerata: In vitro activity against bacteria responsible for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Monique Rodrigues; Souza, Ariana Borges; Soares, Sandra; Bianchi, Thamires Chiquini; de Souza Eugênio, Daniele; Lemes, Danieli Cristina; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; da Silva Moraes, Thaís; Tavares, Denise Crispim; Ferreira, Natália Helen; Ambrósio, Sergio Ricardo; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have reported that medicinal plant extracts can inhibit oral pathogen growth or adhesion to surfaces and therefore reduce dental caries formation. The addition of these extracts to oral products like mouthwashes and dentifrices is considered an important strategy in caries control. In this sense, we have developed a Mikania glomerata extract with high ent-kaurenoic acid content (KAMg). So, this work describes the preparation of such extract and the development of a validated HPLC-DAD method to determine its ent-kaurenoic acid (KA) content. Herein it is also described the KAMg in vitro antibacterial evaluation against several cariogenic bacteria in comparison with KA and the investigation of further aspects of the KAMg activity. Toxicological aspects of the developed extract were evaluated by assessing its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. KA and a KA-rich extract like KAMg showed to inhibit the growth of microorganisms responsible for dental caries at relatively low MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) values, albeit not as low as the MIC value obtained for chlorhexidine digluconate (CHD), the golden anticariogenic standard approved by the American Dental Association Council on Dental Therapeutics. However, KAMg was more effective to inhibit the formation of a Streptococcus mutans biofilm with four times lower MICB50 (minimum inhibitory concentration that reduces 50% of the biofilm) value as compared with CHD. Taking into account all these data and considering the absence of genotoxic and cytotoxic activity under the tested conditions, it is suggested that KAMg is a natural product to be considered as active ingredient in oral care products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular analysis of tooth enamel by Raman spectroscopy after treatment with bleaching agents at different concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran Sedo, Randall; Obando Rosabal, Sofia; Saenz Bonilla, Paola; Soto Aguilar, Calendy; Vasquez Rodriguez, Amaya

    2014-01-01

    The changes in the concentration of the v1 phosphate molecule of the surface of dentin enamel are treated and researched with bleaching agents of chemical activation to basis of hydrogen peroxide than 9,5% and 14% and carbamide peroxide than 38%, for a period of 28 days. Raman spectroscopy was used and 30 dental pieces extracted, of which, were to be free of blemishes and pigmentations, without possessing fractures of the enamel, decay nor any other type of defect. The Raman spectrum was obtained of each dental piece prior to the application of bleaching agents. The specimens were separated into three experimental groups according to the concentration of whitening. The concentration of the v1 phosphate molecule was measured in the tooth enamel to the second and fourth week of treatment. In addition, ANOVA was performed for respective measurements (p≤0.05). A reduction of the v1 phosphate molecule were observed during and after the bleaching process in the experimental groups that have used of hydrogen peroxide to 14% and carbamide peroxide 38%. In the group of hydrogen peroxide to 9,5% has remained unproven a significant reduction. Within the limitations of this study is concluded that the bleaching agent causes a loss of v1 phosphate. This loss has been greater in the whitening of higher concentration. In spite, that the possible effect remineralizing of the saliva on a teeth whitening process has been unevaluated, it is recommended using during and after the treatment, toothpastes, mouthwashes, chewing gums, dental floss, among others, that contain ACP to help to cushion the potential loss of phosphate from tooth enamel. (author) [es

  3. Determination of cerium ion by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode based on novel pendant armed macrocycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ashok K.; Singh, Prerna

    2010-01-01

    Plasticized membranes using 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L 1 ) and 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,5,8,11,15,18-hexamethylacrylate- 1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L 2 ) have been prepared and explored as Ce(III) selective sensors. Effect of various plasticizers viz. dibutylphthalate (DBP), tri-n-butylphthalate (TBP), o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), dioctylphthalate (DOP), benzylacetate (BA) and anion excluders, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and potassium tetrakis p-(chlorophenyl) borate was studied in detail and improved performance was observed. Optimum performance was observed for the membrane sensor having a composition of L 2 :PVC:o-NPOE:KTpClPB in the ratio of 6:34:58:2 (w/w, mg). The performance of the membrane based on L 2 was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Ce(III) ions with limits of detection of 8.3 x 10 -8 mol L -1 for PME and 7.7 x 10 -9 mol L -1 for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 12 s and 10 s respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.5-7.5 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE could be used for a period of 5 months. The practical utility of the CGE has been demonstrated by its usage as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of oxalate and fluoride ions with Ce(III) solution. The proposed electrode was also successfully applied to the determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash solution and oxalate ions in real samples.

  4. Effect of vegetable oils applied over acquired enamel pellicle on initial erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    IONTA, Franciny Querobim; de ALENCAR, Catarina Ribeiro Barros; VAL, Poliana Pacifico; BOTEON, Ana Paula; JORDÃO, Maisa Camillo; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; RIOS, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective The prevalence of dental erosion has been recently increasing, requiring new preventive and therapeutic approaches. Vegetable oils have been studied in preventive dentistry because they come from a natural, edible, low-cost, and worldwide accessible source. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of different vegetable oils, applied in two concentrations, on initial enamel erosion. Material and Methods Initially, the acquired pellicle was formed in situ for 2 hours. Subsequently, the enamel blocks were treated in vitro according to the study group (n=12/per group): GP5 and GP100 – 5% and pure palm oil, respectively; GC5 and GC100 – 5% and pure coconut oil; GSa5 and GSa100 – 5% and pure safflower oil; GSu5 and GSu100 – 5% and pure sunflower oil; GO5 and GO100 – 5% and pure olive oil; CON− – Deionized Water (negative control) and CON+ – Commercial Mouthwash (Elmex® Erosion Protection Dental Rinse, GABA/positive control). Then, the enamel blocks were immersed in artificial saliva for 2 minutes and subjected to short-term acid exposure in 0.5% citric acid, pH 2.4, for 30 seconds, to promote enamel surface softening. The response variable was the percentage of surface hardness loss [((SHi - SHf) / SHf )×100]. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p0.05) and less than the other groups (p<0.05). There was no difference between GP5, GC5, GC100, GSa5, GSu100, GSa100, GSu5, GO5, GO100, CON− and CON+. Conclusion Palm oil seems to be a promising alternative for preventing enamel erosion. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate a long-term erosive cycling. PMID:28877281

  5. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Maurice Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi′s broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler′s health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems.

  6. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  7. In vitro evaluation of the whitening effect of mouth rinses containing hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Garcia Lima

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the bleaching effect of two mouth rinses containing hydrogen peroxide. Thirty premolars were randomly divided into two groups (n = 15: Listerine Whitening (LW and Colgate Plax Whitening (PW. The teeth were fixed on a wax plate and with acrylic resin, at a distance of 5 mm between each other, exposing the buccal surfaces. All teeth were stored in artificial saliva for 45 days, being removed twice a day to be immersed for 1 min in each mouthwash, followed by 10-second washing in tap water. The pH of each product was measured. Digital images of each tooth were captured under standardized conditions. These images were cut in areas previously demarcated and analyzed in Adobe Photoshop 7.0 using the CIEL*a*b* color space system. Data were statistically analyzed by a paired t test and an independent samples t test (p < 0.05. The pH values were 5.6 and 3.4 for LW and PW, respectively. Both treatment groups showed a decrease in the b* parameter (p < 0.01, but a decrease of a* was observed only for PW (p < 0.01. While the LW group showed an improvement in lightness (L* (p = 0.03, the PW group had a decrease in the L* parameter (p = 0.02. Within the limitations of this study, it is possible to conclude that both products caused some degree of whitening; however, extreme care should be taken when using Colgate Plax Whitening, since its decline in luminosity might be due to its lower pH.

  8. Plaque Index in Multi-Bracket Fixed Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, Z.H.; Shaikh, S.; Razak, F.A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the plaque index in patients receiving multi-bracket fixed orthodontic treatment for various factors like age, gender, socio-economic status, brushing practices, meal habits, types of brackets, types of ligations, use of mouthwash and duration of treatment. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Orthodontics Clinic, The Aga Khan University Hospital, from September to November 2011. Methodology: Socio-demographic and clinical modalities were defined and recorded for 131 patients having multi-bracket fixed appliances. The plaque index of subjects were recorded according to the Silness and Loe plaque index method. Independent sample t-test was used to see difference in plaque index in factors having two variables. One way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey tests were used to see difference in plaque index in factors having three variables. Kappa statistics was used to assess inter examiner reliability. P-value 0.05 was taken to be significant. Results: The sample comprised of 37% males (n = 48) and 63% females (n = 83). The plaque index had statistically significant association with practice of brushing i.e., timing of brushing (p=0.001), method of brushing (p=0.08), type of ligatures (p=0.05) and frequency of visits (p=0.01). Conclusion: The plaque accumulation is significantly decreased in subjects who brush the teeth twice or more than twice a day and those who brush their teeth after breakfast. The use of interdental brush and stainless steel ligatures had significantly low plaque. Subjects presenting with more frequent appointments of short-period had significantly less plaque. (author)

  9. In Vitro Evaluation of Mitochondrial Function and Estrogen Signaling in Cell Lines Exposed to the Antiseptic Cetylpyridinium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; He, Guochun; Tomilov, Alexey; Sahdeo, Sunil; Denison, Michael S; Cortopassi, Gino

    2017-08-22

    Quaternary ammonium salts (QUATS), such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and benzalkonium chloride (BAK), are frequently used in antiseptic formulations, including toothpastes, mouthwashes, lozenges, throat and nasal sprays, and as biocides. Although in a recent ruling, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned CPC from certain products and requested more data on BAK's efficacy and safety profile, QUATS, in general, and CPC and BAK, in particular, continue to be used in personal health care, food, and pharmaceutical and cleaning industries. We aimed to assess CPC's effects on mitochondrial toxicity and endocrine disruption in vitro . Mitochondrial O 2 consumption and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis rates of osteosarcoma cybrid cells were measured before and after CPC and BAK treatment. Antiestrogenic effects of the compounds were measured by a luciferase-based assay using recombinant human breast carcinoma cells (VM7Luc4E2, ERalpha-positive). CPC inhibited both mitochondrial O 2 consumption [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ): 3.8μM] and ATP synthesis (IC 50 : 0.9μM), and additional findings supported inhibition of mitochondrial complex 1 as the underlying mechanism for these effects. In addition, CPC showed concentration-dependent antiestrogenic activity half maximal effective concentration [(EC 50 ): 4.5μM)]. BAK, another antimicrobial QUATS that is structurally similar to CPC, and the pesticide rotenone, a known complex 1 inhibitor, also showed mitochondrial inhibitory and antiestrogenic effects. In all three cases, there was overlap of the antiestrogenic activity with the mitochondrial inhibitory activity. Mitochondrial inhibition in vitro occurred at a CPC concentration that may be relevant to human exposures. The antiestrogenic activity of CPC, BAK, rotenone, and triclosan may be related to their mitochondrial inhibitory activity. Our findings support the need for additional research on the mitochondrial inhibitory and

  10. Buccal DNA collection: comparison of buccal swabs with FTA cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Elizabeth; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Robertson, Laila; Brisbane, Joanna M; Ashton, Lesley J; Scott, Rodney J; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2006-04-01

    Collection and analysis of DNA, most commonly from blood or buccal cells, is becoming more common in epidemiologic studies. Buccal samples, which are painless to take and relatively easily collected, are often the preferred source. There are several buccal cell collection methods: swabs, brushes, mouthwash, and treated cards, such as FTA or IsoCode cards. Few studies have systematically compared methods of buccal cell collection with respect to DNA yield and amplification success under similar conditions. We compared buccal DNA collection and amplification using buccal swabs and FTA cards in 122 control subjects from our Australian case-control study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Buccal DNA was quantified using a real-time PCR for beta-actin and genotyped at the loci of three polymorphisms (MTHFR 677C>T, ACE I/D, and XPD 1012G>A). PCR was successful with DNA from buccal swabs for 62% to 89% of subjects and from FTA cards for 83% to 100% of subjects, depending on the locus. The matched pair odds ratios (95% confidence interval) comparing success of FTA cards with buccal swabs are as follows: MTHFR 677C>T using PCR-RFLP, 12.5 (11.6-13.5) and using real-time PCR, 130.0 (113.1-152.8); ACE I/D using PCR-amplified fragment length polymorphism, 3.36 (3.2-3.5); XPD 1012G>A using real-time PCR, 150.0 (132.7-172.3). FTA cards are a robust DNA collection method and generally produce DNA suitable for PCR more reliably than buccal swabs. There are, however, technical challenges in handling discs punched from FTA cards that intending users should be aware of.

  11. Maternal attitudes toward DNA collection for gene-environment studies: a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mary M; Reed-Gross, Erika; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Barfield, Wanda D; Prue, Christine E; Gallagher, Margaret L; Honein, Margaret A

    2009-11-01

    To assess attitudes toward DNA collection in an epidemiological study, focus groups were assembled in September 2007 with mothers who had participated in a case-control study of birth defects. Each recruited mother previously had completed an interview and had received a mailed kit containing cytobrushes to collect buccal cells for DNA from herself, her infant, and her infant's father during the period July 2004 through July 2007. A total of 38 mothers attended six focus groups comprising: (1) non-Hispanic Black mothers of case infants who participated or (2) did not participate in DNA collection, (3) mothers of any race or ethnicity who had case infants of low birth weight who participated or (4) did not participate in DNA collection, and (5) non-Hispanic Black mothers of control infants who participated or (6) did not participate in DNA collection. Moderator-led discussions probed maternal attitudes toward providing specimens, factors that influenced decision making, and collection method preferences. Biologics participants reported that they provided DNA for altruistic reasons. Biologics nonparticipants voiced concerns about government involvement and how their DNA will be used. Information provided (or not provided) on DNA use, storage, and disposal influenced decision making. Biologics participants and nonparticipants reported that paternal skepticism was a barrier to participation. All mothers were asked to rank DNA collection methods in terms of preference (cytobrushes, saliva, mouthwash, newborn blood spots, and blood collection). Preferred methods were convenient and noninvasive. Better understanding attitudes toward DNA collection and preferred collection methods might allow more inclusive participation and benefit future studies. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Influence of noble metals alloying additions on the corrosion behaviour of titanium in a fluoride-containing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalbino, F; Delsante, S; Borzone, G; Scavino, G

    2012-05-01

    Titanium alloys exhibit excellent corrosion resistance in most aqueous media due to the formation of a stable oxide film, and some of these alloys (particularly Ti-6Al-7Nb) have been chosen for surgical and odontological implants for their resistance and biocompatibility. Treatment with fluorides (F(-)) is known to be the main method for preventing plaque formation and dental caries. Toothpastes, mouthwashes, and prophylactic gels can contain from 200 to 20,000 ppm F(-) and can affect the corrosion behaviour of titanium alloy devices present in the oral cavity. In this work, the electrochemical corrosion behaviour of Ti-1M alloys (M = Ag, Au, Pd, Pt) was assessed in artificial saliva of pH = 3.0 containing 910 ppm F(-) (0.05 M NaF) through open circuit potential, E(OC), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The corrosion behaviour of the Ti-6Al-7Nb commercial alloy was also evaluated for comparison. E (OC) measurements show an active behaviour for all the titanium alloys in fluoridated acidified saliva due to the presence of significant concentrations of HF and HF(2) (-) species that dissolve the spontaneous air-formed oxide film giving rise to surface activation. However, an increase in stability of the passive oxide layer and consequently a decrease in surface activation is observed for the Ti-1M alloys. This behaviour is confirmed by EIS measurements. In fact, the Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy exhibits lower impedance values as compared with Ti-1M alloys, the highest values being measured for the Ti-1Au alloy. The experimental results show that the corrosion resistance of the studied Ti-1M alloys is similar to or better than that of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy currently used as biomaterial, suggesting their potential for dental applications.

  13. Study of sensing properties of SnO2 prepared by spray-pyrolysis deposition towards ethanol gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaldin, Nasser M.; Hussain, Nabiha; AlZouabi, Abla

    2018-05-01

    Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, in this study, thin films of (SnO2) were deposited by using the thermal spray method (SPD) on quartz at 450°C substrate temperature using tin chloride SnCl2.2H2O, (1.0M). A gas sensor was constructed with the prepared SnO2, used to detect ethanol gas and some other gases. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The grain size was calculated the results showed nanostructure polycrystalline and crystallize in a tetragonal, S.G:P42/m nm, reaching grain Size approximately 27nm. The sensing properties of the films were studied towards ethanol at different concentrations ranging within (1-200 ppm,) the results showed that the sensitivity of the film increases with the concentration of ethanol, the best operating temperature reached about 300 °C, We studied the sensing properties of the films towards Ethanol alcohol gas, The first and foremost concerns of topical ethanol applications for public health are its carcinogenic effects, high selectivity and sensitivity of the film towards ethanol gas was found compared to other tested toxic gases such as methanol gas, acetone and methylbenzene. Yet an upto-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is currently lacking.

  14. Studies of biological effects of fluoride stannous and UV short in Escherichia coli BH110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira da C, R., E-mail: rogercosta1@hotmail.com [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goias, Campus Uruacu, Rua Formosa Qd 28 e 29, Loteamento Santana, 76400-000 Uruacu, Goias (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: The amount of UV rays on the Earth's surface has increased due to depletion of the ozone layer, and this has worried society, since these radiation although not considered ionizing can cause damage to biological membrane and especially to DNA. The DNA has cell repair mechanisms that can work in lesions caused by electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet -short (UV C)and agents causing oxidative stress, such as tin salts. Among the repair mechanisms can highlight the adaptive repair, which consists of smaller doses to cells pre-exposure of an oxidizing agent, and when these cells are exposed to larger doses of the agent even if there is a reduction in mortality rate which leads to complete that repair mechanisms are activated in the pre-exposure reducing cell mortality. Several publications have shown the genotoxic effects of stannous salts such as stannous fluoride (SnF{sub 2}), which shows the importance of the study, since these salts are widely used in industry as components in toothpastes and mouthwashes. So we check whether pretreatment with UV C is able to induce adaptive response reducing the cytotoxic effects caused by exposure of the strains to SnF{sub 2}. We use a strain of Escherichia coli BH110 (BH110 E. coli) deficient in three genes (fpg, nfo and xth) involved in the excision repair bases. To verify the induction of adaptive response to strain BH110 was exposed to various doses of UV C and then treated with SnF{sub 2} a concentration of 110 u M. Our results showed that the LD10 of strain BH110 is 20 J/m{sup 2} and pre-treatment with UV C does not seem to induce adaptive repair in BH110 strains. (Author)

  15. New laboratory methods to study tooth surface coverage and interproximal plaque control by dentifrice products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Herles, Susan M; Barnes, Virginia M

    2004-01-01

    To develop and test an in vitro tooth model for use in conjunction with laboratory methods to study interproximal effects and efficacy of dentifrices. The application of the model should offer visual evaluation of dentifrice coverage of the tooth surface, and measure dental plaque control at posterior interdental spaces with a dentifrice. The dentifrice products tested with the model were: Colgate Total 2 in 1 Toothpaste and Mouthwash (CTTM), Colgate Total dentifrice (CTD), and Colgate Regular dentifrice (CRD). Extracted human posterior teeth were disinfected, cleaned, aligned, and mounted in denture acrylic. In the area coverage method, tooth surface coverage and penetration of two different forms of dentifrice products (CTTM and CRD) were compared using digital photography. In the interproximal plaque control method, the teeth were coated with human saliva and incubated anaerobically with a mixture of representative oral bacteria for six hours at 37 degrees C. In vitro dental plaque was assessed after brushing the facial surface with one of the three dentifrice products using a clinical plaque scoring index. The area coverage method demonstrated that both dentifrice products tested covered approximately 70% of the facial tooth surface; the CTTM dentifrice coverage on the lingual tooth surface was significantly higher than the coverage for the CRD dentifrice. With the interproximal plaque control method, in the presence of an active ingredient, the CTTM dentifrice had equivalent efficacy to the CTD dentifrice. Both CTTM and CTD were significantly superior to the CRD for interproximal dental plaque control. Using the developed tooth model, two assessment methods have been shown to have the potential to demonstrate tooth surface coverage, and to assess the potential efficacy of a dentifrice for the control of interproximal dental plaque. This process can indicate potential clinical evaluation of an oral care product, and support clinical findings with controlled

  16. Vitamin E and Lycopene Reduce Coal Burning Fluorosis-induced Spermatogenic Cell Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress-mediated JNK and ERK Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Xiao, Yuehai; Wang, Bolin; Sun, Chao; Tang, Kaifa; Sun, Fa

    2017-12-22

    Although fluoride has been widely used in toothpaste, mouthwash, and drinking water to prevent dental caries, the excessive intake of fluoride can cause fluorosis which is associated with dental, skeletal, and soft tissue fluorosis. Recent evidences have drawn the attention to its adverse effects on male reproductive system that include spermatogenesis defect, sperm count loss, and sperm maturation impairment. Fluoride induces oxidative stress through the activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade which can lead to cell apoptosis. Vitamin E (VE) and lycopene are two common anti-oxidants, being protective to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced toxic effects. However, whether and how these two anti-oxidants prevent fluoride-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis are largely unknown. In the present study, a male rat model for coal burning fluorosis was established and the histological lesions and spermatogenic cell apoptosis in rat testes were observed. The decreased expression of clusterin, a heterodimeric glycoprotein reported to regulate spermatogenic cell apoptosis, is detected in fluoride-treated rat testes. Interestingly, the co-administration with VE or lycopene reduced fluorosis-mediated testicular toxicity and rescued clusterin expression. Further, fluoride caused the enhanced Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, which was reduced by VE or lycopene. Thus, VE and lycopene prevent coal burning fluorosis-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis through the suppression of oxidative stress-mediated JNK and ERK signaling pathway, which could be an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of fluorosis. ©2017 The Author(s).

  17. Periodontal disease in a patient with Prader-Willi syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Manabu; Hirano, Hiroyuki; Kobashi, Mariko; Nozaki, Takenori; Yamada, Satoru; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2011-07-28

    Prader-Willi syndrome is a complex genetic disease caused by lack of expression of paternally inherited genes on chromosome 15q11-q13. The prevalence of Prader-Willi syndrome is estimated to be one in 10,000 to 25,000. However, descriptions of the oral and dental phenotype are rare. We describe the clinical presentation and periodontal findings in a 20-year-old Japanese man with previously diagnosed Prader-Willi syndrome. Clinical and radiographic findings confirmed the diagnosis of periodontitis. The most striking oral findings were anterior open bite, and crowding and attrition of the lower first molars. Periodontal treatment consisted of tooth-brushing instruction and scaling. Home care involved recommended use of adjunctive chlorhexidine gel for tooth brushing twice a week and chlorhexidine mouthwash twice daily. Gingival swelling improved, but further treatment will be required and our patient's oral hygiene remains poor. The present treatment of tooth-brushing instruction and scaling every three weeks therefore only represents a temporary solution. Rather than being a direct result of genetic defects, periodontal diseases in Prader-Willi syndrome may largely result from a loss of cuspid guidance leading to traumatic occlusion, which in turn leads to the development of periodontal diseases and dental plaque because of poor oral hygiene. These could be avoided by early interventions to improve occlusion and regular follow-up to monitor oral hygiene. This report emphasizes the importance of long-term follow-up of oral health care by dental practitioners, especially pediatric dentists, to prevent periodontal disease and dental caries in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome, who appear to have problems maintaining their own oral health.

  18. Comparing clinical effects of photodynamic therapy as a novel method with topical corticosteroid for treatment of Oral Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Azari-Marhabi, Saranaz; Mojahedi, Seyyed Masoud; Namdari, Mahshid; Rankohi, Zahra Elmi; Jafari, Soudeh

    2017-12-01

    Oral lichen planus is an autoimmune disorder with several challenges in treatment. Photodynamic therapy has been proposed as a new treatment option for the disease. The present study compared the clinical effects of photodynamic therapy to dexamethasone mouthwash in the treatment of oral lichen planus lesions. In this randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with oral lichen planus were included.15 patients were treated with 5% methylene blue mediated photodynamic therapy using Fotosan device for 30s (630nm wavelength and 7.2-14.4J/cm 2 dose) for 4 sessions in the days 1, 4, 7, 14. In another group, the treatment was done on 15 patients by 0.5mg tab dexamethasone solution in 5cc water, rinsed 4 times in a day within two weeks. The sign score, symptoms scores (pain), clinical severity and treatment efficacy were measured at the days 15, 30, 60, 90 after beginning of the treatment. The results were subjected to Mann-whitney U test in both groups. No significant difference existed between the two modalities regarding the treatment efficacy index, sign score, symptom score and clinical severity on the 15, 30, 60 and 90 post-treatment days. Decreases in patient's symptoms were statistically significant in both groups. Photodynamic therapy was as effective as the dexamethasone mouth wash in the treatment of oral lichen planus. It could be used as a safe modality in the treatment of oral lichen planus lesions without identified side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Awareness of orthodontists regarding oral hygiene performance during active orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin-Broner, Y; Levin, L; Ashkenazi, M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was orthodontist's awareness for maintenance of several home and professional prevention measures during active orthodontic treatment according to patients' report. A structured questionnaire was distributed to 122 patients undergoing active orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Patients were treated by 38 different orthodontists. The questionnaire accessed information regarding instructions patients received from their orthodontist concerning maintenance of their oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. Most of the patients (94%) reported that their orthodontists informed them at least once about the importance of tooth-brushing, and 74.5% received instructions for correct performance of tooth brushing or alternatively were referred to dental hygienist. However, only 24.5% of the patients reported that their orthodontist instructed them to use the correct fluoride concentration in their toothpaste, to use daily fluoride mouthwash (31.5%) and to brush their teeth once a week with high concentration of fluoride gel (Elmex gel; 10.2%). Only 13.8% received application of high concentration of fluoride gel or varnish at the dental office, and 52% of the patients reported that their orthodontist verified that they attend regular check-ups by their dentist. A significant positive correlation was found between explaining the patients the importance of tooth brushing and the following variables: instructing them on how to brush their teeth correctly (p<0.0001), explaining them which type of toothbrush is recommended for orthodontic patients (p=0.002), recommending to perform daily fluoride oral rinse (p=0.036) and referring them to periodic check-ups (p=0.024). Orthodontists should increase their awareness and commitment for instructing their patient on how to maintain good oral hygiene in order to prevent caries and periodontal disease during orthodontic treatment.

  20. Current Diagnosis and Treatment of Halitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mustafa Kılıçkaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis or oral malodor is not a diagnosis, but is symptom. Halitosis, that we frequently encounter in ear, nose and throat practice can be the harbinger of some serious underlying disease. Therefore, diagnosis and to find the cause of the halitosis are important. Also halitosis treatment is necessary due to the social and psychological effects. Breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds that are by-products of our metabolism. Certain diseases such as nasopharynx cancer, larynx cancer ve lung cancer alter the mix of gases. Thus, the analysis of exhaled air has gained importance. New technologies lead to the development of new devices. And with these called electronic noses the analysis of exhaled air has becomes an important non-invasive diagnostic method. In the literature, halitosis and bad breath which is used as synonymus with oral malodor is the emission of unpleasant odor from mouth and nasal passage. It occurs in 25% of the population, approximately and it has a significant social and economic impact. Halitosis is classified as true halitosis (physiologic halitosis and pathologic halitosis, pseudohalitosis and halitophobia. The most common cause is intra-oral diseases. Among all these factors, the most important etiologic factor are the coating tongue. Other ear, nose and throat diseases such as rhinitis and sinusitis are seen among the most common extraoral causes. Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tanneralla forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Actinobacilli and Solobacterium moorei are the bacteria which are commonly isolated from patients with halitosis and they are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs producing ones as well. The treatment of halitosis should be carried out according to the etiology. In the physiologic halitosis tooth brushing, use of dental floss, tongue cleaning and chlorhexidine, cetylpyridinium chloride and zinc containing antimicrobial mouthwashes

  1. Color recovery effect of different bleaching systems on a discolored composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, P; Harorlı, O T; Ocal, I B; Ergin, Z; Barutcigil, C

    2017-10-01

    Discoloration of resin-based composites is a commonly encountered problem, and bleaching agents may be used for the therapy of the existing discoloration. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro color recovery effect of different bleaching systems on the heavily discolored composite resin. Fifty disk-shaped dental composite specimens were prepared using A2 shade nanohybrid universal composite resin (3M ESPE Filtek Z550, St. Paul, MN, USA). Composite samples were immersed in coffee and turnip juice for 1 week in each. One laser activated bleaching (LB) (Biolase Laserwhite*20) and three conventional bleaching systems (Ultradent Opalescence Boost 40% (OB), Ultradent Opalescence PF 15% home bleaching (HB), Crest 3D White [Whitening Mouthwash]) were tested in this study. Distilled water was used as control group. The color of the samples were measured using a spectrophotometer (VITA Easy shade Compact, VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany). Color changes (ΔE00) were calculated using the CIEDE2000 formula. Statistical analyses were conducted using paired samples test, one-way analysis of variance, and Tukey's multiple comparison tests (α = 0.05). The staining beverages caused perceptible discoloration (ΔE00 > 2.25). The color recovery effect of all bleaching systems was statistically determined to be more effective than the control group (P OB group was found as the most effective bleaching system, there was no statistically significant difference among HB, OB, and LB groups (P > 0.05). Within the limitation of this in vitro study, the highest recovery effect was determined in office bleaching system among all bleaching systems. However, home and laser bleaching systems were determined as effective as office bleaching system.

  2. A randomised clinical trial of misoprostol for radiation mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faroudi, F.; Timms, I.; Sathiyuaseelan, Y.; Cakir, B.; Tiver, K.W.; Gebski, V.; Veness, M.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation mucositis is a major acute toxicity of radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies. We tested whether Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E 1 analogue given prophylactically decreased intensity of radiation mucositis. A double blind randomized trial was conducted. The intervention consisted of swishing dissolved drug or placebo as a mouthwash, and then swallowing two hours prior to radiation treatment. Patients were stratified based on concurrent chemotherapy, altered fractionation, smoking, extent of oral mucosa in radiation field, and institution. The main end point was the extent of RTOG grade III mucositis, taking into account both time and duration of mucositis. 42 patients were randomized to active drug, and 41 patients to placebo. The trial was designed to have 70 patients in each arm. The trial closed due to poor accrual. In the Misoprostol group 18/42 (43%) had grade III/IV mucositis, and in the placebo group 17/40 (42%). The mean difference between the areas under the curve was 0.38 (p-value: 0.38). For grade II mucositis the corresponding figures were 18 (42%) and 19 (47%). The time from commencement of radiation therapy to the development of peak mucositis was 49 days in the misoprostol patients and 51 days in the placebo group. The duration of grade III mucositis 12.5 days in the Misoprostol patients and 7 days in the placebo patients. In the Misoprostol arm 4 patients had an interruption to their Radiation Therapy, in the Placebo arm 5 had interruptions. Patients average weight loss was 8.1 and 8.2kg. Average self-assessment was via a 10cm LASA scale for soreness of throat and overall well-being. Misoprostol showed a worse QoL on soreness of mouth (mean difference: 0.84 units (p-value .03), but overall well-being was similar on both treatment arms 1 patient withdrew in the Misoprostol arm and 2 in the placebo arm. Misoprostol given prophylactically does not reduce the incidence of Grade III/IV mucositis, is associated with a shorter

  3. Inhibition of Tongue Coat and Dental Plaque Formation by Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide Vs Chlorhexidine Mouthrinse: A Randomized, Triple Blinded Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Seema Roodmal; Kini, Vineet Vaman; Padhye, Ashvini

    2015-09-01

    used for the comparison between mouthrinse A groups & mouthrinse B group. The plaque scores and Winkels tongue coat scores, wet tongue coat weight recorded on the fifth day after the use of the two mouthrinse didn't show a statistically significant difference. The CFU per sample from tooth and mucosa after four hours revealed low bacteria count with respect to mouthrinse B however the CFU obtained on the fifth day did not show a statistically significant difference between the two mouthrinse. The clinical antiplaque efficacy of CHX and ClO2 mouthwash is comparable and so is the efficacy in reducing the oral bacterial load.

  4. Self-reported oral hygiene habits, dental attendance and attitudes to dentistry during pregnancy in a sample of immigrant women in North London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullah, Esther; Turok, Yaroslava; Nauta, Maud; Yoong, Wai

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe self-reported oral health, oral hygiene habits, frequency of visits to a dentist and factors associated with dental attendance among pregnant women at a North London Hospital, the majority of whom are immigrants. Peridontal disease is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe self-reported oral health, oral hygiene habits, frequency of visits to a dentist and factors associated with dental attendance among pregnant women at a North London Hospital, the majority of whom are immigrants. A questionnaire designed by the authors was completed by postnatal women within 3 days of delivery. Data collected included past dental attendance, reasons for attendance and information about age, parity and socio-economic group. In total, 206 women completed the questionnaires within 3 days of delivery; 74.2% of the mothers were not born in the UK and 38.3% were Black African. The mean age of was 28.19 +/- 6.07 years. The majority reported good oral hygiene habits such as brushing their teeth twice a day (73.7%) and using mouthwash (51%). However, their dental attendance was poor and the average time since their last visit to a dentist was 1.8 +/- 1.61 years. Over a third of the women questioned did not know about the availability of free dental care during pregnancy and for 12 months after; 33% visited a dentist in pregnancy and half of them needed and received treatment; 15% of mothers had more than one pregnancy and yet were still unaware of free dental care provided during pregnancy and 12 months after birth. Only 36% of questioned women regularly visited a dentist. Pregnancy did little to change their attitudes to dental care. There appears no difference in attitudes to dental care between immigrant and British born pregnant women. Efforts to improve the uptake of dental care should be directed towards immigrant groups in order to promote better maternal health. Further research is

  5. Determination of cerium ion by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode based on novel pendant armed macrocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashok K; Singh, Prerna

    2010-08-24

    Plasticized membranes using 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L(1)) and 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,5,8,11,15,18-hexamethylacrylate-1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L(2)) have been prepared and explored as Ce(III) selective sensors. Effect of various plasticizers viz. dibutylphthalate (DBP), tri-n-butylphthalate (TBP), o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), dioctylphthalate (DOP), benzylacetate (BA) and anion excluders, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and potassium tetrakis p-(chlorophenyl) borate was studied in detail and improved performance was observed. Optimum performance was observed for the membrane sensor having a composition of L(2):PVC:o-NPOE:KTpClPB in the ratio of 6:34:58:2 (w/w, mg). The performance of the membrane based on L(2) was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Ce(III) ions with limits of detection of 8.3x10(-8) mol L(-1) for PME and 7.7x10(-9) mol L(-1) for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 12 s and 10 s respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.5-7.5 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE could be used for a period of 5 months. The practical utility of the CGE has been demonstrated by its usage as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of oxalate and fluoride ions with Ce(III) solution. The proposed electrode was also successfully applied to the determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash solution and oxalate ions in real samples. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nano-level monitoring of Yb(III) by fabrication of coated graphite electrode based on newly synthesized hexaaza macrocyclic ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashok K., E-mail: akscyfcy@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Singh, Prerna [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2009-06-08

    The two macrocyclic ligands 2,12-(2-methoxyaniline){sub 2}-4,14-Me{sub 2}-[20]-1,4,11,14-tetraene-1,5,8,11,15,18-N{sub 6} (L{sub 1}) and 2,12-(2-methoxyaniline){sub 2}-4,14-Me{sub 2}-8,18-dimethylacrylate-[20] -1,4,11,14-tetraene-1,5,8,11,15,18-N{sub 6} (L{sub 2}) have been synthesized and explored as neutral ionophores for preparing poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) based membrane sensors selective to Yb(III) ions. Effects of various plasticizers and anion excluders were studied in detail and improved performance was observed. The best performance was obtained for the membrane sensor having a composition of L{sub 2}:PVC:BA:NaTPB in the ratio of 5: 40: 52: 3 (w/w; mg). The performance of the membrane based on L{sub 2} was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Yb{sup 3+} ions with limits of detection of 4.3 x 10{sup -8} M for PME and 5.8 x 10{sup -9} M for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 10 s and 8 s, respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.0-8.0 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE has found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media upto 30% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and 20% (v/v) content of acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 5 months. The CGE was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Yb{sup 3+} ions with EDTA and in determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash samples. It can be used for determination of sulfite in red and white wine samples and also in determination of Yb{sup 3+} in various binary mixtures with quantitative results.

  7. Determination of cerium ion by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode based on novel pendant armed macrocycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashok K., E-mail: akscyfcy@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India); Singh, Prerna [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)

    2010-08-24

    Plasticized membranes using 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L{sub 1}) and 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,5,8,11,15,18-hexamethylacrylate- 1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L{sub 2}) have been prepared and explored as Ce(III) selective sensors. Effect of various plasticizers viz. dibutylphthalate (DBP), tri-n-butylphthalate (TBP), o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), dioctylphthalate (DOP), benzylacetate (BA) and anion excluders, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and potassium tetrakis p-(chlorophenyl) borate was studied in detail and improved performance was observed. Optimum performance was observed for the membrane sensor having a composition of L{sub 2}:PVC:o-NPOE:KTpClPB in the ratio of 6:34:58:2 (w/w, mg). The performance of the membrane based on L{sub 2} was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Ce(III) ions with limits of detection of 8.3 x 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1} for PME and 7.7 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 12 s and 10 s respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.5-7.5 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE could be used for a period of 5 months. The practical utility of the CGE has been demonstrated by its usage as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of oxalate and fluoride ions with Ce(III) solution. The proposed electrode was also successfully applied to the determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash solution and oxalate ions in real samples.

  8. Fatty acid sulphoalkyl amides and esters as cosmetic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petter, P J

    1984-10-01

    , some hair conditioning effects), liquid soaps (mild for all-over body use), bubble baths (copious stable foam, efficient lime soap dispersal, low irritancy), skin creams and lotions (emulsification, alleviation of 'dry skin'), baby care products (ultra-mild cleansing bars and milks, impregnated baby wipes) and oral products (foaming agents with low toxicity for toothpastes and mouthwashes).

  9. Nano-level monitoring of Yb(III) by fabrication of coated graphite electrode based on newly synthesized hexaaza macrocyclic ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ashok K.; Singh, Prerna

    2009-01-01

    The two macrocyclic ligands 2,12-(2-methoxyaniline) 2 -4,14-Me 2 -[20]-1,4,11,14-tetraene-1,5,8,11,15,18-N 6 (L 1 ) and 2,12-(2-methoxyaniline) 2 -4,14-Me 2 -8,18-dimethylacrylate-[20] -1,4,11,14-tetraene-1,5,8,11,15,18-N 6 (L 2 ) have been synthesized and explored as neutral ionophores for preparing poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) based membrane sensors selective to Yb(III) ions. Effects of various plasticizers and anion excluders were studied in detail and improved performance was observed. The best performance was obtained for the membrane sensor having a composition of L 2 :PVC:BA:NaTPB in the ratio of 5: 40: 52: 3 (w/w; mg). The performance of the membrane based on L 2 was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Yb 3+ ions with limits of detection of 4.3 x 10 -8 M for PME and 5.8 x 10 -9 M for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 10 s and 8 s, respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.0-8.0 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE has found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media upto 30% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and 20% (v/v) content of acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 5 months. The CGE was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Yb 3+ ions with EDTA and in determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash samples. It can be used for determination of sulfite in red and white wine samples and also in determination of Yb 3+ in various binary mixtures with quantitative results.

  10. Assessing oral health-related quality of life in general dental practice in Scotland: validation of the OHIP-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcelo José; Ruta, Danny Adolph; Ogden, Graham Richard; Pitts, Nigel Berry; Ogston, Simon Alexander

    2006-02-01

    To validate the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-14 in a sample of patients attending general dental practice. Patients with pathology-free impacted wisdom teeth were recruited from six general dental practices in Tayside, Scotland, and followed for a year to assess the development of problems related to impaction. The OHIP-14 was completed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up, and analysed using three different scoring methods: a summary score, a weighted and standardized score and the total number of problems reported. Instrument reliability was measured by assessing internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed using a number of variables. Linear regression was then used to model the relationship between OHIP-14 and all significantly correlated variables. Responsiveness was measured using the standardized response mean (SRM). Adjusted R(2)s and SRMs were calculated for each of the three scoring methods. Estimates for the differences between adjusted R(2)s and the differences between SRMs were obtained with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 278 and 169 patients completed the questionnaire at baseline and follow-up, respectively. Reliability - Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from 0.30 to 0.75. Alpha coefficients for all 14 items were 0.88 and 0.87 for baseline and follow-up, respectively. Test-retest coefficients ranged from 0.72 to 0.78. Validity - OHIP-14 scores were significantly correlated with number of teeth, education, main activity, the use of mouthwash, frequency of seeing a dentist, the reason for the last dental appointment, smoking, alcohol intake, pain and symptoms. Adjusted R(2)s ranged from 0.123 to 0.202 and there were no statistically significant differences between those for the three different scoring methods. Responsiveness - The SRMs ranged from 0.37 to 0.56 and there was a statistically significant difference between the summary scores method and the total number of problems method for symptomatic

  11. Evaluation of the Need for Antibiotic Prophylaxis During Routine Intra-alveolar Dental Extractions in Healthy Patients: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidana, Sunil; Mistry, Yusuf; Gandevivala, Adil; Motwani, Nitesh

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this randomized double-blind controlled trial was to evaluate the role of antibiotics in the perioperative period of dental extractions in healthy patients. The study population included patients visiting the outpatient department of our institute. Four hundred patients were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups and underwent routine dental extraction. In group A, patients were prescribed only anti-inflammatory drugs in the postoperative period. In group B, patients were prescribed antibiotics for 3 days and concomitant anti-inflammatory drugs in the postoperative period only. In group C, patients were prescribed a single dose of antibiotic 1 hour before the extraction procedure with no postoperative antibiotics, and only anti-inflammatory drugs were prescribed in the postoperative period. In group D, patients were prescribed mouthwash starting 15 minutes before the procedure and continuing twice daily for a period of 7 days along with anti-inflammatory drugs in the postoperative period. Patients were asked to follow up on the seventh postoperative day for suture removal and were evaluated for pain, swelling, dry socket, and local signs of infection. The study was approved by the Internal Ethics Review Committee of the institute. No significant differences were seen among the groups with respect to pain (χ 2  [1, N = 171] = 4.939, P = .552), swelling (χ 2 [1, N = 171] = 10.048, P = .347), or postextraction complications. Prophylactic antibiotics are not required during routine dental extractions in healthy patients. The use of antibiotic therapy without appropriate indications can result in the development of resistant organisms. However, a clear trend is seen in which practitioners overprescribe antibiotics as well as medications in general. The current evidence questions the benefits of prophylactic antibiotic therapy for patients undergoing dental extractions. In our opinion, there is no justification for routine antibiotic

  12. Management of a Recurrent Pyogenic Granuloma of the Hard Palate with Diode Laser: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanoglu Erbasar, Güzin Neda; Senguven, Burcu; Gultekin, Sibel Elif; Cetiner, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a prevalent inflammatory hyperplasia of skin and oral mucosa which is often caused by constant low-grade local irritation, traumatic injury or hormonal factors. In many cases, gingival irritation and inflammation due to poor oral hygiene are precipitating factors. Oral PG occurs predominantly on the gingiva, but it is also encountered on the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa and rarely on the hard palate. Although surgical excision is the first choice of treatment, many other treatment modalities could be counted such as cryosurgery, sodium tetradecyl sulfate sclerotherapy, intralesional steroids, flash lamp pulsed dye laser, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, carbon dioxide (CO2) laser, erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) lasers and diode laser have been suggested. After surgical excision recurrence occurs up to 16% of these lesions. It is believed that recurrence ensues as a result of incomplete excision, failure to eliminate etiologic factors or repeated trauma. A 50-year-old female was referred to the Department of Oral Surgery, Gazi University, School of Dentistry, complaining of a swelling and growth on the right side of the hard palate for four months. Patient reported a similar growth in the same area about two years earlier, which had turned out to be a PG by histopathology. The treatment plan included surgical excision of the lesion using diode laser. The patient reported no pain after the surgery. She was discharged with a prescription of chlorhexidine mouthwash and necessary post-operative instructions. At 7 days follow up visit, immediate recurrence of the lesion was observed, and it was excised by diode laser with 2 mm margins at its clinical periphery, to a depth up to the periosteum, by the same operator. No recurrence or scarring was observed in 14 months follow-up. Although diode laser is a secure and efficient technique for the treatment of intraoral PG, in order to minimize its recurrence, the

  13. Oral and intestinal mucositis - causes and possible treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, M; Grant, G

    2003-11-01

    early events in the onset of mucositis. Prophylactic administration of scavengers or anti-inflammatories can partially counteract or limit some of these therapy-mediated effects, as can the use of cryotherapy. The regular use of mouthwashes, mouth coatings, antibiotics and analgesics is essential, prior to and during loss and ablation of the epithelial layer. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/granulocyte colony-stimulating factor or the use of laser light therapy may aid restitution and repair. Glutamine supplements may be beneficial in the repair/recovery phase.

  14. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength

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    Juliana dos Reis DERCELI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt% of calcium carbonate (COP10 with RelyX ARC (RX after mechanical cycling (MC and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8 according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h or 60 days (60 d, and the performance (MC+FS or not (only FS of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05. Results The obtained FS (MPa values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt% of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength.

  15. Occupational Exposure to Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers: The Diagnostic Role of Alcohol Biomarkers in Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, A; Bozzo, A; Di Corcia, D; Gerace, E; Vincenti, M

    2018-04-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair are effective direct biomarkers of ethanol ingestion, whose analytical determination can be used to discriminate between chronic and occasional ethanol intake. Ethanol is a compound widely used in some workplaces (e.g., clinics, hospitals) and is present in considerable amounts in mouthwash for oral cleaning, medications, cosmetic products, hydro-alcoholic disinfectants and antiseptics for hands. This study examined the ethyl alcohol exposure derived from hand disinfectants (in gel form) by simulating the typical occupational situation of medical-health workers (healthcare workers, nurses, surgeons, etc.) who frequently wash their hands with antiseptic sanitizer. Two types of hand disinfectants with 62% w/w of ethanol content were daily applied to the hands of a teetotaler for 20 times a day, for 4 consecutive weeks, thus simulating a typical workplace situation and a cumulative dermal exposure to ethanol of ~1,100 g. Different matrices (head, chest and beard hair, urine) were regularly sampled and analyzed using a ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem massspectrometry validated method for EtG and a (HS)SPME-GC-MS validated technique for FAEEs. The data obtained showed that a significant dermal absorption and/or inhalation of ethanol occurred, and that the use of detergents produce urinary EtG concentrations both higher than the cut-offs normally used for clinical and forensic analyses (either 100 and 500 ng/mL, depending on the context). The concentrations of the ethanol metabolites in the keratin matrices were, respectively, below the cut-off of 7 pg/mg for EtG and below 0.5 ng/mg for FAAEs (0.35 ng/mg for ethyl palmitate). In conclusion, the regular use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers can affect the concentration of urinary EtG and lead to positive analytical results, particularly when specimens are obtained shortly after sustained use of ethanol-containing hand sanitizer. On the

  16. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derceli, Juliana Dos Reis; Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi; Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP) as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS) of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate (COP10) with RelyX ARC (RX) after mechanical cycling (MC) and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm) were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control). Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8) according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h) or 60 days (60 d), and the performance (MC+FS) or not (only FS) of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min) and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min) were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Results The obtained FS (MPa) values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength.

  17. [The significance of the contamination of dental care articles. The results of a field study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingst, V

    1989-04-01

    Permissible conclusions both from recent available literature and our own field-study results concerning the problematic nature of microbial contamination of dental hygiene articles and the resulting possible health hazard for the consumer can be summarized as follows: Manufacturing practices as are given in the basic instructions for production sites of the cosmetic industry, render a possible degree of microbial contamination. This largely rules out the danger of infection of the consumer upon acquisition of the dental hygiene product. Secondary contamination of these products, as inevitably is the case during use of dental hygiene articles, leads to microbial colonization especially of toothbrush bristles. The extent of this colonization depends at least partially upon the utilization age of the toothbrush. Also for this reason a toothbrush should be replaced by a new one after period of three months, six months at the latest and in all cases of inflammatory changes of the mouth and throat region. The contamination of both the glass or plastic container used for rinsing the teeth after brushing or for gargling can be held within certain limits by dry storage. Only in exceptional cases do mouthwashes show a small degree of contamination. Provided they contain antimicrobial substances, no therapeutically serviceable possibilities worth mentioning follow for the reduction of oropharyngeal flora. Microbial colonization of toothpastes as a result of secondary contamination following use is observed only in exceptional cases due to their preservative content. Significant germination of stagnated residual water in waterpicks often occurs, achieving germ counts up to more than 10(7) cfu per ml. Moreover, waterpicks can represent a biotope for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and should be used neither by patients with open wounds or mucous membrane lesions in the oropharyngeal area, nor by patients with reduced immune resistance. Manufacturers of waterpicks are urged to impede

  18. EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION OF TOOTHPASTE BASED ON THE CEDAR ESSENTIAL OIL FOR PREVENTING TRUE ORAL PATHOLOGIC HALITOSIS

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    S. B. Ulitovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Given the mechanism of the development of halitosis and low efficiency of its self-elimination, means of oral hygiene with antiglycation characteristics should efficiently remove plaque and slow its formation, have antiseptic, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties; have high deodorant quality, strengthen natural defense mechanisms and be safe to oral tissues and organism as a whole. Toothpastes and mouthwashes should consist of components that are able to mask and as well detoxify volatile sulphur and nitrogencontaining compounds produced by microorganisms of the oral cavity. The objective is to evaluate the dynamics of deodorant effect of the means of oral hygiene for identifying the effectiveness of preventive measures among the population.Materials and methods. At the department of preventive dentistry of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University” of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, we conducted the diagnostic assessment of halitosis based on the method of index determination of the deodorant effect by Ulitovsky S. B. This method allows to monitor the deodorant effect and in a single definition to determine the level of mouth breathing before using the means of hygiene.Results. The research revealed that the indicators of index determination of the deodorant effect by Ulitovsky S. B to the end of the study was 44.78±1.73 % in the 1st group and 26.92±1.61 % in the control group. Based on these data, which depended on the degree of antimicrobial activity of personal means of oral hygiene, the examined sample of prophylactic toothpaste showed the significant activity for such test cultures as Ps. aeruginosa, B. cereus and C. albicans.Conclusions. Based on the evaluating the dynamics of the deodorant effect of the means of oral hygiene throughout the study we identified the increasing of deodorant effect according

  19. Age and oral health: current considerations Edad y salud oral: consideraciones actuales

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    Andrew Tawse-Smith

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque is still considered the main etiological factor for periodontal diseases. Our understanding of periodontal disease has advanced from the previous concepts where gingivitis slowly progressed to periodontitis to a more complex scenario that correlates several risk factors in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Among these factors, age has been associated with increased rates of periodontal disease as the population gets older. Although the loss of alveolar bone and periodontal attachment is common in the elderly population, and there is evident age-related changes in the periodontium, severe periodontitis is not a natural consequence of ageing. The importance of identifying the risk factors that participate in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease at an early phase, both of the individual and the disease, as well as evaluating the capacity of the individual to control dental plaque will enable the implementation of an adequate preventive program, where the needs and limitations of the individual are considered to specifically tailor the oral hygiene procedures and the mouthwashes to be used.La placa dental es aún considerada el factor etiológico primario de la enfermedad periodontal. La etiopatogenia de esta enfermedad ha avanzado del concepto anterior donde una gingivitis progresaba lentamente a una periodontitis, a un escenario más complejo donde varios factores de riesgo se correlacionan. Dentro estos factores, el envejecimiento ha sido asociado con mayores porcentajes de enfermedad periodontal a medida que la población envejece. Aunque la pérdida ósea y de inserción es común en el adulto mayor y los cambios del periodonto son evidentes con la edad, la enfermedad periodontal severa no es una consecuencia natural del envejecimiento. La importancia de identificar en una etapa temprana del individuo y de la enfermedad los factores de riesgo que participan en la patogenesis de la enfermedad periodontal, así como la

  20. Eritema multiforme mayor desencadenado por antimicrobianos Big multiform erythema triggered by antimicrobials

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    Ronaldo de Carvalho Raimundo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El eritema multiforme, aparece como una enfermedad sistémica con la participación de la piel y las membranas mucosas en relación con varios factores como las infecciones bacterianas o virales, y en particular la administración de drogas, analgésicos y antibióticos en general. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 29 años de edad con eritema multiforme mayor desencadenado por antimicrobianos con la aparición de lesiones vesiculares-bulloso-ulcerosas en las regiones de los labios, encías, la lengua y la mucosa genital en tratamiento de una infección del tracto urinario con norfloxacino 400 mg por una semana. Fue realizado un tratamiento de soporte con el uso de colutorios para la higienización bucal y pomada a base de corticoide para protección de las úlceras, antihistamínicos y orientación nutricional de dieta líquida hipercalórica e hiperproteica. Este síndrome está caracterizado como un proceso eruptivo buloso agudo que compromete la calidad de vida del paciente y no hay pruebas de laboratorio específicas por lo que su diagnóstico debe estar basado en la revisión minuciosa de la anamnesis y en los hallazgos clínicos.The multiform erythema appears as a systemic disease where skin and the mucous membranes have participation in relation to some factors such as bacterial or viral infections and in particular the drugs administration, analgesics and antibiotics in general. The aim of present paper was the presentation of case of big multiform erythema triggering by antimicrobials. Authors present the case of a male patient aged 29 with appearance of ulcerous bullous-vesicular lesions in lips, gums, tongue and genital mucosa under treatment with 400 mg norfloxacin due to urinary tract infection for a week. We made support treatment using mouthwashes for oral hygiene and corticoids ointment for ulcer protection, antihistaminics and nutritional guiding of a hypercaloric and hyperprotein liquid diet. This syndrome is characterized

  1. The effect of Trigona sp propolis from Luwu regency, South Sulawesi province, Indonesia on human enamel teeth (an in vitro study

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    Ardo Sabir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resinous substance produced by honey bees. It is well-known that propolis exhibits both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities therefore it has been used in folk medicine since primeval times.In recent years, propolis has been used as active component of mouthwashes in the attempt to treat gingivitis and periodontitis. The purpose of the present study is to know in vitro effect of Ethanolic Extract of Propolis (EEP solution on the microhardness of human enamel teeth. Solution of 0.125% EEP has been made from propolis which was collected from honeycombs in Luwu Regency, South Sulawesi Province. Aquadest and 1% povidone iodine were used as negative and positive control. Calcium, phosphate, fluoride concentrations and pH of the solutions were also measured using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and a digital pH meter. Ninety human maxillary first incisors which extracted for periodontal reasons were used in this study. The roots of the teeth were removed at the cementoenamel junction. The crowns were randomly divided into three groups of 30 each and were immersed in aquadest solution pH 8.4 (Group I; 0.125% EEP solution pH 4.3 (Group II or 1% povidone iodine solution pH 3.0 (Group III for 21, 42, 63, and 84 minutes respectively. A Vickers Hardness Tester was used to measure enamel surface microhardness before and after immersion. Data was statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests with significance level of 5%. The results showed that except immersed in aquadest, enamel microhardness increased after being immersed in EEP and povidone iodine solutions, although statistical analysis did not show significant differences (p>0.05 microhardness of enamel teeth before and after immersed in each group.In conclusion, immersion the teeth in 0.125% EEP solution pH 4.3 with 2.69 ppm phosphate, 1.49 ppm calcium, and 0.00 ppm fluoride concentrations for 84 minutes increased human enamel hardness in vitro.

  2. Prevenção e controle das seqüelas bucais em pacientes irradiados por tumores de cabeça e pescoço Prevention and control of sequels in the mouth of patients treated with radiation therapy for head and neck tumors

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    Maria de Fátima Aparecida Cardoso

    2005-04-01

    the oral cavity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dental follow-up was performed before, during and up to 180 days after radiation therapy in 12 patients submitted to surgery and radiation therapy or radiation therapy alone. RESULTS: The proportion of effects such as dermatitis, mucositis, dysgeusia, and dysphagia increased from the second week of the treatment until the end of the administrations. There was a clear decrease at the end of the treatment which was close to baseline values after 180 days. The reduction of xerostomia was slower and less effective. No case of caries, trismus, and osteoradionecrosis were observed during the assessment period. CONCLUSION: Regular dental follow-up associated with preventive measures such as prophylactic management of dental and oral diseases, adequate hygiene, mouth-washing with bicarbonate water and chamomile tea, and topic fluorine application contributed to improve the recovery conditions of patients with cancer of head and neck submitted to radiation therapy.

  3. Fragrance ingredient labelling in products on sale in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D A

    2007-08-01

    products for men (e.g. aftershave). Limonene (n = 29; 51%) predominated in 57 household products (washing-up liquid, detergent). Limonene (n = 43; 98%) and linalool (n = 42; 95%) were the most frequent fragrances in 44 perfumes for women. Alpha-isomethyl ionone (n = 28; 72%) was the most frequent in 39 cosmetics (foundation, lipstick, etc). Citronellol predominated (n = 15; 88%) in 17 deodorants and limonene (n = 9; 64%) was the commonest in 14 dental products (toothpaste and mouthwash). Thirty-four products (11%) contained none of the listed fragrances but were labelled as containing 'parfum' or 'aroma'. There is ongoing consumer exposure to the most frequent sensitizers in FM I: E. prunastri, isoeugenol and the cinnamon fragrances cinnamal and cinnamic alcohol. Hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral(trade mark)) is present at significant concentrations in almost one-third of products. Linalool and limonene, fragrance terpenes which are significant allergens in their oxidized state, are the most frequent fragrances encountered by individuals living in the U.K. The current exposure pattern of the U.K. consumer suggests that we should add oxidized limonene and oxidized linalool to the test series for patients suspected to have fragrance allergy.

  4. [Clozapine-induced parotitis: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouzien, C; Valiamé, A; Misdrahi, D

    2014-02-01

    Clozapine is the drug of choice for patients with an unsatisfactory response to routine antipsychotic treatment. Side effects such as sedation, weight gain, hypotension and hypersialorrhea are frequently reported whereas clozapine-induced parotitis is a less known complication. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with a refractory schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. The failure to respond to at least two well-conducted antipsychotic trials with flupentixol and risperidone, led clinicians to prescribe clozapine, which was started three years earlier. Since its introduction, clozapine induced sialorrhea, which has been managed until now with anticholinergic medication. Recently, Mrs B. was hospitalized for a new relapse. Once treatment compliance checked (good level of plasmatic dosage), we decided to increase the dose of clozapine from 350 mg/d to 500 mg/d. Twenty days later, Mrs B. exhibited improvement of symptoms but complained of acute bilateral auricular pain and odynophagia. The bilateral and comparative clinical exam displayed a bilateral filling of the retromandibular depression, the painful swelling of the parotid gland, along with ptyalism and a slight inflammatory oedema of the Stenon duct orifice. Mrs B. was apyretic, with physiological constants within the limits of normal values. The biological analyses displayed a discrete inflammatory syndrome (mild hyperleucocytosis and anemia), a negative mumps IgM test and positive mumps IgG test, and a 1050 ng/mL clozapine blood level. Once viral parotitis was ruled out, the involvement of clozapine was evoked. Symptomatic medication was prescribed with per os analgesic (paracetamol) and antiseptic mouthwash (Éludril). Clozapine dosage was lowered to 400 mg/d. A week later, clinical examination confirmed improvement of the medical and psychiatric conditions. We report the case of a patient who developed a parotitis following clozapine dose adjustment. Clozapine induced parotitis was retained once the

  5. Biological activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) extract as analyzed in microorganisms and cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Daiane; Figueira, Leandro Wagner; de Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; Pacheco Soares, Cristina; Camargo, Samira Estves Afonso; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias

    2017-01-01

    ≤ 50 mg/mL), showed anti-inflammatory effect, and was not genotoxic. Impact statement Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract effectively contributed to in vitro control of important species of microorganisms such as Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mono- and polymicrobial biofilms that are responsible for several infections in oral cavity as in other regions of the body. Furthermore, this extract promoted also cell viability above 50% at concentrations ≤ 50 mg/mL, excellent anti-inflammatory effect, showing inhibition or reduction of the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, being also non-genotoxic to cell lines studied. Thus, this extract may be a promising therapeutic agent that can be added in some medical and dental formulations such as toothpastes, mouthwashes, irrigating root canals, ointments, soaps, in order to control pathogenic microorganisms and biofilms, with anti-inflammatory effect and absence of cytotoxic and genotoxic. PMID:28093936

  6. Design of antiseptic formulations containing extract of Plinia cauliflora

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    Lara Alexandre de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of the Brazilian species Plinia cauliflora were used to obtain active hydroalcoholic extract and fractions enabling the development of efficient antiseptic pharmaceutical formulations. A chemical composition of 70% ethanol extract, aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and for phenol content. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans by the agar diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was assayed by broth microdilution. Extract microbiological quality was tested to avoid contamination in the formulations. A mouthwash and a topical cream containing the extract were developed and antiseptic activity was assessed by agar diffusion. Sensory and physicochemical stability of the formulations were assayed. Chromatography indicated the presence of terpenes, flavonoids and tannins in the extract and fractions and total phenol content were found to be high. The plant samples were active against all the microorganisms tested, except for Lactobacillus acidophilus. Both topical formulations showed antiseptic activity and stability. Thus, these may be used as antimicrobials in skin infections, but would be more useful in the treatment of candidiasis.As folhas da espécie brasileira Plinia cauliflora foram utilizadas a fim de se obter um extrato hidroalcoólico e frações ativas proporcionando o desenvolvimento de eficazes formulações farmacêuticas antissépticas. A composição química do extrato etanólico 70%, fração aquosa e acetato de etila foi analisada por cromatografia em camada delgada e teor de fenóis. A atividade antimicrobiana foi testada frente a Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus e Candida albicans por difusão em ágar e a concentração inibitória mínima foi determinada por microdiluição. A

  7. Effect of Citrus aurantifolia swingle essential oils on methyl mercaptan production of Porphyromonas gingivalis

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    Anindya Prima Yusinta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Halitosis is a term used to describe an unpleasant odors emanating timely from oral cavity. The unpleasant smell of breath most common caused from volatile sulphure compound (VSC. Methyl mercaptan is the major component of VSC. P. gingivalis produced large amount of methyl mercaptan. The essential oils of Citrus aurantifolia swingle contain antibacterial component. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia swingle on the production of methyl mercaptan compounds in P. gingivalis. Methods: Bacterial suspension of P. gingivalis in TSB medium with 108 CFU/ml concentration cultured in a microplate and added by the essential oils of Citrus aurantifolia swingle with 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% concentration. Distilled water was used as negative control and 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouthwash was used as a positive control. Microplate was incubated anaerobically for 48 hours. After the periode of incubation, 0.6% methionine as the exogenous substrate and 0.06% DTNB as a reagen for determining methyl mercaptan concentration were added to each wells. The microplate was futher incubated for 12 hours. Concentration of methyl mercaptan produced by the P. gingivalis was measured spectrophotometrically using microplate reader at 415 nm. Results: One-way ANOVA showed that the essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia swingle take effect on the concentration of methyl mercaptan produced by P. gingivalis. LSD test results indicated that there was a significant difference of methyl mercaptan concentration between treatment groups of the essential oils of Citrus aurantifolia swingle and distilled water that used as negative control. Conclusion: The essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia swingle has decreased the production of methyl mercaptan produced by P. gingivalis.Latar belakang: Halitosis adalah istilah yang digunakan untuk menggambarkan bau tidak sedap yang berasal dari rongga mulut. Penyebab utama halitosis

  8. Molecular analysis of tooth enamel by Raman spectroscopy after treatment with bleaching agents at different concentrations; Analisis molecular del esmalte dental por medio de espectroscopia Raman despues del tratamiento con agentes blanqueadores a diferentes concentraciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Sedo, Randall; Obando Rosabal, Sofia; Saenz Bonilla, Paola; Soto Aguilar, Calendy; Vasquez Rodriguez, Amaya

    2014-07-01

    The changes in the concentration of the v1 phosphate molecule of the surface of dentin enamel are treated and researched with bleaching agents of chemical activation to basis of hydrogen peroxide than 9,5% and 14% and carbamide peroxide than 38%, for a period of 28 days. Raman spectroscopy was used and 30 dental pieces extracted, of which, were to be free of blemishes and pigmentations, without possessing fractures of the enamel, decay nor any other type of defect. The Raman spectrum was obtained of each dental piece prior to the application of bleaching agents. The specimens were separated into three experimental groups according to the concentration of whitening. The concentration of the v1 phosphate molecule was measured in the tooth enamel to the second and fourth week of treatment. In addition, ANOVA was performed for respective measurements (p≤0.05). A reduction of the v1 phosphate molecule were observed during and after the bleaching process in the experimental groups that have used of hydrogen peroxide to 14% and carbamide peroxide 38%. In the group of hydrogen peroxide to 9,5% has remained unproven a significant reduction. Within the limitations of this study is concluded that the bleaching agent causes a loss of v1 phosphate. This loss has been greater in the whitening of higher concentration. In spite, that the possible effect remineralizing of the saliva on a teeth whitening process has been unevaluated, it is recommended using during and after the treatment, toothpastes, mouthwashes, chewing gums, dental floss, among others, that contain ACP to help to cushion the potential loss of phosphate from tooth enamel. (author) [Spanish] Los cambios en la concentracion de la molecula de fosfato v1 de la superficie del esmalte dental son tratados e investigados con agentes blanqueadores de activacion quimica a base de peroxido de hidrogeno al 9,5% y 14% y peroxido de carbamida al 38%, por un periodo de 28 dias. Espectroscopia Raman fue utilizada y 30 piezas

  9. Eficacia del extracto de Vimang en la estomatitis subprótesica Grado I Efficacy of Vimang extract in Grade I Subprosthetic Stomatitis

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    Marcia Hortensia Corona Carpio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un ensayo clínico terapéutico (fase III en la consulta de Prótesis de la Clínica Estomatológica Provincial Docente de Santiago de Cuba, con el objetivo de evaluar la eficiencia de la terapia antiinflamatoria con extracto de Vimang, sobre la mucosa afectada por estomatitis subprótesis grado I en portadores de prótesis con bases acrílicas. Se seleccionaron 100 pacientes, de los cuales 80 cumplieron los requisitos y recibieron nuestros servicios de octubre del 2005 a marzo del 2006. Se dividieron aleatoriamente en 2 grupos, uno estudio y otro control, con 40 cada uno. Los pacientes mostraron preocupaciones estéticas. Al primer grupo se le indicaron enjuagatorios del extracto de infusión de Vimang hasta su curación; al segundo grupo la regresión espontánea; se retiró la prótesis en el horario nocturno. Se evaluaron a los 3, 5 y 7 días para ver su curación y reacciones adversas, tiempo que correspondió con el concebido para la investigación. Para la validación estadística de los datos, se utilizó el test Chi cuadrado con el 95 % de confiabilidad. Se obtuvo como resultado la curación de la lesión a los 5 días en la mayoría de los pacientes y manifestaciones astringentes. Se evidenció la eficacia de la terapia con Vimang en forma de infusión, por lo que se recomienda su uso a largo plazo.A therapeutic clinical trial (phase III was conducted in the Prosthesis Department of the Provincial Dental Clinic of Santiago de Cuba aimed at evaluating the efficacy of the antiinflammatory therapy with Vimang extract on the mucosa affected by grade I subprosthesis stomatitis in individuals wearing prostheses with acrylic bases. 100 patients were selected. 80 of them met our requirements and received our services from October 2005 to March 2006. They were divided at random into 2 groups of 40 patients each: a control group and a study group. The patients were worried about aesthetics. The first group was indicated mouthwashes

  10. Efektifitas Berkumur Rebusan Daun Sirih Dibandingkan Rebusan Daun Saga terhadap Perubahan Derajat Keasaman Air Ludah

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    Ratna Wilis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Extract from betel leaf stew and saga leaves to gargle can change the pH of saliva. Changes are measured by a pH of 0-14 to saliva, alkaline, and neutrality. By 2013, nationwide primary school children who experience dental and mouth problems of 25,9%, the picture shows that dental and oral health status is still problematic. The objective of the study was to measure the effectiveness of gargling with the decoction of betel leaf and the decoction of saga leaves to the degree of acidity of saliva in the students. The research design is quasi-experiment, conducted on 26 elementary students of Banda Aceh as many as 60 students and divided into 3 groups. Collecting data by measuring saliva pH between gargling with betel leaf stew and sago leaf stew, both before and after treatments. Data analysis used T-Test statistic at CI:95%. The result of the research was descriptive of saliva pH average after rinsing with betel leaf (6,9, higher than saliva pH after gargling with saga leaf (7,3. This shows a significant difference between after goulash stewing betel leaves after gargling stew saga leaves (p<0,05. In conclusion, gargle stew of betel leaf is more effective compared to glyskin sago stew to the change of pH saliva acidity degree. Suggestion, use of leaf saga as a mouthwash is very good for the community through the addition of other concentrates so as to have a favorite aroma of the community. Keywords:             Saliva, acidity, pH, betel and saga leaf extract Sari dari rebusan daun sirih dan daun saga  untuk berkumur dapat mengalami perubahan pH air ludah. Perubahan diukur dengan pH skala 0 – 14 terhadap keasaman ludah, basa dan netral.  Tahun 2013, secara nasional anak-anak sekolah dasar yang mengalami permasalahan gigi dan mulut sebesar 25,9%, gambaran tersebut menunjukan bahwa status kesehatan gigi dan mulut masih bermasalah. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengukur efektifitas berkumur dengan rebusan daun sirih dan rebusan daun saga

  11. Therapeutic management of radiation-induced oral mucositis; Therapeutische Beeinflussung der radiogenen oralen Mukositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Doelling-Jochem, I. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Baumann, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Herrmann, T. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    Background: Acute reactions of oral mucosa are a frequent side effect of radiotherapy, which often necessitates interruption of the treatment. Marked proliferation of tumor stem cells during treatment interruptions may occur in squamous cell carcinomata, which represent the majority of tumors in the head and neck area. Hence a fatal consequence of treatment breaks may be a significant decrease in tumor cure rates. Furthermore, marked acute responses frequently result in increased late sequelae (`consequential damage`). Therefore, amelioration of the mucosal response aiming at avoiding treatment breaks and at reduction of late reactions coul definitely increase the therapeutic success of radiation treatment. Results: A variety of prophylactic and therapeutic methods have been proposed for the management of acute radiation reactions of the oral mucosa. Frequently, their efficiacy has been established for chemotherapy or in combination with other immunosuppressive treatments. Hence, systemical rather than local effects have to be considered. Conclusions: In general, prophylaxis of oral mucositis is mainly based on dental restoration or edentation, in combination with frequent oral hygienic measures after the meals and with antiseptic mouthwashes. Intensive personal care is recommended. The necessity of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostoma is dependent on the status of the patient and on size and localization of the treatment area, i.e. the impairment of food uptake which is to be expected. Therapeutic intervention is restricted to local or systemic treatment of pain and local application of antimycotics and antibiotics. (orig./VHE) [Deutsch] Die akute Reaktion der Mundschleimhaut ist eine regelmaessige Nebenwirkung der klinischen Strahlentherapie von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren, die in vielen Faellen eine Unterbrechung der Behandlung erzwingt. In den Behandlungspausen besteht gerade bei den im Kopf-Hals-Bereich haeufigen Plattenepithelkarzinomen die Gefahr der verstaerkten

  12. Exodoncia del tercer molar: Factores que determinan complejidad

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    Ivan Manotas Arevalo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUno de los procedimientos más frecuentes en el campo de la Cirugía Oral es la exodoncia, o extracción dental. La prevención y la promoción de hábitos saludables dentro de los que se cuenta la práctica del cepillado dental, uso de dentífricos, hilo dental y enjuagatorios bucales, además de visitas periódicas de control a especialistas y odontólogos generales e higienistas bucales ha conllevado a una reducción en la perdida de estructuras dentarias por causa de la caries y las periodontopatìas. Sin embargo se mantiene alto el número de exodoncias indicadas por falta de espacio en la estructura de los maxilares para la erupción dental, así como alteraciones en la posición y angulacion de los órganos dentales sobre su eje que impide una adecuada ubicación logrando que se indique su extracción. Dentro de la serie dental los órganos dentarios más frecuentemente afectados por este tipo de alteraciones son los terceros molares. También se mencionan que son esos mismos dientes los que acusan mayor grado de complejidad para realizar el procedimiento de exodoncia, y los que causan mayor grado de morbilidad posquirúrgica en el paciente, con un número mayor de complicaciones y su severidad, descritas en la literatura. (Duazary 2008; 141-147. Este artículo pretende analizar los factores que determinan complejidad en la exodoncia del tercer molar a partir de una revisión bibliografía y comparación de ésta.AbstractOne of the most frequent procedure used in the field of Oral Surgery is extracted, or tooth extraction. The prevention and promoting healthy habits in mind that the practice of brushing teeth, use of toothpastes, mouthwashes and dental floss mouth, in addition to regular monitoring visits to specialists and general dentists and oral hygiene has led to a reduction in the loss of structures caused by tooth decay and periodontal pathology. However remains high number of extractions indicated by lack of space in the

  13. Uso del Inmunoferón en el tratamiento de la estomatitis aftosa recurrente en niños Use of Immunoferon in the treatment of aphthous recurrent stomatitis in children

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    Arturo Castillo Castillo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un ensayo clínico terapeútico aleatorizado, controlado, fase III a 40 pacientes de 1 a 18 años, con estomatitis aftosa recurrente que acudieron al Departamento de Periodoncia de la Facultad de Estomatología del ISCM-H y a la consulta externa del Hospital "William Soler", de septiembre del 2003 a septiembre del 2004. Se aleatorizaron en 2 grupos de tratamiento: grupo A (control vitaminas más colutorios de clorhexidina, y grupo B (estudio tratamiento anterior más Inmunoferón. Las lesiones se clasificaron en menor, mayor, o herpetiforme. La forma menor de la enfermedad fue la más frecuente. Los niños de mayor edad se correspondían con la forma mayor y los de menor edad con la variedad herpetiforme. La duración de la enfermedad disminuyó de 10,5 días a 6,2 días en el grupo estudio y de 10,6 a 8,3 en el control. El 42,1 % de los casos en el grupo A tuvo buena evolución contra el 73,7 % en el grupo B. La forma mayor fue la de mejor evolución y la posibilidad de mejoría clínica fue 7 veces mayor en el grupo B. En general, el porcentaje de pacientes que se agrupó en la categoría de recidiva por encima de los 3 meses, fue muy superior en el grupo B con respecto al A (57,9 % vs. 15,8 %. No hubo reacciones adversas al medicamento.A controlled, randomized, therapeutic, phase III clinical trial was undertaken in 40 patients aged 1-18 with aphthous recurrent stomatitis that were seen at the Periodontics Department of the Faculty of Stomatology of the Higher Institute of Medical Sciences of Havana and at the outpatient department of “William Soler” Hospital from September 2003 to September 2004. They were divided at random in 2 treatment groups: group A (control vitamins and chlorhexidine mouthwashes, and group B (study that received the same treatment plus Immunoferon. The lesions were classified into minor, major or herpetifom. The most common was the minor form. The major form was observed in the oldest children and the

  14. Korelasi Jumlah Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans dan Level Ekspresi Interlukin 8 (IL-8 pada Severe Early Childhood Caries

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    Muhammad Luthfi

    2015-12-01

    not only act as a microbe killer through phagocytosis, the release of reactive oxigen species (ROS and its antimicrobial peptide, but neutrophil activation also helps regulate the immune response. To analyze the relationship between the amount S. mutans and IL-8 expression of salivary neutrophils in severe early Childhood caries. Two groups, namely Isolation of S. mutans were performed on saliva samples taken from 20 caries-free and 20 severe early childhood caries and samples Nacl 1,5% mouthwash results of 20 caries-free and 20 severe early childhood caries salivary neutrophils that were analysis of IL-8 expression by flow cytometry. Based on the average value, it is known that S. mutans level in early Childhood caries-free is lower (513.500,00 +185.565,28 CFU/ml in comparison to the severe early Childhood caries (977.000,00 +222.500,15 CFU/ml, but the expression of IL-8 neutrophil salivary neutrophils in early Childhood caries-free is higher (3,31+0,50 in comparison to the severe early Childhood caries (2,95+0,56. The increased S. mutans level is probably caused by the decrease in the expression of IL-8 salivary neutrophils in severe early childhood caries.

  15. Micropollutants in closed life-support systems: the case of triclosan, a biocide excreted via urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Pycke, Benny; Boon, Nico; de Wever, Heleen; Hendrickx, Larissa; Mastroleo, Felice; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max; Verstraete, Willy

    OBJECTIVES: The impact of triclosan on the growth and physiology of the bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum was studied in the frame of the regenerative life-support system, Micro- Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA). A wide range of compounds, such as steroid hormones, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, might enter the life support system via the excrements that are to be treated and recycled. Triclosan was chosen as the first compound to be tested because MELiSSA is a closed system, which is consequently particularly sensitive to compounds inhibiting the microbial metabolism. Because triclosan is increasingly used as an antimicrobial biocide in hygienic formulations (such as toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants, etc.) and due to its chemical stability, it is considered an emerging pollutant in terrestrial ecosystems. METHODS: In a first phase, the triclosan concentration expected in the life-support system was estimated, the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined via plating, and the effect on growth kinetics was assessed by comparing growth parameters in the Gompertz model. In a second phase, the secondary effects of triclosan on cell physiology and gene expression were studied through flow-cytometry and microarray analyses, respectively. RESULTS: Based on the pharmacokinetic data from literature, the predicted concentration range is estimated to be 6-25µg/L triclosan in the Rhodospirillum rubrum compartment of the MELiSSA. The minimal inhibitory concentration of triclosan was determined to be 71 µg/L after 7 days of exposure on Sistrom medium. Upon exposure to 50-200µg/L triclosan, triclosan-resistant mutants of Rhodospirillum rubrum arose spontaneously at high frequency (3.1 ∗ 10 - 4). Analysis of the growth kinetics of the wild-type revealed that triclosan causes an important elongation of the lag-phase and a decrease in growth rate. At concentrations higher than 75mg/L(LD = 500mg/L), triclosan is bactericidal to wild

  16. "Nature cures:" An alternative herbal formulation as a denture cleanser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, R; Sathe, Tanuja Tanaji; Farias, Anand; Sanyal, Pronob Kumar; Kiran, Shashi

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans is one of the microorganisms which harbor the oral cavity, especially in elderly. However, the incidence of existence of this increases in patients using removable dental prosthesis. There is therefore a need to test the anticandidal efficacy of these cost-effective, easily available products to be used as routine denture cleansers. (1) To evaluate antifungal properties of triphala churna on the heat cure denture base material. (2) To evaluate the antifungal effect of chlorhexidine gluconate on the heat cure denture base material. (3) To compare the antifungal effect of triphala churna and chlorhexidine gluconate with a control. (4) To evaluate which among triphala churna and chlorhexidine gluconate has a better antifungal property on the heat cure denture base material. Study population consisted of sixty dentures wearers from those attending the Outpatient Department of Prosthodontics of the School of Dentistry, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Karad. Swabs were collected from the dentures before and after the use of triphala and chlorhexidine. The swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the total Candida counts were determined. Triphala as an antifungal is shown to have more efficacy than the conventional chlorhexidine mouthwash. Résumé Arrière-plan: Candida albicans est l'un des micro-organismes qui abritent la cavité buccale surtout chez les personnes âgées. Cependant, l'incidence de l'existence de cette augmentation chez les patients utilisant des prothèses dentaires amovibles. Il est donc nécessaire de tester l'efficacité anticancédique de ces produits rentables et faciles à utiliser pour être utilisés comme nettoyants de routine pour prothèses dentaires. Buts et Objectifs: (1) Évaluer les propriétés antifongiques de Triphala churna sur le matériau de base de la prothèse thermo-durcissable. (2) Évaluer l'effet antifongique du gluconate de chlorhexidine sur le matériau de base de la

  17. Self-perception of side effects by adolescents in a chlorhexidine-fluoride-based preventive oral health program Percepção de efeitos adversos por adolescentes em um programa preventivo de saúde bucal, a base de clorexidina e fluoreto

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    Ana Rita Duarte Guimaraes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of adverse effects reported by adolescents following 14 days of use of a mouthrinse containing 0.05% NaF+0.12% chlorhexidine. METHODS: This double-blind study was developed as part of a randomized clinical trial. The adolescents enrolled to the study were randomly divided into two groups to use either: 0.05% NaF+0.12% chlorhexidine (G1, n=85 or 0.05% NaF (G2, n=85. Both groups used a 10mL solution of the mouthwash during 1 minute daily for 2 weeks under supervision. After that period, the subject's acceptance of taste was measured using a verbal descriptive scale (Labeled Magnitude Scale - LMS11. Participants were also interviewed regarding the occurrence of possible adverse effects during treatment (temporary palate disorders, tooth staining or unpleasant taste. The proportional differences between the groups were tested using the chi-square test. RESULTS: Palate changes were reported by 26% of participants of each group; 17.7% of G1 and 32% of G2 reported an unpleasant taste (p = 0.062, while staining was reported by 55% of G1 and 68.9% of G2 (p = 0.117. Absenteeism rates were similar in both groups (G1= 2.58 ± 2.69; G2=2.81 ± 2.39, p=0.362. CONCLUSION: adherence was high in both groups and side effects reported by subjects were not perceived by them as being important. Since subjects' acceptance and compliance is fundamental to the success of an oral health program, chlorhexidine-fluoride could be a useful resource in a program of plaque control.OBJETIVO: Este estudo se propôs a calcular taxa de efeitos adversos após 14 dias de uso de solução de bochecho de NaF 0,05% + clorexidina 0,12% realizados por adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Este estudo duplo-cego foi desenvolvido como parte de um ensaio clínico randomizado. Os adolescentes foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: NaF 0,05% + clorexidina 0,12% (G1 ou NaF 0,05%, (G2 de 85 estudantes cada que bochecharam

  18. Prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Debora C

    2014-09-01

    and the current standard of oral hygiene. Record the diagnosis, suggested treatment plan and details of costs. Document any discussions you have with the patient, for example, treatment options, risks and benefits of treatment, oral hygiene advice, smoking cessation, alcohol consumption and/or other lifestyle factors. There is a need for high-quality research carried out within an appropriate governance framework to improve the evidence base in the following areas: barriers and facilitators to the delivery of oral hygiene interventions in primary care;behaviour change interventions to improve inadequate oral hygiene;optimal timescales for provision of routine supra-gingival debridement (dental prophylaxis) and supportive periodontal therapy;effectiveness of supportive periodontal therapy regimens;effectiveness of supportive therapy regimens to maintain peri-implant tissues;effectiveness of interventions to treat peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis.Consensus is urgently required on the importance and validity of surrogate periodontal outcomes (eg bleeding on probing, changes in clinical probing depth and clinical attachment level and bone levels) and their relationship to true outcomes (eg tooth loss and patient-centred outcomes) so that consistency can be achieved across studies. There is also a need for independent research into the effectiveness of oral hygiene tools such as toothbrushes, interdental aids, toothpastes and mouthwashes and gels containing antibacterial agents.

  19. Tooth wear

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    Tušek Ivan

    2014-01-01

    surfaces. Attrition of teeth (attritio dentium represents teeth wear during mastication, friction on the tooth or teeth during parafunctional mandibular movements (bruxism, but without the abrasive effect. Dental erosion (erosio dentium or corrosive wear is a progressive, irreversible loss of dental hard tissue resulting from the effect of acids and /or chelation in the mouth, but without the participation of bacteria. Acids, of either exogenous or endogenous origin (peptic ulcer, gastritis, or bulimia, anoreksia nervosa, that come into the mouth can lead to different clinical manifestations of erosion depending on the time of exposure, the microstructure of teeth, buffering capacity, the amount of saliva and other factors. The changes are visible on the palatal surfaces of upper anterior teeth and, in severe cases, the lingual surfaces of posterior teeth. Occupational dental erosion occurs during exposure to industrial gases that contain hydrochloric or sulfuric acids, as well as the acids used in galvanizing and manufacture of battery and weapons. Due to the multifactorial nature of erosive tooth wear preventive measures must be applied taking into account chemical and biological factors as well as the patient's behavior associated with the etiology and pathogenesis of erosion. It is recommended to consume food and drinks that stimulate the secretion of large amounts of saliva base; to use neutral or alkaline mouthwash, and to chew sugar-free gum; to apply adequate oral hygiene (soft brushes, non-abrasive tooth paste, proper washing technique and not to consume aciding food and carbonated soft drinks and fizzy drinks in a great amount and frequently. It is necessary to apply preparations with high content of fluoride, and lubricant of tooth wear (powder CaF, CaF mixture and olive oil, and asset-based titanium tetrafluoride and casein-calcium phosphate. Commercial tooth paste that contains CPP-ACP (casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and calcium phosphate

  20. Analiza nawyków i zachowań związanych higieną jamy ustnej = Analysis of oral hygiene-related habits and behaviours

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    Piotr Kozłowski

    2015-08-01

    Abstract                 The aim of the study was to evaluate habits and behaviours related to oral hygiene. The study involved 120 people. In the study group women accounted for 78.3%, while 21.7% of the respondents were men. The age of the respondents ranged from 18 to 65. the study was conducted in January 2015 incorporating a standardized interview research method. The research tool used was a questionnaire that included 21 questions. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square test. All values with p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Less than a half (45.8% of the respondents brushed their teeth in the morning. However, as many as 95% brushed their teeth before going to bed. The largest group of the surveyed (43.3% brushed their teeth for about 2 minutes. 71.7% claimed to clean their tongue and the vestibule on a daily basis. The percentage of people who brushed their teeth after eating a sugar-contains meal amounted to 36.7%. Only 25.8% of the respondents rinsed their mouth with water after eating a meal with a low pH. More than a half (60% of those who did not brush their teeth after a sugar-containing meal had from 1 to 5 fillings. Within the group with 6 to 10 fillings, 64% were those who who did not brush their teeth after eating a sugar-containing meal.                 Liquid mouthwash was used by 50.8% of the respondents and dental floss was used by 49.2%. Over one third (37.5% of the respondents claimed to visit a dentist every six months. Most cases were routine check-ups, and only 15% of all the appointments were toothache-related.   Key words: oral hygiene, bad habits, teeth brushing.

  1. Oral hygiene care for critically ill patients to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fang; Xie, Huixu; Worthington, Helen V; Furness, Susan; Zhang, Qi; Li, Chunjie

    2016-10-25

    groups.We are uncertain as to the effects of toothbrushing (± antiseptics) on the outcomes of VAP (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.09, P = 0.11, I 2 = 64%, five RCTs, 889 participants, very low quality evidence) and mortality (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.09, P = 0.24, I 2 = 0%, five RCTs, 889 participants, low quality evidence) compared to OHC without toothbrushing (± antiseptics). There is insufficient evidence to determine whether toothbrushing affects duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of ICU stay, use of systemic antibiotics, oral health indices, adverse effects, caregivers' preferences or cost.Only one trial (78 participants) compared use of a powered toothbrush with a manual toothbrush, providing insufficient evidence to determine the effect on any of the outcomes of this review.Fifteen trials compared various other oral care solutions. There is very weak evidence that povidone iodine mouthrinse is more effective than saline/placebo (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.95, P = 0.02, I 2 = 74%, three studies, 356 participants, high risk of bias), and that saline rinse is more effective than saline swab (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.62, P VAP. Due to variation in comparisons and outcomes among trials, there is insufficient evidence concerning the effects of other oral care solutions. OHC including chlorhexidine mouthwash or gel reduces the risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients from 25% to about 19%. However, there is no evidence of a difference in the outcomes of mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation or duration of ICU stay. There is no evidence that OHC including both antiseptics and toothbrushing is different from OHC with antiseptics alone, and some weak evidence to suggest that povidone iodine mouthrinse is more effective than saline/placebo, and saline rinse is more effective than saline swab in reducing VAP. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether powered toothbrushing or other oral care solutions are effective